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Sample records for reduced mimosine content

  1. Transgenic Leucaena leucocephala expressing the Rhizobium gene pydA encoding a meta-cleavage dioxygenase shows reduced mimosine content.

    PubMed

    Jube, Sandro L R; Borthakur, Dulal

    2010-04-01

    The use of the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena), which contains high levels of proteins in its foliage, is limited due to the presence of the toxic free amino acid mimosine. The goal of this research was to develop transgenic leucaena with reduced mimosine content. Two genes, pydA and pydB, encoding a meta-cleavage dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.2) and a pyruvate hydrolase (EC 3.7.1.6), respectively, from the mimosine-degrading leucaena symbiont Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145, were used to transform leucaena. These bacterial genes were sequence-optimized for expression in leucaena and cloned into the plant binary vector pCAMBIA3201 for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Using immature zygotic embryos as the start explant material, six pydA and three pydB transgenic lines were developed. The presence and expression of the bacterial genes in the transgenic lines were verified by PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR, and Southern analyses. HPLC analyses of the transgenic plants determined that the mimosine contents of the pydA-expressing lines were reduced up to 22.5% in comparison to the wild-type. No significant reduction in mimosine content was observed in the pydB-expressing lines. This is the first example of using a gene from a bacterial symbiont to reduce the toxicity of a tree-legume.

  2. Effects of mimosine on Wolbachia in mosquito cells: cell cycle suppression reduces bacterial abundance.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Ann M

    2015-10-01

    The plant allelochemical L-mimosine (β-[N-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridone)]-α-aminopropionic acid; leucenol) resembles the nonessential amino acid, tyrosine. Because the obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium, Wolbachia pipientis, metabolizes amino acids derived from host cells, the effects of mimosine on infected and uninfected mosquito cells were investigated. The EC50 for mimosine was 6-7 μM with Aedes albopictus C7-10 and C/wStr cell lines, and was not influenced by infection status. Mosquito cells responded to concentrations of mimosine substantially lower than those used to synchronize the mammalian cell cycle; at concentrations of 30-35 μM, mimosine reversibly arrested the mosquito cell cycle at the G1/S boundary and inhibited growth of Wolbachia strain wStr. Although lower concentrations of mimosine slightly increased wStr abundance, concentrations that suppressed the cell cycle reduced Wolbachia levels.

  3. A carbon-nitrogen lyase from Leucaena leucocephala catalyzes the first step of mimosine degradation.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-02-01

    The tree legume Leucaena leucocephala contains a large amount of a toxic nonprotein aromatic amino acid, mimosine, and also an enzyme, mimosinase, for mimosine degradation. In this study, we isolated a 1,520-bp complementary DNA (cDNA) for mimosinase from L. leucocephala and characterized the encoded enzyme for mimosine-degrading activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of the cDNA was predicted to have a chloroplast transit peptide. The nucleotide sequence, excluding the sequence for the chloroplast transit peptide, was codon optimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme was used in mimosine degradation assays, and the chromatogram of the major product was found to be identical to that of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P), which was further verified by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The enzyme activity requires pyridoxal 5'-phosphate but not α-keto acid; therefore, the enzyme is not an aminotransferase. In addition to 3H4P, we also identified pyruvate and ammonia as other degradation products. The dependence of the enzyme on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and the production of 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicate that it is a carbon-nitrogen lyase. It was found to be highly efficient and specific in catalyzing mimosine degradation, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 1.16×10(-4) m and 5.05×10(-5) mol s(-1) mg(-1), respectively. The presence of other aromatic amino acids, including l-tyrosine, l-phenylalanine, and l-tryptophan, in the reaction did not show any competitive inhibition. The isolation of the mimosinase cDNA and the biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme will be useful in developing transgenic L. leucocephala with reduced mimosine content in the future.

  4. A Carbon-Nitrogen Lyase from Leucaena leucocephala Catalyzes the First Step of Mimosine Degradation1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Li, Qing X.; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-01-01

    The tree legume Leucaena leucocephala contains a large amount of a toxic nonprotein aromatic amino acid, mimosine, and also an enzyme, mimosinase, for mimosine degradation. In this study, we isolated a 1,520-bp complementary DNA (cDNA) for mimosinase from L. leucocephala and characterized the encoded enzyme for mimosine-degrading activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of the cDNA was predicted to have a chloroplast transit peptide. The nucleotide sequence, excluding the sequence for the chloroplast transit peptide, was codon optimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme was used in mimosine degradation assays, and the chromatogram of the major product was found to be identical to that of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P), which was further verified by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The enzyme activity requires pyridoxal 5′-phosphate but not α-keto acid; therefore, the enzyme is not an aminotransferase. In addition to 3H4P, we also identified pyruvate and ammonia as other degradation products. The dependence of the enzyme on pyridoxal 5′-phosphate and the production of 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicate that it is a carbon-nitrogen lyase. It was found to be highly efficient and specific in catalyzing mimosine degradation, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 1.16 × 10−4 m and 5.05 × 10−5 mol s−1 mg−1, respectively. The presence of other aromatic amino acids, including l-tyrosine, l-phenylalanine, and l-tryptophan, in the reaction did not show any competitive inhibition. The isolation of the mimosinase cDNA and the biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme will be useful in developing transgenic L. leucocephala with reduced mimosine content in the future. PMID:24351687

  5. Mimosine Dipeptide Enantiomsers: Improved Inhibitors against Melanogenesis and Cyclooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2015-08-06

    Melanogenesis plays an important role in the protection of skin against UV through production of melanin pigments, but abnormal accumulation of this pigment causes unaesthetic hyperpigmentation. Much effort is being made to develop effective depigmenting agents. Here, we show for the first time that a small library of mimosine dipeptide enantiomers (Mi-L/D-amino acid) inhibit the melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells by down-regulating the cellular tyrosinase with little effect on their growth or viability. Two of them, Mi-D-Trp and Mi-D-Val, turned out to be the most potent inhibitors on melanin content and cellular tyrosinase in B16F10 melanoma cells. In addition, most of the mimosine dipeptides were more potent than mimosine for inhibiting cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) with IC50 of 18-26 μM. Among them, Mi-L-Val and Mi-L-Trp inhibited cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) more potently than indomethacin, with IC50 values of 22 and 19 μM, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest the possibility that mimosine dipeptides could be better candidates (than mimosine) for anti-melanogenic (skin hyperpigmentation treatment) and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition.

  6. The co-occurrence of two pyridine alkaloids, mimosine and trigonelline, in Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Misako; Watanabe, Shin; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a nitrogen-fixing tropical leguminous tree that produces two pyridine alkaloids, i. e. mimosine [beta-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridon-1-yl)-L-alanine] and trigonelline (1-methylpyridinium-3-carboxylate). Mimosine has been detected in leaves, flowers, pods, seeds, and roots, and it is one of the principal non-protein amino acids that occurs in all organs. Asparagine was the most abundant amino acid in flowers. The mimosine content varied from 3.3 micromol/g fresh weight (FW) in developing flowers to 171 micromol/g FW in mature seeds. Trigonelline was also detected in leaves, flowers, pods, and seeds, but not roots. The trigonelline content was lower than that of mimosine in all organs. It varied from 0.12 micromol/g FW in developing seeds to 2.6 micromol/g FW in mature seeds. [2-14C]Nicotinic acid supplied to the developing seeds was incorporated into trigonelline but not mimosine. This indicates that the pyridine and dihydroxypyridine structures of these two alkaloids are derived from distinct precursors. The physiological functions of mimosine and trigonelline are discussed briefly.

  7. Mimosine, the Allelochemical from the leguminous tree Leucaena leucocephala, selectively enhances cell proliferation in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Patrick K K; Wong, Francis T W; Wong, Joseph T Y

    2002-10-01

    Mimosine, the allelochemical from the leguminous tree Leucaena leucocephala, is toxic to most terrestrial animals and plants. We report here that while mimosine inhibits major phytoplankton groups, it enhances cell proliferation in dinoflagellates. On addition to coastal seawater samples, mimosine is able to confer a growth advantage to dinoflagellates. The use of mimosine will promote the isolation and culture of this group of phytoplankton.

  8. The Chemistry and Biological Activities of Mimosine: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-08-01

    Mimosine [β-[N-(3-hydroxy-4-oxypyridyl)]-α-aminopropionic acid] is a non-protein amino acid found in the members of Mimosoideae family. There are a considerable number of reports available on the chemistry, methods for estimation, biosynthesis, regulation, and degradation of this secondary metabolite. On the other hand, over the past years of active research, mimosine has been found to have various biological activities such as anti-cancer, antiinflammation, anti-fibrosis, anti-influenza, anti-virus, herbicidal and insecticidal activities, and others. Mimosine is a leading compound of interest for use in the development of RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-specific inhibitors for the treatment of various diseases/disorders, because PAK1 is not essential for the growth of normal cells. Interestingly, the new roles of mimosine in malignant glioma treatment, regenerative dentistry, and phytoremediation are being emerged. These identified properties indicate an exciting future for this amino acid. The present review is focused on the chemistry and recognized biological activities of mimosine in an attempt to draw a link between these two characteristics. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Mimosine mitigates oxidative stress in selenium deficient seedlings of Vigna radiata--Part I: Restoration of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, K; Kulothungan, S Rajendra

    2007-07-01

    Mimosine, a non-protein plant amino acid found in Mimosa pudica and certain species of Leucaena, was beneficial for the growth of seedlings of Vigna radiata germinated under selenium-deficient stressed condition (-Se stressed) despite the recognized toxicity of the allelochemical. Exposure of mimosine at 0.1 mM (Mim-0.1) promoted the growth of the seedlings and significantly enhanced mitochondrial functional efficiency. Growth-related parameters including root and shoot lengths and dry weight were increased by 44-58% in the Mim-0.1 group compared to that of the -Se-stressed group. Oxygen uptake by mitochondria of Mim-0.1 group, studied with different substrates, revealed enhanced State 3 respiratory rates with regulated State 4 rates, resulting in high respiratory control ratio (RCR) of 3.4 to 3.9 indicative of a high degree of oxidative coupling. Specific activities of mitochondrial electron transport enzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form) (NADH)-cytochrome (cyt) c oxidoreductase, succinate dehydrogenase, and cyt c oxidase in the Mim-0.1 group were enhanced by 53% to threefold over those of the Se-stressed group. Marked decreases in the extent of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation ensued upon mimosine exposure, indicative of its antioxidant function. Mitochondrial 45Ca2+ uptake was notably augmented twofold in the Mim-0.1 group, compared to the Se-stressed group. Detailed kinetic analyses of Ca2+ uptake revealed positive cooperative interactions in both -Se-stressed group and Mim-0.1 groups with Hill coefficient (nH) values of 1.7 and 2, respectively. The present study establishes the beneficial effects of mimosine exposure at 0.1 mM on the growth and mitochondrial function of the seedlings grown under selenium-deficient stressed condition and a significant physiological role can be ascribed to mimosine.

  10. L-mimosine increases the production of vascular endothelial growth factor in human tooth slice organ culture model.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, K; Cvikl, B; Müller, H-D; Nürnberger, S; Gruber, R; Moritz, A; Agis, H

    2015-03-01

    To assess the pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory capacity of the dentine-pulp complex in response to the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor L-mimosine in a tooth slice organ culture model. Human teeth were sectioned transversely into 600-μm-thick slices and cultured in medium supplemented with serum and antibiotics. Then, pulps were stimulated for 48 h with L-mimosine. Pulps were subjected to viability measurements based on formazan formation in MTT assays. In addition, histological evaluation of pulps was performed based on haematoxylin and eosin staining. Culture supernatants were subjected to immunoassays for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to determine the pro-angiogenic capacity and to immunoassays for interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 to assess the pro-inflammatory response. Interleukin-1 served as pro-inflammatory control. Echinomycin was used to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) alpha activity. Data were analysed using Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Pulps within tooth slices remained vital upon L-mimosine stimulation as indicated by formazan formation and histological evaluation. L-mimosine increased VEGF production when normalized to formazan formation in the pulp tissue of the tooth slices (P < 0.05). This effect on VEGF was reduced by echinomycin (P < 0.01). Changes in normalized IL-6 and IL-8 levels upon treatment with L-mimosine did not reach the level of significance (P > 0.05), whilst treatment with IL-1, which served as positive control, increased IL-6 (P < 0.05) and IL-8 levels (P < 0.05). The prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor L-mimosine increased VEGF production via HIF-1 alpha in the tooth slice organ culture model whilst inducing no prominent increase in IL-6 and IL-8. Pre-clinical studies will reveal if these in vitro effects translate into dental pulp regeneration. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Preparative scale isolation, purification and derivatization of mimosine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid.

    PubMed

    Nokihara, Kiyoshi; Hirata, Akiyoshi; Sogon, Tetsuya; Ohyama, Takafumi

    2012-07-01

    Focusing on drug discovery non-proteinogenic amino acids have often been used as important building blocks for construction of compound libraries in the filed of combinatorial chemistry and chemical biology. Highly homogeneous L: -mimosine, α-amino-β-(3-hydoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-propanoic acid, a non-proteinogenic amino acid, has been successfully isolated and purified on an industrial scale from wild leaves of Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala de Wit) which is a widely distributed legume in Okinawa, a sub-tropical island in Japan. Optical purity determinations used for quality control have been established through diastereomer formation. Physico-chemical properties and biological properties of purified mimosine have been clarified. Mimosine is sparingly soluble in water and organic solvents but can be dissolved in aqueous alkaline solution. The tyrosinase pathway is of particular interest in the cosmetic field, since mimosine is an analog of tyrosine. Thus the present purified mimosine have been tested in tyrosinase inhibitory assays. The IC50 for tyrosinase inhibitory activity of purified Mim was compared with kojic acid. Mimosine shows significant inhibition of melanin production in murine melanoma cells. The derivatization of mimosine has been investigated with a focus on its use in conventional peptide syntheses to generate mimosyl peptides. N-(9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyloxy)-mimosine and resin-bound mimosine for solid-phase syntheses have also been performed. Highly homogeneous Mim is a useful material for the development of functional cosmetics or active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  12. Insecticidal and Nematicidal Activities of Novel Mimosine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Chompoo, Jamnian; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2015-09-14

    Mimosine, a non-protein amino acid, is found in several tropical and subtropical plants, which has high value for medicine and agricultural chemicals. Here, in continuation of works aimed to development of natural product-based pesticidal agents, we present the first significant findings for insecticidal and nematicidal activities of novel mimosine derivatives. Interestingly, mimosinol and deuterated mimosinol (D-mimosinol) from mimosine had strong insecticidal activity which could be a result of tyrosinase inhibition (IC50 = 31.4 and 46.1 μM, respectively). Of synthesized phosphoramidothionate derivatives from two these amino alcohols, two compounds (1a and 1b) showed high insecticidal activity (LD50 = 0.5 and 0.7 μg/insect, respectively) with 50%-60% mortality at 50 μg/mL which may be attributed to acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Compounds 1a and 1b also had strong nematicidal activity with IC50 = 31.8 and 50.2 μM, respectively. Our results suggest that the length of the alkyl chain and the functional group at the C₅-position of phosphoramidothionates derived from mimosinol and d-mimosinol are essential for the insecticidal and nematicidal activities. These results reveal an unexplored scaffold as new insecticide and nematicide.

  13. Mimosine, a novel inhibitor of DNA replication, binds to a 50 kDa protein in Chinese hamster cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, P J; Lin, H B; Hamlin, J L

    1995-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the plant amino acid, mimosine, is an extremely efficacious inhibitor of DNA replication in mammalian cells [P. A. Dijkwel and J. L. Hamlin (1992) Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 3715-3722; P. J. Mosca et al. (1992) Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 4375-4383]. Several of its properties further suggested that mimosine might target initiation at origins of replication, which would make it a unique and very useful inhibitor for studying the regulation of DNA synthesis. However, mimosine is known to chelate iron, a cofactor for ribonucleotide reductase. Thus, the possibility arose that mimosine functions in vivo simply by lowering intracellular deoxyribonucleotide pools. In the present study, we show that, in fact, it is possible to override mimosine inhibition in vivo by adding excess iron; however, copper, which is not a substitute for iron in ribonucleotide reductase, is equally effective. Evidence is presented that mimosine functions instead by binding to an intracellular protein. We show that radiolabeled mimosine can be specifically cross-linked to a 50 kDa polypeptide (termed p50) in vitro. Binding to p50 is virtually undetectable in CHO cells selected for resistance to 1 mM mimosine, arguing that p50 is the biologically relevant target. p50 is not associated with the cellular membrane fraction and, hence, is probably not a channel protein. Furthermore, the binding activity does not vary markedly as a function of cell cycle position, arguing that p50 is not a cyclin. Finally, both iron and copper are able to reverse the mimosine-p50 interaction in vitro, probably explaining why both metal ions are able to overcome mimosine's inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis in vivo. Images PMID:7862531

  14. Isolation and characterization of mimosine, 3, 4 DHP and 2, 3 DHP degrading bacteria from a commercial rumen inoculum.

    PubMed

    Derakhshani, Hooman; Corley, Sean W; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2016-05-01

    The presence of the toxic amino acid mimosine in Leucaena leucocephala restricts its use as a protein source for ruminants. Rumen bacteria degrade mimosine to 3,4- and 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP), which remain toxic. Synergistes jonesii is believed to be the main bacterium responsible for degradation of these toxic compounds but other bacteria may also be involved. In this study, a commercial inoculum provided by the Queensland's Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry was screened for isolation and characterization of mimosine, 3,4- and 2,3-DHP degrading bacterial strains. A new medium for screening of 2,3-DHP degrading bacteria was developed. Molecular and biochemical approaches used in this study revealed four bacterial isolates - Streptococcus lutetiensis, Clostridium butyricum, Lactobacillus vitulinus, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens - to be able to completely degrade mimosine within 7 days of incubation. It was also observed that C. butyricum and L. vitulinus were able to partially degrade 2,3-DHP within 12 days of incubation, while S. lutetiensis, was able to fully degrade both 3,4 and 2,3 DHP. Collectively, we concluded that S. jonesii is not the sole bacterium responsible for detoxification of Leucaena. Comprehensive screening of rumen fluid of cattle grazing on Leucaena pastures is needed to identify additional mimosine-detoxifying bacteria and contribute to development of more effective inoculums to be used by farmers against Leucaena toxicity.

  15. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  16. Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Yosra A; Morsy, Amr S; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Lucas, Ronaldo C; Louvandini, Helder; Kreuzer, Michael; Abdalla, Adibe L

    2013-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), a leguminous shrub promising to cope with feed scarcity in the tropics, may help in mitigating ruminal methane (CH4) emission in the tropics as well. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucaena and major secondary compounds of this plant in ruminants. At first, effects of Leucaena tannins and mimosine on ruminal CH4 and nutrient degradability were tested in vitro. Incubations were made with Leucaena without or with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to exclude the tannins effects, as well as with Bermuda grass (Tifton) and lucerne hays, both either untreated or supplemented with mimosine at the same concentration that has been provided by the tested Leucaena (6.52 mg/g DM). Furthermore, in an in vivo experiment a control diet (per kg DM 700 g Tifton hay) and Leucaena diets (per kg DM 350 g Tifton hay and 350 g Leucaena), either with or without 20 g PEG/d per head, were evaluated in six Santa Inês sheep following a double Latin square design. In vitro, Leucaena resulted in the lowest (p < 0.05) gas and CH4 production and the highest (p < 0.05) partitioning factor, a measure for microbial efficiency, whereas the amount of truly degraded organic matter (TDOM) was lowest (p < 0.05) with Tifton among the experimental forage plants. Mimosine addition to lucerne and Tifton as well as PEG addition to Leucaena had no effect on ruminal CH4 and TDOM. In vivo Leucaena, compared to the Tifton diet, enhanced (p < 0.05) intake, faecal nitrogen excretion, body nitrogen retention and the excretion of urinary purine derivatives as an indicator for microbial protein synthesis and availability. This was independent of PEG addition. Leucaena also decreased (p < 0.001) CH4 emission per unit of digested organic matter by 14.1% and 10.8%, without and with PEG, respectively. No significant diet differences were observed in total-tract nutrient digestibility. The study demonstrated efficiency of Leucaena to mitigate in vivo methane emission of

  17. An O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from Leucaena leucocephala is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase.

    PubMed

    Yafuso, Jannai T; Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-07-01

    In plants, the final step of cysteine formation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize an OAS-TL from the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). Leucaena contains a toxic, nonprotein amino acid, mimosine, which is also formed by an OAS-TL, and characterization of this enzyme is essential for developing a mimosine-free leucaena for its use as a protein-rich fodder. The cDNA for a cytosolic leucaena OAS-TL isoform was obtained through interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was purified from Escherichia coli and used in enzyme activity assays where it was found to synthesize only cysteine. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km was calculated to be 1,850±414 μM sulfide and the Vmax was 200.6±19.92 μM cysteine min(-1). The N-terminal affinity His-tag was cleaved from the recombinant OAS-TL to eliminate its possible interference in binding with the substrate, 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, for mimosine formation. The His-tag-cleaved OAS-TL was again observed to catalyze the formation of cysteine but not mimosine. Thus, the cytosolic OAS-TL from leucaena used in this study is specific for only cysteine synthesis and is different from previously reported OAS-TLs that also function as β-substituted alanine synthases.

  18. Nutrient content of the diet when the fat is reduced.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, R M; Fong, A K; Iacono, J M

    1988-10-01

    When the fat content of the typical US diet was reduced from 40 to 44% of total energy (en %) to approximately 25 en % there was a marked improvement in the overall nutrient content of the diet. Cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, and monounsaturated fatty acid intake were decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid content was moderately increased. This kind of dietary change was achieved without changing the usual intake of meats, dairy products, fish, and eggs. As the amount of fat was decreased, carbohydrates in the form of grains, fruits, and vegetables were increased, providing an improvement in the vitamin and mineral content of the diet. Vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B-6, B-12, and folates increased in the 25 en % diet. Potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and copper intake also increased when the dietary fat decreased.

  19. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  20. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Corbeels, Roger J.; Kokturk, Uygur

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  1. Inhibitory effect of l-mimosine on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats: Role of eIF3a and p27.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Wei; Hu, Chang-Ping; Li, Yuan-Jian; Gao, Yuan-Xing; Wang, Xiang-Ming; Yang, Jie-Ren

    2015-07-01

    It has also been shown that the decreased expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3a (eIF3a) by L-mimosine caused cell cycle arrest. Our previous study has found that eIF3a is involved in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Whether the eIF3a/p27 signal pathway is involved in the inhibitory effect of L-mimosine on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis remains unknown. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in rats. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured to investigate the proliferation by BrdU incorporation method and flow cytometry. The expression of eIF3a, p27, α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III was analyzed by qPCR and Western blot. In vivo, L-mimosine treatment significantly ameliorated the bleomycin-mediated histological fibrosis alterations and blocked collagen deposition concomitantly with reversing bleomycin-induced expression up-regulation of eIF3a, α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III (both mRNA and protein) and expression down- regulation of p27. In vitro, L-mimosine remarkably attenuated proliferation of pulmonary fibroblasts and expression of α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III induced by TGF-β1, and this inhibitory effect of L-mimosine was accompanied by inhibiting eIF3a expression and increasing p27 expression. Knockdown of eIF3a gene expression reversed TGF-β1-induced proliferation of fibroblasts, down-regulation of p27 expression and up-regulation of α-SMA, collagen I, and collagen III expression. These results suggest that L-mimosine inhibited the progression of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats via the eIF3a/p27 pathway.

  2. Sex differences in response to reduced nicotine content cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Hertsgaard, Louise A; Dermody, Sarah S; Luo, Xianghua; Moua, Lor; Allen, Sharon; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2014-07-01

    When switching from usual brand cigarettes, very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes lead to a reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked, toxicant exposure, withdrawal symptoms and dependence. One area that has been relatively unexplored is what factors might moderate the effects of VLNC cigarettes. This exploratory analysis focuses on sex differences in responses to VLNC cigarettes and nicotine replacement therapy. An exploratory secondary analysis of a randomized trial of 235 participants (58% female, mean age 47 years) comparing a) 0.05-0.09 mg nicotine yield cigarettes; b) 21 mg nicotine patch and 3) 0.05-0.09 nicotine yield cigarettes with 21 mg nicotine patch was conducted. We focused on sex differences in product use, and impact of products on withdrawal response from usual brand cigarettes and abstinence by randomized group. The combination of VLNC cigarettes and nicotine patch was more effective in reducing use of VLNC cigarettes and withdrawal symptoms among males than females, whereas females were equally responsive to VLNC cigarettes with and without the nicotine patch. Females were more likely to quit smoking than males when assigned to either of the conditions that incorporated the VLNC cigarettes; however, males were more likely to quit smoking in the nicotine patch alone condition than females. Sex of the smoker may be an important determinant for effects of VLNC cigarettes and nicotine patch. Future large randomized trials to confirm these results are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Peanut varieties with reduced Ara h 1 content indicating no reduced allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Krause, Susanne; Latendorf, Ties; Schmidt, Hendrik; Darcan-Nicolaisen, Yasemin; Reese, Gerald; Petersen, Arnd; Janssen, Ottmar; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard

    2010-03-01

    Peanut allergy is a major cause of food-induced severe anaphylactic reactions. To date, no medical care is available to prevent and treat peanut allergy and therefore hypoallergenic peanut varieties are of considerable health political and economic interest. Major allergens that induce IgE-responses in peanut-sensitive patients are Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3/4. In order to identify hypoallergenic peanuts, commercially locally available peanut varieties were screened for their allergen content. Ara h 1-deficient peanuts from Southeast Asia were identified by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, inhibition assays and ELISA. 2-D PAGE analyses demonstrated the different compositions of the tested extracts and revealed a number of variations of the allergen patterns of peanuts from different varieties. Mediator release experiments of these peanut extracts demonstrated similar allergenicities as compared with standard peanut extract. These results indicate that the allergenicity of peanuts with reduced Ara h 1 content might be compensated by the other allergens, and thus do not necessarily cause a reduction of allergenicity.

  4. Content Integration across Multiple Documents Reduces Memory for Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braasch, Jason L. G.; McCabe, Rebecca M.; Daniel, Frances

    2016-01-01

    The current experiments systematically examined semantic content integration as a mechanism for explaining source inattention and forgetting when reading-to-remember multiple texts. For all 3 experiments, degree of semantic overlap was manipulated amongst messages provided by various information sources. In Experiment 1, readers' source…

  5. Content Integration across Multiple Documents Reduces Memory for Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braasch, Jason L. G.; McCabe, Rebecca M.; Daniel, Frances

    2016-01-01

    The current experiments systematically examined semantic content integration as a mechanism for explaining source inattention and forgetting when reading-to-remember multiple texts. For all 3 experiments, degree of semantic overlap was manipulated amongst messages provided by various information sources. In Experiment 1, readers' source…

  6. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    PubMed

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  7. pyd Genes of Rhizobium sp. Strain TAL1145 Are Required for Degradation of 3-Hydroxy-4-Pyridone, an Aromatic Intermediate in Mimosine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Awaya, Jonathan D.; Fox, Paul M.; Borthakur, Dulal

    2005-01-01

    Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 degrades the Leucaena toxin mimosine and its degradation product 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (HP). The aim of this investigation is to characterize the Rhizobium genes for HP degradation and transport. These genes were localized by subcloning and mutagenesis on a previously isolated cosmid, pUHR263, containing mid genes of TAL1145 required for mimosine degradation. Two structural genes, pydA and pydB, encoding a metacleavage dioxygenase and a hydrolase, respectively, are required for degradation of HP, and three genes, pydC, pydD, and pydE, encoding proteins of an ABC transporter, are involved in the uptake of HP by TAL1145. These genes are induced by HP, although both pydA and pydB show low levels of expression without HP. pydA and pydB are cotranscribed, while pydC, pydD, and pydE are each transcribed from separate promoters. PydA and PydB show no homology with other dioxygenases and hydrolases in Sinorhizobium meliloti, Mesorhizobium loti, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Among various root nodule bacteria, the ability to degrade mimosine or HP is unique to some Leucaena-nodulating Rhizobium strains. PMID:15968058

  8. Measurement of reduced, oxidized and total ascorbate content in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ascorbate is one of the major antioxidant metabolites in plant tissues. This protocol describes a microplate-adapted colorimetric ascorbate assay, in which ferric ion is reduced by ascorbate to the ferrous ion. The ferrous ion reacts with alpha-bipyridl to form a complex with characteristic absorban...

  9. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  10. Reduced wood stiffness and strength, and altered stem form, in young antisense 4CL transgenic poplars with reduced lignin contents

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lignin content in perennial crops has been sought as a means to improve biomass processability for paper and biofuels production, but it is unclear how this could affect wood properties and tree form. Here, we studied a nontransgenic control and 14 transgenic events containing an antisense 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) to discern the...

  11. Identification of Factors that Reduce Mathematics Anxiety of Preservice Elementary Teachers in Mathematics Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisance, DesLey Viator

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that reduce mathematics anxiety in preservice elementary teachers enrolled in mathematics content courses. Students enrolled in ten sections of four different, required mathematics content courses in one specific semester were chosen as the population for this study. Approximately 180 students were…

  12. Effects of Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor L-mimosine on Dental Pulp in the Presence of Advanced Glycation End Products.

    PubMed

    Müller, Heinz-Dieter; Cvikl, Barbara; Janjić, Klara; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Moritz, Andreas; Gruber, Reinhard; Agis, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Proangiogenic prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors represent a novel approach to stimulate tissue regeneration. Diabetes mellitus involves the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Here we evaluated the impact of AGEs on the response of human pulp tissue to the PHD inhibitor L-mimosine (L-MIM) in monolayer cultures of dental pulp-derived cells (DPCs) and tooth slice organ cultures. In monolayer cultures, DPCs were incubated with L-MIM and AGEs. Viability was assessed based on formazan formation, live-dead staining, annexin V/propidium iodide, and trypan blue exclusion assay. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 production was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Furthermore, expression levels of odontoblast markers were assessed, and alizarin red staining was performed. Tooth slice organ cultures were performed, and VEGF, IL-6, and IL8 levels in their supernatants were measured by immunoassays. Pulp tissue vitality and morphology were assessed by MTT assay and histology. In monolayer cultures of DPCs, L-MIM at nontoxic concentrations increased the production of VEGF and IL-8 in the presence of AGEs. Stimulation with L-MIM decreased alkaline phosphatase levels and matrix mineralization also in the presence of AGEs, whereas no significant changes in dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression were observed. In tooth slice organ cultures, L-MIM increased VEGF but not IL-6 and IL-8 production in the presence of AGEs. The pulp tissue was vital, and no signs of apoptosis or necrosis were observed. Overall, in the presence of AGEs, L-MIM increases the proangiogenic capacity, but decreases alkaline phosphatase expression and matrix mineralization. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of reducing dietary mineral content on growth performance, water intake, excreta dry matter content and blood parameters of broilers.

    PubMed

    Ziaei, N; Guy, J H; Edwards, S A; Blanchard, P J; Ward, J; Feuerstein, D

    2008-03-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to reduce phosphorus (P) excretion by feeding a lower level of dietary P than that currently recommended, without compromising welfare, and whether this is sensitive to the level of dietary calcium (Ca). 2. A randomised complete block design was used with a total of 224 1-d-old male chicks of a commercial genotype in two batches. Chicks had a 10-d adaptation period. After this, they were moved to cages and allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments (4 and 3 birds per cage in batch 1 and 2, respectively). A standard level of Ca and P (8.3 and 6.6 g/kg, respectively) was compared with three lower levels of Ca (7.3, 6.3 and 5.3 g/kg) all at the same reduced level of P (5.5 g/kg). Records were made of live weight of birds on an individual basis and feed and water consumption on a cage basis. Every 7 d, the dry matter (DM) content of a sample of mixed excreta from each cage was measured. Birds were slaughtered and samples taken for analysis of plasma mineral content, retention of N, Ca and P and tibia bone strength. 3. The initial reduction in dietary mineral level did not adversely affect performance or bone strength. However, decreasing dietary Ca level below 7.3 g/kg, at constant P, led to reduced feed consumption and bone strength. Dietary treatment had no significant overall effect on water intake, water : feed ratio, excreta DM content, Ca and P retention or metabolisability of DM. There was no significant correlation between mean plasma Ca or P level and DM content of rectal digesta. 4. In conclusion, reducing dietary P from 6.6 to 5.5 g/kg to reduce potential environmental impact of broiler production had an adverse effect on bird welfare when the level of Ca was reduced below 7.3 g/kg, as a result of decreased feed intake in the early growth period and reduced skeletal strength.

  14. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    PubMed Central

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required. PMID:27275005

  15. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds.

    PubMed

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  16. Exposure to semi-explicit sexual television content is related to adolescents' reduced fear of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lemal, Marijke; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between adolescents' frequency of watching semi-explicit sexual television content and their fear of getting AIDS. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted to test whether fourth grade students (N = 733) who regularly watched sexually semi-explicit content at baseline were less likely to be afraid of getting AIDS one year later at follow-up. Regression analyses indicated that adolescents who were frequently exposed to semi-explicit sexual TV content at baseline were less likely to be fearful about getting AIDS one year later. Watching semi-explicit television is related to reduced fear of getting AIDS.

  17. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  18. The accuracy of stated energy contents of reduced-energy, commercially prepared foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The accuracy of stated energy contents of reduced calorie restaurant foods and frozen meals purchased from supermarkets was evaluated. Measured energy values of 29 quick-serve and sit-down restaurant foods averaged 18% more than stated values, and measured energy values of 10 frozen meals purchased ...

  19. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  20. Reducing the CP content in broiler feeds: impact on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization.

    PubMed

    Belloir, P; Méda, B; Lambert, W; Corrent, E; Juin, H; Lessire, M; Tesseraud, S

    2017-05-02

    Reducing the dietary CP content is an efficient way to limit nitrogen excretion in broilers but, as reported in the literature, it often reduces performance, probably because of an inadequate provision in amino acids (AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the CP content in the diet on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization in growing-finishing broilers using an optimized dietary AA profile based on the ideal protein concept. Two experiments (1 and 2) were performed using 1-day-old PM3 Ross male broilers (1520 and 912 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) using the minimum AA:Lys ratios proposed by Mack et al. with modifications for Thr and Arg. The digestible Thr (dThr): dLys ratio was increased from 63% to 68% and the dArg:dLys ratio was decreased from 112% to 108%. In experiment 1, the reduction of dietary CP from 19% to 15% (five treatments) did not alter feed intake or BW, but the feed conversion ratio was increased for the 16% and 15% CP diets (+2.4% and +3.6%, respectively), while in experiment 2 (three treatments: 19%, 17.5% and 16% CP) there was no effect of dietary CP on performance. In both experiments, dietary CP content did not affect breast meat yield. However, abdominal fat content (expressed as a percentage of BW) was increased by the decrease in CP content (up to +0.5 and +0.2 percentage point, in experiments 1 and 2, respectively). In experiment 2, meat quality traits responded to dietary CP content with a higher ultimate pH and lower lightness and drip loss values for the low CP diets. Nitrogen retention efficiency increased when reducing CP content in both experiments (+3.5 points/CP percentage point). The main consequence of this higher efficiency was a decrease in nitrogen excretion (-2.5 g N/kg BW gain) and volatilization (expressed as a percentage of excretion: -5 points/CP percentage point). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with an adapted AA profile, it is possible to reduce

  1. Endurance Exercise Reduces Hepatic Fat Content and Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels in Elderly Men.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Sun, Xiaomin; Kubo, Takafumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hepatic fat accumulation increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21-resistant state caused by fatty liver underlies the pathogenesis of these diseases. Previous studies suggested that a higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with both lower hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels; however, the effect of endurance exercise on hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 concentration has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate whether endurance exercise reduced hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels. This is a randomized crossover trial. The study setting was an institutional practice. Thirty-three elderly Japanese men participated in the study. The intervention was a 5-week endurance exercise program comprising three cycle ergometer sessions per week. Hepatic fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and serum FGF21 level was determined by ELISA. A 5-week endurance exercise program decreased the hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss, and the changes were higher in the exercise period than in the control period (P = .021 and P = .026, respectively). Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the change in hepatic fat content was significantly and positively correlated with change in serum FGF21 levels (r = 0.366, P = .006). A 5-week endurance exercise program decreased hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss in elderly men, and exercise-induced hepatic fat reduction mediated the reduction in serum FGF21 levels. These findings suggest that endurance exercise modulates hepatic fat content and FGF21 resistance, regardless of obesity status.

  2. Treatment with sulphated galactan inhibits macrophage chemotaxis and reduces intraplaque macrophage content in atherosclerotic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomes Quinderé, Ana Luíza; Barros Benevides, Norma Maria; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Burger, Fabienne; Carbone, Federico; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Pagano, Sabrina; Bertolotto, Maria; Dallegri, Franco; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Mach, François; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    Experimental data from animal models and clinical studies support connections between the haemostasis and inflammation in atherogenesis. These interfaces among inflammation and thrombogenesis have been suggested as targets for pharmacological intervention to reduce disease progression. We hypothesize that the recently discovered antithrombotic drug Sulphated Galactan (SG) (isolated from the red marine alga Acanthophora muscoides) might reduce atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and inflammatory gene expression in 10-week aged apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice under high-cholesterol diet for additional 11weeks. Then, the underlying cellular mechanisms were investigated in vitro. SG (10mg/kg) or Vehicle was subcutaneously injected from week 6 until week 11 of the diet. Treatment with SG reduced intraplaque macrophage and Tissue Factor (TF) content as compared to Vehicle-treated animals. Intraplaque TF co-localized and positively correlated with macrophage rich-areas. No changes on atherosclerotic plaque size, and other intraplaque features of vulnerability (such as lipid, neutrophil, MMP-9 and collagen contents) were observed. Moreover, mRNA expression of MMPs, chemokines and genetic markers of Th1/2/reg/17 lymphocyte polarization within mouse aortic arches and spleens was not affected by SG treatment. In vitro, treatment with SG dose-dependently reduced macrophage chemotaxis without affecting TF production. Overall, the chronic SG treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, our results indicate that SG treatment reduced intraplaque macrophage content (by impacting on cell recruitment) and, concomitantly, intraplaque TF content of potential macrophage origin in atherosclerotic mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chefs' opinions about reducing the calorie content of menu items in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Obbagy, Julie E; Condrasky, Margaret D; Roe, Liane S; Sharp, Julia L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-02-01

    Modifying the energy content of foods, particularly foods eaten away from home, is important in addressing the obesity epidemic. Chefs in the restaurant industry are uniquely placed to influence the provision of reduced-calorie foods, but little is known about their opinions on this issue. A survey was conducted among chefs attending US culinary meetings about strategies for creating reduced-calorie foods and opportunities for introducing such items on restaurant menus. The 432 respondents were from a wide variety of employment positions and the majority had been in the restaurant industry for ≥ 20 years. Nearly all chefs (93%) thought that the calories in menu items could be reduced by 10-25% without customers noticing. To decrease the calories in two specific foods, respondents were more likely to select strategies for reducing energy density than for reducing portion size (P < 0.004). Low consumer demand was identified as the greatest barrier to including reduced-calorie items on the menu by 38% of chefs, followed by the need for staff skills and training (24%), and high ingredient cost (18%). The majority of respondents (71%) ranked taste as the most influential factor in the success of reduced-calorie items (P < 0.0001). The results of this survey indicate that opportunities exist for reducing the energy content of restaurant items. Ongoing collaboration is needed between chefs and public health professionals to ensure that appealing reduced-calorie menu items are more widely available in restaurants and that research is directed toward effective ways to develop and promote these items.

  4. Chefs’ opinions about reducing the calorie content of menu items in restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Obbagy, Julie E.; Condrasky, Margaret D.; Roe, Liane S.; Sharp, Julia L.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Modifying the energy content of foods, particularly foods eaten away from home, is important in addressing the obesity epidemic. Chefs in the restaurant industry are uniquely placed to influence the provision of reduced-calorie foods, but little is known about their opinions on this issue. A survey was conducted among chefs attending U.S. culinary meetings about strategies for creating reduced-calorie foods and opportunities for introducing such items on restaurant menus. The 432 respondents were from a wide variety of employment positions and the majority had been in the restaurant industry for 20 years or more. Nearly all chefs (93%) thought that the calories in menu items could be reduced by 10 to 25% without customers noticing. To decrease the calories in two specific foods, respondents were more likely to select strategies for reducing energy density than for reducing portion size (p<0.004). Low consumer demand was identified as the greatest barrier to including reduced-calorie items on the menu by 38% of chefs, followed by the need for staff skills and training (24%), and high ingredient cost (18%). The majority of respondents (71%) ranked taste as the most influential factor in the success of reduced-calorie items (p<0.0001). The results of this survey indicate that opportunities exist for reducing the energy content of restaurant items. Ongoing collaboration is needed between chefs and public health professionals to ensure that appealing reduced-calorie menu items are more widely available in restaurants and that research is directed towards effective ways to develop and promote these items. PMID:20814414

  5. [Initiatives developed in Brazil to reduce sodium content of processed foods].

    PubMed

    Nilson, Eduardo Augusto Fernandes; Jaime, Patrícia Constante; Resende, Denise de Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    The construction of strategies for reducing the sodium content of processed foods is part of a set of actions to decrease the intake of this nutrient in Brazil-from the current 12 g of salt per person per day to less than 5 g per person per day (2 000 mg sodium) by 2020. In this process, a central action is the pact between the government and the food industry to establish voluntary, gradual, and sustainable targets to reduce the maximum sodium content of industrial foods. This article describes the Brazilian experience in building and implementing strategies for the reduction of these maximum limits in processed foods and the social actors involved in this effort.

  6. Options for legal measures to reduce acrylamide contents in the most relevant foods.

    PubMed

    Grob, K

    2007-01-01

    Options of taking measures for reducing acrylamide exposure are discussed from the viewpoint of health authorities. To achieve a significant effect on total exposure (without changing eating habits), a substantial reduction must be accomplished for the foods contributing most to total intake. Priority should be given to consumers with high exposure, which means that the average intake profile is not relevant, but high consumption of products with high acrylamide contents is relevant. Rather than introducing legal limits on acrylamide in the end-products, more basic factors determining acrylamide formation should be brought under control. Five measures are proposed. (1) For the preparation of fried and roasted products, potatoes low in reducing sugars should be made available to households and commercial outlets. (2) The content of reducing sugars in prefabricates for French fries should be limited. (3) Newly installed fryers should control the temperature profile from an initially high to a lower final value. (4) The use of ammonium carbonate in bakery products should be restricted. (5) There should be provisions to intervene if an acrylamide content clearly exceeds the level determined by good manufacturing practice and the products involved substantially contribute to total exposure in cases of high consumption.

  7. The Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Reduced-Energy, Commercially Prepared Foods

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Lorien E.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Robinson, Lisa M.; Ausman, Lynne M.; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B.

    2010-01-01

    The accuracy of stated energy contents of reduced-energy restaurant foods and frozen meals purchased from supermarkets was evaluated. Measured energy values of 29 quick-serve and sit-down restaurant foods averaged 18% more than stated values, and measured energy values of 10 frozen meals purchased from supermarkets averaged 8% more than originally stated. These differences substantially exceeded laboratory measurement error but did not achieve statistical significance due to considerable variability in the degree of underreporting. Some individual restaurant items contained up to 200% of stated values and, in addition, free side dishes increased provided energy to an average of 245% of stated values for the entrees they accompanied. These findings suggest that stated energy contents of reduced-energy meals obtained from restaurants and supermarkets are not consistently accurate, and in this study averaged more than measured values, especially when free side dishes were taken into account. If widespread, this phenomenon could hamper efforts to self-monitor energy intake to control weight, and could also reduce the potential benefit of recent policy initiatives to disseminate information on food energy content at the point of purchase. PMID:20102837

  8. Reducing the nicotine content of combusted tobacco products sold in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Donny, Eric C; Walker, Natalie; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Bullen, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Large reductions in nicotine content could dramatically reduce reinforcement from and dependence on cigarettes. In this article, we summarise the potential benefits of reducing nicotine in combusted tobacco and address some of the common concerns. We focus specifically on New Zealand because it may be ideally situated to implement such a policy. The available data suggest that, in current smokers, very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes decrease nicotine exposure, decrease cigarette dependence, reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day and increase the likelihood of contemplating, making and succeeding at a quit attempt. New smokers would almost certainly be exposed to far less nicotine as a result of smoking VLNC cigarettes and, consequently, would probably be less likely to become chronic, dependent, smokers. Many of the concerns about reducing nicotine including compensatory smoking, an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms, the perception that VLNC cigarettes are less harmful, and the potential for a black market are either not supported by the available data, likely mitigated by other factors including the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, or unlikely to offset the potential benefit to public health. Although not all concerns have been addressed or can be a priori, the magnitude of the potential benefits and the growing evidence of relatively few potential harms should make nicotine reduction one of the centrepieces for discussion of how to rapidly advance tobacco control. Policies that aim to render the most toxic tobacco products less addictive could help New Zealand attain their goal of becoming smokefree by 2025.

