Quantum reduced loop gravity: Extension to scalar fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilski, Jakub; Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco
2015-12-01
The quantization of the Hamiltonian for a scalar field is performed in the framework of quantum reduced loop gravity. We outline how the regularization can be performed by using the analogous tools adopted in full loop quantum gravity, and the matrix elements of the resulting operator between basis states are analytic coefficients. These achievements open the way for a consistent analysis of the quantum gravity corrections to the classical dynamics of gravity in the presence of a scalar field in a cosmological setting.
Experiments to investigate particulate materials in reduced gravity fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowden, M.; Eden, H. F.; Felsenthal, P.; Glaser, P. E.; Wechsler, A. E.
1967-01-01
Study investigates agglomeration and macroscopic behavior in reduced gravity fields of particles of known properties by measuring and correlating thermal and acoustical properties of particulate materials. Experiment evaluations provide a basis for a particle behavior theory and measure bulk properties of particulate materials in reduced gravity.
Applications of magnetic fields to control fluids in reduced gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simmons, Benjamin Douglas
Continued exploration of space will face many challenges of technology, time, and human endurance. Development of new technologies or maturation of existing proposed technologies will be crucial to the future of manned space exploration. Society's current dependence on cryogenic liquid fuels for heavy space rocketry and manned space vehicles presents limitations on the scope of planned missions. This work presents the development of a new computational tool that is used to study the effectiveness of a magnetic field when used to control the position of paramagnetic Liquid Oxygen(LOX) in a spacecraft tank under reduced gravity conditions. This tool, Surface Evolver , was selected because of its abilities to predict equilibrium free surface shapes and to complete a simulation in a short time period of minutes to hours, instead of the often weeks required of time accurate software tools. The development of this tool will be presented through derivation of supporting equations, validation cases, and it will be applied to study problems of varying scale. The derivation of the supporting equations will illustrate the energies of interest to the current study, and also serve as a guide for future energy model development. Validation cases are presented and analyzed for each of the new energy models developed: Potential Energy due to gravitational influence, Energy due to the presence of a fluid within a magnetic field (constant gradient, wire, and dipole magnetic fields), and other models that include Surface Tension and contact angle enforcement at boundaries. This collection of models will be used to study the effect of the direction and magnitude of the gravitational energy vector upon the resulting equilibrium free surface shape of LOX under the influence of a magnetic field. The new computational tool was used to study a range of problems from small scale experiment simulations to full-scale spacecraft applications. Conclusions are drawn as to the effectiveness of
Bubble Formation and Detachment in Reduced Gravity Under the Influence of Electric Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle; Chang, Shinan
2002-01-01
The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Both uniform and nonuniform electric field configurations were considered. Bubble formation and detachment were recorded and visualized in reduced gravity (corresponding to gravity levels on Mars, on the Moon as well as microgravity) using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement and indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble shape, volume and dimensions.
An Experimental Study of Boiling in Reduced and Zero Gravity Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usiskin, C. M.; Siegel, R.
1961-01-01
A pool boiling apparatus was mounted on a counterweighted platform which could be dropped a distance of nine feet. By varying the size of the counterweight, the effective gravity field on the equipment was adjusted between zero and unity. A study of boiling burnout in water indicated that a variation in the critical heat flux according to the one quarter power of gravity was reasonable. A consideration of the transient burnout process was necessary in order to properly interpret the data. A photographic study of nucleate boiling showed how the velocity of freely rising vapor bubbles decreased as gravity was reduced. The bubble diameters at the time of breakoff from the heated surface were found to vary inversely as gravity to the 1/3.5 power. Motion pictures were taken to illustrate both nucleate and film boiling in the low gravity range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas
1996-01-01
A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenberg, Paul S.; Wernet, Mark P.
1999-01-01
Systems have been developed and demonstrated for performing quantitative velocity measurements in reduced gravity combustion science and fluid physics investigations. The unique constraints and operational environments inherent to reduced-gravity experimental facilities pose special challenges to the development of hardware and software systems. Both point and planar velocimetric capabilities are described, with particular attention being given to the development of systems to support the International Space Station laboratory. Emphasis has been placed on optical methods, primarily arising from the sensitivity of the phenomena of interest to intrusive probes. Limitations on available power, volume, data storage, and attendant expertise have motivated the use of solid-state sources and detectors, as well as efficient analysis capabilities emphasizing interactive data display and parameter control.
ISS Update: Reduced Gravity Education
NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Veronica Seyl, Acting Manager for Reduced Gravity Education. NASA works with students and educators to design experiments for flight testing aboard t...
Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program
NASA's Reduced Gravity Education Flight Program gives students and educators the opportunity to design, build and fly an experiment in microgravity and get a look at what it takes to be a NASA en...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja
2016-04-01
CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.
Electrohydrodynamic Pool Boiling in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, Benjamin D.; Stahl, S. L.
1996-01-01
This research is concerned with studying the effects of applied electric fields on pool boiling in a reduced-gravity environment. Experiments are conducted at the NASA Lewis 2.2 sec Drop tower using a drop rig constructed at UC Davis. In the experiments, a platinum wire is heated while immersed in saturated liquid refrigerants (FC-72 and FC-87), or water, causing vapor formation at the wire surface. Electric fields are applied between the wire surface and an outer screen electrode that surrounds the wire. Preliminary normal-gravity experiments with water have demonstrated that applied electric fields generated by the rig electronics can influence boiling characteristics. Reduced-gravity experiments will be performed in the summer of 1996. The experiments will provide fundamental data on electric field strengths required to disrupt film boiling (for various wire heat generation input rates) in reduced gravity for a cylindrical geometry. The experiments should also shed light on the roles of characteristic bubble generation times and charge relaxation times in determining the effects of electric fields on pool boiling. Normal-gravity comparison experiments will also be performed.
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the
Gravity Field Characterization around Small Bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Yu
A small body rendezvous mission requires accurate gravity field characterization for safe, accurate navigation purposes. However, the current techniques of gravity field modeling around small bodies are not achieved to the level of satisfaction. This thesis will address how the process of current gravity field characterization can be made more robust for future small body missions. First we perform the covariance analysis around small bodies via multiple slow flybys. Flyby characterization requires less laborious scheduling than its orbit counterpart, simultaneously reducing the risk of impact into the asteroid's surface. It will be shown that the level of initial characterization that can occur with this approach is no less than the orbit approach. Next, we apply the same technique of gravity field characterization to estimate the spin state of 4179 Touatis, which is a near-Earth asteroid in close to 4:1 resonance with the Earth. The data accumulated from 1992-2008 are processed in a least-squares filter to predict Toutatis' orientation during the 2012 apparition. The center-of-mass offset and the moments of inertia estimated thereof can be used to constrain the internal density distribution within the body. Then, the spin state estimation is developed to a generalized method to estimate the internal density distribution within a small body. The density distribution is estimated from the orbit determination solution of the gravitational coefficients. It will be shown that the surface gravity field reconstructed from the estimated density distribution yields higher accuracy than the conventional gravity field models. Finally, we will investigate two types of relatively unknown gravity fields, namely the interior gravity field and interior spherical Bessel gravity field, in order to investigate how accurately the surface gravity field can be mapped out for proximity operations purposes. It will be shown that these formulations compute the surface gravity field with
Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.
2004-01-01
Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.
Reduced gravity multibody dynamics testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sillanpaa, Meija
1993-01-01
The Final Report on reduced gravity multibody dynamics testing is presented. Tests were conducted on board the NASA KC-135 RGA in Houston, Texas. The objective was to analyze the effects of large angle rotations on flexible, multi-segmented structures. The flight experiment was conducted to provide data which will be compared to the data gathered from ground tests of the same configurations. The flight and ground tested data will be used to validate the TREETOPS software, software which models dynamic multibody systems, and other multibody codes. The flight experiment consisted of seven complete flights on board the KC-135 RGA during two one-week periods. The first period of testing was 4-9 Apr. 1993. The second period of testing was 13-18 Jun. 1993.
A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tucker, D. S.
1992-01-01
A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. To date, four flights have been completed during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated lunar gravity.
Macromolecular assemblies in reduced gravity environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moos, Philip J.; Hayes, James W.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Luttges, Marvin W.
1990-01-01
The assembly of protein macro molecules into structures commonly produced within biological systems was achieved using in vitro techniques carried out in nominal as well as reduced gravity environments. Appropriate hardware was designed and fabricated to support such studies. Experimental protocols were matched to the available reduced gravity test opportunities. In evaluations of tubulin, fibrin and collagen assembly products the influence of differing gravity test conditions are apparent. Product homogeneity and organization were characteristic enhancements documented in reduced gravity samples. These differences can be related to the fluid flow conditions that exist during in vitro product formation. Reduced gravity environments may provide a robust opportunity for directing the products formed in a variety of bioprocessing applications.
Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, Marc Andrew
2013-01-01
An innovative experiment to study the thermosyphon flooding limits was designed and flown on aparabolic flight campaign to achieve the Reduced Gravity Environments (RGE) needed to obtainempirical data for analysis. Current correlation models of Faghri and Tien and Chung do not agreewith the data. A new model is presented that predicts the flooding limits for thermosyphons inearths gravity and lunar gravity with a 95 confidence level of +- 5W.
Penetration Experiments under Reduced Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krause, C.; Gehlen, M.; Jaquemet, A.; Heller, S.; Sperl, M.; Willnecker, R.
2013-09-01
Penetration experiments will find several applications in exploration missions in the near future. Penetrators are common tools for the investigation of physical surface properties. The techniques and theories are widely applied under 1g condition on Earth and the results are used by engineers and scientists. The main contribution to the bearing resistance of a soil is combined of shaft and base resistance [1]. The theories show, that the resistance scales with gravity. Penetration experiments during a parabolic flight campaign have been performed for evaluating this gravity scaling of the bearing resistance in different materials during a parabolic flight campaign in December 2012. The main part of the experiment is composed of a steel rod penetrating into a sample cell. Depth and penetration force are recorded during this process. A sieving mechanism provided the ability of sample preparation during flight. Different compaction regimes of the sample material could be created with a ruttler mounted underneath the sample cell. The parabolic flight campaign consisted of 4 flight days. On each day 13 parabolas with Martian gravity, 12 parabolas with lunar gravity and 6 microgravity parabolas could be performed. Three different sample materials have been examined within the 4 flight days: glass spheres, glass corn and Mojawe sand. The glass spheres and glass corn samples were made of the same material, but with different shape. The Mojawe sand is a natural soil from the Mojawe desert in California (US). The experimental description and the first results will be presented.
GRAIL gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Daniel; Bertone, Stefano; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard; Mervart, Leos
2015-11-01
The NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory) inherited its concept from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. We present lunar gravity fields based on the data of GRAIL's primary mission phase. Gravity field recovery is realized in the framework of the Celestial Mechanics Approach, using a development version of the Bernese GNSS Software along with Ka-band range-rate data series as observations and the GNI1B positions provided by NASA JPL as pseudo-observations. By comparing our results with the official level-2 GRAIL gravity field models we show that the lunar gravity field can be recovered with a high quality by adapting the Celestial Mechanics Approach, even when using pre-GRAIL gravity field models as a priori fields and when replacing sophisticated models of non-gravitational accelerations by appropriately spaced pseudo-stochastic pulses (i.e., instantaneous velocity changes). We present and evaluate two lunar gravity field solutions up to degree and order 200 - AIUB-GRL200A and AIUB-GRL200B. While the first solution uses no gravity field information beyond degree 200, the second is obtained by using the official GRAIL field GRGM900C up to degree and order 660 as a priori information. This reduces the omission errors and demonstrates the potential quality of our solution if we resolved the gravity field to higher degree.
Progress in the Determination of the Earth's Gravity Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rapp, Richard H. (Editor)
1989-01-01
Topics addressed include: global gravity model development; methods for approximation of the gravity field; gravity field measuring techniques; global gravity field applications and requirements in geophysics and oceanography; and future gravity missions.
Gravity Field Recovery with Simulated GOCE Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marty, J.; Bruinsma, S.; Balmino, G.; Abrikosov, O.; Foerste, C.; Rothacher, M.
2005-12-01
Numerical simulations of the gravity field parameter recovery using the direct method, with satellite positions as pseudo observations instead of simulated GPS Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) tracking data, and with gravity gradients (SGG data), were done and are ongoing in the framework of the European GOCE Gravity Consortium test and validation plan for GOCE mission data processing. This work shows the latest results from the CNES and GFZ software packages, GINS and EPOS, respectively. After the iterative least-squares orbit adjustment procedure has converged to the highest attainable precision level, the gravity field normal equations are computed in a subsequent step. These SST normal equations, representing the long wavelength gravity field signal, are then reduced for arc-dependent parameters (i.e. state vector at epoch, empirical parameters) and cumulated over the entire observation period. Secondly, the gravity gradient measurements (SGG) are processed, taking into account the coloured noise in these data, and yield (high resolution) normal equations. They are combined with the SST normal equations and the gravity field and gradiometer common mode calibration parameters are simultaneously estimated. The coloured noise in the SGG data is based on the latest and realistic gradiometer specifications. The precision in the measurement bandwidth is approximately 3-5 milliEotvos, but rapidly decreasing for lower frequencies. Due to this behaviour, the observation equations have to be filtered in order to obtain the most accurate recovery. The filter algorithm, design and results are presented to considerable detail since this particular step is the key element that will enable the achievement of the GOCE mission objectives from the ground segment point of view.
Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar
2014-01-01
NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on
Generating a Reduced Gravity Environment on Earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dungan, Larry K.; Cunningham, Tom; Poncia, Dina
2010-01-01
Since the 1950s several reduced gravity simulators have been designed and utilized in preparing humans for spaceflight and in reduced gravity system development. The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is the newest and most realistic gravity offload simulator. ARGOS provides three degrees of motion within the test area and is scalable for full building deployment. The inertia of the overhead system is eliminated by an active motor and control system. This presentation will discuss what ARGOS is, how it functions, and the unique challenges of interfacing to the human. Test data and video for human and robotic systems will be presented. A major variable in the human machine interaction is the interface of ARGOS to the human. These challenges along with design solutions will be discussed.
Short Duration Reduced Gravity Drop Tower Design and Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osborne, B.; Welch, C.
The industrial and commercial development of space-related activities is intimately linked to the ability to conduct reduced gravity research. Reduced gravity experimentation is important to many diverse fields of research in the understanding of fundamental and applied aspects of physical phenomena. Both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial experimental facilities are currently available to allow researchers access to reduced gravity environments. This paper discusses two drop tower designs, a 2.0 second facility built in Australia and a proposed 2.2 second facility in the United Kingdom. Both drop towers utilise a drag shield for isolating the falling experiment from the drag forces of the air during the test. The design and development of The University of Queensland's (Australia) 2.0 second drop tower, including its specifications and operational procedures is discussed first. Sensitive aspects of the design process are examined. Future plans are then presented for a new short duration (2.2 sec) ground-based reduced gravity drop tower. The new drop tower has been designed for Kingston University (United Kingdom) to support teaching and research in the field of reduced gravity physics. The design has been informed by the previous UQ drop tower design process and utilises a catapult mechanism to increase test time and also incorporates features to allow participants for a variety of backgrounds (from high school students through to university researchers) to learn and experiment in reduced gravity. Operational performance expectations for this new facility are also discussed.
Gravity field information from Gravity Probe-B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Colombo, O. L.; Everitt, C. W. F.
1989-01-01
The Gravity Probe-B Mission will carry the Stanford Gyroscope relativity experiment into orbit in the mid 1990's, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver whose tracking data will be used to study the earth gravity field. Estimates of the likely quality of a gravity field model to be derived from the GPS data are presented, and the significance of this experiment to geodesy and geophysics are discussed.
CSR Gravity Field Data Products
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettadpur, Srinivas
2014-05-01
The joint NASA/DLR GRACE mission has successfully operated for nearly 12 years, and has provided a remarkable record of global mass flux due to a large variety of geophysical and climate processes at various spatio-temporal scales. The University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) hosts the mission PI, and is responsible for delivery of operational (presently denoted as Release-05 or RL05) gravity field data products. In addition, CSR generates and distributes a variety of other gravity field data products, including products generated from the use of satellite laser ranging data. This poster will provide an overview of all these data products, their relative quality, potential applications, and future plans for their development and delivery.
Prediction of physical workload in reduced gravity.
Goldberg, J H; Alred, J W
1988-12-01
As we plan for long-term living and working in low-gravity environments, a system to predict mission support requirements, such as food and water, becomes critical. Such a system must consider the workload imposed by physical tasks for efficient estimation of these supplies. An accurate estimate of human energy expenditure on a space station or lunar base is also necessary to allocate personnel to tasks, and to assign work-rest schedules. An elemental analysis approach for predicting one's energy expenditure in industrial jobs was applied to low-gravity conditions in this paper. This was achieved by a reduction of input body and load weights in a well-accepted model, in proportion to lowered gravity, such as on the moon. Validation was achieved by applying the model to Apollo-era energy expenditure data. These data were from simulated lunar gravity walking studies, observed Apollo 14 walking, simulated lunar gravity upper body torquing, and simulated lunar gravity cart pulling. The energy expenditure model generally underpredicted high energy expenditures, and overpredicted low to medium energy expenditures. The predictions for low to medium workloads were, however, within 15-30% of actual values. Future developmental work will be necessary to include the effects of traction changes, as well as other nonlinear expenditure changes in reduced gravity environments.
Gravity quantized: Loop quantum gravity with a scalar field
Domagala, Marcin; Kaminski, Wojciech; Giesel, Kristina; Lewandowski, Jerzy
2010-11-15
...''but we do not have quantum gravity.'' This phrase is often used when analysis of a physical problem enters the regime in which quantum gravity effects should be taken into account. In fact, there are several models of the gravitational field coupled to (scalar) fields for which the quantization procedure can be completed using loop quantum gravity techniques. The model we present in this paper consists of the gravitational field coupled to a scalar field. The result has similar structure to the loop quantum cosmology models, except that it involves all the local degrees of freedom of the gravitational field because no symmetry reduction has been performed at the classical level.
Teaching Physics from a Reduced Gravity Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benge, Raymond D.; Young, C.; Davis, S.; Worley, A.; Smith, L.; Gell, A.
2010-01-01
This poster reports on an educational experiment flown in January 2009 as part of NASA's Microgravity University program. The experiment flown was an investigation into the properties of harmonic oscillators in reduced gravity. Harmonic oscillators are studied in every introductory physics class. The equation for the period of a harmonic oscillator does not include the acceleration due to gravity, so the period should be independent of gravity. However, the equation for the period of a pendulum does include the acceleration due to gravity, so the period of a pendulum should appear longer under reduced gravity (such as lunar or Martian gravity) and shorter under hyper-gravity. Typical homework problems for introductory physics classes ask questions such as "What would be the period of oscillation if this experiment were performed on the Moon or Mars?” This gives students a chance to actually see the effects predicted by the equations. These environments can be simulated aboard an aircraft. Video of the experiments being performed aboard the aircraft is to be used in introductory physics classes. Students will be able to record information from watching the experiment performed aboard the aircraft in a similar manner to how they collect data in the laboratory. They can then determine if the experiment matches theory. Video and an experimental procedure are being prepared based upon this flight, and these materials will be available for download by faculty anywhere with access to the internet who wish to use the experiment in their own classrooms in both college and high school physics classes.
Generating a Reduced Gravity Environment on Earth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dungan, L. K.; Valle, P.; Shy, C.
2015-01-01
The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is designed to simulate reduced gravity environments, such as Lunar, Martian, or microgravity using a vertical lifting hoist and horizontal motion system. Three directions of motion are provided over a 41 ft x 24 ft x 25 ft tall area. ARGOS supplies a continuous offload of a portion of a person's weight during dynamic motions such as walking, running, and jumping. The ARGOS system tracks the person's motion in the horizontal directions to maintain a vertical offload force directly above the person or payload by measuring the deflection of the cable and adjusting accordingly.
Gait transitions in simulated reduced gravity.
Ivanenko, Yuri P; Labini, Francesca Sylos; Cappellini, Germana; Macellari, Velio; McIntyre, Joseph; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2011-03-01
Gravity has a strong effect on gait and the speed of gait transitions. A gait has been defined as a pattern of locomotion that changes discontinuously at the transition to another gait. On Earth, during gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed. To study the effects of altered gravity on both the stance and swing legs, we developed a novel unloading exoskeleton that allows a person to step in simulated reduced gravity by tilting the body relative to the vertical. Using different simulation techniques, we confirmed that at lower gravity levels the transition speed is slower (in accordance with the previously reported Froude number ∼0.5). Surprisingly, however, we found that at lower levels of simulated gravity the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without any noticeable abrupt change in gait parameters. This was associated with a significant prolongation of the swing phase, whose duration became virtually equal to that of stance in the vicinity of the walk-run transition speed, and with a gradual shift from inverted-pendulum gait (walking) to bouncing gait (running).
Improving Realism in Reduced Gravity Simulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cowley, Matthew; Harvil, Lauren; Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Rajulu, Sudhakar
2010-01-01
Since man was first determined to walk on the moon, simulating the lunar environment became a priority. Providing an accurate reduced gravity environment is crucial for astronaut training and hardware testing. This presentation will follow the development of reduced gravity simulators to a final comparison of environments between the currently used systems. During the Apollo program era, multiple systems were built and tested, with several NASA centers having their own unique device. These systems ranged from marionette-like suspension devices where the subject laid on his side, to pneumatically driven offloading harnesses, to parabolic flights. However, only token comparisons, if any, were made between systems. Parabolic flight allows the entire body to fall at the same rate, giving an excellent simulation of reduced gravity as far as the biomechanics and physical perceptions are concerned. While the effects are accurate, there is limited workspace, limited time, and high cost associated with these tests. With all mechanical offload systems only the parts of the body that are actively offloaded feel any reduced gravity effects. The rest of the body still feels the full effect of gravity. The Partial Gravity System (Pogo) is the current ground-based offload system used to training and testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The Pogo is a pneumatic type system that allows for offloaded motion in the z-axis and free movement in the x-axis, but has limited motion in the y-axis. The pneumatic system itself is limited by cylinder stroke length and response time. The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is a next generation groundbased offload system, currently in development, that is based on modern robotic manufacturing lines. This system is projected to provide more z-axis travel and full freedom in both the x and y-axes. Current characterization tests are underway to determine how the ground-based offloading systems perform, how they compare to parabolic
Study of two-phase flows in reduced gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Tirthankar
Study of gas-liquid two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions is extremely important. One of the major applications of gas-liquid two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions is in the design of active thermal control systems for future space applications. Previous space crafts were characterized by low heat generation within the spacecraft which needed to be redistributed within the craft or rejected to space. This task could easily have been accomplished by pumped single-phase loops or passive systems such as heat pipes and so on. However with increase in heat generation within the space craft as predicted for future missions, pumped boiling two-phase flows are being considered. This is because of higher heat transfer co-efficients associated with boiling heat transfer among other advantages. Two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions also find important applications in space propulsion as in space nuclear power reactors as well as in many other life support systems of space crafts. Two-fluid model along with Interfacial Area Transport Equation (IATE) is a useful tool available to predict the behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions. It should be noted that considerable differences exist between two-phase flows under reduced and normal gravity conditions especially for low inertia flows. This is because due to suppression of the gravity field the gas-liquid two-phase flows take a considerable time to develop under reduced gravity conditions as compared to normal gravity conditions. Hence other common methods of analysis applicable for fully developed gas-liquid two-phase flows under normal gravity conditions, like flow regimes and flow regime transition criteria, will not be applicable to gas-liquid two-phase flows under reduced gravity conditions. However the two-fluid model and the IATE need to be evaluated first against detailed experimental data obtained under reduced gravity conditions. Although lot of studies
Thermosyphon Flooding Limits in Reduced Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, Marc A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Ljubanovic, Damir
2012-01-01
Fission Power Systems have long been recognized as potential multi-kilowatt power solutions for lunar, Martian, and extended planetary surface missions. Current heat rejection technology associated with fission surface power systems has focused on titanium water thermosyphons embedded in carbon composite radiator panels. The thermosyphons, or wickless heat pipes, are used as a redundant and efficient way to spread the waste heat from the power conversion unit(s) over the radiator surface area where it can be rejected to space. It is well known that thermosyphon performance is reliant on gravitational forces to keep the evaporator wetted with the working fluid. One of the performance limits that can be encountered, if not understood, is the phenomenon of condenser flooding, otherwise known as evaporator dry out. This occurs when the gravity forces acting on the condensed fluid cannot overcome the shear forces created by the vapor escaping the evaporator throat. When this occurs, the heat transfer process is stalled and may not re-stabilize to effective levels without corrective control actions. The flooding limit in earth's gravity environment is well understood as experimentation is readily accessible, but when the environment and gravity change relative to other planetary bodies, experimentation becomes difficult. An innovative experiment was designed and flown on a parabolic flight campaign to achieve the Reduced Gravity Environments (RGE) needed to obtain empirical data for analysis. The test data is compared to current correlation models for validation and accuracy.
Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mudawar, Issam; Zhang, Hui; Hasan, Mohammad M.
2004-01-01
This study provides systematic method for reducing power consumption in reduced gravity systems by adopting minimum velocity required to provide adequate CHF and preclude detrimental effects of reduced gravity . This study proves it is possible to use existing 1 ge flow boiling and CHF correlations and models to design reduced gravity systems provided minimum velocity criteria are met
Quantum reduced loop gravity: Semiclassical limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco
2014-07-01
We discuss the semiclassical limit of quantum reduced loop gravity, a recently proposed model to address the quantum dynamics of the early Universe. We apply loop quantum gravity (LQG) techniques in order to define the semiclassical states in the kinematical Hilbert space and we demonstrate that the expectation value of the euclidean scalar constraint coincides with the classical expression, i.e., one of the local Bianchi I dynamics. The result holds as a leading order expansion in the scale factors of the Universe and opens the way to study the subleading corrections to the semiclassical dynamics. We outline how by retaining a suitable finite coordinate length for holonomies that our effective Hamiltonian at the leading order coincides with the one expected from loop quantum cosmology (LQC). This result is an important step in fixing the correspondence between LQG and LQC.
Organizing Questions for Reduced-Gravity Flammability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Fletcher
2004-01-01
A team consisting of of the Microgravity Flight Project Scientists for solid flammability experiments has been reviewing and prioritizing a set of organizing questions for fire prevention (material flammability).In particular the team has been charged with determining:What experiments must be conducted to best answer these questions, and can some of the quest ions be answered using existing/planned hardware or experimental concepts?Is the NASA STD 6001, Test 1 configuration conservative or non-conservative in assessing material flammability in reduced gravity?NASA ST D 6001, Test 1 is an upward flammability test, considered the most stringent test in normal gravity. A material that passes this test would most likely not burn in a quiescent microgravity environment.A forced ignition and spread test is described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kahn, W. D.
1984-01-01
The spaceborne gravity gradiometer is a potential sensor for mapping the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field. Error analyses were performed to investigate the accuracy of the determination of the Earth's gravity field from a gravity field satellite mission. The orbital height of the spacecraft is the dominating parameter as far as gravity field resolution and accuracies are concerned.
Gravity field determination and error assessment techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, D. N.; Shum, C. K.; Tapley, B. D.
1989-01-01
Linear estimation theory, along with a new technique to compute relative data weights, was applied to the determination of the Earth's geopotential field and other geophysical model parameters using a combination of satellite ground-based tracking data, satellite altimetry data, and the surface gravimetry data. The relative data weights for the inhomogeneous data sets are estimated simultaneously with the gravity field and other geophysical and orbit parameters in a least squares approach to produce the University of Texas gravity field models. New techniques to perform calibration of the formal covariance matrix for the geopotential solution were developed to obtain a reliable gravity field error estimate. Different techniques, which include orbit residual analysis, surface gravity anomaly residual analysis, subset gravity solution comparisons and consider covariance analysis, were applied to investigate the reliability of the calibration.
Toward a gauge field theory of gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yilmaz, H.
Joint use of two differential identities (Bianchi and Freud) permits a gauge field theory of gravity in which the gravitational energy is localizable. The theory is compatible with quantum mechanics and is experimentally viable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gottlieb, Robert G.
1993-01-01
Derivation of first and second partials of the gravitational potential is given in both normalized and unnormalized form. Two different recursion formulas are considered. Derivation of a general gravity gradient torque algorithm which uses the second partial of the gravitational potential is given. Derivation of the geomagnetic field vector is given in a form that closely mimics the gravitational algorithm. Ada code for all algorithms that precomputes all possible data is given. Test cases comparing the new algorithms with previous data are given, as well as speed comparisons showing the relative efficiencies of the new algorithms.
Processing of mercurous chloride in reduced gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, C.; Singh, N. B.; Thomas, A.; Nelson, A. E.; Rolin, T. O.; Griffin, J.; Haulenbeek, G.; Daniel, N.; Seaquist, J.; Cacioppo, C.; Weber, Jerry; Zugrav, Maria I.; Naumann, R. J.
1996-07-01
In a joint experiment between the Northrop-Grumman Science and Technology Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Consortium for Materials Development in Space, single crystals of mercurous chloride were grown in the Space Experiment Facility (SEF) transparent furnace that was flown on Spacehab 4 in May 1996. Mercurous chloride is an acousto-optical material with an unusually low acoustic velocity and high acousto-optical figure of merit. Single crystals of this material can be readily grown in normal gravity by closed-tube physical vapor transport, but the crystals generally contain structural inhomogeneities which degrade the optical performance. The nature and cause of these defects are not completely understood, but their degree appears to correlate with the Rayleigh number that characterizes the convective transport during their growth; hence, it is suspected that uncontrolled convection may play a role in the defect structure. The objective of the flight experiment was to reduce the convective flows by several orders of magnitude to see if the structural inhomogeneities can be reduced or eliminated. This paper will describe the physical and thermal properties of the SEF furnace, the ampule design and loading procedure, and the ground testing, and will also present the preliminary flight results.
Processing of mercurous chloride in reduced gravity
Watson, C.; Thomas, A.
1996-12-31
In a joint experiment between the Northrop-Grumman Science and Technology Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Consortium for Materials Development in Space (UAH/CMDS), single crystals of mercurous chloride (Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) were grown in the Space Experiment Facility (SEF) transparent furnace that was flown on Spacelab 4 (STS-77) in May 1996. Single crystals of this material can be readily grown in normal gravity by closed-tube physical vapor transport, but the crystals generally contain structural inhomogeneities which degrade the optical performance. The nature and cause of these defects are not completely understood, but their degree appears to correlate with the Rayleigh number that characterizes the convective transport during their growth; hence, it is suspected that uncontrolled convection may play a role in the defect structure. The objective of the flight experiment was to reduce the convective flows by several orders of magnitude to see if the structural inhomogeneities can be reduced or eliminated. This paper will describe the physical and thermal properties of the SEF furnace, the ampoule design and loading procedure, and the ground testing, and will also present the preliminary flight results.
The Increased Flammability of Metallic Materials in Reduced Gravity Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lynn, David; Plagens, Owen; Castillo, Marin; Paulos, Todd; Steinberg, Ted
2010-09-01
Flammability data generated in a normal gravity environment is often used in design and risk assessment for reduced gravity applications. It has been clearly demonstrated that this is a conservative approach for non-metallic materials which have been repeatedly shown to be less flammable in a reduced gravity environment. However, recent work has demonstrated this is not true for metallic materials. This work, conducted in a newly completed drop tower observed a significant decrease in lowest burn pressure and increase in regression rate in reduced gravity. Hence the normal gravity qualification of a metallic materials’ lowest burn pressure or regression rate for reduced-gravity or space-based systems is clearly not conservative. This paper presents a summary of this work and the results obtained for several metallic materials showing an increased flammability and regression rate for a range of oxygen pressures, and discusses the implications of this work on the fire-safety of space-based systems.
Reducing Errors by Use of Redundancy in Gravity Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail
2004-01-01
A methodology for improving gravity-gradient measurement data exploits the constraints imposed upon the components of the gravity-gradient tensor by the conditions of integrability needed for reconstruction of the gravitational potential. These constraints are derived from the basic equation for the gravitational potential and from mathematical identities that apply to the gravitational potential and its partial derivatives with respect to spatial coordinates. Consider the gravitational potential in a Cartesian coordinate system {x1,x2,x3}. If one measures all the components of the gravity-gradient tensor at all points of interest within a region of space in which one seeks to characterize the gravitational field, one obtains redundant information. One could utilize the constraints to select a minimum (that is, nonredundant) set of measurements from which the gravitational potential could be reconstructed. Alternatively, one could exploit the redundancy to reduce errors from noisy measurements. A convenient example is that of the selection of a minimum set of measurements to characterize the gravitational field at n3 points (where n is an integer) in a cube. Without the benefit of such a selection, it would be necessary to make 9n3 measurements because the gravitygradient tensor has 9 components at each point. The problem of utilizing the redundancy to reduce errors in noisy measurements is an optimization problem: Given a set of noisy values of the components of the gravity-gradient tensor at the measurement points, one seeks a set of corrected values - a set that is optimum in that it minimizes some measure of error (e.g., the sum of squares of the differences between the corrected and noisy measurement values) while taking account of the fact that the constraints must apply to the exact values. The problem as thus posed leads to a vector equation that can be solved to obtain the corrected values.
Granular convection and the Brazil nut effect in reduced gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Güttler, Carsten; von Borstel, Ingo; Schräpler, Rainer; Blum, Jürgen
2013-04-01
We present laboratory experiments of a vertically vibrated granular medium consisting of 1-mm-diameter glass beads with embedded 8-mm-diameter intruder glass beads. The experiments were performed in the laboratory as well as in a parabolic flight under reduced-gravity conditions (on Martian and Lunar gravity levels). We measured the mean rise velocity of the large glass beads and present its dependence on the fill height of the sample containers, the excitation acceleration, and the ambient gravity level. We find that the rise velocity scales in the same manner for all three gravity regimes and roughly linearly with gravity.
Granular convection and the Brazil nut effect in reduced gravity.
Güttler, Carsten; von Borstel, Ingo; Schräpler, Rainer; Blum, Jürgen
2013-04-01
We present laboratory experiments of a vertically vibrated granular medium consisting of 1-mm-diameter glass beads with embedded 8-mm-diameter intruder glass beads. The experiments were performed in the laboratory as well as in a parabolic flight under reduced-gravity conditions (on Martian and Lunar gravity levels). We measured the mean rise velocity of the large glass beads and present its dependence on the fill height of the sample containers, the excitation acceleration, and the ambient gravity level. We find that the rise velocity scales in the same manner for all three gravity regimes and roughly linearly with gravity.
The earth's gravity field and ocean dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mather, R. S.
1978-01-01
An analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio of the best gravity field available shows that a basis exists for the recovery of the dominant parameters of the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Results obtained from the analysis of GEOS-3 show that it is feasible to recover the quasi-stationary dynamic sea surface topography as a function of wavelength. The gravity field models required for synoptic ocean circulation modeling are less exacting in that constituents affecting radial components of orbital position need not be known through shorter wavelengths.
Studies of experiments on droplet burning at reduced gravity
Williams, F.A.
1983-06-01
The advantages of reduced gravity investigation of droplet burning are discussed. Drop tower tests of droplet combustion are summarized. A design for droplet burning experiments in space shuttles is presented. A preloaded syringe dispenses the droplet which is dislodged mechanically or electrostatically. The positioning is electrostatic, with six electrodes operated individually or in pairs, manually or with servocontrol. After the droplet is at rest and the fields turned off, the retractable ignition electrodes are energized. The combustion is recorded by camera with backlight designed to give accurate droplet size. (ESA)
On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander
2016-06-01
In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.
Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity
Antoniak, Z.I.
1986-06-01
Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity.
Gravity anomaly map of Mars and Moon and analysis of Venus gravity field: New analysis procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
The technique of harmonic splines allows direct estimation of a complete planetary gravity field (geoid, gravity, and gravity gradients) everywhere over the planet's surface. Harmonic spline results of Venus are presented as a series of maps at spacecraft and constant altitudes. Global (except for polar regions) and local relations of gravity to topography are described.
Effect of Numerical Error on Gravity Field Estimation for GRACE and Future Gravity Missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCullough, Christopher; Bettadpur, Srinivas
2015-04-01
In recent decades, gravity field determination from low Earth orbiting satellites, such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), has become increasingly more effective due to the incorporation of high accuracy measurement devices. Since instrumentation quality will only increase in the near future and the gravity field determination process is computationally and numerically intensive, numerical error from the use of double precision arithmetic will eventually become a prominent error source. While using double-extended or quadruple precision arithmetic will reduce these errors, the numerical limitations of current orbit determination algorithms and processes must be accurately identified and quantified in order to adequately inform the science data processing techniques of future gravity missions. The most obvious numerical limitation in the orbit determination process is evident in the comparison of measured observables with computed values, derived from mathematical models relating the satellites' numerically integrated state to the observable. Significant error in the computed trajectory will corrupt this comparison and induce error in the least squares solution of the gravitational field. In addition, errors in the numerically computed trajectory propagate into the evaluation of the mathematical measurement model's partial derivatives. These errors amalgamate in turn with numerical error from the computation of the state transition matrix, computed using the variational equations of motion, in the least squares mapping matrix. Finally, the solution of the linearized least squares system, computed using a QR factorization, is also susceptible to numerical error. Certain interesting combinations of each of these numerical errors are examined in the framework of GRACE gravity field determination to analyze and quantify their effects on gravity field recovery.
Burning of liquid pools in reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kanury, A. M.
1977-01-01
The existing literature on the combustion of liquid fuel pools is reviewed to identify the physical and chemical aspects which require an improved understanding. Among the pre-, trans- and post-ignition processes, a delineation was made of those which seem to uniquely benefit from studies in the essential environment offered by spacelab. The role played by the gravitational constant in analytical and experimental justifications was developed. The analytical justifications were based on hypotheses, models and dimensional analyses whereas the experimental justifications were based on an examination of the range of gravity and gravity-dependent variables possible in the earth-based laboratories. Some preliminary expositions into the questions of feasibility of the proposed spacelab experiment are also reported.
Plant biology in reduced gravity on the Moon and Mars.
Kiss, J Z
2014-01-01
While there have been numerous studies on the effects of microgravity on plant biology since the beginning of the Space Age, our knowledge of the effects of reduced gravity (less than the Earth nominal 1 g) on plant physiology and development is very limited. Since international space agencies have cited manned exploration of Moon/Mars as long-term goals, it is important to understand plant biology at the lunar (0.17 g) and Martian levels of gravity (0.38 g), as plants are likely to be part of bioregenerative life-support systems on these missions. First, the methods to obtain microgravity and reduced gravity such as drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets and orbiting spacecraft are reviewed. Studies on gravitaxis and gravitropism in algae have suggested that the threshold level of gravity sensing is around 0.3 g or less. Recent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) showed attenuation of phototropism in higher plants occurs at levels ranging from 0.l g to 0.3 g. Taken together, these studies suggest that the reduced gravity level on Mars of 0.38 g may be enough so that the gravity level per se would not be a major problem for plant development. Studies that have directly considered the impact of reduced gravity and microgravity on bioregenerative life-support systems have identified important biophysical changes in the reduced gravity environments that impact the design of these systems. The author suggests that the current ISS laboratory facilities with on-board centrifuges should be used as a test bed in which to explore the effects of reduced gravity on plant biology, including those factors that are directly related to developing life-support systems necessary for Moon and Mars exploration.
Plant biology in reduced gravity on the Moon and Mars.
Kiss, J Z
2014-01-01
While there have been numerous studies on the effects of microgravity on plant biology since the beginning of the Space Age, our knowledge of the effects of reduced gravity (less than the Earth nominal 1 g) on plant physiology and development is very limited. Since international space agencies have cited manned exploration of Moon/Mars as long-term goals, it is important to understand plant biology at the lunar (0.17 g) and Martian levels of gravity (0.38 g), as plants are likely to be part of bioregenerative life-support systems on these missions. First, the methods to obtain microgravity and reduced gravity such as drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets and orbiting spacecraft are reviewed. Studies on gravitaxis and gravitropism in algae have suggested that the threshold level of gravity sensing is around 0.3 g or less. Recent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) showed attenuation of phototropism in higher plants occurs at levels ranging from 0.l g to 0.3 g. Taken together, these studies suggest that the reduced gravity level on Mars of 0.38 g may be enough so that the gravity level per se would not be a major problem for plant development. Studies that have directly considered the impact of reduced gravity and microgravity on bioregenerative life-support systems have identified important biophysical changes in the reduced gravity environments that impact the design of these systems. The author suggests that the current ISS laboratory facilities with on-board centrifuges should be used as a test bed in which to explore the effects of reduced gravity on plant biology, including those factors that are directly related to developing life-support systems necessary for Moon and Mars exploration. PMID:23889757
Gravity Field Determination at AIUB: Current Activities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Prange, L.; Meyer, U.; Mervart, L.; Dach, R.; Rummel, R.; Gruber, T.
2009-04-01
Research on global gravity field recovery from satellite missions such as CHAMP and GRACE was initiated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Switzerland) in the year 2006. Since September 2007, the activities were extended in the framework of the project Satellite Geodesy sponsored by the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM, Germany). Gravity field recovery at AIUB is rigorously treated as an extended orbit determination problem. This so-called Celestial Mechanics Approach is applied to GPS high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (hl-SST) data of low Earth orbiters (LEOs), via the use of kinematic LEO positions, and to K-band low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (ll-SST) data of the GRACE mission. Kinematic LEO positions are determined at AIUB using the GPS orbit and clock products of the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). CODE is an analysis center of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and is operated by AIUB in cooperation with the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Germany), and the Institute of Astronomical and Physical Geodesy (IAPG) of the Technical University of Munich. We will describe the currently implemented refined processing strategies of the Celestial Mechanics Approach and present selected results. The benefits of our rigorous approach are demonstrated by comparisons of our latest annual GRACE ll-SST solutions and multi-annual CHAMP hl-SST solutions with the results of other groups and by external validations. A special focus is on the relevance of background models for GRACE gravity field determination when using K-band data, and on the impact of systematic errors in GPS observations when performing gravity field recovery with hl-SST observations.
Particle cloud combustion in reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berlad, A. L.
1988-01-01
The prinicipal objectives of this microgravity experiment program are to obtain flame propagation rate and flame extinction limit data for several important premixed, quiescent particle cloud combustion systems under near zero-gravity conditions. The data resulting from these experiments are needed for utilization with currently available and tractable flame propagation and extinction theory. These data are also expected to provide standards for the evaluation of fire hazards in particle suspensions in both Earth-based and space-based applications. Both terrestrial and space-based fire safety criteria require the identification of the critical concentrations of particulate fuels and inerts at the flame extinction conditions.
Fixed Packed Bed Reactors in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Motil, Brian J.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Kamotani, Yasuhiro; McCready, Mark J.
2004-01-01
We present experimental data on flow pattern transitions, pressure drop and flow characteristics for cocurrent gas-liquid flow through packed columns in microgravity. The flow pattern transition data indicates that the pulse flow regime exists over a wider range of gas and liquid flow rates under microgravity conditions compared to 1-g and the widely used Talmor map in 1-g is not applicable for predicting the transition boundaries. A new transition criterion between bubble and pulse flow in microgravity is proposed and tested using the data. Since there is no static head in microgravity, the pressure drop measured is the true frictional pressure drop. The pressure drop data, which has much smaller scatter than most reported 1-g data clearly shows that capillary effects can enhance the pressure drop (especially in the bubble flow regime) as much as 200% compared to that predicted by the single phase Ergun equation. The pressure drop data are correlated in terms of a two-phase friction factor and its dependence on the gas and liquid Reynolds numbers and the Suratman number. The influence of gravity on the pulse amplitude and frequency is also discussed and compared to that under normal gravity conditions. Experimental work is planned to determine the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients. Because of enhanced interfacial effects, we expect the gas-liquid transfer coefficients k(L)a and k(G)a (where a is the gas-liquid interfacial area) to be higher in microgravity than in normal gravity at the same flow conditions. This will be verified by gas absorption experiments, with and without reaction in the liquid phase, using oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and dilute aqueous amine solutions. The liquid-solid mass transfer coefficient will also be determined in the bubble as well as the pulse flow regimes using solid benzoic acid particles in the packing and measuring their rate of dissolution. The mass transfer coefficients in microgravity will be compared to those in normal
Fixed Packed Bed Reactors in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Motil, Brian J.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Kamotani, Yasuhiro; McCready, Mark J.
2004-01-01
We present experimental data on flow pattern transitions, pressure drop and flow characteristics for cocurrent gas-liquid flow through packed columns in microgravity. The flow pattern transition data indicates that the pulse flow regime exists over a wider range of gas and liquid flow rates under microgravity conditions compared to 1-g and the widely used Talmor map in 1-g is not applicable for predicting the transition boundaries. A new transition criterion between bubble and pulse flow in microgravity is proposed and tested using the data. Since there is no static head in microgravity, the pressure drop measured is the true frictional pressure drop. The pressure drop data, which has much smaller scatter than most reported 1-g data clearly shows that capillary effects can enhance the pressure drop (especially in the bubble flow regime) as much as 200% compared to that predicted by the single phase Ergun equation. The pressure drop data are correlated in terms of a two-phase friction factor and its dependence on the gas and liquid Reynolds numbers and the Suratman number. The influence of gravity on the pulse amplitude and frequency is also discussed and compared to that under normal gravity conditions. Experimental work is planned to determine the gas-liquid and liquid-solid mass transfer coefficients. Because of enhanced interfacial effects, we expect the gas-liquid transfer coefficients kLa and kGa (where a is the gas-liquid interfacial area) to be higher in microgravity than in normal gravity at the same flow conditions. This will be verified by gas absorption experiments, with and without reaction in the liquid phase, using oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and dilute aqueous amine solutions. The liquid-solid mass transfer coefficient will also be determined in the bubble as well as the pulse flow regimes using solid benzoic acid particles in the packing and measuring their rate of dissolution. The mass transfer coefficients in microgravity will be compared to
Electric field replaces gravity in laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorgolewski, S.
For several years experiments in physical laboratories and in the fitotron have shown that one can replace gravitational field with electrical fields for plants. First obvious experiments in strong electrical fields in the MV/m regi on show that any materials and living plants respond immediately to Coulomb forces. Such fields are found in nature during thunderstorms. One has to be very careful in handling such strong fields for safety reasons. The fair weather global electrical field is about 20,000 times weaker. The coulomb forces are proportional to the square of the field strength and are thus 400 milion times weaker for a field of the order of 100 V/m.Yet it was found that some plants respond to such "weak" fields. We must remember that the electrical field is a factor of 10 38 times stronger than gravitational interaction. In plants we have dissociated in water mineral salts and the ions are subject to such ernormous forces. It was shown and published that the positive charges in the air in fields of the order of 3kV/m enhance lettuce growth by a factor of four relative to fields about 30 times weaker (100V/m). Reversal of the field polarity reverses the direction of plant growth and retards the plant's growth. Such fields overpower the gravitropism in the laboratory. More so horizontal electrical field is othogonal to gravity, now the fields do not see each other. Lettuce now growth horizontally ignoring the gravitational field. We can thus select the plants whose electrotropism even in the laboratory overwhelms gravity. This is important for the long space flights that we must grow vegetarian food for the crew. The successful harvesting of wheat in orbit does not contradict our experimental findings because wheat is not electrotropic like all plants from the grass family. The results of fitotron experiments with kV/m electrical fields are richly illustrated with colour digital photographs. We also subjected the candle flame to very strong horizontal
Cell proliferation inhibition in reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moos, P. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
1994-01-01
Extended durations of spaceflight have been shown to be deleterious on an organismic level; however, mechanisms underlying cellular sensitivity to the gravitational environment remain to be elucidated. The majority of the gravitational studies to date indicates that cell regulatory pathways may be influenced by their gravitational environment. Still, few cell biology experiments have been performed in space flight and even fewer experiments have been repeated on subsequent flights. With flight opportunities on STS-50, 54, and 57, Sf9 cells were flown in the BioServe Fluids Processing Apparatus and cell proliferation was measured with and without exposure to a cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS) inhibitor. Results from these flights indicate that the Sf9 cells grew comparable to ground controls, that the CeReS inhibitor bound to its specific receptor, and that its signal transduction cascade was not gravity sensitive.
Intraspecific differences in bacterial responses to modelled reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, P. W.; Leff, L. G.
2005-01-01
AIMS: Bacteria are important residents of water systems, including those of space stations which feature specific environmental conditions, such as lowered effects of gravity. The purpose of this study was to compare responses with modelled reduced gravity of space station, water system bacterial isolates with other isolates of the same species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates, Stenotrophomonas paucimobilis and Acinetobacter radioresistens, originally recovered from the water supply aboard the International Space Station (ISS) were grown in nutrient broth under modelled reduced gravity. Their growth was compared with type strains S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 and A. radioresistens ATCC 49000. Acinetobacter radioresistens ATCC 49000 and the two ISS isolates showed similar growth profiles under modelled reduced gravity compared with normal gravity, whereas S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 was negatively affected by modelled reduced gravity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microgravity might have selected for bacteria that were able to thrive under this unusual condition. These responses, coupled with impacts of other features (such as radiation resistance and ability to persist under very oligotrophic conditions), may contribute to the success of these water system bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Water quality is a significant factor in many environments including the ISS. Efforts to remove microbial contaminants are likely to be complicated by the features of these bacteria which allow them to persist under the extreme conditions of the systems.
A framework for modelling kinematic measurements in gravity field applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwarz, K. P.; Wei, M.
1989-01-01
To assess the resolution of the local gravity field from kinematic measurements, a state model for motion in the gravity field of the earth is formulated. The resulting set of equations can accommodate gravity gradients, specific force, acceleration, velocity and position as input data and can take into account approximation errors as well as sensor errors.
Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments Test Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, Marc A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, Jim; Ljubanovic, Damir
2013-01-01
The condenser flooding phenomenon associated with gravity aided two-phase thermosyphons was studied using parabolic flights to obtain the desired reduced gravity environment (RGE). The experiment was designed and built to test a total of twelve titanium water thermosyphons in multiple gravity environments with the goal of developing a model that would accurately explain the correlation between gravitational forces and the maximum axial heat transfer limit associated with condenser flooding. Results from laboratory testing and parabolic flights are included in this report as part I of a two part series. The data analysis and correlations are included in a follow on paper.
On the gravity field processing of next generation satellite gravity missions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daras, Ilias; Pail, Roland
2016-04-01
Dedicated gravity field missions delivering observations for a period longer than 16 years have drastically contributed in improving our knowledge of mass transport processes in the Earth system. At the same time, they have left a precious heritage for the design of next generation satellite gravity missions to be launched in the mid-term future. Main subject of this study is the gravity field processing of future Low-Low Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (LL-SST) missions. We perform assessment of the contribution of all error sources and develop methods for reducing their effect at the level of gravity field processing. Advances in metrology of sensors such as the inter-satellite ranging instrument, may raise the demands for processing accuracy. We show that gravity field processing with double precision may be a limiting factor for exploiting the nm-level accuracy of a laser interferometer that future missions are expected to carry. An enhanced numerical precision processing scheme is proposed instead, where double and quadruple precision is used in different parts of the processing chain. It is demonstrated that processing with enhanced precision can efficiently handle laser measurements and take full advantage of their accuracy, while keeping the computational times within reasonable levels (Daras, 2015). However, error sources of considerably larger impact are expected to affect future missions, with the accelerometer instrument noise and temporal aliasing effects being the most significant ones. The effect of time-correlated noise such as the one present in accelerometer measurements can be efficiently handled by frequency dependent data weighting. Residual time series that contain the effect of system errors and propagated accelerometer and laser noise, is considered as a noise realization with stationary stochastic properties. The weight matrix is constructed from the auto-correlation functions of these residuals. Applying the weight matrix to a noise case
Plant Science in Reduced Gravity: Lessons Learned
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stutte, Gary W.; Monje, Oscar; Wheeler, Raymond M.
2012-01-01
The effect of gravity on the growth and development of plants has been the subject of scientific investigation for over a century. The results obtained in space to test specific hypotheses on gravitropism, gene expression, seed formation, or growth rate are affected by both the primary effect of the microgravity and secondary effects of the spaceflight environment. The secondary effects of the spaceflight environment include physical effects arising from physical changes, such as the absence of buoyancy driven convective mixing, altered behavior of liquids and gases, and the environmental conditions in the spacecraft atmosphere. Thus, the design of biological experiments (e.g. cells, plants, animals, etc.) conducted in microgravity must account for changes in the physical forces, as well as the environmental conditions, imposed by the specific spaceflight vehicle and experimental hardware. In addition, researchers must become familiar with other aspects of spaceflight experiments: payload integration with hardware developers, safety documentation and crew procedures, and the logistics of conducting flight and ground controls. This report reviews the physical and environmental factors that directly and indirectly affect the results of plant science experiments in microgravity and is intended to serve as a guide in the design and implementation plant experiments in space.
Locomotion while load-carrying in reduced gravities.
Wickman, L A; Luna, B
1996-10-01
Supporting the mass of a protective suit and portable life support system (PLSS) will impose an energy requirement on planetary astronauts. To design extravehicular protective equipment for planetary missions, scientists must learn more about human physical capabilities while load-carrying in reduced gravities. In this study, an underwater treadmill and weighting system were used to simulate reduced-gravity locomotion while load-carrying. The test matrix included 3 gravity levels, 6 subjects, 2 locomotion speeds, and a range of load sizes. Energy expenditure, calculated from measured oxygen consumption, is positively correlated with gravity level, speed, and load size. The data are used to project that individuals in average physical condition will be able to walk for 8 h on the Moon while carrying up to 170% of their body mass without undue fatigue, and on Mars with up to 50% of their body mass. These approximate limits, especially for Martian gravity, may prove quite a challenge for designers of advanced protective systems. Requirements for regenerable and non-venting PLSS components have been driving the total projected masses of advanced PLSSs increasingly higher, perhaps beyond what is reasonable to carry. However, the larger mass can be beneficial in maintaining bone mass. Using Whalen's model (1988), the daily planetary walking times required to maintain bone mass were calculated for a range of carried load sizes. The calculated times were unattainably high, suggesting that some combination of loads carrying and supplemental bone maintenance measures will likely be required to maintain bone mass in reduced gravity environments.
Measurement of the gravity-field curvature by atom interferometry.
Rosi, G; Cacciapuoti, L; Sorrentino, F; Menchetti, M; Prevedelli, M; Tino, G M
2015-01-01
We present the first direct measurement of the gravity-field curvature based on three conjugated atom interferometers. Three atomic clouds launched in the vertical direction are simultaneously interrogated by the same atom interferometry sequence and used to probe the gravity field at three equally spaced positions. The vertical component of the gravity-field curvature generated by nearby source masses is measured from the difference between adjacent gravity gradient values. Curvature measurements are of interest in geodesy studies and for the validation of gravitational models of the surrounding environment. The possibility of using such a scheme for a new determination of the Newtonian constant of gravity is also discussed. PMID:25615464
Measurement of the gravity-field curvature by atom interferometry.
Rosi, G; Cacciapuoti, L; Sorrentino, F; Menchetti, M; Prevedelli, M; Tino, G M
2015-01-01
We present the first direct measurement of the gravity-field curvature based on three conjugated atom interferometers. Three atomic clouds launched in the vertical direction are simultaneously interrogated by the same atom interferometry sequence and used to probe the gravity field at three equally spaced positions. The vertical component of the gravity-field curvature generated by nearby source masses is measured from the difference between adjacent gravity gradient values. Curvature measurements are of interest in geodesy studies and for the validation of gravitational models of the surrounding environment. The possibility of using such a scheme for a new determination of the Newtonian constant of gravity is also discussed.
Study of the Earth's short-scale gravity field using the ERTM2160 gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirt, Christian; Kuhn, Michael; Claessens, Sten; Pail, Roland; Seitz, Kurt; Gruber, Thomas
2014-12-01
This paper describes the computation and analysis of the Earth's short-scale gravity field through high-resolution gravity forward modelling using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) global topography model. We use the established residual terrain modelling technique along with advanced computational resources and massive parallelisation to convert the high-pass filtered SRTM topography - complemented with bathymetric information in coastal zones - to implied short-scale gravity effects. The result is the ERTM2160 model (Earth Residual Terrain Modelled-gravity field with the spatial scales equivalent to spherical-harmonic coefficients up to degree 2160 removed). ERTM2160, used successfully for the construction of the GGMplus gravity maps, approximates the short-scale (i.e., ~10 km down to ~250 m) gravity field in terms of gravity disturbances, quasi/geoid heights and vertical deflections at ~3 billion gridded points within ±60° latitude. ERTM2160 reaches maximum values for the quasi/geoid height of ~30 cm, gravity disturbance in excess of 100 mGal, and vertical deflections of ~30″ over the Himalaya mountains. Analysis of the ERTM2160 field as a function of terrain roughness shows in good approximation a linear relationship between terrain roughness and gravity effects, with values of ~1.7 cm (quasi/geoid heights), ~11 mGal (gravity disturbances) and 1.5″ (vertical deflections) signal strength per 100 m standard deviation of the terrain. These statistics can be used to assess the magnitude of omitted gravity signals over various types of terrain when using degree-2160 gravity models such as EGM2008. Applications for ERTM2160 are outlined including its use in gravity smoothing procedures, augmentation of EGM2008, fill-in for future ultra-high resolution gravity models in spherical harmonics, or calculation of localised or global power spectra of Earth's short-scale gravity field. ERTM2160 is freely available via
The Gravity Fields of the Saturnian Satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iess, L.
2011-12-01
In its tour of the Saturnian system, begun on July 1st, 2004, the Cassini spacecraft had many close flybys of Saturn's main satellites. However, due to impossibility to carry out simultaneously remote sensing observations and microwave tracking from ground, only a small fraction of those flybys could be exploited for gravity measurements. So far, the quadrupole field has been mapped only for Titan, Rhea and Enceladus, while for Hyperion and Iapetus the mass was the only accessible parameter. For Titan and Enceladus, the only satellites targeted more than once for gravity observations, also a rough geoid to degree and order 3 has been determined. Satellite gravity investigations rely upon accurate measurements of the spacecraft range rate, enabled by coherent, two-way radio links at X and Ka band (8.4 and 32.5 GHz). The use of hydrogen masers frequency standards at the ground station and the consid-erable suppression of plasma noise at X and Ka band frequen-cies provide range rate accuracies of 10-30 micron/s at integra-tion times of 60 s. Thanks to the higher frequency of the radio link, these measurement accuracies are in the average a factor of 10 better than those attained by Galileo in its tour of the Jovian system. However, in order to attain a reliable determination of the low degree field, good measurements must be combined with appropriate flyby geometries and adequate sampling, a condition that necessarily requires multiple flybys. We review the main results obtained so far by Cassini for Titan, Rhea and Enceladus, and discuss the methods of analysis used by the Radio Science Team.
[Research under reduced gravity. Part I: bases of gravitational biology].
Volkmann, D; Sievers, A
1992-02-01
The orientation of organisms in space and their morphogenesis in relation to the gravitational field of the Earth are the main topics of research in the field of gravitational biology. For more than 100 years clinostats provided the only possibility to simulate physiological weightlessness. In contrast to animals, plants are characterized by intracellular gravireceptors. Nevertheless, there are some indications, e.g., the minimal energy of approx. 10(-18) J triggering a gravity-dependent response, for similar mechanisms of gravity perception. Stretch-activated ion channels might be the common structural basis. PMID:11536493
Global gravity field recovery from the ARISTOTELES satellite mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, P. N. A. M.; Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.