  9. Assessment of Tungsten Content on Tertiary Creep Deformation Behavior of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, Kinkar

    2015-10-01

    Tertiary creep deformation behavior of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels having different tungsten contents has been assessed. Creep tests were carried out at 823 K (550 °C) over a stress range of 180 to 260 MPa on three heats of the RAFM steel (9Cr-W-0.06Ta-0.22V) with tungsten content of 1, 1.4, and 2.0 wt pct. With creep exposure, the steels exhibited minimum in creep rate followed by progressive increase in creep rate until fracture. The minimum creep rate decreased, rupture life increased, and the onset of tertiary stage of creep deformation delayed with the increase in tungsten content. The tertiary creep behavior has been assessed based on the relationship, , considering minimum creep rate () instead of steady-state creep rate. The increase in tungsten content was found to decrease the rate of acceleration of tertiary parameter ` p.' The relationships between (1) tertiary parameter `p' with minimum creep rate and time spent in tertiary creep deformation and (2) the final creep rate with minimum creep rate revealed that the same first-order reaction rate theory prevailed in the minimum creep rate as well as throughout the tertiary creep deformation behavior of the steel. A master tertiary creep curve of the steels has been developed. Scanning electron microscopic investigation revealed enhanced coarsening resistance of carbides in the steel on creep exposure with increase in tungsten content. The decrease in tertiary parameter ` p' with tungsten content with the consequent decrease in minimum creep rate and increase in rupture life has been attributed to the enhanced microstructural stability of the steel.

  10. Elevated Chitin Content Reduces the Susceptibility of Candida Species to Caspofungin

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Louise A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species. PMID:23089748

  11. Elevated chitin content reduces the susceptibility of Candida species to caspofungin.

    PubMed

    Walker, Louise A; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species.

  12. Options for reducing oil content of sludge from a petroleum wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Lee, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants at petroleum refineries often produce substantial quantities of sludge with relatively high concentrations of oil. Disposal of this waste is costly, in part because the high oil content requires use of secure disposal methods akin to handling of hazardous wastes. This article examines the properties of oily sludge and evaluates optional methods for reducing the oil content of this sludge to enable use of lower cost disposal methods. To reduce the oil content or break the structure of oily sludge, preliminary lab-scale experiments involving mechanical treatment, surfactant extraction, and oxidation are conducted. By applying surfactants, approximately 36% to 45% of oils are extracted from oily sludge. Of this, about 33% of oils are rapidly oxidised via radiation by an electron beam within 10 s of exposure. The Fenton reaction is effective for destruction of oily sludge. It is also found that 56% of oils were removed by reacting oily sludge with water containing ozone of 0.5 mg l(-1) over a period of 24 h. Oxidation using ozone thus can also be effectively used as a pretreatment for oily sludge. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Different additives to enhance the gelation of surimi gel with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Cando, Deysi; Herranz, Beatriz; Borderías, A Javier; Moreno, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the effect of adding tetra-sodium pyrophosphate, cystine and lysine as surimi gelation enhancers (Alaska Pollock) in order to reduce the sodium content of gels up to 0.3%. These gels were compared with others that contained 3% NaCl content (the amount typically used for surimi processing). To induce protein gelation, gels were first heated and then set at 5 °C/24 h. Once the physicochemical and rheological properties of the gels were determined, cystine and lysine were found to be the most effective additives improving the characteristics of low NaCl surimi gels. The action of these additives is mainly based on the induction of myofibrillar protein unfolding thus facilitating the formation of the types of bonds needed to establish an appropriate network. It was found that a setting period was needed for gel processing to maximize the effect of the additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 3, Belt filter press: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.

    1992-12-01

    Reducing the Moisture Content of Clean Coals, Volume 3: Belt Filter Press contains the results of an EPRI investigation into the performance of an alternative clean coal dewatering device. Investigators at EPRI`s Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) designed test so that mathematical relationships predicting filter cake moisture and solids capture could be developed. They also compared the economics of installing and operating a belt filter press with a vacuum disc filter, which is its nearest equivalent. For 100M {times} 0 clean coal from the Upper Freeport seam, the belt filter press produced filter cake with an average moisture content of 30 percent. This moisture is 5 to 10 percentage points higher than moistures from a vacuum disc filter. Economic analysis shows that the belt filter press costs an additional $72,000 a year to operate in place of a vacuum disc filter.

  15. The predicted impact of reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes on alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Donny, Eric C

    2014-08-01

    Product standards reducing the level of nicotine in cigarettes could significantly improve public health by reducing smoking behavior and toxicant exposure. However, relatively little is known about how the regulatory strategy could impact alcohol use, a closely related health behavior that is also a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. The primary objective of this paper is to predict the effect of nicotine reduction on alcohol use, identify priorities for future research, and highlight areas for mitigating any adverse outcomes. We critically reviewed and integrated literatures examining the effects of very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes on smoking-related outcomes (nicotine exposure, nicotine withdrawal, and smoking as a cue to drink) and, in turn, the effects of those outcomes on alcohol use. Current evidence suggests reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may benefit public health by reducing alcohol use and problematic drinking over time as a consequence of reduced exposure to nicotine and the smoking cues associated with drinking. Nicotine withdrawal could increase risk of drinking, although these effects should be short-lived and could be mitigated by other sources of nicotine. Gender, hazardous drinking, and psychiatric comorbidities are likely to be important moderators of the effects of VLNC cigarettes. It is imperative to broadly assess the public health impact of potential tobacco product regulations by including measures of closely related health behaviors that could be impacted by these interventions. Nicotine reduction in cigarettes may contribute to improved public health through reductions in alcohol use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Nicotine Dependence, Nicotine Metabolism, and the Extent of Compensation in Response to Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Frank C; Ross, Kathryn C; Taghavi, Seyedehtaraneh; Delucchi, Kevin; Tyndale, Rachel F; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco product constituents, including nicotine, to promote public health. Reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes may lead to lower levels of addiction. Smokers however may compensate by smoking more cigarettes and/or smoking more intensely. The objective of this study was to test whether individual differences in the level of nicotine dependence (as measured by the Fagerstrom Test of Cigarette Dependence [FTCD]) and/or the rate of nicotine metabolism influence smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants when smokers are switched to reduced nicotine content cigarettes (RNC). Data from 51 participants from a previously published clinical trial of RNC were analyzed. Nicotine content of cigarettes was progressively reduced over 6 months and measures of smoking behavior, as well as nicotine metabolites and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure, CYP2A6 and nicotinic CHRNA5-A3-B4 (rs1051730) genotype were measured. Higher baseline FTCD predicted smoking more cigarettes per day (CPD), higher cotinine and smoke toxicant levels while smoking RNC throughout the study, with no interaction by RNC level. Time to first cigarette (TFC) was associated with differences in compensation. TFC within 10 min was associated with a greater increase in CPD compared to TFC greater than 10 min. Neither rate of nicotine metabolism, nor CYP2A6 or nicotinic receptor genotype, had an effect on the outcome variables of interest. FTCD is associated with overall exposure to nicotine and other constituents of tobacco smoke, while a short TFC is associated with an increased compensatory response after switching to RNC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content.

    PubMed

    Unno, Keiko; Noda, Shigenori; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morita, Akio; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-07-19

    Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT), on stress and quality of sleep of middle-aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years) in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT) was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day), which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA), a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL) than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL). Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  18. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Herziger, Atar; Benzerga, Amel; Berkessel, Jana; Dinartika, Niken L.; Franklin, Matija; Steinnes, Kamilla K.; Sundström, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism) in an empirical research design. The project will test (a) whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b) whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric) and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic) values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating), while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement). These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post-intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions. PMID:28649220

  20. A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption.

    PubMed

    Herziger, Atar; Benzerga, Amel; Berkessel, Jana; Dinartika, Niken L; Franklin, Matija; Steinnes, Kamilla K; Sundström, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism) in an empirical research design. The project will test (a) whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b) whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric) and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic) values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating), while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement). These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post-intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions.

  1. Effect of reduced cobalt contents on hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy U-700 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of reducing the cobalt content of prealloyed powders of UDIMET 700 (U-700) alloys to 12.7, 8.6, 4.3, and 0% was examined. The powders were hot isostatically pressed into billets, which were given heat treatments appropriate for turbine disks, namely partial solutioning at temperatures below the gamma prime solvus and four step aging treatments. Chemical analyses, metallographic examinations, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the materials. Minor effects on gamma prime content and on room temperature and 650 C tensile properties were observed. Creep rupture lives at 650 C reached a maximum at the 8.4% concentration, while at 760 C a maximum in life was reached at the 4.3% cobalt level. Minimum creep rates increased with decreasing cobalt content at both test temperatures. Extended exposures at 760 and 815 C resulted in decreased tensile strengths and rupture lives for all alloys. Evidence of sigma phase formation was also found.

  2. Effect of reduced cobalt contents on hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy U-700 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of reducing the cobalt content of prealloyed powders of UDIMET 700 (U-700) alloys to 12.7, 8.6, 4.3, and 0% was examined. The powders were hot isostatically pressed into billets, which were given heat treatments appropriate for turbine disks, namely partial solutioning at temperatures below the gamma prime solvus and four step aging treatments. Chemical analyses, metallographic examinations, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the materials. Minor effects on gamma prime content and on room temperature and 650 C tensile properties were observed. Creep rupture lives at 650 C reached a maximum at the 8.4% concentration, while at 760 C a maximum in life was reached at the 4.3% cobalt level. Minimum creep rates increased with decreasing cobalt content at both test temperatures. Extended exposures at 760 and 815 C resulted in decreased tensile strengths and rupture lives for all alloys. Evidence of sigma phase formation was also found.

  3. Stabilization of sewage sludge by different biochars towards reducing freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Zielińska, Anna; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the effect of various biochars on the content of freely dissolved (Cfree) PAHs in sewage sludge. Apart from the evaluation of biochars obtained from various materials, the study also included the determination of the effects of biochar particle sizes and biochar production temperature on their ability to bind PAHs in sewage sludge. Increase in biochar dose caused a gradual reduction of Cfree PAHs content, but only up to the biochar dose of 5%. Depending on the kind of initial material from which the biochar was produced, the reduction of Cfree PAHs content in sewage sludge varied from 17.4% to 58.0%. Both the temperature and the particle size of biochar had an effect on PAH free concentration reduction. Biochars characterised by a low polarity index (O/C or (O+N)/C) reduced the level of Cfree PAHs better than biochars with a higher polarity index value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed fermentations to reduce ethanol content in wine.

    PubMed

    Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Decreasing the ethanol content in wine is a current challenge, mainly due to the global climate change and to the consumer preference for wines from grapes with increased maturity. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used to investigate the potential application of Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed (co-inoculated and sequential) cultures, to understand better the mechanism of co-habitation and achieve the objective of reducing the ethanol in wines. Laboratory scale fermentations demonstrated a decrease up to 0.7 % (v/v) of ethanol and an increase of about 4.2 g/L of glycerol when S. cerevisiae was inoculated with a delay of 48 h with respect to the inoculation of S. bacillaris. Pilot-scale fermentations, carried out in winemaking conditions, confirmed the laboratory results. This study demonstrates that the combination of strains and inoculation protocol could help to reduce the ethanol content in wines.

  5. Avasimibe and atorvastatin synergistically reduce cholesteryl ester content in THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Llaverías, Gemma; Jové, Mireia; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Sánchez, Rosa M; Díaz, Cristina; Hernández, Gonzalo; Laguna, Juan C; Alegret, Marta

    2002-09-06

    Evidence suggests that the inhibition of both acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase and hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA reductase causes a synergistic direct antiatherosclerotic effect on the vessel wall. To investigate this synergism in a single cell type and to avoid the confounding effect of plasma cholesterol lowering by these drugs, we have used an in vitro model of human macrophages (phorbol ester-treated THP-1 cells). In macrophages incubated simultaneously with acetyl low-density lipoproteins, the novel acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor avasimibe (0.01-0.5 microM) caused a concentration-dependent reduction in cell cholesteryl ester content that was not accompanied by an increase in intracellular free cholesterol. A 5 microM concentration of atorvastatin enhanced by approximately twofold the ability of 0.5 microM avasimibe to reduce the mass of esterified cholesterol, and this was reversed by co-incubation with 200 microM mevalonate or 10 microM geranyl-geraniol. Based on these data, we propose that the synergism between acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase and hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors found in several in vivo studies may be explained by a direct additive effect of both agents reducing the lipid content of the macrophages present in the lesion area. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Pectinesterase inhibitor from jelly-fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes reduces methanol content in carambola wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, James Swi-Bea; Wu, Ming-Chang; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hwang, Ya-Ping; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-11-30

    Crude pectinesterase (PE) inhibitor (PEI) extracted from jelly-fig achenes (JFA) (Ficus awakeosang Makino) was added to carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) puree to determine the change in methanol production during fermentation. Addition of pectin or microbial pectic enzyme to puree increased dose-dependently the methanol content in fermented products. Decreasing ratio (from 1:0 to 1:19, v:v) of pectic enzyme to diluted crude PEI solution in the puree-enzyme mixture decreased the PE activity remarkably. Except for transmittance (%T), addition of crude PEI to puree did not affect apparently the physical and chemical properties of wine; however, it reduced methanol content in the control from 256 to 58 ppm. The degree of esterification (DE) of pectin in starting puree was approximately 70%. It decreased to approximately 27% in the control group and reduced slightly to approximately 67% in fermented puree with crude PEI added after 14 days of fermentation. This reveals that crude PEI solution was potent in inhibiting intrinsic carambola PE activity and appeared to be a potential alternative for methanol reduction in wines.

  7. Improved zinc and iron absorption from breakfast meals containing malted oats with reduced phytate content.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M; Rossander-Hulthén, L; Sandström, B; Sandberg, A S

    1996-11-01

    The absorption of Zn or Fe from breakfast meals containing oat porridge prepared from malted and soaked oats and a control porridge made from untreated oats was measured in human subjects. The effect on Zn and Fe absorption of reducing the phytate content of oat-porridge meals was examined in each subject by extrinsic labelling of porridge with 65Zn and of bread rolls with 55Fe and 59Fe, and measuring whole-body retention and the erythrocyte uptake of isotopes. Each experiment comprised nine to ten subjects. The absorption of Zn from malted-oat porridge with a phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) content of 107 mumol was 18.3%, and significantly higher (P < 0.05) than from the control porridge containing 432 mumol phytate (11.8%). Fe absorption from the meal containing malted-oat porridge with 107 mumol phytate (Expt 2) was also significantly improved (P < 0.05) compared with that from the meal containing control porridge with 437 mumol phytate. The average increase in Fe absorption was 47%, or from 4.4 to 6.0%. In the breakfast meal containing malted porridge with 198 mumol phytate (Expt 3) the increase in Fe absorption was not significantly improved. Even though the phytate content was reduced to a greater extent in Expt 3 than Expt 2, the average increase in Fe absorption in Expt 3 was only 25% more than that from the meal containing control porridge (with 599 mumol phytate), depending on the higher absolute amount of phytate. In conclusion, an improvement in Zn and Fe absorption from oat products can be achieved by practising malting and soaking in the processing of oats. This may be of importance in the prevention of mineral deficiency in vulnerable groups.

  8. Development of transgenic Brassica juncea lines for reduced seed sinapine content by perturbing phenylpropanoid pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Kajla, Sachin; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati

    2017-01-01

    Sinapine is a major anti-nutritive compound that accumulates in the seeds of Brassica species. When ingested, sinapine imparts gritty flavuor in meat and milk of animals and fishy odor to eggs of brown egg layers, thereby compromising the potential use of the valuable protein rich seed meal. Sinapine content in Brassica juncea germplasm ranges from 6.7 to 15.1 mg/g of dry seed weight (DSW) which is significantly higher than the prescribed permissible level of 3.0 mg/g of DSW. Due to limited natural genetic variability, conventional plant breeding approach for reducing the sinapine content has largely been unsuccessful. Hence, transgenic approach for gene silencing was adopted by targeting two genes—SGT and SCT, encoding enzymes UDP- glucose: sinapate glucosyltransferase and sinapoylglucose: choline sinapoyltransferase, respectively, involved in the final two steps of sinapine biosynthetic pathway. These two genes were isolated from B. juncea and eight silencing constructs were developed using three different RNA silencing approaches viz. antisense RNA, RNAi and artificial microRNA. Transgenics in B. juncea were developed following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. From a total of 1232 independent T0 transgenic events obtained using eight silencing constructs, 25 homozygous lines showing single gene inheritance were identified in the T2 generation. Reduction of seed sinapine content in these lines ranged from 15.8% to 67.2%; the line with maximum reduction had sinapine content of 3.79 mg/g of DSW. The study also revealed that RNAi method was more efficient than the other two methods used in this study. PMID:28787461

  9. Cryptochrome and Phytochrome Cooperatively but Independently Reduce Active Gibberellin Content in Rice Seedlings under Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Fumiaki; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takano, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to a wealth of knowledge about the photoregulation of gibberellin metabolism in dicots, that in monocots remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that a blue light signal triggers reduction of active gibberellin content in rice seedlings with simultaneous repression of two gibberellin 20-oxidase genes (OsGA20ox2 and OsGA20ox4) and acute induction of four gibberellin 2-oxidase genes (OsGA2ox4–OsGA2ox7). For further examination of the regulation of these genes, we established a series of cryptochrome-deficient lines through reverse genetic screening from a Tos17 mutant population and construction of knockdown lines based on an RNA interference technique. By using these lines and phytochrome mutants, we elucidated that cryptochrome 1 (cry1), consisting of two species in rice plants (cry1a and cry1b), is indispensable for robust induction of the GA2ox genes. On the other hand, repression of the GA20ox genes is mediated by phytochromes. In addition, we found that the phytochromes also mediate the repression of a gibberellin 3-oxidase gene (OsGA3ox2) in the light. These results imply that, in rice seedlings, phytochromes mediate the repression of gibberellin biosynthesis capacity, while cry1 mediates the induction of gibberellin inactivation capacity. The cry1 action was demonstrated to be dominant in the reduction of active gibberellin content, but, in rice seedlings, the cumulative effects of these independent actions reduced active gibberellin content in the light. This pathway design in which different types of photoreceptors independently but cooperatively regulate active gibberellin content is unique from the viewpoint of dicot research. This redundancy should provide robustness to the response in rice plants. PMID:22764280

  10. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    PubMed

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. midD-encoded 'rhizomimosinase' from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase that catabolizes L-mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, pyruvate and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal

    2013-06-01

    Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 catabolizes mimosine, which is a toxic non-protein amino acid present in Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). The objective of this investigation was to study the biochemical and catalytic properties of the enzyme encoded by midD, one of the TAL1145 genes involved in mimosine degradation. The midD-encoded enzyme, MidD, was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and used for biochemical and catalytic studies using mimosine as the substrate. The reaction products in the enzyme assay were analyzed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. MidD has a molecular mass of ~45 kDa and its catalytic activity was found to be optimal at 37 °C and pH 8.5. The major product formed in the reaction had the same retention time as that of synthetic 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P). It was confirmed to be 3H4P by MS/MS analysis of the HPLC-purified product. The K m, V max and K cat of MidD were 1.27 × 10(-4) mol, 4.96 × 10(-5) mol s(-1) mg(-1), and 2,256.05 s(-1), respectively. Although MidD has sequence similarities with aminotransferases, it is not an aminotransferase because it does not require a keto acid as the co-substrate in the degradation reaction. It is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme and the addition of 50 μM hydroxylamine completely inhibited the reaction. However, the supplementation of the reaction with 0.1 μM PLP restored the catalytic activity of MidD in the reaction containing 50 μM hydroxylamine. The catalytic activity of MidD was found to be specific to mimosine, and the presence of its structural analogs including L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine did not show any competitive inhibition. In addition to 3H4P, we also identified pyruvate and ammonia as other degradation products in equimolar quantities of the substrate used. The degradation of mimosine into a ring compound, 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicates that MidD of Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase.

  12. [Detection of reducing sugar content of potato granules based on wavelet compression by near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Ling; Sun, Xu-Dong

    2013-12-01

    The feasibility was explored in determination of reducing sugar content of potato granules based on wavelet compression algorithm combined with near-infrared spectroscopy. The spectra of 250 potato granules samples were recorded by Fourier transform near-infrared spectrometer in the range of 4000- 10000 cm-1. The three parameters of vanishing moments, wavelet coefficients and principal component factor were optimized. The optimization results of three parameters were 10, 100 and 20, respectively. The original spectra of 1501 spectral variables were transfered to 100 wavelet coefficients using db wavelet function. The partial least squares (PLS) calibration models were developed by 1501 spectral variables and 100 wavelet coefficients. Sixty two unknown samples of prediction set were applied to evaluate the performance of PLS models. By comparison, the optimal result was obtained by wavelet compression combined with PLS calibration model. The correlation coefficient of prediction and root mean square error of prediction were 0.98 and 0.181%, respectively. Experimental results show that the dimensions of spectral data were reduced, scarcely losing effective information by wavelet compression algorithm combined with near-infrared spectroscopy technology in determination of reducing sugar in potato granules. The PLS model is simplified, and the predictive ability is improved.

  13. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    PubMed

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content.

  14. Genetic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce the content of ethanol in beer.

    PubMed

    Nevoigt, Elke; Pilger, Rita; Mast-Gerlach, Edeltraud; Schmidt, Ulrike; Freihammer, Silke; Eschenbrenner, Martin; Garbe, Leif; Stahl, Ulf

    2002-05-01

    The GPD1 gene encoding the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was overexpressed in an industrial lager brewing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ssp. carlsbergensis) to reduce the content of ethanol in beer. The amount of glycerol produced by the GPD1-overexpressing yeast in fermentation experiments simulating brewing conditions was increased 5.6 times and ethanol was decreased by 18% when compared to the wild-type. Overexpression of GPD1 does not affect the consumption of wort sugars. Only minor changes in the concentration of higher alcohols, esters and fatty acids could be observed in beer produced by the GPD1-overexpressing brewing yeast. However, the concentrations of several other by-products, particularly acetoin, diacetyl and acetaldehyde, were considerably increased.

  15. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans.

  16. Physical pretreatments of wastewater algae to reduce ash content and improve thermal decomposition characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Ting; Ma, Junchao; Zhang, Yuanhui; Gai, Chao; Qian, Wanyi

    2014-10-01

    Previous study showed high ash content in wastewater algae (WA) has a negative effect on bio-crude oil formation in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). This study explored the effect of different pretreatments on ash reduction and the thermal decomposition of WA. Single-stage (e.g. centrifugation) and two-stage pretreatments (e.g. centrifugation followed by ultrasonication, C+U) were used. The apparent activation energy of the thermal decomposition (E(a)) of pretreated algae was determined. HTL was conducted to study how different pretreatments may impact on bio-crude oil formation. Compared to untreated samples, the ash content of algae with centrifugation was reduced from 28.6% to 18.6%. With C+U pretreatments, E(a) was decreased from 50.2 kJ/mol to 35.9 kJ/mol and the bio-crude oil yield was increased from 30% to 55%. These results demonstrate that pretreatments of C+U can improve the thermal decomposition behavior of WA and enhance the bio-crude oil conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of reduced mitochondrial DNA content on secondary mitochondrial toxicant exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is intimately linked to cellular and organismal health, as demonstrated by the fact that mutations in and depletion of mtDNA result in severe mitochondrial disease in humans. However, cells contain hundreds to thousands of copies of mtDNA, which provides genetic redundancy, and creates a threshold effect in which a large percentage of mtDNA must be lost prior to clinical pathogenesis. As certain pharmaceuticals and genetic mutations can result in depletion of mtDNA, and as many environmental toxicants target mitochondria, it is important to understand whether reduced mtDNA will sensitize an individual to toxicant exposure. Here, using ethidium bromide (EtBr), which preferentially inhibits mtDNA replication, we reduced mtDNA 35-55% in the in vivo model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Chronic, lifelong, low-dose EtBr exposure did not disrupt nematode development or lifespan, and induced only mild alterations in mitochondrial respiration, while having no effect on steady-state ATP levels. Next, we exposed nematodes with reduced mtDNA to the known and suspected mitochondrial toxicants aflatoxin B1, arsenite, paraquat, rotenone or ultraviolet C radiation (UVC). EtBr pre-exposure resulted in mild sensitization of nematodes to UVC and arsenite, had no effect on AfB1 and paraquat, and provided some protection from rotenone toxicity. These mixed results provide a first line of evidence suggesting that reduced mtDNA content may sensitize an individual to certain environmental exposures. PMID:27566481

  18. Effects of reduced mitochondrial DNA content on secondary mitochondrial toxicant exposure in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Luz, Anthony L; Meyer, Joel N

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is intimately linked to cellular and organismal health, as demonstrated by the fact that mutations in and depletion of mtDNA result in severe mitochondrial disease in humans. However, cells contain hundreds to thousands of copies of mtDNA, which provides genetic redundancy, and creates a threshold effect in which a large percentage of mtDNA must be lost prior to clinical pathogenesis. As certain pharmaceuticals and genetic mutations can result in depletion of mtDNA, and as many environmental toxicants target mitochondria, it is important to understand whether reduced mtDNA will sensitize an individual to toxicant exposure. Here, using ethidium bromide (EtBr), which preferentially inhibits mtDNA replication, we reduced mtDNA 35-55% in the in vivo model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Chronic, lifelong, low-dose EtBr exposure did not disrupt nematode development or lifespan, and induced only mild alterations in mitochondrial respiration, while having no effect on steady-state ATP levels. Next, we exposed nematodes with reduced mtDNA to the known and suspected mitochondrial toxicants aflatoxin B1, arsenite, paraquat, rotenone or ultraviolet C radiation (UVC). EtBr pre-exposure resulted in mild sensitization of nematodes to UVC and arsenite, had no effect on AfB1 and paraquat, and provided some protection from rotenone toxicity. These mixed results provide a first line of evidence suggesting that reduced mtDNA content may sensitize an individual to certain environmental exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  19. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Bassett, Shalome; Christensen, Michael J; Hume, David E; Johnson, Linda J; Johnson, Richard D; Simpson, Wayne R; Stacke, Christina; Voisey, Christine R; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of Neotyphodium lolii (AR1, AR37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. We grew endophyte-free and infected plants under high and low nitrogen (N) supply and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate endophyte concentrations in harvested leaf tissues. Endophyte concentration was reduced by 40% under high N supply, and by 50% in the higher sugar cultivar. These two effects were additive (together resulting in 75% reduction). Alkaloid production was also reduced under both increased N supply and high sugar cultivar, and for three of the four alkaloids quantified, concentrations were linearly related to endophyte concentration. The results stress the need for wider quantification of fungal endophytes in the grassland-foliar endophyte context, and have implications for how introducing new cultivars, novel endophytes or increasing N inputs affect the role of endophytes in grassland ecosystems.

  20. Quarantine versus pathogen-reduced plasma-coagulation factor content and rotational thromboelastometry coagulation.

    PubMed

    Theusinger, Oliver M; Goslings, David; Studt, Jan-Dirk; Brand-Staufer, Brigitte; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R; Frey, Beat M

    2017-03-01

    Different types of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) exist, and the concentrations of plasma proteins vary between individuals and blood groups. Furthermore, processing may also influence the content. Quarantine-stored plasma (qFFP) and plasma that was pathogen-reduced using blood-safety (Intercept) technology (piFFP) were analyzed regarding procoagulant and anticoagulant hemostasis proteins, including endogenous thrombin (thrombin-generation) potential (ETP). Thirty-five samples of each type of FFP were analyzed using only male Blood Group O donors. FFP units were stored frozen for comparable periods of time before plasma protein content was assessed. Once the units were thawed, all tests were completed within 4 hours. The results are presented as means ± standard deviations or as median (minimum; maximum) and were compared using independent-sample t tests (significance, p < 0.01). Significantly higher concentrations of adintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type-13 motifs (ADAMTS13), fibrinogen, Factor (F)V, FVIII, FXIII, protein S, protein S activity, antithrombin, microvesicle (<900 nm), and α2 antiplasmin were observed in qFFP. The variability of factors was significantly lower in piFFP. Tissue factor (TF) at 1 picomolar (pM) exhibited significantly longer lag time, a lower peak, lower ETP, and a lower velocity index in qFFP compared with piFFP. In TF at 5 pM, significant differences in lag time (longer in qFFP), velocity index (lower in qFFP), and peak (lower in qFFP) were observed. Rotational thromboelastometry revealed a significantly longer (p = 0.002) clot-formation time with intrinsic thromboelastometry for piFFP and a significantly shorter clotting time (p = 0.004) with thromboelastometry fibrinogen testing for piFFP. Pathogen reduction reduces procoagulant and anticoagulant coagulation factors as well as variability. A thrombin-generation assay showed no reduced ETP and no supraphysiological thrombin generation. None of the

  1. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.

  2. Estimations and predictors of non-compliance in switchers to reduced nicotine content cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Natalie; Donny, Eric C; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Murphy, Sharon E; Strasser, Andrew A; Tidey, Jennifer W; Vandrey, Ryan; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-12-01

    Clinical trials on the impact and safety of reduced nicotine content cigarettes (RNCs) are ongoing, and an important methodological concern is participant compliance with smoking only RNCs. Our aims were to measure non-compliance biochemically with urine cotinine (COT) and total nicotine equivalents (TNEs), compare with self-reported non-compliance and identify associated covariates. Secondary analysis of a double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial. Research centers from the United States, enrolling participants from June 2013 to July 2014. Volunteer sample of 242 participants (55% Caucasian), average age of 41.2 years, smoking at least five cigarettes per day (CPD). Smoking very low nicotine cigarettes (VLNCs; 0.4 mg nicotine/g tobacco) for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was biochemically verified non-compliance, measured as thresholds of COT/CPD and TNE/CPD ratios, considering changes in nicotine content from conventional levels to VLNCs, and as an absolute threshold of week 6 TNEs. Self-reported non-compliance was measured via daily phone calls. Key predictors included age, sex, race, menthol preference, nicotine metabolite ratio, time to first cigarette, dependence, CPD, TNEs, tar level and cigarette evaluation. Estimates of non-compliance with smoking the VLNCs exclusively include: the biochemical ratios (both 78%), the week 6 TNE threshold (76%) and self-report (39%). Of the key covariates, age, dependence and cigarette evaluations of satisfaction were significant; for age, younger participants more likely to be non-compliant [P = 0.01; odds ratio (OR) = 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96-0.99]. Dependence was associated significantly with self-reported non-compliance (P = 0.01; OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55). Cigarette evaluations of satisfaction were associated significantly with non-compliance (P = 0.001; OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.61-0.82). Among smokers volunteering to smoke only very low nicotine cigarettes for 6 weeks, non

  3. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; ...

    2015-01-13

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimatemore » dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate – an intermediate of the shikimate pathway – into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass.« less

  4. Expression of a bacterial 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase reduces lignin content and improves biomass saccharification efficiency.

    PubMed

    Eudes, Aymerick; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Baidoo, Edward E K; George, Anthe; Liang, Yan; Yang, Fan; Singh, Seema; Keasling, Jay D; Simmons, Blake A; Loqué, Dominique

    2015-12-01

    Lignin confers recalcitrance to plant biomass used as feedstocks in agro-processing industries or as source of renewable sugars for the production of bioproducts. The metabolic steps for the synthesis of lignin building blocks belong to the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Genetic engineering efforts to reduce lignin content typically employ gene knockout or gene silencing techniques to constitutively repress one of these metabolic pathways. Recently, new strategies have emerged offering better spatiotemporal control of lignin deposition, including the expression of enzymes that interfere with the normal process for cell wall lignification. In this study, we report that expression of a 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase (QsuB from Corynebacterium glutamicum) reduces lignin deposition in Arabidopsis cell walls. QsuB was targeted to the plastids to convert 3-dehydroshikimate - an intermediate of the shikimate pathway - into protocatechuate. Compared to wild-type plants, lines expressing QsuB contain higher amounts of protocatechuate, p-coumarate, p-coumaraldehyde and p-coumaryl alcohol, and lower amounts of coniferaldehyde, coniferyl alcohol, sinapaldehyde and sinapyl alcohol. 2D-NMR spectroscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (pyro-GC/MS) reveal an increase of p-hydroxyphenyl units and a reduction of guaiacyl units in the lignin of QsuB lines. Size-exclusion chromatography indicates a lower degree of lignin polymerization in the transgenic lines. Therefore, our data show that the expression of QsuB primarily affects the lignin biosynthetic pathway. Finally, biomass from these lines exhibits more than a twofold improvement in saccharification efficiency. We conclude that the expression of QsuB in plants, in combination with specific promoters, is a promising gain-of-function strategy for spatiotemporal reduction of lignin in plant biomass.

  5. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p's<0.001 and 0.011), and decreased the belief that they are less likely to cause cancer (p=0.046). Neither false beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p's<0.001), however, indicated that among smokers with less negative initial subjective ratings, greater false beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Autografting with CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells: retained engraftment capability and reduced tumour cell content.

    PubMed

    Voso, M T; Hohaus, S; Moos, M; Pförsich, M; Cremer, F W; Schlenk, R F; Martin, S; Hegenbart, U; Goldschmidt, H; Haas, R

    1999-02-01

    The efficacy of an immunomagnetic purging method and the Isolex 300 devices were assessed for selecting CD34+ cells from leukapheresis products of 29 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 39 with multiple myeloma and 34 with breast cancer. The mean purity of the CD34+ cell population was 93.6% and the mean recovery was 67.7%. Following enzymatic cleavage by chymopapain the expression of Thy-1 and Leu-8 was significantly reduced without affecting haematological recovery. The population of selected CD34+ cells of 4/8 patients with follicular lymphoma became PCR-negative. A 2.5 log reduction of tumour cells could be achieved in four patients with multiple myeloma as shown by a quantitative PCR assay. There were no tumour cells detectable in any of the 19 CD34+ cell preparations of patients with breast cancer. In 64 patients who received 94 cycles of high-dose therapy, a mean number of 4.7x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were autografted. The time needed for platelet reconstitution was different when a comparison was made with 156 patients, who had received unmanipulated leukapheresis products (10 v 12 d, P = 0.006). No significant differences with regard to neutrophil recovery were noted. Five patients had a graft failure. Two of them died (on day 78 and 88 following PBSCT), and three patients were rescued with unmanipulated back-up transplants. In conclusion, the immunomagnetic selection of CD34+ cells provides autografts with reduced tumour cell content and an engraftment ability similar to that of unmanipulated autografts.

  7. An In Vivo Model of Reduced Nucleus Pulposus Glycosaminoglycan Content in the Rat Lumbar Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Boxberger, John I.; Auerbach, Joshua D.; Sen, Sounok; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design An in vivo model resembling early stage disc degeneration in the rat lumbar spine. Objective Simulate the reduced glycosaminoglycan content and altered mechanics observed in intervertebral disc degeneration using a controlled injection of chondroitinase ABC (ChABC). Summary of Background Data Nucleus glycosaminoglycan reduction occurs early during disc degeneration; however, mechanisms through which degeneration progresses from this state are unknown. Animal models simulating this condition are essential for understanding disease progression and for development of therapies aimed at early intervention. Methods ChABC was injected into the nucleus pulposus, and discs were evaluated via micro-CT, mechanical testing, biochemical assays, and histology 4 and 12 weeks after injection. Results At 4 weeks, reductions in nucleus glycosaminoglycan level by 43%, average height by 12%, neutral zone modulus by 40%, and increases in range of motion by 40%, and creep strain by 25% were found. Neutral zone modulus and range of motion were correlated with nucleus glycosaminoglycan. At 12 weeks, recovery of some mechanical function was detected as range of motion and creep returned to control levels; however, this was not attributed to glycosaminoglycan restoration, because mechanics were no longer correlated with glycosaminoglycan. Conclusion An in vivo model simulating physiologic levels of glycosaminoglycan loss was created to aid in understanding the relationships between altered biochemistry, altered mechanics, and altered cellular function in degeneration. PMID:18197098

  8. Gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with reduced starch digestibility and enhanced protein content.

    PubMed

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Jyothi, A N; Asha, V; Sajeev, M S

    2016-09-01

    Sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles despite being gluten-free, has low nutritional value as it lacks proteins, minerals, vitamins etc. The objective of this study was to develop gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with enhanced protein content through fortification with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and to study the effect of protein fortification and blending SPS with banana (BS), cassava (CS) and mung bean (MBS) starches and annealed cassava starch (ACS) in reducing the starch digestibility. The highest protein retention in cooked noodles was obtained for 20 % WPC fortification, while the lowest starch digestibility was observed for 40 % BS fortified noodles followed by 50 % ACS fortified noodles. The highest resistant starch (RS) retention was for BS and ACS fortified noodles, which also had medium glycemic index of 66.3 (BS) and 67.2 (ACS). High sensory scores were obtained for the BS and 20 % WPC fortified noodles. The study showed that protein and/or BS fortification with SPS could enhance the acceptability as well as functional value of SPS noodles.

  9. Pharmacological evaluation of total alkaloids from nux vomica: effect of reducing strychnine contents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Qu, Yange; Wang, Dongyue; Peng, Pei; Cai, Hao; Gao, Ying; Chen, Zhipeng; Cai, Baochang

    2014-04-10

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF) extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF). The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP). In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.

  10. Chronic insulin therapy reduces adipose tissue macrophage content in LDL-receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, J; Subramanian, S; Ding, Y; Wang, S; Goodspeed, L; Sullivan, B; Kim, J; O'Brien, K D; Chait, A

    2011-05-01

    Insulin has anti-inflammatory effects in short-term experiments. However, the effects of chronic insulin administration on inflammation are unknown. We hypothesised that chronic insulin administration would beneficially alter adipose tissue inflammation and several circulating inflammatory markers. We administered two forms of long-acting insulin, insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin) and insulin detemir (B29Lys[ε-tetradecanoyl],desB30 human insulin), to LDL-receptor-deficient mice. After 8 weeks on a diet that causes obesity, hyperglycaemia, adipose tissue macrophage accumulation and atherosclerosis, the mice received subcutaneous glargine, detemir or NaCl (control) for 12 weeks. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and serum amyloid P (SAP), metabolic variables, adipose tissue macrophages and aortic atherosclerosis were evaluated. Weight gain was equivalent in all groups. The glycated haemoglobin level fell equivalently in both insulin-treated groups. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and hepatic triacylglycerol level significantly improved in the glargine compared with the detemir or control groups. Levels of mRNA expression for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and F4/80, a macrophage marker, in adipose tissue were decreased only in the glargine group (p < 0.05). Visceral adipose tissue macrophage content decreased in both insulin groups (p < 0.05), whereas atherosclerosis decreased only in the glargine group. Circulating SAA and SAP did not decrease in either insulin-treated group, but IL-6 levels fell in the glargine-treated mice. While chronic insulin administration did not decrease SAA and SAP, administration of glargine but not detemir insulin improved dyslipidaemia, IL-6 levels and atherosclerosis, and both insulins reduced macrophage accumulation in visceral adipose tissue. Thus, chronic insulin therapy has beneficial tissue effects independent of circulating inflammatory markers in this murine model of diet-induced obesity and

  11. Atorvastatin reduces the myocardial content of coenzyme Q10 in isoproterenol-induced heart failure in rats.

    PubMed

    Andalib, S; Shayanfar, A; Khorrami, A; Maleki-Dijazi, N; Garjani, A

    2014-05-01

    The present study was aimed to study the effects of different doses of atorvastatin on Co Q10 content in the myocardium tissue in rats. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (5 mg/kg/day) for 10 days was used for the induction of heart failure. Rats were randomly assigned to control, treatment with atorvastatin (5, 10, 20 mg/kg/day) and treatment with atorvastatin plus coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg/day). Coenzyme Q10 content of myocardium was measured using HPLC method with UV detector after hemodynamic parameters measurements. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the myocardium was evaluated in order to determine coenzyme Q10 antioxidative effect. A high dose of atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) was significantly reduced the myocardium content of coenzyme Q10 as compared with isoproterenol treated group (p<0.001). Compared with atorvastatin alone treated animals, co-administration of coenzyme Q10 with atorvastatin was improved the level of coenzyme Q10 in the myocardium (p<0.05, p<0.001). Increasing the dose of atorvastatin also led to increase in MDA content of the myocardium (p<0.01). Serum lipid profile showed no changes in atorvastatin treated groups. The results of this study demonstrate that high doses of atorvastatin reduce coenzyme Q10 content of the myocardium and increase lipid peroxidation in myocardium which is reversed by coenzyme Q10 co-administration.

  12. [Rapidly obtaining the markerless transgenic rice with reduced amylose content by co-transformation and anther culture].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ge-Zhi; Wang, Xin-Qi; Yin, Li-Qing; Cai, Xiu-Ling; Wang, Zong-Yang

    2004-12-01

    The plasmid p13W8 carrying antisense fragment of waxy gene and plasmid pCAMBIA1300 containing hpt gene were introduced into rice by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated co-transformation, and 86 transgenic plants were obtained, 32 of them showed positive bands for antisense waxy gene by PCR analysis, the waxy-positive plant frequency is 37.2%. The segregation of antisense fragment of waxy gene and hpt gene was observed by PCR using hpt gene primers and waxy gene primers respectively in 29 T(1) population. One hundred and eighty-three plants containing only the antisense fragment of waxy gene were identified in 1 264 T(1) plants, the waxy-positive plant frequency is 14.4% (Table 1). The amylose content of seeds derived from transgenic plants with only the antisense fragment of waxy gene were determined, varying degrees of reduction in amylose content were found in some plants (Table 2). Four T(1) plants with reduced amylose content were selected through anther culture. Thirty-four anther culture plants seed normally, 23 of them were shown to contain only the antisense fragment of waxy gene (Table 3) by PCR analysis, and the amylose content was reduced to 5%-12% (Table 4). It took only one and half years to obtain the stably inherited markerless transgenic rice with reduced amylose content by co-transformation and anther culture technique.

  13. Interactive effect of reduced pollen availability and Varroa destructor infestation limits growth and protein content of young honey bees.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, C; Stam, E; Gerritsen, L; Cornelissen, B; van der Steen, J; van Langevelde, F; Blacquière, T

    2013-04-01

    Varroa destructor in combination with one or more stressors, such as low food availability or chemical exposure, is considered to be one of the main causes for honey bee colony losses. We examined the interactive effect of pollen availability on the protein content and body weight of young bees that emerged with and without V. destructor infestation. With reduced pollen availability, and the coherent reduced nutritional protein, we expected that V. destructor infestation during the pupal stage would have a larger negative effect on bee development than without infestation. Moreover, when raised with ample pollen available after emergence, infested pupae were expected not to be able to compensate for early losses due to V. destructor. We found that both V. destructor infestation and reduced pollen availability reduced body weight, abdominal protein level, and increased the head to abdomen protein ratio. The availability of pollen did indeed not result in compensation for reduced mass and protein content caused by V. destructor infestation in young bees after 1 week of their adult life. Both V. destructor and nutrition are top concerns for those studying honey bee health and this study demonstrates that both have substantial effects on young bees and that ample available pollen cannot compensate for reduced mass and protein content caused by V. destructor parasitism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Aging reduces contents of endogenous CO, cAMP and cGMP in rat penile tissues].

    PubMed

    Qin, Wen-Bo; Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Ming; Kang, Yu-Ming; Gui, Shi-Liang; Chi, Bao-Jin

    2009-02-01

    To explore the relationship of aging with the changes of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), cGMP and cAMP contents in the penile tissues of rats. Twenty-four male rats were equally divided into an 8-month, a 16-month and a 24-month group, and their penile erection was detected by injecting apomorphine, their penile cavernous body harvested, and the contents of CO, cAPM and cGMP detected by improved dual wavelength spectrophotometry. The contents of CO, cAPM and cGMP were reduced with the increase of age, with statistically significant differences between the three age groups (P < 0.01). Aging significantly decreased the contents of CO, cAMP and cGMP in the penile tissues of the rats, which suggests that aging might play an important role in erectile dysfunction.

  15. Impact of particle size distribution on rheological and textural properties of chocolate models with reduced fat content.

    PubMed

    Do, T-A L; Hargreaves, J M; Wolf, B; Hort, J; Mitchell, J R

    2007-11-01

    With an increasing consumption of lipids nowadays, decreasing the fat content in food products has become a trend. Chocolate is a fat-based suspension that contains about 30%wt fat. Reducing fat content causes an increase in the molten chocolate viscosity. This leads to 2 major issues: difficulties in the process and a loss of eating quality in the final product, reported to have poor in-mouth melting properties, remain hard, and difficult to swallow. Literature shows that optimizing the particle size distribution (PSD), that is, having one with an increased packing fraction, can decrease the viscosity of highly concentrated suspensions. This study focuses on the impact of the PSD and fat content on the rheological properties, melting behavior, and hardness of chocolate models (dispersions of sugar in fat). We show that optimizing the PSD while reducing the fat content to a critical amount (22%wt) can decrease the viscosity of the molten material and reduce the hardness of the crystallized chocolate models. Melting in the mouth, characterized by an in vitro collapse speed, is faster for the samples with an optimized PSD. The decrease in the viscosity by optimizing the PSD in systems with a constant fraction of medium phase is based on the decrease of interparticle contact, reducing the particle aggregates strength, and structure buildup during flow or meltdown. In its crystallized state, the particle network is less interconnected, providing less resistance to breakage and meltdown.

  16. Reducing capacity, chlorogenic acid content and biological activity in a collection of scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants.

    PubMed

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-09-26

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties.

  17. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  18. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Increase Student Knowledge and to Reduce Perceived Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Dillon, Sarah E.; Rabideaux, Lindsey; Alves, Kathryn D.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students' knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition…

  19. Consumer Support for Policies to Reduce the Sodium Content in School Cafeterias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sheena M.; Gunn, Janelle P.; Merlo, Caitlin L.; Tong, Xin; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess consumer support for policies lowering the sodium content of cafeteria foods in schools. Methods: Data were used from 9,634 adults aged >18 years who responded to questions about sodium in general and in school foods in a 2010 national mail panel survey. Prevalence of consumer…

  20. Consumer Support for Policies to Reduce the Sodium Content in School Cafeterias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Sheena M.; Gunn, Janelle P.; Merlo, Caitlin L.; Tong, Xin; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess consumer support for policies lowering the sodium content of cafeteria foods in schools. Methods: Data were used from 9,634 adults aged >18 years who responded to questions about sodium in general and in school foods in a 2010 national mail panel survey. Prevalence of consumer…

  1. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Increase Student Knowledge and to Reduce Perceived Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Dillon, Sarah E.; Rabideaux, Lindsey; Alves, Kathryn D.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students' knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition…

  2. Energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains for lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Byproducts of ethanol production have become an important source of nutrients for dairy cows in recent years but accurate energy values have yet to be determined. Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of redu...

  3. A home-based method to reduce phytate content and increase zinc bioavailability in maize-based complementary diets.

    PubMed

    Hotz, C; Gibson, R S; Temple, L

    2001-03-01

    This study aimed to develop and assess the feasibility of a home-based method to reduce the phytate content of maize and improve zinc bioavailability from maize-based complementary diets in rural Malawi. A method of extracting phytate through the soaking of pounded maize was developed, and found to reduce phytate content to 49% of unrefined maize. An educational program was used to teach the processing method to mothers of children receiving complementary foods in rural Malawian communities. Samples of maize flour prepared by this process by participants were collected and analysed for phytate and zinc content. Of these, 70% of samples were found to be adequately prepared; mean phytate content of these samples was 48% of unprocessed, unrefined maize flour controls. Most participants found the cooked product to have an acceptable taste (99%) and texture (68%), and felt the processing method took little or no extra time (86%) and was culturally acceptable (96%). The phytate and zinc content of the processed maize flour samples analysed from community prepared samples was substituted into the dietary analysis of complementary foods for 9- to 11-month-old children (n = 31). The bioavailability of zinc from the complementary diet would predict an increase from low (24%) to moderate (33%) levels.

  4. Dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid elevate femur calcium and reduce zinc content in piglets.

    PubMed

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Weiler, Hope A

    2006-10-01

    Specific dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and long chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) elevate femur calcium content and enhance calcium balance. Mother's milk is associated with enhanced calcium balance and contains LCPUFAs; arachidonic acid (AA), and docosahexanoic acid (DHA). However, the effect of AA and DHA on calcium metabolism and other bone minerals during infancy is unknown. Thus, piglets received one of four formulas (15 d): control or with AA:DHA (0.5:0.1 g, 1.0:0.2 g, or 2.0:0.4 g/100 g of fat). Calcium absorption, femur mineral composition, and urinary mineral excretion. Main effects identified using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc analysis conducted using Duncan's multiple range test. Significant effects of diet were observed in femur calcium and zinc content, but not calcium absorption, urinary mineral excretion, femur ash weight, femur phosphorus, or femur magnesium content. The piglets receiving AA:DHA as 1.0:0.2 g/100 g of fat had 1.9% higher mg calcium/g of ash, but 8.6% lower mug zinc/g of ash compared with control. Thus, AA:DHA in a ratio of 5:1 does not affect mineral accretion, but AA plus DHA, in amounts similar to the upper limit of human milk, might be detrimental to bone mineralization over time due to lower zinc.

  5. The structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo NAD(+) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impurity content of reduced-activation ferritic steels and a vanadium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Bloom, E.E.

    1997-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze a reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steel and a vanadium alloy for low-level impurities that would compromise the reduced-activation characteristics of these materials. The ferritic steel was from the 5-ton IEA heat of modified F82H, and the vanadium alloy was from a 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti. To compare techniques for analysis of low concentrations of impurities, the vanadium alloy was also examined by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Two other reduced-activation steels and two commercial ferritic steels were also analyzed to determine the difference in the level of the detrimental impurities in the IEA heat and steels for which no extra effort was made to restrict some of the tramp impurities. Silver, cobalt, molybdenum, and niobium proved to be the tramp impurities of most importance. The levels observed in these two materials produced with present technology exceeded the limits for low activation for either shallow land burial or recycling. The chemical analyses provide a benchmark for the improvement in production technology required to achieve reduced activation; they also provide a set of concentrations for calculating decay characteristics for reduced-activation materials. The results indicate the progress that has been made and give an indication of what must still be done before the reduced-activation criteria can be achieved.

  7. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation increases phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power in Avena sativa.

    PubMed

    Ruhland, Christopher T; Fogal, Mitchell J; Buyarski, Christopher R; Krna, Matthew A

    2007-06-29

    We examined the influence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) on the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m)), bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and growth of Avena sativa. Treatments involved placing filters on frames over potted plants that reduced levels of biologically effective UV-B by either 71% (reduced UV-B) or by 19% (near-ambient UV-B) over the 52 day experiment (04 July-25 August 2002). Plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had 38% less total biomass than those under reduced UV-B. The reduction in biomass was mainly the result of a 24% lower leaf elongation rate, resulting in shorter leaves and less total leaf area than plants under reduced UV-B. In addition, plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had up to 17% lower F(v)/F(m) values early in the experiment, and this effect declined with plant age. Concentrations of bulk-soluble phenolics and FRAP values were 17 and 24% higher under near-ambient UV-B than under reduced UV-B, respectively. There was a positive relationship between bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations and FRAP values. There were no UV-B effects on concentrations of carotenoids (carotenes + xanthophylls).

  8. Does maintaining a bottle of adhesive without the lid significantly reduce the solvent content?

    PubMed

    Santana, Márcia Luciana Carregosa; Sousa Júnior, José Aginaldo de; Leal, Pollyana Caldeira; Faria-e-Silva, André Luis

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maintaining a bottle of adhesive without its lid on the solvent loss of the etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Three 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives with different solvents (acetone, ethanol or butanol) were used in this study. Drops of each adhesive were placed on an analytical balance and the adhesive mass was recorded until equilibrium was achieved (no significant mass alteration within time). The solvent content of each adhesive and evaporation rate of solvents were measured (n=3). Two bottles of each adhesive were weighted. The bottles were maintained without their lids for 8 h in a stove at 37 ºC, after which the mass loss was measured. Based on mass alteration of drops, acetone-based adhesive showed the highest solvent content (46.5%, CI 95%: 35.8-54.7) and evaporation rate (1.11 %/s, CI95%: 0.63-1.60), whereas ethanol-based adhesive had the lowest values (10.1%, CI95%: 4.3-16.0; 0.03 %/s CI95%: 0.01-0.05). However, none of the adhesives bottles exhibited significant mass loss after sitting for 8 h without their lids (% from initial content; acetone - 96.5, CI 95%: 91.8-101.5; ethanol - 99.4, CI 95%: 98.4-100.4; and butanol - 99.3, CI 95%: 98.1-100.5). In conclusion, maintaining the adhesive bottle without lid did not induce significant solvent loss, irrespective the concentration and evaporation rate of solvent.

  9. Diet and Exercise Interventions Reduce Intrahepatic Fat Content and Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Krupa; Stufflebam, Abby; Hilton, Tiffany N.; Sinacore, David R.; Klein, Samuel; Villareal, Dennis T.

    2009-01-01

    Both obesity and aging increase intrahepatic fat (IHF) content, which leads to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. We evaluated the effects of diet and diet in conjunction with exercise on IHF content and associated metabolic abnormalities in obese older adults. Eighteen obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) older (≥65 years old) adults completed a 6-month clinical trial. Participants were randomized to diet (D group; n=9) or diet+exercise (D+E group; n=9). Primary outcome was IHF quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Secondary outcomes included insulin sensitivity (assessed by oral glucose tolerance), body composition (assessed by DXA), physical function (VO2peak and strength), glucose, lipids, and blood pressure. Body weight (D: −9±1%, D+E: −10±2%, both p<0.05) and fat mass (D: −13±3%, D+E −16±3%, both p<0.05) decreased in both groups but there was no difference between groups. IHF decreased to a similar extent in both groups (D: −46±11%, D+E: −45 ± 8%, both p<0.05), which was accompanied by comparable improvements in insulin sensitivity (D: 66±25%, D+E: 68±28%, both p<0.05). The relative decreases in IHF correlated directly with relative increases in insulin sensitivity index (r=−0.52; p<0.05). Improvements in VO2peak, strength, plasma triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol concentration, and diastolic blood pressure occurred in the D+E group (all p<0.05) but not in the D group. Diet with or without exercise results in significant decreases in IHF content accompanied by considerable improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese older adults. The addition of exercise to diet therapy improves physical function and other obesity- and aging-related metabolic abnormalities. PMID:19390517

  10. Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

    2014-11-01

    The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled.

  11. Use of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant to reduce the content in gluconic acid of must obtained from rotten grapes.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Rafael A; Maestre, Oscar; Mauricio, Juan C; Moreno, Juan J

    2009-03-25

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe YGS-5 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae G1 strains were used in order to develop an effective method for reducing the gluconic acid content of musts without altering the development of alcoholic fermentation or detracting from quality in the resulting wines. The best results in synthetic media were obtained by using a temperature of 24 degrees C and a sulfur dioxide rate below 100 mg/L under semiaerobic conditions. Sequential inoculation of the musts with YGS-5 first and fermentative G1 yeasts then reduced their gluconic acid content by 85% within 43 h; by contrast, simultaneous inoculation with YGS-5 and G1 provided a reduction of only 40%. The wines with the best sensory and analytical properties were obtained by sequentially inoculating the musts with YGS-5 and, once gluconic acid was removed, G1. The wine obtained by sequential inoculation without removing YGS-5 was that exhibiting the highest odorant activity value (OAV) for the volatile compounds in the floral odor series. A protocol for treating musts containing gluconic acid was developed and tested at the pilot plant scale. The treatment reduced the gluconic acid content by 70% within 46 h with no adverse effect on the analytical or sensory quality of the resulting wines.

  12. Reducing input data via image categorization to improve the speed of copyright content management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Watanabe, Eriko

    2015-02-01

    An optical correlator has the advantage of high data transfer speed and parallel operation. However, in copyright content management systems (CCMSs), the numerous video files that need to be downloaded from the Internet and input to the optical correlator constitute a bottleneck. This paper proposes an image categorization method for CCMSs that uses the difference in the color features between animation and live-action images to remove this bottleneck and increase the speed of CCMSs. The results of experiments conducted indicate that the proposed method achieves a live-action video true rejection rate of 86.7 % and an animation video false rejection rate of 13.3 %. This indicates that the proposed method can improve the overall speed of a CCMS more than twice the original speed.

  13. Citrus co-products as technological strategy to reduce residual nitrite content in meat products.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, M; Fernández-López, J; Sayas-Barbera, E; Sendra, E; Navarro, C; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2009-10-01

    Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in cured meat products because it inhibits outgrowth and neurotoxin formation by Clostridium botulinum, delays the development of oxidative rancidity, develops the characteristic flavor of cured meats, and reacts with myoglobin and stabilizes the red meat color. As soon as nitrite is added in the meat formulation, it starts to disappear and the nitrite that has not reacted with myoglobin and it is available corresponds to residual nitrite level. Health concerns relating to the use of nitrates and nitrites in cured meats (cooked and dry cured) trend toward decreased usage to alleviate the potential risk to the consumers from formation of carcinogenic compounds. Recently, some new ingredients principally agro-industrial co-products in general and those from the citrus industry in particular (albedo [with different treatments], dietetic fiber obtained from the whole co-product, and washing water used in the process to obtain the dietetic fiber) are seen as good sources of bio-compounds that may help to reduce the residual nitrite level in meat products. From these co-products, citrus fiber shows the highest potential to reduce the residual nitrite level, followed by the albedo and finally the washing water. The aim of this article is to describe the latest advances concerning the use of citrus co-products in meat products as a potential ingredient to reduce the nitrite level.

  14. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhou, Yanzhao; Zhao, Tong; Wu, Liying; Huang, Xin; Wu, Kuiwu; Xu, Lun; Li, Dahu; Liu, Shuhong; Zhao, Yongqi; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCs)in vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr) and DG (approximately 10 Torr) were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr). Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  15. Addiction Potential of Cigarettes With Reduced Nicotine Content in Populations With Psychiatric Disorders and Other Vulnerabilities to Tobacco Addiction.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T; Heil, Sarah H; Sigmon, Stacey C; Tidey, Jennifer W; Gaalema, Diann E; Hughes, John R; Stitzer, Maxine L; Durand, Hanna; Bunn, Janice Y; Priest, Jeff S; Arger, Christopher A; Miller, Mollie E; Bergeria, Cecilia L; Davis, Danielle R; Streck, Joanna M; Reed, Derek D; Skelly, Joan M; Tursi, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    A national policy is under consideration to reduce the nicotine content of cigarettes to lower nicotine addiction potential in the United States. To examine how smokers with psychiatric disorders and other vulnerabilities to tobacco addiction respond to cigarettes with reduced nicotine content. A multisite, double-blind, within-participant assessment of acute response to research cigarettes with nicotine content ranging from levels below a hypothesized addiction threshold to those representative of commercial cigarettes (0.4, 2.3, 5.2, and 15.8 mg/g of tobacco) at 3 academic sites included 169 daily smokers from the following 3 vulnerable populations: individuals with affective disorders (n = 56) or opioid dependence (n = 60) and socioeconomically disadvantaged women (n = 53). Data were collected from March 23, 2015, through April 25, 2016. After a brief smoking abstinence, participants were exposed to the cigarettes with varying nicotine doses across fourteen 2- to 4-hour outpatient sessions. Addiction potential of the cigarettes was assessed using concurrent choice testing, the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT), and validated measures of subjective effects, such as the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Among the 169 daily smokers included in the analysis (120 women [71.0%] and 49 men [29.0%]; mean [SD] age, 35.6 [11.4] years), reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes decreased the relative reinforcing effects of smoking in all 3 populations. Across populations, the 0.4-mg/g dose was chosen significantly less than the 15.8-mg/g dose in concurrent choice testing (mean [SEM] 30% [0.04%] vs 70% [0.04%]; Cohen d = 0.40; P < .001) and generated lower demand in the CPT (α = .027 [95% CI, 0.023-0.031] vs α = .019 [95% CI, 0.016-0.022]; Cohen d = 1.17; P < .001). Preference for higher over lower nicotine content cigarettes could be reversed by increasing the response cost necessary to obtain the higher dose (mean [SEM], 61% [0

  16. Extracellular protons reduce quantal content and prolong synaptic currents at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, David J

    2011-10-01

    Fluctuations in extracellular pH occur in the nervous system in response to a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as ischemia, hypercapnea, and high-frequency activity. Using the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction, the author has examined acute effects of low and high pH on excitability and synaptic transmission. Acidification rapidly and reversibly reduces the size of electrically evoked excitatory junctional currents (EJCs) in a concentration-dependent manner, with transmission nearly abolished at pH 5.0. Conversely, raising pH to 7.8 increases EJC amplitude significantly. Further elevation to pH 8.5 causes an initial increase in amplitude, followed by profound, long-lasting depression of the synapse. Amplitudes of spontaneous miniature EJCs (mEJCs) are modestly, but significantly reduced at pH 5.0. It is therefore the number of quanta released per action potential, rather than the size of individual quanta, that is most strongly affected. Decay times of both EJCs and mEJCs are dramatically lengthened at low pH, suggesting that glutamate remains in the synaptic cleft for much longer than normal. Presynaptic excitability is also reduced, as indicated by increased latency between nerve shock and EJC onset. The response to low pH was not altered by mutations in genes encoding Transient Receptor Potential, Mucolipin subfamily (TRPML) and Slowpoke ion channels, which had previously been implicated as possible targets of extracellular protons. The author concludes that extracellular protons have strong effects on the release of glutamate and the time course of synaptic currents. These phenotypes can be exploited to study the mechanisms of acid-mediated changes in neuronal function, and to pursue the way in which pH modulates synaptic function in normal and pathophysiological conditions.

  17. Loss of Inositol Phosphorylceramide Sphingolipid Mannosylation Induces Plant Immune Responses and Reduces Cellulose Content in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Lin; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Rennie, Emilie A.; Murawska, Gosia M.; Lao, Jeemeng; Yan, Jingwei; Tsai, Alex Yi-Lin; Baidoo, Edward E. K.; Xu, Jun; Keasling, Jay D.; Demura, Taku; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Scheller, Henrik V.; Mortimer, Jenny C.

    2016-11-28

    Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) are a class of glycosylated sphingolipids found in plants, fungi, and protozoa. These lipids are abundant in the plant plasma membrane, forming ~25% of total plasma membrane lipids. Little is known about the function of the glycosylated headgroup, but two recent studies have indicated that they play a key role in plant signaling and defense. Here, we show that a member of glycosyltransferase family 64, previously named ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS1, is likely a Golgi-localized GIPC-specific mannosyl-transferase, which we renamed GIPC MANNOSYL-TRANSFERASE1 (GMT1). Sphingolipid analysis revealed that the Arabidopsis thaliana gmt1 mutant almost completely lacks mannose-carrying GIPCs. Heterologous expression of GMT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cv Bright Yellow 2 resulted in the production of non-native mannosylated GIPCs. gmt1 displays a severe dwarfed phenotype and a constitutive hypersensitive response characterized by elevated salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels, similar to that we previously reported for the Golgi-localized, GIPC-specific, GDP-Man transporter GONST1 (Mortimer et al., 2013). Unexpectedly, we show that gmt1 cell walls have a reduction in cellulose content, although other matrix polysaccharides are unchanged.

  18. Loss of Inositol Phosphorylceramide Sphingolipid Mannosylation Induces Plant Immune Responses and Reduces Cellulose Content in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Rennie, Emilie A; Murawska, Gosia M; Lao, Jeemeng; Yan, Jingwei; Tsai, Alex Yi-Lin; Baidoo, Edward E K; Xu, Jun; Keasling, Jay D; Demura, Taku; Kawai-Yamada, Maki; Scheller, Henrik V; Mortimer, Jenny C

    2016-12-01

    Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) are a class of glycosylated sphingolipids found in plants, fungi, and protozoa. These lipids are abundant in the plant plasma membrane, forming ∼25% of total plasma membrane lipids. Little is known about the function of the glycosylated headgroup, but two recent studies have indicated that they play a key role in plant signaling and defense. Here, we show that a member of glycosyltransferase family 64, previously named ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS1, is likely a Golgi-localized GIPC-specific mannosyl-transferase, which we renamed GIPC MANNOSYL-TRANSFERASE1 (GMT1). Sphingolipid analysis revealed that the Arabidopsis thaliana gmt1 mutant almost completely lacks mannose-carrying GIPCs. Heterologous expression of GMT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cv Bright Yellow 2 resulted in the production of non-native mannosylated GIPCs. gmt1 displays a severe dwarfed phenotype and a constitutive hypersensitive response characterized by elevated salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels, similar to that we previously reported for the Golgi-localized, GIPC-specific, GDP-Man transporter GONST1 (Mortimer et al., 2013). Unexpectedly, we show that gmt1 cell walls have a reduction in cellulose content, although other matrix polysaccharides are unchanged. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Loss of Inositol Phosphorylceramide Sphingolipid Mannosylation Induces Plant Immune Responses and Reduces Cellulose Content in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Fang, Lin; Ishikawa, Toshiki; Rennie, Emilie A.; ...

    2016-11-28

    Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) are a class of glycosylated sphingolipids found in plants, fungi, and protozoa. These lipids are abundant in the plant plasma membrane, forming ~25% of total plasma membrane lipids. Little is known about the function of the glycosylated headgroup, but two recent studies have indicated that they play a key role in plant signaling and defense. Here, we show that a member of glycosyltransferase family 64, previously named ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS1, is likely a Golgi-localized GIPC-specific mannosyl-transferase, which we renamed GIPC MANNOSYL-TRANSFERASE1 (GMT1). Sphingolipid analysis revealed that the Arabidopsis thaliana gmt1 mutant almost completely lacks mannose-carrying GIPCs. Heterologousmore » expression of GMT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cv Bright Yellow 2 resulted in the production of non-native mannosylated GIPCs. gmt1 displays a severe dwarfed phenotype and a constitutive hypersensitive response characterized by elevated salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels, similar to that we previously reported for the Golgi-localized, GIPC-specific, GDP-Man transporter GONST1 (Mortimer et al., 2013). Unexpectedly, we show that gmt1 cell walls have a reduction in cellulose content, although other matrix polysaccharides are unchanged.« less

  20. Reducing the sodium content of high-salt foods: effect on cardiovascular disease in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Melanie Y; Steyn, Krisela; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Tollman, Stephen; Hofman, Karen J

    2012-06-20

    Average salt intake in South African (SA) adults, 8.1 g/day, is higher than the recommended 4 - 6 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization. Much salt consumption arises from non-discretionary intake (the highest proportion from bread, with contributions from margarine, soup mixes and gravies). This contributes to an increasing burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To provide SA-specific information on the number of fatal (stroke, ischaemic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease) and non-fatal CVD events that would be prevented each year following a reduction in the sodium content of bread, soup mix, seasoning and margarine. Based on the potential sodium reduction in selected products, we calculated the expected change in population-level systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality due to CVD and stroke. Proposed reductions would decrease the average salt intake by 0.85 g/person/day. This would result in 7 400 fewer CVD deaths and 4 300 less non-fatal strokes per year compared with 2008. Cost savings of up to R300 million would also occur. Population-wide strategies have great potential to achieve public health gains as they do not rely on individual behaviour or a well-functioning health system. This is the first study to show the potential effect of a salt reduction policy on health in SA.

  1. Tailoring the Oxygen Content of Graphite and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Specific Applications

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kubo, Takuya; Nishina, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is widely recognized as a promising material in a variety of fields, but its structure and composition has yet to be fully controlled. We have developed general strategies to control the oxidation degree of graphene-like materials via two methods: oxidation of graphite by KMnO4 in H2SO4 (oGO), and reduction of highly oxidized GO by hydrazine (rGO). Even though the oxygen content may be the same, oGO and rGO have different properties, for example the adsorption ability, oxidation ability, and electron conductivity. These differences in property arise from the difference in the underlying graphitic structure and the type of defect present. Our results can be used as a guideline for the production of tailor-made graphitic carbons. As an example, we show that rGO with 23.1 wt% oxygen showed the best performance as an electrode of an electric double-layer capacitor. PMID:26911893

  2. Acrylamide in Caribbean foods - residual levels and their relation to reducing sugar and asparagine content.

    PubMed

    Bent, Grace-Anne; Maragh, Paul; Dasgupta, Tara

    2012-07-15

    The acrylamide levels in commercial and homemade Caribbean foods were determined by pre-derivatisation of acrylamide to 2-bromopropenamide and analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric (GC/MS) detection. Over 100 Caribbean food samples were analysed for the presence of acrylamide. These samples include: biscuits, breakfast cereals, banana chips and home-prepared foods: breadfruit; Artocarpus altilis, banana fritters, and dumplings. The limit of detection (LOD) for the GC/MS method was found to be dependent on the type of column used for the GC/MS analysis. The DB-1701 and the DB-VRX columns gave LODs of 20 and 4 μg/kg, respectively. Acrylamide has not been found in raw foods or foods which have been cooked by boiling. Its content in all other foods had concentrations in the range, 65-3,640 μg/kg. The relationship between acrylamide levels and precursor concentration as well as the health implications of our findings are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin E deficiency reduced lumbar bone calcium content in female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Chua, C W; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen.

  4. Tailoring the Oxygen Content of Graphite and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Specific Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kubo, Takuya; Nishina, Yuta

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is widely recognized as a promising material in a variety of fields, but its structure and composition has yet to be fully controlled. We have developed general strategies to control the oxidation degree of graphene-like materials via two methods: oxidation of graphite by KMnO4 in H2SO4 (oGO), and reduction of highly oxidized GO by hydrazine (rGO). Even though the oxygen content may be the same, oGO and rGO have different properties, for example the adsorption ability, oxidation ability, and electron conductivity. These differences in property arise from the difference in the underlying graphitic structure and the type of defect present. Our results can be used as a guideline for the production of tailor-made graphitic carbons. As an example, we show that rGO with 23.1 wt% oxygen showed the best performance as an electrode of an electric double-layer capacitor.

  5. A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF PROGRESSIVELY REDUCED NICOTINE CONTENT CIGARETTES ON SMOKING BEHAVIORS, BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE, AND SUBJECTIVE RATINGS

    PubMed Central

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Souprountchouk, Valentina; Tang, Kathy Z.; Dumont, Rachel L.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Carmella, Steven G.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Strasser, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. FDA has the authority to reduce cigarette nicotine content if found to benefit public health. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarette use does not appear to increase harm exposure, but studies have not rigorously assessed smoking behavior or utilized a comprehensive panel of biomarkers. This study examined the effects of progressively decreasing RNC cigarettes on smoking behaviors, biomarkers of exposure, and subjective ratings. Methods 158 daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers participated in a 35-day randomized, unblinded, parallel study. After a 5-day baseline period, participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 80) that smoked progressively decreasing RNC cigarettes during three 10-day periods, or control group (n =78) that smoked their own brand throughout the study. Results Daily cigarette consumption significantly increased for the intermediate RNCs (P’s < 0.001) but approached baseline rate for the lowest RNC (P = 0.686); in contrast, puffing behavior significantly decreased at intermediate levels and increased for the lowest RNC (P’s < 0.001). Cotinine and NNAL significantly decreased by RNC period (P’s ≤ 0.001–0.02), while CO boost initially increased (P’s = 0.001–0.005). 1-HOP did not change by period (P = 0.109). Conclusions Smoking behaviors changed by RNC period via CPD and puffing behavior. Biomarkers of exposure generally decreased with nicotine content. Impact Findings suggest that RNC use does not ubiquitously reduce smoking behaviors or biomarkers, yet the lowest RNC level tested may reduce harm exposure. This emphasizes the importance of utilizing multiple behavioral and biological measures to address the impact of RNC cigarette smoking. PMID:27197288

  6. Reduced GABA Content in the Motor Thalamus during Effective Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Alessandro; Fedele, Ernesto; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Galati, Salvatore; Marzetti, Francesco; Peppe, Antonella; Pastore, Francesco Saverio; Bernardi, Giorgio; Stanzione, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, is a well established therapeutic option, but its mechanisms of action are only partially known. In our previous study, the clinical transitions from OFF- to ON-state were not correlated with significant changes of GABA content inside GPi or substantia nigra reticulata. Here, biochemical effects of STN-DBS have been assessed in putamen (PUT), internal pallidus (GPi), and inside the antero-ventral thalamus (VA), the key station receiving pallidothalamic fibers. In 10 advanced PD patients undergoing surgery, microdialysis samples were collected before and during STN-DBS. cGMP, an index of glutamatergic transmission, was measured in GPi and PUT by radioimmunoassay, whereas GABA from VA was measured by HPLC. During clinically effective STN-DBS, we found a significant decrease in GABA extracellular concentrations in VA (−30%). Simultaneously, cGMP extracellular concentrations were enhanced in PUT (+200%) and GPi (+481%). These findings support a thalamic dis-inhibition, in turn re-establishing a more physiological corticostriatal transmission, as the source of motor improvement. They indirectly confirm the relevance of patterning (instead of mere changes of excitability) and suggest that a rigid interpretation of the standard model, at least when it indicates the hyperactive indirect pathway as key feature of hypokinetic signs, is unlikely to be correct. Finally, given the demonstration of a key role of VA in inducing clinical relief, locally administration of drugs modulating GABA transmission in thalamic nuclei could become an innovative therapeutic strategy. PMID:21519387

  7. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  8. Brain glutathione content and glutamate uptake are reduced in rats exposed to pre- and postnatal protein malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Feoli, Ana Maria; Siqueira, Ionara; Almeida, Lucia Maria V; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Battu, Cíntia; Wofchuk, Susana T; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Marcos Luiz; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2006-09-01

    The brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative insults and its antioxidant defense is dependent on its glutathione content. Protein malnutrition (PMN) is an important and very common insult during development and compromises antioxidant defenses in the body, particularly glutathione levels. We investigated whether brain glutathione content and related metabolic pathways, predominantly regulated by astrocytes (particularly glutamate uptake and glutamine synthesis), are altered by pre- and postnatal PMN in rats. Thus, we measured the glutathione content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutamate uptake activity in the cerebral cortex (Cx) and hippocampus of rats subjected to pre- and postnatal PMN and in nourished controls. Although malnourished rats exhibited an ontogenetic profile of glutathione levels in both brain regions similar to that of controls, they had lower levels on postnatal d 2 (P2); in Cx this decrease persisted until postnatal d 15. In addition, we found other changes, such as reduced total antioxidant reactivity and glutathione peroxidase activity on P2, and these were not accompanied by alterations in free radical levels or lipoperoxidation in either brain region. Moreover, malnourished rats had elevated GS and reduced glutamate uptake. Taken together, these alterations indicate specific changes in astrocyte metabolism, possibly responsible for the higher vulnerability to excitotoxic/oxidative damage in malnourished rats. The lower antioxidant defense appears to be the main alteration that causes oxidative imbalance, rather than an increase in reactive oxygen species. Moreover, a recovery of altered metabolic variables may occur during adulthood, despite persistent PMN.

  9. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

    2011-10-26

    The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Showing Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovjan, A.C.; Kretlow, A.; Miller, L.M.

    2010-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic {double_bond}CH stretching mode at 3012 cm{sup -1}. The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p < 0.01) but remained low and relatively constant in PSAPP mice. Thus, these findings indicate that unsaturated lipid content is reduced in hippocampal white matter during amyloid pathogenesis and that maintaining unsaturated lipid content early in the disease may be critical in avoiding progression of the disease.

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Reducing vulnerability to soft errors in sub-100 nm content addressable memory circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Sun; Jiaxing, Zhang; Minxuan, Zhang; Yue, Hao

    2010-02-01

    We first study the impacts of soft errors on various types of CAM for different feature sizes. After presenting a soft error immune CAM cell, SSB-RCAM, we propose two kinds of reliable CAM, DCF-RCAM and DCK-RCAM. In addition, we present an ignore mechanism to protect dual cell redundancy CAMs against soft errors. Experimental results indicate that the 11T-NOR CAM cell has an advantage in soft error immunity. Based on 11T-NOR, the proposed reliable CAMs reduce the SER by about 81% on average with acceptable overheads. The SER of dual cell redundancy CAMs can also be decreased using the ignore mechanism in specific applications.

  12. Betalain rich functional extract with reduced salts and nitrate content from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) using membrane separation technology.

    PubMed

    Mereddy, Ram; Chan, Adeline; Fanning, Kent; Nirmal, Nilesh; Sultanbawa, Yasmina

    2017-01-15

    An initial laboratory-scale evaluation of separation characteristics of membranes with nominal molecular weight cut-offs (NMWCO) ranging from 30kD down to 0.5kD indicated effective separation of betalains in the 0.5kD region. Subsequent pilot-level trials using 1kD, loose reverse osmosis (LRO) and reverse osmosis (RO) spiral-wound membranes showed LRO membrane to be very efficient with up to 96% salt and 47% other dissolved solids removed while retaining majority of the pigment (∼98%) in the betalain rich extract (BRE). The total betalain content in the BRE increased up to 46%, the highest recovery reported so far at pilot scale level. Interestingly, more than 95% of the nitrates were removed from the BRE after the three diafiltrations. These studies indicate that membrane technology is the most efficient technique to produce BRE with highly reduced amounts of salts and nitrate content.

  13. Aptitude of Saccharomyces yeasts to ferment unripe grapes harvested during cluster thinning for reducing alcohol content of wine.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Barbara; Nadai, Chiara; Vendramini, Chiara; Fernandes Lemos Junior, Wilson Josè; Carlot, Milena; Skelin, Andrea; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2016-11-07

    Among the viticultural techniques developed to obtain wine with reduced alcohol content, the use of unripe grapes with low sugar and high malic acid concentration, harvested at cluster thinning, was recently explored. So far, no studies have evaluated the fermentation performances of Saccharomyces in unripe grape musts, in terms of fermentation ability and reducing malic acid contents, to improve the quality of this low-alcohol beverage. In this work, we evaluated 24 S. cerevisiae strains isolated from Italian and Croatian vineyards with different fermentation aptitudes. Moreover, four S. paradoxus were considered, as previous works demonstrated that strains belonging to this species were able to degrade high malic acid amounts in standard musts. The industrial strain S. cerevisiae 71B was added as reference. Sugar and malic acid contents were modified in synthetic musts in order to understand the effect of their concentrations on alcoholic fermentation and malic acid degradation. S. cerevisiae fermentation performances improved when glucose concentration decreased and malic acid level increased. The conditions that simulate unripe grape must, i.e. low glucose and high malic acid content were found to enhance S. cerevisiae ability to degrade malic acid. On the contrary, S. paradoxus strains were able to degrade high amounts of malic acid only in conditions that resemble ripe grape must, i.e. high glucose and low malic acid concentration. In fermentation trials when low glucose concentrations were used, at high malic acid levels S. cerevisiae strains produced higher glycerol than at low malic acid condition. Malic acid degradation ability, tested on the best performing S. cerevisiae strains, was enhanced in fermentation trials when unripe grape must was used.

  14. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2016-10-27

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength.

  15. If exposure to aluminium in antiperspirants presents health risks, its content should be reduced.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Sappino, André-Pascal; Deloncle, Roger; Guillard, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Since aluminium (Al) pervades our environment, the scientific community has for many years raised concerns regarding its safety in humans. Al is present in numerous cosmetics such as antiperspirants, lipsticks and sunscreens. Al chlorohydrate is the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics and may constitute for Al a key exposure route to the human body and a potential source of damage. An in vitro study has demonstrated that Al from antiperspirant can be absorbed through viable human stripped skin. The potential toxicity of Al has been clearly shown and recent works convincingly argue that Al could be involved in cancerogenic processes. Nowadays, for example, Al is suspected of being involved in breast cancer. Recent work in cells in culture has lent credence to the hypothesis that this metal could accumulate in the mammary gland and selectively interfere with the biological properties of breast epithelial cells, thereby promoting a cascade of alterations reminiscent of the early phases of malignant transformation. In addition, several studies suggest that the presence of Al in human breast could influence metastatic process. As a consequence, given that the toxicity of Al has been widely recognized and that it is not a physiological component in human tissues, reducing the concentration of this metal in antiperspirants is a matter of urgency.

  16. Booster Vaccination: The Role of Reduced Antigen Content Vaccines as a Preschool Booster

    PubMed Central

    Conversano, Michele; Zivelonghi, Giambattista; Zoppi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The need for boosters for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, and polio, starting from preschool age, is related to the waning immune protection conferred by vaccination, the elimination/reduction of natural boosters due to large-scale immunization programs, and the possibility of reintroduction of wild agents from endemic areas. Taking into account the relevance of safety/tolerability in the compliance with vaccination among the population, it have been assessed whether today enough scientific evidences are available to support the use of dTap-IPV booster in preschool age. The review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed search engine. A total of 41 works has been selected; besides, the documentation produced by the World Health Organization, the European Centre for Disease Control, and the Italian Ministry of Health has been consulted. Many recent papers confirm the opportunity to use a low antigenic dose vaccine starting from 4 to 6 years of age. There is also evidence that 10 years after immunization the rate of seroprotected subjects against diphtheria does not differ significantly between those vaccinated with paediatric dose (DTaP) or reduced dose (dTaP or dTap) product. The dTpa vaccine is highly immunogenic for diphtheria toxoids regardless of prior vaccination history (2 + 1 and 3 + 1 schedules). PMID:24678509

  17. The role of biological processes in reducing both odor impact and pathogen content during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Orzi, Valentina; Scaglia, Barbara; Lonati, Samuele; Riva, Carlo; Boccasile, Gabriele; Alborali, Giovanni Loris; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) produces renewable energy, but it also plays a role in reducing the impact of digestates, both by reducing odor and pathogen content. Ten full-scale biogas plants characterized by different plant designs (e.g. single digesters, parallel or serial digesters), plant powers (ranging from 180 to 999 kWe), hydraulic retention time (HRT) (ranging between 20 to 70 days) and feed mixes were monitored and odors and pathogens were observed in both ingestates and digestates. Results obtained indicated that MAD reduced odors (OU) from, on average, OUingestate=99,106±149,173 OU m(-2) h(-1) (n=15) to OU digestate=1106±771 OU m(-2) h(-1) (n=15). Pathogens were also reduced during MAD both because of ammonia production during the process and competition for substrate between pathogens and indigenous microflora, i.e. Enterobacteriaceae from 6.85∗10(3)±1.8∗10(1) to 1.82∗10(1)±3.82∗10(1); fecal Coliform from 1.82∗10(4)±9.09 to 2.45∗10(1)±3.8∗10(1); Escherichia coli from 8.72∗10(3)±2.4∗10(1) to 1.8∗10(1)±2.94∗10(1); Clostridium perfringens from 6.4∗10(4)±7.7 to 5.2∗10(3)±8.1 (all data are expressed as CFU g(-1) ww). Plants showed different abilities to reduce pathogen indicators, depending on the pH value and toxic ammonia content.

  18. Efficacy of different levels of Escherichia coli phytase in broiler diets with a reduced P content.

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, K; Jankowski, J; Jeroch, H

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli-derived 6-phytase expressed in Pichia pastoris (Optiphos) was added to broiler rations with considerably reduced levels of phosphorus (by 1.5 g/kg). This experiment, performed over a five-week period, involved Ross 308 male chickens kept in battery cages. Each group was divided into 9 subgroups, each of 9 chickens (81 birds per treatment). Birds were allocated to a positive control group (I), a negative control group (II) and three phytase-supplemented groups (III-V--the diet as in group II + 250, 500 and 750 FTU Escherichia coli phytase/kg feed, respectively). The major components of starter and grower diets were corn, soybean and wheat meals. Starter and grower diets (in meal form) contained 6.73 and 6.05 g total P/kg, 4.05 and 3.46 g available P (aP)/kg, respectively, in group I, and 5.23 and 4.55 total P/kg, 2.54 g and 1.95 g aP /kg, respectively, in groups II-V. Phytase efficacy was evaluated based on performance results, carcass quality and bone mineralization. P reduction in group II decreased weight gains by 9.1% and increased feed conversion by approximately 8.4%, compared with group I. Diet supplementation with phytase in groups IV and V significantly compensated for the decrease in performance observed in group II. The differences in dressing percentage between group II and groups III and V were significant. Phosphorus reduction in the diets negatively influenced the process of bone mineralization, which was enhanced by phytase supplementation.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and methylmercury act synergistically to reduce rat brain dopamine content in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bemis, J C; Seegal, R F

    1999-01-01

    Consumption of contaminated Great Lakes fish by pregnant women is associated with decreased birth weight and deficits in cognitive function in their infants and children. These fish contain many known and suspected anthropogenic neurotoxicants, making it difficult to determine which contaminant(s) are responsible for the observed deficits. We have undertaken a series of experiments to determine the relevant toxicants by comparing the neurotoxic effects of two of these contaminants--polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg)--both of which are recognized neurotoxicants. Striatal punches obtained from adult rat brain were exposed to PCBs only, MeHg only, or the two in combination, and tissue and media concentrations of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to PCBs only reduced tissue DA and elevated media DA in a dose-dependent fashion. Exposure to MeHg only did not significantly affect either measure. However, when striatal punches were simultaneously exposed to PCBs and MeHg, there were significantly greater decreases in tissue DA concentrations and elevations in media DA than those caused by PCBs only, in the absence of changes in media lactate dehydrogenase concentrations. Elevations in both tissue and media 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations were also observed. We suggest that the significant interactions between these two toxicants may be due to a common site of action (i.e., toxicant-induced increases in intracellular calcium and changes in second messenger systems) that influences DA function. The synergism between these contaminants suggests that future revisions of fish-consumption guidelines should consider contaminant interactions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10544155

  20. Alternate-day fasting reduces global cell proliferation rates independently of dietary fat content in mice.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Roohk, Donald J; Bruss, Mathew; Hellerstein, Marc K

    2009-04-01

    Cell proliferation rates represent a central element in the promotional phase of carcinogenesis. Modified alternate-day fasting (ADF), i.e., a partial 24-h fast alternated with 24-h ad libitum feeding, reduces global cell proliferation rates on a low-fat (LF) diet. Because the majority of Americans consume a diet that is high in fat, testing the antiproliferative ability of ADF on a high-fat (HF) diet is important in terms of diet tolerability in humans. Accordingly, we examined the effects of 85% restriction on the fast day (ADF-85%) with an LF or HF background diet on proliferation rates of various tissues. In a 4-wk study, male C57BL/6J mice were randomized to one of three groups: 1) ADF-85%-LF, 2) ADF-85%-HF, or 3) control. Body weights of the ADF mice were similar to that of controls throughout the study. A hyperphagic response (P < 0.001) was noted only in the ADF-85%-LF group ( approximately 55% more food consumed on the feed day than controls). No differences were noted for mean energy intake between ADF groups on feed or fast days. Equivalent reductions (P < 0.01) in epidermal, prostate, liver, and splenic T-cell proliferation rates were observed in both ADF groups versus controls. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 levels decreased (P < 0.05) similarly in both ADF groups. Insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA levels were not affected by either treatment. These findings indicate that ADF has an antiproliferative effect over a wide range of fat intakes, which may enhance adherence to ADF in humans.