1994-02-01
One of the primary objectives of the future ARISTOTELES satellite mission is to map Earth's gravity field with high resolution and accuracy. In order to achieve this objective, the ARISTOTELES satellite will be equipped with a gravity gradiometer and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Global gravity field error analyses have been performed for several combinations of gradiometer and GPS observations. These analyses indicated that the bandwidth limitation of the gradiometer prevents a stable high-accuracy, high-resolution gravity solution if no additional information is available. However, with the addition of high-accuracy GPS observations, a stable gravity field solution can be obtained. A combination of the measurements acquired by the high-quality GPS receiver and the bandwidth-limited gradiometer on board ARISTOTELES will yield a global gravity field model with a resolution of less than 100 km and with an accuracy of better than 5 mGal for gravity anomalies and 10 cm for geoid undulations.
Walking in simulated reduced gravity: mechanical energy fluctuations and exchange.
Griffin, T M; Tolani, N A; Kram, R
1999-01-01
Walking humans conserve mechanical and, presumably, metabolic energy with an inverted pendulum-like exchange of gravitational potential energy and horizontal kinetic energy. Walking in simulated reduced gravity involves a relatively high metabolic cost, suggesting that the inverted-pendulum mechanism is disrupted because of a mismatch of potential and kinetic energy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the fluctuations and exchange of mechanical energy of the center of mass at different combinations of velocity and simulated reduced gravity. Subjects walked with smaller fluctuations in horizontal velocity in lower gravity, such that the ratio of horizontal kinetic to gravitational potential energy fluctuations remained constant over a fourfold change in gravity. The amount of exchange, or percent recovery, at 1.00 m/s was not significantly different at 1.00, 0.75, and 0.50 G (average 64.4%), although it decreased to 48% at 0.25 G. As a result, the amount of work performed on the center of mass does not explain the relatively high metabolic cost of walking in simulated reduced gravity.
Gravity fields of the solar system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zendell, A.; Brown, R. D.; Vincent, S.
1975-01-01
The most frequently used formulations of the gravitational field are discussed and a standard set of models for the gravity fields of the earth, moon, sun, and other massive bodies in the solar system are defined. The formulas are presented in standard forms, some with instructions for conversion. A point-source or inverse-square model, which represents the external potential of a spherically symmetrical mass distribution by a mathematical point mass without physical dimensions, is considered. An oblate spheroid model is presented, accompanied by an introduction to zonal harmonics. This spheroid model is generalized and forms the basis for a number of the spherical harmonic models which were developed for the earth and moon. The triaxial ellipsoid model is also presented. These models and their application to space missions are discussed.
Electric Field Effect on Bubble Detachment in Variable Gravity Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iacona, Estelle; Herman, Cila; Chang, Shinan
2003-01-01
The subject of the present study, the process of bubble detachment from an orifice in a plane surface, shows some resemblance to bubble departure in boiling. Because of the high heat transfer coefficients associated with phase change processes, boiling is utilized in many industrial operations and is an attractive solution to cooling problems in aerospace engineering. In terrestrial conditions, buoyancy is responsible for bubble removal from the surface. In space, the gravity level being orders of magnitude smaller than on earth, bubbles formed during boiling remain attached at the surface. As a result, the amount of heat removed from the heated surface can decrease considerably. The use of electric fields is proposed to control bubble behavior and help bubble removal from the surface on which they form. The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Bubble cycle life were visualized in terrestrial conditions and for several reduced gravity levels. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured and analyzed for different parameters as gravity level and electric field magnitude. Situations were considered with uniform or non-uni form electric field. Results show that these parameters significantly affect bubble behavior, shape, volume and dimensions.
Lubrication System with Tolerance for Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor); McCune, Michael E. (Inventor); Dobek, Louis J. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A lubrication system includes an auxiliary lubricant tank 48, a supply conduit 58 extending from a source of lubricant 26 to the auxiliary lubricant tank. A reduced-G bypass line 108 branches from the conduit and enters the auxiliary tank at a first elevation E.sub.1. The system also includes an auxiliary tank discharge conduit 116, a portion of which resides within the tank. The resident portion has an opening 122 at least partially at a second elevation E.sub.2 higher than the first elevation.
An analytical study of reduced-gravity flow dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradshaw, R. D.; Kramer, J. L.; Zich, J. L.
1976-01-01
Addition of surface tension forces to a marker-and-cell code and the performance of four incompressible fluid simulations in reduced gravity, were studied. This marker-and-cell code has a variable grid capability with arbitrary curved boundaries and time dependent acceleration fields. The surface tension logic includes a spline fit of surface marker particles as well as contact angle logic for straight and curved wall boundaries. Three types of flow motion were simulated with the improved code: impulsive settling in a model Centaur LH2 tank, continuous settling in a model and full scale Centaur LO2 tank and mixing in a Centaur LH2 tank. The impulsive settling case confirmed a drop tower analysis which indicated more orderly fluid collection flow patterns with this method providing a potential savings in settling propellants. In the LO2 tank, fluid collection and flow simulation into the thrust barrel were achieved. The mixing simulation produced good results indicating both the development of the flow field and fluid interface behavior.
Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean
2014-05-01
Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing
The gravity field in Taiwan Strait
Su Daquan; Chen Xue; Liu Zuhui )
1990-06-01
Gravity surveys have been carried out in the western part of Taiwan Strait by South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica, from 1986 to 1989. More than 3,000 km of gravity profile data have been collected. The accuracy of the gravity is about {plus minus}2.5 mGal. Based on these data, gravity maps of Taiwan Strait (1:2,000,000) have been compiled, combined with the data from University of Tokyo, Lamont-Doherty geological observatory, and the USSR, which were collected from the east and southeast parts of Taiwan Strait. The interval of contour is 5 mGal. These maps cover part of East China Sea and South China Sea, where good gravity data have been gathered. Comparing the data from different sources in the same area, the authors think they are in very good agreement. These maps for the first time give detailed gravity information in the Taiwan Strait. It is very useful for the tectonic study and oil exploration in this area. The relationship between gravity anomalies and sedimentary basins has been studied in this area. Most of data show that the gravity low corresponds to the basin area and the gravity high is related to tectonic structure high. Xia-Peng depression, Wuqiuy depression, and Xinzhu depression, etc., show the gravity low. The relationship also can be seen in the gravity profiles clearly. The general tendency of gravity in the Taiwan Strait is that the gravity values gradually increase from the south part to the north part. It can be probably explained by deep geological structures. The relationship between gravity and geological structure units is also studied. They think the undulation of gravity anomalies is closely related to tectonic structures. Some main faults can be confirmed by the gravity maps.
Reducing errors in the GRACE gravity solutions using regularization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Tapley, Byron D.
2012-09-01
The nature of the gravity field inverse problem amplifies the noise in the GRACE data, which creeps into the mid and high degree and order harmonic coefficients of the Earth's monthly gravity fields provided by GRACE. Due to the use of imperfect background models and data noise, these errors are manifested as north-south striping in the monthly global maps of equivalent water heights. In order to reduce these errors, this study investigates the use of the L-curve method with Tikhonov regularization. L-curve is a popular aid for determining a suitable value of the regularization parameter when solving linear discrete ill-posed problems using Tikhonov regularization. However, the computational effort required to determine the L-curve is prohibitively high for a large-scale problem like GRACE. This study implements a parameter-choice method, using Lanczos bidiagonalization which is a computationally inexpensive approximation to L-curve. Lanczos bidiagonalization is implemented with orthogonal transformation in a parallel computing environment and projects a large estimation problem on a problem of the size of about 2 orders of magnitude smaller for computing the regularization parameter. Errors in the GRACE solution time series have certain characteristics that vary depending on the ground track coverage of the solutions. These errors increase with increasing degree and order. In addition, certain resonant and near-resonant harmonic coefficients have higher errors as compared with the other coefficients. Using the knowledge of these characteristics, this study designs a regularization matrix that provides a constraint on the geopotential coefficients as a function of its degree and order. This regularization matrix is then used to compute the appropriate regularization parameter for each monthly solution. A 7-year time-series of the candidate regularized solutions (Mar 2003-Feb 2010) show markedly reduced error stripes compared with the unconstrained GRACE release 4
Global gravity field models and their use for geophysical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pail, R.
2015-12-01
During the last decade, the successful operation of the dedicated satellite missions GOCE and GRACE have revolutionized our picture of the Earth's gravity field. They delivered static global gravity field maps with high and homogeneous accuracy for spatial length-scales down to 70-80 km. The current satellite-only models of the fifth generation including GOCE data have reached accuracies of about 2 cm in geoid height and less than 0.7 mGal in gravity anomalies at 100 km spatial half-wavelength. However, the spatial resolution of gravity models derived from satellite data is limited. Since precise knowledge of the Earth's gravity field structure with very high resolution is essential in solid Earth applications such as lithospheric modelling, geological interpretation and exploration geophysics, satellite-only models are complemented by combined gravity field models, which contain very high-resolution gravity field information obtained by terrestrial gravity measurements over continents, and satellite altimetry over the oceans. To further increase the spatial resolution beyond 10-20 km, measured terrestrial and satellite data can also be augmented by high-resolution gravity field signals synthesized from topographic models. In this contribution an overview of the construction of satellite-only and combined global gravity field models is given. The specific characteristics of the individual input data and the resulting models will be assessed, and their impact for geophysical modelling will be discussed. On the basis of selected case studies, commission and omission errors and thus the contribution and impact of satellite gravity data on gravity field applications will be quantified, and the benefit of current satellite gravity data shall be investigated and demonstrated. Future gravity field missions beyond GRACE Follow-On will provide global gravity field information with further increased accuracy, spatial and temporal resolution. In an international initiative
Bubble Formation at a Submerged Orifice in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.
1994-01-01
The dynamic regime of gas injection through a circular plate orifice into an ideally wetting liquid is considered, when successively detached bubbles may be regarded as separate identities. In normal gravity and at relatively low gas flow rates, a growing bubble is modeled as a spherical segment touching the orifice perimeter during the whole time of its evolution. If the flow rate exceeds a certain threshold value, another stage of the detachment process takes place in which an almost spherical gas envelope is connected with the orifice by a nearly cylindrical stem that lengthens as the bubble rises above the plate. The bubble shape resembles then that of a mushroom and the upper envelope continues to grow until the gas supply through the stem is completely cut off. Such a stage is always present under conditions of sufficiently low gravity, irrespective of the flow rate. Two major reasons make for bubble detachment: the buoyancy force and the force due to the momentum inflow into the bubble with the injected gas. The former force dominates the process at normal gravity whereas the second one plays a key role under negligible gravity conditions. It is precisely this fundamental factor that conditions the drastic influence on bubble growth and detachment that changes in gravity are able to cause. The frequency of bubble formation is proportional to and the volume of detached bubbles is independent of the gas flow rate in sufficiently low gravity, while at normal and moderately reduced gravity conditions the first variable slightly decreases and the second one almost linearly increases as the flow rate grows. Effects of other parameters, such as the orifice radius, gas and liquid densities, and surface tension are discussed.
Fluid Interfaces of Triangular Containers in Reduced Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guttromson, Jayleen; Manning, Robert; Collicott, Steven H.
2002-01-01
Capillary dominated fluid dynamics will be examined in a reduced-gravity environment onboard the KC-135; in particular, the behavior of the lower portion of the meniscus in triangular tank geometries. Seven clear acrylic tanks were constructed to view seven angles of the four geometries. Silicon oil with two different viscosities, 2cs and 5cs silicon oil, were used on different days of the flight. Six tanks and one control tank are filled with a certain viscosity fluid for each flight day. During each parabola, three tanks are tested at time. The experimental tanks are exchanged between parabola sets on the KC-135. The 60deg -60deg -60deg control tank is viewed throughout the flight. To gather data, two digital video cameras and one digital still camera are placed perpendicular the viewing surface. To provide a greater contrast in the meniscus, an EL backlighting sheet was used to backlight the tanks. These images and video are then digitized, passed through NASA's mini-tracker software, and compared to a theory published my M. M. Weislogel, "Fluid Interface Phenomena in a Low-Gravity Environment: Recent Results from Drop Tower Experimentation." By focusing on a lower portion of the meniscus and using longer periods of reduced gravity, this experiment may confirm that a stationary point exists on the fluid surface. This information will enable better designing of propellant management devices, especially satellite propellant refilling and gas venting. Also, biological and material processing systems in reduced gravity environments will benefit from this data.
Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.
2014-01-01
Reduced gravity offers unique opportunities to study motor behavior. This paper aims at providing a review on current issues of the known tools and techniques used for hypogravity simulation and their effects on human locomotion. Walking and running rely on the limb oscillatory mechanics, and one way to change its dynamic properties is to modify the level of gravity. Gravity has a strong effect on the optimal rate of limb oscillations, optimal walking speed, and muscle activity patterns, and gait transitions occur smoothly and at slower speeds at lower gravity levels. Altered center of mass movements and interplay between stance and swing leg dynamics may challenge new forms of locomotion in a heterogravity environment. Furthermore, observations in the lack of gravity effects help to reveal the intrinsic properties of locomotor pattern generators and make evident facilitation of nonvoluntary limb stepping. In view of that, space neurosciences research has participated in the development of new technologies that can be used as an effective tool for gait rehabilitation. PMID:25247179
Humans Running in Place on Water at Simulated Reduced Gravity
Minetti, Alberto E.; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Cappellini, Germana; Dominici, Nadia; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2012-01-01
Background On Earth only a few legged species, such as water strider insects, some aquatic birds and lizards, can run on water. For most other species, including humans, this is precluded by body size and proportions, lack of appropriate appendages, and limited muscle power. However, if gravity is reduced to less than Earth’s gravity, running on water should require less muscle power. Here we use a hydrodynamic model to predict the gravity levels at which humans should be able to run on water. We test these predictions in the laboratory using a reduced gravity simulator. Methodology/Principal Findings We adapted a model equation, previously used by Glasheen and McMahon to explain the dynamics of Basilisk lizard, to predict the body mass, stride frequency and gravity necessary for a person to run on water. Progressive body-weight unloading of a person running in place on a wading pool confirmed the theoretical predictions that a person could run on water, at lunar (or lower) gravity levels using relatively small rigid fins. Three-dimensional motion capture of reflective markers on major joint centers showed that humans, similarly to the Basilisk Lizard and to the Western Grebe, keep the head-trunk segment at a nearly constant height, despite the high stride frequency and the intensive locomotor effort. Trunk stabilization at a nearly constant height differentiates running on water from other, more usual human gaits. Conclusions/Significance The results showed that a hydrodynamic model of lizards running on water can also be applied to humans, despite the enormous difference in body size and morphology. PMID:22815681
The Influence of Reduced Gravity on the Crystal Growth of Electronic Materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, Ching-Hua; Gillies, D. C.; Szofran, F. R.; Watring, D. A.; Lehoczky, S. L.
1996-01-01
The imperfections in the grown crystals of electronic materials, such as compositional nonuniformity, dopant segregation and crystalline structural defects, are detrimental to the performance of the opto-electronic devices. Some of these imperfections can be attributed to effects caused by Earth gravity during crystal growth process and four areas have been identified as the uniqueness of material processing in reduced gravity environment. The significant results of early flight experiments, i.e. prior to space shuttle era, are briefly reviewed followed by an elaborated review on the recent flight experiments conducted on shuttle missions. The results are presented for two major growth methods of electronic materials: melt and vapor growth. The use of an applied magnetic field in the melt growth of electrically conductive melts on Earth to simulate the conditions of reduced gravity has been investigated and it is believed that the superimposed effect of moderate magnetic fields and the reduced gravity environment of space can result in reduction of convective intensities to the extent unreachable by the exclusive use of magnet on Earth or space processing. In the Discussions section each of the significant results of the flight experiments is attributed to one of the four effects of reduced gravity and the unresolved problems on the measured mass fluxes in some of the vapor transport flight experiments are discussed.
Altimeter measurements for the determination of the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.
1986-01-01
Progress in the following areas is described: refining altimeter and altimeter crossover measurement models for precise orbit determination and for the solution of the earth's gravity field; performing experiments using altimeter data for the improvement of precise satellite ephemerides; and analyzing an optimal relative data weighting algorithm to combine various data types in the solution of the gravity field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan; Cai, Hua; Liu, Xianglin
2011-05-01
The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) monthly gravity models have been independently produced and published by several research institutions, such as Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS). According to their processing standards, above institutions use the traditional variational approach except that the DEOS exploits the acceleration approach. The background force models employed are rather similar. The produced gravity field models generally agree with one another in the spatial pattern. However, there are some discrepancies in the gravity signal amplitude between solutions produced by different institutions. In particular, 10%-30% signal amplitude differences in some river basins can be observed. In this paper, we implemented a variant of the traditional variational approach and computed two sets of monthly gravity field solutions using the data from January 2005 to December 2006. The input data are K-band range-rates (KBRR) and kinematic orbits of GRACE satellites. The main difference in the production of our two types of models is how to deal with nuisance parameters. This type of parameters is necessary to absorb low-frequency errors in the data, which are mainly the aliasing and instrument errors. One way is to remove the nuisance parameters before estimating the geopotential coefficients, called NPARB approach in the paper. The other way is to estimate the nuisance parameters and geopotential coefficients simultaneously, called NPESS approach. These two types of solutions mainly differ in geopotential coefficients from degree 2 to 5. This can be explained by the fact that the nuisance parameters and the gravity field coefficients are highly correlated, particularly at low degrees. We compare these solutions with the official and published ones by means of spectral analysis. It is
On a spectral method for forward gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Root, B. C.; Novák, P.; Dirkx, D.; Kaban, M.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.
2016-07-01
This article reviews a spectral forward gravity field modelling method that was initially designed for topographic/isostatic mass reduction of gravity data. The method transforms 3D spherical density models into gravitational potential fields using a spherical harmonic representation. The binomial series approximation in the approach, which is crucial for its computational efficiency, is examined and an error analysis is performed. It is shown that, this method cannot be used for density layers in crustal and upper mantle regions, because it results in large errors in the modelled potential field. Here, a correction is proposed to mitigate this erroneous behaviour. The improved method is benchmarked with a tesseroid gravity field modelling method and is shown to be accurate within ±4 mGal for a layer representing the Moho density interface, which is below other errors in gravity field studies. After the proposed adjustment the method can be used for the global gravity modelling of the complete Earth's density structure.
Gravity field, geoid and ocean surface by space techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderle, R. J.
1978-01-01
Knowledge of the earth's gravity field continued to increase during the last four years. Altimetry data from the GEOS-3 satellite has provided the geoid over most of the ocean to an accuracy of about one meter. Increasing amounts of laser data has permitted the solution for 566 terms in the gravity field with which orbits of the GEOS-3 satellite have been computed to an accuracy of about one to two meters. The combination of satellite tracking data, altimetry and gravimetry has yielded a solution for 1360 terms in the earth's gravity field. A number of problems remain to be solved to increase the accuracy of the gravity field determination. New satellite systems would provide gravity data in unsurveyed areas and correction for topographic features of the ocean and improved computational procedures together with a more extensive laser network will considerably improve the accuracy of the results.
An improved JPL Mars gravity field and orientation from Mars orbiter and lander tracking data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konopliv, Alex S.; Park, Ryan S.; Folkner, William M.
2016-08-01
The Mars gravity field resolution is mostly determined by the lower altitude Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) tracking data. With nearly four years of additional MRO and Mars Odyssey tracking data since the last JPL released gravity field MRO110C and lander tracking from the MER Opportunity Rover, the gravity field and orientation of Mars have been improved. The new field, MRO120D, extends the maximum spherical harmonic degree slightly to 120, improves the determination of the higher degree coefficients as demonstrated by improved correlation with topography and reduces the uncertainty in the corresponding Mars orientation parameters by up to a factor of two versus previously combined gravity and orientation solutions. The new precession solution is ψ˙ = - 7608.3 ± 2.1 mas / yr and is consistent with previous results but with a reduced uncertainty by 40%. The Love number solution, k2 = 0.169 ± 0.006, also shows a similar result to previous studies.
Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchetta, J. G.; Hochstein, J. I.
2002-01-01
Numerical Prediction of Magnetic Cryogenic Propellant Storage in Reduced strong evidence that a magnetic positioning system may be a feasible alternative technology for use in the management of cryogenic propellants onboard spacecraft. The results of these preliminary studies have indicated that further investigation of the physical processes and potential reliability of such a system is required. The utility of magnetic fields as an alternative method in cryogenic propellant management is dependent on its reliability and flexibility. Simulations and experiments have previously yielded evidence in support of the magnetic positive positioning (MPP) process to predictably reorient LOX for a variety of initial conditions. Presently, though, insufficient evidence has been established to support the use of magnetic fields with respect to the long-term storage of cryogenic propellants. Current modes of propellant storage have met with a moderate level of success and are well suited for short duration missions using monopropellants. However, the storage of cryogenic propellants warrants additional consideration for long-term missions. For example, propellant loss during storage is due to vaporization by incident solar radiation and the vaporized ullage must be vented to prevent excessive pressurization of the tank. Ideally, positioning the fluid in the center of the tank away from the tank wall will reduce vaporization by minimizing heat transfer through the tank wall to the liquid. A second issue involves the capability of sustaining a stable fluid configuration at tank center under varying g-levels or perturbations propellant storage. Results presented herein include comparisons illustrating the influence of gravity, fluid volume, and the magnetic field on a paramagnetic fluid, LOX. The magnetic Bond number is utilized as predictive correlating parameter for investigating these processes. A dimensionless relationship between the Bom and Bo was sought with the goal of
Bubble Detachment in Variable Gravity Under the Influence of Electric Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herman, Cila; Chang, Shinan; Iacona, Estelle
2002-01-01
The objective of the research is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static electric field. Situations were considered with both uniform and nonuniform electric fields. Bubble formation and detachment were visualized in terrestrial gravity as well as for several levels of reduced gravity (lunar, martian and microgravity) using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angles at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment in an initially uniform electric field was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. The results of the study indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble behavior as well as shape, volume and dimensions.
Time variable Earth's gravity field from SLR satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sośnica, Krzysztof; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Thaller, Daniela; Beutler, Gerhard; Arnold, Daniel; Dach, Rolf
2015-10-01
The time variable Earth's gravity field contains information about the mass transport within the system Earth, i.e., the relationship between mass variations in the atmosphere, oceans, land hydrology, and ice sheets. For many years, satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations to geodetic satellites have provided valuable information of the low-degree coefficients of the Earth's gravity field. Today, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission is the major source of information for the time variable field of a high spatial resolution. We recover the low-degree coefficients of the time variable Earth's gravity field using SLR observations up to nine geodetic satellites: LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, Starlette, Stella, AJISAI, LARES, Larets, BLITS, and Beacon-C. We estimate monthly gravity field coefficients up to degree and order 10/10 for the time span 2003-2013 and we compare the results with the GRACE-derived gravity field coefficients. We show that not only degree-2 gravity field coefficients can be well determined from SLR, but also other coefficients up to degree 10 using the combination of short 1-day arcs for low orbiting satellites and 10-day arcs for LAGEOS-1/2. In this way, LAGEOS-1/2 allow recovering zonal terms, which are associated with long-term satellite orbit perturbations, whereas the tesseral and sectorial terms benefit most from low orbiting satellites, whose orbit modeling deficiencies are minimized due to short 1-day arcs. The amplitudes of the annual signal in the low-degree gravity field coefficients derived from SLR agree with GRACE K-band results at a level of 77 %. This implies that SLR has a great potential to fill the gap between the current GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission for recovering of the seasonal variations and secular trends of the longest wavelengths in gravity field, which are associated with the large-scale mass transport in the system Earth.
Gravity Fields and Interiors of the Saturnian Satellites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rappaport, N. J.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, Sami W.; Iess, L.; Tortora, P.; Somenzi, L.; Zingoni, F.
2006-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the Gravity Science Objectives and accomplishments of the Cassini Radio Science Team: (1) Mass and density of icy satellites (2) Quadrupole field of Titan and Rhea (3) Dynamic Love number of Titan (4) Moment of inertia of Titan (in collaboration with the Radar Team) (5) Gravity field of Saturn. The proposed measurements for the extended tour are: (1) Quadrupole field of Enceladus (2) More accurate measurement of Titan k2 (3) Local gravity/topography correlations for Iapetus (4) Verification/disproof of "Pioneer anomaly".
Simulated Multiple Formation Flights for Future Gravity Field Recovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsaka, B.; Ilk, K. H.
2009-04-01
A study of the Earth's gravity field recovery from Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) data of simulated formation flight missions is presented. New scenarios of multiple formation flights with near-polar and near-circular satellites' orbits will be examined. This is done by the combination of various satellite configurations such as GRACE-type scenarios with Cartwheel-type and Pendulum-type missions (e.g. satellite A and B of Swarm mission). The main focus of this study is based upon the use of short arcs of the dedicated formation flights, tailored especially to the recovery of Earth's gravity field solutions. The observation equations are set up for each short arc as applied in the calculation of ITG-GRACE03s gravity field model. The numerical simulations are performed with the Gravity Recovery Object Oriented Programming System (GROOPS) software package, which has been developed at the Department of Astronomical, Physical and Mathematical Geodesy, University of Bonn. The results are analyzed in the spatial wavelength spectrum of the static gravity field. Aliasing effects and ocean tidal models are considered in this study as time-variants gravity field. Keywords Multiple Formation Flights, GRACE. Cartwheel. Swarm. SST. LOS. Gravity field recovery
GRACE Gravity Field Product Description and Mission Profile
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettadpur, S.; Flechtner, F.; Watkins, M. M.
2003-12-01
A time sequence of approximately monthly estimates of the Earth's gravity field, derived from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Mission (GRACE) science data, have been recently made available to the user community. In addition to these monthly estimates, a long-term mean gravity field has also been made available. These gravity field products are generated by the GRACE Science Data System team elements at the UT-CSR, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and at GFZ-Potsdam. In this presentation, we briefly describe the gravity field processing standards and methodology in use at UT-CSR. The traditional linearized least-squares implementation of gravity field determination from GRACE tracking data is reviewed with particular attention the to a-priori gravitational force models in use. The evolution of GRACE mission since its launch in March 2002 is then discussed. The main mission events, and the flight dynamic profile (pointing, inter-satellite separation, ground-track evolution, etc) are presented - with the purpose of aiding the interpretation and assessment of the gravity field product quality. The presentation closes with the description of the likely future evolution of the flight profile.
Nucleate pool boiling: High gravity to reduced gravity; liquid metals to cryogens
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merte, Herman, Jr.
1988-01-01
Requirements for the proper functioning of equipment and personnel in reduced gravity associated with space platforms and future space station modules introduce unique problems in temperature control; power generation; energy dissipation; the storage, transfer, control and conditioning of fluids; and liquid-vapor separation. The phase change of boiling is significant in all of these. Although both pool and flow boiling would be involved, research results to date include only pool boiling because buoyancy effects are maximized for this case. The effective application of forced convection boiling heat transfer in the microgravity of space will require a well grounded and cogent understanding of the mechanisms involved. Experimental results are presented for pool boiling from a single geometrical configuration, a flat surface, covering a wide range of body forces from a/g = 20 to 1 to a/g = 0 to -1 for a cryogenic liquid, and from a/g = 20 to 1 for water and a liquid metal. Similarities in behavior are noted for these three fluids at the higher gravity levels, and may reasonably be expected to continue at reduced gravity levels.
Gravity field models derived from Swarm GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Arnold, Daniel; Bezděk, Aleš; Dahle, Christoph; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Jäggi, Adrian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Sebera, Josef; Visser, Pieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2016-07-01
It is of great interest to numerous geophysical studies that the time series of global gravity field models derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data remains uninterrupted after the end of this mission. With this in mind, some institutes have been spending efforts to estimate gravity field models from alternative sources of gravimetric data. This study focuses on the gravity field solutions estimated from Swarm global positioning system (GPS) data, produced by the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern, the Astronomical Institute (ASU, Czech Academy of Sciences) and Institute of Geodesy (IfG, Graz University of Technology). The three sets of solutions are based on different approaches, namely the celestial mechanics approach, the acceleration approach and the short-arc approach, respectively. We derive the maximum spatial resolution of the time-varying gravity signal in the Swarm gravity field models to be degree 12, in comparison with the more accurate models obtained from K-band ranging data of GRACE. We demonstrate that the combination of the GPS-driven models produced with the three different approaches improves the accuracy in all analysed monthly solutions, with respect to any of them. In other words, the combined gravity field model consistently benefits from the individual strengths of each separate solution. The improved accuracy of the combined model is expected to bring benefits to the geophysical studies during the period when no dedicated gravimetric mission is operational.
Developments in Lunar Gravity Field Recovery Within the Project GRAZIL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirnsberger, Harald; Klinger, Beate; Krauss, Sandro; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten
2016-10-01
The project GRAZIL addresses the highly accurate recovery of the lunar gravity field using intersatellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) measurements collected by the Lunar Gravity Ranging System (LGRS) of the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Dynamic precise orbit determination is an indispensable task in order to recover the lunar gravity field based on LGRS measurements. The concept of variational equations is adopted to determine the orbit of the two GRAIL satellites based on radio science data. In this contribution we focus on the S-band two-way Doppler data collected by the Deep Space Network.As far as lunar gravity field recovery is concerned, we apply an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs. In this contribution we demonstrate the progress of Graz lunar gravity field models (GrazLGM) from the beginning, till the end of the projet GRAZIL. For the latest GrazLGM version special attention is given to the refinement of our processing strategy in conjunction with an increase of the spectral resolution. Furthermore, we present the first GrazLGM based on KBR observations during the primary and the extended mission phase. Our results are validated against state of the art lunar gravity field models computed at NASA-GSFC and NASA-JPL.
The combined gravity field model GOCO05c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas; GOCO Project Team
2016-04-01
Knowledge of the static gravity field is of importance for various scientific disciplines, such as geodesy, geophysics and oceanography. While for geophysics the gravity field provides insight into the Earth's interior, the geoid serves as an important reference surface for oceanographic applications. Moreover this reference surface is a key parameter on the way to a globally unified height system. In order to exploit the full potential of gravity measurements and to achieve the best gravity field solution, all kinds of complementary gravity field information have to be combined. By combining GRACE and GOCE information, a state of the art satellite-only gravity field is available, which is highly accurate at the very long to medium wavelengths (80-100 km). By adding information from terrestrial/airborne gravimetry and satellite altimetry, which both are measurement techniques providing short wavelength gravity information beyond the resolution of GOCE, the full gravity field spectrum can be obtained. This paper focuses on the presentation of the combined gravity field model GOCO05c, a global gravity field model up to degree and order 720 based on full normal equation systems (more than 500,000 parameters). During the calculation of GOCO05c we put emphasis on the question how the complementary data types can be combined in a global gravity field model in the way that all data types keep their specific strengths and are not degraded by the combination with other information in certain wavelengths. Realistic stochastic modelling and a tailored weighting scheme among all available data results in different regional relative weighting of satellite and terrestrial data in the combined solution, mainly depending on the quality of the available terrestrial gravity information. From this procedure, as complementary product realistic error estimates are available in terms of a full-covariance matrix, which can be mapped in a spatial error grid reflecting regionally specific
Multi-scale gravity field modeling in space and time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuo; Panet, Isabelle; Ramillien, Guillaume; Guilloux, Frédéric
2016-04-01
The Earth constantly deforms as it undergoes dynamic phenomena, such as earthquakes, post-glacial rebound and water displacement in its fluid envelopes. These processes have different spatial and temporal scales and are accompanied by mass displacements, which create temporal variations of the gravity field. Since 2002, the GRACE satellite missions provide an unprecedented view of the gravity field spatial and temporal variations. Gravity models built from these satellite data are essential to study the Earth's dynamic processes (Tapley et al., 2004). Up to present, time variations of the gravity field are often modelled using spatial spherical harmonics functions averaged over a fixed period, as 10 days or 1 month. This approach is well suited for modeling global phenomena. To better estimate gravity related to local and/or transient processes, such as earthquakes or floods, and adapt the temporal resolution of the model to its spatial resolution, we propose to model the gravity field using localized functions in space and time. For that, we build a model of the gravity field in space and time with a four-dimensional wavelet basis, well localized in space and time. First we design the 4D basis, then, we study the inverse problem to model the gravity field from the potential differences between the twin GRACE satellites, and its regularization using prior knowledge on the water cycle. Our demonstration of surface water mass signals decomposition in time and space is based on the use of synthetic along-track gravitational potential data. We test the developed approach on one year of 4D gravity modeling and compare the reconstructed water heights to those of the input hydrological model. Perspectives of this work is to apply the approach on real GRACE data, addressing the challenge of a realistic noise, to better describe and understand physical processus with high temporal resolution/low spatial resolution or the contrary.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, R. J.
1986-01-01
The Space Shuttle and the planned Space Station will permit experimentation under conditions of reduced gravitational acceleration offering experimental petrologists the opportunity to study crystal growth, element distribution, and phase chemistry. In particular the confounding effects of macro and micro scale buoyancy-induced convection and crystal settling or floatation can be greatly reduced over those observed in experiments in the terrestrial laboratory. Also, for experiments in which detailed replication of the environment is important, the access to reduced gravity will permit a more complete simulation of processes that may have occurred on asteroids or in free space. A technique that was developed to control, measure, and manipulate oxygen fugacites with small quantities of gas which are recirculated over the sample is described. This system should be adaptable to reduced gravity space experiments requiring redox control. Experiments done conventionally and those done using this technique yield identical results done in a 1-g field.
Quantum reduced loop gravity: Universe on a lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco
2015-10-01
We describe the quantum flat universe in Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity in terms of states based on cuboidal graphs with six-valent nodes. We investigate the action of the scalar constraint operator at each node, and we construct proper semiclassical states. This allows us to discuss the semiclassical effective dynamics of the quantum universe, which resembles that of Loop Quantum Cosmology. In particular, the regulator is identified with the third root of the inverse number of nodes within each homogeneous patch, while inverse-volume corrections are enhanced.
Simulation of underground gravity gradients from stochastic seismic fields
Harms, Jan; Dorsher, Steven; Mandic, Vuk; DeSalvo, Riccardo
2009-12-15
We present results obtained from a finite-element simulation of seismic displacement fields and of gravity gradients generated by those fields. The displacement field is constructed by a plane-wave model with a 3D isotropic stochastic field and a 2D fundamental Rayleigh field. The plane-wave model provides an accurate representation of stationary fields from distant sources. Underground gravity gradients are calculated as the acceleration of a free test mass inside a cavity. The results are discussed in the context of gravity-gradient noise subtraction in third generation gravitational-wave detectors. Error analysis with respect to the density of the simulated grid leads to a derivation of an improved seismometer placement inside a 3D array which would be used in practice to monitor the seismic field.
Evaluation of recent Earth's global gravity field models with terrestrial gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpik, Alexander P.; Kanushin, Vadim F.; Ganagina, Irina G.; Goldobin, Denis N.; Kosarev, Nikolay S.; Kosareva, Alexandra M.
2016-03-01
In the context of the rapid development of environmental research technologies and techniques to solve scientific and practical problems in different fields of knowledge including geosciences, the study of Earth's gravity field models is still important today. The results of gravity anomaly modelling calculated by the current geopotential models data were compared with the independent terrestrial gravity data for the two territories located in West Siberia and Kazakhstan. Statistical characteristics of comparison results for the models under study were obtained. The results of investigations show that about 70% of the differences between the gravity anomaly values calculated by recent global geopotential models and those observed at the points in flat areas are within ±10 mGal, in mountainous areas are within ±20 mGal.
High pressure droplet burning experiments in reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chauveau, Christian; Goekalp, Iskender
1995-01-01
A parametric investigation of single droplet gasification regimes is helpful in providing the necessary physical ideas for sub-grid models used in spray combustion numerical prediction codes. A research program has been initiated at the LCSR to explore the vaporization regimes of single and interacting hydrocarbon and liquid oxygen droplets under high pressure conditions. This paper summarizes the status of the LCSR program on the high pressure burning of single fuel droplets; recent results obtained under normal and reduced gravity conditions with suspended droplets are presented. In the work described here, parabolic flights of the CNES Caravelle is used to create a reduced gravity environment of the order of 10(exp -2) g(sub O). For all the droplet burning experiments reported here, the suspended droplet initial diameters are scattered around 1.5 mm; and the ambient air temperature is 300 K. The ambient pressure is varied between 0.1 MPa and 12 MPa. Four fuels are investigated: methanol (Pc = 7.9 MPa), n-heptane (Pc = 2.74 MPa), n-hexane (Pc = 3.01 MPa) and n-octane (Pc = 2.48 MPa).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoulis, D.
2013-03-01
The release of global digital databases for the description of the Earth's topography and the shape of the Earth's crust in terms of consistency and geometry initiates a new era in the interpretation and analysis of the observed gravity field of our planet. The permanent increase in resolution of these databases permits furthermore the identification of high frequency gravity field components, a feature that is of special interest in applications of local or regional scales. The derivation of topographic/isostatic gravity models is the tool which reveals the gravity content of terrain and crustal databases in the spectral domain. We review the significance of some current global digital models in the frame of this analysis by computing distinct spectral gravity quantities and compare them against the Kaula rule of the gravity signal decay and the recently released reference gravity model EGM2008. The different isostatic hypothesis that can be applied in the derivation of a topographic/isostatic model as well its dependency with the increasing harmonic degree is demonstrated and quantified in terms of geoid heights and gravity anomalies. It is shown that the two fundamental compensation mechanisms, namely Airy and Pratt, act complementary in terms of their compensation effect to the uncompensated topography spectrum. The Airy mechanism reduces the uncompensated topography in the longer and medium wavelength part of the spectrum (up to degree 400), while Pratt acts in a compensating manner only for the high to very high frequencies, from degree 100 and onwards.
Particlelike distributions of the Higgs field nonminimally coupled to gravity.
Füzfa, André; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Schlögel, Sandrine
2013-09-20
When the Higgs field is nonminimally coupled to gravity, there exists a family of spherically symmetric particlelike solutions to the field equations. These monopoles are the only globally regular and asymptotically flat distributions with finite energy of the Higgs field around compact objects. Moreover, spontaneous scalarization is strongly amplified for specific values of their mass and compactness.
Combustion of Metals in Reduced-Gravity and Extraterrestrial Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbud-Madrid, A.; Omaly, P.; Branch, M. C.; Daily, J. W.
1999-01-01
As a result of the ongoing exploration of Mars and the several unmanned and manned missions planned for the future, increased attention has been given to the use of the natural resources of the planet for rocket propellant production and energy generation. Since the atmosphere of Mars consists of approximately 95% carbon dioxide (CO2), this gas is the resource of choice to be employed for these purposes. Unfortunately, CO2 is also a final product in most combustion reactions, requiring further processing to extract useful reactants such as carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), and hydrocarbons. An exception is the use Of CO2 as an oxidizer reacting directly with metal fuel. Since many metals burn vigorously with CO2, these may be used as an energy source and as propellants for an ascent/descent vehicle in sample-collection missions on Mars. In response to NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise to search for appropriate in-situ resource utilization techniques, this investigation will study the burning characteristics of promising metal/CO2 combinations. The use of reduced gravity is essential to eliminate the intrusive buoyant flows that plague the high-temperature metal reactions, to remove the destructive effect of gravity on the shape of molten metal samples, and to study the influence of radiative heat transfer from solid oxides undisturbed by natural convection. In studies with large metal specimens, the burning process is invariably influenced by strong convective currents that accelerate the reaction and shorten the burning times. Although these currents are nearly absent from small burning particles, the high emissivity of the flames, rapid reaction, small length scales, and intermittent explosions make the gathering of any useful information on burning rates and flame structure very difficult. This investigation has the ultimate goal of providing a careful probing of flame structure and dynamics by taking advantage of large, free
Bubble Detachment in Variable Gravity Under the Influence of a Non-Uniform Electric Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Shinan; Herman, Cila; Iacona, Estelle
2002-01-01
The objective of the study reported in this paper is to investigate the effects of variable, reduced gravity on the formation and detachment behavior of individual air bubbles under the influence of a non-uniform electric field. For this purpose, variable gravity experiments were carried out in parabolic nights. The non-uniform electric field was generated by a spherical electrode and a plate electrode. The effect of the magnitude of the non-uniform electric field and gravity level on bubble formation, development and detachment at an orifice was investigated. An image processing code was developed that allows the measurement of bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment. The results of this research can be used to explore the possibility of enhancing boiling heat transfer in the variable and low gravity environments by substituting the buoyancy force with a force induced by the electric field. The results of experiments and measurements indicate that the level of gravity significantly affects bubble shape, size and frequency. The electric field magnitude also influences bubble detachment, however, its impact is not as profound as that of variable gravity for the range of electric field magnitudes investigated in the present study.
Gauss-Bonnet Brane World Gravity with a Scalar Field
Davis, Stephen C.
2004-11-17
The effective four-dimensional, linearised gravity of a brane world model with one extra dimension and a single brane is analysed. The model includes higher order curvature terms (such as the Gauss-Bonnet term) and a conformally coupled scalar field. Large and small distance gravitational laws are derived. In contrast to the corresponding Einstein gravity models, it is possible to obtain solutions with localised gravity which are compatible with observations. Solutions with non-standard large distance Newtonian potentials are also described.
Gravity field covariance analysis for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosborough, G. W.; Bertiger, W. I.; Wu, J. T.; Wu, S. C.
1992-01-01
The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite oceanography mission will require very accurate orbit determination in order to fulfill its mission requirements of altimetrically mapping the ocean surface with approximately 10 centimeter accuracy. To meet such stringent orbit determination specifications will require very accurate tracking data and very accurate dynamical models of the satellite motion. The accuracy of the TOPEX/Poseidon orbit is expected to be driven by the accuracy of the earth's gravity field model. Expected orbit accuracy for several recent gravity models is presented. Both the capability of the models for modeling the motion of TOPEX/Poseidon and their global modeling characteristics are discussed. In addition, the gravity model improvement that can be expected by utilizing GPS tracking of TOPEX/Poseidon is evaluated. This evalution is based on a recent simulation of a gravity field recovery using 10 days of TOPEX/Poseidon GPS tracking.
Performance and limits of current satellite-only and combined gravity field models (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pail, R.
2013-12-01
geoscientific disciplines, we investigate commission and omission errors and thus the contribution and impact of satellite gravity data on gravity field applications. In solid Earth geophysics, based on a case study in the active continental margin of the Andes region it will be demonstrated that the new information derived from satellite gravity data makes a significant impact on the modelling of lithospheric structures, especially in those regions where the terrestrial data basis is poor or unreliable. We will also explore the impact of globally homogeneous satellite gravity information on the estimation of the geodetic mean dynamic topography (MDT), with special emphasis on a correct stochastic modelling and the estimation of its errors. A comparison with drifter data shall demonstrate the increasing performance of global gravity field data, but also their limits concerning very high-frequency structures. Finally, we will also investigate the impact of satellite gravity data on the global unification of height systems, i.e. the estimation of height offsets among different countries of the world. Especially here, the limits of satellite-only models and the enrichment with terrestrial gravity to reduce the omission error and thus to improve the height offset estimates will be addressed.
Soldering in a Reduced Gravity Environment (SoRGE)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Easton, John W.; Struk, Peter M.
2012-01-01
Future long-duration human exploration missions will be challenged by constraints on mass and volume allocations available for spare parts. Addressing this challenge will be critical to the success of these missions. As a result, it is necessary to consider new approaches to spacecraft maintenance and repair that reduce the need for large replacement components. Currently, crew members on the International Space Station (ISS) recover from faults by removing and replacing, using backup systems, or living without the function of Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs). These ORUs are returned to a depot where the root cause of the failure is determined and the ORU is repaired. The crew has some limited repair capability with the Modulation/DeModulation (MDM) ORU, where circuit cards are removed and replace in faulty units. The next step to reducing the size of the items being replaced would be to implement component-level repair. This mode of repair has been implemented by the U.S. Navy in an operational environment and is now part of their standard approach for maintenance. It is appropriate to consider whether this approach can be adapted for future spaceflight operations. To this end, the Soldering in a Reduced Gravity Environment (SoRGE) experiment studied the effect of gravity on the formation of solder joints on electronic circuit boards. This document describes the SoRGE experiment, the analysis methods, and results to date. This document will also contain comments from the crew regarding their experience conducting the SoRGE experiment as well as recommendations for future improvements. Finally, this document will discuss the plans for the SoRGE samples which remain on ISS.
The Effect of Gravity Fields on Cellular Gene Expression
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes-Fulford, Millie
1999-01-01
Early theoretical analysis predicted that microgravity effects on the isolated cell would be minuscule at the subcellular level; however, these speculations have not proven true in the real world. Astronauts experience a significant bone and muscle loss in as little as 2 weeks of spaceflight and changes are seen at the cellular level soon after exposure to microgravity. Changes in biological systems may be primarily due to the lack of gravity and the resulting loss of mechanical stress on tissues and cells. Recent ground and flight studies examining the effects of gravity or mechanical stress on cells demonstrate marked changes in gene expression when relatively small changes in mechanical forces or gravity fields were made. Several immediate early genes (IEG) like c-fos and c-myc are induced by mechanical stimulation within minutes. In contrast, several investigators report that the absence of mechanical forces during space flight result in decreased sera response element (SRE) activity and attenuation of expression of IEGs such as c-fos, c-jun and cox-2 mRNAs. Clearly, these early changes in gene expression may have long term consequences on mechanically sensitive cells. In our early studies on STS-56, we reported four major changes in the osteoblast; 1) prostaglandin synthesis in flight, 2) changes in cellular morphology, 3) altered actin cytoskeleton and 4) reduced osteoblast growth after four days exposure to microgravity. Initially, it was believed that changes in fibronectin (FN) RNA, FN protein synthesis or subsequent FN matrix formation might account for the changes in cytoskeleton and/ or reduction of growth. However our recent studies on Biorack (STS-76, STS-81 and STS-84), using ground and in-flight 1-G controls, demonstrated that fibronectin synthesis and matrix formation were normal in microgravity. In addition, in our most recent Biorack paper, our laboratory has documented that relative protein synthesis and mRNA synthesis are not changed after 24
Interior Models and Gravity Field of Jupiter's Moon Amalthea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.
2003-12-01
Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last visit to Jupiters moon Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecrafts successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amaltheas gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements, which are calculated by the scale factors of a three-axial ellipsoid (elliptic coordinates). To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEOs velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. We have derived the harmonic coefficients of Amaltheas gravity field up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Based on these numbers we calculated the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO and compared it to existing Doppler data. Although no two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise, the calculated gravity field models of Amalthea can be a basis for further exploration of the Jupiter system. Furthermore, the model approach can be used for any planetary body.
Gravity field models derived from Swarm GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Arnold, Daniel; Bezděk, Aleš; Dahle, Christoph; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Jäggi, Adrian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Sebera, Josef; Visser, Pieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2016-04-01
The GPS instruments on-board the three Earth's Magnetic Field and Environment Explorer (Swarm) satellites provide the opportunity to measure the gravity field model at basin-wide spatial scales. In spite of being a geo-magnetic satellite mission, Swarm's GPS receiver collects highly accurate hl-SST data (van den IJssel et al., 2015), which has been exploited to produce gravity field models at a number of institutes, namely at the Astronomical Institute (ASU) of the Czech Academy of Sciences (Bezděk et al., 2014), the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Jäggi et al., 2015) and the Institute of Geodesy (IfG) of the Graz University of Technology (Zehentner et al., 2015). With the help of GRACE gravity field models, which are derived from much more accurate ll-SST data, we investigate the best combination strategy for producing a superior model on the basis of the solutions produced by the three institutes, similarly to the approach taken by the European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management project (http://egsiem.eu). We demonstrate that the Swarm-derived gravity field models are able to resolve monthly solutions with 1666km spatial resolutions (roughly up to degree 12). We illustrate how these monthly solutions correlate with GRACE-derived monthly solutions, for the period of 2014 - 2015, as well as indicate which geographical areas are measured more or less accurately.
New ultrahigh-resolution picture of Earth's gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirt, Christian; Claessens, Sten; Fecher, Thomas; Kuhn, Michael; Pail, Roland; Rexer, Moritz
2013-08-01
provide an unprecedented ultrahigh resolution picture of Earth's gravity over all continents and numerous islands within ±60° latitude. This is achieved through augmentation of new satellite and terrestrial gravity with topography data and use of massive parallel computation techniques, delivering local detail at ~200 m spatial resolution. As such, our work is the first-of-its-kind to model gravity at unprecedented fine scales yet with near-global coverage. The new picture of Earth's gravity encompasses a suite of gridded estimates of gravity accelerations, radial and horizontal field components, and quasi-geoid heights at over 3 billion points covering 80% of Earth's land masses. We identify new candidate locations of extreme gravity signals, suggesting that the Committee on Data for Science and Technology standard for peak-to-peak variations in free-fall gravity is too low by about 40%. The new models are beneficial for a wide range of scientific and engineering applications and freely available to the public.
Fluid mechanics of directional solidification at reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. F.
1992-01-01
The primary objective of the proposed research is to provide additional groundbased support for the flight experiment 'Casting and Solidification Technology' (CAST). This experiment is to be performed in the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1) scheduled to be flown on a space shuttle mission scheduled for 1992. In particular, we will provide data on the convective motion and freckle formation during directional solidification of NH4Cl from its aqueous solution at simulated parameter ranges equivalent to reducing the gravity from the sea-level value down to 0.1 g or lower. The secondary objectives of the proposed research are to examine the stability phenomena associated with the onset of freckles and the mechanisms for their subsequent growth and decline (to eventual demise of some) by state-of-the-art imaging techniques and to formulate mathematical models for the prediction of the observed phenomena.
Combustion of Han-Based Monopropellant Droplets in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, B. D.
1999-01-01
The objective of this research is to study combustion of monopropellant droplets and monopropellant droplet components in reduced-gravity environments so that spherical symmetry is strongly promoted. The experiments will use hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN, chemical formula NH3OHNO3) based monopropellants. This class of monopropellant is selected for study because of its current relevance and also because it is relatively benign and safe to work with. The experimental studies will allow for accurate determination of fundamental data on deflagration rates, gas-phase temperature profiles, transient gas-phase flame behaviors, the onset of bubbling in droplets at lower pressures, and the low-pressure deflagration limit. The theoretical studies will provide rational models of deflagration mechanisms of HAN-based liquid propellants. Besides advancing fundamental knowledge, the proposed research should aid in applications (e.g., spacecraft thrusters and liquid propellant guns) of this unique class of monopropellants.
Isothermal gas-liquid flow at reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dukler, A. E.
1990-01-01
Research on adiabatic gas-liquid flows under reduced gravity condition is presented together with experimental data obtained using a NASA-Lewis RC 100-ft drop tower and in a LeRC Learjet. It is found that flow patterns and characteristics remain unchanged after the first 1.5 s into microgravity conditions and that the calculated time for a continuity wave to traverse the test section is less than 1.2 s. It is also found that the dispersed bubbles move at the same velocity as that of the front of the slug and that the transition between bubbly and slug flow is insensitive to diameter. Both the bubbly and the slug flows are suggested to represent a continuum of the same physical process. The characteristics of annular, slug, and bubbly flows are compared.
Near real-time GRACE gravity field solutions for hydrological monitoring applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kvas, Andreas; Gouweleeuw, Ben; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Güntner, Andreas
2016-04-01
Within the EGSIEM (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management) project, a demonstrator for a near real-time (NRT) gravity field service which provides daily GRACE gravity field solutions will be established. Compared to the official GRACE gravity products, these NRT solutions will increase the temporal resolution from one month to one day and reduce the latency from currently two months to five days. This fast availability allows the monitoring of total water storage variations and of hydrological extreme events as they occur, in contrast to a 'confirmation after occurrence' as is the situation today. The service will be jointly run by GFZ (German Research Centre for Geosciences) and Graz University of Technology, with each analysis center providing an independent solution. A Kalman filter framework, in which GRACE data is combined with prior information, serves as basis for the gravity field recovery in order to increase the redundancy of the gravity field estimates. The on-line nature of the NRT service necessitates a tailored smoothing algorithm as opposed to post-processing applications, where forward-backward smoothing can be applied. This contribution gives an overview on the near real-time processing chain and highlights differences between the computed NRT solutions and the standard GRACE products. We discuss the special characteristics of the Kalman filtered gravity field models as well as derived products and give an estimate of the expected error levels. Additionally, we show the added value of the NRT solutions through comparison of the first results of the pre-operational phase with in-situ data and monthly GRACE gravity field models.
Cartan gravity, matter fields, and the gauge principle
Westman, Hans F.; Zlosnik, Tom G.
2013-07-15
Gravity is commonly thought of as one of the four force fields in nature. However, in standard formulations its mathematical structure is rather different from the Yang–Mills fields of particle physics that govern the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. This paper explores this dissonance with particular focus on how gravity couples to matter from the perspective of the Cartan-geometric formulation of gravity. There the gravitational field is represented by a pair of variables: (1) a ‘contact vector’ V{sup A} which is geometrically visualized as the contact point between the spacetime manifold and a model spacetime being ‘rolled’ on top of it, and (2) a gauge connection A{sub μ}{sup AB}, here taken to be valued in the Lie algebra of SO(2,3) or SO(1,4), which mathematically determines how much the model spacetime is rotated when rolled. By insisting on two principles, the gauge principle and polynomial simplicity, we shall show how one can reformulate matter field actions in a way that is harmonious with Cartan’s geometric construction. This yields a formulation of all matter fields in terms of first order partial differential equations. We show in detail how the standard second order formulation can be recovered. In particular, the Hodge dual, which characterizes the structure of bosonic field equations, pops up automatically. Furthermore, the energy–momentum and spin-density three-forms are naturally combined into a single object here denoted the spin-energy–momentum three-form. Finally, we highlight a peculiarity in the mathematical structure of our first-order formulation of Yang–Mills fields. This suggests a way to unify a U(1) gauge field with gravity into a SO(1,5)-valued gauge field using a natural generalization of Cartan geometry in which the larger symmetry group is spontaneously broken down to SO(1,3)×U(1). The coupling of this unified theory to matter fields and possible extensions to non-Abelian gauge fields are left as
Lessons Learned from Performance Testing of Humans in Spacesuits in Simulated Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.
2010-01-01
Introduction: The overarching objective of the Integrated Suit Test (IST) series is to evaluate suited human performance using reduced-gravity analogs and learn what aspects of an EVA suit system affect human performance. For this objective to be successfully achieved, the testing methodology should be valid and reproducible, and the partial-gravity simulations must be as accurate and realistic as possible. Objectives: To highlight some of the key lessons learned about partial-gravity analogs and testing methodology, and to suggest considerations for optimizing the effectiveness and quality of results of future tests. Methods: Performance testing of suited and unsuited subjects was undertaken in different reduced-gravity analogs including the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility s Partial Gravity Simulator (POGO), parabolic flight on the C-9 aircraft, underwater environments including NASA s Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) and the Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL), and in field analogs including Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS), the Haughton Mars Project (HMP), and the JSC Rock Pile. Subjects performed level walking, incline/decline walking, running, shoveling, picking up and transferring rocks, kneeling/standing, and task boards. Lessons Learned Analogs: No single analog will properly simulate all aspects of the true partial-gravity environment. The POGO is an ideal environment from the standpoint that there are no time limits or significant volumetric constraints, but it does have several limitations. It allows only 2 translational degrees of freedom (DOF) and applies true partial-gravity offload only through the subject s center of gravity (CG). Also, when a subject is doing non-stationary tasks, significant overhead inertia from the lift column seems to have a negative impact on performance. Parabolic flight allows full translational and rotational DOF and applies offload to all parts of the body, but the simulation lasts less than 30 seconds
Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haire, Timothy C.
2010-01-01
Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE) is a ground research study to determine the feasibility of assessing fungi-plant (Piriformospora indica-Arabidopsis thaliana) interactions in microgravity. Seeds from the plant Arabiddospsis thaliana (At) will be grown in the presence of Piriformospora indica (Pi) an endophytic Sebacinacae family fungus. Pi is capable of colonizing the roots of a wide variety of plant species, including non-mycorrhizal hosts like At, and promoting plant growth similarly to AMF (arbusuclar mychorrizal fungi) unlike most AMF, Pi is not an obligate plant symbiont and can be grown in the absence of a host. In the presence of a suitable plant host, Pi can attach to and colonize root tips. Interaction visualization is accomplished with strong autofluorescence in the roots, followed by root colonization via fungal hyphae, and chlamydospore production. Increased root growth can be observed even before root colonization is detectable. In addition, Pi chlamydospores generated from axenic culture in microgravity will be used to inoculate roots of At grown in 1g to determine the effect of microgravity upon the inherent virulence or beneficial effects. Based on recent reports of increased virulence of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and S. Pneumoniae in reduced gravity, differences in microbial pathogenic responses and host plant systemic acquired resistance are expected. The focus of this project within MuRGE involved the development P. indica culture media evaluation and microscopy protocol development. High, clean spore harvest yields for the detection of fungi-plant interactions microscopically was the immediate goal of this experiment.
Bi-Component Droplet Combustion in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, Benjamin D.
2004-01-01
This research deals with reduced-gravity combustion of bi-component droplets initially in the mm size range or larger. The primary objectives of the research are to study the effects of droplet internal flows, thermal and solutal Marangoni stresses, and species volatility differences on liquid species transport and overall combustion phenomena (e.g., gas-phase unsteadiness, burning rates, sooting, radiation, and extinction). The research program utilizes a reduced gravity environment so that buoyancy effects are rendered negligible. Use of large droplets also facilitates visualization of droplet internal flows, which is important for this research. In the experiments, droplets composed of low- and high-volatility species are burned. The low-volatility components are initially present in small amounts. As combustion of a droplet proceeds, the liquid surface mass fraction of the low-volatility component will increase with time, resulting in a sudden and temporary decrease in droplet burning rates as the droplet rapidly heats to temperatures close to the boiling point of the low-volatility component. This decrease in burning rates causes a sudden and temporary contraction of the flame. The decrease in burning rates and the flame contraction can be observed experimentally. Measurements of burning rates as well as the onset time for flame contraction allow effective liquid-phase species diffusivities to be calculated, e.g., using asymptotic theory. It is planned that droplet internal flows will be visualized in flight and ground-based experiments. In this way, effective liquid species diffusivities can be related to droplet internal flow characteristics. This program is a continuation of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research on bi-component droplet combustion that has been ongoing for several years. The focal point of this program is a flight experiment (Bi-Component Droplet Combustion Experiment, BCDCE). This flight experiment is under
3D quantum gravity and effective noncommutative quantum field theory.
Freidel, Laurent; Livine, Etera R
2006-06-01
We show that the effective dynamics of matter fields coupled to 3D quantum gravity is described after integration over the gravitational degrees of freedom by a braided noncommutative quantum field theory symmetric under a kappa deformation of the Poincaré group.
Temporal gravity field modeling based on least square collocation with short-arc approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ran, jiangjun; Zhong, Min; Xu, Houze; Liu, Chengshu; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet
2014-05-01
After the launch of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) in 2002, several research centers have attempted to produce the finest gravity model based on different approaches. In this study, we present an alternative approach to derive the Earth's gravity field, and two main objectives are discussed. Firstly, we seek the optimal method to estimate the accelerometer parameters, and secondly, we intend to recover the monthly gravity model based on least square collocation method. The method has been paid less attention compared to the least square adjustment method because of the massive computational resource's requirement. The positions of twin satellites are treated as pseudo-observations and unknown parameters at the same time. The variance covariance matrices of the pseudo-observations and the unknown parameters are valuable information to improve the accuracy of the estimated gravity solutions. Our analyses showed that introducing a drift parameter as an additional accelerometer parameter, compared to using only a bias parameter, leads to a significant improvement of our estimated monthly gravity field. The gravity errors outside the continents are significantly reduced based on the selected set of the accelerometer parameters. We introduced the improved gravity model namely the second version of Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGG-CAS 02). The accuracy of IGG-CAS 02 model is comparable to the gravity solutions computed from the Geoforschungszentrum (GFZ), the Center for Space Research (CSR) and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In term of the equivalent water height, the correlation coefficients over the study regions (the Yangtze River valley, the Sahara desert, and the Amazon) among four gravity models are greater than 0.80.