  1. Parametric investigation on the effect of nitrogen to reduce SF6 content in spark gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Avinash; Khaidir, Nur; Ishak, Sanuri; Ghani, Basri Abdul; Chakrabarty, Chandan; Permal, Navitharshaani; Ahmad, Harizan

    2017-03-01

    Almost all the MV and HV switchgears used by power utilities for interrupting faults are Sulphur Hexaflouride SF6 gas circuit breakers as this gas has the best dielectric properties to quench the onset of an arc in the event of fault. However due to strong dissociating properties of this gas when in contact with air that can release fluorine into the atmosphere, the Kyoto protocol has mandated to reduce the usage of SF6 in the future. SF6 is a greenhouse gas and it's about 3000 more severe than CO2. And that's the reason for replacing this gas. A close match in the quenching properties to SF6 that is now being intensively researched is nitrogen N2. This gas is considered to be an inert gas, and its release into the atmosphere has no harmful effects (except for asphyxiation - which can be easily handled with awareness). As the need for a replacement of SF6 becomes critical in the near future, the urgency to find the right gas is immediate. Hence the proposed work in this paper is to make a comprehensive parametric investigation of N2 gas in vacuum spark-gap. The spark-gap is chosen due to flexibility in changing the gap distance and easily be housed in vacuum. The parameters to be investigated are pure N2 and N2/ SF6 mix. The settling-time of the electrical break-down voltage and current are measured using voltage probe and Pearson probe. This time is paramount as it determines the speed of breaking the circuit. A faster breaking time ensures the safety of other HV equipment in the circuit. A comparative study between the various parameters will be conducted to obtain the best recipe (gas mix and gap distance) that gives the shortest settling time the breakdown using N2/ SF6/Mixture gas was successfully conducted and a Paschen curve has been established.

  2. Adding irrelevant information to the content prime reduces the prime-induced unmasking effect on speech recognition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meihong; Li, Huahui; Gao, Yayue; Lei, Ming; Teng, Xiangbin; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the early part of a nonsense sentence in quiet improves recognition of the last keyword of the sentence in a masker, especially a speech masker. This priming effect depends on higher-order processing of the prime information during target-masker segregation. This study investigated whether introducing irrelevant content information into the prime reduces the priming effect. The results showed that presenting the first four syllables (not including the second and third keywords) of the three-keyword target sentence in quiet significantly improved recognition of the second and third keywords in a two-talker-speech masker but not a noise masker, relative to the no-priming condition. Increasing the prime content from four to eight syllables (including the first and second keywords of the target sentence) further improved recognition of the third keyword in either the noise or speech masker. However, if the last four syllables of the eight-syllable prime were replaced by four irrelevant syllables (which did not occur in the target sentence), all the prime-induced speech-recognition improvements disappeared. Thus, knowing the early part of the target sentence mainly reduces informational masking of target speech, possibly by helping listeners attend to the target speech. Increasing the informative content of the prime further improves target-speech recognition probably by reducing the processing load. The reduction of the priming effect by adding irrelevant information to the prime is not due to introducing additional masking of the target speech. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    PubMed

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  4. High content reduced graphene oxide reinforced copper with a bioinspired nano-laminated structure and large recoverable deformation ability

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ding-Bang; Cao, Mu; Guo, Qiang; Tan, Zhanqiu; Fan, Genlian; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    By using CuO/graphene-oxide/CuO sandwich-like nanosheets as the building blocks, bulk nacre-inspired copper matrix nano-laminated composite reinforced by molecular-level dispersed and ordered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with content as high as ∼45 vol% was fabricated via a combined process of assembly, reduction and consolidation. Thanks to nanoconfinement effect, reinforcing effect, as well as architecture effect, the nanocomposite shows increased specific strength and at least one order of magnitude greater recoverable deformation ability as compared with monolithic Cu matrix. PMID:27647264

  5. High content reduced graphene oxide reinforced copper with a bioinspired nano-laminated structure and large recoverable deformation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ding-Bang; Cao, Mu; Guo, Qiang; Tan, Zhanqiu; Fan, Genlian; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Di

    2016-09-01

    By using CuO/graphene-oxide/CuO sandwich-like nanosheets as the building blocks, bulk nacre-inspired copper matrix nano-laminated composite reinforced by molecular-level dispersed and ordered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with content as high as ∼45 vol% was fabricated via a combined process of assembly, reduction and consolidation. Thanks to nanoconfinement effect, reinforcing effect, as well as architecture effect, the nanocomposite shows increased specific strength and at least one order of magnitude greater recoverable deformation ability as compared with monolithic Cu matrix.

  6. Reducing the content of carrier polymer in pectin nanofibers by electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sisi; Yao, Bing; Sun, Xue; Hu, Junli; Zhou, Yifa; Liu, Yichun

    2016-02-01

    Nanofibers of natural polymers represent an essential class of materials in biomedicine. Pectin is a plant-sourced anionic polysaccharide widely used in food products and biomedicine owning to its abundance, biocompatibility and inherent bioactivity. However, current electrospun pectin nanofibers are suffered from high content of carrier polymer, which may lead to low integrity and mechanical strength as well as in vivo toxicity. We report here a strategy to reduce the content of carrier polymer, polyethylene oxide (PEO) in our study, in pectin nanofibers, via electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing. With improved electrospinning condition, we first enabled electrospinning of pectin nanofibers at low PEO loading. Then the PEO was removed by washing with a selective solvent to give pectin nanofibers containing only 1.5% PEO. The strategy was versatile to pectins from various sources and of various degree of esterification. The pectin nanofibers exhibited Young's modulus as high as 358.5MPa. In view of their rich bioactivity, the pectin nanofibers of low content of carrier polymer are promising materials for a wide range of biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Zero added oxygen for high quality sputtered ITO. A data science investigation of reduced Sn-content and added Zr

    DOE PAGES

    Peshek, Timothy J.; Burst, James M.; Coutts, Timothy J.; ...

    2016-01-19

    Here, we demonstrate mobilities of >45 cm2/V s for sputtered tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films at zero added oxygen. All films were deposited with 5 wt. % SnO2, instead of the more conventional 8–10 wt. %, and had varying ZrO2 content from 0 to 3 wt. %, with a subsequent reduction in In2O3 content. Moreover, these films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from nominally stoichiometric targets with varying oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient. Anomalous behavior was discovered for films with no Zr-added, where a bimodality of high and low mobilities was discovered for nominally similar growth conditions.more » However, all films showed the lowest resistivity and highest mobilities when the oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient was zero. This result is contrasted with several other reports of ITO transport performance having a maximum for small but nonzero oxygen partial pressure. Our result is attributed to the reduced concentration of SnO2. The addition of ZrO2 yielded the highest mobilities at >55 cm2/V s and the films showed a modest increase in optical transmission with increasing Zr-content.« less

  8. Zero added oxygen for high quality sputtered ITO. A data science investigation of reduced Sn-content and added Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Peshek, Timothy J.; Burst, James M.; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.

    2016-01-19

    Here, we demonstrate mobilities of >45 cm2/V s for sputtered tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films at zero added oxygen. All films were deposited with 5 wt. % SnO2, instead of the more conventional 8–10 wt. %, and had varying ZrO2 content from 0 to 3 wt. %, with a subsequent reduction in In2O3 content. Moreover, these films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from nominally stoichiometric targets with varying oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient. Anomalous behavior was discovered for films with no Zr-added, where a bimodality of high and low mobilities was discovered for nominally similar growth conditions. However, all films showed the lowest resistivity and highest mobilities when the oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient was zero. This result is contrasted with several other reports of ITO transport performance having a maximum for small but nonzero oxygen partial pressure. Our result is attributed to the reduced concentration of SnO2. The addition of ZrO2 yielded the highest mobilities at >55 cm2/V s and the films showed a modest increase in optical transmission with increasing Zr-content.

  9. Zero added oxygen for high quality sputtered ITO: A data science investigation of reduced Sn-content and added Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Peshek, Timothy J.; Burst, James M.; Coutts, Timothy J.; Gessert, Timothy A.

    2016-03-15

    The authors demonstrate mobilities of >45 cm{sup 2}/V s for sputtered tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films at zero added oxygen. All films were deposited with 5 wt. % SnO{sub 2}, instead of the more conventional 8–10 wt. %, and had varying ZrO{sub 2} content from 0 to 3 wt. %, with a subsequent reduction in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. These films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from nominally stoichiometric targets with varying oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient. Anomalous behavior was discovered for films with no Zr-added, where a bimodality of high and low mobilities was discovered for nominally similar growth conditions. However, all films showed the lowest resistivity and highest mobilities when the oxygen partial pressure in the sputter ambient was zero. This result is contrasted with several other reports of ITO transport performance having a maximum for small but nonzero oxygen partial pressure. This result is attributed to the reduced concentration of SnO{sub 2}. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} yielded the highest mobilities at >55 cm{sup 2}/V s and the films showed a modest increase in optical transmission with increasing Zr-content.

  10. Formulation of yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content by using a Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Conte, Amalia; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Lonigro, S Lisa; Padalino, Lucia; Pontonio, Erica; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2017-04-15

    A Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product (Bio21B), obtained after strain growth (14h) in a wheat flour-based medium, was applied in the bread-making process as taste enhancer, in order to obtain a yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content (20% and 50%) with respect to a reference bread (REF) not containing the fermentation product. Sensory analysis indicated that the Bio21B bread with salt reduced by 50% had a pleasant taste similar to the salt-containing bread (REF). l-Glutamate and total free amino acid content did not differ between REF and Bio21B breads, while the acids lactic, acetic, phenyllactic, 4-OH-phenyllactic and indole-3-lactic were present only in Bio21B breads. Moreover, the presence of several umami (uridine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate, adenosine, and guanosine) and kokumi (γ-l-glutamyl-l-valine) taste-related molecules was ascertained both in REF and in Bio21B breads. Therefore, a possible role of the acidic molecules in compensating the negative perception of salt reduction can be hypothesized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Partial suckling of lambs reduced the linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid contents of marketable milk in Chios ewes.

    PubMed

    Tzamaloukas, O; Orford, M; Miltiadou, D; Papachristoforou, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of weaning systems applied in a commercial dairy sheep farm on the fatty acid (FA) composition of marketable milk produced. Forty second parity, purebred Chios ewes were allocated to the following weaning treatments: (a) ewes were weaned from their lambs at 48 h after birth and machine milked twice daily [no lambs (NL) group, n=20]; or, (b) starting 48 h postpartum, ewes were separated from their lambs for 12h during the evening, machine milked once daily the following morning, and lambs were allowed to suckle for 12 h during the day for the first 5 wk of lactation [partial suckling (PS) group, n=20]. After weaning of the PS lambs at wk 6 of age, all ewes were machine milked twice daily. Commercial milk yield and milk composition was recorded weekly (fat, protein, FA content) or fortnightly (somatic cell counts) throughout the first 10 wk of lactation. The PS ewes compared with NL group produced commercial milk lower in milk yield, milk fat, and somatic cell counts, but not in protein content during the first 5-wk period. Such differences were not observed after weaning of the PS lambs. The FA profile of commercial milk was also affected by partial suckling during the preweaning period. Total polyunsaturated FA were higher in NL compared with PS ewe milk at wk 1, 2, 4, and 5 (on average, 21% higher), whereas no differences were detected between NL and PS ewe milk from wk 6 to 10 of lactation. From the polyunsaturated FA, linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,cis-12) and conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,trans-11; rumenic acid) were particularly affected, showing on average a reduction of 18 and 38%, respectively. From the monounsaturated FA, vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans-11) was affected during wk 1 and 2 of the treatment period, with the PS ewe milk having reduced content compared with the NL milk. Other unsaturated FA, such as oleic acid and α-linolenic acid, or saturated FA were not found to be affected by the

  12. [Primary study on contents of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and organic matter from intertidal zone at Chongming Dongtan].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qi; Cui, Yu-Xue; Chen, Qing-Qiang; Lü, Bao-Yi; Xie, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Collected soil samples from different tidal flats and elevation in Chongming Dongtan wetland, then conducted sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) based on MPN method, determined organic matter content and calculated SO4(2-)/Cl- molar ratio, for the research on the distribution of SRB, relevance to soil organic matter content as well as influence of plant rhizosphere environment on SRB growth. The results show the distribution of SRB is ranked as middle flat > climax flat > bald flat. The same tidal flats at different depths, the SRB levels are shown as 51-52 cm > 21-22 cm > 81-82 cm, therefore 51-52 cm soil depth of Dongtan wetland is the suitable area for SRB to grow. However, in different tidal and depth, the distribution of organic matter content presents climax flat > middle flat > bald flat. From 21-51 cm, as the depth increasing, the organic matter content decreases while the amount of SRB significantly increasing, which indicates SRB utilizes the soil organic matter to carry out reduction reaction. The SO4(2-)/Cl- molar ratios of all soil samples are less than 0.05, indicating that SRB are actively engaged in sulfate reduction. The concentration of SRB in reed rhizosphere soil is the highest, showing that Phragmites australis rhizosphere environment in Dongtan wetland could enhance SRB growth, while the number of SRB in Spartina alterniflora rhizosphere environment is relatively lower than the non-rhizosphere environment, indicating that the rhizosphere effect has different effects on SRB in Dongtan tidal flats.

  13. Calcium homoeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) reduces the calcium content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and triggers ER stress.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Sandín, Sonia; Alonso, María Teresa; García-Sancho, Javier

    2011-08-01

    CALHM1 (calcium homoeostasis modulator 1), a membrane protein with similarity to NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor channels that localizes in the plasma membrane and the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) of neurons, has been shown to generate a plasma-membrane Ca(2+) conductance and has been proposed to influence Alzheimer's disease risk. In the present study we have investigated the effects of CALHM1 on intracellular Ca(2+) handling in HEK-293T [HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells expressing the large T-antigen of SV40 (simian virus 40)] cells by using targeted aequorins for selective monitorization of Ca(2+) transport by organelles. We find that CALHM1 increases Ca(2+) leak from the ER and, more importantly, reduces ER Ca(2+) uptake by decreasing both the transport capacity and the Ca(2+) affinity of SERCA (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase). As a result, the Ca(2+) content of the ER is drastically decreased. This reduction in the Ca(2+) content of the ER triggered the UPR (unfolded protein response) with induction of several ER stress markers, such as CHOP [C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein)-homologous protein], ERdj4, GRP78 (glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa) and XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1). Thus CALHM1 might provide a relevant link between Ca(2+) homoeostasis disruption, ER stress and cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society

  14. Engineered tobacco and microalgae secreting the fungal laccase POXA1b reduce phenol content in olive oil mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chiaiese, Pasquale; Palomba, Francesca; Tatino, Filippo; Lanzillo, Carmine; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Filippone, Edgardo

    2011-12-10

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWs) are characterised by low pH and a high content of mono- and polyaromatic compounds that exert microbial and phytotoxic activity. The laccase cDNA of the poxA1b gene from Pleurotus ostreatus, carrying a signal peptide sequence for enzyme secretion and driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was cloned into a plant expression vector. Nuclear genetic transformation was carried out by co-cultivation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cv Samsun NN leaves and cells of five different microalgae accessions belonging to the genera Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and Ankistrodesmus. Transgenic plants and microalgae were able to express and secrete the recombinant laccase in the root exudates and the culture medium, respectively. In comparison to untransformed controls, the ability to reduce phenol content in OMW solution was enhanced up to 2.8-fold in transgenic tobacco lines and by up to about 40% in two microalgae accessions. The present work provides new evidence for metabolic improvement of green organisms through the transgenic approach to remediation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. On the detection and monitoring of reduced water content in plants using spectral responses in the visible domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Van Leeuwen, Spencer; Chen, Tenn F.

    2016-05-01

    The water status of cultivated plants can have a significant impact not only on food production, but also on the appropriate usage of increasingly scarce freshwater supplies. Accordingly, the cost-effective detection and monitoring of changes in their water content are longstanding remote sensing goals. Existing procedures employed to achieve these goals are largely based on the spectral responses of plant leaves in the infrared domain where the light absorption within the foliar tissues is dominated by water. Recently, it has been suggested that such procedures could be implemented using spectral responses, more specifically spectral subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios, obtained in the visible domain. The basis for this proposition resides on the premise that a reduced water content (RWC) can result in histological changes whose effects on the foliar optical properties may not be limited to the infrared domain. However, the experiments leading to this proposition were performed on detached leaves, which were not influenced by the whole plant's adaptation mechanisms to water stress. In this work, we investigate whether the spectral responses of living plant leaves in the visible domain can lead to reliable RWC estimations. We employ measured biophysical data and predictive light transport simulations in order to extend qualitatively and quantitatively the scope of previous studies in this area. Our findings indicate that the living specimens' physiological responses to water stress should be taken into account in the design of new procedures for the cost-effective RWC estimation using visible subsurface reflectance to transmittance ratios.

  16. Torulaspora delbrueckii in the brewing process: A new approach to enhance bioflavour and to reduce ethanol content.

    PubMed

    Canonico, Laura; Agarbati, Alice; Comitini, Francesca; Ciani, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, consumers require fermented alcoholic beverages with particular and enhanced flavour profiles while avoiding the health concerns due to high ethanol content. Here, the use of Torulaspora delbrueckii was evaluated for beer production, in both pure and in mixed cultures with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter strain (US-05). The yeast interactions were also evaluated. In mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae, the main analytical characters from T. delbrueckii were comparable with those of the S. cerevisiae starter strain, but the beers were characterized by a distinctive overall analytical and aromatic profile. Indeed, there were interactions between S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii, with enhanced ethyl hexanoate (0.048 mg l(-1)) and ethyl octaonate (0.014 mg l(-1)) levels at the 1:20 and 1:10 inoculation ratios, respectively; while phenyl ethyl acetate increased in all mix combinations. The presence of T. delbrueckii resulted in reduced β-phenyl ethanol and isoamyl acetate levels, which are responsible for floral and fruity aromas, respectively. Beer produced with T. delbrueckii pure cultures had a low alcohol content (2.66%; v/v), while also showing a particularly analytical and aromatic profile.

  17. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers.

  18. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium, and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada's sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n = 10 487 and n = 15 394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in imitation seafood (mean ± SD, mg/100 g; 602 ± 50 to 444 ± 81, 26.2%, p = 0.002), condiments (1309 ± 790 to 1048 ± 620, 19.9%, p = 0.005), breakfast cereals (375 ± 26 to 301 ± 242, 19.7%, p = 0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269 ± 156 to 217 ± 180, 19.3%, p < 0.001), plain chips (462 ± 196 to 376 ± 198, 18.6% p = 0.004), hot cereals (453 ± 141 to 385 ± 155, 15.0%, p = 0.011), meat analogues (612 ± 226 to 524 ± 177, 14.4%, p = 0.003), canned condensed soup (291 ± 62 to 250 ± 57, 14.1%, p = 0.003), and sausages and wieners (912 ± 219 to 814 ± 195, 10.7%, p = 0.012). The proportion of foods meeting at least 1 of the 3 phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce.

  19. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada’s sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n=10,487 and n=15,394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in (mean ± standard deviation, mg/100g) imitation seafood (602±50 to 444±81, 26.2%, p=0.002), condiments (1309±790 to 1048±620, 19.9%, p=0.005), breakfast cereals (375±26 to 301±242, 19.7%, p=0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269±156 to 217±180, 19.3%, p<0.001), plain chips (462±196 to 376±198, 18.6% p=0.004), hot cereals (453±141 to 385±155, 15.0%, p=0.011), meat analogues (612±226 to 524±177, 14.4%, p=0.003), canned condensed soup (291±62 to 250±57, 14.1%, p=0.003), and sausages and wieners (912±219 to 814±195, 10.7%, p=0.012). The proportion of foods meeting at least one of the three phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce. PMID:27113326

  20. Virucidal activity of a new hand disinfectant with reduced ethanol content: comparison with other alcohol-based formulations.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Galabov, A S; Sattar, S A; Döhner, L; Pivert, A; Payan, C; Wolff, M H; Yilmaz, A; Steinmann, J

    2006-01-01

    A new formula with reduced ethanol content (55%) in combination with 10% propan-1-ol, 5.9% propan-1.2-diol, 5.7% butan-1.3-diol and 0.7% phosphoric acid exhibited a broad spectrum of virucidal activity. In quantitative suspension tests, with and without protein load, this formulation reduced the infectivity titre of seven enveloped (influenza A and B, herpes simplex 1 and 2, bovine corona, respiratory syncytial, vaccinia, hepatitis B, bovine viral diarrhoea) and four non-enveloped (hepatitis A, polio, rota, feline calici) viruses >10(3)-fold within 30s. In comparative testing, only 95% ethanol showed similar levels of activity. In fingerpad tests, the formulation produced a log10 reduction factor of the titre of poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) of 3.04 in 30s compared with 1.32 by 60% propan-2-ol. Testing against feline calicivirus produced a log10 reduction factor of 2.38 by the test formulation; in contrast, the log10 reduction factors with 70% ethanol and 70% propan-1-ol were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively.

  1. Increased rate of drying reduces metabolic inequity and critical water content in radicles of Cicer arietinum L.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jipsi; Tandon, Mona; Keshavkant, S

    2015-04-01

    Orthodox seed serves as easily accessible model to study desiccation-sensitivity in plant tissues because once they undergo germination, they become sensitive to desiccation imposed injuries. In the proposed study, effects of rate of drying on the viability, electrolyte leakage, superoxide accumulation, lipid-protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were explored in excised radicles of Cicer arietinum L. under dehydration and wet storage. For both the drying conditions, desiccation could be explained by exponential and inverse functions. Under rapid drying tissue viability as scored by germination efficiency and tetrazolium staining remained 100 % all through the analysis (24 h) but declined remarkably after 0.30 g g(-1) fresh mass water content (4 days) under slow drying. Moreover, precipitous fall in tissue viability was observed after 2 weeks of wet storage. Rapid drying was also accompanied with limited amounts of electrolyte leakage, superoxide radical, malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide, together with enhanced level of protein. Additionally, activities of both superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were increased in rapidly dried radicles, but guaiacol peroxidase was declined. In contrary, above referred biomarkers were observed to perform either inversely or poorly during slow drying and wet storage suggesting that above documented alterations might be the resultant of ageing and not desiccation. Gathered data demonstrated that increased drying lowers the critical water content for tissue survival and also reduces the risk of damage resulting from aqueous-based deleterious reactions. Additionally, it also showed that growing radicles are a popular model to explore desiccation-sensitivity in plant tissues and/or seeds.

  2. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  3. Calcium release and intramembranous charge movement in frog skeletal muscle fibres with reduced (<250 μM) calcium content

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Paul C; Carrier, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that activation of voltage sensors in the T-tubular membranes is a critical step of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate further whether the Qγ component (delayed [hump] component) of the intramembranous charge movement current (Icm) results from movement of these voltage sensors. Ca2+ release and Icm were measured in voltage-clamped frog cut fibres mounted in a double Vaseline-gap chamber. In order to reduce effects of Ca2+ feedback mechanisms, the calcium content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) during rest was reduced to < 250 μm (referred to volume of myoplasm) and maintained approximately constant. The early (Qβ) and Qγ components of charge movement were estimated by fitting the sum of two Boltzmann functions to the total steady-state intramembranous charge vs. voltage data. The average voltage steepness factor (k) and half-maximal voltage (V-) for Qγ were 4.3 and −57.4 mV (n = 6), respectively. The SR membrane permeability for Ca2+ release was assessed when a constant amount of calcium remained in the SR (usually about 60 μm). A single Boltzmann function fitted to these data gave values on average for k and V- of 4.7 and −45.3 mV, respectively. The similarity of the values of k for Qγ and Ca2+ release supports the idea that Qγ reflects movement of voltage sensors for Ca2+ release. The greater value of V- for Ca2+ release compared to Qγ is consistent with multi-state models of the voltage sensor involving movement of Qγ charge during non-activating transitions. PMID:11850517

  4. Knockdown of a putative argininosuccinate lyase gene reduces arginine content and impairs nymphal development in Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, San-Yue; Li, Guo-Qing; Wan, Pin-Jun; Fu, Qiang; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Mu, Li-Li

    2017-05-01

    Nilaparvata lugens is a typical phloem feeder. Rice phloem is high in simple sugars and very low in essential amino acids. Nilaparvata lugens harbors an ascomycete Entomomyces delphacidicola that hypothetically biosynthesizes several amino acids to meet the nutrition requirement of the planthopper. Among these amino acids, here, we focused on arginine biosynthesis. A complete cDNA of an E. delphacidicola gene, arginine-succinate lyase, EdArg4, the last step in arginine biosynthesis, was obtained. RNAi-mediated suppression of EdArg4 reduced arginine content in the hemolymph, and decreased the expression of several arginine biosynthesis genes. Silencing of EdArg4 delayed nymphal development and led to nymphal lethality. About 20% of the EdArg4 RNAi surviving adults were deformed. The most obvious defect was wider and larger abdomen. The EdArg4 RNAi-treated planthoppers had thickened wings and enlarged antennae, legs, and anal tubes and a few adults did not normally emerge. Arginine deficiency in the EdArg4 RNAi planthoppers repressed nitric oxide signaling, determined at the transcriptional level. We infer that E. delphacidicola biosynthesizes essential arginine to compensate for nutrition deficiency in N. lugens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ligation-mediated PCR with a back-to-back adapter reduces amplification bias resulting from variations in GC content.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Satoru; Kotomura, Naoe; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ochiai, Hiroshi

    2017-08-15

    Ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR) is a common technique for amplification of a pool of DNA fragments. Here, a double-stranded oligonucleotide consisting of two primer sequences in back-to-back orientation was designed as an adapter for LM-PCR. When DNA fragments were ligated with this adapter, the fragments were sandwiched between two adapters in random orientations. In the ensuing PCR, ligation products linked at each end to an opposite side of the adapter, i.e. to a distinct primer sequence, were preferentially amplified compared with products linked at each end to an identical primer sequence. The use of this adapter in LM-PCR reduced the impairment of PCR by substrate DNA with a high GC content, compared with the use of traditional LM-PCR adapters. This result suggested that our method has the potential to contribute to reduction of the amplification bias that is caused by an intrinsic property of the sequence context in substrate DNA. A DNA preparation obtained from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using pulldown of a specific form of histone H3 was successfully amplified using the modified LM-PCR, and the amplified products could be used as probes in a fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Red leaf margins indicate increased polygodial content and function as visual signals to reduce herbivory in Pseudowintera colorata.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Luke J; van Klink, John W; Hughes, Nicole M; Perry, Nigel B; Schaefer, H Martin; Menzies, Ignatius J; Gould, Kevin S

    2012-04-01

    Red-pigmented leaf margins are common, but their functional significance is unknown. We hypothesized that red leaf margins reduce leaf herbivory by signalling to herbivorous insects the presence of increased chemical defences. Leaves were collected from a natural population of Pseudowintera colorata. Margin size, herbivory damage, anthocyanin content and concentrations of polygodial, a sesquiterpene dialdehyde with antifeedant properties, were quantified. Feeding trials involving larvae of Ctenopseustis obliquana, a generalist herbivore, were conducted on red- and green-margined P. colorata leaves in darkness, or under white, green or red light. Leaves with wider red margins contained higher concentrations of polygodial and anthocyanins, and incurred less natural herbivory. In trials under white light, C. obliquana consumed disproportionately more green- than red-margined leaf laminae. Larvae exhibited no feeding preference when light was manipulated such that leaf colour discrimination was impaired. Red leaf margins provide a reliable and effective visual signal of chemical defence in P. colorata. Ctenopseustis obliquana larvae perceive and respond to the colour of the leaf margins, rather than to olfactory signals. Our study provides direct experimental evidence for aposematic coloration in red leaves. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Enhancing the use of waste activated sludge as bio-fuel through selectively reducing its heavy metal content.

    PubMed

    Dewil, Raf; Baeyens, Jan; Appels, Lise

    2007-06-18

    Power plant or cement kiln co-incineration are important disposal routes for the large amounts of waste activated sludge (WAS) which are generated annually. The presence of significant amounts of heavy metals in the sludge however poses serious problems since they are partly emitted with the flue gases (and collected in the flue gas dedusting) and partly incorporated in the ashes of the incinerator: in both cases, the disposal or reuse of the fly ash and bottom ashes can be jeopardized since subsequent leaching in landfill disposal can occur, or their "pozzolanic" incorporation in cement cannot be applied. The present paper studies some physicochemical methods for reducing the heavy metal content of WAS. The used techniques include acid and alkaline thermal hydrolysis and Fenton's peroxidation. By degrading the extracellular polymeric substances, binding sites for a large amount of heavy metals, the latter are released into the sludge water. The behaviour of several heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn) was assessed in laboratory tests. Results of these show a significant reduction of most heavy metals.

  8. Shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages as affected by antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Incoronato, Anna Lucia; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2011-10-17

    The combined use of antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages was investigated in this study. First, a pre-screening of different antimicrobial compounds and MAP was addressed. In particular, the consumer test was used as a tool to select the most pleasant antimicrobial compounds, whereas both sausage color and cell load of main spoilage microorganisms were used to choose optimal MAP. Afterwards, antimicrobial compounds (lemon alkott and thymol) and MAP (MAP1: 20% CO(2), 5% O(2), 75% N(2)) that had shown the best performance were used to run the shelf life tests. In order to assess the influence of the variables described beforehand on the shelf life of investigated sausages, the sensorial and microbiological (mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria and coccus-shaped lactic acid bacteria) quality was monitored during storage. Results recorded in this study suggested that Pseudomonas spp. were responsible for sausage unacceptability in all samples, except for thymol and thymol-MAP samples. For these samples, the sensorial quality was the limiting factor while the microbial growth did not limit the shelf life. In particular, for thymol and thymol-MAP samples a shelf life value of more than 5 days with respect to the other samples (2 days) was obtained.

  9. Nitrogen deposition alters nitrogen cycling and reduces soil carbon content in low-productivity semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Maestre, Fernando T.; Ríos, Asunción de los; Valea, Sergio; Theobald, Mark R.; Vivanco, Marta G.; Manrique, Esteban; Bowker, Mathew A.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is a threat to European Mediterranean ecosystems, but the evidence of real ecological impacts is still scarce. We combined data from a real N deposition gradient (4.3-7.3 kg N ha−1 yr−1) from semiarid portions of Spain with data from a field experiment in central Spain to evaluate N deposition effects on soil fertility, function and cyanobacteria community structure. Soil organic N did not increase along the extant deposition gradient, whereas C:N ratios decreased in most locations. Nitrogen fixation decreased along existing and experimental N deposition gradients, a result possibly related to compositional shifts in soil cyanobacteria community. Nitrogen mineralization rates were reduced by N fertilization, suggesting ecosystem N saturation. Soil organic C content and the activity of β-glucosidase decreased along the extant gradient. Our results suggest that semiarid soils in low-productivity sites are unable to store additional N inputs, and that are also unable to mitigate increasing C emissions to the atmosphere when experiencing increased N deposition. PMID:23685631

  10. Loss of function of folylpolyglutamate synthetase 1 reduces lignin content and improves cell wall digestibility in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Avinash C.; Chen, Fang; Ray, Tui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Peña, Maria J.; Avci, Utku; Li, Hongjia; Huhman, David V.; Backe, Jason; Urbanowicz, Breeanna; Miller, Jeffrey S.; Bedair, Mohamed; Wyman, Charles E.; Sumner, Lloyd W.; York, William S.; Hahn, Michael G.; Dixon, Richard A.; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Tang, Yuhong

    2015-12-21

    One-carbon (C1) metabolism is important for synthesizing a range of biologically important compounds that are essential for life. In plants, the C1 pathway is crucial for the synthesis of a large number of secondary metabolites, including lignin. Tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives, collectively referred to as folates, are crucial co-factors for C1 metabolic pathway enzymes. Given the link between the C1 and phenylpropanoid pathways, we evaluated whether folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a glutamate tail to folates to form folylpolyglutamates, can be a viable target for reducing cell wall recalcitrance in plants. Consistent with its role in lignocellulosic formation, FPGS1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. Total lignin was low in fpgs1 plants leading to higher saccharification efficiency of the mutant. The decrease in total lignin in fpgs1 was mainly due to lower guaiacyl (G) lignin levels. Glycome profiling revealed subtle alterations in the cell walls of fpgs1. Further analyses of hemicellulosic polysaccharides by NMR showed that the degree of methylation of 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan was reduced in the fpgs1 mutant. Microarray analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of a number of genes in the C1 and lignin pathways had altered expression in fpgs1 mutants. Consistent with the transcript changes of C1-related genes, a significant reduction in S-adenosyl-l-methionine content was detected in the fpgs1 mutant. The modified expression of the various methyltransferases and lignin-related genes indicate possible feedback regulation of C1 pathway-mediated lignin biosynthesis. In conclusion, our observations provide genetic and biochemical support for the importance of folylpolyglutamates in the lignocellulosic pathway and reinforces previous observations that targeting a single FPGS isoform for down-regulation leads to reduced lignin in plants. Because fpgs1 mutants had no dramatic defects in

  11. Loss of function of folylpolyglutamate synthetase 1 reduces lignin content and improves cell wall digestibility in Arabidopsis

    DOE PAGES

    Srivastava, Avinash C.; Chen, Fang; Ray, Tui; ...

    2015-12-21

    One-carbon (C1) metabolism is important for synthesizing a range of biologically important compounds that are essential for life. In plants, the C1 pathway is crucial for the synthesis of a large number of secondary metabolites, including lignin. Tetrahydrofolate and its derivatives, collectively referred to as folates, are crucial co-factors for C1 metabolic pathway enzymes. Given the link between the C1 and phenylpropanoid pathways, we evaluated whether folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS), an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a glutamate tail to folates to form folylpolyglutamates, can be a viable target for reducing cell wall recalcitrance in plants. Consistent with its rolemore » in lignocellulosic formation, FPGS1 was preferentially expressed in vascular tissues. Total lignin was low in fpgs1 plants leading to higher saccharification efficiency of the mutant. The decrease in total lignin in fpgs1 was mainly due to lower guaiacyl (G) lignin levels. Glycome profiling revealed subtle alterations in the cell walls of fpgs1. Further analyses of hemicellulosic polysaccharides by NMR showed that the degree of methylation of 4-O-methyl glucuronoxylan was reduced in the fpgs1 mutant. Microarray analysis and real-time qRT-PCR revealed that transcripts of a number of genes in the C1 and lignin pathways had altered expression in fpgs1 mutants. Consistent with the transcript changes of C1-related genes, a significant reduction in S-adenosyl-l-methionine content was detected in the fpgs1 mutant. The modified expression of the various methyltransferases and lignin-related genes indicate possible feedback regulation of C1 pathway-mediated lignin biosynthesis. In conclusion, our observations provide genetic and biochemical support for the importance of folylpolyglutamates in the lignocellulosic pathway and reinforces previous observations that targeting a single FPGS isoform for down-regulation leads to reduced lignin in plants. Because fpgs1 mutants had no dramatic

  12. Capsaicin Reduces Blood Glucose by Increasing Insulin Levels and Glycogen Content Better than Capsiate in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqi; Ma, Xiaohan; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xiong

    2017-03-22

    Chili peppers exhibit antiobesity, anticancer, antidiabetic, and pain- and itch-relieving effects on animals and humans; these effects are due to capsaicin, which is the main pungent and biologically active component of pepper. Capsiate, a nonpungent capsaicin analogue, is similar to capsaicin in terms of structure and biological activity. In this study, we investigated whether capsaicin and capsiate exhibit the same hypoglycemic effects on rats with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Experimental rats were categorized into four groups: control, model, capsaicin, and capsiate groups. The two treatment groups were treated orally with 6 mg/kg bw capsaicin and capsiate daily for 28 days. Treatment with capsaicin and capsiate increased body weight, increased glycogen content, and inhibited intestinal absorption of sugar in T1D rats. Particularly, insulin levels were increased from 14.9 ± 0.76 mIU/L (model group) to 22.4 ± 1.39 mIU/L (capsaicin group), but the capsiate group (16.7 ± 0.79 mIU/L) was increased by only 12.2%. Analysis of the related genes suggested that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor was activated by capsaicin. Liver X receptor and pancreatic duodenum homeobox 1 controlled the glycometabolism balance by regulating the expression levels of glucose kinase, glucose transport protein 2 (GLUT2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase, leading to reduced blood glucose levels in T1D rats. Meanwhile, the hypoglycemic effect was enhanced by the down-regulated expression of sodium glucose cotransporter 1, GLUT2, and GLUT5 in the intestine. The results showed that the spicy characteristics of capsaicin might be the root of its ability to decrease blood glucose.

  13. Decreased PGE2 Content Reduces MMP-1 Activity and Consequently Increases Collagen Density in Human Varicose Vein

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Ingrid; Benyahia, Chabha; Louedec, Liliane; Leséche, Guy; Jacob, Marie-Paule; Longrois, Dan; Norel, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Varicose veins are elongated and dilated saphenous veins. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Aims In this study, we investigated the control of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression by prostaglandin (PG)E2 during the vascular wall remodeling of human varicose veins. Methods and Results Varicose (small (SDv) and large diameter (LDv)) and healthy saphenous veins (SV) were obtained after surgery. Microsomal and cytosolic PGE-synthases (mPGES and cPGES) protein and mRNA responsible for PGE2 metabolism were analyzed in all veins. cPGES protein was absent while its mRNA was weakly expressed. mPGES-2 expression was similar in the different saphenous veins. mPGES-1 mRNA and protein were detected in healthy veins and a significant decrease was found in LDv. Additionally, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), responsible for PGE2 degradation, was over-expressed in varicose veins. These variations in mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH density account for the decreased PGE2 level observed in varicose veins. Furthermore, a significant decrease in PGE2 receptor (EP4) levels was also found in SDv and LDv. Active MMP-1 and total MMP-2 concentrations were significantly decreased in varicose veins while the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP -1 and -2), were significantly increased, probably explaining the increased collagen content found in LDv. Finally, the MMP/TIMP ratio is restored by exogenous PGE2 in varicose veins and reduced in presence of an EP4 receptor antagonist in healthy veins. Conclusions In conclusion, PGE2 could be responsible for the vascular wall thickening in human varicose veins. This mechanism could be protective, strengthening the vascular wall in order to counteract venous stasis. PMID:24505358

  14. Impact of smoking reduced nicotine content cigarettes on sensitivity to cigarette price: further results from a multi-site clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tracy T; Cassidy, Rachel N; Tidey, Jennifer W; Luo, Xianghua; Le, Chap T; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2017-02-01

    To assess the impact of a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes on estimated consumption of reduced nicotine cigarettes and usual brand cigarettes at a variety of hypothetical prices. Double-blind study with participants assigned randomly to receive cigarettes for 6 weeks that were either usual brand or an investigational cigarette with one of five nicotine contents. Ten sites across the United States. A total of 839 eligible adult smokers randomized from 2013 to 2014. Participants received their usual brand or an investigational cigarette with one of five nicotine contents: 15.8 (primary control), 5.2, 2.4, 1.3, or 0.4 mg/g. The Cigarette Purchase Task was completed at baseline and at the week 6 post-randomization visit. Compared with normal nicotine content controls, the lowest nicotine content (0.4 mg/g) reduced the number of study cigarettes participants estimated they would smoke at a range of prices [mean reduction relative to 15.8 mg/g at a price of $4.00/pack: 9.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.81,12.19]. The lowest nicotine content also reduced the maximum amount of money allocated to study cigarettes and the price at which participants reported they would stop buying study cigarettes [median reduction relative to 15.8 mg/g, 95% CI = $8.21 (4.27,12.15) per day and $0.44 (0.17,0.71) per cigarette, respectively]. A reduction in nicotine content to the lowest level also reduced the maximum amount of money allocated to usual brand cigarettes (median reduction relative to 15.8 mg/g: $4.39 per day, 95% CI = 1.88,6.90). In current smokers, a reduction in nicotine content may reduce cigarette consumption, reduce the reinforcement value of cigarettes and increase cessation if reduced nicotine content cigarettes were the only cigarette available for purchase. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere.

  16. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p<0.05), whereas asparagine, was poorly correlated (p>0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strongly Nonlinear Dependence of Energy Transfer Rate on sp(2) Carbon Content in Reduced Graphene Oxide-Quantum Dot Hybrid Structures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yitong; Son, Dong Hee

    2015-01-02

    The dependence of the energy transfer rate on the content of sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms in the hybrid structures of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Mn-doped quantum dot (QD(Mn)) was investigated. Taking advantage of the sensitivity of QD(Mn)'s dopant luminescence lifetime only to the energy transfer process without interference from the charge transfer process, the correlation between the sp(2) carbon content in RGO and the rate of energy transfer from QD(Mn) to RGO was obtained. The rate of energy transfer showed a strongly superlinear increase with increasing sp(2) carbon content in RGO, suggesting the possible cooperative behavior of sp(2) carbon domains in the energy transfer process as the sp(2) carbon content increases.

  18. The SCRI Acrylamide Project: Improved breeding and variety evaluation methods to reduce acrylamide content and increase quality in processed potato products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The highest priority of the US potato industry is the need to introduce new varieties that reduce the acrylamide content of processed products and minimize health concerns related to acrylamide consumption. The SCRI acrylamide project is a national, coordinated effort that addresses this need. Thi...

  19. Low phytate corn feed reduces swine slurry P content without affecting crop P availability in slurry applied soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional corn feed contains phosphorus (P) in a form that monogastric animals such as swine and poultry can not use efficiently. Poor use efficiency of feed P requires P supplements be added to the diet and results in manure having a high P content. Land application of this manure, at rates to me...

  20. Characterization of protein hydrolysis and odor-active compounds of fish sauce inoculated with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt content.

    PubMed

    Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Cadwallader, Keith R; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2013-07-10

    The effect of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with reduced salt content, on fish sauce quality, particularly free amino acids and odor-active compounds, was investigated. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was inoculated with an approximate viable count of 5 log CFU/mL in samples with varied amounts of solar salt, for example, 10, 15, and 20% of total weight. Eighteen selected odorants were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Samples prepared using 10% salt underwent spoilage after 7 days of fermentation. The viable count of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was found over 3 months in the samples containing 15 and 20% salt. However, acceleration of protein hydrolysis was not pronounced in inoculated samples at both 15 and 20% salt. Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with salt contents reduced to 15-20%, appeared to increase the content of 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid. However, only aldehydes were found to have an effect on the overall aroma of fish sauce based on high OAVs, suggesting that the inoculation of samples with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt contents of 15-20% likely contributed to stronger malty or dark chocolate notes.

  1. Comparison of sodium content of meals served by independent takeaways using standard versus reduced holed salt shakers: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Goffe, Louis; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Doherty, Aoife; Wrieden, Wendy; Lake, Amelia A; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Summerbell, Carolyn; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J; Adams, Jean

    2016-09-26

    Takeaway food has a relatively poor nutritional profile. Providing takeaway outlets with reduced-holed salt shakers is one method thought to reduce salt use in takeaways, but effects have not been formally tested. We aimed to determine if there was a difference in sodium content of standard fish and chip meals served by Fish & Chip Shops that use standard (17 holes) versus reduced-holed (5 holes) salt shakers, taking advantage of natural variations in salt shakers used. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all Fish & Chip Shops in two local government areas (n = 65), where servers added salt to meals as standard practice, and salt shaker used could be identified (n = 61). Standard fish and chip meals were purchased from each shop by incognito researchers and the purchase price and type of salt shaker used noted. Sodium content of full meals and their component parts (fish, chips, and fish batter) was determined using flame photometry. Differences in absolute and relative sodium content of meals and component parts between shops using reduced-holed versus standard salt-shakers were compared using linear regression before and after adjustment for purchase price and area. Reduced-holed salt shakers were used in 29 of 61 (47.5 %) included shops. There was no difference in absolute sodium content of meals purchased from shops using standard versus reduced-holed shakers (mean = 1147 mg [equivalent to 2.9 g salt]; SD = 424 mg; p > 0.05). Relative sodium content was significantly lower in meals from shops using reduced-holed (mean = 142.5 mg/100 g [equivalent to 0.4 g salt/100 g]; SD = 39.0 mg/100 g) versus standard shakers (mean = 182.0 mg/100 g; [equivalent to 0.5 g salt/100 g]; SD = 68.3 mg/100 g; p = 0.008). This was driven by differences in the sodium content of chips and was extinguished by adjustment for purchase price and area. Price was inversely associated with relative sodium content (p < 0

  2. [Effects of antisense acid invertase gene on reducing sugar and starch contents of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber stored at low temperature].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Huang, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Li, Xue-Cai

    2005-10-01

    Two transgenic potato lines with antisense AcInv gene and the non-transgenic varieties were used to test the reducing sugar and starch contents. The results indicated that the reducing sugar content increased and total starch content decreased in all samples after tubers were stored at 4 degrees C for 40 d. The reducing sugar content in tubers of transgenic line "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2" were lower about 23% and 18% than those of Atlantic and Gannongshu No.2 (Table 1). The total starch and the amylopectin were also decreased by 1% and 1.3% in "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and 1.4% and 1.7% in "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2" respectively (Table 2). The proportions of amylose and amylopectin were lower in the transgenic lines than the non-transgenic varieties (Figs. 1 and 2). It was only 0.29 for "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and 0.38 for "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2". Meanwhile, there are fewer dark blue starch particles in transgenic tuber, which is less than in tuber of the non-transgenic varieties by paraffin-cut section method (Fig. 3). After the tubers were transferred to the storage temperature 15-17 degrees C for 20 d, the reducing sugar contents in tubers of the two transgenic lines were significantly lower than that of non-transgenic varieties. It was 0.23% for "Anti-AcInv Atlantic" and 0.24% for "Anti-AcInv Gannongshu No.2" (Table 1). It is suggested that the trans-antisense AcInv gene in the transgenic potato down-regulates the AcInv gene expression after the tubers were stored under low temperature.

  3. How effective are brief interventions in reducing alcohol consumption: do the setting, practitioner group and content matter? Findings from a systematic review and metaregression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Lucy; Melendez-Torres, G J; O'Donnell, Amy; Bradley, Jennifer; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Kaner, Eileen; Ashton, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background While the efficacy and effectiveness of brief interventions for alcohol (ABI) have been demonstrated in primary care, there is weaker evidence in other settings and reviews do not consider differences in content. We conducted a systematic review to measure the effect of ABIs on alcohol consumption and how it differs by the setting, practitioner group and content of intervention. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO; CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index, Cochrane Library and Global Health up to January 2015 for randomised controlled trials that measured effectiveness of ABIs on alcohol consumption. We grouped outcomes into measures of quantity and frequency indices. We used multilevel meta-analysis to estimate pooled effect sizes and tested for the effect of moderators through a multiparameter Wald test. Stratified analysis of a subset of quantity and frequency outcomes was conducted as a sensitivity check. Results 52 trials were included contributing data on 29 891 individuals. ABIs reduced the quantity of alcohol consumed by 0.15 SDs. While neither the setting nor content appeared to significantly moderate intervention effectiveness, the provider did in some analyses. Interventions delivered by nurses had the most effect in reducing quantity (d=−0.23, 95% CI (−0.33 to −0.13)) but not frequency of alcohol consumption. All content groups had statistically significant mean effects, brief advice was the most effective in reducing quantity consumed (d=−0.20, 95% CI (−0.30 to −0.09)). Effects were maintained in the stratified sensitivity analysis at the first and last assessment time. Conclusions ABIs play a small but significant role in reducing alcohol consumption. Findings show the positive role of nurses in delivering interventions. The lack of evidence on the impact of content of intervention reinforces advice that services should select the ABI tool that best suits their needs. PMID:27515753

  4. Effects of long-time elevated temperature exposures on hot-isostatically-pressed power-metallurgy Udimet 700 alloys with reduced cobalt contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Because almost the entire U.S. consumption of cobalt depends on imports, this metal has been designated "strategic'. The role and effectiveness of cobalt is being evaluated in commercial nickel-base superalloys. Udiment 700 type alloys in which the cobalt content was reduced from the normal 17% down to 12.7%, 8.5%, 4.3%, and 0% were prepared by standard powder metallurgy techniques and hot isostatically pressed into billets. Mechanical testing and microstructural investigations were performed. The mechanical properties of alloys with reduced cobalt contents which were heat-treated identically were equal or better than those of the standard alloy, except that creep rates tended to increase as cobalt was reduced. The effects of long time exposures at 760 C on mechanical properties and at 760 C and 845 C on microstructures were determined. Decreased tensile properties and shorter rupture lives with increased creep rates were observed in alloy modifications. The exposures caused gamma prime particle coarsening and formation of sigma phase in the alloys with higher cobalt contents. Exposure at 845 C also reduced the amount of MC carbides.

  5. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays fatb reduces the palmitic acid content of fatty acids in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20-60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding.

  6. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  7. Interactive effects of UV radiation and reduced precipitation on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and the antioxidant activity of naturally growing Arbutus unedo plants.

    PubMed

    Nenadis, Nikolaos; Llorens, Laura; Koufogianni, Agathi; Díaz, Laura; Font, Joan; Gonzalez, Josep Abel; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2015-12-01

    The effects of UV radiation and rainfall reduction on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of the Mediterranean shrub Arbutus unedo were studied. Naturally growing plants of A. unedo were submitted to 97% UV-B reduction (UVA), 95% UV-A+UV-B reduction (UV0) or near-ambient UV levels (UVBA) under two precipitation regimes (natural rainfall or 10-30% rainfall reduction). Total phenol, flavonol and flavanol contents, levels of eight phenols and antioxidant activity [DPPH(●) radical scavenging and Cu (II) reducing capacity] were measured in sun-exposed leaves at the end of four consecutive seasons. Results showed a significant seasonal variation in the leaf content of phenols of A. unedo, with the lowest values found in spring and the highest in autumn and/or winter. Leaf ontogenetic development and/or a possible effect of low temperatures in autumn/winter may account for such findings. Regardless of the watering regime and the sampling date, plant exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the total flavanol content of leaves, while it increased the leaf content in quercitrin (the most abundant quercetin derivative identified). By contrast, UV-A radiation increased the leaf content of theogallin, a gallic acid derivative. Other phenolic compounds (two quercetin derivatives, one of them being avicularin, and one kaempferol derivative, juglanin), as well as the antioxidant activity of the leaves, showed different responses to UV radiation depending on the precipitation regime. Surprisingly, reduced rainfall significantly decreased the total amount of quantified quercetin derivatives as well as the DPPH scavenging activity in A. unedo leaves. To conclude, present findings indicate that leaves of A. unedo can be a good source of antioxidants throughout the year, but especially in autumn and winter.

  8. Reduced malonyl-CoA content in recovery from exercise correlates with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Frøsig, Christian; Roepstorff, Carsten; Brandt, Nina; Maarbjerg, Stine J; Birk, Jesper B; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Kiens, Bente

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated whether improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in recovery from acute exercise coincides with reduced malonyl-CoA (MCoA) content in human muscle. Furthermore, we investigated whether a high-fat diet [65 energy-% (Fat)] would alter the content of MCoA and insulin action compared with a high-carbohydrate diet [65 energy-% (CHO)]. After 4 days of isocaloric diet on two occasions (Fat/CHO), 12 male subjects performed 1 h of one-legged knee extensor exercise (approximately 80% peak workload). Four hours after exercise, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was determined in both legs during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Muscle biopsies were obtained in both legs before and after the clamp. Four hours after exercise, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was improved (approximately 70%, P<0.001) independent of diet composition and despite normal insulin-stimulated regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, GSK-3, and glycogen synthase. Interestingly, exercise resulted in a sustained reduction (approximately 20%, P<0.05) in MCoA content 4 h after exercise that correlated (r=0.65, P<0.001) with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Four days of Fat diet resulted in an increased content of intramyocellular triacylglycerol (P<0.01) but did not influence muscle MCoA content or whole body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. However, at the muscular level proximal insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake appeared to be compromised, although to a minor extent, by the Fat diet. Collectively, this study indicates that reduced muscle MCoA content in recovery from exercise may be part of the adaptive response leading to improved insulin action on glucose uptake after exercise in human muscle.

  9. Supplementation of alkaline phytase (Ds11) in whole-wheat bread reduces phytate content and improves mineral solubility.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Jong; Park, Jiwon; Park, Ki-Hwan; Oh, Byung-Chul; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2011-08-01

    In this study, alkaline phytase was added to whole-wheat bread and the phytate content and mineral profiles were compared to commercially available acidic phytase. At neutral pH, some phytate (approximately 20%) was degraded by endogenous phytase in wheat flour, while 40% of phytate was hydrolyzed by alkaline phytase DS11 and a 35% reduction was observed with acidic phytase. Most of the enzymatic activity occurred during the proofing stage, and the rate of reaction depended on pH. DS11 phytase effectively degraded the phytate level within a 30 min treatment at pH 7; however, at least 60 min was needed with acidic phytase to achieve the same hydrolysis level. Mineral profiles were also dramatically affected by the phytate reduction. The biggest increase was observed in Fe²⁺ by the phytase treatment. The Fe²⁺ content increased 10-fold at pH 7 and 8-fold at pH 5 with alkaline phytase DS11. Alkaline phytase DS11 was shown to be effective at phytate reduction in whole-wheat bread preparation. Additionally, phytate degradation enhanced the mineral availability of bread.

  10. Characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of wood from transgenic Pinus taeda engineered with syringyl lignin or reduced lignin content

    DOE PAGES

    Edmunds, Charles W.; Peralta, Perry; Kelley, Stephen S.; ...

    2017-02-22

    Softwood is an abundant resource; however, currently its utilization for bioconversion to obtain platform sugars is limited. Pinus taeda trees which were genetically modified to either produce S lignin or to decrease lignin content were characterized with a suite of analytic techniques. Syringyl lignin was visualized in the secondary xylem of one genetic line with Maule staining. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance identified the S lignin units were coupled into the lignin through β-O-4 linkages, and thioacidolysis measured approximately 13% S lignin content in the same sample. Reductions of the lignin of as much as 33% were observed in the transgenics.more » To better understand how these modifications affect bioconversion, their amenability to hot water and dilute acid pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. Lignin reductions resulted in 1.9-3.2-fold increases in glucose release compared to the control. However, no apparent benefit was observed by S lignin incorporation at the concentrations reported in this study. Finally, these results highlight the potential for softwood cell wall properties to be improved for bioenergy/biochemical applications.« less

  11. Overuse of Phosphorus Fertilizer Reduces the Grain and Flour Protein Contents and Zinc Bioavailability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Liu, Yumin; Chen, Xinping; Zou, Chunqin

    2017-03-01

    To supplement human dietary nutrition, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer application on grain and flour protein contents and especially on the bioavailability of zinc (Zn). A field experiment of winter wheat with six P application rates (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 kg/ha) was conducted from 2013 to 2015. The grain yield increased with P application but was not further enhanced when P rates exceeded 50 kg/ha. As P application increased, the protein concentration in grain and standard flour and the viscosity of standard flour decreased. Phosphorus and phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours increased and then plateaued, whereas Zn concentration decreased and then plateaued as P application increased from 0 to 100 kg/ha. Estimated Zn bioavailability in grain and flours decreased as P application increased from 0 to 100 kg/ha and then plateaued. Estimated Zn bioavailability was greater in standard flour, bread flour, and refined flour than in grain or coarse flour. Phosphorus supply in the intensive cropping of wheat can be optimized to simultaneously obtain high grain yields, high grain and flour protein contents, and high Zn bioavailability.

  12. Influence of thermal treatments on Ag Sn Cu powders in order to reduce mercury contents in dental amalgam.

    PubMed

    Bracho-Troconis, C; Colon, P; Bartout, J D; Bienvenu, Y

    2000-01-01

    The mercury content of dental amalgams is a controversial subject with regard to the biological properties of these materials. The object of this study is to optimize the thermal treatments performed on an experimental powder in order to obtain a low mercury ratio (41% by weight) while preserving the desirable clinical qualities of the material. Using atomized powder, two types of thermal treatments are performed: A1, to obtain a partially annealed structure and A2, to obtain a complete homogenization. The kinetics of the amalgamation reaction is mainly evaluated by X-ray diffraction to identify the newly formed phases as a function of setting time. Mechanical properties are evaluated according to the ISO norms at 37 degrees C. Metallographical examination of the amalgams shows a Ag-Hg phase which acts as a matrix incorporating the Cu-Sn and Ag-Sn compounds. The setting kinetics of the A1 amalgams is linear and slightly more rapid than that of the A2 amalgam. The mechanical properties of the amalgams are significantly improved regarding the higher mercury content commercial amalgams. A specific thermal treatment permits us to slow down the diffusion of mercury between the different intermetallic compounds into the powder. The final amalgam composition, thus, most approaches the stoechiometric ratio calculated from a quaternary diagram.

  13. Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Neal L; Nardone, Natalie; Dains, Katherine M; Hall, Sharon M; Stewart, Susan; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-10-01

    A broadly mandated reduction of the nicotine content (RNC) of cigarettes has been proposed in the United States to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether following 7 months of smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNC), and then returning to their own cigarettes, smokers would demonstrate persistently reduced nicotine intake compared with baseline or quit smoking. In a community-based clinic 135 smokers not interested in quitting were randomized to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes, followed by five types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each for 1 month, followed by 6 months at the lowest nicotine level (0.5 mg/cigarette) (53 subjects) and then 12 months with no intervention (30 subjects completed). A control group smoked their usual brand for the same period of time (50 subjects at 6 months, 38 completed). Smoking behavior, biomarkers of nicotine intake and smoke toxicant exposure were measured. After 7 months smoking VLNC, nicotine intake remained below baseline (plasma cotinine 149 versus 250 ng/ml, P<0.005) with no significant change in cigarettes per day or expired carbon monoxide (CO). During the 12-month follow-up, cotinine levels in RNC smokers rose to baseline levels and to those of control smokers. Quit rates among RNC smokers were very low [7.5 versus 2% in controls, not significant). In smokers not interested in quitting, reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes over 12 months does not appear to result in extinction of nicotine dependence, assessed by persistently reduced nicotine intake or quitting smoking over the subsequent 12 months. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Effect of increasing the protein-to-fat ratio and reducing fat content on the chemical and physical properties of processed cheese product.

    PubMed

    Guinee, T P; O'Callaghan, D J

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies indicate that the intake of dietary fat and saturated fats in the modern Western diet is excessive and contributes adversely to health, lifestyle, and longevity. In response, manufacturers of cheese and processed cheese products (PCP) are pursuing the development of products with reduced fat contents. The present study investigated the effect of altering the fat level (13.8, 18.2, 22.7, 27.9, and 32.5 g/100g) in PCP on their chemical and physical properties. The PCP were formulated in triplicate to different fat levels using Cheddar cheese, skim milk cheese, anhydrous milk fat, emulsifying salt (ES), NaCl, and water. The formulations were designed to give fixed moisture (~53 g/100g) and ES:protein ratio (0.105). The resultant PCP, and their water-soluble extracts (WSE), prepared from a macerated blend of PCP and water at a weight ratio of 1:2, were analyzed at 4d. Reducing the fat content significantly increased the firmness of the unheated PCP and reduced the flowability and maximum loss tangent (fluidity) of the melted PCP. These changes coincided with increases in the levels of total protein, water-soluble protein, water-insoluble protein, and water-soluble Ca, and a decrease in the molar ratio of water-soluble Ca to soluble P. However, both water-soluble Ca and water-soluble protein decreased when expressed as percentages of total protein and total Ca, respectively, in the PCP. The high level of protein was a major factor contributing to the deterioration in physical properties as the fat content of PCP was reduced. Diluting the protein content or reducing the potential of the protein to aggregate, and thereby form structures that contribute to rigidity, may provide a means for improving quality of reduced-fat PCP by using natural cheese with lower intact casein content and lower calcium:casein ratio, for example, or by decreasing the ratio of sodium phosphate to sodium citrate-based ES.

  15. Reduced susceptibility of tomato stem to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is associated with a specific adjustment of fructose content in the host sugar pool.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, François; Nicot, Philippe C; Ripoll, Julie; Abro, Manzoor A; Raimbault, Astrid K; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Bertin, Nadia

    2017-03-01

    Plant soluble sugars, as main components of primary metabolism, are thought to be implicated in defence against pathogenic fungi. However, the function of sucrose and hexoses remains unclear. This study aimed to identify robust patterns in the dynamics of soluble sugars in sink tissues of tomato plants during the course of infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea . Distinct roles for glucose and fructose in defence against B. cinerea were hypothesized. We examined sugar contents and defence hormonal markers in tomato stem tissues before and after infection by B. cinerea , in a range of abiotic environments created by various nitrogen and water supplies. Limited nitrogen or water supplies increased tomato stem susceptibility to B. cinerea . Glucose and fructose contents of tissues surrounding infection sites evolved differently after inoculation. The fructose content never decreased after inoculation with B. cinerea , while that of glucose showed either positive or negative variation, depending on the abiotic environment. An increase in the relative fructose content (defined as the proportion of fructose in the soluble sugar pool) was observed in the absence of glucose accumulation and was associated with lower susceptibility. A lower expression of the salicylic acid marker PR1a , and a lower repression of a jasmonate marker COI1 were associated with reduced susceptibility. Accordingly, COI1 expression was positively correlated with the relative fructose contents 7 d after infection. Small variations of fructose content among the sugar pool are unlikely to affect intrinsic pathogen growth. Our results highlight distinct use of host glucose and fructose after infection by B. cinerea and suggest strongly that adjustment of the relative fructose content is required for enhanced plant defence.

  16. Reduced susceptibility of tomato stem to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is associated with a specific adjustment of fructose content in the host sugar pool

    PubMed Central

    Nicot, Philippe C.; Ripoll, Julie; Abro, Manzoor A.; Raimbault, Astrid K.; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Bertin, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Plant soluble sugars, as main components of primary metabolism, are thought to be implicated in defence against pathogenic fungi. However, the function of sucrose and hexoses remains unclear. This study aimed to identify robust patterns in the dynamics of soluble sugars in sink tissues of tomato plants during the course of infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Distinct roles for glucose and fructose in defence against B. cinerea were hypothesized. Methods We examined sugar contents and defence hormonal markers in tomato stem tissues before and after infection by B. cinerea, in a range of abiotic environments created by various nitrogen and water supplies. Key Results Limited nitrogen or water supplies increased tomato stem susceptibility to B. cinerea. Glucose and fructose contents of tissues surrounding infection sites evolved differently after inoculation. The fructose content never decreased after inoculation with B. cinerea, while that of glucose showed either positive or negative variation, depending on the abiotic environment. An increase in the relative fructose content (defined as the proportion of fructose in the soluble sugar pool) was observed in the absence of glucose accumulation and was associated with lower susceptibility. A lower expression of the salicylic acid marker PR1a, and a lower repression of a jasmonate marker COI1 were associated with reduced susceptibility. Accordingly, COI1 expression was positively correlated with the relative fructose contents 7 d after infection. Conclusions Small variations of fructose content among the sugar pool are unlikely to affect intrinsic pathogen growth. Our results highlight distinct use of host glucose and fructose after infection by B. cinerea and suggest strongly that adjustment of the relative fructose content is required for enhanced plant defence. PMID:28065923

  17. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  18. Feasibility of Reducing the Fiber Content in Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete under Flexure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Jun; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Park, Gi-Joon; Kim, Sung-Wook

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the flexural behavior of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is examined as a function of fiber length and volume fraction. Straight steel fiber with three different lengths (lf) of 13, 19.5, and 30 mm and four different volume fractions (vf) of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% are considered. Test results show that post-cracking flexural properties of UHPFRC, such as flexural strength, deflection capacity, toughness, and cracking behavior, improve with increasing fiber length and volume fraction, while first-cracking properties are not significantly influenced by fiber length and volume fraction. A 0.5 vol % reduction of steel fiber content relative to commercial UHPFRC can be achieved without deterioration of flexural performance by replacing short fibers (lf of 13 mm) with longer fibers (lf of 19.5 mm and 30 mm). PMID:28772477

  19. Feasibility of Reducing the Fiber Content in Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete under Flexure.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Jun; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Park, Gi-Joon; Kim, Sung-Wook

    2017-01-28

    In this study, the flexural behavior of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is examined as a function of fiber length and volume fraction. Straight steel fiber with three different lengths (lf) of 13, 19.5, and 30 mm and four different volume fractions (vf) of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% are considered. Test results show that post-cracking flexural properties of UHPFRC, such as flexural strength, deflection capacity, toughness, and cracking behavior, improve with increasing fiber length and volume fraction, while first-cracking properties are not significantly influenced by fiber length and volume fraction. A 0.5 vol % reduction of steel fiber content relative to commercial UHPFRC can be achieved without deterioration of flexural performance by replacing short fibers (lf of 13 mm) with longer fibers (lf of 19.5 mm and 30 mm).

  20. Higher mitochondrial respiration and uncoupling with reduced electron transport chain content in vivo in muscle of sedentary versus active subjects.

    PubMed

    Conley, Kevin E; Amara, Catherine E; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Costford, Sheila R; Murray, Kori; Jubrias, Sharon A; Arakaki, Lori; Marcinek, David J; Smith, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the disparity between muscle metabolic rate and mitochondrial metabolism in human muscle of sedentary vs. active individuals. Chronic activity level was characterized by a physical activity questionnaire and a triaxial accelerometer as well as a maximal oxygen uptake test. The ATP and O(2) fluxes and mitochondrial coupling (ATP/O(2) or P/O) in resting muscle as well as mitochondrial capacity (ATP(max)) were determined in vivo in human vastus lateralis muscle using magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy on 24 sedentary and seven active subjects. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for electron transport chain content (using complex III as a representative marker) and mitochondrial proteins associated with antioxidant protection. Sedentary muscle had lower electron transport chain complex content (65% of the active group) in proportion to the reduction in ATP(max) (0.69 ± 0.07 vs. 1.07 ± 0.06 mM sec(-1)) as compared with active subjects. This lower ATP(max) paired with an unchanged O(2) flux in resting muscle between groups resulted in a doubling of O(2) flux per ATP(max) (3.3 ± 0.3 vs. 1.7 ± 0.2 μM O(2) per mM ATP) that reflected mitochondrial uncoupling (P/O = 1.41 ± 0.1 vs. 2.1 ± 0.3) and greater UCP3/complex III (6.0 ± 0.7 vs. 3.8 ± 0.3) in sedentary vs. active subjects. A smaller mitochondrial pool serving the same O(2) flux resulted in elevated mitochondrial respiration in sedentary muscle. In addition, uncoupling contributed to this higher mitochondrial respiration. This finding resolves the paradox of stable muscle metabolism but greater mitochondrial respiration in muscle of inactive vs. active subjects.

  1. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 2, High-G solid-bowl centrifuge: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, D.

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  2. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  3. Laboratory Testing of Electro-Osmotic Pulse Technology to Reduce and Maintain Low Moisture Content in Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    part of US DoD Corrosion Prevention and Control Program • Funding – 50% OSD ATL – 50% Army ACSIM-IMCOM Background • Problems due to moisture – Corrosion...Equipment • Structural Reinforcing – Mold & Mildew – Poor Air Quality EOP Technology • EOP Technology stops water intrusion through concrete...injection materials – Reduces corrosion of interior assets – Improves indoor air quality Fundamental forces influencing the movement of a solution in a

  4. Arabidopsis thaliana ggt1 photorespiratory mutants maintain leaf carbon/nitrogen balance by reducing RuBisCO content and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Dellero, Younès; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Jossier, Mathieu; Hodges, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic and physiological analyses of glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 (GGT1) mutants were performed at the global leaf scale to elucidate the mechanisms involved in their photorespiratory growth phenotype. Air-grown ggt1 mutants showed retarded growth and development, that was not observed at high CO2 (3000 μL L(-1) ). When compared to wild-type (WT) plants, air-grown ggt1 plants exhibited glyoxylate accumulation, global changes in amino acid amounts including a decrease in serine content, lower organic acid levels, and modified ATP/ADP and NADP(+) /NADPH ratios. When compared to WT plants, their net CO2 assimilation rates (An ) were 50% lower and this mirrored decreases in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) contents. High CO2 -grown ggt1 plants transferred to air revealed a rapid decrease of An and photosynthetic electron transfer rate while maintaining a high energetic state. Short-term (a night period and 4 h of light) transferred ggt1 leaves accumulated glyoxylate and exhibited low serine contents, while other amino acid levels were not modified. RuBisCO content, activity and activation state were not altered after a short-term transfer while the ATP/ADP ratio was lowered in ggt1 rosettes. However, plant growth and RuBisCO levels were both reduced in ggt1 leaves after a long-term (12 days) acclimation to air from high CO2 when compared to WT plants. The data are discussed with respect to a reduced photorespiratory carbon recycling in the mutants. It is proposed that the low An limits nitrogen-assimilation, this decreases leaf RuBisCO content until plants attain a new homeostatic state that maintains a constant C/N balance and leads to smaller, slower growing plants. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diabetes Mellitus Is Associated With Reduced High-Density Lipoprotein Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Content and Impaired High-Density Lipoprotein Cardiac Cell Protection.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Jonas W; Thomas, Aurélien; Lauer, Estelle; Jornayvaz, François R; Brulhart-Meynet, Marie-Claude; Prost, Jean-Christophe; Pataky, Zoltan; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Eriksson, Mats; Pramfalk, Camilla; Morel, Sandrine; Kwak, Brenda R; van Eck, Miranda; James, Richard W; Frias, Miguel A

    2016-05-01

    The dyslipidemia of type 2 diabetes mellitus has multiple etiologies and impairs lipoprotein functionality, thereby increasing risk for cardiovascular disease. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have several beneficial effects, notably protecting the heart from myocardial ischemia. We hypothesized that glycation of HDL could compromise this cardioprotective effect. We used in vitro (cardiomyocytes) and ex vivo (whole heart) models subjected to oxidative stress together with HDL isolated from diabetic patients and nondiabetic HDL glycated in vitro (methylglyoxal). Diabetic and in vitro glycated HDL were less effective (P<0.05) than control HDL in protecting from oxidative stress. Protection was significantly, inversely correlated with the degree of in vitro glycation (P<0.001) and the levels of hemoglobin A1c in diabetic patients (P<0.007). The ability to activate protective, intracellular survival pathways involving Akt, Stat3, and Erk1/2 was significantly reduced (P<0.05) using glycated HDL. Glycation reduced the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) content of HDL, whereas the S1P concentrations of diabetic HDL were inversely correlated with hemoglobin A1c (P<0.005). The S1P contents of in vitro glycated and diabetic HDL were significantly, positively correlated (both <0.01) with cardiomyocyte survival during oxidative stress. Adding S1P to diabetic HDL increased its S1P content and restored its cardioprotective function. Our data demonstrate that glycation can reduce the S1P content of HDL, leading to increased cardiomyocyte cell death because of less effective activation of intracellular survival pathways. It has important implications for the functionality of HDL in diabetes mellitus because HDL-S1P has several beneficial effects on the vasculature. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid reduces hepatic triacylglycerol content without affecting lipogenic enzymes in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zabala, Amaia; Churruca, Itziar; Macarulla, M Teresa; Rodríguez, Víctor M; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Martínez, J Alfredo; Portillo, María P

    2004-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to the positional and geometric dienoic isomers of linoleic acid. The dietary intake of CLA has been associated with changes in lipid metabolism. The aim of the present work was to assess the effects of the two main isomers of CLA on sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1a and SREBP-1c mRNA levels, as well as on mRNA levels and the activities of several lipogenic enzymes in liver. For this purpose hamsters were fed an atherogenic diet supplemented with 5 g linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 or trans-10,cis-12 CLA/kg diet for 6 weeks. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer intake produced significantly greater liver weight, but also significantly decreased liver fat accumulation. No changes in mRNA levels of SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and lipogenic enzymes, or in the activities of these enzymes, were observed. There was no effect of feeding cis-9,trans-11 CLA. These results suggest that increased fat accumulation in liver does not occur on the basis of liver enlargement produced by feeding the trans-10,cis-12 isomer of CLA in hamsters. The reduction in hepatic triacylglycerol content induced by this isomer was not attributable to changes in lipogenesis.

  7. Reduced Content of Homogalacturonan Does Not Alter the Ion-Mediated Increase in Xylem Hydraulic Conductivity in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Nardini, Andrea; Gascó, Antonio; Cervone, Felice; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2007-01-01

    Xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks) in stems of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) wild-type SR1 was compared to that of PG7 and PG16, two transgenic lines with increased levels of expression of the gene encoding the Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase (AnPGII). Activity of AnPGII removes in planta blocks of homogalacturonan (HG) with deesterified carboxyls, thus increasing the degree of neutrality of pectins. The effect of K+ was tested in increasing stem Ks using model plants with more neutral polysaccharides in primary walls and, hence, in intervessel pit membranes. Ks measured with deionized water was compared to that with KCl solutions at increasing concentrations (ΔKs, %). Plants transformed for HG degree of neutrality showed a dwarfed phenotype, but ΔKs did not differ among the three experimental groups. The ion-mediated hydraulic effect saturated at a KCl concentration of 25 mm in SR1 plants. All the three tobacco lines showed ΔKs of around +12.5% and +17.0% when perfused with 10 and 25 mm KCl, respectively. Because modification of HG content did not influence ion-mediated hydraulic enhancement, we suggest that pectin components other than HG, like rhamnogalacturonan-I and/or rhamnogalacturonan-II, might play important roles in the hydrogel behavior of pit membranes. PMID:17307902

  8. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke leads to increased mitochondrial DNA content in umbilical cord serum associated to reduced gestational age.

    PubMed

    Pirini, Francesca; Goldman, Lynn R; Soudry, Ethan; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank; Sidransky, David; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    We investigated if prenatal exposures to tobacco smoke lead to changes in mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNA) in cord serum and adversely affect newborns' health. Umbilical cord serum cotinine levels were used to determine in utero exposure to smoking. Cord serum mtDNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the genes coding for cytochrome c oxidase1 (MT-CO1) and cytochrome c oxidase2 (MT-CO2). Log transformed levels of mtDNA coding for MT-CO1 and MT-CO2 were significantly higher among infants of active smokers with higher serum level of cotinine (p < 0.05) and inversely associated with gestational age (p = 0.08; p = 0.02). Structural equation modeling results confirmed a positive association between cotinine and MT-CO1 and2 (p < 0.01) and inverse associations with gestational age (p = 0.02) and IGF-1 (p < 0.01). We identified a dose-dependent increase in the level of MT-CO1 and MT-CO2 associated to increased cord serum cotinine and decreased gestational age.

  9. Loss of Inositol Phosphorylceramide Sphingolipid Mannosylation Induces Plant Immune Responses and Reduces Cellulose Content in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshiki; Rennie, Emilie A.; Lao, Jeemeng; Yan, Jingwei; Tsai, Alex Yi-Lin; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Demura, Taku; Kawai-Yamada, Maki

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) are a class of glycosylated sphingolipids found in plants, fungi, and protozoa. These lipids are abundant in the plant plasma membrane, forming ∼25% of total plasma membrane lipids. Little is known about the function of the glycosylated headgroup, but two recent studies have indicated that they play a key role in plant signaling and defense. Here, we show that a member of glycosyltransferase family 64, previously named ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS1, is likely a Golgi-localized GIPC-specific mannosyl-transferase, which we renamed GIPC MANNOSYL-TRANSFERASE1 (GMT1). Sphingolipid analysis revealed that the Arabidopsis thaliana gmt1 mutant almost completely lacks mannose-carrying GIPCs. Heterologous expression of GMT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cv Bright Yellow 2 resulted in the production of non-native mannosylated GIPCs. gmt1 displays a severe dwarfed phenotype and a constitutive hypersensitive response characterized by elevated salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels, similar to that we previously reported for the Golgi-localized, GIPC-specific, GDP-Man transporter GONST1 (Mortimer et al., 2013). Unexpectedly, we show that gmt1 cell walls have a reduction in cellulose content, although other matrix polysaccharides are unchanged. PMID:27895225

  10. Reducing dietary intake of linoleic acid of mouse dams during lactation increases offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA content.

    PubMed

    Schipper, L; Oosting, A; Scheurink, A J W; van Dijk, G; van der Beek, E M

    2016-07-01

    Omega (n-)3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) accumulation in the infant brain after birth is strongly driven by dietary supply of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFAs and their C18 precursors through breast milk or infant formula. n-3 LCPUFA accretion is associated with positive effects on neurodevelopmental outcome whereas high n-6 LCPUFA accumulation is considered disadvantageous. Maternal diet is crucial for breast milk fatty acid composition. Unfortunately, global increases in linoleic acid (C18:2n-6; LA) intake have dramatically increased n-6 LCPUFA and reduced n-3 LCPUFA availability for breastfed infants. We investigated the effects of reducing maternal dietary LA, or increasing n-3 LCPUFA, during lactation on milk and offspring brain fatty acids in mice. Offspring brain n-3 LCPUFA was higher following both interventions, although effects were mediated by different mechanisms. Because of competitive interactions between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, lowering maternal LA intake may support neurodevelopment in breastfed infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter J. H.; MacKay, Dylan. S.; Senanayake, Vijitha K.; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J. A.; Connelly, Philip W.; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G.; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Hantgan, Roy R.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets; 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p=0.0005 and p=0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p=0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p=0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p=0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. PMID:25528432

  12. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding.

  13. How effective are brief interventions in reducing alcohol consumption: do the setting, practitioner group and content matter? Findings from a systematic review and metaregression analysis.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lucy; Melendez-Torres, G J; O'Donnell, Amy; Bradley, Jennifer; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Kaner, Eileen; Ashton, Charlotte

    2016-08-11

    While the efficacy and effectiveness of brief interventions for alcohol (ABI) have been demonstrated in primary care, there is weaker evidence in other settings and reviews do not consider differences in content. We conducted a systematic review to measure the effect of ABIs on alcohol consumption and how it differs by the setting, practitioner group and content of intervention. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO; CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index, Cochrane Library and Global Health up to January 2015 for randomised controlled trials that measured effectiveness of ABIs on alcohol consumption. We grouped outcomes into measures of quantity and frequency indices. We used multilevel meta-analysis to estimate pooled effect sizes and tested for the effect of moderators through a multiparameter Wald test. Stratified analysis of a subset of quantity and frequency outcomes was conducted as a sensitivity check. 52 trials were included contributing data on 29 891 individuals. ABIs reduced the quantity of alcohol consumed by 0.15 SDs. While neither the setting nor content appeared to significantly moderate intervention effectiveness, the provider did in some analyses. Interventions delivered by nurses had the most effect in reducing quantity (d=-0.23, 95% CI (-0.33 to -0.13)) but not frequency of alcohol consumption. All content groups had statistically significant mean effects, brief advice was the most effective in reducing quantity consumed (d=-0.20, 95% CI (-0.30 to -0.09)). Effects were maintained in the stratified sensitivity analysis at the first and last assessment time. ABIs play a small but significant role in reducing alcohol consumption. Findings show the positive role of nurses in delivering interventions. The lack of evidence on the impact of content of intervention reinforces advice that services should select the ABI tool that best suits their needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  14. Silencing of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase in switchgrass leads to reduced lignin content and improved fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Escamilla-Treviño, Luis L; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Shen, Zhengxing; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Y-H Percival; Dixon, Richard A; Zhao, Bingyu

    2011-11-01

    • The lignin content of feedstock has been proposed as one key agronomic trait impacting biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is one of the key enzymes involved in the monolignol biosynthethic pathway. • Two homologous 4CL genes, Pv4CL1 and Pv4CL2, were identified in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) through phylogenetic analysis. Gene expression patterns and enzymatic activity assays suggested that Pv4CL1 is involved in monolignol biosynthesis. Stable transgenic plants were obtained with Pv4CL1 down-regulated. • RNA interference of Pv4CL1 reduced extractable 4CL activity by 80%, leading to a reduction in lignin content with decreased guaiacyl unit composition. Altered lignification patterns in the stems of RNAi transgenic plants were observed with phloroglucinol-HCl staining. The transgenic plants also had uncompromised biomass yields. After dilute acid pretreatment, the low lignin transgenic biomass had significantly increased cellulose hydrolysis (saccharification) efficiency. • The results demonstrate that Pv4CL1, but not Pv4CL2, is the key 4CL isozyme involved in lignin biosynthesis, and reducing lignin content in switchgrass biomass by silencing Pv4CL1 can remarkably increase the efficiency of fermentable sugar release for biofuel production. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. A Phenylurea Cytokinin, CPPU, Elevated Reducing Sugar and Correlated to Andrographolide Contents in Leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees.

    PubMed

    Worakan, Phapawee; Karaket, Netiya; Maneejantra, Nuchada; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2017-02-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that play multiple roles to control plant growth and development. In this study, leaf biomass and the production of andrographolide compounds in a medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata were significantly increased after exogenously treating with the synthetic cytokinin cytokinin-1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) at 0 (water), 5, or 10 mg L(-1) and observed the results for 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days of treatment. It was found that CPPU could significantly enhance new axillary bud formation and further promote branching 4.6-5.6-fold higher, resulting in higher fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) than the control. Application of CPPU at 5 mg L(-1) significantly promoted the highest contents of total reducing sugar at 2.5-fold in leaves and at 1.5-fold in roots. Although treatments of CPPU significantly affected the increasing contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid (1.2-1.6-fold), CPPU at 10 mg L(-1) slightly caused leaf stress and chlorophyll reduction. Interestingly, 5 mg L(-1) CPPU could enhance andrographolide content, an active anti-infectious compound in Andrographis paniculata (2.2-fold higher than the control) that reached the highest content at 24 h after treatment. This study suggested that CPPU should be suitable for field application to promote leaf yields and induce the production of useful pharmaceutical compounds in Andrographis paniculata.

  16. Performance of different composting techniques in reducing oestrogens content in manure from livestock in a Vietnamese setting.

    PubMed

    Le, Thi Anh Hong; Clemens, Joachim; Nguyen, Thai Hoa

    2013-01-01

    Steroid oestrogens (SE) are released by humans and animals into the environment. In the Mekong Delta animal excrement is directly discharged into surface water and can pollute the water. Only a few animal production sites are currently treating the excrement in either biogas plants or vermicomposting systems. The concentration of SE in manures from pigs and cattle was monitored in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Fresh cow faeces had an oestrogen concentration of 3.3 ng E2 eq/g dry weight. The SE concentration in effluent from biogas plants fed with animal manures was 341 ng E2 eq/L. Most of the SE were in the solid phase (77.9-98.7%). Vermicomposting reduced SE to 95% of the original input.

  17. Why is VO2 max after altitude acclimatization still reduced despite normalization of arterial O2 content?

    PubMed

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, R; Radegran, G; Sondergaard, H; Wagner, P D; Saltin, B

    2003-02-01

    Acute hypoxia (AH) reduces maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max), but after acclimatization, and despite increases in both hemoglobin concentration and arterial O2 saturation that can normalize arterial O2 concentration ([O2]), VO2 max remains low. To determine why, seven lowlanders were studied at VO2 max (cycle ergometry) at sea level (SL), after 9-10 wk at 5,260 m [chronic hypoxia (CH)], and 6 mo later at SL in AH (FiO2 = 0.105) equivalent to 5,260 m. Pulmonary and leg indexes of O2 transport were measured in each condition. Both cardiac output and leg blood flow were reduced by approximately 15% in both AH and CH (P < 0.05). At maximal exercise, arterial [O2] in AH was 31% lower than at SL (P < 0.05), whereas in CH it was the same as at SL due to both polycythemia and hyperventilation. O2 extraction by the legs, however, remained at SL values in both AH and CH. Although at both SL and in AH, 76% of the cardiac output perfused the legs, in CH the legs received only 67%. Pulmonary VO2 max (4.1 +/- 0.3 l/min at SL) fell to 2.2 +/- 0.1 l/min in AH (P < 0.05) and was only 2.4 +/- 0.2 l/min in CH (P < 0.05). These data suggest that the failure to recover VO2 max after acclimatization despite normalization of arterial [O2] is explained by two circulatory effects of altitude: 1) failure of cardiac output to normalize and 2) preferential redistribution of cardiac output to nonexercising tissues. Oxygen transport from blood to muscle mitochondria, on the other hand, appears unaffected by CH.

  18. Timeliness, frequency and content of antenatal care: which is most important to reducing indigenous disparities in birth weight in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Servan-Mori, Edson; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Najera-Leon, Esmeralda; Darney, Blair G

    2016-05-01

    This article examines the role of components of adequate antenatal care (ANC) in disparities in birth weight between indigenous and non-indigenous women in Mexico. We estimate the potential for added weight gain among indigenous infants if their mothers received timely, frequent ( ≥4 visits) and complete ANC (≥75% of recommended processes of care). We used population-based survey data (2012;N= 6612 women 12-49). We applied quantile regression to examine heterogeneity of the association between adequate ANC, indigenous ethnicity and birth weight across quantiles of the birth weight distribution. A greater proportion of indigenous women reported a low-birth weight infant (<2.5 kg) at last delivery (14 vs 8% among non-indigenous women). Coverage of adequate ANC (timely, frequent and complete care) is lower among indigenous (59%, CI:53;65) than non-indigenous (68%, CI:66;70) women. Indigenous ethnicity is associated with a lower birth weight across quantiles of the observed birth weight distribution: between 300 g in the 0.05, 0.10 and 0.25 quantiles. Among indigenous women, greater newborn weight gains are achieved in the lowest quantiles if they have access to ≥75% of the content of ANC compared with those that did not have access: ∼180 and 260 g are gained in both quantiles 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. This means that the smallest indigenous newborns could potentially reach 2.36 kg (from 1.86 kg), close to the normal weight threshold. The frequency of ANC was positively associated with birth weight for all women but complete ANC appears to differentially affect indigenous women at the bottom of the birth weight distribution. The marginal gains obtained among indigenous newborns that received complete ANC compared with indigenous/non-indigenous newborns did not receive it, is particularly important in low-birth weight quantiles. Delivering basic processes of ANC may therefore have the potential to impact the highest risk women and help them to overcome the

  19. The effect of concentrations and volumes of methanol in reducing free fatty acid content of used cooking oil as biodiesel feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julianto, Tatang Shabur; Suratmi

    2017-03-01

    The research on purification of used cooking oil as biodiesel feedstock has been done. Refining was performed using methanol with varied concentrations and volumes. A total of 10 grams of used cooking oil was extracted using methanol with a variation concentration of 100%, 70%, 50% and 30%, and a variation of volume 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mL. After extraction, the free fatty acids contents of the extracted oil were analyzed. The results showed that pure methanol has the highest ability to reduce the content of free fatty acid with a percentage of reduction for 89.23%. The optimum ratio of used cooking oil and methanol is about 1:15 (v/v).

  20. Resuscitation with Pooled and Pathogen-Reduced Plasma Attenuates the Increase in Brain Water Content following Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats.

    PubMed

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Bentzer, Peter; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Johansson, Pär Ingemar

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and edema formation. Recent animal studies have shown that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation reduces brain swelling and improves endothelial function compared to isotonic NaCl (NS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether pooled and pathogen-reduced plasma (OctaplasLG(®) [OCTA]; Octapharma, Stockholm, Sweden) was comparable to FFP with regard to effects on brain water content, BBB permeability, and plasma biomarkers of endothelial glycocalyx shedding and cell damage. After fluid percussion brain injury, hemorrhage (20 mL/kg), and 90-min shock, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to resuscitation with OCTA, FFP, or NS (n = 16/group). Brain water content (wet/dry weight) and BBB permeability (transfer constant for (51)Cr-EDTA) were measured at 24 h. Plasma osmolality, oncotic pressure, and biomarkers of systemic glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1) and cell damage (histone-complexed DNA) were measured at 0 and 23 h. At 24 h, brain water content was 80.44 ± 0.39%, 80.82 ± 0.82%, and 81.15 ± 0.86% in the OCTA, FFP, and NS groups (lower in OCTA vs. NS; p = 0.026), with no difference in BBB permeability. Plasma osmolality and oncotic pressures were highest in FFP and OCTA resuscitated, and osmolality was further highest in OCTA versus FFP (p = 0.027). In addition, syndecan-1 was highest in FFP and OCTA resuscitated (p = 0.010). These results suggest that pooled solvent-detergent (SD)-treated plasma attenuates the post-traumatic increase in brain water content, and that this effect may, in part, be explained by a high crystalloid and colloid osmotic pressure in SD-treated plasma.