Finite field-dependent symmetries in perturbative quantum gravity
Upadhyay, Sudhaker
2014-01-15
In this paper we discuss the absolutely anticommuting nilpotent symmetries for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime in linear and non-linear gauges. Further, we analyze the finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation for perturbative quantum gravity in general curved spacetime. The FFBRST transformation changes the gauge-fixing and ghost parts of the perturbative quantum gravity within functional integration. However, the operation of such symmetry transformation on the generating functional of perturbative quantum gravity does not affect the theory on physical ground. The FFBRST transformation with appropriate choices of finite BRST parameter connects non-linear Curci–Ferrari and Landau gauges of perturbative quantum gravity. The validity of the results is also established at quantum level using Batalin–Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. -- Highlights: •The perturbative quantum gravity is treated as gauge theory. •BRST and anti-BRST transformations are developed in linear and non-linear gauges. •BRST transformation is generalized by making it finite and field dependent. •Connection between linear and non-linear gauges is established. •Using BV formulation the results are established at quantum level also.
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere. PMID:24606251
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.
1989-01-01
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field, TEG-1, was determined using data sets from fourteen satellites, spanning the inclination ranges from 15 to 115 deg, and global surface gravity anomaly data. The satellite measurements include laser ranging data, Doppler range-rate data, and satellite-to-ocean radar altimeter data measurements, which include the direct height measurement and the differenced measurements at ground track crossings (crossover measurements). Also determined was another gravity field model, TEG-1S, which included all the data sets in TEG-1 with the exception of direct altimeter data. The effort has included an intense scrutiny of the gravity field solution methodology. The estimated parameters included geopotential coefficients complete to degree and order 50 with selected higher order coefficients, ocean and solid Earth tide parameters, Doppler tracking station coordinates and the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Extensive error analysis and calibration of the formal covariance matrix indicate that the gravity field model is a significant improvement over previous models and can be used for general applications in geodesy.
GRACE Orbit Deterimation for Gravity Field Recovery at CSR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagel, P. B.; Kang, Z.; Cheng, M.; Pastor, R.
2002-12-01
Determining the orbits of the GRACE satellites is an important aspect of the operational data processing for gravity field recovery. Precise orbits are required for data quality assessment and verification and finally as reference for the gravity field estimation step. Several stages are needed as part of the preparation for the gravity field solution. Using GPS tracking data, initial orbits are computed to produce model accelerometer and attitude data, edited tracking data and improved initial conditions. The model data are used to assess the performance of the accelerometer and star tracker as well as the quality of the measurements from these instruments. The tracking data are further edited to remove anomalous data. A final converged orbit is determined using the on-board accelerometer and attitude data along with the edited tracking data. Results of initial and final orbit fits for a period of data from April and May 2002 will be presented. Orbit quality metrics including GPS data residuals and SLR residuals will be presented. Improvement of the orbit fits due to an improved gravity field will be demonstrated. Using an initial GRACE derived gravity solution, an orbit accuracy at the few cm level is achieved.
Validation of the EGSIEM combined monthly GRACE gravity fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhao; van Dam, Tonie; Chen, Qiang; Weigelt, Matthias; Güntner, Andreas; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Jean, Yoomin; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul
2016-04-01
Observations indicate that global warming is affecting the water cycle. Here in Europe predictions are for more frequent high precipitation events, wetter winters, and longer and dryer summers. The consequences of these changes include the decreasing availability of fresh water resources in some regions as well as flooding and erosion of coastal and low-lying areas in other regions. These weather related effects impose heavy costs on society and the economy. We cannot stop the immediate effects global warming on the water cycle. But there may be measures that we can take to mitigate the costs to society. The Horizon2020 supported project, European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), will add value to EO observations of variations in the Earth's gravity field. In particular, the EGSIEM project will interpret the observations of gravity field changes in terms of changes in continental water storage. The project team will develop tools to alert the public water storage conditions could indicate the onset of regional flooding or drought. As part of the EGSIEM project, a combined GRACE gravity product is generated, using various monthly GRACE solutions from associated processing centers (ACs). Since each AC follows a set of common processing standards but applies its own independent analysis method, the quality, robustness, and reliability of the monthly combined gravity fields should be significantly improved as compared to any individual solution. In this study, we present detailed and updated comparisons of the combined EGSIEM GRACE gravity product with GPS position time series, hydrological models, and existing GRACE gravity fields. The GPS residuals are latest REPRO2 station position residuals, obtained by rigorously stacking the IGS Repro 2 , daily solutions, estimating, and then restoring the annual and semi-annual signals.
Loop quantum gravity coupled to a scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewandowski, Jerzy; Sahlmann, Hanno
2016-01-01
We consider the model of gravity coupled to the Klein-Gordon time field. We do not deparametrize the theory using the scalar field before quantization, but quantize all degrees of freedom. Several new results for loop quantum gravity are obtained: (i) a Hilbert space for the gravity-matter system and a nonstandard representation of the scalar field thereon is constructed, (ii) a new operator for the scalar constraint of the coupled system is defined and investigated, (iii) methods for solving the constraint are developed. Commutators of the new quantum constraint operators correspond to the quantization of the Poisson bracket. This, however, poses problems for finding solutions. Hence the states we consider—and perhaps the whole setup—still needs some improvement. As a side result we describe a representation of the gravitational degrees of freedom in which the flux is diagonal. This representation is related to the BF theory vacuum of Dittrich and Geiller.
Further assessments of CSR RL04 GRACE gravity field solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettadpur, S.; CSR Level-2 Team
2007-12-01
The GRACE Release-04 gravity field data products from UTCSR are considerably improved compared to the previously available Release-01 products. This improvement has been realized through improvements in background gravity models as well as algorithmic changes in the GRACE data processing. These improved products have been available to the user community since late Feb 2007. The interpretation of RL-04 products is slightly different when compared to RL-01. Besides the improvement in quality, a different set of background gravity field models have been applied to the data before the RL-04 products were created. This leads to a potential change in the way these products must be interpreted. The paper will summarize the feedback received from the user community on the applications of these new data products. The error estimates of the RL-04 fields and their effect on interpretation will be presented. A brief review of future directions for product improvement will be provided, as well.
High-resolution regional gravity field modelling in a mountainous area from terrestrial gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucha, Blažej; Janák, Juraj; Papčo, Juraj; Bezděk, Aleš
2016-11-01
We develop a high-resolution regional gravity field model by a combination of spherical harmonics, band-limited spherical radial basis functions (SRBFs) and the residual terrain model (RTM) technique. As the main input data set, we employ a dense terrestrial gravity database (3-6 stations km-2), which enables gravity field modelling up to very short spatial scales. The approach is based on the remove-compute-restore methodology in which all the parts of the signal that can be modelled are removed prior to the least-squares adjustment in order to smooth the input gravity data. To this end, we utilize degree-2159 spherical harmonic models and the RTM technique using topographic models at 2 arcsec resolution. The residual short-scale gravity signal is modelled via the band-limited Shannon SRBF expanded up to degree 21 600, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 30 arcsec. The combined model is validated against GNSS/levelling-based height anomalies, independent surface gravity data, deflections of the vertical and terrestrial vertical gravity gradients achieving an accuracy of 2.7 cm, 0.53 mGal, 0.39 arcsec and 279 E in terms of the RMS error, respectively. A key aspect of the combined approach, especially in mountainous areas, is the quality of the RTM. We therefore compare the performance of two RTM techniques within the innermost zone, the tesseroids and the polyhedron. It is shown that the polyhedron-based approach should be preferred in rugged terrain if a high-quality RTM is required. In addition, we deal with the RTM computations at points located below the reference surface of the residual terrain which is known to be a rather delicate issue.
Gradio - Earth gravity field measurement on Aristoteles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlak, D.; Meyer, Ph.; Bernard, A.; Touboul, P.
1991-10-01
The design and operation of Gradio, the instrument that was specifically designed for precise gradiometry measurements during the Aristoteles mission, are described. The Gradio is based on simultaneous measurements by four three-axis ultrasensitive accelerometers performed in several locations on a rigid stable structure, called gradio plate, which are then used to compute g gradients. The operational phase of Gradio will last 6 months; the orbit will be circular, near polar, and heliosynchronous, at an altitude of 200 km. It is estimated that Gradio will measure the two main components T(yy) and T(zz) of the gravity gradient tensor in the (0.005, 0.125) Hz frequency bandwidth with an accuracy of 0.01 E.U.
Phobos interior structure from its gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Maistre, S.; Rosenblatt, P.; Rivoldini, A.
2015-10-01
Phobos origin remains mysterious. It could be a captured asteroid, or an in-situ object co-accreted with Mars or formed by accretion from a disk of impact ejecta.Although it is not straightforward to relate its interior properties to its origin, it is easy to agree that the interior properties of any body has to be accounted for to explain its life's history. What event could explain such an internal structure? Where should this object formed to present such interior characteristics and composition? We perform here numerical simulations to assess the ability of a gravity experiment to constrain the interior structure of the martian moon Phobos, which could in turn allow distinguishing among the competing scenarios for the moon's origin.
New Views of Earth's Gravity Field from GRACE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Map 1Map 2
Gravity and the Earth's Shape Gravity is the force that is responsible for the weight of an object and is determined by how the material that makes up the Earth is distributed throughout the Earth. Because gravity changes over the surface of the Earth, the weight of an object changes along with it. One can define standard gravity as the value of gravity for an perfectly smooth 'idealized' Earth, and the gravity 'anomaly' is a measure of how actual gravity deviates from this standard. Gravity reflects the Earth's surface topography to a high degree and is associated with features that most people are familiar with such as large mountains and deep ocean trenches.
Progress in Measuring the Earth's Gravity Field Through GRACE Prior to GRACE, the Earth's gravity field was determined using measurements of varying quality from different satellites and of incomplete coverage. Consequently the accuracy and resolution of the gravity field were limited. As is shown in Figure 1, the long wavelength components of the gravity field determined from satellite tracking were limited to a resolution of approximately 700 km. At shorter wavelengths, the errors were too large to be useful. Only broad geophysical features of the Earth's structure could be detected (see map 1).
In contrast, GRACE, by itself, has provided accurate gravity information with a resolution of 200 km. Now, much more detail is clearly evident in the Earth's geophysical features (see map 2). High resolution features detected by GRACE that are representative of geophysical phenomena include the Tonga/Kermadec region (a zone where one tectonic plate slides under another), the Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau region (an area of uplift due to colliding plates), and the mid-Atlantic ridge (an active spreading center in the middle of the Atlantic ocean where new crust is being created). Future GRACE gravity
Comustion of HAN-Based Monopropellant Droplets in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, B. D.
2001-01-01
Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants that have many attractive characteristics and which display phenomena that differ significantly from other liquid monopropellants. They are composed primarily of HAN, H2O and a fuel species, often triethanolammonium nitrate (TEAN). HAN-based propellants have attracted attention as liquid gun propellants, and are attractive for NASA spacecraft propulsion applications. A representative propellant is XM46. This mixture is 60.8% HAN, 19.2% TEAN and 20% H2O by weight. Other HAN-based propellant mixtures are also of interest. For example, methanol and glycine have been investigated as potential fuel species for HAN-based monopropellants for thruster applications. In the present research, experimental and theoretical studies are performed on combustion of HAN-based monopropellant droplets. The fuel species considered are TEAN, methanol and glycine. Droplets initially in the mm size range are studied at pressures up to 30 atm. These pressures are applicable to spacecraft thruster applications. The droplets are placed in environments with various amounts of Ar, N2, O2, NO2 and N2O. Reduced gravity is employed to enable observations of burning rates and flame structures to be made without the complicating effects of buoyant and forced convection. Normal gravity experiments are also performed in this research program. The experiment goals are to provide accurate fundamental data on deflagration rates, gasphase temperature profiles, transient gas-phase flame behaviors, the onset of bubbling in droplets at lower pressures, and the low-pressure deflagration limit. Theoretical studies are performed to provide rational models of deflagration mechanisms of HAN-based liquid propellants. Besides advancing fundamental knowledge, this research should aid in applications (e.g., spacecraft thrusters and liquid propellant guns) of this unique class of monopropellants.
TR-GRAV: National Center for Turkish Gravity Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simav, Mehmet; Akpınar, İlyas; Sezen, Erdinc; Cingöz, Ayhan; Yıldız, Hasan
2016-04-01
TR-GRAV, the National Center for Turkish Gravity Field (TR-GRAV) that has recently become operational,is a national center that collects, processes and distributes Absolute Gravimetry,Relative Gravimetry, Airborne Gravimetry,Shipborne Gravimetry,Satellite Gravimetry, GNSS/Levelling, Astrogeodetic Vertical Deflection data to model and improve regional gravity field for the Turkish territory and its surrounding regions and to provide accurate, consistent and value-added data & products to the scientific and engineering communities. In this presentation, we will introduce the center web portal and give some details about the database.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlis, Erricos C.
Accurate knowledge of the gravity field is a firm requirement in any study of Planet Earth. Space techniques have so far demonstrated their superiority in the global mapping of the gravity field based on ground tracking and altimeter data mostly. Numerical and analytical simulation studies of the upcoming geophysically relevant missions that will most likely carry GPS receivers, indicate significant improvements in the accuracy as well as the resolution of the gravity field. TOPEX will improve by some two orders of magnitude the long wavelength part (to degree about 20), while GP-B will contribute in the long as well as medium wavelength part of the spectrum (up to degree about 60). The gradiometer measurements on ARISTOTELES will contribute in the medium and short wavelength regions (from degree 30 up); GPS tracking of the spacecraft though will provide additional information for the long wavelength gravity and will help resolve it to accuracies comparable to those obtained from GP-B. With the mean rms coefficient error per degree kept below 10 exp -10, geophysical signals such as the post-glacial rebound, tidal variations, and secular and periodic variations of the zonal field rise above the noise level and become readily observable processes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pavlis, Erricos C.
1992-01-01
Accurate knowledge of the gravity field is a firm requirement in any study of Planet Earth. Space techniques have so far demonstrated their superiority in the global mapping of the gravity field based on ground tracking and altimeter data mostly. Numerical and analytical simulation studies of the upcoming geophysically relevant missions that will most likely carry GPS receivers, indicate significant improvements in the accuracy as well as the resolution of the gravity field. TOPEX will improve by some two orders of magnitude the long wavelength part (to degree about 20), while GP-B will contribute in the long as well as medium wavelength part of the spectrum (up to degree about 60). The gradiometer measurements on ARISTOTELES will contribute in the medium and short wavelength regions (from degree 30 up); GPS tracking of the spacecraft though will provide additional information for the long wavelength gravity and will help resolve it to accuracies comparable to those obtained from GP-B. With the mean rms coefficient error per degree kept below 10 exp -10, geophysical signals such as the post-glacial rebound, tidal variations, and secular and periodic variations of the zonal field rise above the noise level and become readily observable processes.
Fundamental Studies of Droplet Combustion at Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, F. A.
1985-01-01
Reduced gravity is used to carry out scientific investigations of droplet combustion. In earlier work a preliminary conceptual design had been developed for droplet burning experiments for Spacelab. Refinements of the earlier work with special consideration given to possible experiments for Mid-Deck Modules of the Space Shuttle is discussed. A re-evaluation of suitable experiments on droplet combustion is done to ascertain whether influences of reduced buoyancy on time-dependent processes of heat and mass transfer in the gas or in the liquid on extinction processes or on disruptive burning phenomena are best suited for further investigation. Components of the experimental apparatus, which include a droplet dispensing system, a droplet positioning system, a droplet ignition system and provision for recording, primarily photographically, the combustion of the individual droplet in a chamber having a controlled gas atmosphere, are studied to determine optimal approaches to the experimental design. Methods for data reduction and interpretation are being made more specific, particularly in the context of an objective to calculate overall gas-phase chemical-kinetic parameters for the combustion from observations of extinction conditions in different atmospheres.
Electric field in 3D gravity with torsion
Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.
2008-08-15
It is shown that in static and spherically symmetric configurations of the system of Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, at least one of the Maxwell field components has to vanish. Restricting our attention to the electric sector of the theory, we find an interesting exact solution, corresponding to the azimuthal electric field. Its geometric structure is to a large extent influenced by the values of two different central charges, associated to the asymptotic AdS structure of spacetime.
Static scalar field solutions in symmetric gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossenfelder, S.
2016-09-01
We study an extension of general relativity with a second metric and an exchange symmetry between the two metrics. Such an extension might help to address some of the outstanding problems with general relativity, for example the smallness of the cosmological constant. We here derive a family of exact solutions for this theory. In this two-parameter family of solutions the gravitational field is sourced by a time-independent massless scalar field. We find that the only limit in which the scalar field entirely vanishes is flat space. The regular Schwarzschild-solution is left with a scalar field hidden in the second metric’s sector.
Higher derivative gravity: Field equation as the equation of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Mohd, Arif
2016-08-01
One of the striking features of general relativity is that the Einstein equation is implied by the Clausius relation imposed on a small patch of locally constructed causal horizon. The extension of this thermodynamic derivation of the field equation to more general theories of gravity has been attempted many times in the last two decades. In particular, equations of motion for minimally coupled higher-curvature theories of gravity, but without the derivatives of curvature, have previously been derived using a thermodynamic reasoning. In that derivation the horizon slices were endowed with an entropy density whose form resembles that of the Noether charge for diffeomorphisms, and was dubbed the Noetheresque entropy. In this paper, we propose a new entropy density, closely related to the Noetheresque form, such that the field equation of any diffeomorphism-invariant metric theory of gravity can be derived by imposing the Clausius relation on a small patch of local causal horizon.
Alternative methods to smooth the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jekeli, C.
1981-01-01
Convolutions on the sphere with corresponding convolution theorems are developed for one and two dimensional functions. Some of these results are used in a study of isotropic smoothing operators or filters. Well known filters in Fourier spectral analysis, such as the rectangular, Gaussian, and Hanning filters, are adapted for data on a sphere. The low-pass filter most often used on gravity data is the rectangular (or Pellinen) filter. However, its spectrum has relatively large sidelobes; and therefore, this filter passes a considerable part of the upper end of the gravity spectrum. The spherical adaptations of the Gaussian and Hanning filters are more efficient in suppressing the high-frequency components of the gravity field since their frequency response functions are strongly field since their frequency response functions are strongly tapered at the high frequencies with no, or small, sidelobes. Formulas are given for practical implementation of these new filters.
A dynamic model of Venus's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiefer, W. S.; Richards, M. A.; Hager, B. H.; Bills, B. G.
1984-01-01
Unlike Earth, long wavelength gravity anomalies and topography correlate well on Venus. Venus's admittance curve from spherical harmonic degree 2 to 18 is inconsistent with either Airy or Pratt isostasy, but is consistent with dynamic support from mantle convection. A model using whole mantle flow and a high viscosity near surface layer overlying a constant viscosity mantle reproduces this admittance curve. On Earth, the effective viscosity deduced from geoid modeling increases by a factor of 300 from the asthenosphere to the lower mantle. These viscosity estimates may be biased by the neglect of lateral variations in mantle viscosity associated with hot plumes and cold subducted slabs. The different effective viscosity profiles for Earth and Venus may reflect their convective styles, with tectonism and mantle heat transport dominated by hot plumes on Venus and by subducted slabs on Earth. Convection at degree 2 appears much stronger on Earth than on Venus. A degree 2 convective structure may be unstable on Venus, but may have been stabilized on Earth by the insulating effects of the Pangean supercontinental assemblage.
Bi-Component Droplet Combustion in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, B. D.
2001-01-01
This research deals with reduced-gravity combustion of bi-component droplets initially in the mm size range or larger. The primary objectives of the research are to study the effects of droplet internal flows, thermal and solutal Marangoni stresses, and species volatility differences on liquid species transport and overall combustion phenomena (e.g., gas-phase unsteadiness, burning rates, sooting, radiation, and extinction). The research program utilizes a reduced-gravity environment so that buoyancy effects are rendered negligible. Use of large droplets also facilitates visualization of droplet internal flows, which is important for this research. In the experiments, droplets composed of low- and high-volatility species are burned. The low-volatility components are initially present in small amounts. As combustion of a droplet proceeds, the liquid surface mass fraction of the low-volatility component will increase with time, resulting in a sudden and temporary decrease in droplet burning rates as the droplet rapidly heats to temperatures close to the boiling point of the low-volatility component. This decrease in burning rates causes a sudden and temporary contraction of the flame. The decrease in burning rates and the flame contraction can be observed experimentally. Measurements of burning rates as well as the onset time for flame contraction allow effective liquid-phase species diffusivities to be calculated, e.g., using asymptotic theory. It is planned that droplet internal flows will be visualized in future flight and ground-based experiments. In this way, effective liquid species diffusivities can be related to droplet internal flow characteristics. This program is a continuation of extensive ground based experimental and theoretical research on bi-component droplet combustion that has been ongoing for several years. The focal point of this program is a flight experiment (Bi-Component Droplet Combustion Experiment, BCDCE). This flight experiment is under
Transition from Pool to Flow Boiling: The Effect of Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dhir, Vijay K.
2004-01-01
Applications of boiling heat transfer in space can be found in the areas of thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life support fluids, and for cooling of electronic packages for power systems associated with various instrumentation and control systems. Recent interest in exploration of Mars and other planets, and the concepts of in-situ resource utiliLation on Mars highlights the need to understand the effect of gravity on boiling heat transfer at gravity levels varying from 1>= g/g(sub e) >=10(exp -6). The objective of the proposed work was to develop a mechanistic understanding of nucleate boiling and critical heat flux under low and micro-gravity conditions when the velocity of the imposed flow is small. For pool boiling, the effect of reduced gravity is to stretch both the length scale as well as the time scale for the boiling process. At high flow velocities, the inertia of the liquid determines the time and the length scales and as such the gravitational acceleration plays little role. However, at low velocities and at low gravity levels both liquid inertia and buoyancy are of equal importance. At present, we have little understanding of the interacting roles of gravity and liquid inertia on the nucleate boiling process. Little data that has been reported in the literature does not have much practical value in that it can not serve as a basis for design of heat exchange components to be used in space. Both experimental and complete numerical simulations of the low velocity, low-gravity nucleate boiling process were carried out. A building block type of approach was used in that first the growth and detachment process of a single bubble and flow and heat transfer associated with the sliding motion of the bubble over the heater surface after detachment was studied. Liquid subcooling and flow velocity were varied parametrically. The experiments were conducted at 1 g(sub e
Swarm kinematic orbits and gravity fields from 18 months of GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jäggi, A.; Dahle, C.; Arnold, D.; Bock, H.; Meyer, U.; Beutler, G.; van den IJssel, J.
2016-01-01
The Swarm mission consists of three satellites orbiting the Earth at low orbital altitudes. The onboard GPS receivers, star cameras, and laser retro-reflectors make the Swarm mission an interesting candidate to explore the contribution of Swarm GPS data to the recovery of both the static and time-variable gravity fields. We use 1.5 years of Swarm GPS and attitude data to generate kinematic positions of high quality to perform gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach. The generated gravity fields reveal severe systematic errors along the geomagnetic equator. Their size is correlated with the ionospheric density and thus strongly varying over the analyzed time period. Similar to the findings of the GOCE mission, the systematic errors are related to the Swarm GPS carrier phase data and may be reduced by rejecting GPS data affected by large ionospheric changes. Such a measure yields a strong reduction of the systematic errors along the geomagnetic equator in the gravity field recovery. Long wavelength signatures of the gravity field may then be recovered with a similar quality as achieved with GRACE GPS data, which makes the Swarm mission well suited to bridge a potential gap between the current GRACE and the future GRACE Follow-On mission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andò, Bruno; Carbone, Daniele
2004-05-01
Gravity measurements are utilized at active volcanoes to detect mass changes linked to magma transfer processes and thus to recognize forerunners to paroxysmal volcanic events. Continuous gravity measurements are now increasingly performed at sites very close to active craters, where there is the greatest chance to detect meaningful gravity changes. Unfortunately, especially when used against the adverse environmental conditions usually encountered at such places, gravimeters have been proved to be affected by meteorological parameters, mainly by changes in the atmospheric temperature. The pseudo-signal generated by these perturbations is often stronger than the signal generated by actual changes in the gravity field. Thus, the implementation of well-performing algorithms for reducing the gravity signal for the effect of meteorological parameters is vital to obtain sequences useful from the volcano surveillance standpoint. In the present paper, a Neuro-Fuzzy algorithm, which was already proved to accomplish the required task satisfactorily, is tested over a data set from three gravimeters which worked continuously for about 50 days at a site far away from active zones, where changes due to actual fluctuation of the gravity field are expected to be within a few microgal. After accomplishing the reduction of the gravity series, residuals are within about 15 μGal peak-to-peak, thus confirming the capabilities of the Neuro-Fuzzy algorithm under test of performing the required task satisfactorily.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Marco, P.; Raj, R.; Kim, J.
2011-12-01
Results from the variable gravity pool boiling experiments performed during the 52nd ESA parabolic flight campaign are reported in this paper. During a typical parabola, the gravity acceleration changes from 1.8gE (high gravity) to ~0gE (low gravity) and finally back to 1.8gE. The two high gravity periods and the microgravity period are each roughly maintained for 20 seconds while the transition from high gravity to low gravity and vice versa occurs over a period of 3-5 seconds. Use of the high feedback frequency microheater array allowed quasi-steady boiling data over the continuous range of gravity levels (0gE-1.8gE). The experimental apparatus consisted of a boiling chamber with a 7×7 mm2 microheater array in a 10×10 configuration. Each heater in the array was individually controlled to maintain a constant temperature. The array could be operated in a full configuration or a selectively powered reduced set of 3×3 heaters. Experiments were performed with FC-72 as the test fluid, the pressure was maintained at a constant value between 1 and 1.13 atm and the subcooling ranged from 27 to 11 K. An external electric field was imposed over the boiling surface by means of a grid consisting of 4 rods, laid parallel to the surface; voltages up to 10 kV were applied. The electric field was effective in reducing the size of the detaching bubbles, and increasing the heat transfer compared to the values in low-g, although its effectiveness decayed as the heat flux/superheat increased. The current results compared well with previous results obtained in the ARIEL apparatus that was operated in orbital flight.
Arctic Ocean Gravity Field Derived From ERS-1 Satellite Altimetry.
Laxon, S; McAdoo, D
1994-07-29
The derivation of a marine gravity field from satellite altimetry over permanently ice-covered regions of the Arctic Ocean provides much new geophysical information about the structure and development of the Arctic sea floor. The Arctic Ocean, because of its remote location and perpetual ice cover, remains from a tectonic point of view the most poorly understood ocean basin on Earth. A gravity field has been derived with data from the ERS-1 radar altimeter, including permanently ice-covered regions. The gravity field described here clearly delineates sections of the Arctic Basin margin along with the tips of the Lomonosov and Arctic mid-ocean ridges. Several important tectonic features of the Amerasia Basin are clearly expressed in this gravity field. These include the Mendeleev Ridge; the Northwind Ridge; details of the Chukchi Borderland; and a north-south trending, linear feature in the middle of the Canada Basin that apparently represents an extinct spreading center that "died" in the Mesozoic. Some tectonic models of the Canada Basin have proposed such a failed spreading center, but its actual existence and location were heretofore unknown.
Collapse of charged scalar field in dilaton gravity
Borkowska, Anna; Rogatko, Marek; Moderski, Rafal
2011-04-15
We elaborated the gravitational collapse of a self-gravitating complex charged scalar field in the context of the low-energy limit of the string theory, the so-called dilaton gravity. We begin with the regular spacetime and follow the evolution through the formation of an apparent horizon and the final central singularity.
Experimental Methods in Reduced-gravity Soldering Research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pettegrew, Richard D.; Struk, Peter M.; Watson, John K.; Haylett, Daniel R.
2002-01-01
The National Center for Microgravity Research, NASA Glenn Research Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. An improved understanding of the effects of the acceleration environment is important to application of soldering during current and future human space missions. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole and surface mounted devices are being investigated. This paper focuses on the experimental methodology employed in this project and the results of macroscopic sample examination. The specific soldering process, sample configurations, materials, and equipment were selected to be consistent with those currently on-orbit. Other apparatus was incorporated to meet requirements imposed by operation onboard NASA's KC-135 research aircraft and instrumentation was provided to monitor both the atmospheric and acceleration environments. The contingent of test operators was selected to include both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a population cross-section that would be representative of the skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews.
[Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Karishma
2010-01-01
MuRGE (Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment) is a NASA flight-research experiment to investigate the microgravity effects associated with cell-cell communication and beneficial microbe-host interactions using a plant-fungal model system. This investigation will use a clinostat, an instrument that slowly rotates the plants to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development, to simulate microgravity. I will be using the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (At). P. indica has been shown to colonize roots of various plant species, including A. thaliana, and to increase plant growth and resistance to stress. The fungus has the ability to grow from spores or in axenic cultures without the presence of a host. P. indica spores and P. indica extract will be used to inoculate Arabidopsis seeds germinated on a clinostat in order to determine if simulated microgravity affects the interaction between the fungus and its plant host.
Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, Karishma K.
2010-01-01
MuRGE (Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment) is a NASA flight-research experiment to investigate the microgravity effects associated with cell-cell communication and beneficial microbe-host interactions using a plant-fungal model system. This investigation will use a clinostat, an instrument that slowly rotates the plants to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development, to simulate microgravity. I will be using the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (At). P. indica has been shown to colonize roots of various plant species, including A. thaliana, and to increase plant growth and resistance to stress. The fungus has the ability to grow from spores or in axenic cultures without the presence of a host. P. indica spores and P. indica extract will be used to inoculate Arabidopsis seeds germinated on a clinostat in order to determine if simulated microgravity affects the interaction between the fungus and its plant host.
Does reduced gravity alter cellular response to ionizing radiation?
Manti, Lorenzo
2006-05-01
This review addresses the purported interplay between actual or simulated weightlessness and cellular response to ionizing radiation. Although weightlessness is known to alter several cellular functions and to affect signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation and death, its influence on cellular radiosensitivity has so far proven elusive. Renewed controversy as to whether reduced gravity enhances long-term radiation risk is fueled by recently published data that claim either overall enhancement of genomic damage or no increase of radiation-induced clastogenicity by modeled microgravity in irradiated human cells. In elucidating this crucial aspect of space radiation protection, ground-based experiments, such as those based on rotating-wall bioreactors, will increasingly be used and represent a more reproducible alternative to in-flight experiments. These low-shear vessels also make three-dimensional cellular co-cultures possible and thus allow to study the gravisensitivity of radioresponse in a context that better mimics cell-to-cell communication and hence in vivo cellular behavior.
A study of forced convection boiling under reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merte, Herman, Jr.
1992-01-01
This report presents the results of activities conducted over the period 1/2/85-12/31/90, in which the study of forced convection boiling under reduced gravity was initiated. The study seeks to improve the understanding of the basic processes that constitute forced convection boiling by removing the buoyancy effects which may mask other phenomena. Specific objectives may also be expressed in terms of the following questions: (1) what effects, if any, will the removal of body forces to the lowest possible levels have on the forced convection boiling heat transfer processes in well-defined and meaningful circumstances? (this includes those effects and processes associated with the nucleation or onset of boiling during the transient increase in heater surface temperature, as well as the heat transfer and vapor bubble behaviors with established or steady-state conditions); and (2) if such effects are present, what are the boundaries of the relevant parameters such as heat flux, heater surface superheat, fluid velocity, bulk subcooling, and geometric/orientation relationships within which such effects will be produced?
Combustion of Metals in Reduced-Gravity and Extraterrestrial Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Branch, M. C.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Daily, J. W.
2001-01-01
As a result of the ongoing exploration of Mars and the several unmanned and possibly manned missions planned for the near future, increased attention has been given to the use of the natural resources of the planet for rocket propellant production and energy generation. Since the atmosphere of Mars consists of approximately 95% carbon dioxide (CO2), this gas is the resource of choice to be employed for these purposes. Since many metals burn vigorously with CO2, these may be used as an energy source or as propellants for a research vehicle on the surface of Mars. Shafirovich and Goldshleger conducted experiments with spherical particles up to 2.5 mm in diameter and found that the burning process was controlled by diffusion and that the particles exhibited pulsating combustion due to superheating of the Mg vapor trapped inside a protective oxide shell. They also proposed a reaction mechanism based on the gas-phase reaction, Mg + CO2 yields MgO + CO and the heterogeneous reaction Mg + CO yields MgO + C occurring on the sample surface. In all the above studies with large Mg particles, the burning process is invariably influenced by strong convective currents that accelerate the combustion reaction and shorten the burning times. Although these currents are nearly absent in the burning of small particles, the high emissivity of the flames, rapid reaction, and small length scales make the gathering of any useful information on burning rates and flame structure very difficult. The goal of this investigation is to provide a detailed study of flame structure by taking advantage of large, free-floating spherical metal samples and their corresponding long burning times available in a weightless environment. The use of reduced gravity is essential to eliminate the intrusive buoyant flows that plague high temperature metal reactions, to remove the destructive effect of gravity on the shape of molten metal samples, and to study the combustion behavior of metals in the presence of
Rhea gravity field and interior modeling from Cassini data analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tortora, Paolo; Zannoni, Marco; Hemingway, Doug; Nimmo, Francis; Jacobson, Robert A.; Iess, Luciano; Parisi, Marzia
2016-01-01
During its tour of the Saturn system, Cassini performed two close flybys of Rhea dedicated to gravity investigations, the first in November 2005 and the second in March 2013. This paper presents an estimation of Rhea's fully unconstrained quadrupole gravity field obtained from a joint multi-arc analysis of the two Cassini flybys. Our best estimates of the main gravity quadrupole unnormalized coefficients are J2 × 106 = 946.0 ± 13.9, C22 × 106 = 242.1 ± 4.0 (uncertainties are 1-σ). Their resulting ratio is J2/C22 = 3.91 ± 0.10, statistically not compatible (at a 5-σ level) with the theoretical value of 10/3, predicted for a hydrostatic satellite in slow, synchronous rotation around a planet. Therefore, it is not possible to infer the moment of inertia factor directly using the Radau-Darwin approximation. The observed excess J2 (gravity oblateness) was investigated using a combined analysis of gravity and topography, under different plausible geophysical assumptions. The observed gravity is consistent with that generated by the observed shape for an undifferentiated (uniform density) body. However, because the surface is more likely to be water ice, a two-layer model may be a better approximation. In this case, and assuming a mantle density of 920 kg/m3, some 1-3 km of excess core oblateness is consistent with the observed gravity. A wide range of moments of inertia is allowed, but models with low moments of inertia (i.e., more differentiation) require greater magnitudes of excess core topography to satisfy the observations.
Estimating signal loss in regularized GRACE gravity field solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swenson, S. C.; Wahr, J. M.
2011-05-01
Gravity field solutions produced using data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission are subject to errors that increase as a function of increasing spatial resolution. Two commonly used techniques to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the gravity field solutions are post-processing, via spectral filters, and regularization, which occurs within the least-squares inversion process used to create the solutions. One advantage of post-processing methods is the ability to easily estimate the signal loss resulting from the application of the spectral filter by applying the filter to synthetic gravity field coefficients derived from models of mass variation. This is a critical step in the construction of an accurate error budget. Estimating the amount of signal loss due to regularization, however, requires the execution of the full gravity field determination process to create synthetic instrument data; this leads to a significant cost in computation and expertise relative to post-processing techniques, and inhibits the rapid development of optimal regularization weighting schemes. Thus, while a number of studies have quantified the effects of spectral filtering, signal modification in regularized GRACE gravity field solutions has not yet been estimated. In this study, we examine the effect of one regularization method. First, we demonstrate that regularization can in fact be performed as a post-processing step if the solution covariance matrix is available. Regularization then is applied as a post-processing step to unconstrained solutions from the Center for Space Research (CSR), using weights reported by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales/Groupe de Recherches de geodesie spatiale (CNES/GRGS). After regularization, the power spectra of the CSR solutions agree well with those of the CNES/GRGS solutions. Finally, regularization is performed on synthetic gravity field solutions derived from a land surface model, revealing that in
Perturbative quantum gravity in double field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boels, Rutger H.; Horst, Christoph
2016-04-01
We study perturbative general relativity with a two-form and a dilaton using the double field theory formulation which features explicit index factorisation at the Lagrangian level. Explicit checks to known tree level results are performed. In a natural covariant gauge a ghost-like scalar which contributes even at tree level is shown to decouple consistently as required by perturbative unitarity. In addition, a lightcone gauge is explored which bypasses the problem altogether. Using this gauge to study BCFW on-shell recursion, we can show that most of the D-dimensional tree level S-matrix of the theory, including all pure graviton scattering amplitudes, is reproduced by the double field theory. More generally, we argue that the integrand may be reconstructed from its single cuts and provide limited evidence for off-shell cancellations in the Feynman graphs. As a straightforward application of the developed technology double field theory-like expressions for four field string corrections are derived.
Dirac fields in loop quantum gravity and big bang nucleosynthesis
Bojowald, Martin; Das, Rupam; Scherrer, Robert J.
2008-04-15
Big bang nucleosynthesis requires a fine balance between equations of state for photons and relativistic fermions. Several corrections to equation of state parameters arise from classical and quantum physics, which are derived here from a canonical perspective. In particular, loop quantum gravity allows one to compute quantum gravity corrections for Maxwell and Dirac fields. Although the classical actions are very different, quantum corrections to the equation of state are remarkably similar. To lowest order, these corrections take the form of an overall expansion-dependent multiplicative factor in the total density. We use these results, along with the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis, to place bounds on these corrections and especially the patch size of discrete quantum gravity states.
Relativistic gravity and parity-violating nonrelativistic effective field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chaolun; Wu, Shao-Feng
2015-06-01
We show that the relativistic gravity theory can offer a framework to formulate the nonrelativistic effective field theory in a general coordinate invariant way. We focus on the parity violating case in 2 +1 dimensions which is particularly appropriate for the study on quantum Hall effects and chiral superfluids. We discuss how the nonrelativistic spacetime structure emerges from relativistic gravity. We present covariant maps and constraints that relate the field contents in the two theories, which also serve as the holographic dictionary in the context of gauge/gravity duality. A low energy effective action for fractional quantum Hall states is constructed, which captures universal geometric properties and generates nonuniversal corrections systematically. We give another holographic example with dyonic black brane background to calculate thermodynamic and transport properties of strongly coupled nonrelativistic fluids in magnetic field. In particular, by identifying the shift function in the gravity as a minus of guiding center velocity, we obtain the Hall viscosity with its relation to Landau orbital angular momentum density proportional to Wen-Zee shift. Our formalism has a good projection to lowest Landau level.
Gravitational constant in multiple field gravity
Abedi, Habib; Abbassi, Amir M. E-mail: amabasi@khayam.ut.ac.ir
2015-05-01
In the present study, we consider general form of the Lagrangian f(R, φ{sup I}, X) , that is a function of the Ricci scalar, multiple scalar fields and non-canonical kinetic terms. We obtain the effective Newton's constant deep inside the Hubble radius. We use Jordan and Einstein frames, and study the conservation of energy-momentum tensor.
Modeling of jet-induced geyser formation in a reduced gravity environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendl, M. C.; Hochstein, J. I.; Sasmal, G. P.
1991-01-01
Flow patterns predicted by a computational model of jet-induced geyser formation in a reduced gravity environment are presented and comparison is made to patterns predicted by experimentally based correlations. The configuration studied is an idealization of a forthcoming flight experiment to examine cryogenic propellant management issues. A transitional version of the ECLIPSE code used as a computational tool for the analyses is described. It is shown that computationally predicted flow patterns are in qualitative agreement with the correlation-based predictions, and some details of the predicted flow fields are given.
A study of two-phase flow in a reduced gravity environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, D.; Downing, Robert S.
1987-01-01
A test loop was designed and fabricated for observing and measuring pressure drops of two-phase flow in reduced gravity. The portable flow test loop was then tested aboard the NASA-JSC KC135 reduced gravity aircraft. The test loop employed the Sundstrand Two-Phase Thermal Management System (TPTMS) concept which was specially fitted with a clear two-phase return line and condenser cover for flow observation. A two-phase (liquid/vapor) mixture was produced by pumping nearly saturated liquid through an evaporator and adding heat via electric heaters. The quality of the two-phase flow was varied by changing the evaporator heat load. The test loop was operated on the ground before and after the KC135 flight tests to create a one-gravity data base. The ground testing included all the test points run during the reduced gravity testing. Two days of reduced gravity tests aboard the KC135 were performed. During the flight tests, reduced-gravity, one-gravity, and nearly two-gravity accelerations were experienced. Data was taken during the entire flight which provided flow regime and pressure drop data for the three operating conditions. The test results show that two-phase pressure drops and flow regimes can be accurately predicted in zero-gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.
2012-12-01
Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and
Diffraction patterns in ferrofluids: Effect of magnetic field and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radha, S.; Mohan, Shalini; Pai, Chintamani
2014-09-01
In this paper, we report the experimental observation of diffraction patterns in a ferrofluid comprising of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in hexane by a 10 mW He-Ne laser beam. An external dc magnetic field (0-2 kG) was applied perpendicular to the beam. The diffraction pattern showed a variation at different depths of the sample in both zero and applied magnetic field. The patterns also exhibit a change in shape and size as the external field is varied. This effect arises due to thermally induced self-diffraction under the influence of gravity and external magnetic field.
Rapid 3-D forward modeling of gravity and gravity gradient tensor fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longwei, C.; Dai, S.; Zhang, Q.
2014-12-01
Three-dimensional inversion are the key process in gravity exploration. In the commonly used scheme of inversion, the subsurface of the earth is usually divided into many small prism blocks (or grids) with variable density values. A key task in gravity inversion is to calculate the composite fields (gravity and gravity gradient tensor) generated by all these grids, this is known as forward modeling. In general forward modeling is memory-demanding and time-consuming. One scheme to rapidly calculate the fields is to implement it in Fourier domain and use fast Fourier transform algorithm. The advantage of the Fourier domain method is, obviously, much faster. However, the intrinsic edge effect of the Fourier domain method degrades the precision of the calculated fields. We have developed an innovative scheme to directly calculate the fields in spatial domain. There are two key points in this scheme. One key point is spatial discretization. Spatial convolution formula is discretized using an approach similar to normal difference method. A key idea during discretization is to use the analytical formula of a cubic prism, and this makes the resultant discrete formula have clear physical meaning: it embodies the superposition principle of the fields and is the exact formula to calculate the fields generated by all grids. The discretization only requires the grids have the same dimension in horizontal directions, and grids in different layers may have different dimension in vertical direction, and this offers more flexibility for inversion. Another key point is discrete convolution calculation. We invoke a high efficient two-dimensional discrete convolution algorithm, and it guarantees both time-saving and memory-saving. Its memory cost has the same order as the number of grids. Numerical test result shows that for a model with a dimension of 1000x1000x201 grids, it takes about 300s to calculate the fields on 1000x1000 field points in a personal computer with 3.4-GHz CPU
Convective dynamics of traveling autocatalytic fronts in a modulated gravity field.
Horváth, Dezső; Budroni, Marcello A; Bába, Péter; Rongy, Laurence; De Wit, Anne; Eckert, Kerstin; Hauser, Marcus J B; Tóth, Ágota
2014-12-21
When traveling in thin solution layers, autocatalytic chemical fronts may be deformed and accelerated by convective currents that develop because of density and surface tension gradients related to concentration and thermal gradients across the front. On earth, both buoyancy and Marangoni related flows can act in solution layers open to the air while only buoyancy effects operate in covered liquid layers. The respective effects of density and surface tension induced convective motions are analysed here by studying experimentally the propagation of autocatalytic fronts in uncovered and covered liquid layers during parabolic flights in which the gravity field is modulated periodically. We find that the velocity and deformation of the front are increased during hyper-gravity phases and reduced in the micro-gravity phase. The experimental results compare well with numerical simulations of the evolution of the concentration of the autocatalytic product coupled to the flow field dynamics described by Navier-Stokes equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griggs, C. E.; Paik, H. J.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S.-C.; Rowlands, D. D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Shirron, P. J.
2015-01-01
We are developing a compact tensor superconducting gravity gradiometer (SGG) for obtaining gravimetric measurements from planetary orbits. A new and innovative design gives a potential sensitivity of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2)( 1 E = 10(sup -9 S(sup -2) in the measurement band up to 0.1 Hz (suitale for short wavelength static gravity) and of approximately 10(sup -4) E Hz(sup - 1/2) in the frequency band less than 1 mHz (for long wavelength time-variable gravity) from the same device with a baseline just over 10 cm. The measurement band and sensitiy can be optimally tuned in-flight during the mission by changing resonance frequencies, which allows meaurements of both static and time-variable gravity fields from the same mission. Significant advances in the technologies needed for space-based cryogenic instruments have been made in the last decade. In particular, the use of cryocoolers will alleviate the previously severe constraint on mission lifetime imposed by the use of liquid helium, enabling mission durations in the 5 - 10 year range.
Gravity- and strain-induced electric fields outside metal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, F.; Opat, G. I.
1992-05-01
The gravity-induced electric field outside a metal object supported against gravity is predominantly due to its differential compression which arises in supporting its own weight. This Dessler-Michel-Rorschach-Trammell (DMRT) field, as it has come to be known, is expected to be proportional to the strain derivative of the work function of the surface. We report the results of an experiment designed to produce this effect with mechanically applied strain rather than with gravity. In essence, we have measured the strain-induced contact-potential variation between a metal surface of known strain gradient and an unstrained capacitive probe. We describe useful solutions to the problems faced in such an experiment, which were not adequately addressed by earlier workers. A knowledge of the DMRT field is of considerable importance to experiments designed to compare the gravitational acceleration of charged particles and antiparticles inside a metallic shield. Past experiments with electrons yielded results contrary to the then-expected DMRT field. We review and partially extend the theoretical background by drawing on later results based on the jellium model of metal surfaces. Our results for Cu and Au surfaces are consistent with jellium-based calculations which imply a DMRT field that is about an order of magnitude smaller and of opposite sign to the early estimates.
Time-variable gravity fields from satellite tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettadpur, Srinivas; Cheng, Minkang; Ries, John
2014-05-01
At the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR), we routinely deliver time-series of Earth's gravity field variations, some of it spanning more than two decades. These time-series are derived - in a consistent manner - from satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, from low-Earth orbiters tracked using GPS, and from low-low satellite to satellite tracking data from GRACE. In this paper, we review the information content in the gravity field time-series derived from each of these methods. We provide a comparison of the time-series at the decadal and annual time-scales, and identify the spatial modes of variability that are well or poorly estimated by each of the observing systems. The results have important bearing on the prospects of extending GRACE time-variable gravity time-series in the event of gaps between dedicated gravity missions, and for extending the time-series into the past. Support for this research from joint NASA/DLR GRACE mission, the NASA MEASURs program, and the NASA ROSES/GRACE Science Team is gratefully acknowledged.
The impact on a combined global gravity field model using simulated GOCE data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goiginger, Helmut; Hausleitner, Walter; Pail, Roland; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Jäggi, Adrian
2010-05-01
The overall objective is the generation of a high-resolution global gravity field model by combining data from the satellite gravity missions GOCE, GRACE and CHAMP with complementary gravity field information like surface gravity anomalies. Benefit can be taken from their individual strengths and favourable features, and in parallel specific deficiencies can be reduced, leading to an Earth's gravity field model with high spatial resolution and accuracy. One key issue is the methodology on data combination in terms of optimum weighting of each observation component. The combination strategy is based on the superposition of normal equation matrices, which are obtained by observation equations of spherical harmonic coefficients. The optimum weights for each data set are computed by comparison of their parameters and error estimates with the combined solution in an iterative process. The output are different gravity field models like a satellite-only model and a combined model including also complementary surface data, as well as the associated variance-covariance information. Another issue is to deal with very large matrices which are combined and subsequently solved by Cholesky decomposition. Due to the performance limitation of a single computer parallel processing strategies on a cluster system are implemented. The very high degrees of the spherical harmonics are mainly determined by terrestrial measurements. Considering certain conditions, this type of measurement leads to a block diagonal structure of the normal equation matrix which significantly reduces the time needed for computing the inverse of the matrix because only relatively small subset matrices have to be solved. Therefore, in addition a test environment is created to study the influence of such sparse systems. First test runs show that especially the medium degrees of the spherical harmonic coefficients of the final geopotential model can be improved by using simulated GOCE data, whereas the higher
Combustion of Metals in Reduced-Gravity and Extra Terrestrial Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Branch, M.C.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Daily, J. W.
1999-01-01
The combustion of metals is a field with important practical applications in rocket propellants, high-temperature flames, and material synthesis. Also, the safe operation of metal containers in high-pressure oxygen systems and with cryogenic fuels and oxidizers remains an important concern in industry. The increasing use of metallic components in spacecraft and space structures has also raised concerns about their flammability properties and fire suppression mechanisms. In addition, recent efforts to embark on unmanned and manned planetary exploration, such as on Mars, have also renewed the interest in metal/carbon-dioxide combustion as an effective in situ resource utilization technology. In spite of these practical applications, the understanding of the combustion properties of metals remains far behind that of the most commonly used fuels such as hydrocarbons. The lack of understanding is due to the many problems unique to metal- oxidizer reactions such as: low-temperature surface oxidation prior to ignition, heterogeneous reactions, very high combustion temperatures, product condensation, high emissivity of products, and multi-phase interactions. Very few analytical models (all neglecting the influence of gravity) have been developed to predict the burning characteristics and the flame structure details. Several experimental studies attempting to validate these models have used small metal particles to recreate gravity-free conditions. The high emissivity of the flames, rapid reaction, and intermittent explosions experienced by these particles have made the gathering of any useful information on burning rates and flame structure very difficult. The use of a reduced gravity environment is needed to clarify some of the complex interactions among the phenomena described above. First, the elimination of the intrusive buoyant flows that plague all combustion phenomena is of paramount importance in metal reactions due to the much higher temperatures reached during
The Gravity Field of Enceladus from the three Cassini Flybys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iess, L.; Parisi, M.; Ducci, M.; Jacobson, R. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Tortora, P.
2013-12-01
The Cassini spacecraft carried out gravity measurements of the small Saturnian moon Enceladus during three close flybys on April 28, 2010, November 30, 2010 and May 2, 2012 (designated E9, E12 and E19), at the low altitudes of 100, 48 and 70 km to maximize the accelerations exerted by the moon on the spacecraft. The goals of these observations were the determination of the gravitational quadrupole and the search for a North-South asymmetry in the gravity field, controlled primarily by the spherical harmonic coefficient C30. The estimation of Enceladus' gravity field is especially complex because of the small surface gravity (0.11 m/s2), the short duration of the gravitational interaction and the small number of available flybys. In addition to the gravitational accelerations, the spacecraft was also subject to small but non-negligible drag when it flew through the plume emitted from the south pole of the satellite. This effect occurred during the two south polar flybys E9 and E19. The inclusion of these non-gravitational accelerations proved to be crucial to attain a stable solution for the gravity field. Our estimation relied entirely on precise range rate measurements enabled by a coherent, two-way, microwave link at X-band (7.2-8.4 GHz). Measurement accuracies of 10 micron/s at 60 s integration times were attained under favorable conditions, thanks also to an advanced tropospheric calibration system. The data were fitted using the MONTE orbit determination code, recently developed by JPL for deep space navigation. In addition to the satellite degree 2 gravity field and C30, the solution included the state vector of the spacecraft (one for each flyby) and corrections to the mass and the initial orbital elements of Enceladus. The effect of the drag in E9 and E19 was modeled either as an unknown, impulsive, vectorial delta-V at closest approach, or by using density profiles from models of the plume and solving for the aerodynamic coefficient of the spacecraft. Both
New standards for reducing gravity data: The North American gravity database
Hinze, W. J.; Aiken, C.; Brozena, J.; Coakley, B.; Dater, D.; Flanagan, G.; Forsberg, R.; Hildenbrand, T.; Keller, Gordon R.; Kellogg, J.; Kucks, R.; Li, X.; Mainville, A.; Morin, R.; Pilkington, M.; Plouff, D.; Ravat, D.; Roman, D.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Veronneau, M.; Webring, M.; Winester, D.
2005-01-01
The North American gravity database as well as databases from Canada, Mexico, and the United States are being revised to improve their coverage, versatility, and accuracy. An important part of this effort is revising procedures for calculating gravity anomalies, taking into account our enhanced computational power, improved terrain databases and datums, and increased interest in more accurately defining long-wavelength anomaly components. Users of the databases may note minor differences between previous and revised database values as a result of these procedures. Generally, the differences do not impact the interpretation of local anomalies but do improve regional anomaly studies. The most striking revision is the use of the internationally accepted terrestrial ellipsoid for the height datum of gravity stations rather than the conventionally used geoid or sea level. Principal facts of gravity observations and anomalies based on both revised and previous procedures together with germane metadata will be available on an interactive Web-based data system as well as from national agencies and data centers. The use of the revised procedures is encouraged for gravity data reduction because of the widespread use of the global positioning system in gravity fieldwork and the need for increased accuracy and precision of anomalies and consistency with North American and national databases. Anomalies based on the revised standards should be preceded by the adjective "ellipsoidal" to differentiate anomalies calculated using heights with respect to the ellipsoid from those based on conventional elevations referenced to the geoid. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.
Rainich geometrization extended to electromagnetic fields in (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krongos, Dionisios; Torre, Charles
2016-03-01
In four spacetime dimensions the Rainich conditions are a set of equations equivalent to the Einstein-Maxwell equations, but are expressed soley in terms of the metric tensor. We have found the analogous conditions in (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity such that a metric tensor defines a non-null solution to the Einstein-Maxwell equations. These conditions can be extended to other theories of (2 + 1)-dimensional gravity. These conditions are obtained by reducing the problem to that of a scalar field, which we have treated elsewhere. We illlustrate these results using the charged BTZ solution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colombo, Oscar L. (Editor)
1992-01-01
This symposium on space and airborne techniques for measuring gravity fields, and related theory, contains papers on gravity modeling of Mars and Venus at NASA/GSFC, an integrated laser Doppler method for measuring planetary gravity fields, observed temporal variations in the earth's gravity field from 16-year Starlette orbit analysis, high-resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data, the effect of water vapor corrections for satellite altimeter measurements of the geoid, and laboratory demonstrations of superconducting gravity and inertial sensors for space and airborne gravity measurements. Other papers are on airborne gravity measurements over the Kelvin Seamount; the accuracy of GPS-derived acceleration from moving platform tests; airborne gravimetry, altimetry, and GPS navigation errors; controlling common mode stabilization errors in airborne gravity gradiometry, GPS/INS gravity measurements in space and on a balloon, and Walsh-Fourier series expansion of the earth's gravitational potential.
Investigating High Field Gravity using Astrophysical Techniques
Bloom, Elliott D.; /SLAC
2008-02-01
The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to astrophysical techniques. These techniques can help us understand certain phenomena important to particle physics that are currently impossible to address using standard particle physics experimental techniques. As the subject matter is vast, compromises are necessary in order to convey the central ideas to the reader. Many general references are included for those who want to learn more. The paragraphs below elaborate on the structure of these lectures. I hope this discussion will clarify my motivation and make the lectures easier to follow. The lectures begin with a brief review of more theoretical ideas. First, elements of general relativity are reviewed, concentrating on those aspects that are needed to understand compact stellar objects (white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes). I then review the equations of state of these objects, concentrating on the simplest standard models from astrophysics. After these mathematical preliminaries, Sec. 2(c) discusses 'The End State of Stars'. Most of this section also uses the simplest standard models. However, as these lectures are for particle physicists, I also discuss some of the more recent approaches to the equation of state of very dense compact objects. These particle-physics-motivated equations of state can dramatically change how we view the formation of black holes. Section 3 focuses on the properties of the objects that we want to characterize and measure. X-ray binary systems and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are stressed because the lectures center on understanding very dense stellar objects, black hole candidates (BHCs), and their accompanying high gravitational fields. The use of x-ray timing and gamma-ray experiments is also introduced in this section. Sections 4 and 5 review information from x-ray and gamma-ray experiments. These sections also discuss the current state of the art in x-ray and gamma-ray satellite experiments and
Detection of gravity field source boundaries using deconvolution method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuo, Boxin; Hu, Xiangyun; Liang, Yin; Han, Qi
2014-12-01
Complications arise in the interpretation of gravity fields because of interference from systematic degradations, such as boundary blurring and distortion. The major sources of these degradations are the various systematic errors that inevitably occur during gravity field data acquisition, discretization and geophysical forward modelling. To address this problem, we evaluate deconvolution method that aim to detect the clear horizontal boundaries of anomalous sources by the suppression of systematic errors. A convolution-based multilayer projection model, based on the classical 3-D gravity field forward model, is innovatively derived to model the systematic error degradation. Our deconvolution algorithm is specifically designed based on this multilayer projection model, in which three types of systematic error are defined. The degradations of the different systematic errors are considered in the deconvolution algorithm. As the primary source of degradation, the convolution-based systematic error is the main object of the multilayer projection model. Both the random systematic error and the projection systematic error are shown to form an integral part of the multilayer projection model, and the mixed norm regularization method and the primal-dual optimization method are therefore employed to control these errors and stabilize the deconvolution solution. We herein analyse the parameter identification and convergence of the proposed algorithms, and synthetic and field data sets are both used to illustrate their effectiveness. Additional synthetic examples are specifically designed to analyse the effects of the projection systematic error, which is caused by the uncertainty associated with the estimation of the impulse response function.
Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambeck, K.
In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.
Gravity Dual for Reggeon Field Theory and Nonlinear Quantum Finance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Yu
We study scale invariant but not necessarily conformal invariant deformations of nonrelativistic conformal field theories from the dual gravity viewpoint. We present the corresponding metric that solves the Einstein equation coupled with a massive vector field. We find that, within the class of metric we study, when we assume the Galilean invariance, the scale invariant deformation always preserves the nonrelativistic conformal invariance. We discuss applications to scaling regime of Reggeon field theory and nonlinear quantum finance. These theories possess scale invariance but may or may not break the conformal invariance, depending on the underlying symmetry assumptions.
Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.
Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Watkins, Michael M; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Goossens, Sander J; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S; Yuan, Dah-Ning
2013-02-01
Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies.
Cautionary tales for reduced-gravity particle research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, John R.; Greeley, Ronald; Tucker, D. W.
1987-01-01
Failure of experiments conducted on the KC-135 aircraft in zero gravity are discussed. Tests that were a total failure are reported. Why the failure occurred and the sort of questions that potential researchers should ask in order to avoid the appearance of abstracts such as this are discussed. Many types of aggregation studies were proposed for the Space Station, and it is hoped that the following synopsis of events will add a touch of reality to experimentation proposed for this zero-gravity environment.
Scalar mode propagation in modified gravity with a scalar field
De Felice, Antonio; Suyama, Teruaki
2009-10-15
We study the propagation of the scalar modes around a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe for general modifications of gravity in the presence of a real scalar field. In general, there will be two propagating scalar perturbation fields, which will have in total 4 degrees of freedom. Two of these degrees will have a superluminal propagation - with k-dependent speed of propagation - whereas the other two will have the speed of light. Therefore, the scalar degrees of freedom do not modify the general feature of modified gravity models: the appearance of modes whose frequency depends on the second power of the modulus of the wave vector. Constraints are given and special cases are discussed.
Computation of the gravity field and its gradient: Some applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubey, C. P.; Tiwari, V. M.
2016-03-01
New measuring instruments of Earth's gravity gradient tensors (GGT) have offered a fresh impetus to gravimetry and its application in subsurface exploration. Several efforts have been made to provide a thorough understanding of the complex properties of the gravity gradient tensor and its mathematical formulations to compute GGT. However, there is not much open source software available. Understanding of the tensor properties leads to important guidelines in the development of real three dimensional geological models. We present a MATLAB computational algorithm to calculate the gravity field and full gravity gradient tensor for an undulated surface followed by regular geometries like an infinite horizontal slab, a vertical sheet, a solid sphere, a vertical cylinder, a normal fault model and a rectangular lamina or conglomerations of such bodies and the results are compared with responses using professional software based on different computational schemes. Real subsurface geometries of complex geological structures of interest are approximated through arrangements of vertical rectangular laminas. The geological application of this algorithm is demonstrated over a horst-type structure of Oklahoma Aulacogen, USA and Vredefort Dome, South Africa, where measured GGT data are available.
High-resolution gravity field modeling using GRAIL mission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2015-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km, and an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and 20 and 11 km after. High-resolution gravity field models using both these data sets have been estimated, with the current resolution being degree and order 1080 in spherical harmonics. Here, we focus on aspects of the analysis of the GRAIL data: we investigate eclipse modeling, the influence of empirical accelerations on the results, and we discuss the inversion of large-scale systems. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale, the south pole area, and the farside. We investigate the use of Ka-band Range Rate (KBRR) data versus numerical derivatives of KBRR data, and show that the latter have the capability to locally improve correlations with topography.
AIUB-RL02: an improved time-series of monthly gravity fields from GRACE data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, U.; Jäggi, A.; Jean, Y.; Beutler, G.
2016-05-01
The new release AIUB-RL02 of monthly gravity models from GRACE GPS and K-Band range-rate data is based on reprocessed satellite orbits referring to the reference frame IGb08. The release is consistent with the IERS2010 conventions. Improvements with respect to its predecessor AIUB-RL01 include the use of reprocessed (RL02) GRACE observations, new atmosphere and ocean dealiasing products (RL05), an upgraded ocean tide model (EOT11A), and the interpolation of shallow ocean tides (admittances). The stochastic parametrization of AIUB-RL02 was adapted to include daily accelerometer scale factors, which drastically reduces spurious signal at the 161 d period in C20 and at other low degree and order gravity field coefficients. Moreover, the correlation between the noise in the monthly gravity models and solar activity is considerably reduced in the new release. The signal and the noise content of the new AIUB-RL02 monthly gravity fields are studied and calibrated errors are derived from their non-secular and non-seasonal variability. The short-period time-variable signal over the oceans, mostly representing noise, is reduced by 50 per cent with respect to AIUB-RL01. Compared to the official GFZ-RL05a and CSR-RL05 monthly models, the AIUB-RL02 stands out by its low noise at high degrees, a fact emerging from the estimation of seasonal variations for selected river basins and of mass trends in polar regions. Two versions of the monthly AIUB-RL02 gravity models, with spherical harmonics resolution of degree and order 60 and 90, respectively, are available for the time period from March 2003 to March 2014 at the International Center for Global Earth Models or from ftp://ftp.unibe.ch/aiub/GRAVITY/GRACE (last accessed 22 March 2016).
Planetary Gravity Fields and Their Impact on a Spacecraft Trajectory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.
2005-01-01
The present work touches an interdisciplinary aspect of space exploration: the improvement of spacecraft navigation by means of enhanced planetary interior model derivation. The better the bodies in our solar system are known and modelled, the more accurately (and safely) a spacecraft can be navigated. In addition, the information about the internal structure of a planet, moon or any other planetary body can be used in arguments for different theories of solar system evolution. The focus of the work lies in a new approach for modelling the gravity field of small planetary bodies: the implementation of complex ellipsoidal coordinates (figure 1, [4]) for irregularly shaped bodies that cannot be represented well by a straightforward spheroidal approach. In order to carry out the required calculations the computer programme GRASP (Gravity Field of a Planetary Body and its Influence on a Spacecraft Trajectory) has been developed [5]. The programme furthermore allows deriving the impact of the body s gravity field on a spacecraft trajectory and thus permits predictions for future space mission flybys.
Lunar gravity field recovery: sensitivity studies from simulated tracking data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, A.; Baur, O.
2012-04-01
The lunar gravity field is essential for understanding the structure and the thermal evolution of the Moon. Typically, the gravity field is inferred from tracking data to satellites orbiting the Moon. Due to the fact that the Moon is in the state of synchronous rotation with the Earth, direct tracking to the farside is impossible. NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), launched in 2009, is equipped with various instruments whose purpose is to prepare for save robotic returns to the Moon. To geolocate LRO, the spacecraft is tracked by means of radiometric techniques (ranges, range rates, angles) and optical laser (laser ranges). We analyzed tracking data to LRO with respect to various aspects, such as the number of observations, their spatial distribution on the lunar surface, and the present noise level. We used these real-data characteristics to simulate tracking data to LRO. We generated three different simulation scenarios: observations were simulated (1) during the exact time spans when LRO was tracked from a specific ground station, (2) whenever the spacecraft was in view from a station, and (3) for the nearside as well as for the farside of the Moon. Based on the resulting trajectories, we estimated three sets of spherical harmonic coefficients representing the lunar gravity field. Moreover, we varied the maximum degree of estimated coefficients and investigated the effect of noise on the estimated parameters. Observation simulation and parameter estimation was accomplished with the software packages GEODYN and SOLVE.
The role of vector fields in modified gravity scenarios
Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Koyama, Kazuya; Khosravi, Nima E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk
2013-11-01
Gravitational vector degrees of freedom typically arise in many examples of modified gravity models. We start to systematically explore their role in these scenarios, studying the effects of coupling gravitational vector and scalar degrees of freedom. We focus on set-ups that enjoy a Galilean symmetry in the scalar sector and an Abelian gauge symmetry in the vector sector. These symmetries, together with the requirement that the equations of motion contain at most two space-time derivatives, only allow for a small number of operators in the Lagrangian for the gravitational fields. We investigate the role of gravitational vector fields for two broad classes of phenomena that characterize modified gravity scenarios. The first is self-acceleration: we analyze in general terms the behavior of vector fluctuations around self-accelerating solutions, and show that vanishing kinetic terms of vector fluctuations lead to instabilities on cosmological backgrounds. The second phenomenon is the screening of long range fifth forces by means of Vainshtein mechanism. We show that if gravitational vector fields are appropriately coupled to a spherically symmetric source, they can play an important role for defining the features of the background solution and the scale of the Vainshtein radius. Our general results can be applied to any concrete model of modified gravity, whose low-energy vector and scalar degrees of freedom satisfy the symmetry requirements that we impose.
Production of Gas Bubbles in Reduced Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oguz, Hasan N.; Takagi, Shu; Misawa, Masaki
1996-01-01
In a wide variety of applications such as waste water treatment, biological reactors, gas-liquid reactors, blood oxygenation, purification of liquids, etc., it is necessary to produce small bubbles in liquids. Since gravity plays an essential role in currently available techniques, the adaptation of these applications to space requires the development of new tools. Under normal gravity, bubbles are typically generated by forcing gas through an orifice in a liquid. When a growing bubble becomes large enough, the buoyancy dominates the surface tension force causing it to detach from the orifice. In space, the process is quite different and the bubble may remain attached to the orifice indefinitely. The most practical approach to simulating gravity seems to be imposing an ambient flow to force bubbles out of the orifice. In this paper, we are interested in the effect of an imposed flow in 0 and 1 g. Specifically, we investigate the process of bubble formation subject to a parallel and a cross flow. In the case of parallel flow, we have a hypodermic needle in a tube from which bubbles can be produced. On the other hand, the cross flow condition is established by forcing bubbles through an orifice on a wall in a shear flow. The first series of experiments have been performed under normal gravity conditions and the working fluid was water. A high quality microgravity facility has been used for the second type and silicone oil is used as the host liquid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.
2013-12-01
Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has been usually reduced by using a priori information from various sources, e.g. seismic tomography models. The reduction in non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation for 3D subsurface structures (objects) in seismic tomography models. However, these processes introduce additional uncertainty through the conversion relations due to the dependency on the other physical parameters such as temperature and pressure, or through the bias in the interpretation due to user choices and experience. In this research, a new methodology is introduced to extract the 3D subsurface structures from 3D geophysical data using a state-of-art 3D Object Oriented Image Analysis (OOA) technique. 3D OOA is tested using a set of synthetic models that simulate the real situation in the study area of this research. Then, 3D OOA is used to extract 3D subsurface objects from a real 3D seismic tomography model. The extracted 3D objects are used to reconstruct a forward model and its response is compared with the measured satellite gravity. Finally, the result of the forward modelling, based on the extracted 3D objects, is used to constrain the inversion process of satellite gravity data. Through this work, a new object-based approach is introduced to interpret and extract the 3D subsurface objects from 3D geophysical data. This can be used to constrain modelling and inversion of potential field data using the extracted 3D subsurface structures from other methods. In summary, a new approach is introduced to constrain inversion of satellite gravity measurements and enhance interpretation capabilities.
The gravity field of the Saturnian satellites Enceladus and Dione
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iess, L.; Jacobson, R.; Ducci, M.; Stevenson, D. J.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S.; Racioppa, P.; Rappaport, N. J.; Tortora, P.
2012-12-01
Enceladus and Dione are the innermost moons of the Saturnian system visited by the spacecraft Cassini for gravity investigations. The small surface gravity (0.11 and 0.23 m/s2 respectively for Enceladus and Dione), the short duration of the gravitational interaction and the small number of available flybys (three for Enceladus and just one for Dione) make the determination of their gravity field particularly challenging. In spite of these limitations, we have measured the low degree gravity field of both satellites with sufficient accuracy to draw preliminary geophysical conclusions. The estimation relied primarily on precise range rate data, whose accuracy reached 10 micron/s at 60 s integration times under favorable conditions. In order to disentangle the effects of the spacecraft orbit, the satellite orbit and the satellite gravity, tracking coverage is required not only across closest approach, but also days before and after the flyby. The dynamical model used for the fits includes all relevant gravitational perturbations and the main non-gravitational accelerations (Cassini RTG's anisotropic thermal emission, solar radiation pressure). In addition to the gravity field coefficients a correction to the orbit of the spacecraft and the satellites was also estimated. The first and so far only Dione's flyby with tracking at closest approach occurred on December 12, 2011, at an altitude of 99 km. (A second gravity flyby is scheduled in 2015.) Although the low solar elongation angle caused a significant increase of the plasma noise in Doppler data, the low spacecraft altitude at closest approach and the otherwise favorable geometry allowed an estimation of the harmonic coefficients J2 and C22 to a relative accuracy below 2%. We have produced, in addition to an unconstrained estimate, a second solution where the quadrupole field is constrained by the requirement of hydrostaticity. Doppler residuals are unbiased and consistent with the expected noise in both cases. When
Quantum reduced loop gravity and the foundation of loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco
2016-06-01
Quantum reduced loop gravity is a promising framework for linking loop quantum gravity and the effective semiclassical dynamics of loop quantum cosmology. We review its basic achievements and its main perspectives, outlining how it provides a quantum description of the Universe in terms of a cuboidal graph which constitutes the proper framework for applying loop techniques in a cosmological setting.
Combination of monthly gravity field solutions from different processing centers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jean, Yoomin; Meyer, Ulrich; Jäggi, Adrian
2015-04-01
Currently, the official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. Combinations are well-established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), where regular comparisons and combinations of space-geodetic products have tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. In the frame of the recently started Horizon 2020 project European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM), a scientific combination service shall therefore be established to deliver the best gravity products for applications in Earth and environmental science research based on the unified knowledge of the European GRACE community. In a first step the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions shall be mutually compared spatially and spectrally. We assess the noise of the raw as well as filtered solutions and compare the secular and seasonal periodic variations fitted to the monthly solutions. In a second step we will explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the
Wormholes, emergent gauge fields, and the weak gravity conjecture
Harlow, Daniel
2016-01-20
This paper revisits the question of reconstructing bulk gauge fields as boundary operators in AdS/CFT. In the presence of the ormhole dual to the thermo field double state of two CFTs, the existence of bulk gauge fields is in some tension with the microscopic tensor factorization of the Hilbert space. Here, I explain how this tension can be resolved by splitting the gauge field into charged constituents, and I argue that this leads to a new argument for the "principle of completeness", which states that the charge lattice of a gauge theory coupled to gravity must be fully populated. Imore » also claim that it leads to a new motivation for (and a clarification of) the "weak gravity conjecture", which I interpret as a strengthening of this principle. This setup gives a simple example of a situation where describing low-energy bulk physics in CFT language requires knowledge of high-energy bulk physics. Furthermore, this contradicts to some extent the notion of "effective conformal field theory", but in fact is an expected feature of the resolution of the black hole information problem. An analogous factorization issue exists also for the gravitational field, and I comment on several of its implications for reconstructing black hole interiors and the emergence of spacetime more generally.« less
Two-phase reduced gravity experiments for a space reactor design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antoniak, Zenen I.
1987-01-01
Future space missions researchers envision using large nuclear reactors with either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. New flow regime maps, models, and correlations are required if the codes are to be successfully applied to reduced-gravity flow and heat transfer. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Because these reduced-gravity experiments will be very basic, and will employ small test loops of simple geometry, a large measure of commonality exists between them and experiments planned by other organizations. It is recommended that a committee be formed to coordinate all ongoing and planned reduced gravity flow experiments.
Noncommutative scalar field minimally coupled to nonsymmetric gravity
Kouadik, S.; Sefai, D.
2012-06-27
We construct a non-commutative non symmetric gravity minimally coupled model (the star product only couples matter). We introduce the action for the system considered namely a non-commutative scalar field propagating in a nontrivial gravitational background. We expand the action in powers of the anti-symmetric field and the graviton to second order adopting the assumption that the scalar is weekly coupled to the graviton. We compute the one loop radiative corrections to the self-energy of a scalar particle.
Gravity field and internal structure of Mercury from MESSENGER.
Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Hauck, Steven A; Lemoine, Frank G; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Peale, Stanton J; Margot, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Catherine L; Torrence, Mark H; Perry, Mark E; Rowlands, David D; Goossens, Sander; Head, James W; Taylor, Anthony H
2012-04-13
Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR(2) = 0.353 ± 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(m)/C = 0.452 ± 0.035. A model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core. PMID:22438509
Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Hauck, Steven A., II; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Peale, Stanton J.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Catherine L.; Torrence, Mark H.; Perry, Mark E.; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Head, James W.; Taylor, Anthony H.
2012-01-01
Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/M(R(exp 2) = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(sub m)/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. A model for Mercury s radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.
Ultralow Magnetic Fields and Gravity Probe B Gyroscope Readout
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mester, J. C.; Lockhart, J. M.; Muhlfelder, B.; Murray, D. O.; Taber, M. A.
We describe the generation of an ultralow magnetic field of < 10-11Tesla in the flight dewar of the Gravity Probe B Relativity Mission. The field was achieved using expanded-superconducting-shield techniques and is maintained with the aid of a magnetic materials control program. A high performance magnetic shield system is required for the proper function of gyroscope readout. The readout system employs a dc SQUID to measure the London moment generated by the superconducting gyro rotor in order to resolve sub-milliarcsecond changes in the gyro spin direction. In addition to a low residual dc magnetic field, attenuation of external field variation is required to be 1012 at the gyro positions. We discuss the measurement of the dc magnetic field and ac attenuation factor and the performance of the readout system
The gravity field of Mars: results from Mars Global Surveyor.
Smith, D E; Sjogren, W L; Tyler, G L; Balmino, G; Lemoine, F G; Konopliv, A S
1999-10-01
Observations of the gravity field of Mars reveal a planet that has responded differently in its northern and southern hemispheres to major impacts and volcanic processes. The rough, elevated southern hemisphere has a relatively featureless gravitational signature indicating a state of near-isostatic compensation, whereas the smooth, low northern plains display a wider range of gravitational anomalies that indicates a thinner but stronger surface layer than in the south. The northern hemisphere shows evidence for buried impact basins, although none large enough to explain the hemispheric elevation difference. The gravitational potential signature of Tharsis is approximately axisymmetric and contains the Tharsis Montes but not the Olympus Mons or Alba Patera volcanoes. The gravity signature of Valles Marineris extends into Chryse and provides an estimate of material removed by early fluvial activity.
Action and entanglement in gravity and field theory.
Neiman, Yasha
2013-12-27
In nongravitational quantum field theory, the entanglement entropy across a surface depends on the short-distance regularization. Quantum gravity should not require such regularization, and it has been conjectured that the entanglement entropy there is always given by the black hole entropy formula evaluated on the entangling surface. We show that these statements have precise classical counterparts at the level of the action. Specifically, we point out that the action can have a nonadditive imaginary part. In gravity, the latter is fixed by the black hole entropy formula, while in nongravitating theories it is arbitrary. From these classical facts, the entanglement entropy conjecture follows by heuristically applying the relation between actions and wave functions. PMID:24483789
Gravitomagnetic effects in quadratic gravity with a scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finch, Andrew; Said, Jackson Levi
2016-10-01
The two gravitomagnetic effects which influence bodies orbiting around a gravitational source are the geodetic effect and the Lense-Thirring effect. The former describes the precession angle of the axis of a spinning gyroscope while in orbit around a nonrotating gravitational source whereas the latter provides a correction for this angle in the case of a spinning source. In this paper we derive the relevant equations in quadratic gravity and relate them to their equivalents in general relativity. Starting with an investigation into Kepler's third law in quadratic gravity with a scalar field, the effects of an axisymmetric and rotating gravitational source on an orbiting body in a circular, equatorial orbit are introduced.
Inversion of Gravity and Magnetic Field Data for Tyrrhena Patera
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milbury, C.; Schubert, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Smrekar, S. E.
2011-01-01
Tyrrhena Patera is located to the southeast/northeast of the Isidis/Hellas impact basin. It was geologically active into the Late Amazonian, although the main edifice was formed in the Noachian(approximately 3.7-4.0 Ga). Tyrrhena Patera and the surrounding area contain gravity and magnetic anomalies that appear to be correlated. The results presented here are for the anomalies 1a and 1b (closest to Tyrrhena Patera), however other anomalies in this region have been modeled and will be presented at the conference.The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) free-air gravity signature of Tyrrhena Patera has been studied by Kiefer, who inferred the existence of an extinct magma chamber below it. The magnetic signature has been mapped by Lillis R. J. et al., who compared electron reflectometer data, analogous to the total magnetic field, for Syrtis Major and Tyrrhena Patera and argued for demagnetization of both volcanoes.
Action and entanglement in gravity and field theory.
Neiman, Yasha
2013-12-27
In nongravitational quantum field theory, the entanglement entropy across a surface depends on the short-distance regularization. Quantum gravity should not require such regularization, and it has been conjectured that the entanglement entropy there is always given by the black hole entropy formula evaluated on the entangling surface. We show that these statements have precise classical counterparts at the level of the action. Specifically, we point out that the action can have a nonadditive imaginary part. In gravity, the latter is fixed by the black hole entropy formula, while in nongravitating theories it is arbitrary. From these classical facts, the entanglement entropy conjecture follows by heuristically applying the relation between actions and wave functions.
Prediction of physical workload in reduced gravity environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Joseph H.
1987-01-01
The background, development, and application of a methodology to predict human energy expenditure and physical workload in low gravity environments, such as a Lunar or Martian base, is described. Based on a validated model to predict energy expenditures in Earth-based industrial jobs, the model relies on an elemental analysis of the proposed job. Because the job itself need not physically exist, many alternative job designs may be compared in their physical workload. The feasibility of using the model for prediction of low gravity work was evaluated by lowering body and load weights, while maintaining basal energy expenditure. Comparison of model results was made both with simulated low gravity energy expenditure studies and with reported Apollo 14 Lunar EVA expenditure. Prediction accuracy was very good for walking and for cart pulling on slopes less than 15 deg, but the model underpredicted the most difficult work conditions. This model was applied to example core sampling and facility construction jobs, as presently conceptualized for a Lunar or Martian base. Resultant energy expenditures and suggested work-rest cycles were well within the range of moderate work difficulty. Future model development requirements were also discussed.
Mir space station bacteria responses to modeled reduced gravity under starvation conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, Paul W.; Leff, Laura G.
2006-01-01
Isolates from the Mir space station identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were subjected to clinorotation to model reduced gravity conditions in water in slow turning lateral vessels (STLVs). To examine cells in varying physiological states, bacteria were enumerated based on the Live/Dead BacLight kit, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and colony forming units (CFU). Both Pseudomonas sp. and S. maltophilia showed a slight increase in abundance over time but only cells of Pseudomonas sp. were affected by modeled reduced gravity. For Pseudomonas sp. numbers of DAPI stained cells were significantly higher under modeled reduced gravity compared to normal gravity. In addition, the abundance of cells attached to stainless steel disks, on one sampling date, was greater for the Pseudomonas isolate under modeled reduced gravity than normal gravity. The isolates examined did not appear to appreciably enter into a viable, but not culturable state during the experiments. In general, differences between treatments were not great, demonstrating that responses to reduced gravity are less apparent under starvation conditions, compared to earlier studies which used more rich nutrient sources.
Group field theories for all loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele; Ryan, James P.; Thürigen, Johannes
2015-02-01
Group field theories represent a second quantized reformulation of the loop quantum gravity state space and a completion of the spin foam formalism. States of the canonical theory, in the traditional continuum setting, have support on graphs of arbitrary valence. On the other hand, group field theories have usually been defined in a simplicial context, thus dealing with a restricted set of graphs. In this paper, we generalize the combinatorics of group field theories to cover all the loop quantum gravity state space. As an explicit example, we describe the group field theory formulation of the KKL spin foam model, as well as a particular modified version. We show that the use of tensor model tools allows for the most effective construction. In order to clarify the mathematical basis of our construction and of the formalisms with which we deal, we also give an exhaustive description of the combinatorial structures entering spin foam models and group field theories, both at the level of the boundary states and of the quantum amplitudes.
Wormholes, emergent gauge fields, and the weak gravity conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlow, Daniel
2016-01-01
This paper revisits the question of reconstructing bulk gauge fields as boundary operators in AdS/CFT. In the presence of the wormhole dual to the thermofield double state of two CFTs, the existence of bulk gauge fields is in some tension with the microscopic tensor factorization of the Hilbert space. I explain how this tension can be resolved by splitting the gauge field into charged constituents, and I argue that this leads to a new argument for the "principle of completeness", which states that the charge lattice of a gauge theory coupled to gravity must be fully populated. I also claim that it leads to a new motivation for (and a clarification of) the "weak gravity conjecture", which I interpret as a strengthening of this principle. This setup gives a simple example of a situation where describing low-energy bulk physics in CFT language requires knowledge of high-energy bulk physics. This contradicts to some extent the notion of "effective conformal field theory", but in fact is an expected feature of the resolution of the black hole information problem. An analogous factorization issue exists also for the gravitational field, and I comment on several of its implications for reconstructing black hole interiors and the emergence of spacetime more generally.
Report of the panel on geopotential fields: Gravity field, section 8
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Allen Joel; Kaula, William M.; Lazarewics, Andrew R.; Lefebvre, Michel; Phillips, Roger J.; Rapp, Richard H.; Rummel, Reinhard F.; Smith, David E.; Tapley, Byron D.; Zlotnick, Victor
1991-01-01
The objective of the Geopotential Panel was to develop a program of data acquisition and model development for the Earth's gravity and magnetic fields that meet the basic science requirements of the solid Earth and ocean studies. Presented here are the requirements for gravity information and models through the end of the century, the present status of our knowledge, data acquisition techniques, and an outline of a program to meet the requirements.
Ferguson, F; Lilleleht, L U; Nuth, J; Stephens, J R; Bussoletti, E; Colangeli, L; Mennella, V; Dell'Aversana, P; Mirra, C
1993-01-01
The formation, properties and chemical dynamics of microparticles are important in a wide variety of technical and scientific fields including synthesis of semiconductor crystals from the vapour, heterogeneous chemistry in the stratosphere and the formation of cosmic dust surrounding the stars. Gravitational effects on particle formation from vapors include gas convection and buoyancy and particle sedimentation. These processes can be significantly reduced by studying condensation and agglomeration of particles in microgravity. In addition, to accurately simulate particle formation near stars, which takes place under low gravity conditions, studies in microgravity are desired. We report here the STARDUST experience, a recent collaborative effort that brings together a successful American program of microgravity experiments on particle formation aboard NASA KC-135 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft and several Italian research groups with expertise in microgravity research and astrophysical dust formation. The program goal is to study the formation and properties of high temperature particles and gases that are of interest in astrophysics and planetary science. To do so we are developing techniques that are generally applicable to study particle formation and properties, taking advantage of the microgravity environment to allow accurate control of system parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferguson, F.; Lilleleht, L. U.; Nuth, J.; Stephens, J. R.; Bussoletti, E.; Colangeli, L.; Mennella, V.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Mirra, C.
1993-01-01
The formation, properties and chemical dynamics of microparticles are important in a wide variety of technical and scientific fields including synthesis of semiconductor crystals from the vapour, heterogeneous chemistry in the stratosphere and the formation of cosmic dust surrounding the stars. Gravitational effects on particle formation from vapors include gas convection and buoyancy and particle sedimentation. These processes can be significantly reduced by studying condensation and agglomeration of particles in microgravity. In addition, to accurately simulate particle formation near stars, which takes place under low gravity conditions, studies in microgravity are desired. We report here the STARDUST experience, a recent collaborative effort that brings together a successful American program of microgravity experiments on particle formation aboard NASA KC-135 Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft and several Italian research groups with expertise in microgravity research and astrophysical dust formation. The program goal is to study the formation and properties of high temperature particles and gases that are of interest in astrophysics and planetary science. To do so we are developing techniques that are generally applicable to study particle formation and properties, taking advantage of the microgravity environment to allow accurate control of system parameters.
Gravity, Topography, and Magnetic Field of Mercury from Messenger
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier; Ernst, Carolyn; Goosens, Sander; Hauck, Steven A., II; Head, James W., III; Johnson, Catherine L.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Margot, Jean-Luc; McNutt, Ralph; Mazarico, Erwan M.; Oberst, Jurgen; Peale, Stanley J.; Perry, Mark; Purucker, Michael E.; Rowlands, David D.; Torrence, Mark H.
2012-01-01
On 18 March 2011, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was inserted into a 12-hour, near-polar orbit around Mercury, with an initial periapsis altitude of 200 km, initial periapse latitude of 60 deg N, and apoapsis at approximately 15,200 km altitude in the southern hemisphere. This orbit has permitted the mapping of regional gravitational structure in the northern hemisphere, and laser altimetry from the MESSENGER spacecraft has yielded a geodetically controlled elevation model for the same hemisphere. The shape of a planet combined with gravity provides fundamental information regarding its internal structure and geologic and thermal evolution. Elevations in the northern hemisphere exhibit a unimodal distribution with a dynamic range of 9.63 km, less than that of the Moon (19.9 km), but consistent with Mercury's higher surface gravitational acceleration. After one Earth-year in orbit, refined models of gravity and topography have revealed several large positive gravity anomalies that coincide with major impact basins. These candidate mascons have anomalies that exceed 100 mGal and indicate substantial crustal thinning and superisostatic uplift of underlying mantle. An additional uncompensated 1000-km-diameter gravity and topographic high at 68 deg N, 33 deg E lies within Mercury's northern volcanic plains. Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is generally thicker at low latitudes than in the polar region. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR2 = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M=3.30 x 10(exp 23) kg and R=2440 km are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of Cm/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. One proposed model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes silicate crust and mantle layers overlying a dense solid (possibly Fe-S) layer, a liquid Fe
Matter in loop quantum gravity without time gauge: A nonminimally coupled scalar field
Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni
2009-10-15
We analyze the phase space of gravity nonminimally coupled to a scalar field in a generic local Lorentz frame. We reduce the set of constraints to a first class one by fixing a specific hypersurfaces in the phase space. The main issue of our analysis is to extend the features of the vacuum case to the presence of scalar matter by recovering the emergence of an SU(2) gauge structure and the nondynamical role of boost variables. Within this scheme, the supermomentum and the super-Hamiltonian are those ones associated with a scalar field minimally coupled to the metric in the Einstein frame. Hence, the kinematical Hilbert space is defined as in canonical loop quantum gravity with a scalar field, but the differences in the area spectrum are outlined to be the same as in the time-gauge approach.
The role of topography in geodetic gravity field modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forsberg, R.; Sideris, M. G.
1989-01-01
Masses associated with the topography, bathymetry, and its isostatic compensation are a dominant source of gravity field variations, especially at shorter wavelengths. On global scales the topographic/isostatic effects are also significant, except for the lowest harmonics. In practice, though, global effects need not be taken into account as such effects are included in the coefficients of the geopotential reference fields. On local scales, the short-wavelength gravity variations due to the topography may, in rugged terrain, be an order of magnitude larger than other effects. In such cases, explicit or implicit terrain reduction procedures are mandatory in order to obtain good prediction results. Such effects may be computed by space-domain integration or by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) methods. Numerical examples are given for areas of the Canadian Rockies. In principle, good knowledge of the topographic densities is required to produce the smoothest residual field. Densities may be determined from sample measurements or by gravimetric means, but both are somewhat troublesome methods in practice. The use of a standard density, e.g., 2.67 g/cu cm, may often yield satisfactory results and may be put within a consistent theoretical framework. The independence of density assumptions is the key point of the classical Molodensky approach to the geodetic boundary value problem. The Molodensky solutions take into account that land gravity field observations are done on a non-level surface. Molodensky's problem may be solved by integral expansions or more effective FFT methods, but the solution should not be intermixed with the use of terrain reductions. The methods are actually complimentary and may both be required in order to obtain the smoothest possible signal, least prone to aliasing and other effects coming from sparse data coverage, typical of rugged topography.
Users Guide for NASA Lewis Research Center DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yaniec, John S.
1995-01-01
The document provides guidelines and information for users of the DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program. It describes the facilities, requirements for test personnel, equipment design and installation, mission preparation, and in-flight procedures. Those who have used the KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft will recognize that many of the procedures and guidelines are the same, to ensure a commonality between the DC-9 and KC-135 programs.
Quantum field theory and gravity in causal sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sverdlov, Roman M.
Causal set is a model of space time that allows to reconcile discreteness and manifest relativistic invariance. This is done by viewing space time as finite, partially ordered set. The elements of the set are viewed as points of space time, or events; the partial ordering between them is viewed as causal relations. It has been shown that, in discrete scenario, the information about causal relations between events can, indeed, approximate the metric. The goal of this thesis is to introduce matter fields and their Lagrangians into causal set context. This is a two step process. The first step is to re-define gauge fields, gravity, and distances in such a way that no reference to Lorentz index is made. This is done by defining gauge fields as two-point real valued functions, and gravitational field as causal structure itself. Once the above is done, Lagrangians have to be defined in a way that they don't refer to Lorentzian indices either. This is done by introducing a notion of type 1 and type 2 Lagrangian generators, coupled with respective machinery that "translates" each generator into corresponding Lagrangian. The fields that are subject to these generators are, respectively, defined as type 1 and type 2. The main difference between two kinds of fields is the prediction of different behavior in different dimensions of type 2 fields. However, despite our inability to travel to different dimensions, gravity was shown to be type 2 based on the erroneous predictions of its 4-dimensional behavior if it was viewed as type 1. However, no erroneous predictions are made if non-gravitational fields are viewed as either type 1 or type 2, thus the nature of the latter is still an open question. Finally, an attempt was made to provide interpretation of quantum mechanics that would allow to limit fluctuations of causal structure to allow some topological background. However, due to its controversial nature, it is placed in the Appendix.
Using Clocks and Atomic Interferometry for Gravity Field Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Jürgen
2016-07-01
New technology developed in the frame of fundamental physics may lead to enhanced capabilities for geodetic applications such as refined observations of the Earth's gravity field. Here, we will present new sensor measurement concepts that apply atomic interferometry for gravimetry and clock measurements for observing potential values. In the first case, gravity anomalies can be determined by observing free-falling atoms (quantum gravimetry). In the second case, highly precise optical clocks can be used to measure differences of the gravity potential over long distances (relativistic geodesy). Principally, also inter-satellite ranging between test masses in space with nanometer accuracy belongs to these novel developments. We will show, how the new measurement concepts are connected to classical geodetic concepts, e.g. geopotential numbers and clock readings. We will illustrate the application of these new methods and their benefit for geodesy, where local and global mass variations can be observed with unforeseen accuracy and resolution, mass variations that reflect processes in the Earth system. We will present a few examples where geodesy will potentially benefit from these developments. Thus, the novel technologies might be applied for defining and realizing height systems in a new way, but also for fast local gravimetric surveys and exploration.
Raffai, Peter; Szeifert, Gabor; Matone, Luca; Bartos, Imre; Marka, Zsuzsa; Aso, Yoichi; Ricci, Fulvio; Marka, Szabolcs
2011-10-15
We present an experimental opportunity for the future to measure possible violations to Newton's 1/r{sup 2} law in the 0.1-10 m range using dynamic gravity field generators (DFG) and taking advantage of the exceptional sensitivity of modern interferometric techniques. The placement of a DFG in proximity to one of the interferometer's suspended test masses generates a change in the local gravitational field that can be measured at a high signal to noise ratio. The use of multiple DFGs in a null-experiment configuration allows us to test composition-independent non-Newtonian gravity significantly beyond the present limits. Advanced and third-generation gravitational-wave detectors are representing the state-of-the-art in interferometric distance measurement today, therefore, we illustrate the method through their sensitivity to emphasize the possible scientific reach. Nevertheless, it is expected that due to the technical details of gravitational-wave detectors, DFGs shall likely require dedicated custom-configured interferometry. However, the sensitivity measure we derive is a solid baseline indicating that it is feasible to consider probing orders of magnitude into the pristine parameter well beyond the present experimental limits significantly cutting into the theoretical parameter space.
Gravity Field, Topography, and Interior Structure of Amalthea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, J. D.; Anabtawi, A.; Jacobson, R. A.; Johnson, T. V.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Schubert, G.; Taylor, A. H.; Thomas, P. C.; Weinwurm, G.
2002-12-01
A close Galileo flyby of Jupiter's inner moon Amalthea (JV) occurred on 5 November 2002. The final aimpoint was selected by the Galileo Radio Science Team on 5 July 2002. The closest approach distance for the selected aimpoint was 221 km from the center of mass, the latitude was - 45.23 Deg and the west longitude was 266.41 Deg (IAU/IAG/COSPAR cartographic coordinate system). In order to achieve an acceptable impact probability (0.15%), and yet fly close to Amalthea, the trajectory was selected from a class of trajectories running parallel to Amalthea's long axis. The Deep Space Network (DSN) had the capability to generate continuous coherent radio Doppler data during the flyby. Such data can be inverted to obtain information on Amalthea's gravity field. Amalthea is irregular and neither a triaxial ellipsoid nor an equilibrium body. It has a volume of about 2.4 x 106 km3, and its best-fit ellipsoid has dimensions 131x73x67 km. Its mass can be determined from the 2002 flyby, and in combination with the volume, a density can be obtained accurate to about 5%, where the error is dominated by the volume uncertainty. Similarly, gravity coefficients (Cnm Snm) can be detected up to fourth degree and order, and the second degree field (quadrupole) can be measured. Topography data are available from Voyager imaging and from images taken with Galileo's solid state imaging system at various times between February and June 1997. By combining the gravity and topography data, new information can be obtained on Amalthea's interior. For example if the gravity coefficients agree with those calculated from the topography, assuming constant density, we can conclude that Amalthea is homogeneous. On the other hand, if the gravity coefficients are smaller than predicted from topography, we can conclude that there is a concentration of mass toward Amalthea's center. We are presenting preliminary pre-publication results at the Fall meeting. This work was sponsored by the Galileo Project
The determination of Dione's gravity field after four Cassini flybys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zannoni, Marco; Tortora, Paolo; Iess, Luciano; Jacobson, Robert A.; Armstrong, John W.; Asmar, Sami W.
2015-04-01
We present the expected accuracy in the determination of Dione's gravity field obtained through numerical simulations of all radio science flybys currently planned in the entire Cassini mission. During its tour of the Saturn system, Cassini already performed two flybys of Dione dedicated to the determination of its mass and gravity field, in October 2005 and December 2011, respectively. Two additional radio science flybys are planned in June 2015 and August 2015. The analysis of the Doppler data acquired during the closest approach of the second flyby allowed the first estimation of Dione's J2 and C22 but, given the limited amount of data, their estimation has a large correlation and cannot be considered fully reliable. Here we infer the expected final accuracy in the determination of Dione's J2 and C22 by combining the available results from the already performed experiments with numerical simulations of future flybys. The main observables considered in the analysis are two-way and three-way Doppler data obtained from the frequency shift of a highly stable microwave carrier between the spacecraft and the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network. White Gaussian noise was added to the simulated data, with a constant standard deviation for each tracking pass, obtained from an accurate noise budget of the Cassini mission. For the two flybys to be carried out in 2015, we consider a continuous coverage during +/-18 hours around the closest approach, plus one tracking pass 36 hours before and after it. The data analysis is carried out using a global, multi-arc fit, and comparing the independent solutions obtained from each flyby and different multi-arc solutions. The analysis of all four flybys is expected to provide the best, unconstrained, reliable estimation of the full quadrupole gravity field of Dione.
Laminar dust flames in a reduced-gravity environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goroshin, Samuel; Tang, Francois-David; Higgins, Andrew J.; Lee, John H. S.
2011-04-01
The propagation of laminar dust flames in suspensions of iron in gaseous oxidizers was studied in a low-gravity environment onboard a parabolic flight aircraft. The reduction of buoyancy-induced convective flows and particle settling permitted the measurement of fundamental combustion parameters, such as the burning velocity and the flame quenching distance over a wide range of particle sizes and in different gaseous mixtures. Experimentally measured flame speeds and quenching distances were found in good agreement with theoretical predictions of a simplified analytical model that assumes particles burning in a diffusive mode. However, the comparison of flame speeds in oxygen-argon and oxygen-helium iron suspensions indicates the possibility that fine micron-sized particles burn in the kinetic mode. Furthermore, when the particle spacing is large compared to the scale of the reaction zone, a theoretical analysis suggests the existence of a new so-called discrete flame propagation regime. Discrete flames are strongly dependent on particle density fluctuations and demonstrate directed percolation behavior near flame propagation limits. The experimental observation of discrete flames in particle suspensions will require low levels of gravity over extended periods available only on orbital platforms.
Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.
Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Watkins, Michael M; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Goossens, Sander J; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S; Yuan, Dah-Ning
2013-02-01
Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies. PMID:23223395
Gravity field data products from the ARISTOTELES mission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balmino, G.
1991-12-01
The ARISTOTELES mission will bring a wealth of homogeneous information about the Earth gravity field enabling new direct and inverse modeling of geophysical structures at various scales, yielding a reference geoid surface of great quality for oceanographic studies, leading to global models of high resolution for versatile applications and in particular precise orbit determination of artificial satellites. The author's purpose is to review the different types of measurements involved in these investigations, the various levels of processing and how they can be phased with the scientific activities, and the expected products. Also, some general schemes are proposed along which the different tasks can be undertaken.
Mercury's Gravity Field from BepiColombo MORE experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marabucci, M.; Genova, A.; Iess, L.
2012-04-01
The Mercury Orbiter Radioscience Experiment (MORE) is one of the main instruments on board the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), designed to provide an accurate estimation of Mercury's gravity field by means of highly stable, multi-frequency radio links in X and Ka band. The state-of-the-art microwave equipment enables simultaneous two-way links in X/X (7.2 GHz uplink/8.4 GHz downlink), X/Ka (7.2/32.5 GHz) and Ka/Ka band (34/32.5 GHz), providing range rate accuracies of 3 micron/s (at 1000 s integration time) at nearly all elongation angles. Range observables accurate to 20 cm (two-way) will be attained using a novel, wideband (24 Mcps) ranging system, based upon a pseudo-noise modulation scheme. The multifrequency link, adopted for the first time by the Cassini mission to Saturn [1,2], allows a nearly complete cancellation of the plasma noise both in Doppler and range measurements and hence an accurate determination of Mercury's gravity field and ephemerides. The orbit determination of spacecraft in deep space is generally carried out by means of batch filters, for recovering the trajectory and the model parameters (i.e. gravity field coefficients). The complexity of Mercury's environment penalizes strongly the accuracy of the orbit determination because of the non-gravitational perturbations, such as the solar radiation pressure. Although the non-gravitational accelerations of the MPO will be measured by a highly sensitive accelerometer (the Italian Spring Accelerometer, ISA), a classical, global batch filter proved to be inadequate for precise orbit propagation due to numerical instabilities. Therefore, a different approach has been devised, where the information accumulated previously is exploited in a batch-sequential filter. This paper reports on a new set of numerical simulations carried out with this strategy. The simulation setup takes into account the latest changes in the spacecraft design, the mission profile and the tracking system. We
Paramagnetic Liquid Bridge in a Gravity-Compensating Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahajan, Milind P.; Tsige, Mesfin; Taylor, P. L.; Rosenblatt, Charles
1999-01-01
Magnetic levitation was used to stabilize cylindrical columns of a paramagnetic liquid in air between two solid supports. The maximum achievable length to diameter ratio R(sub max) was approx. (3.10 +/- 0.07), very close to the Rayleigh-Plateau limit of pi. For smaller R, the stability of the column was measured as a function of the Bond number, which could be continuously varied by adjusting the strength of the magnetic field. Liquid bridges supported by two solid surfaces have been attracting scientific attention since the time of Rayleigh and Plateau. For a cylindrical bridge of length L and diameter d, it was shown theoretically that in zero gravity the maximum slenderness ratio R (identically = L/d) is pi. The stability and ultimate collapse of such bridges is of interest because of their importance in a number of industrial processes and their potential for low gravity applications. In the presence of gravity, however, the cylindrical shape of an axisymmetric bridge tends to deform, limiting its stability and decreasing the maximum achievable value of R. Theoretical studies have discussed the stability and possible shapes of axisymmetric bridges. Experiments typically are performed in either a Plateau tank, in which the bridge is surrounded by a density-matched immiscible fluid, or in a space-borne microgravity environment. It has been shown, for example, that the stability limit R can be pushed beyond pi by using flow stabilization, by acoustic radiation pressure, or by forming columns in the presence of an axial electric field. In this work, magnetic levitation was used to simulate a low gravity environment and create quasi-cylindrical liquid columns in air. Use of a magnetic field permits us to continuously vary the Bond number B identically equal to (g)(rho)d(exp 2)/4(sigma), where g is the gravitational acceleration, rho is the density of the liquid, and sigma is the surface tension of the liquid in air. The dimensionless Bond number represents the
Electromagnetic field and cylindrical compact objects in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yousaf, Z.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem ul Haq
2016-05-01
In this paper, we have investigated the role of different fluid parameters particularly electromagnetic field and f(R) corrections on the evolution of cylindrical compact object. We have explored the modified field equations, kinematical quantities and dynamical equations. An expression for the mass function has been found in comparison with the Misner-Sharp formalism in modified gravity, after which different mass-radius diagrams are drawn. The coupled dynamical transport equation have been formulated to discuss the role of thermoinertial effects on the inertial mass density of the cylindrical relativistic interior. Finally, we have presented a framework, according to which all possible solutions of the metric f(R)-Maxwell field equations coupled with static fluid can be written through set of scalar functions. It is found that modified gravity induced by Lagrangians f(R) = αR2, f(R) = αR2 - βR and f(R)=α R^2-β R/1+γ R are likely to host more massive cylindrical compact objects with smaller radii as compared to general relativity.
Perturbations of single-field inflation in modified gravity theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Taotao; Xia, Jun-Qing
2015-05-01
In this paper, we study the case of single field inflation within the framework of modified gravity theory where the gravity part has an arbitrary form f (R). Via a conformal transformation, this case can be transformed into its Einstein frame where it looks like a two-field inflation model. However, due to the existence of the isocurvature modes in such a multi-degree-of-freedom (m.d.o.f.) system, the (curvature) perturbations are not equivalent in two frames, so despite of its convenience, it is illegal to treat the perturbations in its Einstein frame as the "real" ones as we always do for pure f (R) theory or single field with nonminimal coupling. Here by pulling the results of curvature perturbations back into its original Jordan frame, we show explicitly the power spectrum and spectral index of the perturbations in the Jordan frame, as well as how it differs from the Einstein frame. We also fit our results with the newest Planck data. Since there is large parameter space in these models, we show that it is easy to fit the data very well.
Study of Critical Heat Flux and Two-Phase Pressure Drop Under Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdollahian, Davood; Quintal, Joseph; Barez, Fred; Zahm, Jennifer; Lohr, Victor
1996-01-01
The design of the two-phase flow systems which are anticipated to be utilized in future spacecraft thermal management systems requires a knowledge of two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena in reduced gravities. This program was funded by NASA headquarters in response to NRA-91-OSSA-17 and was managed by Lewis Research Center. The main objective of this program was to design and construct a two-phase test loop, and perform a series of normal gravity and aircraft trajectory experiments to study the effect of gravity on the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and onset of instability. The test loop was packaged on two aircraft racks and was also instrumented to generate data for two-phase pressure drop. The normal gravity tests were performed with vertical up and downflow configurations to bound the effect of gravity on the test parameters. One set of aircraft trajectory tests was performed aboard the NASA DC-9 aircraft. These tests were mainly intended to evaluate the test loop and its operational performance under actual reduced gravity conditions, and to produce preliminary data for the test parameters. The test results were used to demonstrate the applicability of the normal gravity models for prediction of the two-phase friction pressure drop. It was shown that the two-phase friction multipliers for vertical upflow and reduced gravity conditions can be successfully predicted by the appropriate normal gravity models. Limited critical heat flux data showed that the measured CHF under reduced gravities are of the same order of magnitude as the test results with vertical upflow configuration. A simplified correlation was only successful in predicting the measured CHF for low flow rates. Instability tests with vertical upflow showed that flow becomes unstable and critical heat flux occurs at smaller powers when a parallel flow path exists. However, downflow tests and a single reduced gravity instability experiment indicated that the system actually became more stable with a
Fugacity and concentration gradients in a gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
May, C. E.
1986-01-01
Equations are reviewed which show that at equilibrium fugacity and concentration gradients can exist in gravitational fields. At equilibrium, the logarithm of the ratio of the fugacities of a species at two different locations in a gravitational field is proportional to the difference in the heights of the two locations and the molecular weight of the species. An analogous relation holds for the concentration ratios in a multicomponent system. The ratio is calculated for a variety of examples. The kinetics for the general process are derived, and the time required to approach equilibrium is calculated for several systems. The following special topics are discussed: ionic solutions, polymers, multiphase systems, hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure, and solubility gradients in a gravity field.
Bubble Formation and Detachment in Liquid Flow Under Normal and Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nahra, Henry K.; Kamotani, Y.
1998-01-01
Two-phase flows are present in a wide variety of applications for spacecraft thermal control systems design. Bubble formation and detachment is an integral part of the two-phase flow science. The authors objective is to experimentally investigate the effects of liquid cross velocity, gas velocity, and nozzle diameter on the bubble diameter at detachment under reduced and normal gravity and under relatively low gas flow rates. Results from ground (1 g) and reduced gravity experiments will be presented in this paper. For the 1 g experiment, a flow loop was designed and built to accommodate a range of liquid and gas flow rates. The reduced gravity experiment was conducted on the NASA DC-9 reduced gravity platform using the two-phase flow loop qualified for operation on the low-gravity platform. Flow visualization is accomplished using a high speed 500 frames/s camera. The results suggest that the existence of buoyancy force contributes to the faster detachment of bubbles. Buoyancy helps the detachment process which results in smaller bubbles being formed. In reduced gravity, although drag force is present, the virtual non-existence of buoyant force results in larger bubbles and longer times for detachment. Theoretical predictions are also presented in this paper and seem to agree with the experimental results.
Evaluation of an ATP Assay to Quantify Bacterial Attachment to Surfaces in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birmele, Michele N.; Roberson, Luke B.; Roberts, Michael S.
2010-01-01
Aim: To develop an assay to quantify the biomass of attached cells and biofilm formed on wetted surfaces in variable-gravity environments. Methods and Results: Liquid cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exposed to 30-35 brief cycles of hypergravity (< 2-g) followed by free fall (i.e., reduced gravity) equivalent to either lunar-g (i.e., 0.17 normal Earth gravity) or micro-g (i.e., < 0.001 normal Earth gravity) in an aircraft flying a series of parabolas. Over the course of two days of parabolic flight testing, 504 polymer or metal coupons were exposed to a stationary-phase population of P. aeruginosa strain ERC1 at a concentration of 1.0 x 10(exp 5) cells per milliliter. After the final parabola on each flight test day, half of the material coupon samples were treated with either 400 micro-g/L ionic silver fluoride (microgravity-exposed cultures) or 1% formalin (lunar-gravity-exposed cultures). The remaining sample coupons from each flight test day were not treated with a fixative. All samples were returned to the laboratory for analysis within 2 hours of landing, and all biochemical assays were completed within 8 hours of exposure to variable gravity. The intracellular ATP luminescent assay accurately reflected cell physiology compared to both cultivation-based and direct-count microscopy analyses. Cells exposed to variable gravity had more than twice as much intracellular ATP as control cells exposed only to normal Earth gravity.
Loop quantum cosmology from quantum reduced loop gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco
2015-08-01
We show how loop quantum cosmology can be derived as an effective semiclassical description of loop quantum gravity. Using the tools of QRLG, a gauge fixed version of LQG, we take the coherent states of the fundamental microscopic theory suitable to describe a Bianchi I Universe and we find a mapping between the expectation value of the Hamiltonian and the dynamics of LQC. Our results are in agreement with a lattice refinement framework for LQC, thus the so-called “old” and “improved-dynamics” regularization schemes can be reproduced. These amount to different choices of relations between local variables and the smeared ones entering the definition of the coherent states. The leading order of the fundamental theory corresponds to LQC, but we also find different inverse volume corrections, that depend on a purely quantum observable, namely the number of nodes of the states.
Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niederhaus, Charles E.; Nahra, Henry K.; Kizito, John P.
2004-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson is leading the development of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor--Space (HFB-S) for use on the ISS to study tissue growth in microgravity. Glenn is providing microgravity fluid physics expertise to help with the design and evaluation of the HFB-S. These bioreactors are used for three-dimensional tissue culture, which cannot be done in ground-based labs in normal gravity. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The bioreactor must provide a uniform distribution of oxygen and nutrients while minimizing the shear stresses on the tissue culture.
Determination of Enceladus' gravity field from Cassini radio science data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parisi, Marzia; Iess, Luciano; Ducci, Marco
2014-05-01
In May 2012 the Cassini spacecraft completed its last gravity flyby of Saturn's moon Enceladus (identified as E19 in the sequence), following E9 in April 2010 and E12 in November 2010. The multiarc analysis of the gravity data collected during these low-altitude encounters has produced a stable solution for the gravity field of Enceladus, leading to compelling inferences and implications on the interior structure, but also raising new questions on the evolution of this small but yet fascinating icy body. The gravitational signature of the satellite was detected by means of precise Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft around closest approach (±3h) of the three flybys. Cassini tracking system exploits both X/X and X/Ka links, with accuracies that range between 0.02 - 0.09 mm/s at 60 s integration time. Range-rate measurements were processed into a multi-arc least square filter so as to attain a solution for the quadrupole field of Enceladus and its degree-3 zonal harmonic J3, the most important indication of hemispherical asymmetries. In addition to these crucial parameters, corrections to the estimated orbits of Cassini and Enceladus were applied. The inclusion in the dynamical model of the neutral particle drag exerted by Enceladus south polar plumes (1) is essential for a satisfactory orbital fit. The results of the analysis show that Enceladus is indeed characterized by a predominant quadrupole term, with its J2/C22 ratio being that of a body not in hydrostatic equilibrium. The estimate of tesseral degree-2 coefficients (C21, S21 and C22), being statistically close to 0 (at a 3-σ level), imply that the adopted rotational model for the satellite is consistent with the observed gravity field. Furthermore, the estimated value for J3 turned out to be statistically significant (although only about 1/50 of J2) and pointing at a significant hemispherical asymmetry that is consistent with the presence of a regional sea at depth. References (1) C.C. Porco et al
Contribution of satellite laser ranging to combined gravity field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, A.; Krauss, S.; Hausleitner, W.; Baur, O.
2012-02-01
In the framework of satellite-only gravity field modeling, satellite laser ranging (SLR) data is typically exploited to recover long-wavelength features. This contribution provides a detailed discussion of the SLR component of GOCO02S, the latest release of combined models within the GOCO series. Over a period of five years (January 2006 to December 2010), observations to LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, Ajisai, Stella, and Starlette were analyzed. We conducted a series of closed-loop simulations and found that estimating monthly sets of spherical harmonic coefficients beyond degree five leads to exceedingly ill-posed normal equation systems. Therefore, we adopted degree five as the spectral resolution for real data analysis. We compared our monthly coefficient estimates of degree two with SLR and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) time series provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR) at Austin, Texas. Significant deviations in C20 were noted between SLR and GRACE; the agreement is better for the non-zonal coefficients. Fitting sinusoids together with a linear trend to our C20 time series yielded a rate of (-1.75 ± 0.6) × 10-11/yr; this drift is equivalent to a geoid change from pole to equator of 0.35 ± 0.12 mm/yr or an apparent Greenland mass loss of 178.5 ± 61.2 km3/yr. The mean of all monthly solutions, averaged over the five-year period, served as input for the satellite-only model GOCO02S. The contribution of SLR to the combined gravity field model is highest for C20, and hence is essential for the determination of the Earth's oblateness.
KMS2002 Global Marine Gravity Field, Bathymetry And Mean Sea Surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, O. B.
2003-12-01
During the last three years the KMS global marine gravity field has been improved in corporation with National Imaginary and Mapping Agency (NIMA). These improvements have resulted in a release of KMS99 and KMS2001 gravity fields. Especially, the KMS99 gravity field presented a significant improvement in comparisons with marine observations, as well as global coverage within the 82 degree parallels by adding the ERS-ERM data. The subsequent, KMS2001 only resulted in minor improved gravity field modelling. A new revised global high resolution marine gravity field KMS2002 is presented in this Combining this fine- tuning with careful edition of data are expected to improve the KMS2002 gravity field, in particularly coastal regions. Improved resolution and data coverage in particularly ice-covered regions are other improvements, which is currently under investigation. The KMS gravity field modelling approach uses the observed sea surface height anomalies relative to EGM96 and converts these into gravity using FFT techniques. For the KMS2002 focus has been on improved mapping of the intermediate wavelength (100-250 km) of the gravity field using the exact repeat mission data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS-2 satellite missions. The KMS2002 gravity field is accompanied with a high-resolution bathymetry model and a high resolution mean sea surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, H. D.; Schiller, D. N.; Disimile, P.; Sirignano, W. A.
1989-01-01
The temperature and velocity fields have been investigated for a single-phase gas system and a two-layer gas-and-liquid system enclosed in a circular cylinder being heated suddenly and nonuniformly from above. The transient response of the gas, liquid, and container walls was modelled numerically in normal and reduced gravity (10 to the -5 g). Verification of the model was accomplished via flow visualization experiments in 10 cm high by 10 cm diameter plexiglass cylinders.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew
2016-08-01
The Ernst formulation of the Einstein equations is generalized to accommodate f (R ) theories of gravity. It is shown that, as in general relativity, the axisymmetric f (R ) field equations for a vacuum spacetime that is either stationary or cylindrically symmetric reduce to a single, nonlinear differential equation for a complex-valued scalar function. As a worked example, we apply the generalized Ernst equations to derive a f (R ) generalization of the Zipoy-Voorhees metric, which may be used to describe the gravitational field outside of an ellipsoidal neutron star. We also apply the theory to investigate the phase speed of large-amplitude gravitational waves in f (R ) gravity in the context of solitonlike solutions that display shock-wave behavior across the causal boundary.
Satellite gravity field derivatives for identifying geological boundaries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, O.; Gimenez, M.; Braitenberg, C.; Folguera, A.
2012-04-01
The Pampean flat slab zone developed in the last 17 Ma between 27° and 33°S, and has denuded an intricate collage of crustal blocks amalgamated during the Pampean, Famatinian and San Rafael deformational stages, that is far of being completely understood. For potential field studies these amalgamations have the effect of defining important compositional and density heterogeneities. Geophysical data from different studies show a sharp boundary between the two adjacent and contrasting crusts of Pampia and the Cuyania terrane. Recent aeromagnetic surveys have inferred a mafic and ultramafic belt interpreted as a buried ophiolitic suite hosted in the corresponding suture. This boundary coincides locally with basement exposures of high to medium grade metamorphic rocks developed in close association with the Famatinian orogen of Early to Middle Ordovician age. Lower crustal rocks are exposed along this first order crustal discontinuity. The Río de la Plata basement crops out from southern Uruguay to eastern-center Argentina with an approximate surface of 20,000 km2. Oldest rocks have been dated in 2,200 and 1,700 Ma, indicating that they constituted a different block to Pampia. The boundary between Pampia and the Rio de la Plata craton is not exposed. However, a strong gravimetric anomaly identified in the central part of the foothills of the Sierras de Córdoba indicates a first order crustal discontinuity that has been related to their collision in Neoproterozoic times. This work focuses on the determination of mass heterogeneities over the Pampean flat slab zone using gravity anomaly and vertical gravity gradient, with the aim to determine discontinuities in the pattern of terrain amalgamation that conformed the basement. Satellite gravimetry is highly sensitive to these variations. Recent satellite missions, (CHAMP, GRACE, and GOCE) have introduced an extraordinary improvement in the global mapping of the gravity field. We control the quality of the terrestrial
A Revolution in Mars Topography and Gravity and Magnetic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, David E.
2002-01-01
Since the arrival of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) at Mars in September 1997 and the subsequent beginning of observations of the planet there has been a constant stream of surprises and puzzling observations that have kept scientists looking at new 'out of the box' explanations. Observations of the shape and topography have shown a planet with one hemisphere, the southern, several kilometers higher than the north and a northern hemisphere that is so flat and smooth in places that it's difficult to imagine it was not once the bottom of an ocean. And yet the ocean idea presents some enormous difficulties. The measurements of gravity derived from the tracking of MGS have shown that several Mars volcanoes are enormous positive gravity anomalies much larger than we see on Earth and revealed small errors in the orbit of Mars and or Earth. And the magnetic field is found to be composed of a number of extremely large crustal anomalies; but as far as can be ascertained there is no main dipole field such as we have on Earth. Understanding these diverse observations and placing them in the sequence of the evolution of the planet will be a long, challenging but rewarding task.
Altimeter measurements for the determination of the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.
1987-01-01
The ability of satellite-borne radar altimeter data to measure the global ocean surface with high precision and dense spatial coverage provides a unique tool for the mapping of the Earth's gravity field and its geoid. The altimeter crossover measurements, created by differencing direct altimeter measurements at the subsatellite points where the orbit ground tracks intersect, have the distinct advantage of eliminating geoid error and other nontemporal or long period oceanographic features. In the 1990's, the joint U.S./French TOPEX/POSEIDON mission and the European Space Agency's ERS-1 mission will carry radar altimeter instruments capable of global ocean mapping with high precision. This investigation aims at the development and application of dynamically consistent direct altimeter and altimeter crossover measurement models to the simultaneous mapping of the Earth's gravity field and its geoid, the ocean tides and the quasi-stationary component of the dynamic sea surface topography. Altimeter data collected by SEASAT, GEOS-3, and GEOSAT are used for the investigation.
Expansion of functions describing planetary surface and gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valeyev, S. G.