  1. ROCK1 reduces mitochondrial content and irisin production in muscle suppressing adipocyte browning and impairing insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Rongshan; Liu, Xinyan; Wang, Lihua; Hui, Peng; Chan, Lawrence; Saha, Pradip K; Hu, Zhaoyong

    2016-07-14

    Irisin reportedly promotes the conversion of preadipocytes into "brown-like" adipocytes within subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) via a mechanism that stimulates UCP-1 expression. An increase in plasma irisin has been associated with improved obesity and insulin resistance in mice with type 2 diabetes. But whether a low level of irisin stimulates the development of obesity has not been determined. In studying mice with muscle-specific constitutive ROCK1 activation (mCaROCK1), we found that irisin production was down-regulated and the mice developed obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the effects of irisin deficiency on energy metabolism in mCaROCK1 mice. Constitutively activation of ROCK1 in muscle suppressed irisin expression in muscle resulting in a low level of irisin in circulation. Irisin deficiency reduced heat production and decreased the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous WAT. Moreover, mCaROCK1 mice also displayed impaired glucose tolerance. Notably, irisin replenishment in mCaROCK1 mice partially reversed insulin resistance and obesity and these changes were associated with increased expression of UCP1 and Pref-1 in subcutaneous WAT. These results demonstrate that irisin mediates muscle-adipose tissue communication and regulates energy and glucose homeostasis. Irisin administration can correct obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

  2. ROCK1 reduces mitochondrial content and irisin production in muscle suppressing adipocyte browning and impairing insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Rongshan; Liu, Xinyan; Wang, Lihua; Hui, Peng; Chan, Lawrence; Saha, Pradip K.; Hu, Zhaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Irisin reportedly promotes the conversion of preadipocytes into “brown-like” adipocytes within subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) via a mechanism that stimulates UCP-1 expression. An increase in plasma irisin has been associated with improved obesity and insulin resistance in mice with type 2 diabetes. But whether a low level of irisin stimulates the development of obesity has not been determined. In studying mice with muscle-specific constitutive ROCK1 activation (mCaROCK1), we found that irisin production was down-regulated and the mice developed obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the effects of irisin deficiency on energy metabolism in mCaROCK1 mice. Constitutively activation of ROCK1 in muscle suppressed irisin expression in muscle resulting in a low level of irisin in circulation. Irisin deficiency reduced heat production and decreased the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous WAT. Moreover, mCaROCK1 mice also displayed impaired glucose tolerance. Notably, irisin replenishment in mCaROCK1 mice partially reversed insulin resistance and obesity and these changes were associated with increased expression of UCP1 and Pref-1 in subcutaneous WAT. These results demonstrate that irisin mediates muscle-adipose tissue communication and regulates energy and glucose homeostasis. Irisin administration can correct obesity and insulin resistance in mice. PMID:27411515

  3. Knockdown of a nutrient amino acid transporter gene LdNAT1 reduces free neutral amino acid contents and impairs Leptinotarsa decemlineata pupation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Kai-Yun; Guo, Wen-Chao; Ahmat, Tursun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A Leptinotarsa decemlineata SLC6 NAT gene (LdNAT1) was cloned. LdNAT1 was highly expressed in the larval alimentary canal especially midgut. LdNAT1 mRNA levels were high right after the molt and low just before the molt. JH and a JH analog pyriproxyfen activated LdNAT1 expression. RNAi of an allatostatin gene LdAS-C increased JH and upregulated LdNAT1 transcription. Conversely, silencing of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT decreased JH and reduced LdNAT1 expression. Moreover, 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide repressed LdNAT1 expression, whereas a decrease in 20E by RNAi of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD and disruption of 20E signaling by knockdown of LdE75 and LdFTZ-F1 activated LdNAT1 expression. Thus, LdNAT1 responded to both 20E and JH. Moreover, knockdown of LdNAT1 reduced the contents of cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and serine in the larval bodies and increased the contents of these amino acids in the larval feces. Furthermore, RNAi of LdNAT1 inhibited insulin/target of rapamycin pathway, lowered 20E and JH titers, reduced 20E and JH signaling, retarded larval growth and impaired pupation. These data showed that LdNAT1 was involved in the absorption of several neutral amino acids critical for larval growth and metamorphosis. PMID:26657797

  4. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content inhibits hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but does not reduce the glycaemia.

    PubMed

    Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; Cassolla, Priscila; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Constantin, Jorgete; Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Clairce Luzia; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2015-06-01

    Coffee is the main source of chlorogenic acid in the human diet, and it contains several chlorogenic acid isomers, of which the 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) is the predominant isomer. Because there are no available data about the action of chlorogenic acids from instant coffee on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity and blood glucose levels, these effects were investigated in rats. The changes on G-6-Pase activity and liver glucose output induced by 5-CQA were also investigated. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content (37.8%) inhibited (p < 0.05) the G-6-Pase activity of the hepatocyte microsomal fraction in a dose-dependent way (up to 53), but IV administration of this extract did not change the glycaemia (p > 0.05). Similarly, 5-CQA (1 mM) reduced (p < 0.05) the activity of microsomal G-6-Pase by about 40%, but had no effect (p > 0.05) on glucose output arising from glycogenolysis in liver perfusion. It was concluded that instant coffee extract with high content of chlorogenic acids inhibited hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but failed to reduce the glycaemia probably because the coffee chlorogenic acids did not reach enough levels within the hepatocytes to inhibit the G-6-Pase and reduce the liver glucose output. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A High-Fat, High-Oleic Diet, But Not a High-Fat, Saturated Diet, Reduces Hepatic α-Linolenic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Content in Mice.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Murphy, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n-6) as a competitive inhibitor of α-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n-3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that a high SFA diet, compared to a high MUFA (oleic acid 18:1n-9) diet, reduces ALA conversion to long chain n-3 fatty acids. Mice were fed for 12 weeks on three diets: (1) a control, 16 % fat energy diet consisting of similar levels of SFA and MUFA (2) a 50 % fat energy high MUFA energy diet (35 % MUFA and 7 % SFA) or (3) a 50 % fat energy, high SFA energy diet (34 % SFA, 8 % MUFA). ALA and LNA content remained constant. Analysis of hepatic lipids demonstrated a selective reduction (40 %) in ALA but not LNA and a 35 % reduction in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in the high MUFA mice compared to the other groups. Lower content of ALA was reflected in the neutral lipid fraction, while smaller levels of phospholipid esterified EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3) were evident. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) content was elevated by the high SFA diet. Expression of Fads1 (Δ5 desaturase) and Fads2 (Δ6 desaturase) was elevated by the high MUFA and reduced by the high SFA diet. These data indicate that a high MUFA diet, but not a high SFA diet, reduces ALA metabolism and point to selective hepatic disposition of ALA versus LNA.

  6. Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Partanen, K

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a thermotolerant 6-phytase produced by Trichoderma reesei on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 192 weaned piglets (randomized block design; 16 replicates; 2 piglets each). Diets based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) meal, and whey protein with adequate [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] Ca and P levels were fed for 46 d after weaning. The PC and NC diets contained 8.0 and 6.4 g/kg Ca and 2.9 and 1.9 g/kg digestible P, respectively. Pelleted diets contained 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Growth performance and G:F were measured during starter (25 d) and weaner pig (21 d) periods. The ATTD of Ca and P was determined by spot sampling at the end of the weaner pig period (8 pens per treatment over 5 consecutive d). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with random block effect and fixed effect of dietary P and phytase level and their interaction. Dietary P level did not affect ADG or G:F of piglets over the entire feeding period (P > 0.10) whereas phytase increased G:F (P < 0.05). During the starter period, phytase linearly enhanced (P < 0.05) ADG (258, 266, and 292 g) and G:F (639, 677, and 664 g gain/kg feed DM) without further increase in the weaner pig period (P > 0.10). A P × phytase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for ATTD of P, more so for NC (48, 61, and 68%, respectively) than PC diets (52, 62, and 61%). The ATTD of Ca was higher (P < 0.05) for PC than NC diets (68 vs. 58%) and increased quadratically by phytase (61, 65, and 63%). In conclusion, the phytase tested enhanced piglet performance during the postweaning period and increased ATTD of P and Ca.

  7. Polyamine contents in current foods: a basis for polyamine reduced diet and a study of its long term observance and tolerance in prostate carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, B G; Havouis, R; Moulinoux, J P

    2007-08-01

    Polyamine contents were assessed by mass spectrometry in 233 current foods and beverages. In order to reduce gut polyamine uptake, a polyamine reduced diet (PRD) and partial intermittent intestinal tract decontamination (PIITD) with neomycin or nifuroxazide was proposed as nutritional therapy to 33 prostate carcinoma patients, 30 of whom with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Mean PRD observance was 22 +/- 19 (median: 16; range: 3-72) months. 10, 8 and 3 patients were respectively on PRD for more than 30, 36 and 64 months. No diet toxicity was observed. 8 patients had moderate intestinal intolerance due to PIITD which was interrupted. No significant differences in body weight, blood counts or serum protein levels were observed during the follow-up of patients under PRD. Performance status and pain scores were relatively stable during the trial with improved pain scores at 6 months. A PRD associated with intermittent PIITD is a safe and well observed nutritional regimen and long term observance is possible.

  8. A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel-base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. ThesisFinal Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, William O.

    1987-01-01

    A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing was performed. The two elements used as partial substitutes for chromium were Si and Zr. The microstructure of conventionally solidified materials was characterized using microscopy techniques. These alloys were rapidly solidified using the chill block melt spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures were characterized using electron microscopy. The spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures was assessed following heat treatments at 1033 and 1272 K. Rapidly solidified material of three alloys was reduced to particulate form and consolidated using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The consolidated materials were also characterized using microscopy techniques. In order to evaluate the relative strengths of the consolidated alloys, compression tests were performed at room temperature and 1033 K on samples of as-HIPed and HIPed plus solution treated material. Yield strength, porosity, and oxidation resistance characteristics are given and compared.

  9. A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel-base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. ThesisFinal Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, William O.

    1987-01-01

    A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing was performed. The two elements used as partial substitutes for chromium were Si and Zr. The microstructure of conventionally solidified materials was characterized using microscopy techniques. These alloys were rapidly solidified using the chill block melt spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures were characterized using electron microscopy. The spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures was assessed following heat treatments at 1033 and 1272 K. Rapidly solidified material of three alloys was reduced to particulate form and consolidated using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The consolidated materials were also characterized using microscopy techniques. In order to evaluate the relative strengths of the consolidated alloys, compression tests were performed at room temperature and 1033 K on samples of as-HIPed and HIPed plus solution treated material. Yield strength, porosity, and oxidation resistance characteristics are given and compared.

  10. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin

    PubMed Central

    LEE, BO MI; AN, SUNGKWAN; KIM, SOO-YEON; HAN, HYUN JOO; JEONG, YU-JIN; LEE, KYOUNG-ROK; ROH, NAM KYUNG; AHN, KYU JOONG; AN, IN-SOOK; CHA, HWA JUN

    2015-01-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20–50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm3 (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin. PMID:26137233

  11. Ipragliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, reduces intrahepatic lipid content and abdominal visceral fat volume in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Akio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yuta; Nakagawa, Tomoko; Nagai, Yoshio; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2017-10-01

    We recently investigated the effect of ipragliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2I), in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes by a 24-week. SGLT-2Is also have an anti-obesity effect, and reduction of body fat has been demonstrated by indirect methods. However, evaluation of the effect on the total visceral fat volume and intrahepatic lipid content has not been performed. We measured the abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (SFV) and visceral fat volume (VFV) by whole abdominal CT scanning, the intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and the fat mass index (FI) and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 20 patients from our previous study. Administration of ipragliflozin at 50 mg/day for 24 weeks significantly reduced SFV, VFV, and IHL. FI and ASMI were also significantly decreased. Changes of VFV and IHL content at 12 weeks were significantly correlated with the change of HbA1c, but no correlation was observed at 24 weeks. These findings demonstrate that ipragliflozin decreases visceral and hepatic fat, with improvement of glycemic control possibly being attributable to these changes at least up to 12 weeks.

  12. GC Content Increased at CpG Flanking Positions of Fish Genes Compared with Sea Squirt Orthologs as a Mechanism for Reducing Impact of DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Leung, Frederick C. C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Fractional DNA methylation in sea squirts evolved to global DNA methylation in fish. The impact of global DNA methylation is reflected by more CpG depletions and/or more A/T to G/C changes at CpG flanking positions due to context-dependent mutations of methylated CpG sites. Methods and Findings In this report, we demonstrate that the sea squirt genes have undergone more CpG to TpG/CpA substitutions than the fish orthologs using homologous fragments from orthologous genes among Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi, fugufish and zebrafish. To avoid premature transcription, the TGA sites derived from CGA were largely converted to TGG in sea squirt genes. By contrast, a significant increment of GC content at CpG flanking positions was shown in fish genes. The positively selected A/T to G/C substitutions, in combination with the CpG to TpG/CpA substitutions, are the sources of the extremely low CpG observed/expected ratios in vertebrates. The nonsynonymous substitutions caused by the GC content increase have resulted in frequent amino acid replacements in the directions that were not noticed previously. Conclusion The increased GC content at CpG flanking positions can reduce CpG loss in fish genes and attenuate the impact of DNA methylation on CpG-containing codons, probably accounting for evolution towards vertebrates. PMID:19005573

  13. GC content increased at CpG flanking positions of fish genes compared with sea squirt orthologs as a mechanism for reducing impact of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Leung, Frederick C C

    2008-01-01

    Fractional DNA methylation in sea squirts evolved to global DNA methylation in fish. The impact of global DNA methylation is reflected by more CpG depletions and/or more A/T to G/C changes at CpG flanking positions due to context-dependent mutations of methylated CpG sites. In this report, we demonstrate that the sea squirt genes have undergone more CpG to TpG/CpA substitutions than the fish orthologs using homologous fragments from orthologous genes among Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi, fugufish and zebrafish. To avoid premature transcription, the TGA sites derived from CGA were largely converted to TGG in sea squirt genes. By contrast, a significant increment of GC content at CpG flanking positions was shown in fish genes. The positively selected A/T to G/C substitutions, in combination with the CpG to TpG/CpA substitutions, are the sources of the extremely low CpG observed/expected ratios in vertebrates. The nonsynonymous substitutions caused by the GC content increase have resulted in frequent amino acid replacements in the directions that were not noticed previously. The increased GC content at CpG flanking positions can reduce CpG loss in fish genes and attenuate the impact of DNA methylation on CpG-containing codons, probably accounting for evolution towards vertebrates.

  14. Topical application of a cleanser containing extracts of Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis reduces skin oil content and pore size in human skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Mi; An, Sungkwan; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Han, Hyun Joo; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Roh, Nam Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; Cha, Hwa Jun

    2015-05-01

    The effects of skin pores on skin topographic features can be reduced by decreasing excessive production and accumulation of sebum and elimination of comedones. Therefore, a cosmetic cleanser that regulates sebum homeostasis is required. In the present study, the effects of a cosmetic cleanser that contained Diospyros kaki folium, Polygonum cuspidatum and Castanea crenata var. dulcis (DPC) was examined on the removal of sebum and on skin pore size. Healthy volunteers (n=23) aged 20-50 years were asked to apply the test materials to the face. Skin oil content, pore size, pore number and extracted sebum surface area were measured using various measurement methods. All the measurements were performed at pre- and post-application of the test materials. When the cosmetic cleanser containing DPC was applied to the skin, the oil content decreased by 77.3%, from 6.19 to 1.40. The number of skin pores decreased by 24.83%, from 125.39 to 94.23. Skin pore size decreased from 0.07 to 0.02 µm(3) (71.43% decrease). The amount of extracted sebum increased by 335% when the DPC cleanser was used. Compared to the control cleanser, skin oil content was significantly decreased when the cleanser that contained DPC was used. The cleanser containing DPC also decreased pore size and number. Finally, the DPC cleanser easily removed solidified sebum from the skin.

  15. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. RNA interference of the nicotine demethylase gene CYP82E4v1 reduces nornicotine content and enhances Myzus persicae resistance in Nicotiana tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Qin, Li-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang

    2016-10-01

    The CYP82E4v1 gene was identified to encode nicotine demethylase, which catalyzed the conversion of nicotine to nornicotine. In this study, we constructed CYP82E4v1-RNAi vector and genetically transformed tobacco variety K326. The determination results of nicotine and nornicotine content via HPLC demonstrated that there was significant increase of nicotine content and reduction of nornicotine content in transgenic plants compared with those in wild-type plants. Exogenous application of IAA or GA3 could reduce the nicotine content in tobaccos, while ABA or 6-BA could increase the content of nicotine. And the more significant difference of nicotine content change in transgenic plants. Aphid-inoculation experiment demonstrated the number of aphid population in transgenic plants was significantly lower than wild-type plants at 12 d after aphid-inoculation. Meanwhile, the activity of AOEs and PAL in transgenic and wild-type tobacco plants after aphid-inoculation was measured. At 3 d after aphid-inoculation, both AOEs and PAL activity were significantly higher than controls, including wild-type plants with aphid-inoculation and transgenic plants with mock-inoculation. Also, the relative expression of these genes involved in salicylic acid/jasmonic acid (SA/JA) signaling pathways was analyzed at different stages after aphid-inoculation and the results demonstrated that there was significantly higher expression of JA-induced LOX gene in both transgenic and wild-type plants inoculated by aphid than the non-inoculated ones while no significant difference in the expression of SA-induced PR-1a gene among them was found, which indicated the JA-mediated resistance response was activated during aphid infestation. Moreover, although the expression level of BGL (another JA-induced gene) was less significant between the two inoculated tobaccos, it was significantly higher than the plant without inoculation, which was 1.4 and 2.2 folds higher than the non-inoculated controls

  17. Effects of elevated root zone CO2 and air temperature on photosynthetic gas exchange, nitrate uptake, and total reduced nitrogen content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants

    PubMed Central

    He, Jie; Austin, Paul T.; Lee, Sing Kong

    2010-01-01

    Effects of elevated root zone (RZ) CO2 and air temperature on photosynthesis, productivity, nitrate (NO3–), and total reduced nitrogen (N) content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants were studied. Three weeks after transplanting, four different RZ [CO2] concentrations [ambient (360 ppm) and elevated concentrations of 2000, 10 000, and 50 000 ppm] were imposed on plants grown at two air temperature regimes of 28 °C/22 °C (day/night) and 36 °C/30 °C. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) increased with increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). When grown at 28 °C/22 °C, all plants accumulated more biomass than at 36 °C/30 °C. When measured under a PAR ≥600 μmol m−2 s−1, elevated RZ [CO2] resulted in significantly higher A, lower gs, and higher midday leaf relative water content in all plants. Under elevated RZ [CO2], the increase of biomass was greater in roots than in shoots, causing a lower shoot/root ratio. The percentage increase in growth under elevated RZ [CO2] was greater at 36 °C/30 °C although the total biomass was higher at 28 °C/22 °C. NO3– and total reduced N concentrations of shoot and root were significantly higher in all plants under elevated RZ [CO2] than under ambient RZ [CO2] of 360 ppm at both temperature regimes. At each RZ [CO2], NO3– and total reduced N concentration of shoots were greater at 28 °C/22 °C than at 36 °C/30 °C. At all RZ [CO2], roots of plants at 36 °C/30 °C had significantly higher NO3– and total reduced N concentrations than at 28 °C/22 °C. Since increased RZ [CO2] caused partial stomatal closure, maximal A and maximal gs were negatively correlated, with a unique relationship for each air temperature. However, across all RZ [CO2] and temperature treatments, there was a close correlation between maximal A and total shoot reduced N concentration of plants under different RZ [CO2], indicating that

  18. Transgenic and Mutation-Based Suppression of a Berberine Bridge Enzyme-Like (BBL) Gene Family Reduces Alkaloid Content in Field-Grown Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ramsey S.; Lopez, Harry O.; Bowen, Steve W.; Andres, Karen R.; Steede, William T.; Dewey, Ralph E.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation exists to develop tobacco cultivars with reduced nicotine content for the purpose of facilitating compliance with expected tobacco product regulations that could mandate the lowering of nicotine levels per se, or the reduction of carcinogenic alkaloid-derived tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). A berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family was recently characterized for N. tabacum and found to catalyze one of the final steps in pyridine alkaloid synthesis for this species. Because this gene family acts downstream in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway, it may represent an attractive target for genetic strategies with the objective of reducing alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco. In this research, we produced transgenic doubled haploid lines of tobacco cultivar K326 carrying an RNAi construct designed to reduce expression of the BBL gene family. Field-grown transgenic lines carrying functional RNAi constructs exhibited average cured leaf nicotine levels of 0.684%, in comparison to 2.454% for the untransformed control. Since numerous barriers would need to be overcome to commercialize transgenic tobacco cultivars, we subsequently pursued a mutation breeding approach to identify EMS-induced mutations in the three most highly expressed isoforms of the BBL gene family. Field evaluation of individuals possessing different homozygous combinations of truncation mutations in BBLa, BBLb, and BBLc indicated that a range of alkaloid phenotypes could be produced, with the triple homozygous knockout genotype exhibiting greater than a 13-fold reduction in percent total alkaloids. The novel source of genetic variability described here may be useful in future tobacco breeding for varied alkaloid levels. PMID:25688975

  19. Transgenic and mutation-based suppression of a berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family reduces alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Lopez, Harry O; Bowen, Steve W; Andres, Karen R; Steede, William T; Dewey, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    Motivation exists to develop tobacco cultivars with reduced nicotine content for the purpose of facilitating compliance with expected tobacco product regulations that could mandate the lowering of nicotine levels per se, or the reduction of carcinogenic alkaloid-derived tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). A berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family was recently characterized for N. tabacum and found to catalyze one of the final steps in pyridine alkaloid synthesis for this species. Because this gene family acts downstream in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway, it may represent an attractive target for genetic strategies with the objective of reducing alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco. In this research, we produced transgenic doubled haploid lines of tobacco cultivar K326 carrying an RNAi construct designed to reduce expression of the BBL gene family. Field-grown transgenic lines carrying functional RNAi constructs exhibited average cured leaf nicotine levels of 0.684%, in comparison to 2.454% for the untransformed control. Since numerous barriers would need to be overcome to commercialize transgenic tobacco cultivars, we subsequently pursued a mutation breeding approach to identify EMS-induced mutations in the three most highly expressed isoforms of the BBL gene family. Field evaluation of individuals possessing different homozygous combinations of truncation mutations in BBLa, BBLb, and BBLc indicated that a range of alkaloid phenotypes could be produced, with the triple homozygous knockout genotype exhibiting greater than a 13-fold reduction in percent total alkaloids. The novel source of genetic variability described here may be useful in future tobacco breeding for varied alkaloid levels.

  20. User Preferences for Content, Features, and Style for an App to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults: Analysis of User Feedback in App Stores and Focus Group Interviews.

    PubMed

    Milward, Joanna; Khadjesari, Zarnie; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Deluca, Paolo; Watson, Rod; Drummond, Colin

    2016-05-24

    Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption when delivered by a computer. Mobile phone apps demonstrate promise in delivering eSBI; however, few have been designed with an evidence-based and user-informed approach. This study aims to explore from a user perspective, preferences for content, appearance, and operational features to inform the design of a mobile phone app for reducing quantity and frequency of drinking in young adults engaged in harmful drinking (18-30 year olds). Phase 1 included a review of user reviews of available mobile phone apps that support a reduction in alcohol consumption. Apps were identified on iTunes and Google Play and were categorized into alcohol reduction support, entertainment, blood alcohol content measurement (BAC), or other. eSBI apps with ≥18 user reviews were subject to a content analysis, which coded praise, criticism, and recommendations for app content, functionality, and esthetics. Phase 2 included four focus groups with young adults drinking at harmful levels and residing in South London to explore their views on existing eSBI apps and preferences for future content, functionality, and appearance. Detailed thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. In Phase 1, of the 1584 apps extracted, 201 were categorized as alcohol reduction, 154 as BAC calculators, 509 as entertainment, and 720 as other. We classified 32 apps as eSBI apps. Four apps had ≥18 user reviews: Change for Life Drinks Tracker, Drinksmeter, Drinkaware, and Alcohol Units Calculator. The highest proportion of content praises were for information and feedback provided in the apps (12/27, 44%), followed by praise for the monitoring features (5/27, 19%). Many (8/12, 67%) criticisms were for the drinking diary; all of these were related to difficulty entering drinks. Over half (18/32, 56%) of functionality criticisms were descriptions of software bugs, and over half of those (10/18, 56%) were for app

  1. User Preferences for Content, Features, and Style for an App to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults: Analysis of User Feedback in App Stores and Focus Group Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Deluca, Paolo; Watson, Rod; Drummond, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption when delivered by a computer. Mobile phone apps demonstrate promise in delivering eSBI; however, few have been designed with an evidence-based and user-informed approach. Objective This study aims to explore from a user perspective, preferences for content, appearance, and operational features to inform the design of a mobile phone app for reducing quantity and frequency of drinking in young adults engaged in harmful drinking (18-30 year olds). Methods Phase 1 included a review of user reviews of available mobile phone apps that support a reduction in alcohol consumption. Apps were identified on iTunes and Google Play and were categorized into alcohol reduction support, entertainment, blood alcohol content measurement (BAC), or other. eSBI apps with ≥18 user reviews were subject to a content analysis, which coded praise, criticism, and recommendations for app content, functionality, and esthetics. Phase 2 included four focus groups with young adults drinking at harmful levels and residing in South London to explore their views on existing eSBI apps and preferences for future content, functionality, and appearance. Detailed thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Results In Phase 1, of the 1584 apps extracted, 201 were categorized as alcohol reduction, 154 as BAC calculators, 509 as entertainment, and 720 as other. We classified 32 apps as eSBI apps. Four apps had ≥18 user reviews: Change for Life Drinks Tracker, Drinksmeter, Drinkaware, and Alcohol Units Calculator. The highest proportion of content praises were for information and feedback provided in the apps (12/27, 44%), followed by praise for the monitoring features (5/27, 19%). Many (8/12, 67%) criticisms were for the drinking diary; all of these were related to difficulty entering drinks. Over half (18/32, 56%) of functionality criticisms were descriptions of software bugs, and over

  2. Obesity reduces the pro-angiogenic potential of adipose tissue stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) by impairing miR-126 content: impact on clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Togliatto, G; Dentelli, P; Gili, M; Gallo, S; Deregibus, C; Biglieri, E; Iavello, A; Santini, E; Rossi, C; Solini, A; Camussi, G; Brizzi, M F

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Soluble factors and cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial tissue repair mediators in cell-based therapy. In the present study, we investigate the therapeutic impact of EVs released by adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) recovered from obese subjects' visceral and subcutaneous tissues. Methods: ASCs were recovered from 10 obese (oASCs) and 6 non-obese (nASCs) participants and characterized. In selected experiments, nASCs and oASCs were cultured with palmitic acid (PA) or high glucose (HG), respectively. EVs from obese (oEVs) and non-obese (nEVs) subjects' visceral and subcutaneous ASCs were collected after ultracentrifugation and analyzed for their cargo: microRNA-126 (miR-126), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and for their biological effects on endothelial cells (ECs). Western blotting analysis and loss- and gain-of function experiments were performed. Results: oEVs show impaired angiogenic potential compared with nEVs. This effect depends on EV cargo: reduced content of VEGF, MMP-2 and, more importantly, miR-126. We demonstrate, using gain- and loss-of-function experiments, that this reduced miR-126 content leads to Spred1 upregulation and the inhibition of the extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in ECs. We also show that PA treatment of nASCs translates into the release of EVs that recapitulate oEV cargo. Moreover, HG treatment of oASCs further reduces miR-126 EV content and EV-mediated in vitro angiogenesis. Finally, impaired pro-angiogenic potential is also detected in EVs released from obese subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived ASCs. Conclusions: These results indicate that obesity impacts on EV pro-angiogenic potential and may raise concerns about the use of adipose tissue-derived EVs in cell-based therapy in the obese setting. PMID:26122028

  3. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from Bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from Bos primigenius taurus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred Bos primigenius taurus x Bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum. Bovine zygotes (n = 1,692) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) Control, zygotes cultured in Charles Rosenkrans 2 amino acid (CR2aa) medium (n = 815) or 2) CLA, zygotes cultured in CR2aa medium supplemented with 100 μmol/L of trans-10, cis-12 CLA (n = 877). Embryo development (cleavage and blastocyst rates evaluated at days 3 and 8 of culture, respectively), lipid content at morula stage (day 5) and blastocyst cryotolerance (re-expansion and hatching rates, evaluated 24 and 72 h post-thawing, respectively) were compared between groups. Additionally, selected mRNA transcripts were measured by Real–Time PCR in blastocyst stage. Results The CLA treatment had no effect on cleavage and blastocyst rates, or on mRNA levels for genes related to cellular stress and apoptosis. On the other hand, abundance of mRNA for the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase-encoding gene (AGPAT), which is involved in triglycerides synthesis, and consequently neutral lipid content, were reduced by CLA treatment. A significant increase was observed in the re-expansion rate of embryos cultured with trans-10, cis-12 CLA when compared to control (56.3 vs. 34.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). However, this difference was not observed in the hatching rate (16.5 vs. 14.0%, respectively, P = 0.62). Conclusions The supplementation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer in culture medium reduced the lipid content of in vitro produced

  4. Assessment of home-based processing methods to reduce the phytate content and phytate/zinc molar ratio of white maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Hotz, C; Gibson, R S

    2001-02-01

    Various methods of processing maize suitable for household use in rural Malawi, Central Africa, were investigated for their ability to reduce its phytate content and phytate/zinc molar ratio. These methods included fermentation, germination, and soaking. Penta- and hexainositol phosphates were measured by HPLC, and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Natural lactic fermentation of maize flour slurries resulted in 88% phytate retention compared to unprocessed, unrefined maize flour porridges, whereas lower phytate retention was observed when a starter culture (61%) or germinated flour (71%) was also used. Fermentation of cooked maize flour porridges with germinated flour added resulted in 54-85% retention of phytate compared to controls. Soaking maize flour or pounded maize and decanting excess water resulted in 43 and 49% retention of phytate, respectively. The latter soaking procedures were simple and effective and were suitable for household use in rural Malawian communities.

  5. Reduced levels of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase decrease the glutamate content of ripe tomato fruit but have no effect on green fruit or leaves.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Gisela; D'Angelo, Matilde; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Valle, Estela M

    2015-06-01

    Glutamate (Glu) is a taste enhancer that contributes to the characteristic flavour of foods. In fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), the Glu content increases dramatically during the ripening process, becoming the most abundant free amino acid when the fruit become red. There is also a concomitant increase in NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity during the ripening transition. This enzyme is located in the mitochondria and catalyses the reversible amination of 2-oxoglutarate to Glu. To investigate the potential effect of GDH on Glu metabolism, the abundance of GDH was altered by artificial microRNA technology. Efficient silencing of all the endogenous SlGDH genes was achieved, leading to a dramatic decrease in total GDH activity. This decrease in GDH activity did not lead to any clear morphological or metabolic phenotype in leaves or green fruit. However, red fruit on the transgenic plants showed markedly reduced levels of Glu and a large increase in aspartate, glucose and fructose content in comparison to wild-type fruit. These results suggest that GDH is involved in the synthesis of Glu in tomato fruit during the ripening processes. This contrasts with the biological role ascribed to GDH in many other tissues and species. Overall, these findings suggest that GDH has a major effect on the control of metabolic composition during tomato fruit ripening, but not at other stages of development.

  6. Lower protein content in infant formula reduces BMI and obesity risk at school age: follow-up of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martina; Grote, Veit; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Escribano, Joaquín; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Dain, Elena; Giovannini, Marcello; Verduci, Elvira; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-05-01

    Early nutrition is recognized as a target for the effective prevention of childhood obesity. Protein intake was associated with more rapid weight gain during infancy-a known risk factor for later obesity. We tested whether the reduction of protein in infant formula reduces body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and the prevalence of obesity at 6 y of age. The Childhood Obesity Project was conducted as a European multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that enrolled healthy infants born between October 2002 and July 2004. Formula-fed infants (n = 1090) were randomly assigned to receive higher protein (HP)- or lower protein (LP)-content formula (within recommended amounts) in the first year of life; breastfed infants (n = 588) were enrolled as an observational reference group. We measured the weight and height of 448 (41%) formula-fed children at 6 y of age. BMI was the primary outcome. HP children had a significantly higher BMI (by 0.51; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.90; P = 0.009) at 6 y of age. The risk of becoming obese in the HP group was 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12, 5.27; P = 0.024) times that in the LP group. There was a tendency for a higher weight in HP children (0.67 kg; 95% CI: -0.04, 1.39 kg; P = 0.064) but no difference in height between the intervention groups. Anthropometric measurements were similar in the LP and breastfed groups. Infant formula with a lower protein content reduces BMI and obesity risk at school age. Avoidance of infant foods that provide excessive protein intakes could contribute to a reduction in childhood obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00338689.

  7. Reduced lignin content and altered lignin composition in the warm season forage grass Paspalum dilatatum by down-regulation of a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Andrea; Liu, Zhiqian; Panter, Stephen N; Dimech, Adam M; Shang, Yongjin; Wijesinghe, Hewage; Fulgueras, Karen; Ran, Yidong; Mouradov, Aidyn; Rochfort, Simone; Patron, Nicola J; Spangenberg, German C

    2014-06-01

    C4 grasses are favoured as forage crops in warm, humid climates. The use of C4 grasses in pastures is expected to increase because the tropical belt is widening due to global climate change. While the forage quality of Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass) is higher than that of other C4 forage grass species, digestibility of warm-season grasses is, in general, poor compared with most temperate grasses. The presence of thick-walled parenchyma bundle-sheath cells around the vascular bundles found in the C4 forage grasses are associated with the deposition of lignin polymers in cell walls. High lignin content correlates negatively with digestibility, which is further reduced by a high ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) lignin subunits. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) catalyses the conversion of cinnamoyl CoA to cinnemaldehyde in the monolignol biosynthetic pathway and is considered to be the first step in the lignin-specific branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. We have isolated three putative CCR1 cDNAs from P. dilatatum and demonstrated that their spatio-temporal expression pattern correlates with the developmental profile of lignin deposition. Further, transgenic P. dilatatum plants were produced in which a sense-suppression gene cassette, delivered free of vector backbone and integrated separately to the selectable marker, reduced CCR1 transcript levels. This resulted in the reduction of lignin, largely attributable to a decrease in G lignin.

  8. Expression of Arabidopsis SHN1 in Indian Mulberry (Morus indica L.) Increases Leaf Surface Wax Content and Reduces Post-harvest Water Loss

    PubMed Central

    Sajeevan, R. S.; Nataraja, Karaba N.; Shivashankara, K. S.; Pallavi, N.; Gurumurthy, D. S.; Shivanna, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus species) leaf is the sole food for monophagous silkworms, Bombyx mori L. Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and high temperature, significantly decrease mulberry productivity and post-harvest water loss from leaves influence silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Leaf surface properties regulate direct water loss through the cuticular layer. Leaf surface waxes, contribute for cuticular resistance and protect mesophyll cells from desiccation. In this study we attempted to overexpress AtSHN1, a transcription factor associated with epicuticular wax biosynthesis to increase leaf surface wax load in mulberry. Agrobacterium mediated in vitro transformation was carried out using hypocotyl and cotyledonary explants of Indian mulberry (cv. M5). Mulberry transgenic plants expressing AtSHN1 displayed dark green shiny appearance with increased leaf surface wax content. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed change in pattern of surface wax deposition and significant change in wax composition in AtSHN1 overexpressors. Increased wax content altered leaf surface properties as there was significant difference in water droplet contact angle and diameter between transgenic and wild type plants. The transgenic plants showed significant improvement in leaf moisture retention capacity even 5 h after harvest and there was slow degradation of total buffer soluble protein in detached leaves compared to wild type. Silkworm bioassay did not indicate any undesirable effects on larval growth and cocoon yield. This study demonstrated that expression of AtSHN1, can increase surface wax load and reduce the post-harvest water loss in mulberry. PMID:28421085

  9. Expression of Arabidopsis SHN1 in Indian Mulberry (Morus indica L.) Increases Leaf Surface Wax Content and Reduces Post-harvest Water Loss.

    PubMed

    Sajeevan, R S; Nataraja, Karaba N; Shivashankara, K S; Pallavi, N; Gurumurthy, D S; Shivanna, M B

    2017-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus species) leaf is the sole food for monophagous silkworms, Bombyx mori L. Abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and high temperature, significantly decrease mulberry productivity and post-harvest water loss from leaves influence silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Leaf surface properties regulate direct water loss through the cuticular layer. Leaf surface waxes, contribute for cuticular resistance and protect mesophyll cells from desiccation. In this study we attempted to overexpress AtSHN1, a transcription factor associated with epicuticular wax biosynthesis to increase leaf surface wax load in mulberry. Agrobacterium mediated in vitro transformation was carried out using hypocotyl and cotyledonary explants of Indian mulberry (cv. M5). Mulberry transgenic plants expressing AtSHN1 displayed dark green shiny appearance with increased leaf surface wax content. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed change in pattern of surface wax deposition and significant change in wax composition in AtSHN1 overexpressors. Increased wax content altered leaf surface properties as there was significant difference in water droplet contact angle and diameter between transgenic and wild type plants. The transgenic plants showed significant improvement in leaf moisture retention capacity even 5 h after harvest and there was slow degradation of total buffer soluble protein in detached leaves compared to wild type. Silkworm bioassay did not indicate any undesirable effects on larval growth and cocoon yield. This study demonstrated that expression of AtSHN1, can increase surface wax load and reduce the post-harvest water loss in mulberry.

  10. Delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial small bowel water content of equicaloric whole meal bread versus rice meals in healthy subjects: novel MRI insights

    PubMed Central

    Marciani, L; Pritchard, S E; Hellier-Woods, C; Costigan, C; Hoad, C L; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Postprandial bloating is a common symptom in patients with functional gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. Whole meal bread (WMB) often aggravates such symptoms though the mechanisms are unclear. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the intragastric fate of a WMB meal (11% bran) compared with a rice pudding (RP) meal. Subjects/Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers completed this randomised crossover study. They fasted overnight and after an initial MRI scan consumed a glass of orange juice with a 2267 kJ WMB or an equicaloric RP meal. Subjects underwent serial MRI scans every 45 min up to 270 min to assess gastric volumes and small bowel water content, and completed a GI symptom questionnaire. Results: The MRI intragastric appearance of the two meals was markedly different. The WMB meal formed a homogeneous dark bolus with brighter liquid signal surrounding it. The RP meal separated into an upper liquid layer and a lower particulate layer allowing more rapid emptying of the liquid compared with solid phase (sieving). The WMB meal had longer gastric half-emptying times (132±8 min) compared with the RP meal (104±7 min), P<0.008. The WMB meal was associated with markedly reduced MRI-visible small bowel free mobile water content compared with the RP meal, P<0.0001. Conclusions: WMB bread forms a homogeneous bolus in the stomach, which inhibits gastric sieving and hence empties slower than the equicaloric rice meal. These properties may explain why wheat causes postprandial bloating and could be exploited to design foods that prolong satiation. PMID:23594839

  11. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Massaroto, Bruna Gabriele; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2013-09-17

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. The antifungal activity of the natural products was tested by the microdilution assay for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effect of the compounds on the cell membrane was evaluated using a protoplast regeneration assay. Ergosterol content was quantified by spectrophotometry. Inhibition of FAS by flavonoids was evaluated by an enzymatic assay to determine IC50 values. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure transcription levels of the FAS1 and ERG6 genes involved in fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, respectively, during exposure of T. rubrum to the flavonoids tested. The flavonoids quercetin and trans-chalcone were effective against T. rubrum, with MICs of 125 and 7.5 μg/mL for the wild-type strain (MYA3108) and of 63 and 1.9 μg/mL for the ABC transporter mutant strain (ΔTruMDR2), respectively. The MICs of the fluconazole and cerulenin controls were 63 and 125 μg/mL for the wild-type strain and 30 and 15 μg/mL for the mutant strain, respectively. Quercetin and trans-chalcone also reduced ergosterol content in the two strains, indicating that interference with fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis caused cell membrane disruption. The MIC of quercetin reduced the number of regenerated protoplasts by 30.26% (wild-type strain) and by 91.66% (mutant strain). Half the MIC (0.5 MIC) of quercetin did not reduce the number of regenerated wild-type fungal colonies, but caused a 36.19% reduction in the number of mutant strain protoplasts. In contrast, the MIC and 0.5 MIC of trans-chalcone and

  12. Using Reading Strategies To Reduce the Failure Rate in the Content Area. Subject: Social Studies. Grade Level: 6-7-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Olivett

    Content area reading instruction includes two elements: the information presented in subject matter text, and the plan that teachers use to help students understand the content. According to research and interviews with social studies teachers, there is a high failure rate in the social studies content area because children have problems…

  13. In utero exposure to maternal smoking is associated with DNA methylation alterations and reduced neuronal content in the developing fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Zac; Hartley, Brigham J; Seok, Man-Ho; Mendelev, Natalia; Chen, Sean; Milekic, Maria; Rosoklija, Gorazd; Stankov, Aleksandar; Trencevsja-Ivanovska, Iskra; Brennand, Kristen; Ge, Yongchao; Dwork, Andrew J; Haghighi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to maternal smoking is linked to impaired executive function and behavioral problems in the offspring. Maternal smoking is associated with reduced fetal brain growth and smaller volume of cortical gray matter in childhood, indicating that prenatal exposure to tobacco may impact cortical development and manifest as behavioral problems. Cellular development is mediated by changes in epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, which can be affected by exposure to tobacco. In this study, we sought to ascertain how maternal smoking during pregnancy affects global DNA methylation profiles of the developing dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the second trimester of gestation. When DLPFC methylation profiles (assayed via Illumina, HM450) of smoking-exposed and unexposed fetuses were compared, no differentially methylated regions (DMRs) passed the false discovery correction (FDR ≤ 0.05). However, the most significant DMRs were hypomethylated CpG Islands within the promoter regions of GNA15 and SDHAP3 of smoking-exposed fetuses. Interestingly, the developmental up-regulation of SDHAP3 mRNA was delayed in smoking-exposed fetuses. Interaction analysis between gestational age and smoking exposure identified significant DMRs annotated to SYCE3, C21orf56/LSS, SPAG1 and RNU12/POLDIP3 that passed FDR. Furthermore, utilizing established methods to estimate cell proportions by DNA methylation, we found that exposed DLPFC samples contained a lower proportion of neurons in samples from fetuses exposed to maternal smoking. We also show through in vitro experiments that nicotine impedes the differentiation of neurons independent of cell death. We found evidence that intrauterine smoking exposure alters the developmental patterning of DNA methylation and gene expression and is associated with reduced mature neuronal content, effects that are likely driven by nicotine.

  14. Increasing the rate of drying reduces metabolic imbalance, lipid peroxidation and critical water content in radicles of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Tobias M; Pammenter, Norman W; Berjak, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Orthodox seeds become desiccation-sensitive as they undergo germination. As a result, germinating seeds serve as a model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues. The effects of the rate of drying on the viability, respiratory metabolism and free radical processes were thus studied during dehydration and wet storage of radicles of Pisum sativum. For both drying regimes desiccation could be described by exponential and inverse modified functions. Viability, as assessed by germination capacity and tetrazolium staining, remained at 100% during rapid (< 24 h) desiccation. However, it declined sharply at c. 0.26 g g¹ dm following slow (c. 5 days) drying. Increasing the rate of dehydration thus lowered the critical water content for survival. Rapid desiccation was also associated with higher activities and levels of malate dehydrogenase and the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. It was also accompanied by lower hydroperoxide levels and membrane damage. In addition, the activitiy of glutathione reductase was greater during rapid drying. Ageing may have contributed to increased damage during slow dehydration, since viability declined even in wet storage after two weeks. The results presented are consistent with rapid desiccation reducing the accumulation of damage resulting from desiccation-induced aqueous-based deleterious reactions. In addition, they show that radicles are a useful model to study desiccation sensitivity in plant tissues.