1985-02-01
The problem of description of the surface and gravity field of planets is examined using an expansion in spherical and other functions with particular consideration of the problem of expansion of lunar relief in spherical functions. The factors exerting an influence on approximating expressions can be divided into two groups. The first group includes errors generated by observational errors. Errors in the second group, generated by the mathematical description itself are stressed here. The approach used in solving the problem is statistical (regression) modeling. This approach is applied in an expansion of a function describing averaged surface relief by a number of spherical harmonics. The numerical example presented shows that the use of regression modeling makes it possible to obtain expansions with a number of terms approximately half as great as in the ordinary approach with the same or a higher descriptive accuracy. Also examined are the problems caused by the great dimensionality of the problems and the diversity of variants of initial data. The described approach gives adequate but economical models of relief and the gravity field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.
1992-01-01
The paper discusses the dynamical behavior of vapor ingestion, liquid residual at the incipience of suction dip, slosh wave excitation under normal and reduced gravity and different flow rates during liquid hydrogen draining. Liquid residuals at the incipience of suction dip increase as the values of gravity decrease. Also liquid residuals increase with the draining flow rates. Lower ratio of Bond number and Weber number are unable to excite slosh waves. Lower flow rates and higher gravity excites waves with lower frequencies and higher wave amplitude slosh waves.
The use of high-resolution terrain data in gravity field prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Groten, E.; Becker, M.; Euler, H.-J.; Hausch, W.; Kling, TH.
1989-01-01
Different types of gravity prediction methods for local and regional gravity evaluation are developed, tested, and compared. Four different test areas were particularly selected in view of different prediction requirements. Also different parts of the spectrum of the gravity field were considered.
Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra
2016-04-01
's 20 trading partner countries, for a time frame from 1995 to 2013. The calculations -implemented for each country and each crop- display a network that illustrates the gravity of virtual water trade. It is then possible for us to model the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field, via the statistical examination of its spatial fragmentation or continuity for each traded crop and for each water footprint type. Hence, with the distribution's entropy we may conduct a targeted analysis on the comparative advantages of the Egyptian agriculture. Keywords: entropy, virtual water trade, gravity model, agricultural trade, water footprint, water subsidies, comparative advantage References 1. Antonelli, Marta and Martina Sartori (2014), Unfolding the potential of the Virtual Water concept. What is still under debate?, MPRA Paper No. 60501, http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/60501/ 2. Fracasso, Andrea (2014), A gravity model of virtual water trade, Ecological Economics, Vol. 108, p. 215-228 3. Fracasso, Andrea; Martina Sartori and Stefano Schiavo (2014), Determinants of virtual water flows in the Mediterranean, MPRA Paper No. 60500, https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/60500/ 4. Yang, H. et al. (2006), Virtual water trade: An assessment of water use efficiency in the international food trade, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 10, p. 443-454
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Lunar and Martian Gravity Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, Subhajit
2004-01-01
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required training for all astronauts. No studies thus far have investigated how chest compressions may be affected in lunar and Martian gravities. Therefore a theoretical quantitative study was performed. The maximum downward force an unrestrained person can apply is mg N (g(sub Earth) = 9.78 ms(sup -2), g(sub moon) = 1.63 ms(sup -2), g(sub Mars) = 3.69 ms(sup -2). Tsitlik et a1 (Critical Care Medicine, 1983) described the human sternal elastic force-displacement relationship (compliance) by: F = betaD(sub s) + gammaD(sub s)(sup 2) (beta = 54.9 plus or minus 29.4 Ncm(sup -1) and gamma = 10.8 plus or minus 4.1 Ncm(sup -2)). Maximum forces in the 3 gravitational fields produced by 76 kg (US population mean), 41 kg and 93 kg (masses derived from the limits for astronaut height), produced solutions for compression depth using Tsitlik equations for chests of: mean compliance (beta = 54.9, gamma = 10.8), low compliance (beta = 84.3, gamma = 14.9) and high compliance (beta = 25.5, gamma = 6.7). The mass for minimum adequate adult compression, 3.8 cm (AHA guidelines), was also calculated. 76 kg compresses the mean compliance chest by: Earth, 6.1 cm, Mars, 3.2 cm, Moon, 1.7 cm. In lunar gravity, the high compliance chest is compressed only 3.2 cm by 93 kg, 120 kg being required for 3.8 cm. In Martian gravity, on the mean chest, 93 kg compresses 3.6 cm; 99 kg is required for 3.8 cm. On Mars, the high compliance chest is compressed 4.8 cm with 76 kg, 5.5 cm with 93 kg, with 52 kg required for 3.8 cm.
Singular boundary method for global gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunderlik, Robert
2014-05-01
The singular boundary method (SBM) and method of fundamental solutions (MFS) are meshless boundary collocation techniques that use the fundamental solution of a governing partial differential equation (e.g. the Laplace equation) as their basis functions. They have been developed to avoid singular numerical integration as well as mesh generation in the traditional boundary element method (BEM). SBM have been proposed to overcome a main drawback of MFS - its controversial fictitious boundary outside the domain. The key idea of SBM is to introduce a concept of the origin intensity factors that isolate singularities of the fundamental solution and its derivatives using some appropriate regularization techniques. Consequently, the source points can be placed directly on the real boundary and coincide with the collocation nodes. In this study we deal with SBM applied for high-resolution global gravity field modelling. The first numerical experiment presents a numerical solution to the fixed gravimetric boundary value problem. The achieved results are compared with the numerical solutions obtained by MFS or the direct BEM indicating efficiency of all methods. In the second numerical experiments, SBM is used to derive the geopotential and its first derivatives from the Tzz components of the gravity disturbing tensor observed by the GOCE satellite mission. A determination of the origin intensity factors allows to evaluate the disturbing potential and gravity disturbances directly on the Earth's surface where the source points are located. To achieve high-resolution numerical solutions, the large-scale parallel computations are performed on the cluster with 1TB of the distributed memory and an iterative elimination of far zones' contributions is applied.
Effect of reduced gravity on the preferred walk-run transition speed.
Kram, R; Domingo, A; Ferris, D P
1997-02-01
We investigated the effect of reduced gravity on the human walk-run gait transition speed and interpreted the results using an inverted-pendulum mechanical model. We simulated reduced gravity using an apparatus that applied a nearly constant upward force at the center of mass, and the subjects walked and ran on a motorized treadmill. In the inverted pendulum model for walking, gravity provides the centripetal force needed to keep the pendulum in contact with the ground. The ratio of the centripetal and gravitational forces (mv2/L)/(mg) reduces to the dimensionless Froude number (v2/gL). Applying this model to a walking human, m is body mass, v is forward velocity, L is leg length and g is gravity. In normal gravity, humans and other bipeds with different leg lengths all choose to switch from a walk to a run at different absolute speeds but at approximately the same Froude number (0.5). We found that, at lower levels of gravity, the walk-run transition occurred at progressively slower absolute speeds but at approximately the same Froude number. This supports the hypothesis that the walk-run transition is triggered by the dynamics of an inverted-pendulum system. PMID:9076966
Capabilities and constraints of NASA's ground-based reduced gravity facilities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lekan, Jack; Neumann, Eric S.; Sotos, Raymond G.
1993-01-01
The ground-based reduced gravity facilities of NASA have been utilized to support numerous investigations addressing various processes and phenomina in several disciplines for the past 30 years. These facilities, which include drop towers, drop tubes, aircraft, and sounding rockets are able to provide a low gravity environment (gravitational levels that range from 10(exp -2)g to 10(exp -6)g) by creating a free fall or semi-free fall condition where the force of gravity on an experiment is offset by its linear acceleration during the 'fall' (drop or parabola). The low gravity condition obtained on the ground is the same as that of an orbiting spacecraft which is in a state of perpetual free fall. The gravitational levels and associated duration times associated with the full spectrum of reduced gravity facilities including spaced-based facilities are summarized. Even though ground-based facilities offer a relatively short experiment time, this available test time has been found to be sufficient to advance the scientific understanding of many phenomena and to provide meaningful hardware tests during the flight experiment development process. Also, since experiments can be quickly repeated in these facilities, multistep phenomena that have longer characteristic times associated with them can sometimes be examined in a step-by-step process. There is a large body of literature which has reported the study results achieved through using reduced-gravity data obtained from the facilities.
GRAIL - A Microwave Ranging Instrument to Map Out the Lunar Gravity Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Enzer, Daphna G.; Wang, Rabi T.; Klipstein, William M.
2010-01-01
Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory, or GRAIL, is a NASA mission to map out the gravity field of the moon to an unprecedented level of detail. The instrument for this mission is based on GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment), an earth-orbiting mission currently mapping out the gravity field of the earth. This paper will describe the similarities and differences between these two instruments with a focus on the microwave ranging measurements used to determine the gravity parameters and the testbed built at Jet Propulsion Laboratory to demonstrate micron level ranging capability. The onboard ultrastable oscillator and RF instruments will be described and noise contributions discussed.
Cool Flames in Propane-Oxygen Premixtures at Low and Intermediate Temperatures at Reduced-Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearlman, Howard; Foster, Michael; Karabacak, Devrez
2003-01-01
The Cool Flame Experiment aims to address the role of diffusive transport on the structure and the stability of gas-phase, non-isothermal, hydrocarbon oxidation reactions, cool flames and auto-ignition fronts in an unstirred, static reactor. These reactions cannot be studied on Earth where natural convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction dominates diffusive transport and produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus species concentration profiles. On Earth, reactions with associated Rayleigh numbers (Ra) less than the critical Ra for onset of convection (Ra(sub cr) approx. 600) cannot be achieved in laboratory-scale vessels for conditions representative of nearly all low-temperature reactions. In fact, the Ra at 1g ranges from 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) (or larger), while at reduced-gravity, these values can be reduced two to six orders of magnitude (below Ra(sub cr)), depending on the reduced-gravity test facility. Currently, laboratory (1g) and NASA s KC-135 reduced-gravity (g) aircraft studies are being conducted in parallel with the development of a detailed chemical kinetic model that includes thermal and species diffusion. Select experiments have also been conducted at partial gravity (Martian, 0.3gearth) aboard the KC-135 aircraft. This paper discusses these preliminary results for propane-oxygen premixtures in the low to intermediate temperature range (310- 350 C) at reduced-gravity.
Performance of FFT methods in local gravity field modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forsberg, Rene; Solheim, Dag
1989-01-01
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods provide a fast and efficient means of processing large amounts of gravity or geoid data in local gravity field modelling. The FFT methods, however, has a number of theoretical and practical limitations, especially the use of flat-earth approximation, and the requirements for gridded data. In spite of this the method often yields excellent results in practice when compared to other more rigorous (and computationally expensive) methods, such as least-squares collocation. The good performance of the FFT methods illustrate that the theoretical approximations are offset by the capability of taking into account more data in larger areas, especially important for geoid predictions. For best results good data gridding algorithms are essential. In practice truncated collocation approaches may be used. For large areas at high latitudes the gridding must be done using suitable map projections such as UTM, to avoid trivial errors caused by the meridian convergence. The FFT methods are compared to ground truth data in New Mexico (xi, eta from delta g), Scandinavia (N from delta g, the geoid fits to 15 cm over 2000 km), and areas of the Atlantic (delta g from satellite altimetry using Wiener filtering). In all cases the FFT methods yields results comparable or superior to other methods.
Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach
Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É.; Park, Minjoon; Watson, Scott E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu
2013-08-01
We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ΛCDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.
Instabilities and drop formation in cylindrical liquid jets in reduced gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, A. P. R.; Osborne, B. P.; Stoltzfus, J. M.; Howes, T.; Steinberg, T. A.
2002-10-01
The effects of convective and absolute instabilities on the formation of drops formed from cylindrical liquid jets of glycerol/water issuing into still air were investigated. Medium-duration reduced gravity tests were conducted aboard NASA's KC-135 and compared to similar tests performed under normal gravity conditions to aid in understanding the drop formation process. In reduced gravity, the Rayleigh-Chandrasekhar Equation was found to accurately predict the transition between a region of absolute and convective instability as defined by a critical Weber number. Observations of the physics of the jet, its breakup, and subsequent drop dynamics under both gravity conditions and the effects of the two instabilities on these processes are presented. All the normal gravity liquid jets investigated, in regions of convective or absolute instability, were subject to significant stretching effects, which affected the subsequent drop and associated geometry and dynamics. These effects were not displayed in reduced gravity and, therefore, the liquid jets would form drops which took longer to form (reduction in drop frequency), larger in size, and more spherical (surface tension effects). Most observed changes, in regions of either absolute or convective instabilities, were due to a reduction in the buoyancy force and an increased importance of the surface tension force acting on the liquid contained in the jet or formed drop. Reduced gravity environments allow better investigations to be performed into the physics of liquid jets, subsequently formed drops, and the effects of instabilities on these systems. In reduced gravity, drops form up to three times more slowly and as a consequence are up to three times larger in volume in the theoretical absolute instability region than in the theoretical convective instability region. This difference was not seen in the corresponding normal gravity tests due to the masking effects of gravity. A drop is shown to be able to form and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poropat, Lea; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Flechtner, Frank; Dobslaw, Henryk
2016-04-01
Time variable global gravity field models that are processed by different research institutions all across Europe are currently compared and subsequently combined within the "European Gravity Field Service for Improved Emergency Management (EGSIEM)" project funded by the European Union. To objectively assess differences between the results from different groups, and also to evaluate the impact of changes in the data processing at an individual institution in preparation of a new data release, a validation of the final GRACE gravity fields against independent observations is required. For such a validation, we apply data from a set of globally distributed ocean bottom pressure sensors. The in situ observations have been thoroughly revised for outliers, instrumental drift and jumps, and were additionally reduced for tides. GRACE monthly mean solutions are then validated with the monthly resampled in situ observations. The validation typically concentrates on seasonal to interannual signals, but in case of GRACE-based series with daily sampling available from, e.g., Kalman Smoother Solutions, also sub-monthly signal variability can be assessed.
Artificial gravity training reduces bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning.
Stenger, Michael B; Evans, Joyce M; Knapp, Charles F; Lee, Stuart M C; Phillips, Tiffany R; Perez, Sondra A; Moore, Alan D; Paloski, William H; Platts, Steven H
2012-02-01
We studied 15 men (8 treatment, 7 control) before and after 21 days of 6º head-down tilt to determine whether daily, 1-h exposures to 1.0 G(z) (at the heart) artificial gravity (AG) would prevent bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. Testing included echocardiographic analysis of cardiac function, plasma volume (PV), aerobic power (VO(2)pk) and cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to 80º head-up tilt (HUT). Data collected during HUT were ECG, stroke volume (SV), blood pressure (BP) and blood for catecholamines and vasoactive hormones. Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance, and spectral power of BP and HR were calculated. Bed rest decreased PV, supine and HUT SV, and indices of cardiac function in both groups. Although PV was decreased in control and AG after bed rest, AG attenuated the decrease in orthostatic tolerance [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: -11.8 ± 2.0, AG: -6.0 ± 2.8 min (p = 0.012)] and VO(2)pk [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: -0.39 ± 0.11, AG: -0.17 ± 0.06 L/min (p = 0.041)]. AG prevented increases in pre-tilt levels of plasma renin activity [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: 1.53 ± 0.23, AG: -0.07 ± 0.34 ng/mL/h (p = 0.001)] and angiotensin II [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: 3.00 ± 1.04, AG: -0.63 ± 0.81 pg/mL (p = 0.009)] and increased HUT aldosterone [post-bed rest; control: 107 ± 30 pg/mL, AG: 229 ± 68 pg/mL (p = 0.045)] and norepinephrine [post-bed rest; control: 453 ± 107, AG: 732 ± 131 pg/mL (p = 0.003)]. We conclude that AG can mitigate some aspects of bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning, including orthostatic intolerance and aerobic power. Mechanisms of improvement were not cardiac-mediated, but likely through improved sympathetic responsiveness to orthostatic stress. PMID:21626041
Revisiting the quantum scalar field in spherically symmetric quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borja, Enrique F.; Garay, Iñaki; Strobel, Eckhard
2012-07-01
We extend previous results in spherically symmetric gravitational systems coupled with a massless scalar field within the loop quantum gravity framework. As a starting point, we take the Schwarzschild spacetime. The results presented here rely on the uniform discretization method. We are able to minimize the associated discrete master constraint using a variational method. The trial state for the vacuum consists of a direct product of a Fock vacuum for the matter part and a Gaussian centered around the classical Schwarzschild solution. This paper follows the line of research presented by Gambini et al (2009 Class. Quantum Grav. 26 215011 (arXiv:0906.1774v1)) and a comparison between their result and the one given in this work is made.
Cosmology from group field theory formalism for quantum gravity.
Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo
2013-07-19
We identify a class of condensate states in the group field theory (GFT) formulation of quantum gravity that can be interpreted as macroscopic homogeneous spatial geometries. We then extract the dynamics of such condensate states directly from the fundamental quantum GFT dynamics, following the procedure used in ordinary quantum fluids. The effective dynamics is a nonlinear and nonlocal extension of quantum cosmology. We also show that any GFT model with a kinetic term of Laplacian type gives rise, in a semiclassical (WKB) approximation and in the isotropic case, to a modified Friedmann equation. This is the first concrete, general procedure for extracting an effective cosmological dynamics directly from a fundamental theory of quantum geometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, H. L.; Hu, L.; Duan, L.; Kang, Q.
In this paper some results from a space experiment are presented on bubble thermocapillary migration on board the Chinese 22 nd recoverable satellite in 2005 A bubble or drop will move when placed in another fluid and subjected to a temperature gradient This motion arises as a consequence of the variation of interfacial tension with temperature Such a phenomenon is already known as Marangoni or thermocapillary migration problem Bubble and drop dynamics becomes a hot point of research because this investigation is very important for basic research as well as for applications in reduced gravity environment such as space material science chemical engineering and so on The space experiment of bubble thermocapillary migration were done in a KF-96L series silicone oil of nominal viscosity 5cst This paper discussed the characteristic of fluid field firstly The temperature gradient in test cell is corrected with the temperature measurement data at six points and numerical simulating taking account to the temperature field disturbed by accumulated upper bubbles The effective temperature gradient is 1 4 times as that calculated with temperature data at the six points Moreover the disturbance in velocity field to bubble migration can be neglected with the help of numerical results In the experiment Marangoni number Ma of bubble thermocapillary migrations is from 98 04 to 9288 The most Marangoni number is larger than that attained in the prior flight experiments The experimental results are consistent with earlier results and are compared
Gravity field improvement using GPS data from Topex/Poseidon - A covariance analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertiger, Willy I.; Wu, J. T.; Wu, Sien C.
1990-01-01
A covariance analysis is performed using a realistic scenario for processing 10 days of GPS data, to obtain the expected improvement to the GEM-T2 gravity field. The gravity bin technique has been refined to compute the covariance matrix associated with the spherical harmonic gravity field. It is shown that the GPS data from one ten-day arc of Topex/Poseidon with no a priori can improve medium degree and order (3-26) sigmas for the parameters in the GEM-T2 gravity field by more than an order of magnitude.
^4He Crystals in Reduced Gravity Obtained by Parabolic Flights of a Jet Plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Takuya; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi
2016-11-01
^4He crystals usually sink to the bottom of the container in a superfluid and are deformed into a flat shape by gravity when their size is much larger than the capillary length of 1 mm. When gravity is reduced to zero, the capillary length diverges and the gravity-flattened crystals are expected to relax into an equilibrium crystal shape determined by the interfacial free energy at low enough temperatures where the relaxation time is very short. We performed a reduced gravity experiment on ^4He crystals at ultralow temperatures by developing a specially designed ^3He-^4He dilution refrigerator compatible with the experimental restrictions in a small jet plane. ^4He crystals relaxed to the equilibrium crystal shape below 600 mK during a reduced gravity period of 20 s produced by a parabolic flight. The equilibrium crystal shape, however, was metastable in most cases, governed by the boundary conditions imposed by the wall. Utilizing acoustic radiation pressure, we deformed the crystal enough to allow it to escape from the metastable shape below 150 mK. After this large deformation, the crystal relaxed to a shape completely different from its initial shape, showing three types of facets, viz., c-, a-, and s-facets, which was concluded to be the lowest energy equilibrium shape.
The use of satellites in gravity field determination and model adjustment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, Petrus Nicolaas Anna Maria
1992-06-01
Methods to improve gravity field models of the Earth with available data from satellite observations are proposed and discussed. In principle, all types of satellite observations mentioned give information of the satellite orbit perturbations and in conjunction the Earth's gravity field, because the satellite orbits are affected most by the Earth's gravity field. Therefore, two subjects are addressed: representation forms of the gravity field of the Earth and the theory of satellite orbit perturbations. An analytical orbit perturbation theory is presented and shown to be sufficiently accurate for describing satellite orbit perturbations if certain conditions are fulfilled. Gravity field adjustment experiments using the analytical orbit perturbation theory are discussed using real satellite observations. These observations consisted of Seasat laser range measurements and crossover differences, and of Geosat altimeter measurements and crossover differences. A look into the future, particularly relating to the ARISTOTELES (Applications and Research Involving Space Techniques for the Observation of the Earth's field from Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft) mission, is given.
Three dimensional gravity field modelling of the Chicxulub impact crater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hildebrand, A.; Millar, J.; Pilkington, M.; Lawton, D.
2003-04-01
Three dimensional gravity field modeling of the Chicxulub crater’s gravity field has refined our working structural model [e.g. 1, 2], and differs somewhat from the results of [3]. The 3D gravity model establishes that the central uplift is within reach of scientific drilling. The 3D gravity modeling method employed is that of [4]. Modelling results particularly reveal the crater’s central structures. The central uplift is a twin peaked structural high with vergence towards the southwest as previously indicated by 2D models [1] and consistent with seismic refraction results [5]. An arm extends towards the northeast, in contrast to the steep gradients that bound the central uplift to the southwest. The width of the uplift at 4 km depth is ~45 km broadening to ~60 km at 5 km depth consistent with 2D modeling. The central uplift rises into the melt sheet to ~2 km depth in contrast to the results of [4] where a top of ~4 km was obtained. However, as refraction results [5] independently constrain the central uplift width and the central uplift density contrast is limited (+0.11gcm-3 here), this is probably a realistic result. The shape of the modeled central uplift is radically different from that advocated by [6] who, based on seismic refraction results, proposed a cup-shaped central uplift (concave top) with a top at ~3 km depth, but of similar width. This interpretation requires substantial departure from density velocity proportionality, and we doubt that the central uplift has an annular top. The filling of the CDC, which we interpret as melt, is revealed as a body slightly elongated in a NE-SW sense with a size consistent with previous 2D model results. With the density contrast measured from the top of the melt sheet, its base lies near ~4 km is obtained consistent with the result of [4]. This depth is dependent upon the density contrast used (-0.15 g/cc), however, and all the mass deficiency need not be melt. The derived melt volume is 1.5 X 104 km3
Reduction of ocean tide aliasing in the context of a next generation gravity field mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pail, Roland; Hauk, Markus; Daras, Ilias; Murböck, Michael; Purkhauser, Anna
2016-04-01
Ocean tide aliasing is currently one of the main limiting factors for temporal gravity field determination and the derivation of mass transport processes in the Earth system. This will be true even more for future gravity field missions with improved measurement technology, which cannot be fully exploited due to this dominant systematic error source. In several previous studies it has been shown that temporal aliasing, related to tidal and non-tidal sources, can be significantly reduced by double-pair formations, e.g., in a so-called Bender configuration, and its effects can be migrated to higher frequencies by an optimum orbit choice, especially the orbit altitude (Murböck et al. 2014). Improved processing strategies and extended parameter models should be able to further reduce the problem. Concerning non-tidal aliasing, it could be shown that the parameterization of short-period long-wavelength gravity field signals, the so-called Wiese approach, is a powerful method for aliasing reduction (Wiese et al. 2011), but it does not really work for the very short-period signals of ocean tides with mainly semi-diurnal and diurnal periods (Daras 2015). In this contribution, several methods dealing with the reduction of ocean tide aliasing are investigated both from a methodological and a numerical point of view. One of the promising strategies is the co-estimation of selected tidal constituents over long time periods, also considering the basic orbit frequencies of the satellites. These improved estimates for ocean tide signals can then be used in a second step as an enhanced de-aliasing product for the computation of short-period temporal gravity fields. From a number of theoretical considerations and numerical case-studies, recommendations for an optimum orbit selection with respect to reduction of ocean tide aliasing shall be derived for two main mission scenarios. The first one is a classical Bender configuration being composed of a (near-)polar and an inclined in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, J. Kevin; Struk, Peter M.; Pettegrew, RIchard D.; Downs, Robert S.
2006-01-01
This paper documents a research effort on reduced gravity soldering of plated through hole joints which was conducted jointly by the National Center for Space Exploration Research, NASA Glenn Research Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center. Significant increases in joint porosity and changes in external geometry were observed in joints produced in reduced gravity as compared to normal gravity. Multiple techniques for mitigating the observed increase in porosity were tried, including several combinations of flux and solder application techniques, and demoisturizing the circuit board prior to soldering. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that the source of the porosity is a combination of both trapped moisture in the circuit board itself, as well as vaporized flux that is trapped in the molten solder. Other topics investigated include correlation of visual inspection results with joint porosity, pore size measurements, limited pressure effects (0.08 MPa - 0.1 MPa) on the size and number of pores, and joint cooling rate.
Unit operations for gas-liquid mass transfer in reduced gravity environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pettit, Donald R.; Allen, David T.
1992-01-01
Basic scaling rules are derived for converting Earth-based designs of mass transfer equipment into designs for a reduced gravity environment. Three types of gas-liquid mass transfer operations are considered: bubble columns, spray towers, and packed columns. Application of the scaling rules reveals that the height of a bubble column in lunar- and Mars-based operations would be lower than terrestrial designs by factors of 0.64 and 0.79 respectively. The reduced gravity columns would have greater cross-sectional areas, however, by factors of 2.4 and 1.6 for lunar and Martian settings. Similar results were obtained for spray towers. In contract, packed column height was found to be nearly independent of gravity.
The gravity field and crustal structure of the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batayneh, A. T.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.
2001-01-01
The Bouguer gravity field over the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan is dominated by large variations, ranging from -132 to +4 mGal. A study of the Bouguer anomaly map shows that the gravity field maintains a general north-northeasterly trend in the Wadi Araba-Dead Sea-Jordan Riff, Northern Highlands and Northeast Jordanian Limestone Area, while the remainder of the area shows north-northwesterly-trending gravity anomalies. Results of 2-D gravity modeling of the Bouguer gravity field indicate that the crustal thickness in Jordan is ˜ 38 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses obtained from refraction data in northern Jordan and Saudi Arabia, and from gravity data in Syria.
An Exact Solution of Einstein-Maxwell Gravity Coupled to a Scalar Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turyshev, S. G.
1995-01-01
The general solution to low-energy string theory representing static spherically symmetric solution of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity with a massless scalar field has been found. Some of the partial cases appear to coincide with known solutions to black holes, naked singularities, and gravity and electromagnetic fields.
Estimation of the Earth's gravity field by combining normal equation matrices from GRACE and SLR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haberkorn, Christoph; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Bouman, Johannes
2014-05-01
Since 2002, GRACE observes the Earth's gravity field with a spatial resolution up to 150 km. The main goal of this mission is the determination of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field to detect mass displacements. The GRACE mission consists of two identical satellites, which observe the range along the line of sight of both satellites. GRACE observations can be linked with the Earth's gravitational potential, which is expressed in terms of spherical harmonics for global solutions. However, the estimation of low degree coefficients is difficult with GRACE. In contrast to gravity field missions, which observe the gravity field with high spectral resolution, SLR data allow to estimate the lower degree coefficients. Therefore, the coefficient C20 is often replaced by a value derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). Instead of replacing C20, it can be determined consistently by a combined estimation using GRACE and SLR data. We compute monthly normal equation (NEQ) matrices for GRACE and SLR. Coefficients from monthly GRACE gravity field models of different institutions (Center for Space Research (CSR), USA, Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ), Germany and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), USA) and coefficients from monthly gravity field models of our SLR processing are then combined using the NEQ matrices from both techniques. We will evaluate several test scenarios with gravity field models from different institutions and with different set ups for the SLR NEQ matrices. The effect of the combination on the estimated gravity field will be analysed and presented.
Future missions for observing Earth's changing gravity field: a closed-loop simulation tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, P. N.
2008-12-01
The GRACE mission has successfully demonstrated the observation from space of the changing Earth's gravity field at length and time scales of typically 1000 km and 10-30 days, respectively. Many scientific communities strongly advertise the need for continuity of observing Earth's gravity field from space. Moreover, a strong interest is being expressed to have gravity missions that allow a more detailed sampling of the Earth's gravity field both in time and in space. Designing a gravity field mission for the future is a complicated process that involves making many trade-offs, such as trade-offs between spatial, temporal resolution and financial budget. Moreover, it involves the optimization of many parameters, such as orbital parameters (height, inclination), distinction between which gravity sources to observe or correct for (for example are gravity changes due to ocean currents a nuisance or a signal to be retrieved?), observation techniques (low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking, satellite gravity gradiometry, accelerometers), and satellite control systems (drag-free?). A comprehensive tool has been developed and implemented that allows the closed-loop simulation of gravity field retrievals for different satellite mission scenarios. This paper provides a description of this tool. Moreover, its capabilities are demonstrated by a few case studies. Acknowledgments. The research that is being done with the closed-loop simulation tool is partially funded by the European Space Agency (ESA). An important component of the tool is the GEODYN software, kindly provided by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
Ignition and combustion of bulk metals at normal, elevated and reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.; Abbud-Madrid, Angel
1995-01-01
Knowledge of the oxidation, ignition, and combustion of bulk metals is important for fire safety in the production, management, and utilization of liquid and gaseous oxygen for ground based and space applications. This proposal outlines studies in continuation of research initiated earlier under NASA support to investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of bulk metals under varying gravity conditions. Metal ignition and combustion have not been studied previously under these conditions and the results are important not only for improved fire safety but also to increase knowledge of basic ignition and combustion mechanisms. The studies completed to date have led to the development of a clean and reproducible ignition source and diagnostic techniques for combustion measurements and have provided normal, elevated, and reduced gravity combustion data on a variety of different pure metals. The research conducted under this grant will use the apparatus and techniques developed earlier to continue the elevated and low gravity experiments, and to develop the overall modeling of the ignition and combustion process. Metal specimens are to be ignited using a xenon short-arc lamp and measurements are to be made of the ignition energy, surface temperature history, burning rates, spectroscopy of surface and gas products, and surface morphology and chemistry. Elevated gravity will be provided by the University of Colorado Geotechnical Centrifuge and microgravity will be obtained in NASA's DC-9 Reduced Gravity aircraft.
Combustion of Metals in Carbon Dioxide and Reduced-Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Branch, M. C.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Modak, A.; Dreyer, C. B.; Daily, J. W.
2001-01-01
Ongoing exploration and future mission2001110444 s to Mars have given impetus to research on the use of natural resources of the planet. Since carbon dioxide (CO2) constitutes approximately 95% of the Mars atmosphere and since it reacts directly and vigorously with several metals, this investigation focuses on metal-CO2 reactions as a possible combination for rocket-propellant production and energy generation. Magnesium (Mg) has been initially selected as the metal fuel owing to its low ignition temperature and high specific impulse and burning rate in CO2. Our studies in this field started with low gravity (g) combustion tests of Mg in O2, CO2, and CO. Reduced gravity provided a clear picture of the burning phenomena by eliminating the intrusive buoyant flows in high-temperature metal reactions and by removing the destructive effect of gravity on the shape of molten metal samples. Suspended cylindrical metal samples of 2, 3, and 4-mm in diameter and length were radiatively ignited in low-g to generate free-floating samples exhibiting a spherically symmetric flame with increasing metal-oxide accumulation in an outer shell. For the Mg-CO2 combination, burning times twice as long as in normal-g and five times longer than in Mg-O2 flames were observed, revealing a diffusion-controlled reaction. The burning time is proportional to the square of the sample diameter. In tests conducted with pure CO, combustion was not possible without constant heating of the sample due to the formation of a thick carbon-containing coating around the Mg sample generated by surface reactions. The following work presents two new studies that attempt to explain some of the low-g experimental observations. First, a simplified one-dimensional, quasi-steady numerical model is developed to obtain temperature, species concentrations, and burning rates of the spherically symmetric diffusion flame around the Mg sample burning in O2 and CO2. Second, a Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF
The delineation and interpretation of the earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, Bruce D.
1988-01-01
A series of fluid dynamical experiments in variable viscosity fluid have been made and are in progress to study: (1) the onset of small scale convection relative to lithosphere growth rate; (2) the influence of paired fracture zones in modulating the horizontal scale of small scale convection; (3) the influence of the mantle vertical viscosity structure on determing the mode of small scale convection; and (4) the 3-D and temporal evolution of flows beneath a high viscosity lid. These experiments extend and amplify the present experimental work that has produced small scale convection beneath a downward-moving solidification front. Rapid growth of a high viscosity lid stifles the early onset of convection such that convection only begins once the lithosphere is older than a certain minimum age. The interplay of this convection with both the structure of the lithosphere and mantle provide a fertile field of investigation into the origin of geoid, gravity, and topographic anomalies in the central Pacific. These highly correlated fields of intermediate wavelength (approximately 200 to 2000 km), but not the larger wavelengths. It is the ultimate, dynamic origin of this class of anomalies that is sought in this investigation.
Time-dependent scalar fields in modified gravities in a stationary spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Yi; Gu, Bao-Ming; Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2016-07-01
Most no-hair theorems involve the assumption that the scalar field is independent of time. Recently in Graham and Jha (Phys. Rev. D90: 041501, 2014) the existence of time-dependent scalar hair outside a stationary black hole in general relativity was ruled out. We generalize this work to modified gravities and non-minimally coupled scalar field with the additional assumption that the spacetime is axisymmetric. It is shown that in higher-order gravity such as metric f( R) gravity the time-dependent scalar hair does not exist. In Palatini f( R) gravity and the non-minimally coupled case the time-dependent scalar hair may exist.
Bubble Behavior in Subcooled Pool Boiling of Water under Reduced Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Koichi; Suzuki, Motohiro; Takahash, Saika; Kawamura, Hirosi; Abe, Yoshiyuki
2003-01-01
Subcooled pool boiling of water was conducted in reduced gravity performed by a parabolic flight of aircraft and a drop-shaft facility. A small stainless steel plate was physically burned out in the subcooled water by AC electric power during the parabolic flight. Boiling bubbles grew with increasing heating power but did not detached from the heating surface. The burnout heat fluxes obtained were 200 ~ 400 percent higher than the existing theories. In the ground experiment, boiling bubbles were attached to the heating surface with a flat plate placed over the heating surface, and the experiment was performed by the same heating procedure as practiced under the reduced gravity. Same burnout heat fluxes as under the reduced gravity were obtained by adjusting the plate clearance to the heating surface. As the heating time extended longer than the reduced gravity duration, the burnout heat fluxes decreased gradually and became constant. Contact area of bubbles with heating surface was observed using a transparent heating surface in microgravity performed by a drop-shaft facility. The contact area of bubbles increased significantly at the start of microgravity. It is suggested by the experimental results that the boiling bubbles expand rapidly in the high heat flux region and the rapid evaporation of liquid layer remained between the bubbles and the heating surface raises up the critical heat flux higher than the existing theories in microgravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccay, M. H.
1988-01-01
The Casting and Solidification Technology (CAST) experiment will study the phenomena that occur during directional solidification of an alloy, e.g., constitutional supercooling, freckling, and dendrite coarsening. The reduced gravity environment of space will permit the individual phenomena to be examined with minimum complication from buoyancy driven flows.
Existence of global weak solution for a reduced gravity two and a half layer model
Guo, Zhenhua Li, Zilai Yao, Lei
2013-12-15
We investigate the existence of global weak solution to a reduced gravity two and a half layer model in one-dimensional bounded spatial domain or periodic domain. Also, we show that any possible vacuum state has to vanish within finite time, then the weak solution becomes a unique strong one.
Moon Exploration from "apollo" Magnetic and Gravity Field Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharitonov, Andrey
Recently, the great value is given to various researches of the Moon, as nearest nature satellite of the Earth, because there is preparation for forthcoming starts on the Moon of the American, European, Russian, Chinese, Indian new Orbiters and Landers. Designing of International Lu-nar bases is planned also. Therefore, in the near future the series of the questions connected with placing of International Lunar bases which coordinates substantially should to be connected with heterogeneity of the internal structure of the Moon can become especially interesting. If in the Moon it will be possible to find large congestions of water ice and those chemical elements which stocks in the Earth are limited this area of the Moon can become perspective for Inter-national Lunar bases. To solve a question of research of the deep structure of the Moon in the locations of International Lunar bases, competently, without excessive expenses for start new various under the form of the Lunar orbit of automatic space vehicles (polar, equatorial, inclined to the rotation axis) and their altitude of flight, which also not always were connected with investigation programs of measured fields (video observation, radio-frequency sounding, mag-netic, gravity), is possible if already from the available information of space vehicles APOLLO, SMART1, KAGUYA, LCROSS, LRO, CHANDRAYAAN-1, CHANG'E-1 it will be possible to analyse simultaneously some various fields, at different altitudes of measuring over the surface (20-300 km) of the Moon. The experimental data of the radial component magnetic field and gravity field the Moon measured at different altitudes, in its equatorial part have been analysed for the research of the deep structure of the Moon. This data has been received as a result of start of space vehicles -APOLLO-15 and APOLLO-16 (USA), and also the Russian space vehicles "LUNOHOD". Authors had been used the data of a magnetic field of the Moon at flight altitude 160, 100, 75, 30, 0 km
The Two-Phase Flow Separator Experiment Breadboard Model: Reduced Gravity Aircraft Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rame, E; Sharp, L. M.; Chahine, G.; Kamotani, Y.; Gotti, D.; Owens, J.; Gilkey, K.; Pham, N.
2015-01-01
Life support systems in space depend on the ability to effectively separate gas from liquid. Passive cyclonic phase separators use the centripetal acceleration of a rotating gas-liquid mixture to carry out phase separation. The gas migrates to the center, while gas-free liquid may be withdrawn from one of the end plates. We have designed, constructed and tested a breadboard that accommodates the test sections of two independent principal investigators and satisfies their respective requirements, including flow rates, pressure and video diagnostics. The breadboard was flown in the NASA low-gravity airplane in order to test the system performance and design under reduced gravity conditions.
Time-variable gravity fields derived from GPS tracking of Swarm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Klokočník, Jaroslav
2016-06-01
Since 2002 Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) provides monthly gravity fields from K-band ranging (KBR) between two GRACE satellites. These KBR gravity monthlies have enabled the global observation of time-varying Earth mass signal at a regional scale (about 400 km resolution). Apart from KBR, monthly gravity solutions can be computed from onboard GPS data. The newly reprocessed GPS monthlies from 13 yr of GRACE data are shown to yield correct time-variable gravity signal (seasonality, trends, interannual variations) at a spatial resolution of 1300 km (harmonic degree 15). We show that GPS fields from new Swarm mission are of similar quality as GRACE GPS monthlies. Thus, Swarm GPS monthlies represent new and independent source of information on time-variable gravity, and, although with lower resolution and accuracy, they can be used for its monitoring, particularly if GRACE KBR/GPS data become unavailable before GRACE Follow-On is launched (2017 August).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Richard J.
1987-01-01
The Space Shuttle and the planned Space Station will permit experimentation under conditions of reduced gravitational acceleration offering experimental petrologists the opportunity to study crystal growth, element distribution, and phase chemistry. In particular the confounding effects of macro and micro scale buoyancy-induced convection and crystal settling or flotation can be greatly reduced over those observed in experiments in the terrestrial laboratory. Also, for experiments in which detailed replication of the environment is important, the access to reduced gravity will permit a more complete simulation of processes that may have occurred on asteroids or in free space. A technique that was developed to control, measure, and manipulate oxygen fugacities with small quantities of gas which are recirculated over the sample. This system could be adaptable to reduced gravity space experiments requiring redox control.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mazarico, Erwan M.; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Gregory; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.
2014-01-01
We have analyzed three years of radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury and determined the gravity field, planetary orientation, and ephemeris of the innermost planet. With improvements in spatial coverage, force modeling, and data weighting, we refined an earlier global gravity field both in quality and resolution, and we present here a spherical harmonic solution to degree and order 50. In this field, termed HgM005, uncertainties in low-degree coefficients are reduced by an order of magnitude relative to the earlier global field, and we obtained a preliminary value of the tidal Love number k(sub 2) of 0.451+/-0.014. We also estimated Mercury's pole position, and we obtained an obliquity value of 2.06 +/- 0.16 arcmin, in good agreement with analysis of Earth-based radar observations. From our updated rotation period (58.646146 +/- 0.000011 days) and Mercury ephemeris, we verified experimentally the planet's 3: 2 spin-orbit resonance to greater accuracy than previously possible. We present a detailed analysis of the HgM005 covariance matrix, and we describe some near-circular frozen orbits around Mercury that could be advantageous for future exploration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.
2014-12-01
We have analyzed 3 years of radio tracking data from the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury and determined the gravity field, planetary orientation, and ephemeris of the innermost planet. With improvements in spatial coverage, force modeling, and data weighting, we refined an earlier global gravity field both in quality and resolution, and we present here a spherical harmonic solution to degree and order 50. In this field, termed HgM005, uncertainties in low-degree coefficients are reduced by an order of magnitude relative to earlier global fields, and we obtained a preliminary value of the tidal Love number k2 of 0.451 ± 0.014. We also estimated Mercury's pole position, and we obtained an obliquity value of 2.06 ± 0.16 arcmin, in good agreement with analysis of Earth-based radar observations. From our updated rotation period (58.646146 ± 0.000011 days) and Mercury ephemeris, we verified experimentally the planet's 3:2 spin-orbit resonance to greater accuracy than previously possible. We present a detailed analysis of the HgM005 covariance matrix, and we describe some near-circular frozen orbits around Mercury that could be advantageous for future exploration.
Swimming Paramecium in magnetically simulated enhanced, reduced, and inverted gravity environments
Guevorkian, Karine; Valles, James M.
2006-01-01
Earth's gravity exerts relatively weak forces in the range of 10–100 pN directly on cells in biological systems. Nevertheless, it biases the orientation of swimming unicellular organisms, alters bone cell differentiation, and modifies gene expression in renal cells. A number of methods of simulating different strength gravity environments, such as centrifugation, have been applied for researching the underlying mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate a magnetic force-based technique that is unique in its capability to enhance, reduce, and even invert the effective buoyancy of cells and thus simulate hypergravity, hypogravity, and inverted gravity environments. We apply it to Paramecium caudatum, a single-cell protozoan that varies its swimming propulsion depending on its orientation with respect to gravity, g. In these simulated gravities, denoted by fgm, Paramecium exhibits a linear response up to fgm = 5 g, modifying its swimming as it would in the hypergravity of a centrifuge. Moreover, experiments from fgm = 0 to −5 g show that the response is symmetric, implying that the regulation of the swimming speed is primarily related to the buoyancy of the cell. The response becomes nonlinear for fgm >5 g. At fgm = 10 g, many paramecia “stall” (i.e., swim in place against the force), exerting a maximum propulsion force estimated to be 0.7 nN. These findings establish a general technique for applying continuously variable forces to cells or cell populations suitable for exploring their force transduction mechanisms. PMID:16916937
Soleus H-reflex gain in humans walking and running under simulated reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferris, D. P.; Aagaard, P.; Simonsen, E. B.; Farley, C. T.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.
2001-01-01
The Hoffmann (H-) reflex is an electrical analogue of the monosynaptic stretch reflex, elicited by bypassing the muscle spindle and directly stimulating the afferent nerve. Studying H-reflex modulation provides insight into how the nervous system centrally modulates stretch reflex responses.A common measure of H-reflex gain is the slope of the relationship between H-reflex amplitude and EMG amplitude. To examine soleus H-reflex gain across a range of EMG levels during human locomotion, we used simulated reduced gravity to reduce muscle activity. We hypothesised that H-reflex gain would be independent of gravity level.We recorded EMG from eight subjects walking (1.25 m s-1) and running (3.0 m s-1) at four gravity levels (1.0, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 G (Earth gravity)). We normalised the stimulus M-wave and resulting H-reflex to the maximal M-wave amplitude (Mmax) elicited throughout the stride to correct for movement of stimulus and recording electrodes relative to nerve and muscle fibres. Peak soleus EMG amplitude decreased by 30% for walking and for running over the fourfold change in gravity. As hypothesised, slopes of linear regressions fitted to H-reflex versus EMG data were independent of gravity for walking and running (ANOVA, P > 0.8). The slopes were also independent of gait (P > 0.6), contrary to previous studies. Walking had a greater y-intercept (19.9% Mmax) than running (-2.5% Mmax; P < 0.001). At all levels of EMG, walking H-reflex amplitudes were higher than running H-reflex amplitudes by a constant amount. We conclude that the nervous system adjusts H-reflex threshold but not H-reflex gain between walking and running. These findings provide insight into potential neural mechanisms responsible for spinal modulation of the stretch reflex during human locomotion.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unuvar, C.; Fredrick, D.; Anselmi-Tamburini, U.; Manerbino, A.; Guigne, J. Y.; Munir, Z. A.; Shaw, B. D.
2004-01-01
Combustion synthesis (CS) generally involves mixing reactants together (e.g., metal powders) and igniting the mixture. Typically, a reaction wave will pass through the sample. In field activated combustion synthesis (FACS), the addition of an electric field has a marked effect on the dynamics of wave propagation and on the nature, composition, and homogeneity of the product as well as capillary flow, mass-transport in porous media, and Marangoni flows, which are influenced by gravity. The objective is to understand the role of an electric field in CS reactions under conditions where gravity-related effects are suppressed or altered. The systems being studied are Ti+Al and Ti+3Al. Two different ignition orientations have been used to observe effects of gravity when one of the reactants becomes molten. This consequentially influences the position and concentration of the electric current, which in turn influences the entire process. Experiments have also been performed in microgravity conditions. This process has been named Microgravity Field Activated Combustion Synthesis (MFACS). Effects of gravity have been demonstrated, where the reaction wave temperature and velocity demonstrate considerable differences besides the changes of combustion mechanisms with the different high currents applied. Also the threshold for the formation of a stable reaction wave is increased under zero gravity conditions. Electric current was also utilized with a chemical oven technique, where inserts of aluminum with minute amounts of tungsten and tantalum were used to allow observation of effects of settling of the higher density solid particles in liquid aluminum at the present temperature profile and wave velocity of the reaction.
The gravity field and interior structure of Enceladus.
Iess, L; Stevenson, D J; Parisi, M; Hemingway, D; Jacobson, R A; Lunine, J I; Nimmo, F; Armstrong, J W; Asmar, S W; Ducci, M; Tortora, P
2014-04-01
The small and active Saturnian moon Enceladus is one of the primary targets of the Cassini mission. We determined the quadrupole gravity field of Enceladus and its hemispherical asymmetry using Doppler data from three spacecraft flybys. Our results indicate the presence of a negative mass anomaly in the south-polar region, largely compensated by a positive subsurface anomaly compatible with the presence of a regional subsurface sea at depths of 30 to 40 kilometers and extending up to south latitudes of about 50°. The estimated values for the largest quadrupole harmonic coefficients (10(6)J2 = 5435.2 ± 34.9, 10(6)C22 = 1549.8 ± 15.6, 1σ) and their ratio (J2/C22 = 3.51 ± 0.05) indicate that the body deviates mildly from hydrostatic equilibrium. The moment of inertia is around 0.335MR(2), where M is the mass and R is the radius, suggesting a differentiated body with a low-density core.
Periodic orbits around areostationary points in the Martian gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiao-Dong; Baoyin, Hexi; Ma, Xing-Rui
2012-05-01
This study investigates the problem of areostationary orbits around Mars in three-dimensional space. Areostationary orbits are expected to be used to establish a future telecommunication network for the exploration of Mars. However, no artificial satellites have been placed in these orbits thus far. The characteristics of the Martian gravity field are presented, and areostationary points and their linear stability are calculated. By taking linearized solutions in the planar case as the initial guesses and utilizing the Levenberg-Marquardt method, families of periodic orbits around areostationary points are shown to exist. Short-period orbits and long-period orbits are found around linearly stable areostationary points, but only short-period orbits are found around unstable areostationary points. Vertical periodic orbits around both linearly stable and unstable areostationary points are also examined. Satellites in these periodic orbits could depart from areostationary points by a few degrees in longitude, which would facilitate observation of the Martian topography. Based on the eigenvalues of the monodromy matrix, the evolution of the stability index of periodic orbits is determined. Finally, heteroclinic orbits connecting the two unstable areostationary points are found, providing the possibility for orbital transfer with minimal energy consumption.
The Gravity Field and Interior Structure of Enceladus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iess, L.; Stevenson, D. J.; Parisi, M.; Hemingway, D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lunine, J. I.; Nimmo, F.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Ducci, M.; Tortora, P.
2014-04-01
The small and active Saturnian moon Enceladus is one of the primary targets of the Cassini mission. We determined the quadrupole gravity field of Enceladus and its hemispherical asymmetry using Doppler data from three spacecraft flybys. Our results indicate the presence of a negative mass anomaly in the south-polar region, largely compensated by a positive subsurface anomaly compatible with the presence of a regional subsurface sea at depths of 30 to 40 kilometers and extending up to south latitudes of about 50°. The estimated values for the largest quadrupole harmonic coefficients (106J2 = 5435.2 ± 34.9, 106C22 = 1549.8 ± 15.6, 1σ) and their ratio (J2/C22 = 3.51 ± 0.05) indicate that the body deviates mildly from hydrostatic equilibrium. The moment of inertia is around 0.335MR2, where M is the mass and R is the radius, suggesting a differentiated body with a low-density core.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stroud, Leah; Norcross, Jason; Gernhardt, Michael; Soller, Babs R.
2008-01-01
Consideration for lunar and planetary exploration space suit design can be enhanced by investigating the physiologic responses of individual muscles during locomotion in reduced gravity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to study the physiology of individual muscles in ambulatory subjects during reduced gravity simulations. PURPOSE: To investigate calf muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and pH during reduced gravity walking at varying treadmill inclines and added mass conditions using NIRS. METHODS: Four male subjects aged 42.3 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and weighing 77.9 +/- 2.4 kg walked at a moderate speed (3.2 +/- 0.2 km/h) on a treadmill at inclines of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Unsuited subjects were attached to a partial gravity simulator which unloaded the subject to simulate body weight plus the additional weight of a space suit (121 kg) in lunar gravity (0.17G). Masses of 0, 11, 23, and 34 kg were added to the subject and then unloaded to maintain constant weight. Spectra were collected from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and SmO2 and pH were calculated using previously published methods (Yang et al. 2007 Optics Express ; Soller et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol). The effects of incline and added mass on SmO2 and pH were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: SmO2 and pH were both unchanged by added mass (p>0.05), so data from trials at the same incline were averaged. LG SmO2 decreased significantly with increasing incline (p=0.003) from 61.1 +/- 2.0% at 0% incline to 48.7 +/- 2.6% at 30% incline, while pH was unchanged by incline (p=0.12). CONCLUSION: Increasing the incline (and thus work performed) during walking causes the LG to extract more oxygen from the blood supply, presumably to support the increased metabolic cost of uphill walking. The lack of an effect of incline on pH may indicate that, while the intensity of exercise has increased, the LG has not reached a level of work above the anaerobic threshold. In these
The mass, gravity field, and ephemeris of Mercury
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, John D.; Esposito, Pasquale B.; Lau, Eunice L.; Trager, Gayle B.; Colombo, Giuseppe
1987-01-01
In the present gravity analysis of Mariner 10/Deep Space Network radio Doppler and range data for Mercury encounters in March 1974 and March 1975, a combined least-squares fit to the Doppler data has determined two second-degree gravity harmonics that are referred to a 2439-km equatorial radius. It is noted that the 1-sigma error limits on the gravity results encompass the possibility that harmonics other than J2 and C22 significantly differ from zero. The Deep Space Network radio range data obtained with Mariner 10 are primarily applicable to such improvements of Mercury's ephemeris as the more precise determination of perihelion precession.
The delineation and interpretation of the earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsh, Bruce D.
1989-01-01
In an attempt to understand the mechanical interaction of a growing lithosphere containing fracture zones with small and large scale mantle convection, which gives rise to geoid anomalies in oceanic regions, a series of fluid dynamical experiments is in progress to investigate: (1) the influence of lithosphere structure, fluid depth and viscosity field on the onset, scale, and evolution of sublithospheric convection; (2) the role of this convection in determining the rate of growth of lithosphere, especially in light of the flattening of the lithosphere bathymetry and heat flow at late times; and (3) combining the results of both numerical and laboratory experiments to decide the dominate factors in producing geoid anomalies in oceanic regions through the thermo-mechanical interaction of the lithosphere and subjacent mantle. The clear existence of small scale convection associated with a downward propagating solidification front (i.e., the lithosphere) and a larger scale flow associated with a discontinuous upward heat flux (i.e., a fracture zone) has been shown. The flows exist simultaneously and each may have a significant role in deciding the thermal evolution of the lithosphere and in understanding the relation of shallow mantle convection to deep mantle convection. This overall process is reflected in the geoid, gravity, and topographic anomalies in the north-central Pacific. These highly correlated fields of intermediate wavelength (approx. 200 to 2000 km) show isostatic compensation by a thin lithosphere for shorter (less than or equal to approx. 500 km), but not the longer, wavelengths. The ultimate, dynamic origin of this class of anomalies is being investigated.
The effects of prolonged weightlessness and reduced gravity environments on human survival.
Taylor, R L
1993-03-01
The manned exploration of the solar system and the surfaces of some of the smaller planets and larger satellites requires that we are able to keep the adverse human physiological response to long term exposure to near zero and greatly reduced gravity environments within acceptable limits consistent with metabolic function. This paper examines the physiological changes associated with microgravity conditions with particular reference to the weightless demineralizatoin of bone (WDB). It is suggested that many of these changes are the result of physical/mechanical processes and are not primarily a medical problem. There are thus two immediately obvious and workable, if relatively costly, solutions to the problem of weightlessness. The provision of a near 1 g field during prolonged space flights, and/or the development of rapid transit spacecraft capable of significant acceleration and short flight times. Although these developments could remove or greatly ameliorate the effects of weightlessness during long-distance space flights there remains a problem relating to the long term colonization of the surfaces of Mars, the Moon, and other small solar system bodies. It is not yet known whether or not there is a critical threshold value of 'g' below which viable human physiological function cannot be sustained. If such a threshold exists permanent colonization may only be possible if the threshold value of 'g' is less than that at the surface of the planet on which we wish to settle. PMID:11539500
Spray combustion at normal and reduced gravity in counterflow and co-flow configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gomez, Alessandro; Chen, Gung
1995-01-01
Liquid fuel dispersion in practical systems is typically achieved by spraying the fuel into a polydisperse distribution of droplets evaporating and burning in a turbulent gaseous environment In view of the nearly insurmountable difficulties of this two-phase flow, a systematic study of spray evaporation and burning in configurations of gradually increasing levels of complexity, starting from laminar sprays to fully turbulent ones, would be useful. A few years ago we proposed to use an electrostatic spray of charged droplets for this type of combustion experiments under well-defined conditions. In the simplest configuration, a liquid is fed into a small metal tube maintained at several kilovolts relative to a ground electrode few centimeters away. Under the action of the electric field, the liquid meniscus at the outlet of the capillary takes a conical shape, with a thin jet emerging from the cone tip (cone-jet mode). This jet breaks up farther downstream into a spray of charged droplets - the so-called ElectroSpray (ES). Several advantages distinguish the electrospray from alternative atomization techniques: (1) it can produce quasi-monodisperse droplets over a phenomenal size range; (2) the atomization, that is strictly electrostatic, is decoupled from gas flow processes, which provides some flexibility in the selection and control of the experimental conditions; (3) the Coulombic repulsion of homopolarly charged droplets induces spray self-dispersion and prevents droplet coalescence; (4) the ES provides the opportunity of studying regimes of slip between droplets and host gas without compromising the control of the spray properties; and (5) the compactness and potential controllability of this spray generation system makes it appealing for studies in reduced-gravity environments aimed at isolating the spray behavior from natural convection complications. With these premises, in March 1991 we initiated a series of experiments under NASA sponsorship (NAG3-1259 and
Gravity Field Recovery from the Cartwheel Formation by the Semi-analytical Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huishu; Reubelt, Tilo; Antoni, Markus; Sneeuw, Nico; Zhong, Min; Zhou, Zebing
2016-04-01
Past and current gravimetric satellite missions have contributed drastically to our knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Nevertheless, several geoscience disciplines push for even higher requirements on accuracy, homogeneity and time- and space-resolution of the Earth's gravity field. Apart from better instruments or new observables, alternative satellite formations could improve the signal and error structure. With respect to other methods, one significant advantage of the semi-analytical approach is its effective pre-mission error assessment for gravity field missions. The semi-analytical approach builds a linear analytical relationship between the Fourier spectrum of the observables and the spherical harmonic spectrum of the gravity field. The spectral link between observables and gravity field parameters is given by the transfer coefficients, which constitutes the observation model. In connection with a stochastic model, it can be used for pre-mission error assessment of gravity field mission. The cartwheel formation is formed by two satellites on elliptic orbits in the same plane. The time dependent ranging will be considered in the transfer coefficients via convolution including the series expansion of the eccentricity functions. The transfer coefficients are applied to assess the error patterns, which are caused by different orientation of the cartwheel for range-rate and range acceleration. This work will present the isotropy and magnitude of the formal errors of the gravity field coefficients, for different orientations of the cartwheel.
Insights into the Earth System mass variability from CSR-RL05 GRACE gravity fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettadpur, S.
2012-04-01
The next-generation Release-05 GRACE gravity field data products are the result of extensive effort applied to the improvements to the GRACE Level-1 (tracking) data products, and to improvements in the background gravity models and processing methodology. As a result, the squared-error upper-bound in RL05 fields is half or less than the squared-error upper-bound in RL04 fields. The CSR-RL05 field release consists of unconstrained gravity fields as well as a regularized gravity field time-series that can be used for several applications without any post-processing error reduction. This paper will describe the background and the nature of these improvements in the data products, and provide an error characterization. We will describe the insights these new series offer in measuring the mass flux due to diverse Hydrologic, Oceanographic and Cryospheric processes.
GRAIL gravity field determination using the Celestial Mechanics Approach - status report
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertone, S.; Arnold, D.; Jäggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Mervart, L.
2015-10-01
The NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory [1]) inherits its concept from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment)mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data aquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth [2]. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is crucial to improve the understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we dis- cuss our latest GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach using the Bernese Software.
Barbero-Immirzi parameter as a scalar field: K-inflation from loop quantum gravity?
Taveras, Victor; Yunes, Nicolas
2008-09-15
We consider a loop-quantum gravity inspired modification of general relativity, where the Holst action is generalized by making the Barbero-Immirzi (BI) parameter a scalar field, whose value could be dynamically determined. The modified theory leads to a nonzero torsion tensor that corrects the field equations through quadratic first derivatives of the BI field. Such a correction is equivalent to general relativity in the presence of a scalar field with nontrivial kinetic energy. This stress energy of this field is automatically covariantly conserved by its own dynamical equations of motion, thus satisfying the strong equivalence principle. Every general relativistic solution remains a solution to the modified theory for any constant value of the BI field. For arbitrary time-varying BI fields, a study of cosmological solutions reduces the scalar-field stress energy to that of a pressureless perfect fluid in a comoving reference frame, forcing the scale-factor dynamics to be equivalent to those of a stiff equation of state. Upon ultraviolet completion, this model could provide a natural mechanism for k inflation, where the role of the inflaton is played by the BI field and inflation is driven by its nontrivial kinetic energy instead of a potential.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Brockwell, Jonathan L.; Yung, Chain-Nan; Chai, An-Ti; Mcquillen, John B.; Sotos, Raymond G.; Neumann, Eric S.
1988-01-01
The experimental and analytical work that was done to establish justification and feasibility for a shuttle middeck experiment involving mass transfer between a gas bubble and a liquid is described. The experiment involves the observation and measurement of the dissolution of an isolated immobile gas bubble of specified size and composition in a thermostatted solvent liquid of known concentration in the reduced gravity environment of earth orbit. Methods to generate and deploy the bubble were successful both in normal gravity using mutually buoyant fluids and under reduced gravity conditions in the NASA Lear Jet. Initialization of the experiment with a bubble of a prescribed size and composition in a liquid of known concentration was accomplished using the concept of unstable equilibrium. Subsequent bubble dissolution or growth is obtained by a step increase or decrease in the liquid pressure. A numerical model was developed which simulates the bubble dynamics and can be used to determine molecular parameters by comparison with the experimental data. The primary objective of the experiment is the elimination of convective effects that occur in normal gravity.
An Analysis of Gravity-Field Estimation Based on Intersatellite Dual-1-Way Biased Ranging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, J. B.
1999-01-01
The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) mission is designed to make global, highly accurate measurements of the Earth's gravity field with high spatial resolution. Ancillary GPS occultation measurements are also to be carried out for atmospheric monitoring. In the dual-1-way biased ranging of this mission, the range between two satellites separated by 100 to 200 km in nearly polar, coplanar, circular orbits, is measured to very high precision, to within an additive constant, through the exchange of K- and Ka-band sinusoidal signals. Such biased ranging data, along with GPS L-band range and phase data, can be processed and fit over successive multiday intervals to obtain accurate estimates of the Earth's gravity field. This report approximately models and analyzes this process, from the generation of the RF signals at the two satellites through the extraction of the geopotential. The steps include generation of the transmitted signals, processing the received signals to extract high-rate baseband phase, carrying out a dual-1-way combination of baseband phase to extract high-rate biased range for each band, combining K- and Ka-band ranges to correct for the ionosphere effect, and processing the resulting high-rate biased range values to extract three types of reduced-rate observables: biased range, range rate and range acceleration. The version of dual-1-way biased ranging developed by this report improves upon previous versions in a number of ways: highly accurate satellite-timetag corrections derived from concurrent GPS data, better baseband phase extraction using highly digital processing, highly accurate USO-rate calibration derived from concurrent GPS data, an improved method for extracting high-rate biased range from baseband phase, improved filtering for extracting reduced- rate observables from high-rate biased range, and parallel extraction of three observable types.
Revision of geodetic parameters. [determination of earth's gravity field with laser data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaposchkin, E. M.; Williamson, M. R.
1975-01-01
Laser data from nine satellites and 12 stations are combined with surface-gravity data to obtain spherical harmonics representing the geopotential complete through degree and order 18. This laser-data-only solution provides a reasonable improvement to the gravity field.
Chiba, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Masahide E-mail: gucci@phys.aoyama.ac.jp
2009-01-15
As an extension of our previous study, we derive slow-roll conditions for multiple scalar fields which are non-minimally coupled with gravity and for generalized gravity theories of the form f({phi}, R). We provide simple formulae of the spectral indices of scalar/tensor perturbations in terms of the slow-roll parameters.
The Earth's gravity field from satellite geodesy - a 30 year adventure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rapp, R. H.
1991-12-01
The first information on the Earth's gravitational field from artificial satellite observations was published in 1958. The next years have seen a dramatic improvement in the resolution and accuracy of the series representation of the Earth's gravity field. The improvements have taken place slowly taking advantage of improved measurement accuracy and the increasing number of satellites. The proposed ARISTOTELES mission would provide the opportunity to take a significant leap in improving our knowledge of the Earth's gravity field.
Topographic/isostatic evaluation of new-generation GOCE gravity field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirt, C.; Kuhn, M.; Featherstone, W. E.; GöTtl, F.
2012-05-01
We use gravity implied by the Earth's rock-equivalent topography (RET) and modeled isostatic compensation masses to evaluate the new global gravity field models (GGMs) from European Space Agency (ESA)'s Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite gravimetry mission. The topography is now reasonably well-known over most of the Earth's landmasses, and also where conventional GGM evaluation is prohibitive due to the lack (or unavailability) of ground-truth gravity data. We construct a spherical harmonic representation of Earth's RET to derive band-limited topography-implied gravity, and test the somewhat simplistic Airy/Heiskanen and Pratt/Hayford hypotheses of isostatic compensation, but which did not improve the agreement between gravity from the uncompensated RET and GOCE. The third-generation GOCE GGMs (based on 12 months of space gravimetry) resolve the Earth's gravity field effectively up to spherical harmonic degree ˜200-220 (˜90-100 km resolution). Such scales could not be resolved from satellites before GOCE. From the three different GOCE processing philosophies currently in use by ESA, the time-wise and direct approaches exhibit the highest sensitivity to short-scale gravity recovery, being better than the space-wise approach. Our topography-implied gravity comparisons bring evidence of improvements from GOCE to gravity field knowledge over the Himalayas, Africa, the Andes, Papua New Guinea and Antarctic regions. In attenuated form, GOCE captures topography-implied gravity signals up to degree ˜250 (˜80 km resolution), suggesting that other signals (originating, e.g., from the crust-mantle boundary and buried loads) are captured as well, which might now improve our knowledge on the Earth's lithosphere structure at previously unresolved spatial scales.
Ignition and combustion of bulk metals under elevated, normal and reduced gravity conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Branch, Melvyn C.; Daily, John W.
1995-01-01
This research effort is aimed at providing further insight into this multi-variable dependent phenomena by looking at the effects of gravity on the ignition and combustion behavior of metals. Since spacecraft are subjected to higher-than-1g gravity loads during launch and reentry and to zero-gravity environments while in orbit, the study of ignition and combustion of bulk metals at different gravitational potentials is of great practical concern. From the scientific standpoint, studies conducted under microgravity conditions provide simplified boundary conditions since buoyancy is removed, and make possible the identification of fundamental ignition mechanisms. The effect of microgravity on the combustion of bulk metals has been investigated by Steinberg, et al. on a drop tower simulator. However, no detailed quantitative work has been done on ignition phenomena of bulk metals at lower or higher-than-normal gravitational fields or on the combustion characteristics of metals at elevated gravity. The primary objective of this investigation is the development of an experimental system capable of providing fundamental physical and chemical information on the ignition of bulk metals under different gravity levels. The metals used in the study, iron (Fe), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) were selected because of their importance as elements of structural metals and their simple chemical composition (pure metals instead of multi-component alloys to avoid complication in morphology and spectroscopic studies). These samples were also chosen to study the two different combustion modes experienced by metals: heterogeneous or surface oxidation, and homogeneous or gas-phase reaction. The experimental approach provides surface temperature profiles, spectroscopic measurements, surface morphology, x-ray spectrometry of metals specimens and their combustion products, and high-speed cinematography of the heating, ignition and combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barriot, J. P.; Balmino, G.
1992-01-01
A novel method is presented for mapping line-of-sight gravity data (LOSGD) joining planetary probes and observers during Doppler tracking operations, with a view to geodetic and geophysical applications. LOSGD are in this case mapped as gravity anomalies along a radial direction, at constant altitude, using an inversion procedure in conjunction with a Tikhonov-Arsenine regularization method. The application of different regularization-parameter choices to a synthetic case is followed by application to the real case of Pioneer-Venus orbiter data for Venus' Gula Mons.
Dipole magnetic field of neutron stars in f(R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakirova, Elizat; Folomeev, Vladimir
2016-10-01
The structure of an interior dipole magnetic field of neutron stars in f( R) gravity is considered. For this purpose, the perturbative approaches are used when both the deviations from general relativity and the deformations of spherically symmetric configurations associated with the presence of the magnetic field are assumed to be small. Solutions are constructed which describe relativistic, spherically symmetric configurations consisting of a gravitating magnetized perfect fluid modeled by a realistic equation of state. Comparing configurations from general relativity and modified gravity, we reveal possible differences in the structure of the magnetic field which occur in considering neutron stars in modified gravity.
Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, R.; Huang, K.
2011-07-01
Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ˜1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells’ normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Han, Shin-Chan; Riva, Ricccardo; Sauber, Jeanne; Okal, Emile
2013-01-01
We quantify gravity changes after great earthquakes present within the 10 year long time series of monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity fields. Using spherical harmonic normal-mode formulation, the respective source parameters of moment tensor and double-couple were estimated. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the gravity data indicate a composite moment of 1.2x10(exp 23)Nm with a dip of 10deg, in agreement with the estimate obtained at ultralong seismic periods. For the 2010 Maule earthquake, the GRACE solutions range from 2.0 to 2.7x10(exp 22)Nm for dips of 12deg-24deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, the estimated scalar moments range from 4.1 to 6.1x10(exp 22)Nm, with dips of 9deg-19deg and centroid depths within the lower crust. For the 2012 Indian Ocean strike-slip earthquakes, the gravity data delineate a composite moment of 1.9x10(exp 22)Nm regardless of the centroid depth, comparing favorably with the total moment of the main ruptures and aftershocks. The smallest event we successfully analyzed with GRACE was the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake with M(sub 0) approx. 5.0x10(exp 21)Nm. We found that the gravity data constrain the focal mechanism with the centroid only within the upper and lower crustal layers for thrust events. Deeper sources (i.e., in the upper mantle) could not reproduce the gravity observation as the larger rigidity and bulk modulus at mantle depths inhibit the interior from changing its volume, thus reducing the negative gravity component. Focal mechanisms and seismic moments obtained in this study represent the behavior of the sources on temporal and spatial scales exceeding the seismic and geodetic spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuda, Y.; Nogi, Y.; Matsuzaki, K.
2014-12-01
We have been conducting the precise gravity field determination around the Japanese Antarctic Station, Syowa in Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. So far, we employed GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) RL-4 and earlier versions of the EGMs and the in-situ gravity data obtained by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE), i.e., land gravity data since 1967, surface ship data since 1985 and airborne gravity data in 2006. Using these data sets, we calculated the precise gravity fields by means of Least Squares Colocations (LSC) and evaluated the GOCE EGMs by comparing with the in-situ gravity data. Recently, new GOCE EGMs, TIM RL-5 and DIR RL-5 have been released. In addition, JARE ship borne gravity data have been reprocessed following a more unified procedure and some land gravity data have been added. Accordingly, we have recalculated the gravity fields using all the data combined. Practically, using those data sets, we estimated gravity anomalies and geoid heights in the area of 60-80S and 20-60E by means of LSC using a GOCE EGM as the long wave-length gravity fields and an empirical covariance function estimated from the airborne gravity data. In this procedure as well as using the obtained gravity field data, we also evaluated GOCE EGMs and other recent EGMs.
In-depth Analysis and Evaluation of GSFC GRAIL Gravity Field Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were launched on September 10, 2011, and conducted their primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012. Primary mission data have been processed at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software, resulting in high-resolution (degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics) gravity field models of high accuracy. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the GRAIL gravity field determination at GSFC. We especially focus on the Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data, and on the use of GRAIL gravity models on tracking data of other spacecraft. We also investigate to what extent the addition of other tracking data (especially Lunar Prospector data) can help to further enhance the lunar gravity field models. Since the orbit of the GRAIL spacecraft was not constant during the primary mission and sensibly elliptical at the beginning and end of the science phase (20 by 80 kilometers, in altitude above lunar surface), there are areas on the Moon where the spacecraft altitude was relatively low compared to the global average. This results in remaining signal in especially the KBRR data that is not necessarily captured by the global models expressed in spherical harmonics. We explore the performance of the GRAIL gravity field models over certain regions with low-altitude KBRR data, and we also investigate analysis methods to estimate local adjustments to the gravity field models.
Simulating reduced gravity: a review of biomechanical issues pertaining to human locomotion.
Davis, B L; Cavanagh, P R
1993-06-01
In the decade preceding Apollo missions to the Moon, extensive studies were conducted on human locomotion in reduced gravity. These investigations focused primarily on issues of maneuverability and energy expenditure and not on musculoskeletal loading, which is of more interest to planners of long-duration space missions. The techniques have included water immersion, parabolic aircraft flights, supine and erect cable suspension and centrifugal methods. The practical implications of the findings from these studies are: 1) the present shuttle treadmill running surface would not suffice if one wanted to run with a natural style at levels greater than 0.6 G; 2) in terms of attempting to replicate typical ground reaction force profiles during locomotor exercise at reduced gravity levels, it appears as though it is easier to match the peak rates of change of force (maxDFDT) than it is to match values for the peak force magnitudes (maxGRF). PMID:8338506
Active member vibration control experiment in a KC-135 reduced gravity environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawrence, C. R.; Lurie, B. J.; Chen, G.-S.; Swanson, A. D.
1991-01-01
An active member vibration control experiment in a KC-135 reduced gravity environment was carried out by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Two active members, consisting of piezoelectric actuators, displacement sensors, and load cells, were incorporated into a 12-meter, 104 kg box-type test structure. The active member control design involved the use of bridge (compound) feedback concept, in which the collocated force and velocity signals are feedback locally. An impact-type test was designed to accommodate the extremely short duration of the reduced gravity testing window in each parabolic flight. The moving block analysis technique was used to estimate the modal frequencies and dampings from the free-decay responses. A broadband damping performance was demonstrated up to the ninth mode of 40 Hz. The best damping performance achieved in the flight test was about 5 percent in the fourth mode of the test structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, Jerry C.; Tong, LI; Sun, Jun; Greenberg, Paul S.; Griffin, Devon W.
1993-01-01
Most practical combustion processes, as well as fires and explosions, exhibit some characteristics of turbulent diffusion flames. For hydrocarbon fuels, the presence of soot particles significantly increases the level of radiative heat transfer from flames. In some cases, flame radiation can reach up to 75 percent of the heat release by combustion. Laminar diffusion flame results show that radiation becomes stronger under reduced gravity conditions. Therefore, detailed soot formation and radiation must be included in the flame structure analysis. A study of sooting turbulent diffusion flames under reduced-gravity conditions will not only provide necessary information for such practical issues as spacecraft fire safety, but also develop better understanding of fundamentals for diffusion combustion. In this paper, a summary of the work to date and of future plans is reported.
Reduced gravity boiling and condensing experiments simulated with the COBRA/TRAC computer code
Cuta, J.M.; Krotiuk, W.J.
1988-02-01
It is being recognized that there does not currently exist an adequate understanding of flow and heat transfer behavior in reduced- and zero-gravity. There is not a sufficient experimental fluid-thermal data base to develop design correlations for two-phase pressure losses, heat transfer coefficients, and critical heat flux limits in systems proposed for advanced power sources, propulsion, and other thermal management systems in space. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is the lead laboratory for thermal hydraulics in the Department of Energy's Multimegawatt Space Power Program, and has the responsibility of developing microgravity thermal-hydraulic analysis capabilities for application to space nuclear power systems. In support of this program, PNL has performed a series of reduced-gravity two-phase flow experiments in the NASA KC-135 aircraft. The objective of the experiment was to supply basic thermal-hydraulic information that could be used in development of analytical design tools. 6 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.
Dynamic characteristic prediction of inverted pendulum under the reduced-gravity space environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guohui; Liu, Xue
2010-09-01
A new multi-local linear model based on the Tkakgi-Sugeno approach is presented to carry out controlling of a nonlinear unsteady system and to make a design of inverted pendulum fuzzy controller. Nonlinear multi-variance behaviors are transformed to a multi-local linear model using a fuzzy approximation method, which is used to implement control steadily and rapidly for the global system. Detailed investigations on dynamic behaviors of inverted pendulum under reduced-gravity space environments are performed using Simulink simulations. Results showed that stabilization of an inverted pendulum is greatly affected by reduced-gravity conditions and effects of θ angle variation are the largest. When θ is greater than 1.571 rad threshold value, balances will be lost under earth, lunar and microgravity conditions. Furthermore, microgravity is favorable for keeping balance status. An appropriate compensation controlling provided by the presented fuzzy controller can keep a better balance for inverted pendulum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauss, S.; Klinger, B.; Baur, O.; Mayr-Guerr, T.
2015-10-01
We present an updated version of the lunar gravity field model GrazLGM300a,b [1,2] based on intersatellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) observations collected by the GRAIL mission. We propose to exploit the ranging measurements by an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs [4].Compared to the predecessor model we increase the spectral resolution to degree and order 450 and refined the parameterization. Validation shows that the applied technique is well suited to recover the lunar gravity field.
Spherical harmonic representation of the gravity field from dynamic satellite data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klosko, S. M.; Wagner, C. A.
1982-01-01
Gravitational constraint equations (lumped harmonics) were derived for the analysis of longitude-dependent gravity effects. These equations follow from elementary perturbation theory and show that all such lumped coefficients are harmonic in the argument of perigee. This approach makes it possible to reduce comprehensive field models to the lumped coefficients for orbits or orbital arcs used in their solutions. These reduced data may be easily combined to determine the resonant and low order geopotential to as high degree as feasible without reintegration of orbits or reprocessing of the original tracking data. An improved set of 13th order harmonics has been computed solely from diverse 13th order resonant constraint information to demonstrate this application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsaka, Basem; Raimondo, Jean-Claude; Brieden, Phillip; Reubelt, Tilo; Kusche, Jürgen; Flechtner, Frank; Iran Pour, Siavash; Sneeuw, Nico; Müller, Jürgen
2014-01-01
The goal of this contribution is to focus on improving the quality of gravity field models in the form of spherical harmonic representation via alternative configuration scenarios applied in future gravimetric satellite missions. We performed full-scale simulations of various mission scenarios within the frame work of the German joint research project "Concepts for future gravity field satellite missions" as part of the Geotechnologies Program, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the German Research Foundation. In contrast to most previous simulation studies including our own previous work, we extended the simulated time span from one to three consecutive months to improve the robustness of the assessed performance. New is that we performed simulations for seven dedicated satellite configurations in addition to the GRACE scenario, serving as a reference baseline. These scenarios include a "GRACE Follow-on" mission (with some modifications to the currently implemented GRACE-FO mission), and an in-line "Bender" mission, in addition to five mission scenarios that include additional cross-track and radial information. Our results clearly confirm the benefit of radial and cross-track measurement information compared to the GRACE along-track observable: the gravity fields recovered from the related alternative mission scenarios are superior in terms of error level and error isotropy. In fact, one of our main findings is that although the noise levels achievable with the particular configurations do vary between the simulated months, their order of performance remains the same. Our findings show also that the advanced pendulums provide the best performance of the investigated single formations, however an accuracy reduced by about 2-4 times in the important long-wavelength part of the spectrum (for spherical harmonic degrees ), compared to the Bender mission, can be observed. Concerning state-of-the-art mission constraints, in particular
Extinguishment of a Diffusion Flame Over a PMMA Cylinder by Depressurization in Reduced-Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldmeer, Jeffrey Scott
1996-01-01
Extinction of a diffusion flame burning over horizontal PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate) cylinders in low-gravity was examined experimentally and via numerical simulations. Low-gravity conditions were obtained using the NASA Lewis Research Center's reduced-gravity aircraft. The effects of velocity and pressure on the visible flame were examined. The flammability of the burning solid was examined as a function of pressure and the solid-phase centerline temperature. As the solid temperature increased, the extinction pressure decreased, and with a centerline temperature of 525 K, the flame was sustained to 0.1 atmospheres before extinguishing. The numerical simulation iteratively coupled a two-dimensional quasi-steady, gas-phase model with a transient solid-phase model which included conductive heat transfer and surface regression. This model employed an energy balance at the gas/solid interface that included the energy conducted by the gas-phase to the gas/solid interface, Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics, surface radiation, and the energy conducted into the solid. The ratio of the solid and gas-phase conductive fluxes Phi was a boundary condition for the gas-phase model at the solid-surface. Initial simulations modeled conditions similar to the low-gravity experiments and predicted low-pressure extinction limits consistent with the experimental limits. Other simulations examined the effects of velocity, depressurization rate and Phi on extinction.
Cryogenic Pressure Control Modeling for Ellipsoidal Space Tanks in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hedayat, Ali; Lopez, Alfredo; Grayson, Gary D.; Chandler, Frank O.; Hastings, Leon J.
2008-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate pressure control of an ellipsoidal-shaped liquid hydrogen tank under external heating in low gravity. Pressure control is provided by an axial jet thermodynamic vent system (TVS) centered within the vessel that injects cooler liquid into the tank, mixing the contents and reducing tank pressure. The two-phase cryogenic tank model considers liquid hydrogen in its own vapor with liquid density varying with temperature only and a fully compressible ullage. The axisymmetric model is developed using a custom version of the commercially available FLOW-3D software and simulates low gravity extrapolations of engineering checkout tests performed at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1999 in support of the Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Demonstrator (STUSTD) program. Model results illustrate that stable low gravity liquid-gas interfaces are maintained during all phases of the pressure control cycle. Steady and relatively smooth ullage pressurization rates are predicted. This work advances current low gravity CFD modeling capabilities for cryogenic pressure control and aids the development of a low cost CFD-based design process for space hardware.
Convection due to surface-tension gradients. [in reduced gravity spacecraft environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ostrach, S.
1978-01-01
The use of dimensionless parameters to study fluid motions that could occur in a reduced-gravity environment is discussed. The significance of the Marangoni instability is considered, and the use of dimensionless parameters to investigate problems such as thermo and diffusocapillary flows is described. Characteristics of fluid flow in space are described, and the relation and interaction of motions due to capillarity and buoyancy is examined.
Symmetry reduced loop quantum gravity: A bird’s eye view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay
2016-06-01
This is a brief overview of the current status of symmetry reduced models in Loop Quantum Gravity. The goal is to provide an introduction to other more specialized and detailed reviews that follow. Since most of this work is motivated by the physics of the very early universe, I will focus primarily on Loop Quantum Cosmology and discuss quantum aspects of black holes only briefly.
Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob
2010-01-01
A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T
On axionic field ranges, loopholes and the weak gravity conjecture
Brown, Jon; Cottrell, William; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo
2016-04-05
Here, we clarify some aspects of the impact that the Weak Gravity Conjecture has on models of (generalized) natural inflation. In particular we address certain technical and conceptual concerns recently raised regarding the stringent constraints and conclusions found in our previous work. We also point out the difficulties faced by attempts to evade these constraints. Furthermore, these new considerations improve the understanding of the quantum gravity constraints we found and further support the conclusion that it remains challenging for axions to drive natural inflation.
The 4th Release of GOCE Gravity Field Models - Overview and Performance Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruber, Thomas; Rummel, Reiner
2013-04-01
New GOCE gravity field models based on about 2 years of completely reprocessed gradiometer data have been recently released to the user community. They were obtained based on different processing strategies and reflect the state-of-the-art of GOCE gravity field models. With the improved gravity gradients resulting from a number of updates implemented in the level 1B processor and with the additional data set the performance of the resulting GOCE based models could be significantly improved as compared to the previous solutions. The paper provides an overview of the available GOCE models and presents the results of their validation by different means.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maier, A.; Baur, O.; Krauss, S.
2014-04-01
This contribution deals with Precise Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which is tracked with optical laser ranges in addition to radiometric Doppler range-rates and range observations. The optimum parameterization is assessed by overlap analysis tests that indicate the inner precision of the computed orbits. Information about the very long wavelengths of the lunar gravity field is inferred from the spacecraft positions. The NASA software packages GEODYN II and SOLVE were used for orbit determination and gravity field recovery [1].
Status of GRAIL Gravity Field Determination Using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Daniel; Beutler, Gerhard; Jäggi, Adrian; Bock, Heike; Mervart, Leos; Meyer, Ulrich; Bertone, Stefano
To determine the gravity field of the Moon, the NASA mission GRAIL (Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory) inherits its concept from the Earth orbiting GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. The use of ultra-precise inter-satellite Ka-band ranging observations enables data acquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field with unprecedented resolution on both sides of the Moon, which is crucial to improve the understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach. Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations and position data (GNI1B products) are used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. Apart from normalized spherical harmonic coefficients up to degrees n≤ 200, also arc- and satellite-specific parameters, like initial state vectors and pseudo-stochastic pulses, are set up as common parameters for all measurement types. The latter shall compensate for imperfect models of non-gravitational accelerations, e.g., caused by solar radiation pressure. In addition, especially for the data of the primary mission phase, it is essential to estimate time bias parameters for the KBRR observations. We compare our results from the nominal mission phase with the official Level 2 gravity field models first released in October 2013. Our results demonstrate that the lunar gravity field can be recovered with a high quality by adapting the Celestial Mechanics Approach, even when using pre-GRAIL or pre-SELENE gravity field models as a priori fields and when replacing sophisticated models of non-gravitational accelerations by appropriately spaced and constrained pseudo-stochastic pulses. Yet, the usage of preprocessed position data as pseudo observations is not fully satisfying and is potentially
Triyanta; Zen, F. P.; Supardi; Wardaya, A. Y.
2010-12-23
Gauge theory, under the framework of quantum field theory, has successfully described three fundamental interactions: electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions. Problems of describing the gravitational interaction in a similar manner has not been satisfied yet until now. Teleparallel gravity (TG) is one proposal describing gravitational field as a gauge field. This theory is quite new and it is equivalent to Einstein's general relativity. But as gravitational field in TG is expressed by torsion, rather than curvature, it gives an alternative framework for solving problems on gravity. This paper will present solution of the dynamical equation of abelian vector fields under the framework of TG in the Bianchi type I spacetime.
Gravity wave forcing in the middle atmosphere due to reduced ozone heating during a solar eclipse
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fritts, David C.; Luo, Zhangai
1993-01-01
We present an analysis of the gravity wave structure and the associated forcing of the middle atmosphere induced by the screening of the ozone layer from solar heating during a solar eclipse. Fourier integral techniques and numerical evaluation of the integral solutions were used to assess the wave field structure and to compute the gravity wave forcing of the atmosphere at greater heights. Our solutions reveal dominant periods of a few hours, characteristic horizontal and vertical scales of about 5000 to 10,000 km and 200 km, respectively, and an integrated momentum flux in the direction of eclipse motion of about 5.6 x 10 exp 8 N at each height above the forcing level. These results suggest that responses to solar eclipses may be difficult to detect above background gravity wave and tidal fluctuations until well into the thermosphere. Conversely, the induced body forces may penetrate to considerable heights because of the large wave scales and will have significant effects at levels where the wave field is dissipated.
Gravity Driven Universe: Energy from a Unified Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masters, Roy
2012-10-01
One way or another, whether push or pull, we know for sure that gravity is omnidirectional with identical mathematics. With PULL, gravity can be seen as as a property of matter. If so something is wrong. The Moon, lifting the tides twice-daily, should have fallen into orbital decay, with Earth having pulled it down eons ago. It is puzzling that physicists are not troubled by the fact that the Moon not only insists on forever lifting the tides, but, adding insult to injury, keeps moving it about 4 cm further away from Earth each year. Now if instead, we consider gravity as driven by an omnidirectional pressure--a PUSH force, another possibility arises. We can consider that it is mysteriously infusing energy into the Earth-Moon system, sustaining the Moon's orbit with the appearance of raising the tides and actually pushing it away from Earth. Here we can show push and pull, while being identical in their mathematics, have different outcomes. With push, gravity is a property of the universe. If this is true, then gravitation is flowing from an everlasting source, and the Earth/Moon system is one example of many other vacuum energy machines in the universe.
Latest Moon gravity field solutions from GRAIL data using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertone, Stefano; Arnold, Daniel; Jäggi, Adrian; Beutler, Gerhard; Mervart, Leos; Meyer, Ulrich
2016-04-01
The NASA mission GRAIL inherits its concept from the GRACE mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data acquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is leading to huge improvements in our understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss the latest GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach using the Bernese GNSS Software. We recently presented our solutions up to d/o 200, where KBRR observations and position data (GNI1B products) were used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. As a further extension of our processing, the GNI1B positions are now replaced by the original Doppler observations of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to allow for a completely independent determination of the lunar gravity field. Based on Doppler data, we perform orbit determination by solving six initial orbital elements, dynamical parameters, and stochastic parameters in daily arcs using least-squares adjustment. The pseudo-stochastic parameters are estimated to absorb deficiencies in our dynamical modeling (e.g. due to non-gravitational forces). Doppler and KBRR data are then used together with an appropriate weighting for a combined orbit determination process. We present our latest results in the orbit determination of GRAIL over the primary mission phase (PM, March-May 2012) and our first lunar gravity fields based on Doppler and KBRR observations. We compare all of our results from the PM with the most recent lunar gravity field models released by other groups, as well as their consistency with topography-induced gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oinuma, Ryoji; Nguyen, Ngoc; Dickes, Neil; Kurwitz, Richard C.; Best, Frederick R.
2009-03-01
Under reduced gravity conditions, conventional gravity-assisted steam generators do not function properly and shear-driven or swirl type of devices must be used. Once-through boilers with special inserts such as twisted-tapes or swirl devices and rotating boilers have been previously studied. The once-through boiler requires a liquid-vapor phase separator due to the inability to vaporize all liquid completely to avoid burn-out. These devices also encounter instabilities due to the sudden formation or collapse of vapor. The rotating boiler requires a large power input to operate and has less reliability due to moving parts and dynamic seals at high temperature. A liquid-driven vortex boiling separator is categorized as a shear-driven boiler, but creates centripetal-driven buoyancy forces to form a gas-liquid vortex by injecting liquid tangentially along the inner wall of the cylinder rather than rotating the body itself. The vortex boiling separator eliminates the disadvantages of devices mentioned above, having a low pressure drop, no moving parts and generating dry vapor at its outlet. Texas A&M University carried out a reduced gravity flight experiment on the NASA C-9 aircraft to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and performance based on similar devices developed at Texas A&M.
Barnich, Glenn; Troessaert, Cedric
2009-04-15
In the reduced phase space of electromagnetism, the generator of duality rotations in the usual Poisson bracket is shown to generate Maxwell's equations in a second, much simpler Poisson bracket. This gives rise to a hierarchy of bi-Hamiltonian evolution equations in the standard way. The result can be extended to linearized Yang-Mills theory, linearized gravity, and massless higher spin gauge fields.
Solid-state combustion synthesis of ceramics and alloys in reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Valone, S. M.; Behrens, R. G.
1988-01-01
Possible microgravity effects are explored in the combustion synthesis of ceramics and alloys from their constituent elements. Molten intermediates are typically present during the combustion process, thereby offering the chance for natural convection to take place. Numerical simulations suggest that the combustion front in concert with gravity may act as a partial zone-refinement mechanism which is attempting to sweep out porosity in the sample. Contrary to suggestions by dimensional analysis, no effects on the combustion rate are seen. An analytical model of the combustion velocity as a function of the gravitational field and the spreading rate of molten material gives the correct order of magnitude of the gravity effect as measured by centrifuge experiments.
The JPL Mars gravity field, Mars50c, based upon Viking and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.
1995-01-01
This report summarizes the current JPL efforts of generating a Mars gravity field from Viking 1 and 2 and Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data. The Mars 50c solution is a complete gravity field to degree and order 50 with solutions as well for the gravitational mass of Mars, Phobos, and Deimos. The constants and models used to obtain the solution are given and the method for determining the gravity field is presented. The gravity field is compared to the best current gravity GMM1 of Goddard Space Flight Center.
ARISTOTELES: A European approach for an Earth gravity field recovery mission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benz, R.; Faulks, H.; Langemann, M.
1989-01-01
Under contract of the European Space Agency a system study for a spaceborne gravity field recovery mission was performed, covering as a secondary mission objective geodetic point positioning in the cm range as well. It was demonstrated that under the given programmatic constraints including dual launch and a very tight development schedule, a six months gravity field mission in a 200 km near polar, dawn-dusk orbit is adequate to determine gravity anomalies to better than 5 mgal with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 km half wavelength. This will enable scientists to determine improved spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth gravity field equation to the order and degree of 180 or better.
ARISTOTELES: A European approach for an Earth gravity field recovery mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benz, R.; Faulks, H.; Langemann, M.
1989-06-01
Under contract of the European Space Agency a system study for a spaceborne gravity field recovery mission was performed, covering as a secondary mission objective geodetic point positioning in the cm range as well. It was demonstrated that under the given programmatic constraints including dual launch and a very tight development schedule, a six months gravity field mission in a 200 km near polar, dawn-dusk orbit is adequate to determine gravity anomalies to better than 5 mgal with a spatial resolution of 100 x 100 km half wavelength. This will enable scientists to determine improved spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth gravity field equation to the order and degree of 180 or better.
Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena in a Simulated Reduced Gravity Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lipa, J.
2004-01-01
We describe a ground-based apparatus that allows the cancellation of gravity on a fluid using magnetic forces. The present system was designed for liquid oxygen studies over the range 0.001 - 5 g s. This fluid is an essential component of any flight mission using substantial amounts of liquid propellant, especially manned missions. The apparatus has been used to reduce the hydrostatic compression near the oxygen critical point and to demonstrate inverted phase separation. It could also be used to study pool boiling and two-phase heat transfer in Martian, Lunar or near-zero gravity, as well as phenomena such as Marangoni flow and convective instabilities. These studies would contribute directly to the reliability and optimization of the Moon and Mars flight programs.
Gravity survey of marine field: Case study for Silurian reef exploration
Heigold, P.C.; Whitaker, S.T. )
1989-08-01
A gravity survey conducted over and around Marine field in southwestern Illinois has been used as an example to show how measurement of the local gravity field can aid in the search for Silurian reefs in the Illinois basin. Acquisition parameters for gravity surveys over Silurian reefs should be calculated beforehand from simple models of the reef based on estimates of density contrasts, depths, and size. Residual and derivative mapping techniques generally enhance gravity anomalies and enable more accurate portrayals of the structural relief on buried reefs. The second vertical derivative map of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly surface at Marine field compares very well with the structure of the reef as mapped from subsurface data. This study indicates that similar mapping techniques could be effective on other reefs throughout the Illinois basin. Although gravity mapping methods are potentially powerful exploration tools in themselves, the writers believe that their proper role is as a part of a more comprehensive exploration approach. Gravity surveys can be used effectively as an initial exploration method in reef-prone areas to define smaller, prospect-size areas in which more intensive exploration techniques can subsequently be focused.
Initial Results of Global Lunar Gravity Field Recovery from SELENE tracking data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Koji; Goossens, Sander; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Liu, Qinghui; Iwata, Takahiro; Namiki, Noriyuki; Noda, Hirotomo; Hanada, Hideo; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Tsuruta, Seiitsu; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Sho
Two small spin-stabilized sub-satellites, Rstar (OKINA) and Vstar (OUNA), have successfully been separated from Main satellite of SELENE (KAGUYA) and inserted into planned elliptical orbits on October 9 and 12, 2007, respectively. These spacecraft are dedicated to improving our knowledge of the global lunar gravity field with the mission instruments on-board, i.e., RSAT (a satellite-to-satellite Doppler tracking sub-system) and VRAD (artificial radio sources for VLBI). We have started collecting new types of tracking data for the lunar-orbiting satellites, i.e., 4-way Doppler tracking between the Main satellite and Rstar (i.e., a direct far-side gravity observation), and multi-frequency differential VLBI tracking between Rstar and Vstar. A global lunar gravity field with unprecedented accuracy is expected to be estimated through precision orbit determination by using these tracking data. A preliminary global lunar gravity field model (degree and order up to 60) was developed from about 3-month of SELENE tracking data which include 2-way Doppler, 2-way range, and 4-way Doppler data. Although the current far-side data coverage is incomplete and a Kaula-type a priori constraint is necessary for meaningful inversion, some of ring-shaped gravity anomalies are more clearly resolved in the far-side compared with existing lunar gravity models. We will present concept of tracking data acquisition scheduling, current status of tracking data acquisition, and preliminary results of global lunar gravity filed recovery.
Bubble Generation in a Continuous Liquid Flow Under Reduced Gravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pais, Salvatore Cezar
1999-01-01
The present work reports a study of bubble generation under reduced gravity conditions for both co-flow and cross-flow configurations. Experiments were performed aboard the DC-9 Reduced Gravity Aircraft at NASA Glenn Research Center, using an air-water system. Three different flow tube diameters were used: 1.27, 1.9, and 2.54 cm. Two different ratios of air injection nozzle to tube diameters were considered: 0.1 and 0.2. Gas and liquid volumetric flow rates were varied from 10 to 200 ml/s. It was experimentally observed that with increasing superficial liquid velocity, the bubbles generated decreased in size. The bubble diameter was shown to increase with increasing air injection nozzle diameters. As the tube diameter was increased, the size of the detached bubbles increased. Likewise, as the superficial liquid velocity was increased, the frequency of bubble formation increased and thus the time to detach forming bubbles decreased. Independent of the flow configuration (for either single nozzle or multiple nozzle gas injection), void fraction and hence flow regime transition can be controlled in a somewhat precise manner by solely varying the gas and liquid volumetric flow rates. On the other hand, it is observed that uniformity of bubble size can be controlled more accurately by using single nozzle gas injection than by using multiple port injection, since this latter system gives rise to unpredictable coalescence of adjacent bubbles. A theoretical model, based on an overall force balance, is employed to study single bubble generation in the dynamic and bubbly flow regime. Under conditions of reduced gravity, the gas momentum flux enhances bubble detachment; however, the surface tension forces at the nozzle tip inhibits bubble detachment. Liquid drag and inertia can act either as attaching or detaching force, depending on the relative velocity of the bubble with respect to the surrounding liquid. Predictions of the theoretical model compare well with performed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andracchio, C. R.; Cochran, T. H.
1974-01-01
An experimental program was conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of solids burning in a weightless environment. The combustion characteristics of thin cellulose acetate material were obtained from specimens burned in supercritical as well as in low pressure oxygen atmospheres. Flame spread rates were measured and found to depend on material thickness and pressure in both normal gravity (1-g) and reduced gravity (0-g). A gravity effect on the burning process was also observed; the ratio of 1-g to 0-g flame spread rate becomes larger with increasing material thickness. Qualitative results on the combustion characteristics of metal screens (stainless steel, Inconel, copper, and aluminum) burning in supercritical oxygen and normal gravity are also presented. Stainless steel (300 sq mesh) was successfully ignited in reduced gravity; no apparent difference in the flame spread pattern was observed between 1-g and 0-g.
Time-variable and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2016-04-01
The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have significantly contributed to the determination of global high-resolution global gravity fields of Mars for the last 16 years. All three spacecraft were located in sun-synchronous, near-circular polar mapping orbits for their primary mission phases at different altitudes and Local Solar Time (LST). X-Band tracking data have been acquired from the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) providing information on the time-variable and static gravity field of Mars. MGS operated between 1999 and 2006 at 390 km altitude. ODY and MRO are still orbiting Mars with periapsis altitudes of 400 km and 255 km, respectively. Before entering these mapping phases, all three spacecraft collected radio tracking data at lower altitudes (˜170-200 km) that help improve the resolution of the gravity field of Mars in specific regions. We analyzed the entire MGS radio tracking data set, and ODY and MRO radio data until 2015. These observations were processed using a batch least-squares filter through the NASA GSFC GEODYN II software. We combined all 2- and 3-way range rate data to estimate the global gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, the seasonal variations of gravity harmonic coefficients C20, C30, C40 and C50 and the Love number k2. The gravity contribution of Mars atmospheric pressures on the surface of the planet has been discerned from the time-varying and static gravity harmonic coefficients. Surface pressure grids computed using the Mars-GRAM 2010 atmospheric model, with 2.5° x2.5° spatial and 2-h resolution, are converted into gravity spherical harmonic coefficients. Consequently, the estimated gravity and tides provide direct information on the solid planet. We will present the new Goddard Mars Model (GMM-3) of Mars gravity field in spherical harmonics to degree and order 120. The solution includes the Love number k2 and the 3-frequencies (annual, semi-annual, and tri
Studies of Two-Phase Flow Dynamics and Heat Transfer at Reduced Gravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witte, Larry C.; Bousman, W. Scott; Fore, Larry B.
1996-01-01
The ability to predict gas-liquid flow patterns is crucial to the design and operation of two-phase flow systems in the microgravity environment. Flow pattern maps have been developed in this study which show the occurrence of flow patterns as a function of gas and liquid superficial velocities as well as tube diameter, liquid viscosity and surface tension. The results have demonstrated that the location of the bubble-slug transition is affected by the tube diameter for air-water systems and by surface tension, suggesting that turbulence-induced bubble fluctuations and coalescence mechanisms play a role in this transition. The location of the slug-annular transition on the flow pattern maps is largely unaffected by tube diameter, liquid viscosity or surface tension in the ranges tested. Void fraction-based transition criteria were developed which separate the flow patterns on the flow pattern maps with reasonable accuracy. Weber number transition criteria also show promise but further work is needed to improve these models. For annular gas-liquid flows of air-water and air- 50 percent glycerine under reduced gravity conditions, the pressure gradient agrees fairly well with a version of the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation but the measured film thickness deviates from published correlations at lower Reynolds numbers. Nusselt numbers, based on a film thickness obtained from standard normal-gravity correlations, follow the relation, Nu = A Re(sup n) Pr(exp l/3), but more experimental data in a reduced gravity environment are needed to increase the confidence in the estimated constants, A and n. In the slug flow regime, experimental pressure gradient does not correlate well with either the Lockhart-Martinelli or a homogeneous formulation, but does correlate nicely with a formulation based on a two-phase Reynolds number. Comparison with ground-based correlations implies that the heat transfer coefficients are lower at reduced gravity than at normal gravity under the same
On the regularization of regional gravity field solutions in spherical radial base functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naeimi, Majid; Flury, Jakob; Brieden, Phillip
2015-08-01
Regional refinement of the gravity field models from satellite data using spherical radial base functions (SRBF) is an ill-posed problem. This is mainly due to the regional confinement of the data and the base functions, which leads to severe instabilities in the solutions. Here, this ill-posedness as well as the related regularization process are investigated. We compare three methods for the choice of the regularization parameter, which have been frequently used in gravity modelling. These methods are (1) the variance component estimation (VCE), (2) the generalized cross validation (GCV) and (3) the L-curve criterion. A particular emphasis is put on the impact of the SRBF type on the regularization parameter. To do this, we include two types of SRBF which are often used for regional gravity field modelling. These are the Shannon SRBF or the reproducing kernel and the Spline SRBF. The investigations are performed on two months of the real GOCE ultrasensitive gravity gradients over Central Africa and Amazon. The solutions are validated against a state-of-the-art global gravity solution. We conclude that if a proper regularization method is applied, both SRBF deliver more or less the same accuracy. We show that when the Shannon wavelet is used, the L-curve method gives the best results, while with the Spline kernel, the GCV outperforms the other two methods. Moreover, we observe that the estimated coefficients for the Spline kernel cannot be spatially interpreted. In contrast, the coefficients obtained for the Shannon wavelet reflect the energy of the recovered gravity field with a correlation factor of above 95 per cent. Therefore, when combined with the L-curve method, the Shannon SRBF is advantageous for regional gravity field estimation, since it is one of the simplest band-limited SRBF. In addition, it delivers promising solutions and the estimated coefficients represent the characteristics of the gravity field within the target region.
Scalar field equations from quantum gravity during inflation
Kahya, E. O.; Woodard, R. P.
2008-04-15
We exploit a previous computation of the self-mass-squared from quantum gravity to include quantum corrections to the scalar evolution equation. The plane wave mode functions are shown to receive no significant one loop corrections at late times. This result probably applies as well to the inflaton of scalar-driven inflation. If so, there is no significant correction to the {phi}{phi} correlator that plays a crucial role in computations of the power spectrum.
Neutron stars in a perturbative f(R) gravity model with strong magnetic fields
Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Güngör, Can; Keleş, Vildan; Ryu, C.Y.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J. E-mail: cemsinan@msgsu.edu.tr E-mail: kelesvi@itu.edu.tr E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp
2013-10-01
In Kaluza-Klein electromagnetism it is natural to associate modified gravity with strong electromagnetic fields. Hence, in this paper we investigate the combined effects of a strong magnetic field and perturbative f(R) gravity on the structure of neutron stars. The effect of an interior strong magnetic field of about 10{sup 17−18} G on the equation of state is derived in the context of a quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) equation of state (EoS) including effects of the magnetic pressure and energy along with occupied Landau levels. Adopting a random orientation of interior field domains, we solve the modified spherically symmetric hydrostatic equilibrium equations derived for a gravity model with f(R) = R+αR{sup 2}. Effects of both the finite magnetic field and the modified gravity are detailed for various values of the magnetic field and the perturbation parameter α along with a discussion of their physical implications. We show that there exists a parameter space of the modified gravity and the magnetic field strength, in which even a soft equation of state can accommodate a large ( > 2 M{sub s}un) maximum neutron star mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Jinyun; Mu, Dapeng; Liu, Xin; Yan, Haoming; Dai, Honglei
2014-08-01
The Level-2 monthly GRACE gravity field models issued by Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungs Zentrum (GFZ), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are treated as observations used to extract the equivalent water height (EWH) with the robust independent component analysis (RICA). The smoothing radii of 300, 400, and 500 km are tested, respectively, in the Gaussian smoothing kernel function to reduce the observation Gaussianity. Three independent components are obtained by RICA in the spatial domain; the first component matches the geophysical signal, and the other two match the north-south strip and the other noises. The first mode is used to estimate EWHs of CSR, JPL, and GFZ, and compared with the classical empirical decorrelation method (EDM). The EWH STDs for 12 months in 2010 extracted by RICA and EDM show the obvious fluctuation. The results indicate that the sharp EWH changes in some areas have an important global effect, like in Amazon, Mekong, and Zambezi basins.
Latest developments in lunar gravity field recovery within the project GRAZIL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauss, Sandro; Wirnsberger, Harald; Klinger, Beate; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Baur, Oliver
2016-04-01
The project GRAZIL addresses the highly accurate recovery of the lunar gravity field using intersatellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) measurements collected by the Lunar Gravity Ranging System (LGRS) of the Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission. Dynamic precise orbit determination is an indispensable task in order to recover the lunar gravity field based on LGRS measurements. The concept of variational equations is adopted to determine the orbit of the two GRAIL satellites based on radio science data. In this contribution we focus on the S-band two-way Doppler data collected by the Deep Space Network. As far as lunar gravity field recovery is concerned, we apply an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs in the order of one hour. In this contribution special attention is given to the refinement of our processing strategy in conjunction with an increase of the spectral resolution. Based on these considerations we present the latest version of a lunar gravity field model developed in Graz which is based on KBR observations during the primary mission phase (March 1 to May 29, 2012). Our results are validated against GRAIL models computed at NASA-GSFC and NASA-JPL.
Experimental concept for examination of biological effects of magnetic field concealed by gravity.
Yamashita, M; Tomita-Yokotani, K; Hashimoto, H; Takai, M; Tsushima, M; Nakamura, T
2004-01-01
Space is not only a place to study biological effects of gravity, but also provides unique opportunities to examine other environmental factors, where the biological actions are masked by gravity on the ground. Even the earth's magnetic field is steadily acting on living systems, and is known to influence many biological processes. A systematic survey and assessment of its action are difficult to conduct in the presence of dominant factors, such as gravity. Investigation of responses of biological systems against the combined environment of zero-gravity and zero-magnetic field might establish the baseline for the analysis of biological effects of magnetic factors. We propose, in this paper, an experimental concept in this context, together with a practical approach of the experiments, both in orbit and on the ground, with a thin magnetic shielding film. Plant epicotyl growth was taken as an exemplar index to evaluate technical and scientific feasibility of the proposed system concept.
The metric on field space, functional renormalization, and metric-torsion quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reuter, Martin; Schollmeyer, Gregor M.
2016-04-01
Searching for new non-perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity theories, functional renormalization group (RG) flows are studied on a theory space of action functionals depending on the metric and the torsion tensor, the latter parameterized by three irreducible component fields. A detailed comparison with Quantum Einstein-Cartan Gravity (QECG), Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG), and "tetrad-only" gravity, all based on different theory spaces, is performed. It is demonstrated that, over a generic theory space, the construction of a functional RG equation (FRGE) for the effective average action requires the specification of a metric on the infinite-dimensional field manifold as an additional input. A modified FRGE is obtained if this metric is scale-dependent, as it happens in the metric-torsion system considered.
Studying low-velocity impacts in reduced gravity: an asteroid landing experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdoch, Naomi; Calandry, Alexis; Sunday, Cecily; Avila Martinez, Iris; Cherrier, Olivier; Cadu, Alexandre; Zenou, Emmanuel; Gourinat, Yves
2016-10-01
Several current and future small body missions include lander components e.g., MASCOT and the MINERVA rovers on-board JAXA's Hayabusa-2 mission [1], MASCOT2 and possibly AGEX on board ESA's AIM mission [2,3]. The understanding of surface-lander interactions is important for all such landers as these considerations influence the deployment strategy, the mission design and operations, and even the choice of payload. The dynamics of low-velocity interactions with granular material in reduced gravity are also important for other missions, such as OSIRIS-REx (NASA), that will interact directly with the asteroid's surface in order to retrieve a regolith sample.In our experiment, reduced gravity is simulated by releasing a free-falling projectile into a surface container with a downward acceleration less than that of Earth's gravity. The acceleration of the surface is controlled through the use of an Atwood machine, or a system of pulleys and counterweights. The experiment is built into an existing 5.5 m drop-tower frame and has required the custom design of all components, including the projectiles, surface sample container and release mechanism [4].Previous experiments using similar methods have demonstrated the important role of gravity in the peak accelerations and collision timescales during low velocity granular impacts [5,6]. The design of our experiment accommodates collision velocities and effective accelerations that are lower than in previous experiments (<20 cm/s and ~0.1-1.0 m/s2 respectively), allowing us to come closer to the conditions that may be encountered by current and future small body missions.Here we will present the results of our experimental trials and discuss the implications for small body missions. The unique experimental data obtained in these trials may also be valuable to benchmark different numerical simulation approaches. These simulations can then subsequently be used to extrapolate the results to even lower gravity regimes.[1] Tsuda, Y
Design of a Shuttle air and water prefilter for reduced gravity operation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ungar, Eugene K.; Ouellette, Fred A.
1992-01-01
The first design concept of the Space Shuttle humidity separator prefilter, developed to remove debris from the air/water stream which flows from the cabin condensing heat exchanger to the humidity separator, was flown on STS-40 in June 1991. This paper discusses the design of the first prefilter (which was found not to pass water at a constant rate, resulting in a tendency to slug the humidity separator) and explains the on-orbit performance of the prefilter. The redesigned prefilter (made using the results of the flight test of the first prefilter) is described, with particular attention given to the features which would allow successful reduced gravity operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Nannan; Zhou, Xuhua; Wu, Bin
2016-04-01
In this paper, based on simultaneous solution approach, using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) onboard GPS observations and K band range rate measurements to achieve the precise orbit of GRACE satellite and monthly temporal gravity field solutions to degree and order 60 successfully. The most significant part of the GRACE mission is the precise K band ranging (KBR) system to measure the ranges between the twin satellites. We analyze the characteristics and the observation error of K band range rate measurements which is critical to recovering the earth gravity field. A nine-points sliding window of least-squares fitting method is put forward to preprocess K band range rate measurements. This method is applied to recover the gravity field model to study the influence on recovering the Earth gravity field model. The results showed that: (1) RMS of fitting residual has been improved from 0.235μm/s to 0.182μm/s by using the K band range rate measurements in 2007. The results demonstrate that this method can eliminate outliner of KBRR observation data effectively. (2) This method is applied to recover the gravity field model. Comparisons of the degree variance and the spatial distribution of time-varying signal demonstrate that our model is comparable with the other existing models, i.e., the Centre for Space Research RL05, Jet Propulsion Laboratory RL05, and GeoForschungsZentrum RL05a models. Our model is very close to those from other three models and with similar spatial patterns of signals. The results indicate the preprocessing method in this paper can be effectively applied to the recovery of the earth gravity field model.
Seasonal and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO radio science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2016-07-01
We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k2 of 0.1697 ± 0.0027 (3-σ). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C30 and, for the first time, C50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C30 for ∼1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics (l = 60-80) than previous solutions.
Friedmann inflation in Horava-Lifshitz gravity with a scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied; El Dahab, Eiman Abou
2016-03-01
We study Friedmann inflation in general Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity with detailed and nondetailed and also without the projectability conditions. Accordingly, we derive the modifications in the Friedmann equations due to single scalar field potentials describing power-law and minimal-supersymmetrically extended inflation. By implementing four types of the equations-of-state characterizing the cosmic background geometry, the dependence of the tensorial and spectral density fluctuations and their ratio on the inflation field is determined. The latter characterizes the time evolution of the inflation field relative to the Hubble parameter. Furthermore, the ratio of tensorial-to-spectral density fluctuations is calculated in dependence on the spectral index. The resulting slow-roll parameters apparently differ from the ones deduced from the standard General Relativity (Friedmann gravity). We also observe that the tensorial-to-spectral density fluctuations continuously decrease when moving from nondetailed HL gravity, to Friedmann gravity, to HL gravity without the projectability, and to detailed HL gravity. This regular pattern is valid for three types of cosmic equations-of-state and different inflation potential models. The results fit well with the recent Planck observations.
Advances in GRAIL Gravity Field Determination Using the Celestial Mechanics Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertone, S.; Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Mervart, L.
2015-12-01
The NASA mission GRAIL inherits its concept from the GRACE mission to determine the gravity field of the Moon. The use of inter-satellite Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) observations enables data acquisition even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The data allows for a highly accurate estimation of the lunar gravity field on both sides of the Moon, which is leading to huge improvements in our understanding of its internal structure and thermal evolution. In this presentation we discuss the latest GRAIL-based lunar gravity fields generated with the Celestial Mechanics Approach using the Bernese GNSS Software. We present our recent solutions up to d/o 200, where KBRR observations and position data (GNI1B products) were used to solve for the lunar gravity field parameters in a generalized orbit determination problem. We detail our parametrization in terms of pseudo-stochastic pulses and empirical accelerations, which allows for high quality results even while using a simple model of non-gravitational forces and pre-GRAIL a priori fields. Moreover, we present our latest advances towards the computation of a lunar gravity field with improved spatial resolution.As a further extension of our processing, the GNI1B positions are replaced by the original Doppler observations of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to allow for a completely independent determination of the lunar gravity field. Based on Doppler data, we perform orbit determination by solving six initial orbital elements, dynamical parameters, and stochastic parameters in daily arcs using least squares-adjustment. The pseudo-stochastic parameters are estimated to absorb deficiencies in our dynamical modeling (e.g. due to non-gravitational forces). DSN Doppler and KBRR data are then used together with an appropriate weighting for a combined orbit determination process. We present our latest results in the orbit determination of GRAIL over the primary mission phase (PM, March-May 2012) and eventually present
Vergara, Alessandro; Lorber, Bernard; Zagari, Adriana; Giegé, Richard
2003-01-01
The physicochemical aspects of protein crystallization in reduced-gravity environments ( micro g) have been investigated with the Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility during six space missions. This review summarizes the results, dealing with the mechanisms of nucleation and crystal growth and with the quality of the crystals that were obtained under reduced gravity as well as under normal gravity on earth. Statistical analyses of the experimental data strongly support the fact that micro g has a positive effect on crystallization and on crystal quality. A comparison of experiments and theories of protein crystallization in reduced-gravity environments is presented. Recommendations for improving the performance of protein crystallization experiments in micro g and on earth are discussed.
An experimental study of low velocity impacts into granular material in reduced gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdoch, Naomi; Avila Martinez, Iris; Sunday, Cecily; Cherrier, Olivier; Zenou, Emanuel; Janin, Tristan; Cadu, Alexandre; Gourinat, Yves; Mimoun, David
2016-04-01
The granular nature of asteroid surfaces, in combination with the low surface gravity, makes it difficult to predict lander - surface interactions from existing theoretical models. Nonetheless, an understanding of such interactions is particularly important for the deployment of a lander package. This was demonstrated by the Philae lander, which bounced before coming to rest roughly 1 kilometer away from its intended landing site on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko before coming to rest (Biele et al., 2015). In addition to being important for planning the initial deployment, information about the acceleration profile upon impact is also important in the choice of scientific payloads that want to exploit the initial landing to study the asteroid surface mechanical properties (e.g., Murdoch et al., 2016). Using the ISAE-SUPAERO drop tower, we have performed a series of low-velocity collisions into granular material in low gravity. Reduced-gravity is simulated by releasing a free-falling projectile into a surface container with a downward acceleration less than that of Earth's gravity. The acceleration of the surface is controlled through the use an Atwood machine, or a system of pulleys and counterweights. In reducing the effective surface acceleration of the granular material, the confining pressure will be reduced, and the properties of the granular material will become more representative of those on an asteroid's surface. In addition, since both the surface and projectile are falling, the projectile requires a minimum amount of time to catch the surface before the collision begins. This extended free-fall increases the experiment duration, making it easier to use accelerometers and high-speed cameras for data collection. The experiment is built into an existing 5.5 m drop-tower frame and has required the custom design of all components, including the projectile, surface sample container, release mechanism and deceleration system (Sunday et al., 2016
Gravity field of Jupiter’s moon Amalthea and the implication on a spacecraft trajectory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinwurm, Gudrun
2006-01-01
Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last 'visit' to one of Jupiter's moons - Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecraft's successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amalthea's gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements of a three-axial ellipsoid in elliptic coordinates. To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEO's velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. The harmonic coefficients of Amalthea's gravity field have been derived up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Founded on these numbers the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO was calculated and compared to existing Doppler data. Furthermore, predictions for future spacecraft flybys were derived. No two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise. Nevertheless, the generated gravity field models reflect the most likely interior structure of the moon and can be a basis for further exploration of the Jovian system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bertiger, Willy I.; Wu, J. T.; Wu, Sien C.
1992-01-01
The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite data can be used to improve the knowledge of the earth's gravitational field. The GPS data are especially useful for improving the gravity field over the world's oceans, where the current tracking data are sparse. Using realistic scenario for processing 10 days of GPS data, a covariance analysis is performed to obtain the expected improvement to the GEM-T2 gravity field. The large amount of GPS data and the large number of parameters (1979 parameters for the gravity field, plus carrier-phase biases, etc.) required special filtering techniques for efficient solution. The gravity-bin technique is used to compute the covariance matrix associated with the spherical harmonic gravity field. The covariance analysis shows that the GPS data from one 10-day arc of TOPEX/Poseidon with no a priori constraints can resolve medium degree and order (3-26) parameters with sigmas (standard deviations) that are an order of magnitude smaller than the corresponding sigmas of GEM-T2. When the information from GEM-T2 is combined with the TOPEX/Poseidon GPS measurements, an order-of-magnitude improvement is observed in low- and medium-degree terms with significant improvements spread over a wide range of degree and order.
Clear and measurable signature of modified gravity in the galaxy velocity field.
Hellwing, Wojciech A; Barreira, Alexandre; Frenk, Carlos S; Li, Baojiu; Cole, Shaun
2014-06-01
The velocity field of dark matter and galaxies reflects the continued action of gravity throughout cosmic history. We show that the low-order moments of the pairwise velocity distribution v_{12} are a powerful diagnostic of the laws of gravity on cosmological scales. In particular, the projected line-of-sight galaxy pairwise velocity dispersion σ_{12}(r) is very sensitive to the presence of modified gravity. Using a set of high-resolution N-body simulations, we compute the pairwise velocity distribution and its projected line-of-sight dispersion for a class of modified gravity theories: the chameleon f(R) gravity and Galileon gravity (cubic and quartic). The velocities of dark matter halos with a wide range of masses would exhibit deviations from general relativity at the (5-10)σ level. We examine strategies for detecting these deviations in galaxy redshift and peculiar velocity surveys. If detected, this signature would be a "smoking gun" for modified gravity. PMID:24949751
Loop quantum cosmology matter bounce reconstruction from F( R) gravity using an auxiliary field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oikonomou, V. K.