  15. Robust calibrations on reduced sample sets for API content prediction in tablets: definition of a cost-effective NIR model development strategy.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Sigrid; Saeys, Wouter; Van den Kerkhof, Tom; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Hellings, Mario; De Beer, Thomas; Heyden, Yvan Vander

    2013-01-25

    Owing to spectral variations from other sources than the component of interest, large investments in the NIR model development may be required to obtain satisfactory and robust prediction performance. To make the NIR model development for routine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) prediction in tablets more cost-effective, alternative modelling strategies were proposed. They used a massive amount of prior spectral information on intra- and inter-batch variation and the pure component spectra to define a clutter, i.e., the detrimental spectral information. This was subsequently used for artificial data augmentation and/or orthogonal projections. The model performance improved statistically significantly, with a 34-40% reduction in RMSEP while needing fewer model latent variables, by applying the following procedure before PLS regression: (1) augmentation of the calibration spectra with the spectral shapes from the clutter, and (2) net analyte pre-processing (NAP). The improved prediction performance was not compromised when reducing the variability in the calibration set, making exhaustive calibration unnecessary. Strong water content variations in the tablets caused frequency shifts of the API absorption signals that could not be included in the clutter. Updating the model for this kind of variation demonstrated that the completeness of the clutter is critical for the performance of these models and that the model will only be more robust for spectral variation that is not co-linear with the one from the property of interest.

  16. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children.

  17. Evaluation of a new syringe presentation of reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adolescents - A single blind randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Abarca, Katia; Lepetic, Alejandro; Cervantes-Apolinar, Maria Yolanda; Hardt, Karin; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; de la O, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, Boostrix™, is indicated for booster vaccination of children, adolescents and adults. The original prefilled disposable dTpa syringe presentation was recently replaced by another prefilled-syringe presentation with latex-free tip-caps and plunger-stoppers. 671 healthy adolescents aged 10–15 years who had previously received 5 or 6 previous DT(P)/dT(pa) vaccine doses, were randomized (1:1) to receive dTpa booster, injected using the new (dTpa-new) or previous syringe (dTpa-previous) presentations. Immunogenicity was assessed before and 1-month post-booster vaccination; safety/reactogenicity were assessed during 31-days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of dTpa-new versus dTpa-previous was demonstrated for all antigens (ULs 95% CIs for GMC ratios ranged between 1.03-1.13). 1-month post-booster, immune responses were in similar ranges for all antigens with both syringe presentations. dTpa delivered using either syringe presentation was well-tolerated. These clinical results complement the technical data and support the use of the new syringe presentation to deliver the dTpa vaccine. PMID:26075317

  18. Combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and polio vaccine (dTpa-IPV) for booster vaccination of adults.

    PubMed

    Grimprel, Emmanuel; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Sänger, Roland; Abitbol, Veronique; Wolter, Joanne M; Schuerman, Lode M

    2005-05-25

    Many countries recommend diphtheria, tetanus and/or poliomyelitis boosters in adolescents or adults and the need for pertussis booster vaccination beyond childhood is increasingly recognized. A new combined reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine provides booster vaccination against all four diseases in one single injection. The immunogenicity and safety of the dTpa-IPV vaccine was compared to that of licensed dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV vaccines in 806 adolescents >14 years of age and adults with a heterogeneous vaccination history. The dTpa-IPV vaccine was immunogenic and well tolerated. No clinically significant differences were observed between groups. Anti-tetanus antibody kinetics indicated that each of the vaccines could be used for tetanus prophylaxis in acute wound management. For all vaccines, the lowest post-vaccination antibody concentrations were observed in subjects >40 years of age, those seronegative prior to vaccination and those subjects whose last vaccination was > or =20 years ago. In conclusion, dTpa-IPV vaccination of subjects over 14 years of age was as immunogenic and well tolerated as the licensed dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV vaccines. Vaccination coverage of adults is poor and the use of combined vaccines such as dTpa-IPV during vaccination visits, or for wound management, maximizes opportunities for boosting in these difficult to reach age groups.

  19. Low content Pt nanoparticles anchored on N-doped reduced graphene oxide with high and stable electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zeyu; Gao, Qiuming; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Weiqian; Tan, Yanli; Qian, Weiwei; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    A novel kind of Pt/N-rGO hybrid possessing of low content 5.31 wt.% Pt anchored on the surface of nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) evenly was prepared. The Pt has uniformed 2.8 nm diameter and exposed (111) crystal planes; meanwhile, the N works as the bridge between Pt and rGO with the Pt-N and N-C chemical bonds in Pt/N-rGO. The Pt/N-rGO material has a very high electrocatalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction with the mass catalytic activity more than 1.5 times of the commercial Pt/C due to the synergistic catalytic effect of both N-doped carbon matrix and Pt nanoparticles. Moreover, the Pt/N-rGO exhibits an excellent stability with hardly loss (only 0.4%) after accelerated durability tests of 5000 cycles based on the stable Pt-N-C chemical bonds in Pt/N-rGO, which can prevent the detachment, dissolution, migration and aggregation of Pt nanoparticles on the matrix during the long-term cycling. PMID:28233857

  20. Low content Pt nanoparticles anchored on N-doped reduced graphene oxide with high and stable electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zeyu; Gao, Qiuming; Zhang, Hang; Tian, Weiqian; Tan, Yanli; Qian, Weiwei; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-02-01

    A novel kind of Pt/N-rGO hybrid possessing of low content 5.31 wt.% Pt anchored on the surface of nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) evenly was prepared. The Pt has uniformed 2.8 nm diameter and exposed (111) crystal planes; meanwhile, the N works as the bridge between Pt and rGO with the Pt-N and N-C chemical bonds in Pt/N-rGO. The Pt/N-rGO material has a very high electrocatalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction with the mass catalytic activity more than 1.5 times of the commercial Pt/C due to the synergistic catalytic effect of both N-doped carbon matrix and Pt nanoparticles. Moreover, the Pt/N-rGO exhibits an excellent stability with hardly loss (only 0.4%) after accelerated durability tests of 5000 cycles based on the stable Pt-N-C chemical bonds in Pt/N-rGO, which can prevent the detachment, dissolution, migration and aggregation of Pt nanoparticles on the matrix during the long-term cycling.

  1. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content--a 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas; Shepherd, Louise V T; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard V; Meyer, Otto; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Belknap, William R; McCue, Kent F; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Stewart, Derek; Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2012-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional differences between the GM line and its wildtype control these did not raise concerns related to nutritional value or safety. Results of the feeding trials showed a low number of significant differences between potato lines with different α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio but none were considered to raise safety concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption.

  2. Synergy between Glomus fasciculatum and a beneficial Pseudomonas in reducing root diseases and improving yield and forskolin content in Coleus forskohlii Briq. under organic field conditions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rakshapal; Soni, Sumit K; Kalra, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and wilt, caused by a complex involving Fusarium chlamydosporum (Frag. and Cif.) and Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith), are serious diseases affecting the cultivation of Coleus forskohlii, a crop with economic potential as a source of the medicinal compound forskolin. The present 2-year field experiments were conducted with two bioinoculants (a native Pseudomonas monteilii strain and the exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum) alone and in combination under organic field conditions in order to evaluate their potential in controlling root rot and wilt. Combined inoculation of P. monteilii with G. fasciculatum significantly increased plant height, plant spread, and number of branches; reduced disease incidence; and increased tuber dry mass of C. forskohlii, compared to vermicompost controls not receiving any bioinoculants. Increase in tuber yields was accompanied by an increase in plant N, P, and K uptake. Co-inoculation of P. monteilii with G. fasciculatum significantly improved the percent AM root colonization and spore numbers retrieved from soil. This suggests P. monteilii to be a mycorrhiza helper bacterium which could be useful in organic agriculture. The forskolin content of tubers was significantly increased by the inoculation treatments of P. monteilii, G. fasciculatum, and P. monteilii + G. fasciculatum.

  3. High-fat diet reduces local myostatin-1 paralog expression and alters skeletal muscle lipid content in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Galt, Nicholas J; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Meyer, Ben M; Barrows, Frederic T; Biga, Peggy R

    2014-06-01

    Muscle growth is an energetically demanding process that is reliant on intramuscular fatty acid depots in most fishes. The complex mechanisms regulating this growth and lipid metabolism are of great interest for human health and aquaculture applications. It is well established that the skeletal muscle chalone, myostatin, plays a role in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in mammals; however, this function has not been fully assessed in fishes. We therefore examined the interaction between dietary lipid levels and myostatin expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Five weeks of high-fat diet (HFD; 25 % lipid) intake increased white muscle lipid content and decreased circulating glucose levels and hepatosomatic index when compared to low-fat diet (LFD; 10 % lipid) intake. In addition, HFD intake reduced myostatin-1a and myostatin-1b expression in white muscle and myostatin-1b expression in brain tissue. Characterization of the myostatin-1a, myostatin-1b, and myostatin-2a promoters revealed putative binding sites for a subset of transcription factors associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that HFD may regulate myostatin expression through cis-regulatory elements sensitive to increased lipid intake. Further, these findings provide a framework for future investigations of mechanisms describing the relationships between myostatin and lipid metabolism in fish.

  4. High-fat diet reduces local myostatin-1 paralog expression and alters skeletal muscle lipid content in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Galt, Nicholas J.; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Meyer, Ben M.; Barrows, Frederic T.; Biga, Peggy R.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle growth is an energetically demanding process that is reliant on intramuscular fatty acid depots in most fishes. The complex mechanisms regulating this growth and lipid metabolism are of great interest for human health and aquaculture applications. It is well established that the skeletal muscle chalone, myostatin, plays a role in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in mammals; however, this function has not been fully assessed in fishes. We therefore examined the interaction between dietary lipid levels and myostatin expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Five-weeks of high-fat (HFD; 25% lipid) dietary intake increased white muscle lipid content, and decreased circulating glucose levels and hepatosomatic index when compared to low-fat diet (LFD; 10% lipid) intake. In addition HFD intake reduced myostatin-1a and -1b expression in white muscle and myostatin-1b expression in brain tissue. Characterization of the myostatin-1a, -1b, and -2a promoters revealed putative binding sites for a subset of transcription factors associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that HFD may regulate myostatin expression through cis-regulatory elements sensitive to increased lipid intake. Further, these findings provide a framework for future investigations of mechanisms describing the relationships between myostatin and lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:24264425

  5. Reduced Content of Lysyl-Phosphatidylglycerol in the Cytoplasmic Membrane Affects Susceptibility to Moenomycin, as Well as Vancomycin, Gentamicin, and Antimicrobial Peptides, in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Hiromi; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Tamaki; McCallum, Nadine; Sugai, Motoyuki

    2004-01-01

    An association between moenomycin resistance and vancomycin intermediate resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was demonstrated previously. Thus, to elucidate the mechanism of vancomycin intermediate resistance, we searched for factors contributing to moenomycin resistance. Random Tn551 insertional mutagenesis of methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain COL yielded three mutants with decreased susceptibilities to moenomycin. Correspondingly, these mutants also exhibited slightly decreased susceptibilities to vancomycin. Genetic analysis revealed that two of the mutants had Tn551 insertions in the fmtC (mprF) gene, which is associated with the synthesis of lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol. The third Tn551 insertion was located in the lysC gene, which is involved in the biosynthesis of lysine from aspartic acid. Consequently, mutations in both of these loci reduced the lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol content in the cell membrane, giving it a more negative net charge. The positively charged antibiotic gentamicin and cationic antimicrobial peptides such as β-defensins and CAP18 were more effective against the mutants. The levels of moenomycin and vancomycin binding to intact cells was also greater in the mutants than in the wild type, while the binding affinity was not altered when cells boiled in sodium dodecyl sulfate were used, indicating that both agents had higher affinities for the negatively charged membranes of the mutants. Therefore, the membrane charge of S. aureus appears to influence the efficacies of moenomycin, vancomycin, and other cationic antimicrobial agents. PMID:15561859

  6. Intra-operative washing of morcellised bone allograft with pulse lavage: how effective is it in reducing blood and marrow content?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, T; Qureshi, A; McQuillan, T A; Thomson, J; Galea, G; Power, R A

    2012-03-01

    The use of unprocessed bone carries a risk of transmission of blood borne diseases. Although models of infectivity are unproven, a theoretical risk of transmission of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease, a human prion disease, exists as probable blood borne transmission has been reported in three cases. The aim of our study was to determine the effectiveness of standard operating theatre pulse lavage in removing protein, fat and double stranded Deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) from morcellised bone allograft. Twelve donated femoral heads were divided into halves and milled into bone chips. One half of the bone chips were washed with pulse lavage, whereas, the other half acted as control. In order to determine the amount of protein, fat and dsDNA present in the washed and unwashed samples, a validated multistep washing protocol was used. Using the validated technique, simple intra-operative washing of morcellised unprocessed bone allograft removed a significant amount of the protein (70.5%, range: 39.5-85%), fat (95.2%, range: 87.8-98.8%) and DNA (68.4%, range: 31.4-93.1%) content. Intra-operative washing of morcellised bone allograft with pulse lavage may thereby reduce the theoretical risk of prion and other blood borne disease transmission. Combined with the known improved mechanical characteristics of washed allograft, we would recommend pulse lavage as a routine part of bone allograft preparation.

  7. Excess of Methyl Donor in the Perinatal Period Reduces Postnatal Leptin Secretion in Rat and Interacts with the Effect of Protein Content in Diet

    PubMed Central

    Giudicelli, Fanny; Brabant, Anne-Laure; Grit, Isabelle; Parnet, Patricia; Amarger, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Methionine, folic acid, betaine and choline interact in the one-carbon metabolism which provides methyl groups for methylation reactions. An optimal intake of these nutrients during pregnancy is required for successful completion of fetal development and evidence is growing that they could be involved in metabolic long-term programming. However, the biological pathways involved in the action of these nutrients are still poorly known. This study investigated the interaction between methyl donors and protein content in maternal diet during the preconceptual, pregnancy and lactation periods and the consequences on the rat offspring in the short and long term. Methyl donor supplementation reduced leptin secretion in offspring, whereas insulin levels were mostly affected by protein restriction. The joint effect of protein restriction and methyl donor excess strongly impaired postnatal growth in both gender and long term weight gain in male offspring only, without affecting food intake. In addition, rats born from protein restricted and methyl donor supplemented dams gained less weight when fed a hypercaloric diet. Methylation of the leptin gene promoter in adipose tissue was increased in methyl donor supplemented groups but not affected by protein restriction only. These results suggest that maternal methyl donor supplementation may influence energy homeostasis in a gender-dependent manner, without affecting food intake. Moreover, we showed that macronutrients and micronutrients in maternal diet interact to influence the programming of the offspring. PMID:23840890

  8. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    PubMed

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    0.52) among diets. Supplementation of microminerals decreased ( < 0.01) plasma Ca concentration; nevertheless, all analyzed blood metabolites were within the reference values. Supplementation of Ca and P increased ( < 0.01) fecal excretion of these minerals. These results indicate that mineral supplementation (Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu) of conventional feedlot diets for Nellore bulls may be not necessary. Dietary reductions in these minerals would represent a decrease in the cost of feedlot diets. Dietary reduction in Ca and P content cause a decrease in fecal excretion of these minerals, which, in turn, represents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of feedlot operations.

  9. Effects of reducing dietary starch content by replacing barley grain with wheat dried distillers grains plus solubles in dairy cow rations on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E; Colazo, M G; Gobikrushanth, M; Sun, Y Q; Ruiz-Sanchez, A L; Ponce-Barajas, P; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-04-01

    higher in cows fed the barley grain diet (2.5 vs 1.6 IU/mL), and a diet by time interaction was noted, with cows on the barley grain ration having higher insulin from wk 6 to 12 postpartum; however, mean plasma IGF-1 concentration did not differ between dietary groups. In the subsets, mean plasma concentrations of metabolites or estradiol and progesterone were not affected by diet, parity, or diet by parity interactions. Cows on the DDGS diet had lower concentrations of IGF-I (69 vs. 108 ng/mL) and higher fatty acids (222 vs. 149 mEq/L) in the follicular fluid obtained from preovulatory follicles. Diet, parity, and diet by parity interactions did not affect the concentrations of insulin, glucose, urea, estradiol, and progesterone in follicular fluid. Diets did not alter the expression profiles of LHr, estrogen receptor β, CYP19, and GPx3 genes in granulosa cells. In summary, diets did not affect the interval from calving to first ovulation or granulosa cell gene expression. However, reducing dietary starch content by a partial replacement of dietary grain with wheat DDGS increased fatty acids in follicular fluid and reduced the concentrations of insulin in plasma, IGF-1 in follicular fluid, and the incidence of multiple ovulations. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    PubMed

    Theeten, Heidi; Rümke, Hans; Hoppener, Floris J P; Vilatimó, Ramón; Narejos, Silvia; Van Damme, Pierre; Hoet, Bernard

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without diphtheria or tetanus vaccination for 20 years or with an unknown vaccination history. Double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Primary vaccination with either three doses of dTpa, one dose of dTpa-IPV followed by two doses of Td, or three doses of Td vaccine (control) administered in a 0-1-6-month schedule. Blood samples were collected before commencement and 1 month after each dose. Local and general symptoms were solicited for 15 days after each dose. A total of 460 adults were enrolled, of whom over 48% did not have protective antibody concentrations against diphtheria and tetanus. One month after dose 3 > 99% had seroprotective anti-diphtheria and tetanus antibodies. Three doses were required to maximize anti-diphtheria seroprotection rates. A vaccine response to pertussis antigens was observed in > 92% of dTpa and dTpa-IPV recipients after dose 1. One month after dTpa-IPV, > 98.4% had seroprotective anti-polio titres. No statistically significant differences in local or general symptoms between groups were observed. dTpa and dTpa-IPV can provide primary vaccination of adults. Combinations of dTpa or dTpa-IPV can be used to replace Td and provide booster vaccination against pertussis and polio simultaneously with diphtheria and tetanus, even in situations where the primary vaccination history is unknown.

  11. Effect of salt reduction on wheat-dough properties and quality characteristics of puff pastry with full and reduced fat content.

    PubMed

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-11-01

    Puff pastry is a major contributor of fat and sodium intake in many countries. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of salt (0-8.4g/100g flour) on the structure and quality characteristics of puff pastry with full and reduced (-40%) fat content as well as the rheological properties of the resulting dough. Therefore, empirical rheological tests were carried out including dough extensibility, dough stickiness and GlutoPeak test. The quality of the puff pastry was characterized with the VolScan, Texture Analyzer and C-Cell. NaCl reduction significantly changed rheological properties of the basic dough as well as a number of major quality characteristics of the puff pastry. Significant differences due to NaCl addition were found in particular for dough resistance, dough stickiness, Peak Maximum Time and Maximum Torque (p<0.05). Peak firmness and total firmness decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing salt levels for puff pastry containing full fat. Likewise, maximal lift, specific volume, number of cells and slice brightness increased with increasing NaCl at both fat levels. Although a sensorial comparison of puff pastries revealed that salt reduction (30%) was perceptible, no significant differences were found for all other investigated attributes. Nevertheless, a reduction of 30% salt and 40% fat in puff pastry is achievable as neither the perception and visual impression nor attributes such as volume, firmness and flavour of the final products were significantly affected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Selenate mitigates arsenite toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by reducing arsenic uptake and ameliorates amino acid content and thiol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Dixit, Garima; Singh, Amit Pal; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Mishra, Kumkum; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element with the potential to cause health effects in humans. Besides rice is a source of both amino acids (AAs) and mineral nutrients, it is undesired source of As for billions of people consuming rice as the staple food. Selenium (Se) is an essential metalloid, which can regulate As toxicity by strengthening antioxidant potential. The present study was designed to investigate As(III) stress mitigating effect of Se(VI) in rice. The level of As, thiolic ligands and AAs was analyzed in rice seedlings after exposure to As(III)/Se(VI) alone and As(III)+Se(VI) treatments. Selenate supplementation (As(III) 25μM+Se(VI) 25μM) decreased total As accumulation in both root and shoot (179 & 144%) as compared to As(III) alone treatment. The As(III)+Se(VI) treatment also induced the levels of non-protein thiols (NPTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) as compared to As(III) alone treatment and also modulated the activity of enzymes of thiol metabolism. The content of amino acids (AAs) was significantly altered with Se(VI) supplementation. Importantly, essential amino acids (EAAs) were enhanced in As(III)+Se(VI) treatment as compared to As(III) alone treatment. In contrast, stress related non-essential amino acids (NEAAs) like GABA, Glu, Gly, Pro and Cys showed enhanced levels in As(III) alone treatment. In conclusion, rice supplemented with Se(VI) tolerated As toxicity with reduced As accumulation and increased the nutrition quality by increasing EAAs.

  13. Reduced cortical BACE1 content with one bout of exercise is accompanied by declines in AMPK, Akt, and MAPK signaling in obese, glucose-intolerant mice

    PubMed Central

    Baumeister, P.; Peppler, W. T.; Wright, D. C.; Little, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are significant risk factors in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. A variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altered Akt and AMPK and increased inflammatory signaling, contribute to neurodegeneration. Exercise training can improve markers of neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single bout of exercise on markers of neurodegeneration and inflammation in brains from mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low (LFD; 10% kcal from lard)- or a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 7 wk. HFD mice underwent an acute bout of exercise (treadmill running: 15 m/min, 5% incline, 120 min) followed by a recovery period of 2 h. The HFD increased body mass and glucose intolerance (both P < 0.05). This was accompanied by an approximately twofold increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and GSK in the cortex (P < 0.05). Following exercise, there was a decrease in beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1; P < 0.05) and activity (P < 0.001). This was accompanied by a reduction in AMPK phosphorylation, indicative of a decline in cellular stress (P < 0.05). Akt and ERK phosphorylation were decreased following exercise in HFD mice to a level similar to that of the LFD mice (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that a single bout of exercise can reduce BACE1 content and activity independent of changes in adiposity. This effect is associated with reductions in Akt, ERK, and AMPK signaling in the cortex. PMID:26404616

  14. Phenolic content and ferric reducing-antioxidant power of cow's milk produced in different pasture-based production systems in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Moacyr, Juliana R; Mayer, Jaqueline K; Navarro, Bruno B; Trevisan, Rafael; Honorato, Luciana A; Maraschin, Marcelo; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz C

    2014-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely present in forage. However, few studies have been carried out to investigate the presence of these compounds in animal products such as milk. In this study, the total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) of milk produced under agroecological and conventional management systems in southern Brazil were determined. Three systems were compared: (a) agroecological, with intensive rotational grazing, also known as Voisin grazing (ECO); (b) semi-intensive conventional (SIC); and (c) conventional grazing (CGR) (n = 8 per group). Pastures with distinct and more diverse botanical composition were observed on the ECO farms. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower amounts of TPC were found in agroecologically produced milk in autumn and summer and the CGR system showed the highest FRAP value (P < 0.05) for the samples collected in autumn. Positive correlations where found between the TPC and FRAP values obtained for the milk samples (0.198, P < 0.05), milk FRAP and forage TPC values (0.344, P < 0.05), and the TPC and FRAP values obtained for the forage (0.70, p < 0.01). PCA applied to the UV spectra dataset (200-350 nm) clearly distinguished the samples collected from the ECO system in the winter. Our results revealed that, under the conditions prevalent in southern Brazil, since the cows were allowed to graze in all of the systems, the TPC and antioxidant capacity of the milk samples showed minimal variation. However, since the forage TPC and FRAP values for the milk were correlated, TPC appears to be a promising variable for the purpose of monitoring forage prior to its selection aimed at enhancing the antioxidant activity of milk. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Reduced skeletal muscle inhibitor of kappaB beta content is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reversal by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Christ-Roberts, Christine; Berria, Rachele; Eagan, Phyllis; Pratipanawatr, Thongchai; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Musi, Nicolas

    2006-03-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It recently has been hypothesized that excessive activity of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)/nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) inflammatory pathway is a mechanism underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is abnormal. We studied IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in vastus lateralis muscle from six subjects with type 2 diabetes and eight matched control subjects. Muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects was characterized by a 60% decrease in IkappaB beta protein abundance, an indicator of increased activation of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. IkappaB beta abundance directly correlated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal (Rd) during a hyperinsulinemic (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1))-euglycemic clamp (r = 0.63, P = 0.01), indicating that increased IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway activity is associated with muscle insulin resistance. We also investigated whether reversal of this abnormality could be a mechanism by which training improves insulin sensitivity. In control subjects, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training caused a 50% increase in both IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, training increased IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein to levels comparable with that of control subjects, and these increments were accompanied by a 40% decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha muscle content and a 37% increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In summary, subjects with type 2 diabetes have reduced IkappaB protein abundance in muscle, suggesting excessive activity of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. Moreover, this abnormality is reversed by exercise training.

  16. Effect of a beating process, as a means of reducing salt content in Chinese-style meatballs (kung-wan): a dynamic rheological and Raman spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Zou, Yu-Feng; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Chopping and beating processes were used as meat-cutting methods in preparing kung-wan to produce low-salt products while retaining or improving the emulsion stability, sensory evaluation, and physico-chemical properties of the standard high-salt formulation. Increased salt content improved emulsion stability and dynamic rheology. However, 3% salt content decreased the overall acceptance of kung-wan. Compared with the chopping process, beating resulted in higher emulsion stability, overall acceptance, and β-sheet content (P<0.05). Additionally, the beating process formed more compact and continuous structures at the same salt content. Kung-wan produced by beating with 1% and 2% salt had similar emulsion stabilities, sensory evaluation, and secondary structures (P>0.05). Therefore, this process allows reduction of salt content, suggesting that the kung-wan produced in this manner is healthier and has better texture. © 2013.

  17. Increases in soil water content after the mortality of non-native trees in oceanic island forest ecosystems are due to reduced water loss during dry periods.

    PubMed

    Hata, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuto; Kachi, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The control of dominant, non-native trees can alter the water balance of soils in forest ecosystems via hydrological processes, which results in changes in soil water environments. To test this idea, we evaluated the effects of the mortality of an invasive tree, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., on the water content of surface soils on the Ogasawara Islands, subtropical islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, using a manipulative herbicide experiment. Temporal changes in volumetric water content of surface soils at 6 cm depth at sites where all trees of C. equisetifolia were killed by herbicide were compared with those of adjacent control sites before and after their mortality with consideration of the amount of precipitation. In addition, the rate of decrease in the soil water content during dry periods and the rate of increase in the soil water content during rainfall periods were compared between herbicide and control sites. Soil water content at sites treated with herbicide was significantly higher after treatment than soil water content at control sites during the same period. Differences between initial and minimum values of soil water content at the herbicide sites during the drying events were significantly lower than the corresponding differences in the control quadrats. During rainfall periods, both initial and maximum values of soil water contents in the herbicided quadrats were higher, and differences between the maximum and initial values did not differ between the herbicided and control quadrats. Our results indicated that the mortality of non-native trees from forest ecosystems increased water content of surface soils, due primarily to a slower rate of decrease in soil water content during dry periods.

  18. Decennial administration in young adults of a reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis vaccine containing two different concentrations of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, Corinne; Theeten, Heidi; Rathi, Niraj; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; Sokal, Etienne; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Van Damme, Pierre

    2015-06-12

    Regular booster vaccination might be necessary throughout life to protect against pertussis infection. Nevertheless the duration of protection after booster vaccination remains unclear. In this study, antibody persistence up to 10 years after previous vaccination of adolescents (N=478) with combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (dTpa, Boostrix™, GlaxoSmithKline Belgium) containing 0.5mg, 0.3mg or 0.133mg of aluminium was assessed. The immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of a decennial booster dTpa dose were also investigated. Young adults vaccinated as adolescents in the initial booster study were invited to participate in an assessment of antibody persistence at years 8.5 and 10, and to receive a dTpa booster dose at year 10 with immunogenicity assessment one month later. Those who originally received the 0.5mg or 0.3mg formulations received the same vaccine at year 10. Those in the 0.133mg group received the 0.5mg formulation. Reactogenicity and safety endpoints were captured until 30 days after booster vaccination. Prior to the decennial booster at year 8.5 and year 10, all participants had seroprotective antibodies for diphtheria (ELISA or neutralisation assay) and tetanus. At least 77.8% were seropositive for anti-pertussis toxin (PT) antibodies at year 8.5 and 82.8% at year 10. All participants were seropositive for antibodies for filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin at both time points. The decennial booster dose induced robust increases in antibody GMCs to all antigens. The post-booster anti-PT geometric mean concentration was 82.5EL.U/ml (95%CI 67.0-101.6) and 124.0 (103.5-148.5) in the 0.3mg and 0.5mg groups, respectively. The reactogenicity and safety profile of the decennial booster dose was consistent with the known safety profile of dTpa. No serious adverse events were reported. Decennial booster vaccination with either of the two licensed formulations of dTpa was highly immunogenic and well

  19. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract.

  20. Germination and extrusion as combined processes for reducing phytates and increasing phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of Oryza sativa L. whole grain flours.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, M; De Greef, D M; González, R J; Drago, S R

    2015-01-01

    Whole rice (WR) products with low phytic acid (PA) content and enhanced bio-functional components were obtained by the combination of germination and extrusion processes. Germination conditions (24 h - 35 °C), with a previous soaking process (24 h - 20 °C), were chosen according to the remnant PA content and germination rate. Specific mechanical energy consumption, expansion, sensorial and mechanical hardness, specific volume, solubility, water absorption, free phenolic content (FPC) and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Results indicated that 175 °C and 14 g 100 g(-1) of moisture were the most appropriate conditions to obtain expanded products and precooked flours based on germinated WR. Selected extruded product presented less PA content (821.6 9 ± 10.3 versus 695.2 0 ± 1.6 mg 100 g(-1)) and higher Fe bio-accessibility, FPC (45.2 9 ± 1.61 versus 66.3 5 ± 3.35 mg GAE g(-1)) and antioxidant capacity compared with WR (34.9 5 ± 0.8 versus 54.6 3 ± 1.6 µmol trolox g(-1)). Combining germination-extrusion processes could be a strategy to obtain expanded products or precooked flours based on WR with enhanced health benefits.

  1. Functional and Structural Characterization of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Its Potential Applications in Reducing Purine Content in Food.

    PubMed

    Mahor, Durga; Priyanka, Anu; Prasad, Gandham S; Thakur, Krishan Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of foods and beverages with high purine content increases the risk of hyperuricemia, which causes gout and can lead to cardiovascular, renal, and other metabolic disorders. As patients often find dietary restrictions challenging, enzymatically lowering purine content in popular foods and beverages offers a safe and attractive strategy to control hyperuricemia. Here, we report structurally and functionally characterized purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from Kluyveromyces lactis (KlacPNP), a key enzyme involved in the purine degradation pathway. We report a 1.97 Å resolution crystal structure of homotrimeric KlacPNP with an intrinsically bound hypoxanthine in the active site. KlacPNP belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase-I (NP-I) family, and it specifically utilizes 6-oxopurine substrates in the following order: inosine > guanosine > xanthosine, but is inactive towards adenosine. To engineer enzymes with broad substrate specificity, we created two point variants, KlacPNPN256D and KlacPNPN256E, by replacing the catalytically active Asn256 with Asp and Glu, respectively, based on structural and comparative sequence analysis. KlacPNPN256D not only displayed broad substrate specificity by utilizing both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines in the order adenosine > inosine > xanthosine > guanosine, but also displayed reversal of substrate specificity. In contrast, KlacPNPN256E was highly specific to inosine and could not utilize other tested substrates. Beer consumption is associated with increased risk of developing gout, owing to its high purine content. Here, we demonstrate that KlacPNP and KlacPNPN256D could be used to catalyze a key reaction involved in lowering beer purine content. Biochemical properties of these enzymes such as activity across a wide pH range, optimum activity at about 25°C, and stability for months at about 8°C, make them suitable candidates for food and beverage industries. Since KlacPNPN256D has broad substrate specificity, a

  2. Functional and Structural Characterization of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Its Potential Applications in Reducing Purine Content in Food

    PubMed Central

    Mahor, Durga; Priyanka, Anu; Prasad, Gandham S; Thakur, Krishan Gopal

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of foods and beverages with high purine content increases the risk of hyperuricemia, which causes gout and can lead to cardiovascular, renal, and other metabolic disorders. As patients often find dietary restrictions challenging, enzymatically lowering purine content in popular foods and beverages offers a safe and attractive strategy to control hyperuricemia. Here, we report structurally and functionally characterized purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) from Kluyveromyces lactis (KlacPNP), a key enzyme involved in the purine degradation pathway. We report a 1.97 Å resolution crystal structure of homotrimeric KlacPNP with an intrinsically bound hypoxanthine in the active site. KlacPNP belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase-I (NP-I) family, and it specifically utilizes 6-oxopurine substrates in the following order: inosine > guanosine > xanthosine, but is inactive towards adenosine. To engineer enzymes with broad substrate specificity, we created two point variants, KlacPNPN256D and KlacPNPN256E, by replacing the catalytically active Asn256 with Asp and Glu, respectively, based on structural and comparative sequence analysis. KlacPNPN256D not only displayed broad substrate specificity by utilizing both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines in the order adenosine > inosine > xanthosine > guanosine, but also displayed reversal of substrate specificity. In contrast, KlacPNPN256E was highly specific to inosine and could not utilize other tested substrates. Beer consumption is associated with increased risk of developing gout, owing to its high purine content. Here, we demonstrate that KlacPNP and KlacPNPN256D could be used to catalyze a key reaction involved in lowering beer purine content. Biochemical properties of these enzymes such as activity across a wide pH range, optimum activity at about 25°C, and stability for months at about 8°C, make them suitable candidates for food and beverage industries. Since KlacPNPN256D has broad substrate specificity, a

  3. Dietary omega-3 deficiency reduces BDNF content and activation NMDA receptor and Fyn in dorsal hippocampus: implications on persistence of long-term memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Bach, Simone Azevedo; de Siqueira, Letícia V; Müller, Alexandre P; Oses, Jean P; Quatrim, Andreia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Vinadé, Lúcia; Souza, Diogo O; Moreira, Júlia D

    2014-07-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are important for adequate brain function and cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of long-term memory (LTM) in an aversive memory task and to explore the putative mechanism involved. Female rats received isocaloric diets that included n-3 (n-3 group) or not (D group). The adult litters were subjected to an inhibitory avoidance task (0.7 mA, 1.0 seconds foot shock) to elicit persistent LTM. Twelve hours after the training session, the fatty acid profile and the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content of the dorsal hippocampus were assessed. In addition, we measured the activation of the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the SRC family protein Fyn. Despite pronounced learning in both groups, the persistence of LTM was abolished in the D group 7 days after the training session. We also observed that the D group presented reductions in hippocampal DHA (22:6 n-3) and BDNF content. Twelve hours after the training session, the D group showed decreased NR2B and Fyn phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus, with no change in the total content of these proteins. Further, there was a decrease in the interaction of Fyn with NR2B in the D group, as observed by co-immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these data suggest that n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of LTM by maintaining adequate levels of DHA and BDNF as well as by influencing the activation of NR2B and Fyn during the period of memory formation.

  4. Overexpression of a domain of unknown function 266-containing protein results in high cellulose content, reduced recalcitrance, and enhanced plant growth in the bioenergy crop Populus

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Yongil; Yoo, Chang Geun; Guo, Hao -Bo; ...

    2017-03-23

    Domain of Unknown Function 266 (DUF266) is a plant-specific domain. DUF266-containing proteins (DUF266 proteins) have been categorized as ‘not classified glycosyltransferases (GTnc)’ due to amino acid similarity with GTs. However, little is known about the function of DUF266 proteins. As a result, Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DUF266 proteins are only present in the land plants including moss and lycophyte. We report the functional characterization of one member of DUF266 proteins in Populus, PdDUF266A. PdDUF266A was ubiquitously expressed with high abundance in the xylem. In Populus transgenic plants overexpressing PdDUF266A (OXPdDUF266A), the glucose and cellulose contents were significantly higher, while themore » lignin content was lower than that in the wild type. Degree of polymerization of cellulose in OXPdDUF266A transgenic plants was also higher, whereas cellulose crystallinity index remained unchanged. Gene expression analysis indicated that cellulose biosynthesis-related genes such as CESA and SUSY were upregulated in mature leaf and xylem of OXPdDUF266A transgenic plants. Moreover, PdDUF266A overexpression resulted in an increase of biomass production. Their glucose contents and biomass phenotypes were further validated via heterologous expression of PdDUF266A in Arabidopsis. Results from saccharification treatment demonstrated that the rate of sugar release was increased by approximately 38% in the OXPdDUF266A transgenic plants.« less

  5. Dietary supplementation of chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Seo, Kunho; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-02-26

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for 3 weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control diets. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The antiobesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  6. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic n3 fatty acid content in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While considerable research has centered upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of alpha-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism, a growing literature indicates that the amount of fat consumed can reduce the elongation and desaturation process. However, little data exist ...

  7. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy reveals that pectoralis muscle dystrophy in chicken is associated with reduced muscle content of anserine and carnosine.

    PubMed

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Rasmussen, Martin K; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-02-15

    Increased incidences of pectoralis muscle dystrophy are observed in commercial chicken products, but the muscle physiological causes for the condition remain to be identified. In the present study a high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) NMR spectroscopic examination of intact pectoralis muscle samples (n=77) were conducted to explore metabolite perturbations associated with the muscle dystrophy condition for the very first time. Both in chicken with an age of 21 and 31days, respectively, pectoralis muscle dystrophy was associated with a significantly lower content of anserine (p=0.034), carnosine (p=0.019) and creatine (p=0.049). These findings must be considered intriguing as they corroborate that characteristic muscle di-peptides composed of β-alanine and histidine derivatives such as anserine are extremely important in homeostasis of contractile muscles as a results of their role as buffering, anti-oxidative, and anti-glycation capacities.

  8. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor Febuxostat reduces tissue uric acid content and inhibits injury-induced inflammation in the liver and lung.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yang, Ke; Rock, Kenneth L

    2015-01-05

    Necrotic cell death in vivo induces a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response and the resulting inflammation can cause further tissue damage and disease. Dying cells induce this inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory intracellular components, one of which is uric acid. Cells contain high levels of intracellular uric acid, which is produced when purines are oxidized by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Here we test whether a non-nucleoside xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Febuxostat (FBX), can reduce intracellular uric acid levels and inhibit cell death-induced inflammation in two different murine tissue injury models; acid-induced acute lung injury and acetaminophen liver injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by acid injection into lungs or peritoneal administration of acetaminophen was evaluated by quantification with flow cytometry and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the presence or absence of FBX treatment. Uric acid levels in serum and tissue were measured before giving the stimuli and during inflammation. The impact of FBX treatment on the peritoneal inflammation caused by the microbial stimulus, zymosan, was also analyzed to see whether FBX had a broad anti-inflammatory effect. We found that FBX reduced uric acid levels in acid-injured lung tissue and inhibited acute pulmonary inflammation triggered by lung injury. Similarly, FBX reduced uric acid levels in the liver and inhibited inflammation in response to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. In contrast, FBX did not reduce inflammation to zymosan, and therefore is not acting as a general anti-inflammatory agent. These results point to the potential of using agents like FBX to treat cell death-induced inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor Febuxostat reduces tissue uric acid content and inhibits injury-induced inflammation in the liver and lung

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yang, Ke; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic cell death in vivo induces a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response and the resulting inflammation can cause further tissue damage and disease. Dying cells induce this inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory intracellular components, one of which is uric acid. Cells contain high levels of intracellular uric acid, which is produced when purines are oxidized by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Here we test whether a non-nucleoside xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Febuxostat (FBX), can reduce intracellular uric acid levels and inhibit cell death-induced inflammation in two different murine tissue injury models; acid-induced acute lung injury and acetaminophen liver injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by acid injection into lungs or peritoneal administration of acetaminophen was evaluated by quantification with flow cytometry and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the presence or absence of FBX treatment. Uric acid levels in serum and tissue were measured before giving the stimuli and during inflammation. The impact of FBX treatment on the peritoneal inflammation caused by the microbial stimulus, zymosan, was also analyzed to see whether FBX had a broad anti-inflammatory effect. We found that FBX reduced uric acid levels in acid-injured lung tissue and inhibited acute pulmonary inflammation triggered by lung injury. Similarly, FBX reduced uric acid levels in the liver and inhibited inflammation in response to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. In contrast, FBX did not reduce inflammation to zymosan, and therefore is not acting as a general anti-inflammatory agent. These results point to the potential of using agents like FBX to treat cell death-induced inflammation. PMID:25449036

  10. Reduced Necrosis and Content of Apoptotic M1 Macrophages in Advanced Atherosclerotic Plaques of Mice With Macrophage-Specific Loss of Trpc3

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Sumeet; Dube, Prabhatchandra R.; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Vazquez, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    In previous work we reported that ApoeKO mice transplanted with bone marrow cells deficient in the Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 3 (TRPC3) channel have reduced necrosis and number of apoptotic macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Also, in vitro studies with polarized macrophages derived from mice with macrophage-specific loss of TRPC3 showed that M1, but not M2 macrophages, deficient in Trpc3 are less susceptible to ER stress-induced apoptosis than Trpc3 expressing cells. The questions remained (a) whether the plaque phenotype in transplanted mice resulted from a genuine effect of Trpc3 on macrophages, and (b) whether the reduced necrosis and macrophage apoptosis in plaques of these mice was a manifestation of the selective effect of TRPC3 on apoptosis of M1 macrophages previously observed in vitro. Here, we addressed these questions using Ldlr knockout (Ldlr−/−) mice with macrophage-specific loss of Trpc3 (MacTrpc3−/−/Ldlr−/− → Ldlr−/−). Compared to controls, we observed decreased plaque necrosis and number of apoptotic macrophages in MacTrpc3−/−/Ldlr−/− → Ldlr−/− mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a reduction in apoptotic M1, but not apoptotic M2 macrophages. These findings confirm an effect of TRPC3 on plaque necrosis and support the notion that this is likely a reflection of the reduced susceptibility of Trpc3-deficient M1 macrophages to apoptosis. PMID:28186192

  11. Antioxidant effect of thiamine on acutely alcoholized rats and lack of efficacy using thiamine or glucose to reduce blood alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Portari, Guilherme V; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Vannucchi, Helio; Jordao, Alceu A

    2008-11-01

    Although there is no consensus about the use of glucose and thiamine for the treatment of acute ethanol intoxication, this is a routine practice in many countries. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of this treatment and the changes it causes in the antioxidant status of the liver. Male Wistar rats were intoxicated with an ethanol dose of 5 g/kg and divided into three groups: ethanol (EtOH; untreated), EtOH+G (treated with glucose), and EtOH+B1 (treated with thiamine). Blood and urinary ethanol as well as hepatic malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and vitamin E were determined in all animals. Blood alcohol levels did not differ between groups, although urinary excretion was about four times higher in the group treated with thiamine (EtOH+B1). The malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and vitamin E values used here as parameters of the antioxidant system of the liver showed improvement for the thiamine-treated group (EtOH+B1). Treatment with glucose or thiamine was ineffective in reducing blood alcohol levels in rats with acute ethanol intoxication. However, the beneficial effect of thiamine as an antioxidant for ethanol metabolism was demonstrated. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the urinary excretion of ethanol reported here for the first time and the possibility of using thiamine as an antioxidant in situations of chronic alcohol use.