2015-10-01
Using the reconstruction technique with an auxiliary field, we investigate which F( R) gravities can produce the matter bounce cosmological solutions. Owing to the specific functional form of the matter bounce Hubble parameter, the reconstruction technique leads, after some simplifications, to the same Hubble parameter as in the matter bounce scenario. Focusing the study to the large and small cosmic time t limits, we were able to find which F( R) gravities can generate the matter bounce Hubble parameter. In the case of small cosmic time limit, which corresponds to large curvature values, the F( R) gravity is F(R)˜ R+α R^2, which is an inflation generating gravity, and at small curvature, or equivalently, large cosmic time, the F( R) gravity generating the corresponding limit of the matter bounce Hubble parameter, is F(R)˜ 1/R, a gravity known to produce late-time acceleration. Thus we have the physically appealing picture in which a Jordan frame F( R) gravity that imitates the matter bounce solution at large and small curvatures, can generate Starobinsky inflation and late-time acceleration. Moreover, the scale factor corresponding to the reconstruction technique coincides almost completely to the matter bounce scenario scale factor, when considered in the aforementioned limiting curvature cases. This is scrutinized in detail, in order to examine the validity of the reconstruction method in these limiting cases, and according to our analysis, exact agreement is achieved.
Effect of gravity field on the nonequilibrium/nonlinear chemical oscillation reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujieda, S.; Mori, Y.; Nakazawa, A.; Mogami, Y.
2001-01-01
Biological systems have evolved for a long time under the normal gravity. The Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction is a nonlinear chemical system far from the equilibrium that may be considered as a simplified chemical model of the biological systems so as to study the effect of gravity. The reaction solution is comprised of bromate in sulfuric acid as an oxidizing agent, 1,4-cyclohexanedione as an organic substrate, and ferroin as a metal catalyst. Chemical waves in the BZ reaction-diffusion system are visualized as blue and red patterns of ferriin and ferroin, respectively. After an improvement to the tubular reaction vessels in the experimental setup, the traveling velocity of chemical waves in aqueous solutions was measured in time series under normal gravity, microgravity, hyper-gravity, and normal gravity using the free-fall facility of JAMIC (Japan Microgravity Center), Hokkaido, Japan. Chemical patterns were collected as image data via CCD camera and analyzed by the software of NIH image after digitization. The estimated traveling velocity increased with increasing gravity as expected. It was clear experimentally that the traveling velocity of target patterns in reaction diffusion system was influenced by the effect of convection and correlated closely with the gravity field.
Effect of gravity field on the nonequilibrium/nonlinear chemical oscillation reactions.
Fujieda, S; Mori, Y; Nakazawa, A; Mogami, Y
2001-01-01
Biological systems have evolved for a long time under the normal gravity. The Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction is a nonlinear chemical system far from the equilibrium that may be considered as a simplified chemical model of the biological systems so as to study the effect of gravity. The reaction solution is comprised of bromate in sulfuric acid as an oxidizing agent, 1,4-cyclohexanedione as an organic substrate, and ferroin as a metal catalyst. Chemical waves in the BZ reaction-diffusion system are visualized as blue and red patterns of ferriin and ferroin, respectively. After an improvement to the tubular reaction vessels in the experimental setup, the traveling velocity of chemical waves in aqueous solutions was measured in time series under normal gravity, microgravity, hyper-gravity, and normal gravity using the free-fall facility of JAMIC (Japan Microgravity Center), Hokkaido, Japan. Chemical patterns were collected as image data via CCD camera and analyzed by the software of NIH image after digitization. The estimated traveling velocity increased with increasing gravity as expected. It was clear experimentally that the traveling velocity of target patterns in reaction diffusion system was influenced by the effect of convection and correlated closely with the gravity field.
Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps of the Central Marysvale Volcanic Field, Southwestern Utah
Campbell, David L.; Steven, Thomas A.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Rowley, Peter D.
1999-01-01
Gravity and aeromagnetic features in the Marysvale volcanic field result from the composite effects of many factors, including rock composition, style of magmatic emplacement, type and intensity of rock alteration, and effects of structural evolution. Densities and magnetic properties measured on a suite of rock samples from the Marysvale volcanic field differ in systematic ways. Generally, the measured densities, magnetic susceptibilities, and natural remanent magnetizations all increase with mafic index, but decrease with degree of alteration, and for tuffs, with degree of welding. Koenigsberger Q indices show no such systematic trends. The study area is divided into three geophysical domains. The northern domain is dominated by aeromagnetic lows that probably reflect reversed-polarity volcanic flows. There are no intermediate-sized magnetic highs in the northern domain that might reflect plutons. The northern domain has a decreasing-to-the-south gravity gradient that reflects the Pavant Range homocline. The central domain has gravity lows that reflect altered rocks in calderas and low-density plutons of the Marysvale volcanic field. Its aeromagnetic signatures consist of rounded highs that reflect plutons and birdseye patterns that reflect volcanic flows. In many places the birdseyes are attenuated, indicating that the flows there have been hydrothermally altered. We interpret the central domain to reflect an east-trending locus of plutons in the Marysvale volcanic field. The southern domain has intermediate gravity fields, indicating somewhat denser rocks there than in the central domain, and high-amplitude aeromagnetic birdseyes that reflect unaltered volcanic units. The southern domain contains no magnetic signatures that we interpret to reflect plutons. Basin-and-range tectonism has overprinted additional gravity features on the three domains. A deep gravity low follows the Sevier and Marysvale Valleys, reflecting grabens there. The gravity gradient in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gonzalez, Daniel
Numerical models and simulations are an emerging area of research in human physiology. As complex numerical models are available, along with high-speed computing technologies, it is possible to produce more accurate predictions of the long-term effects of reduced gravity on the human body. NELME (Numerical Emulation of Long-Term Microgravity Effects) has been developed as an electrical-like control system model of the pysiological changes that may arise when gravity changes are applied to the cardiovascular system. Validation of the model has been carried out in parabolic flights at UPC BarcelonaTech Platform. A number of parabolas of up to 8 seconds were performed at Sabadell Airport with an aerobatic single-engine CAP10B plane capable of performing such maneuvres. Heart rate, arterial pressure, and gravity data was collected and compared to the output obtained from the model in order to optimize its parameters. The model is then able to perform simulations for long-term periods of exposure to microgravity, and then the risk for a major malfunction is evaluated. Vascular resistance is known to be impaired during a long-term mission. This effects are not fully understood, and the model is capable of providing a continuous thread of simulated scenarios, while varying gravity in a nearly-continuous way. Aerobic exercise as countermeasure has been simulated as a periodic perturbation into the simulated physiological system. Results are discussed in terms of the validaty and reliability of the outcomes from the model, that have been found compatible with the available data in the literature. Different gender sensitivities to microgravity exposure are discussed. Also thermal stress along with exercise, as it happens in the case of Extravehicular activity is smulated. Results show that vascular resistance is significantly impared (p<0,05) at gravity levels less than 0,4g, when exposed for a period of time longer than 16 days. This degree of impairement is comparable with
Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaw, Benjamin D.
2004-01-01
Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatam Chavari, Yaghoub; Bayer, Roger; Djamour, Yahya; Vanicek, Petr
2010-05-01
In order to model the earth gravity field and its temporal variations, different gravity data with terrestrial, airborne and satellite gathered kinds are necessary. It is possible to recover by them the short, medium and long wavelengths of the gravity field respectively. Terrestrial gravity data, especially for the regions with highly variations, are useful for different purposes, i.e. to estimate the actual gravity range in the country, to extend the gravity calibration line, to study the isostasy status (Aboghasem et al., EGU10), to modify the numerical density models, to ameliorate the local geoid models, to prepare a background for geodynamical researches, and so on. The Multi-purpose Physical Geodesy and Geodynamics Network of Iran has recently established over Iran with 700 stations of 30' by 30' distribution (MPGGNI05, Hatam et al., EGU08). About 2000 precise relative gravity measurements gathered between the neighbour stations are prepared the possibility to compute the accurate, confident and homogeneous gravity values for the mentioned network. The MPGGNI is connected to the new 24-stations established national absolute gravity base network of Iran (NGBI09, Hatam et al., EGU09) to unify the reference system and to strengthen the accuracy and confident over the country. All 6 used relative gravimeters were regularly calibrated by the recently established tele cabin/ land national gravity calibration line (TC/L NGCLI, Hatam et al., EGU07). In addition, precise levelling measurements have tied the MPGGNI stations and have connected the new network to the existed national precise levelling network of Iran. Also, precise GPS measurements have been done at each station of MPGGNI with 24 hours duration. The MPGGNI can be understood typically as a precise gravity and GPS/Levelling network, and by repeating it, it is possible to model the changes of different components of the gravity field. In order to improve the precision of old gravity data, each station of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ritter, T. M.; Grimsley, M. L.
2007-03-01
We present the experiences from a microgravity research and outreach program utilizing the specially converted C-9 aircraft flown by NASA. Over the past four years several multidisciplinary groups of Native American undergraduate students from UNC Pembroke and UNC Charlotte have participated in NASA's Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunities Program. All of the experiments and outreach demonstrations performed have investigated the affects of microgravity and hypergravity on fluid related phenomena. The vigorous outreach portion of the project has taken our experiences across the state in order to stimulate an interest in science and math within the Native American communities. Our outreach presentations have been held at various levels of schools, government functions, local and national Native American conferences, and area powwows. Our outreach presentations include both multi media and hands-on involvement by the audience and emphasize a good understanding of the fundamental science. Together, the hands-on experience, discussion, and flight video provide a complete and portable outreach package on NASA and the Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunities Program.
High Degree and Order Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Loomis, B. D.; Chinn, D. S.; Caprette, D.; McCarthy, J. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012. The twin spacecraft acquired highly precise K Band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data during this prime mission phase from altitudes of 15 to 75 km above the lunar surface over three lunar months. We have processed these data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program, and we have determined gravity fields up to degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 30 km, including for example the central peak of the crater Tycho. We discuss the methodology used for the processing of the GRAIL data, the quality of the orbit determination on the GRAIL satellites and the derivation of the solutions, and their evaluation with independent data, including Lunar Prospector. We show that with these new GRAIL gravity solutions, we can now fit the low altitude, extended mission Lunar Prospector tracking data better than with any previous gravity model that included the LP data.
High Degree and Order Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Loomis, B. D.; Chinn, D. S.; Caprette, D. S.; McCarthy, J. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-01-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012. The twin spacecraft acquired highly precise K Band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data during this prime mission phase from altitudes of 15 to 75 km above the lunar surface over three lunar months. We have processed these data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program, and we have determined gravity fields up to degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 30 km, including for example the central peak of the crater Tycho. We discuss the methodology used for the processing of the GRAIL data, the quality of the orbit determination on the GRAIL satellites and the derivation of the solutions, and their evaluation with independent data, including Lunar Prospector. We show that with these new GRAIL gravity solutions, we can now fit the low altitude, extended mission Lunar Prospector tracking data better than with any previous gravity model that included the LP data.
Error analysis for satellite gravity field determination based on two-dimensional Fourier methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, L.; Zhou, Z.; Hsu, H.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Z.; Luo, J.
2012-12-01
The time-wise and space-wise approaches are generally applied to data processing and error analysis for satellite gravimetry missions. But both the approaches, which are based on least-squares method, address the whole effect of measurement errors and estimate the resolution of gravity field models mainly from a numerical point of view. Moreover, requirement for higher accuracy and resolution gravity field models could make the computation more difficult, and serious numerical instabilities arise. In order to overcome the problems, this study focuses on constructing a direct relationship between power spectral density of the satellite gravimetry measurements and spherical harmonic coefficients of the Earth's gravity model. Based on two-dimensional Fourier transform, the relationship is analytically concluded. This method provides a deep physical insight into the relation between mission parameters, instrumental parameters and gravity field parameters. In contrast, the least-squares method is mainly based on a mathematical viewpoint. By taking advantage of the analytical expression, it is efficient and distinct for parameter estimation and error analysis of missions. From the relationship and the simulations, it is analytically confirmed that the low-frequency noise affects the gravity field recovery in all degrees for the instance of satellite gradiometer recovery mission. Furthermore, some other results and suggestions are also described.
Satellite-to-satellite tracking experiment for global gravity field mapping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Jekeli, Christopher
1989-01-01
The satellite-to-satellite (STS) tracking concept for estimating gravitational parameters offers an attractive means to improve on regional and global gravity models in areas where data availability is limited. The extent to which the STS tracking measurements can be effectively utilized in global field models depends primarily on the satellite's altitude, number of satellites, and their orbit constellation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity field recovery also depends on the measurement accuracy of the sensors employed in the STS tracking concept. A comparison of the obtainable accuracies in the gravity field recovery using various STS tracking concepts was presented by Jekeli. The results of a feasibility study for a specific realization of the STS high-low tracking concept are summarized. In this realization, the high altitude satellites are the GPS satellites, and the low orbit satellite is the space shuttle. The GPS satellite constellation consists of 18 satellites in 6 orbital planes inclined at 55 deg. The shuttle orbit is at approximately 300 km, with an inclination of 30 deg. This specific configuration of high-low satellites for measuring perturbation in the gravity field is named the Air Foce STAGE (Shuttle GPS Tracking for Anomalous Gravitation Estimation) mission. The STAGE mission objective is to estimate the perturbations in gravity vector at the shuttle altitude to an accuracy of 1 mgal or better. Recent simulation studies have confirmed that the 1 mgal accuracy objective is near optimum for the STAGE mission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zehentner, N.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Mayrhofer, R.
2012-04-01
One method for gravity field determination is satellite-to-satellite tracking(SST) in high-low mode. Therefore GPS (Global Positioning System) observations are used to estimate precise orbit positions and these are then used to gain the desired information about the earth's gravity field. In this context several approaches exist. One of them is the so called acceleration approach. It is based on newton's second law of motion and relates accelerations of the satellite to the gravity gradient. An important part of this approach is to derive the accelerations from precise satellite positions. This is done by means of numerical differentiation. Different methods for the task of numerical differentiation, like for example polynomial interpolation or Newton-Gregory interpolation, were investigated. In particular the methods were investigated concerning their differing properties and their impacts on the resulting gravity field solutions. These examinations were carried out mostly in the frequency domain, because this can be directly related to the spectral content of a gravity field solution. In the framework of this project several closed-loop simulations were made to find the best suited differentiation scheme. Afterwards the findings were applied to real data of the GOCE satellite. The results of our simulations and of real data applications will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi Mozaffar, M. R.; Mollabashi, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Vahidinia, M. H.
2016-08-01
It is established that physical observables in local quantum field theories should be invariant under invertible field redefinitions. It is then expected that this statement should be true for the entanglement entropy and moreover that, via the gauge/gravity correspondence, the recipe for computing entanglement entropy holographically should also be invariant under local field redefinitions in the gravity side. We use this fact to fix the recipe for computing holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) for f (R ,Rμ ν) theories that could be mapped to Einstein gravity. An outcome of our prescription is that the surfaces that minimize the corresponding HEE functional for f (R ,Rμ ν) theories always have a vanishing trace of extrinsic curvature and that the HEE may be evaluated using the Wald entropy functional. We show that similar results follow from the FPS and Dong HEE functionals, for Einstein manifold backgrounds in f (R ,Rμ ν) theories.
Comparison of different gravity field implied density models of the topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedighi, Morteza; Tabatabaee, Seied; Najafi-Alamdari, Mehdi
2009-06-01
Density within the Earth crust varies between 1.0 and 3.0 g/cm3. The Bouguer gravity field measured in south Iran is analyzed using four different regional-residual separation techniques to obtain a residual map of the gravity field suitable for density modeling of topography. A density model of topography with radial and lateral distribution of density is required for an accurate determination of the geoid, e.g., in the Stokes-Helmert approach. The apparent density mapping technique is used to convert the four residual Bouguer anomaly fields into the corresponding four gravity im-plied subsurface density (GRADEN) models. Although all four density models showed good correlation with the geological density (GEODEN) model of the region, the GRADEN models obtained by high-pass filter-ing and GGM high-pass filtering show better numerical correlation with GEODEN model than the other models.
Time Lapse Gravity and Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the West Hastings Field, Texas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, J. F.; Richards, T.; Klopping, F.; MacQueen, J.; Hosseini, S. A.
2015-12-01
Time lapse or 4D gravity and seismic reflection surveys are being conducted at the West Hastings Field near Houston, Texas to monitor the progress of CO2 injection. This Department of Energy supported CO2 sequestration experiment is conducted in conjunction with a Denbury Onshore, LLC tertiary recovery project. The reservoir is at a depth of 1.8 km in the Oligocene Frio sands and has been produced since the 1930s. Goals are an accounting and mapping of the injected CO2 and to determine if migration occurs along intra-reservoir faults. An integrated interpretation of the geophysical surveys will be made together with well logs and engineering data. Gravity monitoring of water versus gas replacement has been very successful, but liquid phase CO2 monitoring is problematic due to the smaller density contrast with respect to oil and water. This reservoir has a small volume to depth ratio and hence only a small gravity difference signal is expected on the surface. New borehole gravity technology introduced by Micro-g-Lacoste can make gravity measurements at near reservoir depths with a much higher signal to noise ratio. This method has been successfully evaluated on a simulation of the Hastings project. Field operations have been conducted for repeated surface and borehole gravity surveys beginning in 2013. The surface survey of 95 stations covers an area of 3 by 5 km and 22 borehole gravity logs are run in the interval above the Frio formation. 4D seismic reflection surveys are being made at 6 month intervals on the surface and in 3 VSP wells. CO2 injection into the targeted portion of the reservoir only began in early 2015 and monitoring will continue into 2017. To date only the baseline reservoir conditions have been assessed. The overall success of the gravity monitoring will not be determined until 2017.
Protein-Precipitant-Specific Criteria for the Impact of Reduced Gravity on Crystal Perfection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vekilov, Peter G.; Witherow, W. (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
The objective of this research is to provide quantitative criteria for the impact of reduced or enhanced convective transport on protein crystal perfection. Our earlier work strongly suggests that the magnitude of (lattice defect-inducing) fluctuations in the crystallization rate of proteins arise from the coupling of bulk transport and nonlinear interface kinetics. Hence, we surmised that, depending on the relative weight of bulk transport and interface kinetics in the control of the crystallization process on Earth, these fluctuations can either increase or decrease under reduced gravity conditions. The sign and magnitude of these changes depend on the specific protein-precipitant system. As a consequence, space environments can be either beneficial or detrimental for achieving structural perfection in protein crystals. The task objectives consist in systematic investigations of this hypothesis.
Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.
2005-01-01
Over 35,000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models against geologic structures over a part of the Afro-Arabian shield. The area of Ethiopia covers an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ≈5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and the Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinesz (flexural rigidity D = 10 22 Nm) models. The isostatic residual anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expressions of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity in the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. The small mean isostatic residual anomaly (about 8 mGal) and the isostatic analysis show a slight positive bias indicating under compensation. The undercompensation may imply that there are upper crustal features that are not compensated regionally (probably supported by the rigidity of the lithosphere) and isostatic disequilibrium in the region. Therefore, the high topography of Ethiopia and East African plateau is partly compensated by thicker crust (broad negative isostatic regional anomaly) and partly by dynamic forces. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and quantitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaposchkin, E. M.
1973-01-01
Geodetic parameters describing the earth's gravity field and the positions of satellite-tracking stations in a geocentric reference frame were computed. These parameters were estimated by means of a combination of five different types of data: routine and simultaneous satellite observations, observations of deep-space probes, measurements of terrestrial gravity, and surface-triangulation data. The combination gives better parameters than does any subset of data types. The dynamic solution used precision-reduced Baker-Nunn observations and laser range data of 25 satellites. Data from the 49-station National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration BC-4 network, the 19-station Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Baker-Nunn network, and independent camera stations were employed in the geometrical solution. Data from the tracking of deep-space probes were converted to relative longitudes and distances to the earth's axis of rotation of the tracking stations. Surface-gravity data in the form of 550-km squares were derived from 19,328 1 deg X 1 deg mean gravity anomalies.
Gravity field of Jupiter's moon Amalthea and the implication on a spacecraft trajectory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.
Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last 'visit' to one of Jupiter's moons - Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecraft's successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amalthea's gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements, which are calculated by the scale factors of a three-axial ellipsoid (elliptic coordinates). Within this routine the shape information of Amalthea can be included as well. To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEO's velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. We have derived the harmonic coefficients of Amalthea's gravity field up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Founded on these numbers we calculated the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO, compared it to existing Doppler data and made predictions for future spacecraft flybys. Although no two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise, the gravity field models of Amalthea show the possible interior structure of the moon and can be a basis for further exploration of the Jovian system. In order to get valuable information about the gravity field of this tiny rocky moon, a much closer flyby than that of GALILEO should be anticipated. The above stated model approach can be used for any planetary body.
ZBLAN glass synthesis in reduced gravity at the QUT Drop Tower Facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore; Ong, Teng-Cheong
Silica fibers are currently limited by having a relatively small bandwidth. The theoretical loss within silica glass is {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.14 dB/km at a wavelength of 1.55 µm, however the practical lowest loss of fused silica glass fiber is {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.2 dB/km [1]. Therefore, a silica glass fiber can transmit irradiation by a 1.5 µm wavelength InGaAsP semiconductor laser at a distance of 15 to 25 km. The strength of the laser beam damps down at a distance of more than 15 to 25 km due to scattering losses and an associated increase in noise to signal ratio. To transmit significant amounts of data without noise, an extremely low-loss optical waveguide is needed to replace silica glass fibers. Fluoride glass fibers are considered to be the most promising candidate for an extremely low-loss optical waveguide. The theoretical loss of typical fluoride glass, ZBLAN (53ZrF_{text{4}}-20BaF_{text{2}}-4LaF_{text{3}}-3AlF_{text{3}}-20NaF) glass, is less than 0.01 and greater than 0.001 dB/km. This value is in excess of 100 times lower than that of fused silica fibers because of low Rayleigh scattering within the fiber. However, the losses of fabricated fluoride glass fibers are rather high and {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.65 dB/km are reported as the best data transfer rates at present [1]. One of the causes of these high losses in silica fibers is thought to be the excess scattering loss induced by crystallites which were nucleated inside the glasses by the reheating around fiber-drawing temperatures. In general, the temperature of glass transition of fluoride glasses is {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}259ºC and is lower than the onset of the melting temperature of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}360ºC. This means fluoride glasses can crystallize easily. It is proposed that crystallization is caused by the viscoelastic forces between the dense elements settling in the glass at different rates due to gravity. In reduced gravity, convection in the glass melt is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zingerle, Philipp; Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas
2016-04-01
One of the major obstacles in modern global gravity field modelling is the seamless combination of lower degree inhomogeneous gravity field observations (e.g. data from satellite missions) with (very) high degree homogeneous information (e.g. gridded and reduced gravity anomalies, beyond d/o 1000). Actual approaches mostly combine such data only on the basis of the coefficients, meaning that previously for both observation classes (resp. models) a spherical harmonic analysis is done independently, solving dense normal equations (NEQ) for the inhomogeneous model and block-diagonal NEQs for the homogeneous. Obviously those methods are unable to identify or eliminate effects as spectral leakage due to band limitations of the models and non-orthogonality of the spherical harmonic base functions. To antagonize such problems a combination of both models on NEQ-basis is desirable. Theoretically this can be achieved using NEQ-stacking. Because of the higher maximum degree of the homogeneous model a reordering of the coefficient is needed which leads inevitably to the destruction of the block diagonal structure of the appropriate NEQ-matrix and therefore also to the destruction of simple sparsity. Hence, a special coefficient ordering is needed to create some new favorable sparsity pattern leading to a later efficient computational solving method. Such pattern can be found in the so called kite-structure (Bosch, 1993), achieving when applying the kite-ordering to the stacked NEQ-matrix. In a first step it is shown what is needed to attain the kite-(NEQ)system, how to solve it efficiently and also how to calculate the appropriate variance information from it. Further, because of the massive computational workload when operating on large kite-systems (theoretically possible up to about max. d/o 100.000), the main emphasis is put on to the presentation of special distributed algorithms which may solve those systems parallel on an indeterminate number of processes and are
Margolis, S.B.
1997-10-01
The burning of liquid propellants is a fundamental combustion problem that is applicable to various types of propulsion and energetic systems. The deflagration process is often rather complex, with vaporization and pyrolysis occurring at the liquid/gas interface and distributed combustion occurring either in the gas phase or in a spray. Nonetheless, there are realistic limiting cases in which combustion may be approximated by an overall reaction at the liquid/gas interface. In one such limit, distributed combustion occurs in an intrusive regime, the reaction zone lying closer to the liquid/gas interface than the length scale of any disturbance of interest. Such limiting models have recently been formulated thereby significantly generalizing earlier classical models that were originally introduced to study the hydrodynamic stability of a reactive liquid/gas interface. In all of these investigations, gravity appears explicitly and plays a significant role, along with surface tension, viscosity, and, in the more recent models, certain reaction-rate parameters associated with the pressure and temperature sensitivities of the reaction itself. In particular, these parameters determine the stability of the deflagration with respect to not only classical hydrodynamic disturbances, but also with respect to reactive/diffusive influences as well. These instabilities thus lead to a number of interesting phenomena, such as the sloshing type of waves that have been observed in mixtures of HAN and triethanolammonium nitrate (TEAN) with water. Although the Froude number was treated as an O(l) quantity in these studies, the limit of small inverse Froude number corresponding to the microgravity regime is increasingly of interest. In the present work, the author formally exploits this limiting parameter regime to compare some of the features of hydrodynamic instability of liquid-propellant combustion at reduced gravity with the same phenomenon at normal gravity.
The effective field theory treatment of quantum gravity
Donoghue, John F.
2012-09-24
This is a pedagogical introduction to the treatment of quantum general relativity as an effective field theory. It starts with an overview of the methods of effective field theory and includes an explicit example. Quantum general relativity matches this framework and I discuss gravitational examples as well as the limits of the effective field theory. I also discuss the insights from effective field theory on the gravitational effects on running couplings in the perturbative regime.
The Earth's gravity field from satellite geodesy: A 30 year adventure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rapp, Richard H.
1991-12-01
The history of research in the Earth's gravity field from satellite geodesy is described and limitations of existing geopotential models are indicated. Although current solutions have made outstanding achievements, their limited accuracy restricts their use for some oceanographic applications. An example is discussed where there appears to be an incompatibility of the long wavelength geoid undulation obtained through satellite analysis with independent estimates that have become available. The future Aristoteles mission is seen as providing a significant leap in Earth gravity field knowledge improvement.
Mariner 9 celestial mechanics experiment - Gravity field and pole direction of Mars.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorell, J.; Born, G. H.; Christensen, E. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Laing, P. A.; Martin, W. L.; Sjogren, W. L.; Shapiro, I. I.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Slater, G. L.
1972-01-01
Analysis of the Mariner 9 radio-tracking data shows that the Martian gravity field is rougher than that of earth or the moon, and that the accepted direction of the Mars rotation axis is in error by about 0.5 deg. Contours of equivalent surface heights deduced from a sixth-degree solution for the Martian gravity field are presented. These contours represent the deviations from sphericity of a uniformly dense body with an external potential which is given by the first sixth-degree solution. In addition to Doppler observations, ranging or group-delay measurements have been made regularly since orbit insertion.
Improvements of the gravity field from satellite techniques as proposed to the European Space Agency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reigber, C.
1978-01-01
A summary of the European Earth Sciences Space Programme and the requirements for each gravity field mapping resulting from this programme are given. Three satellite experiments for gravity field improvement proposed to the European Space Agency in the last years are shortly characterized. One of these experiments, the low-low-SST-SLALOM experiment, based on laser interferometry for a "two target-one Spacelab telescope" configuration, is discussed in more detail. Reasons for the low-low concept selection are given and some mission aspects and a possible system concept for a compact ranging, acquisition and tracking system are presented.
Testing the master constraint programme for loop quantum gravity: V. Interacting field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittrich, B.; Thiemann, T.
2006-02-01
This is the fifth and final paper in our series of five in which we test the master constraint programme for solving the Hamiltonian constraint in loop quantum gravity. Here we consider interacting quantum field theories, specifically we consider the non-Abelian Gauss constraints of Einstein Yang Mills theory and 2 + 1 gravity. Interestingly, while Yang Mills theory in 4D is not yet rigorously defined as an ordinary (Wightman) quantum field theory on Minkowski space, in background-independent quantum field theories such as loop quantum gravity (LQG) this might become possible by working in a new, background-independent representation. While for the Gauss constraint the master constraint can be solved explicitly, for the 2 + 1 theory we are only able to rigorously define the master constraint operator. We show that the, by other methods known, physical Hilbert is contained in the kernel of the master constraint, however, to systematically derive it by only using spectral methods is as complicated as for 3 + 1 gravity and we therefore leave the complete analysis for 3 + 1 gravity.
Too Fast to Measure: Network Adjustment of Rapidly Changing Gravity Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, J.; Ferre, T. P. A.
2014-12-01
Measurements of spatially-variable gravity at the field scale are difficult; measurements of the time-varying field even more so. Every previous gravity survey using relative gravimeters—still the workhorse of gravity studies, despite their nearly 80 year history—has assumed a static gravity field during the course of a survey, which may last days to weeks. With recently-improved instrumentation, however, measurements of fields changing on the order of tens of nm/sec2 per day are now possible. In particular, the A-10 portable absolute gravimeter provides not only absolute control, but also the change in that control during the course of a survey. Using digitally-recording spring-based relative gravimeters (namely, the ZLS Burris meter and the Scintrex CG-5), with their more efficient data collection and lower drift than previous generations, many more data are collected in a day. We demonstrate a method for incorporating in the least-squares network adjustment of relative gravity data a relation between the rate of change of gravity, dg, and distance from an infiltration source, x. This relation accounts for the fact that gravity at stations adjacent to the infiltration source changes more rapidly than stations further away; if all measurements collected over several days are to be included in a single network-adjustment, consideration of this change is required. Two methods are used to simulate the dg(x) relation: a simple model where dg is a linear function of x, and a coupled-hydrogeophysical method where a groundwater flow model predicts the nonlinear spatial variation of dg. Then, the change in gravity between different, independently adjusted surveys is used to parameterize the groundwater model. Data from two recent field examples, an artificial recharge facility near Tucson, Arizona, USA, and from the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment, clearly show the need to account for gravity change during a survey; maximum rates of change for the two
Containment of a silicone fluid free surface in reduced gravity using barrier coatings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pline, Alexander D.; Jacobson, Thomas P.
1988-01-01
In support of the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment planned for flight aboard the Space Shuttle, tests were conducted under reduced gravity in the 2.2-sec Drop Tower and the 5.0-sec Zero-G facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The dynamics of controlling the test fluid, a 10-cSt viscosity silicone fluid in a low gravity environment were investigated using different container designs and barrier coatings. Three container edge designs were tested without a barrier coating; a square edge, a sharp edge with a 45-deg slope, and a sawtooth edge. All three edge designs were successful in containing the fluid below the edge. G-jitter experiments were made in scaled down containers subjected to horizontal accelerations. The data showed that a barrier coating is effective in containing silicone fluid under g-levels up to 10 sup -1 sub g sub 0. In addition, a second barrier coating was found which has similar anti-wetting characteristics and is also more durable.
MarsSedEx III: linking Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and reduced gravity experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.
2015-12-01
Nikolaus J. Kuhn (1), Brigitte Kuhn (1), and Andres Gartmann (2) (1) University of Basel, Physical Geography, Environmental Sciences, Basel, Switzerland (nikolaus.kuhn@unibas.ch), (2) Meteorology, Climatology, Remote Sensing, Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland Experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx I and II reduced gravity experiments showed that using empirical models for sediment transport on Mars developed for Earth violates fluid dynamics. The error is caused by the interaction between runing water and sediment particles, which affect each other in a positive feedback loop. As a consequence, the actual flow conditions around a particle cannot be represented by drag coefficients derived on Earth. This study exmines the implications of such gravity effects on sediment movement on Mars, with special emphasis on the limits of sandstones and conglomerates formed on Earth as analogues for sedimentation on Mars. Furthermore, options for correctiong the errors using a combination of CFD and recent experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx III campaign are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodendorfer, N.; Zipfel, A.
2016-08-01
Building on a recent proposal for a quantum reduction to spherical symmetry from full loop quantum gravity, we investigate the relation between a quantisation of spherically symmetric general relativity and a reduction at the quantum level. To this end, we generalise the previously proposed quantum reduction by dropping the gauge fixing condition on the radial diffeomorphisms, thus allowing us to make direct contact with previous work on reduced quantisation. A dictionary between spherically symmetric variables and observables with respect to the reduction constraints in the full theory is discussed, as well as an embedding of reduced quantum states to a subsector of the quantum symmetry reduced full theory states. On this full theory subsector, the quantum algebra of the mentioned observables is computed and shown to qualitatively reproduce the quantum algebra of the reduced variables in the large quantum number limit for a specific choice of regularisation. Insufficiencies in recovering the reduced algebra quantitatively from the full theory are attributed to the oversimplified full theory quantum states we use.
The effect of reduced gravity on solidification microstructures of NH4Cl-H2O alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Papazian, J. M.; Kattamis, T. Z.
1980-01-01
The effect of gravity on the columnar-to-equiaxed microstructural transition was studied in small samples of NH4Cl-H2O. The behavior of the samples during laboratory (one gravity) experiments was contrasted with their behavior during a (low gravity) sounding rocket flight. In one gravity, the columnar zone accounted for 25 to 100 pct of the structure, depending on the superheat and orientation of the chill. Grain multiplication occurred by showering and by convection induced dendrite arm remelting. Convection was caused by both thermal gradients and solutal gradients. In low gravity, however, completely columnar structures were obtained; all grain multiplication mechanisms were entirely suppressed. Reduced gravity also modified the thermal conditions and caused the liquid to cool more slowly. This resulted in a steeper temperature gradient in the liquid ahead of the solidification interface. 'Big bang' type nucleation occurred in two of the samples, distributing nuclei throughout the liquid. Despite this, an equiaxed zone did not form, indicating that the most significant effect of low gravity on this experiment was modification of the thermal conditions.
Antarctic Tectonics: Constraints From an ERS-1 Satellite Marine Gravity Field
McAdoo; Laxon
1997-04-25
A high-resolution gravity field of poorly charted and ice-covered ocean near West Antarctica, from the Ross Sea east to the Weddell Sea, has been derived with the use of satellite altimetry, including ERS-1 geodetic phase, wave-form data. This gravity field reveals regional tectonic fabric, such as gravity lineations, which are the expression of fracture zones left by early (65 to 83 million years ago) Pacific-Antarctic sea-floor spreading that separated the Campbell Plateau and New Zealand continent from West Antarctica. These lineations constrain plate motion history and confirm the hypothesis that Antarctica behaved as two distinct plates, separated from each other by an extensional Bellingshausen plate boundary active in the Amundsen Sea before about 61 million years ago. PMID:9110969
Antarctic Tectonics: Constraints From an ERS-1 Satellite Marine Gravity Field
McAdoo; Laxon
1997-04-25
A high-resolution gravity field of poorly charted and ice-covered ocean near West Antarctica, from the Ross Sea east to the Weddell Sea, has been derived with the use of satellite altimetry, including ERS-1 geodetic phase, wave-form data. This gravity field reveals regional tectonic fabric, such as gravity lineations, which are the expression of fracture zones left by early (65 to 83 million years ago) Pacific-Antarctic sea-floor spreading that separated the Campbell Plateau and New Zealand continent from West Antarctica. These lineations constrain plate motion history and confirm the hypothesis that Antarctica behaved as two distinct plates, separated from each other by an extensional Bellingshausen plate boundary active in the Amundsen Sea before about 61 million years ago.
On the model structure of the gravity field of Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.
2016-07-01
A discussion is presented about the constraints used in constructing a model for the internal structure of Mars. The most important fact is that the Martian chemical model proposed by Wänke and Dreibus (WD) has stood the test of time. This means that the chondritic ratio Fe/Si = 1.71 can be used as a constraint in constructing an interior structure model of the planet. Consideration is given to the constructing of the reference surface of Mars. It is concluded that the effectively hydrostatic-equilibrium model of Mars is well suited for this purpose. The areoid heights and gravity anomalies in the model of Mars are calculated. The results are shown in the figures (maps) and comments made. The results are compared with the similar data for the Earth. Mars deviates much more strongly from the hydrostatic equilibrium than the Earth. It is suggested that the average thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere should exceed that of the Earth's continental lithosphere.
Liquid Droplet Dynamics in Gravity Compensating High Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bojarevics, V.; Easter, S.; Pericleous, K.
2012-01-01
Numerical models are used to investigate behavior of liquid droplets suspended in high DC magnetic fields of various configurations providing microgravity-like conditions. Using a DC field it is possible to create conditions with laminar viscosity and heat transfer to measure viscosity, surface tension, electrical and thermal conductivities, and heat capacity of a liquid sample. The oscillations in a high DC magnetic field are quite different for an electrically conducting droplet, like liquid silicon or metal. The droplet behavior in a high magnetic field is the subject of investigation in this paper. At the high values of magnetic field some oscillation modes are damped quickly, while others are modified with a considerable shift of the oscillating droplet frequencies and the damping constants from the non-magnetic case.
A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration
Mark Zumberge
2011-09-30
Carbon dioxide gas (CO{sub 2}) is a byproduct of many wells that produce natural gas. Frequently the CO{sub 2} separated from the valuable fossil fuel gas is released into the atmosphere. This adds to the growing problem of the climatic consequences of greenhouse gas contamination. In the Sleipner North Sea natural gas production facility, the separated CO{sub 2} is injected into an underground saline aquifer to be forever sequestered. Monitoring the fate of such sequestered material is important - and difficult. Local change in Earth's gravity field over the injected gas is one way to detect the CO{sub 2} and track its migration within the reservoir over time. The density of the injected gas is less than that of the brine that becomes displaced from the pore space of the formation, leading to slight but detectable decrease in gravity observed on the seafloor above the reservoir. Using equipment developed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, we have been monitoring gravity over the Sleipner CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoir since 2002. We surveyed the field in 2009 in a project jointly funded by a consortium of European oil and gas companies and the US Department of Energy. The value of gravity at some 30 benchmarks on the seafloor, emplaced at the beginning of the monitoring project, was observed in a week-long survey with a remotely operated vehicle. Three gravity meters were deployed on the benchmarks multiple times in a campaign-style survey, and the measured gravity values compared to those collected in earlier surveys. A clear signature in the map of gravity differences is well correlated with repeated seismic surveys.
Combination of various observation techniques for regional modeling of the gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lieb, Verena; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Börger, Klaus
2016-05-01
Modeling a very broad spectrum of the Earth's gravity field needs observations from various measurement techniques with different spectral sensitivities. Typically, high-resolution regional gravity data are combined with low-resolution global observations. To exploit the gravitational information as optimally as possible, we set up a regional modeling approach using radial spherical basis functions, emphasizing the strengths of various data sets by the flexible combination of high- and middle-resolution terrestrial, airborne, shipborne, and altimetry measurements. The basis functions are defined and located in the region of interest in such a manner, which the highest measure of information of the input data is captured. Any functional of the Earth's gravity field can be derived, as, e.g., quasi-geoid heights or gravity anomalies. Here we present results of a study area in Northern Germany. A comprehensive cross validation to external observation data delivers standard deviations less than 5 cm. Differences to an existing regional quasi-geoid model count on average ±6 cm and proof the plausibility of our solution. The comparison with existing global models reaches higher standard deviations for the more sensitive gravity anomalies as for quasi-geoid heights, showing the additional value of our solution in the high frequency domain. Covering a broad frequency spectrum, our regional models can be used as basis for various applications, such as refinement of global models, national geoid determination, and detection of mass anomalies in the Earth's interior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sylvain, B.; Sylvain, B.; Michel, D.; Jerome, A.; Valerie, B.; Christine, D.; Germinal, G.; Dominique, R.
2001-12-01
Relative gravimetry has been successfully used in the last decades to evidence temporal gravity changes related with ground deformation or mass flux in volcanic areas. Recent instrumental developments in relative gravity data acquisition combined with performances of GPS surveying have significantly improved the sensitivity and the efficiency of the measurement of the gravity field on land. Classical analogical land gravity meters are now advantageously replaced by new generations of microprocessor based instruments allowing automatic measurements digitally recorded along with other useful information. Such improvements offer new potentialities for the study of internal processes through precise surveying or differential continuous recordings. In the meantime, due to intrinsic properties of relative instruments, rigorous and constraining protocols for data acquisition and processing are required to minimize the effects of instrumental drift and possible calibration changes that should be carefully controlled. The combination of relative and absolute gravity measurements then appears as a promising way to study the mass flux associated with the volcanic activity especially in strong topography or island areas. Current potentialities and limitations of relative instruments are discussed here from results of laboratory experiments and field surveys in volcanic areas performed by IRD and IPGP.
Flow-Boiling Critical Heat Flux Experiments Performed in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hasan, Mohammad M.; Mudawar, Issam
2005-01-01
Poor understanding of flow boiling in microgravity has recently emerged as a key obstacle to the development of many types of power generation and advanced life support systems intended for space exploration. The critical heat flux (CHF) is perhaps the most important thermal design parameter for boiling systems involving both heatflux-controlled devices and intense heat removal. Exceeding the CHF limit can lead to permanent damage, including physical burnout of the heat-dissipating device. The importance of the CHF limit creates an urgent need to develop predictive design tools to ensure both the safe and reliable operation of a two-phase thermal management system under the reduced-gravity (like that on the Moon and Mars) and microgravity environments of space. At present, very limited information is available on flow-boiling heat transfer and the CHF under these conditions.
Screening Modifications of Gravity Through Disformally Coupled Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koivisto, Tomi S.; Mota, David F.; Zumalacárregui, Miguel
2012-12-01
It is shown that extensions to general relativity, which introduce a strongly coupled scalar field, can be viable if the interaction has a nonconformal form. Such disformal coupling depends upon the gradients of the scalar field. Thus, if the field is locally static and smooth, the coupling becomes invisible in the Solar System: this is the disformal screening mechanism. A cosmological model is considered where the disformal coupling triggers the onset of accelerated expansion after a scaling matter era, giving a good fit to a wide range of background observational data. Moreover, the interaction leaves signatures in the formation of large-scale structure that can be used to probe such couplings.
Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferre, Ty P.A.
2015-01-01
The relative gravimeter is the primary terrestrial instrument for measuring spatially and temporally varying gravitational fields. The background noise of the instrument—that is, non-linear drift and random tares—typically requires some form of least-squares network adjustment to integrate data collected during a campaign that may take several days to weeks. Here, we present an approach to remove the change in the observed relative-gravity differences caused by hydrologic or other transient processes during a single campaign, so that the adjusted gravity values can be referenced to a single epoch. The conceptual approach is an example of coupled hydrogeophysical inversion, by which a hydrologic model is used to inform and constrain the geophysical forward model. The hydrologic model simulates the spatial variation of the rate of change of gravity as either a linear function of distance from an infiltration source, or using a 3-D numerical groundwater model. The linear function can be included in and solved for as part of the network adjustment. Alternatively, the groundwater model is used to predict the change of gravity at each station through time, from which the accumulated gravity change is calculated and removed from the data prior to the network adjustment. Data from a field experiment conducted at an artificial-recharge facility are used to verify our approach. Maximum gravity change due to hydrology (observed using a superconducting gravimeter) during the relative-gravity field campaigns was up to 2.6 μGal d−1, each campaign was between 4 and 6 d and one month elapsed between campaigns. The maximum absolute difference in the estimated gravity change between two campaigns, two months apart, using the standard network adjustment method and the new approach, was 5.5 μGal. The maximum gravity change between the same two campaigns was 148 μGal, and spatial variation in gravity change revealed zones of preferential infiltration and areas of relatively
Feasibility of reduced gravity experiments involving quiescent, uniform particle cloud combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ross, Howard D.; Facca, Lily T.; Berlad, Abraham L.; Tangirala, Venkat
1989-01-01
The study of combustible particle clouds is of fundamental scientific interest as well as a practical concern. The principal scientific interests are the characteristic combustion properties, especially flame structure, propagation rates, stability limits, and the effects of stoichiometry, particle type, transport phenomena, and nonadiabatic processes on these properties. The feasibility tests for the particle cloud combustion experiment (PCCE) were performed in reduced gravity in the following stages: (1) fuel particles were mixed into cloud form inside a flammability tube; (2) when the concentration of particles in the cloud was sufficiently uniform, the particle motion was allowed to decay toward quiescence; (3) an igniter was energized which both opened one end of the tube and ignited the suspended particle cloud; and (4) the flame proceeded down the tube length, with its position and characteristic features being photographed by high-speed cameras. Gravitational settling and buoyancy effects were minimized because of the reduced gravity enviroment in the NASA Lewis drop towers and aircraft. Feasibility was shown as quasi-steady flame propagation which was observed for fuel-rich mixtures. Of greatest scientific interest is the finding that for near-stoichiometric mixtures, a new mode of flame propagation was observed, now called a chattering flame. These flames did not propagate steadily through the tube. Chattering modes of flame propagation are not expected to display extinction limits that are the same as those for acoustically undisturbed, uniform, quiescent clouds. A low concentration of fuel particles, uniformly distributed in a volume, may not be flammable but may be made flammable, as was observed, through induced segregation processes. A theory was developed which showed that chattering flame propagation was controlled by radiation from combustion products which heated the successive discrete laminae sufficiently to cause autoignition.
Exposure of biological preparations to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields under low gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacquot, Jean Francois; le Bail, Jean-Luc; Bardet, Michel; Tabony, James
2010-11-01
There is interest as to whether the electromagnetic fields used in mobile radiotelephony might affect biological processes. Other weak fields such as gravity intervene in a number of physical and biological processes. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, the macroscopic self-organization of microtubules, a major cellular component, is triggered by gravity. We wished to investigate whether self-organization might also be affected by radiotelephone electromagnetic fields. Detecting a possible effect requires removing the obscuring effects triggered by gravity. A simple manner of doing this is by rotating the sample about the horizontal. However, if the external field does not also rotate with the sample, its possible effect might also be averaged down by rotation. Here, we describe an apparatus in which both the sample and an applied radiofrequency electromagnetic field (1.8 GHz) are stationary with respect to one another while undergoing horizontal rotation. The electromagnetic field profile within the apparatus has been measured and the apparatus tested by reproducing the in vitro behavior of microtubule preparations under conditions of weightlessness. Specific adsorption rates of electromagnetic energy within a sample are measured from the initial temperature rise the incident field causes. The apparatus can be readily adapted to expose samples to various other external fields and factors under conditions of weightlessness.
Exposure of biological preparations to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields under low gravity.
Jacquot, Jean Francois; le Bail, Jean-Luc; Bardet, Michel; Tabony, James
2010-11-01
There is interest as to whether the electromagnetic fields used in mobile radiotelephony might affect biological processes. Other weak fields such as gravity intervene in a number of physical and biological processes. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, the macroscopic self-organization of microtubules, a major cellular component, is triggered by gravity. We wished to investigate whether self-organization might also be affected by radiotelephone electromagnetic fields. Detecting a possible effect requires removing the obscuring effects triggered by gravity. A simple manner of doing this is by rotating the sample about the horizontal. However, if the external field does not also rotate with the sample, its possible effect might also be averaged down by rotation. Here, we describe an apparatus in which both the sample and an applied radiofrequency electromagnetic field (1.8 GHz) are stationary with respect to one another while undergoing horizontal rotation. The electromagnetic field profile within the apparatus has been measured and the apparatus tested by reproducing the in vitro behavior of microtubule preparations under conditions of weightlessness. Specific adsorption rates of electromagnetic energy within a sample are measured from the initial temperature rise the incident field causes. The apparatus can be readily adapted to expose samples to various other external fields and factors under conditions of weightlessness.
Shape, Mean Radius, Gravity Field and Interior Structure of Callisto
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, J.; Jacobson, R.; McElrath, T.; Schubert, G.; Moore, W.; Thomas, P.
2000-01-01
Radio Doppler data generated by the Deep Space Network (DSN) from five encounters of the Galileo spacecraft with Callisto, Jupiter's outermost Galilean satellite, have been used to determine the quadrupole moments of the satellite's external gravitational field.
Improved LRO orbit determination and LOLA science using the GRAIL gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazarico, E.; Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Torrence, M. H.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft mission has enabled the recovery of the global lunar gravity field to better accuracy and better spatial resolution (degree and order 420) than previous missions (150, and with poorer farside coverage). A solution produced at GSFC with the GEODYN software was evaluated with the tracking data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the altimetric data from the onboard Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). We show that the overlaps between adjacent reconstructed trajectory arcs, indicative of the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction, are significantly improved, from the 10-20m level with the LLGM-1 field to the 5-10m level. This is especially notable because the GRAIL field is completely independent of LRO data. Radially, the overlap study indicates accuracies better than 50cm, compared to 1-1.5m previously using LRO-based gravity fields. The gravity field can also be tuned to LRO orbits by including the LRO tracking data in the gravity inversion. This will allow lower-degree fields to perform well, but it will not improve the absolute accuracy is not improved. With more than three years of continuous data collected by LOLA, there exist tens of millions of altimetric crossovers. While most of the crossovers occur near the poles, the expected tidal deformation is larger outside of the polar regions. In addition, we focus on crossovers occurring between two five-beam (dayside) tracks because they provide strong constraints on their relative positions, which combine remaining orbital errors and tidal signal. We discuss the implications of having very accurate trajectories thanks to GRAIL for the analysis of the LOLA topographic data.
Quantum Gravity from the Point of View of Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Rejzner, Katarzyna
2016-08-01
We construct perturbative quantum gravity in a generally covariant way. In particular our construction is background independent. It is based on the locally covariant approach to quantum field theory and the renormalized Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism. We do not touch the problem of nonrenormalizability and interpret the theory as an effective theory at large length scales.
Stabilization of Satellite derived Gravity Field Coefficients by Earth Rotation Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heiker, A.; Kutterer, H.; Müller, J.
2009-04-01
Recent gravity field missions (e.g. GRACE) provide monthly solutions for the time-variable Earth gravity field. However, the low-degree harmonic coefficients are poorly resolved, especially those of degree 2. The Earth rotation parameters (ERP), consisting of polar motion and lod, and the gravity field coefficients (GFC) of degree 2 are linked by the Euler-Liouville Equation. Thus the consideration of ERP time series helps to improve the estimates of GFC2. Due to the covariances between the GFC of degree 2 and further low-degree gravity field coefficients (up to degree 10) the residuals of the first group of coefficients has to be propagated to the second group in order to guarantee an overall consistency. Previous work has shown a significant influence of ERP on GFC up to degree 4 with the results depending on the covariances assumed a priori. This presentation shows the result of a consistent joint analysis of GRACE derived GFC and ERP in an extended Gauss-Helmert model which includes a sophisticated variance-covariance component estimation (VCCE). As the covariances of the GRACE derived GFC are largely not known, some different variance-covariance structures are assumed and estimated with the VCCE. The results are compared and discussed.
Janiszewski, Stefan; Karch, Andreas
2013-02-22
We argue that generic nonrelativistic quantum field theories with a holographic description are dual to Hořava gravity. We construct explicit examples of this duality embedded in string theory by starting with relativistic dual pairs and taking a nonrelativistic scaling limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lasue, Jeremie; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Hadamcik, Edith; Botet, Robert; Renard, Jean-Baptiste
In situ missions have shown that cometary dust particles have low densities and are easily fragmenting aggregates [1]. The linear polarization of the solar light scattered by cometary dust corresponds to bell-shaped (with a small negative branch and a maximum below 30%) phase curves with a quasi-linear increase with the wavelength between 30° and 50° phase angle [2]. Such physical properties of the cometary material are reconciled by a fractal model of cometary dust and comet nuclei as formed by aggregation in reduced gravity as studied by laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Reduced gravity light scattering experiments: The CODAG-LSU experiment (1999) gave the first indication of the light scattering properties transition between single particles and low dimensions fractal aggregates (D 1.3) [3, 4]. Such studies will be pursued on board the ISS with the ICAPS precursor experiment. The PROGRA2 experiment is designed to study the light scattering properties of particles levitated during dedicated microgravity flights or with ground-based configurations [5]. The material properties are chosen so as to be relevant in the context of cosmic dust from cometary and asteroidal origins. It is especially useful to disentangle the effects of varying albedos of constitutive materials [6], shape and size of constitutive grains [7]. Some of the results are interpreted in terms of fractal aggregates growth. Light scattering numerical simulations Based on numerical simulations and in coherence with the experimental results, a model of cometary coma by a mixture of fractal aggregates of up to 256 sub-micron sized spheroidal grains and compact spheroidal particles is shown to reproduce the polarimetric observations of comets such as 1P/Halley or C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp [8]. Physical parameters of the size distribution of particles (minimum and maximum size, shape of the size distribution and quantity and location of absorbing and non-absorbing particles) can be retrieved
Reduced gravity causes larger and lower-angle granular avalanches with less stratification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Vet, S. J.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Markies, H.; in't Veld, A. C.; Postema, F. N.
2010-12-01
affected the results: subaqueous avalanches were smaller than subaerial but the lubrication did not decrease the angles of repose. The particle size hardly made a difference, ruling out effects of particle momentum, fluid drag and groundwater dynamics. Consequently, granular avalanches and their strata are larger at reduced g. Stratification patterns of the bidisperse materials were reduced and in some cases disappeared completely at lower gravity. The lower dynamic angle of repose is expected to be preserved more often at planetary surfaces following threshold triggering events such as earthquakes and impacts. Furthermore, sediment processing methods on future European and American Mars landers that depend on the mobilization angle should account for the difference between angles of repose in reduced-gravity.
A Novel Method Of Gradient Forming and Fluid Manipulation in Reduced Gravity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran N.; Leslie, F.
1999-01-01
The use of magnetic fields to control the motion and position of non-conducting liquids has received growing interest in recent times. The possibility of using the forces exerted by a nonuniform magnetic field on a ferrofluid to not only achieve fluid manipulation but also to actively control fluid motion makes it an attractive candidate for applications such as heat transfer in space systems. Terrestrial heat transfer equipment often relies on the normal gravitational force to hold liquid in a desired position or to provide a buoyant force to enhance the heat transfer rate. The residual gravitational force present in a space environment may no longer serve these useful functions and other forces, such as surface tension, can play a significant role in determining heat transfer rates. Although typically overwhelmed by gravitational forces in terrestrial applications, the body force induced in a ferrofluid by a nonuniform magnetic field can help to achieve these objectives in a microgravity environment. This paper will address the fluid manipulation aspect and will comprise of results from model fluid experiments and numerical modeling of the problem. Results from a novel method of forming concentration gradients that are applicable to low gravity applications will be presented. The ground based experiments are specifically tailored to demonstrate the magnetic manipulation capability of a ferrofluid and show that gravitational effects can be countered in carefully designed systems. The development of governing equations for the system will be presented along with a sampling of numerical results.
Group field theory as the second quantization of loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele
2016-04-01
We construct a second quantized reformulation of canonical loop quantum gravity (LQG) at both kinematical and dynamical level, in terms of a Fock space of spin networks, and show in full generality that it leads directly to the group field theory (GFT) formalism. In particular, we show the correspondence between canonical LQG dynamics and GFT dynamics leading to a specific GFT model from any definition of quantum canonical dynamics of spin networks. We exemplify the correspondence of dynamics in the specific example of 3d quantum gravity. The correspondence between canonical LQG and covariant spin foam models is obtained via the GFT definition of the latter.
A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGATION
Mark Zumberge
2003-06-13
At the Sleipner gas field, excess CO{sub 2} is sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. A high precision micro-gravity survey was carried out on the seafloor to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. Simple modeling of the first year data give inconclusive results, thus a more detailed approach is needed. Work towards this is underway.
On the source of cross-grain lineations in the central Pacific gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcadoo, David C.; Sandwell, David T.
1989-01-01
The source of cross-grain lineations in marine gravity field observed in central Pacific was investigated by comparing multiple collinear gravity profiles from Geosat data with coincident bathymetry profiles, in the Fourier transform domain. Bathymetric data were collected by multibeam sonar systems operating from two research vessels, one in June-August 1985, the other in February and March 1987. The results of this analysis indicate that the lineations are superficial features that appear to result from a combination of subsurface and surface loads supported by a thin (2 km to 5 km) lithosphere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerche, I.; Low, B. C.
1980-01-01
The mechanical equilibrium of a cylinder of plasma suspended horizontally by magnetic fields in uniform gravity is examined. A set of exact solutions describing the equilibrium is derived assuming the plasma distribution to be cylindrically symmetric to obtain an exact force balance between plasma pressure, the Lorentz pressure, and gravity in space. The set of solutions considers a case of uniform temperature and cases where the temperature rises from zero at the center of the plasma cylinder to reach a constant asymptotic value outside the cylinder.
Screening modifications of gravity through disformally coupled fields.
Koivisto, Tomi S; Mota, David F; Zumalacárregui, Miguel
2012-12-14
It is shown that extensions to general relativity, which introduce a strongly coupled scalar field, can be viable if the interaction has a nonconformal form. Such disformal coupling depends upon the gradients of the scalar field. Thus, if the field is locally static and smooth, the coupling becomes invisible in the Solar System: this is the disformal screening mechanism. A cosmological model is considered where the disformal coupling triggers the onset of accelerated expansion after a scaling matter era, giving a good fit to a wide range of background observational data. Moreover, the interaction leaves signatures in the formation of large-scale structure that can be used to probe such couplings. PMID:23368299
Non-minimally coupled tachyon field in teleparallel gravity
Fazlpour, Behnaz; Banijamali, Ali E-mail: a.banijamali@nit.ac.ir
2015-04-01
We perform a full investigation on dynamics of a new dark energy model in which the four-derivative of a non-canonical scalar field (tachyon) is non-minimally coupled to the vector torsion. Our analysis is done in the framework of teleparallel equivalent of general relativity which is based on torsion instead of curvature. We show that in our model there exists a late-time scaling attractor (point P{sub 4}), corresponding to an accelerating universe with the property that dark energy and dark matter densities are of the same order. Such a point can help to alleviate the cosmological coincidence problem. Existence of this point is the most significant difference between our model and another model in which a canonical scalar field (quintessence) is used instead of tachyon field.
On the source of cross-grain lineations in the central Pacific gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAdoo, David C.; Sandwell, David T.
1989-07-01
Subtle lineations in the marine gravity field of the central Pacific derived from Seasat altimeter data were observed by Haxby and Weissel (1986). They suggested that these "cross-grain" lineations were evidence of small-scale convection beneath the Pacific plate. We have examined these features by comparing multiple, collinear gravity and bathymetry profiles in the Fourier transform domain. Our nine gravity profiles were each obtained by stacking (averaging) three or more individual, repeat Geosat/ERM altimeter passes. Prior to stacking, the individual Geosat passes were fit to a cubic spline and then differentiated along track to produce along-track deflections of the vertical (or horizontal gravity). Corresponding bathymetric profiles were produced by projecting, onto Geosat ground tracks, bathymetric observations from six R/V Thomas Washington legs and three R/V Conrad legs that virtually coincide with these Geosat tracks. After Fourier transforming the resulting gravity and bathymetry profiles, we estimate admittances of gravity to bathymetry. These admittances are generally low; they also tend to be negative at very short wavelengths (λ<50 km). They are consistent with models of flexural isostatic compensation by a very thin lithosphere (approximately 2 km). They are not consistent with models of dynamic compensation. We suggest, therefore, that either (1) these cross-grain lineations began to form very near the East Pacific Rise or (2) they formed on older, anomalously weak lithosphere. We also suggest that the gravity lineations result primarily from loads beneath the seafloor in combination with, secondarily, loads on the seafloor. Depths of these subseafloor loads appear not to exceed significantly typical Moho depths.
A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION
Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Glenn Sasagawa
2004-05-19
Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 9/19/03 to 3/18/04. During this time, significant advancement in the 3-D gravity forward modeling code was made. Testing of the numerical accuracy of the code was undertaken using both a sheet of mass and a frustum of a cone for test cases. These were chosen because of our ability to do an analytic calculation of gravity for comparison. Tests were also done to determine the feasibility of using point mass approximations rather than cuboids for the forward modeling code. After determining that the point mass approximation is sufficient (and over six times faster computationally), several CO{sub 2} models were constructed and the time-lapse gravity signal was calculated from each. From these models, we expect to see a gravity change ranging from 3-16 {micro}Gal/year, depending on reservoir conditions and CO{sub 2} geometry. While more detailed modeling needs to be completed, these initial results show that we may be able to learn a great deal about the state of the CO{sub 2} from the time-lapse gravity results. Also, in December of 2003, we presented at the annual AGU meeting in San Francisco.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, S.; Visser, P.; Floberghagen, R.; Koop, R.; Ambrosius, B.
2002-12-01
Until this date, the lunar gravimetric inverse problem has mainly been posed as a global problem, solving for gravity fields over the whole of the Moon. The asymmetric sampling of the force field requires that some sort of regularisation be applied in order to have a meaningful global solution that does not provide spurious information on the far side. On one hand these global solutions work very well in terms of overall orbit quality and consistency, despite the fact that roughly one half of the surface lacks sampling. On the other hand, excellently sampled regions cannot be determined at maximum spatial resolution without affecting too much the solution on the far side, which in itself is highly unstable. Since the Lunar Prospector mission, there are many of such excellently sampled regions on the near side of the Moon. In order to exhaust the information present in the tracking data of this satellite, regional methods for solving the gravity field of well-sampled areas become interesting. We present a method to extract regional gravity information from Doppler and Range tracking of the Lunar Prospector spacecraft. The method incorporates the GEODYN II software package for tracking data processing and orbit determination, and a software package to analyse the residuals from the orbit determination process, and to transform these residuals into gravity anomalies on the lunar surface by means of a Stokes method. Simulations will show how well a gravity signal in the residuals can be recovered. Results from orbit determination using 20 days of Lunar Prospector Extended Mission data will be shown, to demonstrate the readiness of the method to process real-life satellite data. With missions in the future such as SELENE, which will provide the first global tracking data set of the Moon ever, global and regional methods to solve for gravity field products will remain equally of interest, since they both can give complementary insight into the low and high resolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Margolis, Stephen B.
1997-01-01
which steady, planar burning is unstable to nonsteady, and/or nonplanar (cellular) modes of burning. These instabilities thus lead to a number of interesting phenomena, such as the sloshing type of waves that have been observed in mixtures of HAN and TriEthanolAmmonium Nitrate (TEAN) with water. Although the Froude number was treated as an O(1) quantity in these studies, the limit of small inverse Froude number corresponding to the microgravity regime is increasingly of interest and can be treated explicitly, leading to various limiting forms of the models, the neutral stability boundaries, and, ultimately, the evolution equations that govern the nonlinear dynamics of the propagating reaction front. In the present work, we formally exploit this limiting parameter regime to compare some of the features of hydrodynamic instability of liquid-propellant combustion at reduced gravity with the same phenomenon at normal gravity.
Gravity as an internal Yang-Mills gauge field theory of the Poincaré group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, Jörg; Nitsch, Jürgen
1981-10-01
In the framework of affine bundles we present gravity as an “internal” gauge field theory of the Poincaré group. The resulting geometry is a Riemann-Cartan space-time carrying torsion and curvature. In order to admit a nontrivial action of the translation group we formally extend the matter Lagrangian to affine field variables. Finally, we establish the relation of our approach with the formalism of Hehl et al.
Clamond, Didier
2012-04-13
The velocity and other fields of steady two-dimensional surface gravity waves in irrotational motion are investigated numerically. Only symmetric waves with one crest per wavelength are considered, i.e. Stokes waves of finite amplitude, but not the highest waves, nor subharmonic and superharmonic bifurcations of Stokes waves. The numerical results are analysed, and several conjectures are made about the velocity and acceleration fields.
On the covariant formalism of the effective field theory of gravity and leading order corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar
2016-11-01
We construct the covariant effective field theory of gravity as an expansion in inverse powers of the Planck mass, identifying the leading and next-to-leading quantum corrections. We determine the form of the effective action for the cases of pure gravity with cosmological constant as well as gravity coupled to matter. By means of heat kernel methods we renormalize and compute the leading quantum corrections to quadratic order in a curvature expansion. The final effective action in our covariant formalism is generally non-local and can be readily used to understand the phenomenology on different spacetimes. In particular, we point out that on curved backgrounds the observable leading quantum gravitational effects are less suppressed than on Minkowski spacetime.
Satellite orbit determination and gravity field recovery from satellite-to-satellite tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Leenman, H.
1989-07-01
Studies on satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) with POPSAT (a geodetic satellite concept) and a ERS-class (Earth observation) satellite, a Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST) gravity mission, and precise gravity field determination methods and mission requirements are reported. The first two studies primarily address the application of SST between the high altitude POPSAT and an ERS-class or GRM (Geopotential Research Mission) satellite to the orbit determination of the latter two satellites. Activities focussed on the determination of the tracking coverage of the lower altitude satellite by ground based tracking systems and by POPSAT, orbit determination error analysis and the determination of the surface forces acting on GRM. The third study surveys principles of SST, uncertainties of existing drag models, effects of direct luni-solar attraction and tides on orbit and the gravity gradient observable. Detailed ARISTOTELES (which replaced POPSAT) orbit determination error analyses were performed for various ground based tracking networks.
A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration
Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner
2005-12-13
Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 4.3 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. This report covers 3/19/05 to 9/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and graduate student Scott Nooner finished his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a major part. Three new ROVDOG (Remotely Operated Vehicle deployable Deep Ocean Gravimeter) instruments were also completed with funding from Statoil. The primary changes are increased instrument precision and increased data sampling rate. A second gravity survey was carried out from August to September of 2005, allowing us to begin examining the time-lapse gravity changes caused by the injection of CO{sub 2} into the underground aquifer, known as the Utsira formation. Preliminary processing indicates a repeatability of 3.6 {micro}Gal, comparable to the baseline survey.
Gravity waves observation of wind field in stratosphere based on a Rayleigh Doppler lidar.
Zhao, Ruocan; Dou, Xiankang; Sun, Dongsong; Xue, Xianghui; Zheng, Jun; Han, Yuli; Chen, Tingdi; Wang, Guocheng; Zhou, Yingjie
2016-03-21
Simultaneous wind and temperature measurements in stratosphere with high time-spatial resolution for gravity waves study are scarce. In this paper we perform wind field gravity waves cases in the stratosphere observed by a mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar. This lidar system with both wind and temperature measurements were implemented for atmosphere gravity waves research in the altitude region 15-60 km. Observations were carried out for two periods of time: 3 months started from November 4, 2014 in Xinzhou, China (38.425°N,112.729°E) and 2 months started from October 7, 2015 in Jiuquan, China (39.741°N, 98.495°E) . The mesoscale fluctuations of the horizontal wind velocity and the two dimensional spectra analysis of these fluctuations show the presence of dominant oscillatory modes with wavelength of 4-14 km and period of around 10 hours in several cases. The simultaneous temperature observations make it possible to identify gravity wave cases from the relationships between different variables: temperature and horizontal wind. The observed cases demonstrate the Rayleigh Doppler Lidar's capacity to study gravity waves. PMID:27136878
Gravity waves observation of wind field in stratosphere based on a Rayleigh Doppler lidar.
Zhao, Ruocan; Dou, Xiankang; Sun, Dongsong; Xue, Xianghui; Zheng, Jun; Han, Yuli; Chen, Tingdi; Wang, Guocheng; Zhou, Yingjie
2016-03-21
Simultaneous wind and temperature measurements in stratosphere with high time-spatial resolution for gravity waves study are scarce. In this paper we perform wind field gravity waves cases in the stratosphere observed by a mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar. This lidar system with both wind and temperature measurements were implemented for atmosphere gravity waves research in the altitude region 15-60 km. Observations were carried out for two periods of time: 3 months started from November 4, 2014 in Xinzhou, China (38.425°N,112.729°E) and 2 months started from October 7, 2015 in Jiuquan, China (39.741°N, 98.495°E) . The mesoscale fluctuations of the horizontal wind velocity and the two dimensional spectra analysis of these fluctuations show the presence of dominant oscillatory modes with wavelength of 4-14 km and period of around 10 hours in several cases. The simultaneous temperature observations make it possible to identify gravity wave cases from the relationships between different variables: temperature and horizontal wind. The observed cases demonstrate the Rayleigh Doppler Lidar's capacity to study gravity waves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiaramonte, Francis Paul, III
1993-01-01
Void formation due to volumetric shrinkage and liquid/vapor reorientation during aluminum solidification was observed in real time by using a radiographic viewing system in normal and reduced gravity. An end-chill directional solidification furnace with water quench was designed and constructed to solidify aluminum samples during the approximately 16 sec of reduced gravity (+/-0.02g) achieved by flying an aircraft through a parabolic trajectory. In the first series of tests the aluminum was contained in a vacuum sealed, pyrolytic boron nitride crucible. An ullage space was present during each test. Void formation was recorded for two cases: a nonwetting system, and a wetting system where wetting occurred between the aluminum and the crucible lid. The void formation in the nonwetting case was similar in normal and reduced gravity, with a single vapor cavity forming at the top of the crucible. In the wetting case during reduced gravity surface tension caused two voids to form in the top corners of the crucible, but during normal gravity only one large void formed across the top. In the second series of tests the aluminum was contained in a pyrolytic boron nitride crucible that was placed in a stainless steel container and sealed in an environment of argon plus 4 percent hydrogen. An ullage space was present during each test. Void formation was recorded for two cases: a nonwetting system, and a wetting system where wetting occurred between the aluminum and one side wall and the lid. The void for nation in the nonwetting case was similar in normal and reduced gravity, with a single vapor cavity forming at the top of the crucible, although the meniscus became more convex in reduced gravity. In the wetting case the aluminum did not climb up the corners in 1g, and one large symmetric void resulted at the top when the aluminum had solidified. In the wetting case during reduced gravity the molten aluminum was drawn up the wetted wall and partially across the lid by a
Mandea, Mioara; Panet, Isabelle; Lesur, Vincent; de Viron, Olivier; Diament, Michel; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis
2012-11-20
To understand the dynamics of the Earth's fluid, iron-rich outer core, only indirect observations are available. The Earth's magnetic field, originating mainly within the core, and its temporal variations can be used to infer the fluid motion at the top of the core, on a decadal and subdecadal time-scale. Gravity variations resulting from changes in the mass distribution within the Earth may also occur on the same time-scales. Such variations include the signature of the flow inside the core, though they are largely dominated by the water cycle contributions. Our study is based on 8 y of high-resolution, high-accuracy magnetic and gravity satellite data, provided by the CHAMP and GRACE missions. From the newly derived geomagnetic models we have computed the core magnetic field, its temporal variations, and the core flow evolution. From the GRACE CNES/GRGS series of time variable geoid models, we have obtained interannual gravity models by using specifically designed postprocessing techniques. A correlation analysis between the magnetic and gravity series has demonstrated that the interannual changes in the second time derivative of the core magnetic field under a region from the Atlantic to Indian Ocean coincide in phase with changes in the gravity field. The order of magnitude of these changes and proposed correlation are plausible, compatible with a core origin; however, a complete theoretical model remains to be built. Our new results and their broad geophysical significance could be considered when planning new Earth observation space missions and devising more sophisticated Earth's interior models. PMID:23064635
GRACE Orbit and Gravity Field Recovery at GFZ Potsdam - First Experiences and Perspectives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reigber, C.; Flechtner, F.; Koenig, R.; Meyer, U.; Neumayer, K.; Schmidt, R.; Schwintzer, P.; Zhu, S.
2002-12-01
Since the launch of the two GRACE satellites on March 17, 2002, both satellites follow each other in a distance of about 220 km in an almost polar, circular and 500 km high orbit. For orbit and long-wavelength gravity field recovery the GRACE mission concept follows CHAMP's configuration, i.e., GPS satellite-to-satellite tracking and accelerometry on each of the two satellites. The essentially new element is the K-band microwave link measuring the relative distance of one satellite with respect to the other in both directions with an ultra-high precision (few æm). To fully exploit this high precision, the requirements on the performance and precision of the accelerometers to measure non-gravitational orbit perturbations are one order of magnitude more stringent than on CHAMP. The goal of GRACE is a distinct progress in global gravity field recovery from space with respect to accuracy and spatial as well as temporal resolution. First experiences of the GFZ project team with the instrument and sensor performance on the GRACE satellites, the parametrization of the data in precise orbit determination and first tentative gravity field solutions are discussed and compared with CHAMP related results. GRACE data processing at GFZ Potsdam is part of the GRACE level-2 product generation and validation, which is shared with UTEX/CSR and NASA/JPL. On level-1, GFZ Potsdam is responsible for providing high frequency atmosphere and ocean mass variation models to avoid alias effects in GRACE's envisaged sequence of monthly gravity field solutions. Gravity de-aliasing products quality will be discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Easton, John W.; Struk, Peter M.; Rotella, Anthony
2008-01-01
As a part of efforts to develop an electronics repair capability for long duration space missions, techniques and materials for soldering components on a circuit board in reduced gravity must be developed. This paper presents results from testing solder joint formation in low gravity on a NASA Reduced Gravity Research Aircraft. The results presented include joints formed using eutectic tin-lead solder and one of the following fluxes: (1) a no-clean flux core, (2) a rosin flux core, and (3) a solid solder wire with external liquid no-clean flux. The solder joints are analyzed with a computed tomography (CT) technique which imaged the interior of the entire solder joint. This replaced an earlier technique that required the solder joint to be destructively ground down revealing a single plane which was subsequently analyzed. The CT analysis technique is described and results presented with implications for future testing as well as implications for the overall electronics repair effort discussed.
Effect of the Planets' Gravity Fields to the Sun and Solar Cycles and its Observable Factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Kazem
2014-05-01
The Solar cycles just as; irradiance, sunspot, solar flare, radio flux and polarity flip have average duration about 11 Earth years. Scientists are believed, these solar activities are results of the Sun's internal processes and its atmospheric interactions. The authors are believed that these activities and cycles have an external cause too. Because, continuing internal processes and dynamics systems in planets need to external continuous loading. Here, the external cause is unbalanced gravity fields of planets on the Sun, specially by largest one, Jupiter, with its 67 moons, which its orbit period is 11.856 years in solar system, and helps to activation of the Sun's dynamics system and internal processes and consequently produce different solar cycles. The external variable gravity fields effect to the Sun's gravity center (core), and consequently the Sun's core dislocates, fluctuates and produces variable deformation in base of the radiation zone. The Sun's core dislocation and its fluctuations are in equatorial/current sheet towards the resulted vector of other planets' gravity fields on the Sun. It means that, during the Sun's rotation, a permanent variable eccentricity for the core has been produced. The radius of this eccentricity is variable in magnitude and direction. On the other hands, Sun's spin is faster than rotational speed of the external gravity fields' resulted vector. It means that the Sun's core, during its spin, rotates around the Sun's axis inverse of the Sun's spin with an eccentricity radius. Following of this core's rotation, a permanent flow of a layer of moving plasmas in base of the radiation zone is generated. This transition zone between the core and differently rotating radiative interior zone has a large shear profile that is one way that large scale magnetic fields can be formed. In addition, temperature changes more rapidly with depth occurs in this zone. In this magneto-thermo layer, produced moving plasmas generate magnetic field
Self-dual Maxwell field in 3D gravity with torsion
Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.
2008-08-15
We study the system of a self-dual Maxwell field coupled to 3D gravity with torsion, with the Maxwell field modified by a topological mass term. General structure of the field equations reveals a new, dynamical role of the classical central charges, and gives a simple correspondence between self-dual solutions with torsion and their Riemannian counterparts. We construct two exact self-dual solutions, corresponding to the sectors with a massless and massive Maxwell field, and calculate their conserved charges.
Micro-gravity: current distributions creating a uniform force field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent-Viry, O.; Mailfert, A.; Colteu, A.; Dael, A.; Gourdin, C.; Quettier, L.
2001-02-01
This paper presents two structures of superconducting coils able to give satisfactory solutions to the problem of generation of uniform field of high magnetic forces. The first structure is modeled by the use of purely surface current densities, whereas the second one can be described with volume current densities. Both of these structures proceed from the study of a particular expression of the complex magnetic potential introduced for structures with two-dimensional geometry. This work is carried out in a research collaboration between the GREEN and the DSM-DAPNIA department of the CEA Saclay.
Representation of the Gravity Field of Irregularly Shaped Bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimond, Stefan; Baur, Oliver
2015-04-01
Exploratory space missions to small bodies in our solar system have gained importance over the last few decades. The well-renowned mission Rosetta set a milestone in space science history when it successfully lowered its mini-lab Philae onto the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014. Knowledge of the gravitational field of a small body, e.g. a comet or asteroid, is crucial in order to study a spacecraft's motion in its environment and to infer geophysical properties. Traditionally, the gravitational field of a body is modeled by means of spherical harmonics. For bodies of near-spherical shape (such as the Earth), this is an adequate method, because the reference figure, i.e. a sphere, snugly fits the body. For irregularly shaped bodies, however, the adoption of spherical harmonics might be a sub-optimal choice. As an alternative, oblate or prolate spheroidal harmonics (OH or PH, reference figure is an ellipsoid of revolution) or ellipsoidal harmonics (EH, reference figure is a tri-axial ellipsoid) should be considered. The latter will in general be the best choice in terms of aptness of the reference figure. The downside of EH, however, lies in the considerably increased (numerical) complexity of the computation of the base functions, i.e., the Lamé functions of the first and second kind. OH or PH represent a promising path down the middle. Elongated bodies (such as Asteroid 433 Eros) are often similarly well approximated by a prolate spheroid as by the corresponding tri-axial ellipsoid. Contracted bodies, on the other hand, can be described accordingly well by means of an oblate spheroid. We compare the SH, OH, PH and EH gravitational field parameterizations for different celestial bodies, including Rosetta's target comet 67P. The tasks are as follows: Based on the polyhedral representation of a body's shape model, the gravitational potential and acceleration vector is computed for evenly or irregularly distributed points inside or outside
Probing the Interior Dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn with Gravity and Magnetic Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, H.; Stevenson, D. J.
2015-12-01
The inner working of solar system gas giant planets remain elusive after decades of exploration. One lasting debate concerns the nature of east-west zonal flows observed on the cloud level of these planets with amplitude on the order of 100 m/s: an observational fact is yet to be established about whether these flows are shallow atmospheric dynamics or surface expression of deep interior dynamics. There is a good chance that such an observational fact can be established within the next few years, given the upcoming gravity and magnetic field measurements to be carried out by the Juno mission and the Cassini Grand Finale. In this presentation, I will first describe a critical assessment of the applicability of the thermal wind equation (TWE) in calculating the gravity field associated with deep zonal flows. The TWE, which is a local diagnostic relation, captures the local density variations associated with the zonal flows while neglects the global shape change and density variations with non-local origins. Our analysis shows that the global corrections to the high degree gravity moments are small (less than a few tens of percent). Our analysis also shows that the applicability of the TWE in calculating the gravity moments does depend crucially on retaining the non-sphericity of the background density and gravity. Only when the background non-sphericity of the planet is taken into account in the calculation, the thermal wind equation (TWE) makes accurate enough prediction for the high-degree gravity moments associated with deep zonal flows (with errors less than a few tens of percent). I will then turn to the magnetic signals associated with deep zonal flows. Using mean field dynamo theory (MFDT), we show that detectable magnetic signals are expected: in the spatial domain, poloidal magnetic fields spatially correlated with deep zonal flows are expected; in the temporal domain, periodic oscillations of the poloidal magnetic field are expected. The period of the
Electric Field Effects on an Injected Air Bubble at Detachment in a Low Gravity Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iacona, Estelle; Herman, Cila; Chang, Shinan
2002-01-01
The objective of the study is to investigate the behavior of individual air bubbles injected through an orifice into an electrically insulating liquid under the influence of a static and uniform electric field. Bubble formation and detachment were visualized and recorded in microgravity using a high-speed video camera. Bubble volume, dimensions and contact angle at detachment were measured. In addition to the experimental studies, a simple model, predicting bubble characteristics at detachment was developed. The model, based on thermodynamic considerations, accounts for the level of gravity as well as the magnitude of the uniform electric field. Measured data and model predictions show good agreement, and indicate that the level of gravity and the electric field magnitude significantly affect bubble shape, volume and dimensions.
The model of a collisionless current sheet in a homogeneous gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veselovsky, Igor S.; Kislov, Roman A.; Malova, Helmi V.; Khabarova, Olga V.
2016-10-01
The self-consistent 1D kinetic Harris-like model of a collisionless current sheet is developed for the case of the current sheet experiencing the impact of an external uniform gravity field. The ambipolar Pannekoek-Rosseland electric field appears in the system as a result of the additional drift motion of ions and electrons. This produces separation of charges, which is responsible for corresponding changes of the current sheet form. The presence of gravitation leads to formation of asymmetric distributions of the magnetic field as well as the plasma and the current density changes. Our estimations show that gravity-forced disruptions of the current sheet profile may occur in the Mercurial magnetosphere and, most probable, in the Io plasma torus near the Jupiter. Also, the model can be applied to magnetospheres of exoplanets.
Horizon thermodynamics and gravitational field equations in Horava-Lifshitz gravity
Cai Ronggen; Ohta, Nobuyoshi
2010-04-15
We explore the relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and gravitational field equation at a static, spherically symmetric black hole horizon in Horava-Lifshitz theory with/without detailed balance. It turns out that as in the cases of Einstein gravity and Lovelock gravity, the gravitational field equation can be cast to a form of the first law of thermodynamics at the black hole horizon. This way we obtain the expressions for entropy and mass in terms of black hole horizon, consistent with those from other approaches. We also define a generalized Misner-Sharp energy for static, spherically symmetric spacetimes in Horava-Lifshitz theory. The generalized Misner-Sharp energy is conserved in the case without matter field, and its variation gives the first law of black hole thermodynamics at the black hole horizon.
Effect of Gravity on the Near Field Flow Structure of Helium Jet in Air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agrawal, Ajay K.; Parthasarathy, Ramkumar; Griffin, DeVon
2002-01-01
Experiments have shown that a low-density jet injected into a high-density surrounding medium undergoes periodic oscillations in the near field. Although the flow oscillations in these jets at Richardson numbers about unity are attributed to the buoyancy, the direct physical evidence has not been acquired in the experiments. If the instability were indeed caused by buoyancy, the near-field flow structure would undergo drastic changes upon removal of gravity in the microgravity environment. The present study was conducted to investigate this effect by simulating microgravity environment in the 2.2-second drop tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The non-intrusive, rainbow schlieren deflectometry technique was used for quantitative measurements of helium concentrations in buoyant and non-buoyant jets. Results in a steady jet show that the radial growth of the jet shear layer in Earth gravity is hindered by the buoyant acceleration. The jet in microgravity was 30 to 70 percent wider than that in Earth gravity. The microgravity jet showed typical growth of a constant density jet shear layer. In case of a self-excited helium jet in Earth gravity, the flow oscillations continued as the jet flow adjusted to microgravity conditions in the drop tower. The flow oscillations were however not present at the end of the drop when steady microgravity conditions were reached.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuda, Yoichi; Nogi, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Kazuya
2016-03-01
By combining a Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) Earth Gravity Model (EGM) and in situ gravity data obtained from the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) surveys, we estimated the regional gravity field in the area of Syowa Station, a Japanese research station located in Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. In situ data sets that were used consisted of land gravity data collected since 1967, shipborne data collected since 1985 and airborne gravity data collected in 2006. The GOCE direct (DIR) solution release 5 (R5) model was used as the long-wavelength reference of the gravity field. Using these data sets, we calculated gravity anomalies and geoid heights at 1-by-1‧ grid by means of least-squares collocation. The resulting geoid height at Syowa Station was compared with a local height based on GPS, spirit leveling and tide gauge data. The result suggests that the sea surface height at Syowa Station is -1.57 m, which is consistent with a dynamic ocean topography model. During this investigation, we also evaluated GOCE EGMs and other recent EGMs by comparing them with the airborne gravity data. The results indicate that the GOCE DIR R5 produced the smallest RMS (Root Mean Square) differences and that the newer models performed nearly as well. These comparisons demonstrate the importance of using reliable in situ data when evaluating satellite-only EGMs.
modern global models of the earth's gravity field: analysis of their accuracy and resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganagina, Irina; Karpik, Alexander; Kanushin, Vadim; Goldobin, Denis; Kosareva, Alexandra; Kosarev, Nikolay; Mazurova, Elena
2015-04-01
Introduction: Accurate knowledge of the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field extends opportunities in geodynamic problem-solving and high-precision navigation. In the course of our investigations have been analyzed the resolution and accuracy of 33 modern global models of the Earth's gravity field and among them 23 combined models and 10 satellite models obtained by the results of GOCE, GRACE, and CHAMP satellite gravity mission. The Earth's geopotential model data in terms of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients were taken from the web-site of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) in Potsdam. Theory: Accuracy and resolution estimation of global Earth's gravity field models is based on the analysis of degree variances of geopotential coefficients and their errors. During investigations for analyzing models were obtained dependences of approximation errors for gravity anomalies on the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential, relative errors of geopotential's spherical harmonic coefficients, degree variances for geopotential coefficients, and error variances of potential coefficients obtained from gravity anomalies. Delphi 7-based software developed by authors was used for the analysis of global Earth's gravity field models. Experience: The results of investigations show that spherical harmonic coefficients of all matched. Diagrams of degree variances for spherical harmonic coefficients and their errors bring us to the conclusion that the degree variances of most models equal to their error variances for a degree less than that declared by developers. The accuracy of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients of geopotential models is estimated as 10-9. This value characterizes both inherent errors of models, and the difference of coefficients in various models, as well as a scale poor predicted instability of the geopotential, and resolution. Furthermore, we compared the gravity anomalies computed by models with those
A Preliminary Assessment of Phase Separator Ground-Based and Reduced-Gravity Testing for ALS Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, Nancy Rabel
2006-01-01
A viewgraph presentation of phase separator ground-based and reduced-gravity testing for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Multiphase Flow Technology Program; 2) Types of Separators; 3) MOBI Phase Separators; 4) Experiment set-up; and 5) Preliminary comparison/results.
Low-Temperature Oxidation Reactions and Cool Flames at Earth and Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pearlman, Howard
1999-01-01
Non-isothermal studies of cool flames and low temperature oxidation reactions in unstirred closed vessels are complicated by the perturbing effects of natural convection at earth gravity. Buoyant convection due to self-heating during the course of slow reaction produces spatio-temporal variations in the thermal and thus specie concentration fields due to the Arrhenius temperature dependence of the reaction rates. Such complexities have never been quantitatively modeled and were the primary impetus for the development of CSTR's (continuously stirred tank reactors) 30 years ago. While CSTR's have been widely adopted since they offer the advantage of spatial uniformity in temperature and concentration, all gradients are necessarily destroyed along with any structure that may otherwise develop. Microgravity offers a unique environment where buoyant convection can be effectively minimized and the need for stirring eliminated. Moreover, eliminating buoyancy and the need for stirring eliminates complications associated with the induced hydrodynamic field whose influence on heat transport and hot spot formation, hence explosion limits, is not fully realized. The objective of this research is to quantitatively determine and understand the fundamental mechanisms that control the onset and evolution of low temperature reactions and cool flames in both static and flow reactors. Microgravity experiments will be conducted to obtain benchmark data on the structure (spatio-temporal temperature, concentration, flow fields), the dynamics of the chemical fronts, and the ignition diagrams (pressure vs. temperature). Ground-based experiments will be conducted to ascertain the role of buoyancy. Numerical simulations including detailed kinetics will be conducted and compared to experiment.
High-resolution global and local lunar gravity field models using GRAIL mission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2014-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: (1) a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km; (2) an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and between 11-20 km through December 14. Both the primary and the extended mission data have been processed into global models of the lunar gravity field at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software. Here we present our latest global model, an expansion in spherical harmonics of degree and order 1080. We discuss this new solution in terms of its power spectrum, its free-air and Bouguer anomalies, its associated error spectrum, and its correlations with topography-induced gravity. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale and the south pole area. We express gravity in terms of anomalies, and estimate them with respect to a global background model. We apply neighbor-smoothing in our estimation procedure. We present a local solution over the south pole area in a resolution of 1/6 by 1/6 of a degree, equivalent to degree and order 1080, and we compare this local solution to our global model.
Zonal harmonics of the gravity field in DEF-variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aparicio, I.; Floría, L.
In order to be in a position to take advantage of the linear and regular formulation and treatment of Celestial Mechanics problems, in a recent paper Sharaf & Saad (1997) have given an analytical expansion of the Earth's zonal potential in terms of Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) regular elements (Kustaanheimo & Stiefel 1965; Stiefel & Scheifele 1971), putting special emphasis on the consideration of elliptic-type two-body orbits. In the present paper we carry out an application of the so-called focal method (Burdet 1969) to derive the expression, in terms of the linearizing DEF-variables (Deprit, Elipe & Ferrer 1994, S S 4.1), of any zonal harmonic of the gravitational field created by a central body, and obtain the corresponding equations of motion for any value of the eccentricity. To this end, we will follow a variant of the focal method canonical approach based on the (weakly) canonical extension of the projective-decomposition point-transformation proposed by these authors.
Quantum Field Theory and Gravity: Black Holes and Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heo, Junseong
1998-11-01
This thesis examines the various field theory related issues motivated by the gravitational phenomena. Black Holes with quantum degrees of freedom, non-abelian generalization of vortex solutions, and WIMP detection rates for the ongoing experimental search for dark matter are explored. We derive a close relation between the Minkowski signature approach and the Euclidean formalism in the construction of quantum degrees of freedom on a Black hole solution. We demonstrate the benefit of a physically transparent energy momentum consideration and extend the previous analysis on Hawking temperature shifts. Specifically we clear up the issue of thick string limit behavior that obscures the direct intuition and draw an analogy that brings the instanton solutions in flat two dimensional planes to Euclidean vortex solutions in the black hole background. These considerations lead to the question on the various possibilities of non-abelian solutions which supply the seed for the source of quantum hair in general context. We construct an explicit non-abelian vortex solution with a remnant Z3 discrete symmetry and consider its new interaction properties distinct from the known abelian solution behavior. Dark Matter direct search experiments are now in operation yet the expected event rate is very low and the previously available theoretical formalism could not tell the differences among different halo models. We present a derivation of angle dependent differential event rates which allows this possibility, and enables the confirmation of detection of a galactic halo WIMP signal with a smaller number of experimental signals. It may open up realistic methods to distinguish one halo model from another.
Fine orbit tuning to increase the accuracy of the gravity-field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezdek, A.; Klokocnik, J.; Kostelecky, J.; Floberghagen, R.; Sebera, J.
2010-12-01
Fine orbit tuning will be presented as a tool to enhance the accuracy of the gravity-field parameters based on the data from satellite missions around the Earth or other planetary bodies. A slight variation in the satellite altitude of a few hundred metres or kilometres may dramatically change the pattern and density of the groundtracks, thus leading to a significant difference in the quality of the derived gravity-field parameters. This aspect is important not only to missions dedicated to the gravity-field mapping, but it can be applied to any planetary mission, whose orbital data may yield useful information on the particular gravity field. The geometry of satellite groundtracks is closely connected with the term orbital resonance or repeat orbit, which was intensively studied by the satellite geodesy community since the 1970s. In a systematic way, fine orbit tuning was first applied to altimetry missions for oceanographic purposes in the early 1990s, when it became clear that small changes in the satellite altitude might substantially influence the utility of the data from the onboard instruments. The monthly geopotential solutions from the GRACE mission (in orbit since 2002) displayed apparently worse precision in August-September 2004, which was later found to be caused by a sparser groundtrack pattern due to the passage of the GRACE satellites through the 61/4 orbit resonance. The lessons learned from GRACE were applied by ESA to its gravity field mission GOCE (in orbit since 2009). Here, the situation is different, as the GOCE onboard thrusters are capable of maintaining the satellite at a constant altitude. In order to fully use the measurement potential of the first space gradiometer ever flown, in the GOCE mission planning the influence of orbit geometry was taken into account, and a minimum 2-month repeat period for the orbit was specified. We analysed several orbital configurations of GOCE, as possible candidates for the gravity mapping phases. We
Mars Gravity Field and Upper Atmosphere from MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genova, A.; Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2015-12-01
The NASA orbital missions Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) have been exploring and monitoring the planet Mars since 1997. MGS executed its mapping mission between 1999 and 2006 in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis altitude at ~370 km and the dayside equatorial crossing at 2 pm Local Solar Time (LST). The spacecraft was equipped with onboard instrumentation to acquire radio science data and to measure spacecraft ranges to the Martian surface (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter). These measurements resulted in static and time-varying gravity field and high-resolution global topography of the planet. ODY and MRO are still orbiting about Mars in two different sun-synchronous orbits, providing radio tracking data that indirectly measure both the static and time-varying gravity field and the atmospheric density. The orbit of ODY has its periapsis at ~390 km altitude and descending node at 4-5 pm LST. However, the spacecraft also collected measurements at lower altitudes (~220 km) in 2002 prior to the mapping phase. Since November 2006, MRO is in a low-altitude orbit with a periapsis altitude of 255 km and descending node at 3 pm LST. Radio data from MRO help improve the resolution of the static gravity field and measure the mass distribution of the polar caps, but the atmospheric drag at those altitudes may limit the benefits of these radio tracking observations. We present a combined solution of the Martian gravity field to degree and order 110 and atmospheric density profiles with radio tracking data from MGS, ODY and MRO. The gravity field solution is combined with the MOLA topography yielding an updated map of Mars crustal thickness. We also show our solution of the Love number k2 and time-variable gravity zonal harmonics (C20 and C30, in particular). The recovered atmospheric density profiles may be used in atmospheric models to constrain the long-term variability of the
Phipps, William S; Yin, Zhizhong; Bae, Candice; Sharpe, Julia Z; Bishara, Andrew M; Nelson, Emily S; Weaver, Aaron S; Brown, Daniel; McKay, Terri L; Griffin, DeVon; Chan, Eugene Y
2014-11-13
Until recently, astronaut blood samples were collected in-flight, transported to earth on the Space Shuttle, and analyzed in terrestrial laboratories. If humans are to travel beyond low Earth orbit, a transition towards space-ready, point-of-care (POC) testing is required. Such testing needs to be comprehensive, easy to perform in a reduced-gravity environment, and unaffected by the stresses of launch and spaceflight. Countless POC devices have been developed to mimic laboratory scale counterparts, but most have narrow applications and few have demonstrable use in an in-flight, reduced-gravity environment. In fact, demonstrations of biomedical diagnostics in reduced gravity are limited altogether, making component choice and certain logistical challenges difficult to approach when seeking to test new technology. To help fill the void, we are presenting a modular method for the construction and operation of a prototype blood diagnostic device and its associated parabolic flight test rig that meet the standards for flight-testing onboard a parabolic flight, reduced-gravity aircraft. The method first focuses on rig assembly for in-flight, reduced-gravity testing of a flow cytometer and a companion microfluidic mixing chip. Components are adaptable to other designs and some custom components, such as a microvolume sample loader and the micromixer may be of particular interest. The method then shifts focus to flight preparation, by offering guidelines and suggestions to prepare for a successful flight test with regard to user training, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), and other issues. Finally, in-flight experimental procedures specific to our demonstrations are described.
Phipps, William S; Yin, Zhizhong; Bae, Candice; Sharpe, Julia Z; Bishara, Andrew M; Nelson, Emily S; Weaver, Aaron S; Brown, Daniel; McKay, Terri L; Griffin, DeVon; Chan, Eugene Y
2014-01-01
Until recently, astronaut blood samples were collected in-flight, transported to earth on the Space Shuttle, and analyzed in terrestrial laboratories. If humans are to travel beyond low Earth orbit, a transition towards space-ready, point-of-care (POC) testing is required. Such testing needs to be comprehensive, easy to perform in a reduced-gravity environment, and unaffected by the stresses of launch and spaceflight. Countless POC devices have been developed to mimic laboratory scale counterparts, but most have narrow applications and few have demonstrable use in an in-flight, reduced-gravity environment. In fact, demonstrations of biomedical diagnostics in reduced gravity are limited altogether, making component choice and certain logistical challenges difficult to approach when seeking to test new technology. To help fill the void, we are presenting a modular method for the construction and operation of a prototype blood diagnostic device and its associated parabolic flight test rig that meet the standards for flight-testing onboard a parabolic flight, reduced-gravity aircraft. The method first focuses on rig assembly for in-flight, reduced-gravity testing of a flow cytometer and a companion microfluidic mixing chip. Components are adaptable to other designs and some custom components, such as a microvolume sample loader and the micromixer may be of particular interest. The method then shifts focus to flight preparation, by offering guidelines and suggestions to prepare for a successful flight test with regard to user training, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), and other issues. Finally, in-flight experimental procedures specific to our demonstrations are described. PMID:25490614
Cryogenic Boiling and Two-Phase Flow during Pipe Chilldown in Earth and Reduced Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Kun; Ji, Yan; Chung, J. N.; Shyy, Wei
2008-01-01
For many industrial, medical and space technologies, cryogenic fluids play indispensable roles. An integral part of the cryogenic transport processes is the chilldown of the system components during initial applications. In this paper, we report experimental results for a chilldown process that is involved with the unsteady two-phase vapor-liquid flow and boiling heat transfer of the cryogen coupled with the transient heat conduction inside pipe walls. We have provided fundamental understanding on the physics of the two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer during cryogenic quenching through experimental observation, measurement and analysis. Based on the temperature measurement of the tube wall, the terrestrial cryogenic chilldown process is divided into three stages of film boiling, nucleate boiling and single-phase convection that bears a close similarity to the conventional pool boiling process. In earth gravity, cooling rate is non-uniform circumferentially due to a stratified flow pattern that gives rise to more cooling on the bottom wall by liquid filaments. In microgravity, there is no stratified flow and the absence of the gravitational force sends liquid filaments to the central core and replaces them by low thermal conductivity vapor that significantly reduces the heat transfer from the wall. Thus, the chilldown process is axisymmetric, but longer in microgravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatos, H. C.; Witt, A. F.
1978-01-01
The surface tension behavior of doped and undoped InSb melts was investigated as well as their temperature and composition dependence. Surface tension in InSb melts was determined using the sessile-drop technique covering the temperature range from 530 C to 880 C. A linear regression of the data obtained shows that the temperature dependence of sigma is 392- (T-530) x (7000) plus or minus 10 dyne/cm. The d sigma/d Tau for intrinsics InSb is less than that previously reported. On the basis of the surface tension data obtained, it is concluded that surface tension induced convective flow velocities in InSb under reduced gravity conditions range from zero to at most 1 cm/sec. Accordingly, no interference with dopant segregation can be expected during growth in space because the momentum boundary layer (at the crystal melt interface) associated with any Marangoni-type convective flows would, at the given growth rate, be significantly larger than the predicted diffusion boundary layer thickness.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feikema, Douglas A.
2003-01-01
Fires onboard manned spacecraft and launch vehicles are a particularly feared hazard because one cannot jump ship while in orbit 240 nmi above the Earth at 17 000 mph! Understanding the physical properties of fires in free fall and on orbit is, therefore, a very important endeavor for NASA s Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. However, detailed information concerning the structure of microgravity fires remained elusive until recently since robustness, limited power, limited volume, and limited mass place severe constraints on diagnostic equipment for use in space and in NASA Glenn Research Center s reduced-gravity facilities. Under NASA Research Associate funding since 2001, En'Urga, Inc. (Dr. Sivathanu, principal investigator, and Dr. Lim, co-investigator) in collaboration with Glenn (Dr. Feikema, coinvestigator) have successfully demonstrated a new technology for use in microgravity combustion. A midinfrared scanning spectrometer has been developed by En'Urga and tested at Glenn to measure 30 spectra per second at different spatial locations in a flame from 1.8 to 4.8 microns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasubramaniam, R.; Lacy, Claud E.; Woniak, Günter; Subramanian, R. Shankar
1996-04-01
Experiments were performed on the motion of isolated drops and bubbles in a Dow-Corning silicone oil under the action of an applied temperature gradient in a reduced gravity environment aboard the NASA Space Shuttle in orbit. Images of the interior of the test cell during these experiments were recorded on cine film and later analyzed to obtain data on the migration velocity as a function of size and the applied temperature gradient. The data are presented in scaled form. Predictions are available in the case of gas bubbles, and it is found that the scaled velocity decreases with increasing Marangoni number qualitatively as expected even though there are quantitative discrepancies. The scaled velocity also appears to approach a theoretical asymptote predicted in the limit of large values of the Marangoni number for Stokes motion. Finally, sample results from a preliminary experiment on a pair of drops are presented. They display the remarkable feature that a small drop which leads a large drop in a temperature gradient can significantly retard the motion of the large trailing drop while itself moving as though it is virtually unaffected by the presence of the large drop.
Scalar-tensor gravity with a non-minimally coupled Higgs field and accelerating universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sim, Jonghyun; Lee, Tae Hoon
2016-03-01
We consider general couplings, including non-minimal derivative coupling, of a Higgs boson field to scalar-tensor gravity and calculate their contributions to the energy density and pressure in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. In a special case where the kinetic term of the Higgs field is non-minimally coupled to the Einstein tensor, we seek de Sitter solutions for the cosmic scale factor and discuss the possibility that the late-time acceleration and the inflationary era of our universe can be described by means of scalar fields with self-interactions and the Yukawa potential.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balasubramaniam, R.; Rame, E.; Kizito, J.; Kassemi, M.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of state-of-the-art predictions for two-phase flows relevant to Advanced Life Support. We strive to pick out the most used and accepted models for pressure drop and flow regime predictions. The main focus is to identify gaps in predictive capabilities in partial gravity for Lunar and Martian applications. Following a summary of flow regimes and pressure drop correlations for terrestrial and zero gravity, we analyze the fully developed annular gas-liquid flow in a straight cylindrical tube. This flow is amenable to analytical closed form solutions for the flow field and heat transfer. These solutions, valid for partial gravity as well, may be used as baselines and guides to compare experimental measurements. The flow regimes likely to be encountered in the water recovery equipment currently under consideration for space applications are provided in an appendix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Ricky; Kabirzadeh, Hojjat; Kim, Jeong Woo; Neumeyer, Juergen; Sideris, Michael G.
2014-08-01
In order to detect small gravity changes in field measurements, such as with CO2 storage, we designed simulations and experiments to validate the capabilities of the iGrav superconducting gravimeter. Qualified data processing was important to obtain the residual gravity from the iGrav's raw gravity signals, without the tidal components, atmosphere, polar motion and hydrological effects. Two simulations and four designed experiments are presented in this study. The first simulation detected the gravity change during CO2 injection. The residual gravity of CO2 leakage was targeted with the second simulation from the main storage reservoir to secondary space underground. The designed experiments monitored the situation of gravity anomalies in the iGrav's records. These tests focused on short-term gravity anomalies, such as gravity changes, step functions, repeat observations and gradient measurements from the iGrav, rather than on long-term tidal effects. The four laboratory experiments detected a decrease in gravity of -0.56 ± 0.15 µGal (10-8 m s-2) with a 92.8 kg weight on the top of the iGrav. A step function occurred in the gravity signals, when the tilt control was out of balance. We also used a professional camera dolly with a track to observe repeated horizontal movements and an electric lift table for controlled vertical movements to measure the average gradient of -2.67 ± 0.01 µGal cm-1.
The long-term behavior of near-circular orbits in a zonal gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, Richard A.
1992-01-01
A simple solution has been developed for the long term behavior of a near-circular orbit in a zonal gravity field. The solution is obtained by linearizing the singly averaged variational equations of motion and eliminating a degree of freedom with an integral of motion. The resulting solution is expressed in semiequinoctial elements (h and k), and has either an exponential or periodic form. The type of solution is dependent upon a stability factor determined by the inclination and the values of the gravity field coefficients. Frozen orbits correspond to the equilibrium solutions of the set of simplified variational equations. An approximate expression for the location of these orbits has been developed and can be useful for certain mission design applications.
Analysis of gravity anomaly over coral-reef oil field: Wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana
Dana, S.W.
1980-03-01
To compare the measured and theoretical gravity anomaly of a typical coral-reef oil field, data were collected from the wilfred Pool, Sullivan County, Indiana. Densities of available core samples from the field were determined and the anomaly was calculated, taking into account the lateral and vertical variation of density and the geologic structure known from core studies and drilling-log records of lithologic types penetrated by the wells. Comparison of the theoretical and actual anomalies indicated a rough correspondence except for several sharp negative anomalies on the flanks of the measured gravity anomaly. Further studies indicated that the negative anomalies are possibly due to fluvial erosion that produced, on the surface of the youngest Pennsylvanian sediments, channels which were later filled with glacial till of lower density than the sediments. 13 figures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qiujie; Shen, Yunzhong; Chen, Wu; Zhang, Xingfu; Hsu, Houze
2016-06-01
The main contribution of this study is to improve the GRACE gravity field solution by taking errors of non-conservative acceleration and attitude observations into account. Unlike previous studies, the errors of the attitude and non-conservative acceleration data, and gravity field parameters, as well as accelerometer biases are estimated by means of weighted least squares adjustment. Then we compute a new time series of monthly gravity field models complete to degree and order 60 covering the period Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2012 from the twin GRACE satellites' data. The derived GRACE solution (called Tongji-GRACE02) is compared in terms of geoid degree variances and temporal mass changes with the other GRACE solutions, namely CSR RL05, GFZ RL05a, and JPL RL05. The results show that (1) the global mass signals of Tongji-GRACE02 are generally consistent with those of CSR RL05, GFZ RL05a, and JPL RL05; (2) compared to CSR RL05, the noise of Tongji-GRACE02 is reduced by about 21 % over ocean when only using 300 km Gaussian smoothing, and 60 % or more over deserts (Australia, Kalahari, Karakum and Thar) without using Gaussian smoothing and decorrelation filtering; and (3) for all examples, the noise reductions are more significant than signal reductions, no matter whether smoothing and filtering are applied or not. The comparison with GLDAS data supports that the signals of Tongji-GRACE02 over St. Lawrence River basin are close to those from CSR RL05, GFZ RL05a and JPL RL05, while the GLDAS result shows the best agreement with the Tongji-GRACE02 result.
Oscillating localized objects formed by a scalar field coupled to gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fodor, Gyula; Forgács, Péter; Grandclement, Philippe
2012-07-01
Because of the attraction of gravity a real Klein-Gordon field can form long living spherically symmetric localized objects, called oscillatons. These configurations are so long living that until recently by all numerical methods they appeared to be exactly time-periodic. In this report we compare the small-amplitude analytic results for the mass loss rate of oscillatons with the numerical results obtained by the solution of the Fourier mode equations.
Scalar field pressure in induced gravity with Higgs potential and dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezares-Roder, Nils M.; Nandan, Hemwati; Dehnen, Heinz
2010-10-01
A model of induced gravity with a Higgs potential is investigated in detail in view of the pressure components related to the scalar-field excitations. The physical consequences emerging as an artifact due to the presence of these pressure terms are analysed in terms of the constraints parting from energy density, solar-relativistic effects and galactic dynamics along with the dark matter halos.
Modeling gravity and magnetic fields for crustal and upper mantle structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denoyer, J. M.
1985-01-01
Research was conducted to: (1) make a direct comparison between the gravity and magnetic fields near the ellipsoid and at the height expected for the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) for the same geologic model, (2) obtain realistic estimates of the gradients that can be expected at the orbit height of the GRM, and (3) demonstrate the value of data that the GRM could provide for investigating upper mantle and deep crustal anomalies.
Containerless Processing in Reduced Gravity Using the TEMPUS Facility during MSL-1 and MSL-1R
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Jan R.
1998-01-01
Containerless processing provides a high purity environment for the study of high-temperature, very reactive materials. It is an important method which provides access to the metastable state of an undercooled melt. In the absence of container walls, the nucleation rate is greatly reduced and undercooling up to (Tm-Tn)/Tm approx. equal to 0.2 can be obtained, where Tm and Tn are the melting and nucleation temperatures, respectively. Electromagnetic levitation represents a method particularly well-suited for the study of metallic melts. The TEMPUS (Tiegelfreies ElektroMagnetisches Prozessieren Unter Schwerelosgkeit) facility is a research instrument designed to perform electromagnetic levitation studies in reduced gravity. TEMPUS is a joint undertaking between DARA, the German Space Agency, and the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center provides the leadership for scientific and management efforts which support the four US PI teams which performed experiments in the TEMPUS facility. The facility is sensitive to accelerations in the 1-10 Hz range. This became evident during the MSL-1 mission. Analysis of accelerometer and video data indicated that loss of sample control occurred during crew exercise periods which created disturbances in this frequency range. Prior to the MSL-1R flight the TEMPUS team, the accelerometer support groups and the mission operations team developed a strategy to provide for the operation of the facility without such disturbances. The successful implementation of this plan led to the highly successful operation of this facility during MSL-1R.
GRACE time-variable gravity field recovery using an improved energy balance approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Kun; Guo, Junyi; Shum, C. K.; Dai, Chunli; Luo, Jia
2015-12-01
A new approach based on energy conservation principle for satellite gravimetry mission has been developed and yields more accurate estimation of in situ geopotential difference observables using K-band ranging (KBR) measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin-satellite mission. This new approach preserves more gravity information sensed by KBR range-rate measurements and reduces orbit error as compared to previous energy balance methods. Results from analysis of 11 yr of GRACE data indicated that the resulting geopotential difference estimates agree well with predicted values from official Level 2 solutions: with much higher correlation at 0.9, as compared to 0.5-0.8 reported by previous published energy balance studies. We demonstrate that our approach produced a comparable time-variable gravity solution with the Level 2 solutions. The regional GRACE temporal gravity solutions over Greenland reveals that a substantially higher temporal resolution is achievable at 10-d sampling as compared to the official monthly solutions, but without the compromise of spatial resolution, nor the need to use regularization or post-processing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schrama, E.
1990-01-01
The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the Earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3 to 10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85 respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schrama, Ernst J. O.
1991-01-01
The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schrama, Ernst J. O.
1991-11-01
The concept of a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as a tracking facility and a gradiometer as a separate instrument on a low-orbiting platform offers a unique tool to map the earth's gravitational field with unprecedented accuracies. The former technique allows determination of the spacecraft's ephemeris at any epoch to within 3-10 cm, the latter permits the measurement of the tensor of second order derivatives of the gravity field to within 0.01 to 0.0001 Eotvos units depending on the type of gradiometer. First, a variety of error sources in gradiometry where emphasis is placed on the rotational problem pursuing as well a static as a dynamic approach is described. Next, an analytical technique is described and applied for an error analysis of gravity field parameters from gradiometer and GPS observation types. Results are discussed for various configurations proposed on Topex/Poseidon, Gravity Probe-B, and Aristoteles, indicating that GPS only solutions may be computed up to degree and order 35, 55, and 85, respectively, whereas a combined GPS/gradiometer experiment on Aristoteles may result in an acceptable solution up to degree and order 240.
Estimating the Earth's geometry, rotation and gravity field using a multi-satellite SLR solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefka, V.; Blossfeld, M.; Mueller, H.; Gerstl, M.; Panafidina, N.
2012-12-01
Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is the unique technique to determine station coordinates, Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and Stokes coefficients of the Earth's gravity field in one common adjustment. These parameters form the so called "three pillars" (Plag & Pearlman, 2009) of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). In its function as official analysis center of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), DGFI is developing and maintaining software to process SLR observations called "DGFI Orbit and Geodetic parameter estimation Software" (DOGS). The software is used to analyze SLR observations and to compute multi-satellite solutions. To take benefit of different orbit performances (e.g. inclination and altitude), a solution using ten different spherical satellites (ETALON1/2, LAGEOS1/2, STELLA, STARLETTE, AJISAI, LARETS, LARES, BLITS) covering the period of 12 years of observations is computed. The satellites are relatively weighted using a variance component estimation (VCE). The obtained weights are analyzed w.r.t. the potential of the satellite to monitor changes in the Earths geometry, rotation and gravity field. The estimated parameters (station coordinates and EOP) are validated w.r.t. official time series of the IERS. The Stokes coefficients are compared to recent gravity field solutions.
Estimating the Earth's gravity field using a multi-satellite SLR solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloßfeld, Mathis; Stefka, Vojtech; Müller, Horst; Gerstl, Michael
2013-04-01
Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is the unique technique to determine station coordinates, Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP) and Stokes coefficients of the Earth's gravity field in one common adjustment. These parameters form the so called "three pillars" (Plag & Pearlman, 2009) of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). In its function as official analysis center of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), DGFI is developing and maintaining software to process SLR observations called "DGFI Orbit and Geodetic parameter estimation Software" (DOGS). The software is used to analyze SLR observations and to compute multi-satellite solutions. To take benefit of different orbit performances (e.g. inclination and altitude), a solution using ten different spherical satellites (ETALON1/2, LAGEOS1/2, STELLA, STARLETTE, AJISAI, LARETS, LARES, BLITS) covering 12 years of observations is computed. The satellites are relatively weighted using a variance component estimation (VCE). The obtained weights are analyzed w.r.t. the potential of the satellite to monitor changes in the Earths geometry, rotation and gravity field. The estimated parameters (station coordinates and EOP) are validated w.r.t. official time series of the IERS. The obtained Stokes coefficients are compared to recent gravity field solutions and discussed in detail.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tregoning, P.; McClusky, S.; Purcell, A. P.; McQueen, H.
2015-12-01
Non-gravitational accelerations acting on each of the GRACE satellites are measured in the along-track, cross-track and radial directions by the accelerometers onboard each satellite. The calibration of the observed non-gravitational accelerations requires determining a scaling factor and (at least) an offset for the observations in each of the three directions. We demonstrate in this presentation how small errors in the scale factors used to calibrate the accelerometer observations affect the noise level in the estimated temporal gravity field. We performed a parameter space search to find the optimal scale factors that generated the smallest prefit range-rate residuals and found that we can model the satellite orbits without the use of any empirical parameters, whilst still being able to identify the temporal gravity field signal in the prefit KBRR residuals. We will describe some physical conditions when the satellites are in the shadow of the Earth that we use to constrain the estimates of calibration biases and scales and show how the noise level of the estimated temporal gravity field varies with and without the use of the optimal calibration values for the accelerometer observations. A similar approach will be both required and effective to calibrate the accelerometers onboard the GRACE Follow-On mission.
Titan’s internal structure inferred from its gravity field, shape, and rotation state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baland, Rose-Marie; Tobie, Gabriel; Lefèvre, Axel; Van Hoolst, Tim
2014-07-01
Several quantities measured by the Cassini-Huygens mission provide insight into the interior of Titan: the second-degree gravity field coefficients, the shape, the tidal Love number, the electric field, and the orientation of its rotation axis. The measured obliquity and tides, as well as the electric field, are evidence for the presence of an internal global ocean beneath the icy shell of Titan. Here we use these different observations together to constrain the density profile assuming a four-layer interior model (ice I shell, liquid water ocean, high pressure ice mantle, and rock core). Even though the observed second degree gravity field is consistent with the hydrostatic relation J2=10C22/3, which is a necessary but not sufficient condition for a synchronous satellite to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, the observed shape of the surface as well as the non-zero degree-three gravity signal indicate some departure from hydrostaticity. Therefore, we do not restrain our range of assumed density profiles to those corresponding to the hydrostatic value of the moment of inertia (0.34). From a range of density profiles consistent with the radius and mass of the satellite, we compute the obliquity of the Cassini state and the tidal Love number k2. The obliquity is computed from a Cassini state model for a satellite with an internal liquid layer, each layer having an ellipsoidal shape consistent with the measured surface shape and gravity field. The observed (nearly hydrostatic) gravity field is obtained by an additional deflection of the ocean-ice I shell interface, assuming that the layers have uniform densities. We show that the measured obliquity can be reproduced only for internal models with a dense ocean (between 1275 and 1350 kg m-3) above a differentiated interior with a full separation of rock and ice. We obtain normalized moments of inertia between 0.31 and 0.33, significantly lower than the expected hydrostatic value (0.34). Evolutionary mechanisms leading to a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.
2010-01-01
The Apollo lunar EVA experience revealed challenges with suit stability and control-likely a combination of mass, mobility, and center of gravity (CG) factors. The EVA Physiology, Systems and Performence (EPSP) Project is systematically working with other NASA projects, labs, and facilities to lead a series of studies to understand the role of suit mass, weight, CG, and other parameters on astronaut performance in partial gravity environments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nerem, R. Steven; Leuliette, Eric; Russell, Gary
2003-01-01
This investigation has had four main thrusts: 1) The analysis of seasonal variations of the Earth's gravitational field using Lageos 1 and 2 SLR data and comparisons to geophysical models. We have estimated the annual variation of the gravity field via a spherical harmonic expansion complete to degree and order 4. We have also constructed a similar model using models of the annual variation in the gravity field due to atmospheric, hydrologic, and ocean mass redistribution. These three models, when combined together, are in excellent agreement with the variations observed by satellite laser ranging. An article on these results was published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. 2) The second thrust of our investigation has been to analyze the output of a Global Climate Model (GCM) to determine if the GRACE gravity mission can be expected to detect climate change signals. Working with Gary Russell at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), we have determined that there are several large secular signals that GRACE might be able to detect, including secular changes in snow cover, sea ice, polar ice, ocean mass, and other variables. It is possible that some of these signals could be detected with 5 years of GRACE measurements - its hard to judge this because the interannual variability in the GCM, which could mask the climate signals, is unreliable. Certainly a follow-on GRACE mission could detect these signals when compared to the data from the initial GRACE mission.). An article on these results will be published in the journal Journal of Geophysical Research. 3) In the last year of the investigation, we developed a new technique for analyzing temporal gravity variations using "geophysical fingerprints", which was successfully demonstrated on 20 years of satellite laser ranging data [Nerem et al., 20031. 4]. We also participated in a workshop on future satellite gravity measurements, which resulted in paper on measuring ocean mass variations using GRACE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheinert, M.
2011-12-01
For the determination of high-resolution earth's gravity field models (EGM) satellite measurements have to be combined with terrestrial gravity anomalies. In this respect, Antarctica remains one of the largest data gaps in the global coverage of terrestrial gravity data. This is especially critical, since the polar data gap resulting from the orbit inclination of GOCE, the recent and most powerful satellite gravity mission, amounts to a cap of about 1,300 km diameter at the pole. Furthermore, the limitation to a certain harmonic degree of resolution prevent a complete, high resolution data coverage to be obtained from the dedicated gravity missions only. For Antarctica, characterized by a hostile environment and difficult logistic conditions, airborne gravimetry offers the most powerful technique to survey large areas. In the perspective of geodesy, the coordination of activities is in the focus of the "Antarctic Geoid Project" (AntGP), Sub-Commission 2.4f of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), and of project 3 "Physical Geodesy" within the GIANT program of the Standing Scientific Group on Geosciences (SSG-G) of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), both chaired by the author. This contribution will review the progress made realizing gravity surveys in Antarctica. Often initiated by a geophysically focussed rationale a great number of airborne surveys were accomplished during the last years. Furthermore, new plans shall be discussed. In this context, the initiative to make use of the new German "High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft" (HALO) for geoscientific applications will be presented. Based on a modified Gulfstream G550 jet it opens unprecedented possibilities for atmospheric and geoscientific research. Being the first geoscientific mission, GEOHALO shall demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the geodetic-geophysical instrumentation to gain airborne gravimetry and magnetometry measurements, GNSS direct, reflected
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espindola, Juan Manuel; Lopez-Loera, Hector; Mena, Manuel; Zamora-Cama