  12. A high-fat diet reduces ceramide synthesis by decreasing adiponectin levels and decreases lipid content by modulating HMG-CoA reductase and CPT-1 mRNA expression in the skin.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi

    2011-09-01

    Molecules involved in skin function are greatly affected by nutritional conditions. However, the mechanism linking high-fat (HF) diets with these alterations is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the molecular changes in skin function that result from HF diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HF diets for 28 days. The skin levels of ceramide, lipids and mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism were evaluated using TLC, oil red O staining and quantitative PCR, respectively. The serum adiponectin concentration was determined by ELISA. HF diets led to reduced ceramide levels and lowered skin lipid content. They also decreased mRNA levels of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in the skin and those of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α -PPAR-α), which upregulates SPT and HMG-CoA reductase expression. The HF diets reduced the serum concentration of adiponectin, which acts upstream of PPAR-α. Finally, these diets led to increased mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, the rate-limiting enzyme that acts in β-oxidation. Our study suggests that HF diets reduce ceramide and lipid synthesis in the skin by reducing levels of SPT and HMG-CoA reductase through lowered adiponectin and PPAR-α activity. Additionally, they decrease lipid content by enhancing β-oxidation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Bone mineral content is not reduced despite low vitamin D status in breast milk-fed infants versus cow's milk based formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Namgung, R; Kim, D H; Tsang, R C

    1998-04-01

    The effect of low or borderline vitamin D status on bone mineralization of exclusively breast milk-fed infants has not been studied. The low vitamin D status of Korean breast milk-fed infants may theoretically have adverse effects on bone mineralization. Assuming that bone mineral content (BMC) relates in part to vitamin D status, we hypothesized that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and BMC would be low, and serum osteocalcin concentration high, reflecting active bone turnover, in breast milk- versus formula-fed infants born in the winter. Eighteen breast milk- and 17 formula-fed infants were recruited at ages 2 to 5 months. The BMC of the lumbar1-4 spine region was measured by using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The BMC and serum osteocalcin levels were similar for both groups. The serum 25-OHD level was significantly lower in breast milk- than formula-fed infants; 44% of the breast milk group versus 6% of the formula group had serum 25-OHD levels less than 28 nmol/L (11 ng/ml), the lower limit of normal. The BMC did not correlate with the serum 25-OHD level. Thus BMC and serum osteocalcin levels in 2- to 5-month-old infants were not different by type of feeding, despite low vitamin D status in breast milk-fed infants. We speculate that adequate mineral absorption occurs during this period from a predominantly (vitamin D independent) passive transport mechanism.

  14. Effect of reducing Lu3+ content on the fabrication and scintillation properties of non-stoichiometric Lu3-xAl5O12:Ce ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuping; Mares, Jiri A.; Babin, Vladimir; Hu, Chen; Kou, Huamin; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Pan, Yubai; Nikl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Lu3-xAl5O12:Ce optical ceramics (Lu3-xAG:Ce, x = 1, 2, 3 and 4 at.%, respectively) with Lu3+ compositions ranging from 1 to 4 at.% below stoichiometry content were fabricated by solid state reaction method and further optimized by an air-annealing process. The effect of Lu3+ deficiency on the optical, luminescence and scintillation properties of such a non-stoichiometric Lu3-xAl5O12:Ce ceramics was investigated. Significant influence in the material densification was found leading to strong changes in the transparency, radioluminescence (RL) and scintillation response of these ceramics. Within the range of 1-4 at.% Lu3+ deficiency, LuAl antisite defects were suppressed effectively and the Lu3-xAG:Ce ceramics displayed an extremely high RL intensity which reaches ∼4 times higher than that of the latest commercial LuAG:Ce single crystals while its transparency deteriorated. The microstructure, presence of foreign phases and charge traps acting in scintillation mechanism were also characterized by means of SEM, back scattered electron imaging and thermoluminescence techniques, respectively.

  15. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers.

    PubMed

    de-Magistris, Tiziana; López-Galán, Belinda; Caputo, Vincenzina

    2016-12-21

    The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers' willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips) than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

  16. Determination of mesenchymal stem cell fate by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) results in increased adiposity and reduced bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Gattu, Arijeet K; Swenson, E Scott; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Samuel, Varman T; Troiano, Nancy; Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher D; Rodeheffer, Matthew S; Carpenter, Thomas O; Chung, Chuhan

    2013-11-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), the protein product of the SERPINF1 gene, has been linked to distinct diseases involving adipose or bone tissue, the metabolic syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type VI. Since mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes vs. osteoblasts can be regulated by specific factors, PEDF-directed dependency of murine and human MSCs was assessed. PEDF inhibited adipogenesis and promoted osteoblast differentiation of murine MSCs, osteoblast precursors, and human MSCs. Blockade of adipogenesis by PEDF suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), adiponectin, and other adipocyte markers by nearly 90% compared with control-treated cells (P<0.001). Differentiation to osteoblasts by PEDF resulted in a common pathway that involved PPARγ suppression (P<0.01). Canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling results in a MSC differentiation pattern analogous to that seen with PEDF. Thus, adding PEDF enhanced Wnt-β-catenin signal transduction in human MSCs, demonstrating a novel Wnt agonist function. In PEDF knockout (KO) mice, total body adiposity was increased by >50% compared with controls, illustrating its systemic role as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. Bones from KO mice demonstrated a reduction in mineral content recapitulating the OI type VI phenotype. These results demonstrate that the human diseases associated with PEDF reflect its ability to modulate MSC differentiation.

  17. Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mannosyltransferase pimB reduces the cell wall lipoarabinomannan and lipomannan content and increases the rate of bacterial-induced human macrophage cell death

    PubMed Central

    Torrelles, Jordi B; DesJardin, Lucy E; MacNeil, Jessica; Kaufman, Thomas M; Kutzbach, Beth; Knaup, Rose; McCarthy, Travis R; Gurcha, Sudagar S; Besra, Gurdyal S; Clegg, Steven; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2009-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cell wall contains an important group of structurally related mannosylated lipoglycans called phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides (PIMs), lipomannan (LM), and mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM), where the terminal α-[1→2] mannosyl structures on higher order PIMs and ManLAM have been shown to engage C-type lectins such as the macrophage mannose receptor directing M.tb phagosome maturation arrest. An important gene described in the biosynthesis of these molecules is the mannosyltransferase pimB (Rv0557). Here, we disrupted pimB in a virulent strain of M.tb. We demonstrate that the inactivation of pimB in M.tb does not abolish the production of any of its cell wall mannosylated lipoglycans; however, it results in a quantitative decrease in the ManLAM and LM content without affecting higher order PIMs. This finding indicates gene redundancy or the possibility of an alternative biosynthetic pathway that may compensate for the PimB deficiency. Furthermore, infection of human macrophages by the pimB mutant leads to an alteration in macrophage phenotype concomitant with a significant increase in the rate of macrophage death. PMID:19318518

  18. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers

    PubMed Central

    de-Magistris, Tiziana; López-Galán, Belinda; Caputo, Vincenzina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers’ willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips) than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people. PMID:28009815

  19. Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, D.; Dörner, S.; Hofherr, M.; Il'in, K.; Semenov, A.; Heintze, E.; Scheffler, M.; Dressel, M.; Siegel, M.

    2012-10-01

    The spectral detection efficiency and the dark count rate of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) have been studied systematically on detectors made from thin NbN films with different chemical compositions. Reduction of the nitrogen content in the 4 nm thick NbN films results in a decrease of the dark count rates more than two orders of magnitude and in a red shift of the cut-off wavelength of the hot-spot SNSPD response. The observed phenomena are explained by an improvement of uniformity of NbN films that has been confirmed by a decrease of resistivity and an increase of the ratio of the measured critical current to the depairing current. The latter factor is considered as the most crucial for both the cut-off wavelength and the dark count rates of SNSPD. Based on our results we propose a set of criteria for material properties to optimize SNSPD in the infrared spectral region.

  20. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (p<0.05) by formulation and cooking procedure. Compared with raw products, cooked samples had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of MUFAs and PUFAs (both n-3 and n-6); the difference was greater (p<0.05) in the pan-fried patties. Fatty acid retention was generally better in pan-fried than in grilled samples. When cooked, the PUFA levels in the medium-fat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Dietary flax oil reduces renal injury, oxidized LDL content, and tissue n-6/n-3 FA ratio in experimental polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ogborn, Malcolm R; Nitschmann, Evan; Bankovic-Calic, Neda; Weiler, Hope A; Aukema, Harold

    2002-11-01

    As whole flaxseed is beneficial in the treatment of experimental renal disease, we undertook a study to determine whether previously documented benefits of whole flaxseed could be reproduced with dietary low-lignan flax oil (FO), a rich source of alpha-linolenic acid, in experimental polycystic kidney disease. Male offspring of Han:SPRD-cy heterozygous rats were fed a synthetic diet containing FO or corn oil (CO) for 8 wk from the time of weaning. Renal inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, cystic change, and oxidized-LDL were assessed morphometrically. Hepatic and renal lipid composition was assessed using GC. FO feeding produced hepatic and renal enrichment of n-3 PUFA and an increase in C18:>C18 PUFA ratios (18-carbon PUFA compared to longer-chain PUFA), with a reduction in proportion of hepatic long-chain PUFA. The FO-based diet was associated with lower mean cystic change by 29.7% (P = 0.018), fibrosis by 21.7% (P = 0.017), macrophage infiltration by 31.5% (P < 0.0001), epithelial proliferation by 18.7% (P = 0.0035), and ox-LDL detection by 31.4% (P < 0.0001) in Han:SPRD-cy heterozygotes. Serum creatinine was significantly lower in FO-fed diseased animals. A small hypocholesterolemic effect was noted in all animals fed FO. FO feeding moderates renal injury, modifies the profile of substrates available for elongation to eicosanoid precursors, and inhibits the elongation of C18 PUFA in this model. The consumption of FO-based products may prove a more practical way of obtaining health benefit than attempts to increase dietary content of unrefined seed.

  2. The sphingosine-1-phosphate analog FTY720 reduces muscle ceramide content and improves glucose tolerance in high fat-fed male mice.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Clinton R; Risis, Steve; Babb, Joanne R; Yang, Christine; Lee-Young, Robert S; Henstridge, Darren C; Febbraio, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    FTY720 is a sphingosine-1-phosphate analog that has been shown to inhibit ceramide synthesis in vitro. Because ceramide accumulation in muscle is associated with insulin resistance, we aimed to examine whether FTY720 would prevent muscle ceramide accumulation in high fat-fed mice and subsequently improve glucose homeostasis. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either a chow or high fat-diet (HFD) for 6 wk, after which they were treated with vehicle or FTY720 (5 mg/kg) daily for a further 6 wk. The ceramide content of muscle was examined and insulin action was assessed. Whereas the HFD increased muscle ceramide, this was prevented by FTY720 treatment. This was not associated with alterations in the expression of genes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Interestingly, the effects of FTY720 on lipid metabolism were not limited to ceramide because FTY720 also prevented the HFD-induced increase in diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol in muscle. Furthermore, the increase in CD36 mRNA expression induced by fat feeding was prevented in muscle of FTY720-treated mice. This was associated with an attenuation of the HFD-induced increase in palmitate uptake and esterification. In addition, FTY720 improved glucose homeostasis as demonstrated by a reduction in plasma insulin, an improvement in whole-body glucose tolerance, an increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and Akt phosphorylation in muscle. In conclusion, FTY720 exerts beneficial effects on muscle lipid metabolism that prevent lipid accumulation and improve glucose tolerance in high fat-fed mice. Thus, FTY720 and other compounds that target sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling may have therapeutic potential in treating insulin resistance.

  3. Over-expression of a subgroup 4 R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene from Leucaena leucocephala reduces lignin content in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Omer, Sumita; Kumar, Santosh; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : LlMYB1 , a subgroup 4 R2R3-type MYB transcription factor gene from Leucaena leucocephala appears to be a repressor of lignin biosynthesis pathway by regulating the transcription of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. R2R3MYB transcription factors are known to play a wide role in regulating the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. In this study, we report isolation, cloning and characterization of an R2R3MYB transcription factor gene (LlMYB1) from an economically important tree species, Leucaena leucocephala. LlMYB1 consists of 705 bp coding sequence corresponding to 235 amino acids. Sequence alignment revealed that the N-terminal (MYB) domain of the gene shares up to 95 % similarity with subgroup 4 (Sg4) members of R2R3Myb gene family functionally known to be lignin repressors. Highly divergent C-terminal region of the gene carried an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, another characteristic of the Sg4. The gene was phylogenetically grouped closest with AmMYB308, a known repressor of monolignol biosynthetic pathway genes. Spatio-temporal expression studies at different ages of seedlings using quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) showed highest transcript level of the gene in 10 day old stem tissues. Over-expression of the gene in transgenic tobacco showed statistically significant decline in the transcript levels of the general phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduction in lignin content. Our study suggests that LlMYB1 might be playing the role of a repressor of lignin biosynthesis in L. leucocephala.

  4. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-03-14

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN.

  5. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN. PMID:28290480

  6. Experimental evidences for reducing Mg activation energy in high Al-content AlGaN alloy by MgGa δ doping in (AlN)m/(GaN)n superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingli; Wu, Hao; Liu, Chang

    2017-03-01

    P-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN alloys is a main challenge for realizing AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet optoelectronics devices. According to the first-principles calculations, Mg activation energy may be reduced so that a high hole concentration can be obtained by introducing nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice (SL) in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy. In this work, experimental evidences were achieved by analyzing Mg doped high Al-content AlGaN alloys and Mg doped AlGaN SLs as well as MgGa δ doped AlGaN SLs. Mg acceptor activation energy was significantly reduced from 0.378 to 0.331 eV by using MgGa δ doping in SLs instead of traditional doping in alloys. This new process was confirmed to be able to realize high p-type doping in high Al-content AlGaN.

  7. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce. PMID:27015405

  8. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  9. Optimized Blanching Reduces the Host Cell Protein Content and Substantially Enhances the Recovery and Stability of Two Plant-Derived Malaria Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Stephan; Holland, Tanja; Boes, Alexander; Spiegel, Holger; Bolzenius, Johanna; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs), and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process (DSP) development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20–80°C range, pH values of 3.0–8.0 and incubation times of 0–60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent DSP steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%. PMID:26925077

  10. Reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition of high Ge content Si/SiGe superlattices for 1.3 μm photo-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarotto, L.; Hartmann, J. M.; Bremond, G.; Rolland, G.; Papon, A. M.; Séméria, M. N.

    2003-07-01

    SiGe-based photodetectors operating at 1.3 μm are highly desirable for the development of optical interconnections on SOI substrates. We have therefore investigated the structural and optical properties of high Ge concentration Si/SiGe multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown using a production-compatible reduced pressure-chemical vapor deposition system. The structures are designed in order to obtain dislocation-free strained SiGe layers with a band gap as low as possible. Those SiGe layers will be used as the absorbing layers in a future photodetector. Photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray diffraction are used to determine the characteristics of our MQWs and verify the strain state of the layers in the stack. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy enabled us to check the structural properties of such heterostructures. A PL emission corresponding to the free exciton "no phonon" transition as low as 0.895 eV at 9 K was obtained, implying that strained Si/SiGe MQWs can be produced with a band gap as low as 0.845 eV at 300 K.

  11. Influence of Alloy Content and Prior Microstructure on Evolution of Secondary Phases in Weldments of 9Cr-Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas Paul, V.; Sudha, C.; Saroja, S.

    2015-08-01

    9Cr-Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic steels with 1 and 1.4 wt pct tungsten are materials of choice for the test blanket module in fusion reactors. The steels possess a tempered martensite microstructure with a decoration of inter- and intra-lath carbides, which undergoes extensive modification on application of heat. The change in substructure and precipitation behavior on welding and subsequent thermal exposure has been studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Changes i.e., formation of various phases, their volume fraction, size, and morphology in different regions of the weldment due to prolonged thermal exposure was influenced not only by the time and temperature of exposure but also the prior microstructure. Laves phase of type Fe2W was formed in the high tungsten steel, on aging the weldment at 823 K (550 °C). It formed in the fine-grained heat-affected zone (HAZ) at much shorter durations than in the base metal. The accelerated kinetics has been understood in terms of enhanced precipitation of carbides at lath/grain boundaries during aging and the concomitant depletion of carbon and chromium and enrichment of tungsten in the vicinity of the carbides. Therefore, the fine-grained HAZ in the weldment was identified as a region susceptible for failure during service.

  12. Combined administration of levetiracetam and valproic acid attenuates age-related hyperactivity of CA3 place cells, reduces place field area, and increases spatial information content in aged rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, Jonathan; Ratner, Marcia H; Stewart, Tara; Eichenbaum, Howard; Farb, David H

    2015-12-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of functional inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA.

  13. Combined Administration of Levetiracetam and Valproic Acid Attenuates Age Related Hyperactivity of CA3 Place Cells, Reduces Place Field Area, and Increases Spatial Information Content in Aged Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Robitsek, RJ; Ratner, MH; Stewart, TM; Eichenbaum, H; Farb, DH

    2015-01-01

    Learning and memory deficits associated with age-related mild cognitive impairment have long been attributed to impaired processing within the hippocampus. Hyperactivity within the hippocampal CA3 region that is associated with aging is mediated in part by a loss of inhibitory interneurons and thought to underlie impaired performance in spatial memory tasks, including the abnormal tendency in aged animals to pattern complete spatial representations. Here, we asked whether the spatial firing patterns of simultaneously recorded CA3 and CA1 neurons in young and aged rats could be manipulated pharmacologically to selectively reduce CA3 hyperactivity and thus, according to hypothesis, the associated abnormality in spatial representations. We used chronically implanted high-density tetrodes to record the spatial firing properties of CA3 and CA1 units during animal exploration for food in familiar and novel environments. Aged CA3 place cells have higher firing rates, larger place fields, less spatial information content, and respond less to a change from a familiar to a novel environment than young CA3 cells. We also find that the combination of levetiracetam (LEV) + valproic acid (VPA), previously shown to act as a cognitive enhancer in tests of spatial memory, attenuate CA3 place cell firing rates, reduce place field area, and increase spatial information content in aged but not young adult rats. This is consistent with drug enhancing the specificity of neuronal firing with respect to spatial location. Contrary to expectation, however, LEV + VPA reduces place cell discrimination between novel and familiar environments, i.e., spatial correlations increase, independent of age even though drug enhances performance in cognitive tasks. The results demonstrate that spatial information content, or the number of bits of information encoded per action potential, may be the key correlate for enhancement of spatial memory by LEV + VPA. PMID:25941121

  14. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 blockage enhances autophagy in the neurons of triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse and reduces human P301L-tau content at the pre-symptomatic stage

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Yohei; Niu, Zhaoyang; Bryleva, Elena Y.; Harris, Brent T.; Murphy, Stephanie R.; Kheirollah, Alireza; Bowen, Zachary D.; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) display amyloidopathy and tauopathy. In mouse models of AD, pharmacological inhibition using small molecule enzyme inhibitors, or genetic inactivation of Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) diminished amyloidopathy and restored cognitive deficits. In microglia, ACAT1 blockage increases autophagosome formation and stimulates amyloid β peptide1–42 degradation. Here we hypothesize that in neurons ACAT1 blockage augments autophagy and increases autophagy-mediated degradation of P301L-tau protein. We tested this possibility in murine neuroblastoma cells ectopically expressing human tau, and in primary neurons isolated from triple transgenic AD (3XTg-AD) mice that express mutant forms of APP, PS1, and human tau. The results show that ACAT1 blockage increases autophagosome formation and decreases P301L-tau protein content without affecting endogenous mouse tau protein content. In vivo, lacking Acat1 decreases P301L-tau protein content in the brains of young 3XTg-AD mice but not in those of old mice, where extensive hyperphosphorylations and aggregation of P301L-tau take place. These results suggest that, in addition to ameliorating amyloidopathy in both young and old AD mice, ACAT1 blockage may benefit AD by reducing tauopathy at early stage. PMID:25930235

  15. Reasons for reduced activities of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase in spite of increased contents of cytochrome P-450 in mature rat testis fetally irradiated with 60Co.

    PubMed

    Inano, H; Ishii-Ohba, H; Suzuki, K; Ikeda, K

    1990-05-01

    Pregnant rats received whole body irradiation with 2.6 Gy gamma-ray from a 60Co source at Day 20 of gestation. When pups were 4 months old, activities of electron transport system and steroid monooxygenase in tests were assayed. The content of total cytochrome P-450 in the irradiated testes had increased to 170% of that in non-irradiated rats, but NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity had reduced to 36% of the control. Also, amounts of cytochrome b5 in testicular microsomal fraction were decreased markedly after irradiation, but no significant change of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase activity was observed in the treated pups. Because both 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase activities tended to be decreased by fetal irradiation, testosterone production from progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was reduced to about 30% of the control. From these results, it has been suggested that the testicular cytochrome P-450 is radioresistant but steroid monooxygenase activities are reduced after the fetal irradiation. We propose that the discrepancy arises from the marked decrement of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity.

  16. Content Wizard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola P.

    2001-01-01

    This classroom tip focuses on sustained-content language teaching. The game described--content wizard-- illustrates a practical technique for incorporating a range of language and academic skills into subject matter lessons for English-as-a-Second-Language learners. (Author/VWL)

  17. Booster vaccination of pre-school children with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Giuseppe; Cuccia, Mario; Mereu, Gabriele; Icardi, Giancarlo; Bona, Gianni; Esposito, Susanna; Marchetti, Federico; Messier, Marc; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Hardt, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pertussis occurs in older children, adolescents and adults due to waning immunity after primary vaccination. Booster vaccination for pre-school children has been recommended in Italy since 1999. In this study (NCT00871000), the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (dTpa-IPV; GSK Biologicals Boostrix™-Polio; 3-component pertussis) vs. full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine (sanofi-pasteur—MSD Tetravac™; 2-component pertussis) was evaluated in pre-school Italian children.   Methods: Healthy children aged 5–6 y primed in a routine vaccination setting with three doses of DTPa-based vaccines were enrolled and randomized (1:1) in this phase IIIb, booster study to receive a single dose of dTpa-IPV or DTPa-IPV; the MMRV vaccine was co-administered. Antibody concentrations/titers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliovirus 1–3 were measured before and one month post-booster. Reactogenicity and safety was assessed. Results: 305 subjects were enrolled of whom 303 (dTpa-IPV = 151; DTPa-IPV = 152) received booster vaccination. One month post-booster, all subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus, anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-poliovirus 1–3; 99.3% of dTpa-IPV and 60.4% of DTPa-IPV subjects were seropositive for anti-PRN; 98–100% of subjects were seropositive against MMRV antigens post-booster. Pain at the injection site (dTpa-IPV: 63.6%; DTPa-IPV: 63.2%) and fatigue (dTpa-IPV: 26.5%; DTPa-IPV: 23.7%) were the most commonly reported solicited local and general symptoms, during the 4-d follow-up period. No SAEs or fatalities were reported. Conclusions: The reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine was non-inferior to full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine with respect to immunogenicity. The vaccine was well-tolerated and can be confidently used as a booster dose in pre-school children. PMID:22327497

  18. Enhanced UV-B radiation during pupal stage reduce body mass and fat content, while increasing deformities, mortality and cell death in female adults of solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-08-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the oogenesis and morpho-anatomical characteristics of the European solitary red mason bee Osmia bicornis L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) were tested under laboratory conditions. Cocooned females in the pupal stage were exposed directly to different doses (0, 9.24, 12.32, and 24.64 kJ/m(2) /d) of artificial UV-B. Our experiments revealed that enhanced UV-B radiation can reduce body mass and fat body content, cause deformities and increase mortality. Following UV exposure at all 3 different doses, the body mass of bees was all significantly reduced compared to the control, with the highest UV dose causing the largest reduction. Similarly, following UV-B radiation, in treated groups the fat body index decreased and the fat body index was the lowest in the group receiving the highest dose of UV radiation. Mortality and morphological deformities, between untreated and exposed females varied considerably and increased with the dose of UV-B radiation. Morphological deformities were mainly manifested in the wings and mouthparts, and occurred more frequently with an increased dose of UV. Cell death was quantified by the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (DNA fragmentation) during early stages of oogenesis of O. bicornis females. The bees, after UV-B exposure exhibited more germarium cells with fragmented DNA. The TUNEL test indicated that in germarium, low doses of UV-B poorly induced the cell death during early development. However, exposure to moderate UV-B dose increased programmed cell death. In females treated with the highest dose of UV-B the vast majority of germarium cells were TUNEL-positive.

  19. Towards the development of new phosphors with reduced content of rare earth elements: Structural and optical characterization of Ce:Tb: Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriu, D.; Stagi, L.; Carbonaro, C.M.; Corpino, R.; Casula, M.F.; Ricci, P.C.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A new promising inert matrix as host of luminescent ions is proposed. • Al2SiO5 matrix is free from Rare earths (critical raw materials). • Doping the matrix with Ce and Tb we obtain an efficient green emitter. • Cerium acts as sensitizer for Terbium emission. - Abstract: A new promising inert matrix as host of luminescent ions is proposed. Al2SiO5 samples, doped with rare earths (Ce, Tb single doped and co-doped) are proposed as good prospect for the development of new UV–vis converter with reduced content of rare earths elements. Structural characterization by Raman, XRD spectroscopy and TEM imaging reveals the sillimanite phase and nano sized dimension of the investigated powders. Optical characterization by steady time and time resolved emission spectroscopy for the single doped and co-doped samples allows to identify an efficient energy transfer from Ce to Tb ions under near UV excitation wavelength. The intense green emission observed in the Ce:Tb co-doped Al2SiO5 system suggests its potential application as efficient blue pumped green emitter phosphor to be exploited for white LED: to this purpose we tested the compound in combination with a red emitting doping ion recording for Ce:Tb:Cr:ASO system a correlated color temperature of 6720 K.

  20. Cadmium inhibits molting of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense by reducing the hemolymph ecdysteroid content and the activities of chitinase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase in the epidermis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jixian; Pei, Sihui; Jing, Weixin; Zou, Enmin; Wang, Lan

    2015-03-01

    Molting is an essential process during the growth of crustaceans, which is coordinated by ecdysteroids secreted by the Y-organ, molting inhibiting hormone secreted by the X-organ sinus-gland complex, as well as chitinase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase synthesized by the epidermis. Cadmium is one of the toxic metals in the aquatic environment. However, the endocrine effects of cadmium on the molting of freshwater crabs and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. To investigate these, freshwater crabs (Sinopotamon henanense) were acutely exposed to 0, 7.25, 14.5 and 29 mg/l Cd for 3, 4, 5 days or in some experiments for 4 days after eyestalk-ablation. The concentration of hemolymph ecdysone and the activities of the molting enzymes chitinase and NAG were measured. Histological changes in the epidermal tissues were documented. Our results showed that eyestalk ablation increased the ecdysteroid content as well as the activities of chitinase and NAG, which were inhibited by cadmium in a concentration-dependent manner; histological examinations demonstrated that eyestalk ablation produced storage particles in the epidermal tissues, which was also reduced by cadmium in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data suggest that cadmium disrupts endocrine function through inhibiting the secretion of ecdysteroids by the Y-organ and altering with the regulation of chitinase and NAG activity in the epidermis. This work provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the molting inhibition effect of cadmium on the crabs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  2. Systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries are all major public health problems in the UK, with significant costs to the healthcare service. We aim to conduct a systematic review to summarise the evidence on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health. Methods and analysis Electronic database will be systematically searched using a combination of terms, tailored to optimise sensitivity, specificity, and the syntax and functionality of each database. The databases searched will include the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE (Ovid) and Scopus. The bibliographies of those papers that match inclusion criteria will be searched by hand to identify any further, relevant references, which will be subject to the same screening and selection process. The database search results will be supplemented by hand searches. In addition to the peer-reviewed literature, a number of grey literature searches will be undertaken using the broad search terms ‘sugar’ and ‘food’ or ‘drink’ and ‘reduction’, these searches will include key government and organisation websites as well as general searches in Google. The selection of the studies, data collection and quality appraisal will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. Data will be initially analysed through a narrative synthesis method. If a subset of data we analyse appears comparable, we will investigate the possibility of performing a meta-analysis. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval will not be required as this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings will be disseminated widely through conference presentations and published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016034022. PMID:27288379

  3. Systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-09

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries are all major public health problems in the UK, with significant costs to the healthcare service. We aim to conduct a systematic review to summarise the evidence on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health. Electronic database will be systematically searched using a combination of terms, tailored to optimise sensitivity, specificity, and the syntax and functionality of each database. The databases searched will include the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE (Ovid) and Scopus. The bibliographies of those papers that match inclusion criteria will be searched by hand to identify any further, relevant references, which will be subject to the same screening and selection process. The database search results will be supplemented by hand searches. In addition to the peer-reviewed literature, a number of grey literature searches will be undertaken using the broad search terms 'sugar' and 'food' or 'drink' and 'reduction', these searches will include key government and organisation websites as well as general searches in Google. The selection of the studies, data collection and quality appraisal will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. Data will be initially analysed through a narrative synthesis method. If a subset of data we analyse appears comparable, we will investigate the possibility of performing a meta-analysis. Ethics approval will not be required as this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings will be disseminated widely through conference presentations and published in a peer-reviewed journal. CRD42016034022. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Educating restaurant owners and cooks to lower their own sodium intake is a potential strategy for reducing the sodium contents of restaurant foods: a small-scale pilot study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heeseung; Seo, Dong-il; Oh, Kwang-hwan; Hwang, Taik Gun; Choi, Bo Youl

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel. Forty-eight restaurant owners and cooks completed the baseline survey and participated in the intervention. Forty participants completed the post-intervention survey. RESULTS The overweight and obesity prevalences were 25.6% and 39.5%, respectively, and 74.4% of participants had elevated blood pressure. After health examination, counseling, and nutrition education, several nutrition behaviors related to sodium intake showed improvement. In addition, those who consumed less salt in their baseline diet (measured with urine dipsticks) were more likely to agree that providing healthy foods to their customers is necessary. This study demonstrated the potential to reduce the sodium contents of restaurant foods by improving restaurant owners' and cooks' psychological factors and their own health behaviors. CONCLUSIONS This small pilot study demonstrated that working with restaurant owners and cooks to improve their own health and sodium intake may have an effect on participation in restaurant-based sodium reduction initiatives. Future intervention studies with a larger sample size and comparison group can focus on improving the health and perceptions of restaurant personnel in order to increase the feasibility and efficacy of restaurant-based sodium reduction programs and policies. PMID:27909562

  5. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a decennial booster dose of a combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus booster vaccine (dTpa-IPV) in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Martina; Rathi, Niraj; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Hardt, Karin; Schwarz, Tino F

    2015-05-21

    Pertussis in adults and adolescents could be reduced by replacing traditional tetanus and diphtheria (Td) boosters with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccines. This study evaluated the administration of dTpa-IPV (dTpa-inactivated poliovirus) in adults ten years after they received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV in trial NCT01277705. Open multicentre, phase IV study (www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01323959) in which healthy adults, who had received a previous dose of dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV ten years earlier, received a single decennial booster dose of dTpa-IPV (Boostrix-polio, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). Blood samples were collected before and one month after booster vaccination. Antibody concentrations against all vaccine antigens were measured and reactogenicity and safety were assessed. A total of 211 subjects (mean age 50.3 years) received vaccination of whom 201 were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity. Before the decennial dTpa-IPV booster, ≥71.0% subjects were seroprotected/seropositive against all vaccine antigens. One month after the booster dose, all subjects were seroprotected against tetanus and poliovirus types 2 and 3; ≥95.7% subjects were seroprotected against diphtheria and ≥98.3% against poliovirus type 1. Anti-pertussis booster responses for the various antigens were observed in ≥76.5% (pertussis toxoid; PT), ≥85.1% (filamentous haemagglutinin; FHA) and ≥63.2% (pertactin; PRN) of subjects. During the 4-day follow-up, the overall incidence of local AEs was 71.6%, 75.0% and 72.2% in dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV and Td-IPV groups, respectively. Pain was the most frequent solicited local adverse event (AE; ≥62.7% subjects) and fatigue the most frequent solicited general AE (≥18.5%). No serious AEs were reported during the study. A booster dose of dTpa-IPV was immunogenic and well tolerated in adults who had received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, d

  6. Experimental determination of dissolved CO2 content in nominally anhydrous andesitic melts at graphite/diamond saturation - Remobilization of deeply subducted reduced carbon via partial melts of MORB-like eclogite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, J.; Dasgupta, R.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental phase relations of carbonated lithologies [1] and geochemistry of deep diamonds [2] suggest that deep recycling of carbon has likely been efficient for a significant portion of Earth's history. Both carbonates and organic carbon subduct into the mantle, but with gradual decrease of fO2 with depth [3] most carbon in deep mantle rocks including eclogite could be diamond/graphite [4]. Previous studies investigated the transfer of CO2 from subducted eclogite to the ambient mantle by partial melting in the presence of carbonates, i.e., by generation of carbonate-rich melts [5]. However, the transfer of carbon from subducted eclogite to the mantle can also happen, perhaps more commonly, by extraction of silicate partial melt in the presence of reduced carbon; yet, CO2 solubility in eclogite-derived andesitic melt at graphite/diamond saturation remains unconstrained. CO2content of eclogite melts is also critical as geochemistry of many ocean island basalts suggest the presence of C and eclogite in their source regions [6]. In the present study we determine CO2 concentration in a model andesitic melt [7] at graphite/diamond saturation at conditions relevant for partial melting of eclogite in the convecting upper mantle. Piston cylinder and multi anvil experiments were conducted at 1-6 GPa and 1375-1550 °C using Pt/Gr double capsules. Oxygen fugacity was monitored with Pt-Fe sensors in the starting mix. Completed experiments at 1-3 GPa show that CO2 concentration increases with increasing P, T, and fO2 up to ~0.3 wt%. Results were used to develop empirical and thermodynamic models to predict CO2 concentration in partial melts of graphite saturated eclogite. This allowed us to quantify the extent to which CO2 can mobilize from eclogitic heterogeneities at graphite/diamond saturated conditions. With estimates of eclogite contribution to erupted basaltic lavas, the models developed here allow us to put constraints on the flux of CO2 to mantle source regions

  7. Vegetative Clostridium difficile survives in room air on moist surfaces and in gastric contents with reduced acidity: a potential mechanism to explain the association between proton pump inhibitors and C. difficile-associated diarrhea?

    PubMed

    Jump, Robin L P; Pultz, Michael J; Donskey, Curtis J

    2007-08-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been identified as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), though the mechanism is unclear because gastric acid does not kill C. difficile spores. We hypothesized that the vegetative form of C. difficile, which is killed by acid, could contribute to disease pathogenesis if it survives in room air and in gastric contents with elevated pH. We compared the numbers of C. difficile spores and vegetative cells in stools of patients prior to and during the treatment of CDAD. We assessed the survival of vegetative cells on moist or dry surfaces in room air versus anaerobic conditions and in human gastric contents, in pH-adjusted gastric contents, and in gastric contents from individuals receiving PPI therapy. Stool samples obtained from patients prior to the initiation of antibiotic treatment for C. difficile contained approximately 10-fold more vegetative cells than spores. On dry surfaces, vegetative C. difficile cells died rapidly, whereas they remained viable for up to 6 h on moist surfaces in room air. Vegetative C. difficile cells had only marginal survival in gastric contents at low pH; adjustment to a pH of >5 resulted in survival similar to that in the phosphate-buffered saline control. The survival of vegetative C. difficile in gastric contents obtained from patients receiving PPIs was also increased at a pH of >5. The ability of the vegetative form of C. difficile to survive on moist surfaces and in gastric contents with an elevated pH suggests a potential mechanism by which PPI therapy could increase the risk of acquiring C. difficile.

  8. CO2 content of andesitic melts at graphite-saturated upper mantle conditions with implications for redox state of oceanic basalt source regions and remobilization of reduced carbon from subducted eclogite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, James; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2017-03-01

    We have performed experiments to determine the effects of pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity on the CO2 contents in nominally anhydrous andesitic melts at graphite saturation. The andesite composition was specifically chosen to match a low-degree partial melt composition that is generated from MORB-like eclogite in the convective, oceanic upper mantle. Experiments were performed at 1-3 GPa, 1375-1550 °C, and fO2 of FMQ -3.2 to FMQ -2.3 and the resulting experimental glasses were analyzed for CO2 and H2O contents using FTIR and SIMS. Experimental results were used to develop a thermodynamic model to predict CO2 content of nominally anhydrous andesitic melts at graphite saturation. Fitting of experimental data returned thermodynamic parameters for dissolution of CO2 as molecular CO2: ln( K 0) = -21.79 ± 0.04, Δ V 0 = 32.91 ± 0.65 cm3mol-1, Δ H 0 = 107 ± 21 kJ mol-1, and dissolution of CO2 as CO3 2-: ln (K 0 ) = -21.38 ± 0.08, Δ V 0 = 30.66 ± 1.33 cm3 mol-1, Δ H 0 = 42 ± 37 kJ mol-1, where K 0 is the equilibrium constant at some reference pressure and temperature, Δ V 0 is the volume change of reaction, and Δ H 0 is the enthalpy change of reaction. The thermodynamic model was used along with trace element partition coefficients to calculate the CO2 contents and CO2/Nb ratios resulting from the mixing of a depleted MORB and the partial melt of a graphite-saturated eclogite. Comparison with natural MORB and OIB data suggests that the CO2 contents and CO2/Nb ratios of CO2-enriched oceanic basalts cannot be produced by mixing with partial melts of graphite-saturated eclogite. Instead, they must be produced by melting of a source containing carbonate. This result places a lower bound on the oxygen fugacity for the source region of these CO2-enriched basalts, and suggests that fO2 measurements made on cratonic xenoliths may not be applicable to the convecting upper mantle. CO2-depleted basalts, on the other hand, are consistent with mixing between

  9. The relationship between the anthocyanin and vitamin C contents of red-fleshed sweet cherries and the ability of fruit digests to reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David J; Hocquel, Alice; Penberthy, Ari; Oey, Indrawati

    2017-07-15

    The present work investigated the bioprotective capacities of red-fleshed sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium; Lapins, Stella, Sweetheart and Staccato), with distinct differences in anthocyanins and vitamin C contents, on human intestinal Caco-2 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress. Three assays of cell health, the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromide cell viability assay, the lactate dehydrogenase membrane leakage assay and nitric oxide production, were used to determine if these cherry digests differed in their ability to protect Caco-2 cells from H2O2. Cells treated with digests from cherries identified as containing high anthocyanins provided the greatest protection against H2O2. A strong linear correlation (-0.82content and cell health biomarkers, indicating that anthocyanins effectively protected Caco-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Sweetheart and Stella cherries demonstrated the greatest bioprotective capacity, suggesting that anthocyanin levels are better markers of a cultivar's ability to protect human cells from oxidative stress than vitamin C.

  10. Chronic exposure to free fatty acid reduces pancreatic beta cell insulin content by increasing basal insulin secretion that is not compensated for by a corresponding increase in proinsulin biosynthesis translation.

    PubMed Central

    Bollheimer, L C; Skelly, R H; Chester, M W; McGarry, J D; Rhodes, C J

    1998-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell normally maintains a stable balance among insulin secretion, insulin production, and insulin degradation to keep optimal intracellular stores of the hormone. Elevated levels of FFA markedly enhance insulin secretion; however, the effects of FFA on insulin production and intracellular stores remain unclear. In this study, twofold elevation in total circulating FFA effected by infusion of lard oil and heparin into rats for 6 h under normoglycemic conditions resulted in a marked elevation of circulating insulin levels evident after 4 h, and a 30% decrease in pancreatic insulin content after a 6-h infusion in vivo. Adding 125 muM oleate to isolated rat pancreatic islets cultured with 5.6 mM glucose caused a 50% fall in their insulin content over 24 h, coupled with a marked enhancement of basal insulin secretion. Both effects of fatty acid were blocked by somatostatin. In contrast to the stimulatory effects of oleate on insulin secretion, glucose-induced proinsulin biosynthesis was inhibited by oleate up to 24 h, but was unaffected thereafter. This result was in spite of a two- to threefold oleate-induced increase in preproinsulin mRNA levels, underscoring the importance of translational regulation of proinsulin biosynthesis in maintaining beta cell insulin stores. Collectively, these results suggest that chronically elevated FFA contribute to beta cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NIDDM by significantly increasing the basal rate of insulin secretion. This increase in turn results in a decrease in the beta cell's intracellular stores that cannot be offset by commensurate FFA induction of proinsulin biosynthesis. PMID:9486980

  11. Novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors reduce cortisol levels in keratinocytes and improve dermal collagen content in human ex vivo skin after exposure to cortisone and UV

    PubMed Central

    Geotti-Bianchini, Piero; Wandeler, Eliane; Kratschmar, Denise V.; Heidl, Marc; Campiche, Remo; Jackson, Eileen

    2017-01-01

    Activity and selectivity assessment of new bi-aryl amide 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors, prepared in a modular manner via Suzuki cross-coupling, are described. Several compounds inhibiting 11β-HSD1 at nanomolar concentrations were identified. Compounds 2b, 3e, 7b and 12e were shown to selectively inhibit 11β-HSD1 over 11β-HSD2, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD2. These inhibitors also potently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in intact HEK-293 cells expressing the recombinant enzyme and in intact primary human keratinocytes expressing endogenous 11β-HSD1. Moreover, compounds 2b, 3e and 12e were tested for their activity in human skin biopsies. They were able to prevent, at least in part, both the cortisone- and the UV-mediated decreases in collagen content. Thus, inhibition of 11β-HSD1 by these compounds can be further investigated to delay or prevent UV-mediated skin damage and skin aging. PMID:28152550

  12. Novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors reduce cortisol levels in keratinocytes and improve dermal collagen content in human ex vivo skin after exposure to cortisone and UV.

    PubMed

    Boudon, Stéphanie M; Vuorinen, Anna; Geotti-Bianchini, Piero; Wandeler, Eliane; Kratschmar, Denise V; Heidl, Marc; Campiche, Remo; Jackson, Eileen; Odermatt, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Activity and selectivity assessment of new bi-aryl amide 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors, prepared in a modular manner via Suzuki cross-coupling, are described. Several compounds inhibiting 11β-HSD1 at nanomolar concentrations were identified. Compounds 2b, 3e, 7b and 12e were shown to selectively inhibit 11β-HSD1 over 11β-HSD2, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD2. These inhibitors also potently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in intact HEK-293 cells expressing the recombinant enzyme and in intact primary human keratinocytes expressing endogenous 11β-HSD1. Moreover, compounds 2b, 3e and 12e were tested for their activity in human skin biopsies. They were able to prevent, at least in part, both the cortisone- and the UV-mediated decreases in collagen content. Thus, inhibition of 11β-HSD1 by these compounds can be further investigated to delay or prevent UV-mediated skin damage and skin aging.

  13. Marie Ménard apples with high polyphenol content and a low-fat diet reduce 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats: effects on inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Bianchini, Francesca; Salvadori, Maddalena; Salvianti, Francesca; Pinzani, Pamela; Dolara, Piero; Calorini, Lido; Caderni, Giovanna

    2012-08-01

    Inflammation may increase cancer risk, therefore, we studied whether polyphenol-rich Marie Ménard (MM) apples with reported anti-inflammatory activity prevent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and, likewise whether high-fat (HF) diet promoting carcinogenesis, may affect inflammation. DMH-induced rats were fed for 15 weeks with: an HF diet (23% corn oil w/w); an HF diet containing 7.6% w/w lyophilized MM (apple diet (AD)); a low-fat (LF) diet and an HF diet containing piroxicam (PXC) (0.01% w/w) as control. Mucin depleted foci (MDF), precancerous lesions in the colon, were dramatically reduced in the AD, LF, and PXC groups compared with the HF. Peritoneal macrophage activation, an index of systemic inflammation, was significantly decreased in the AD, LF, and PXC groups. TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6 m-RNA expression in the colon, as well as CD68 cells and plasmatic PGE2 were lower in the AD, but not in the LF group. Apoptosis in the MDF of both the AD and LF-fed rats was significantly higher than in HF rats. In conclusion, AD has a strong chemopreventive effect, reducing inflammation, and increasing apoptosis, while the chemopreventive effect of the LF diet seems mediated mainly by increased apoptosis in MDF.

  14. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: I. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on microbial efficiency and ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibility of dietary constituents.

    PubMed

    Sathler, D F T; Prados, L F; Zanetti, D; Silva, B C; Filho, S C Valadares; Pacheco, M V C; Amaral, P M; Rennó, L N; Paulino, M F

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated intake, microbial efficiency, and ruminal, small and large intestinal, and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP, and NDF, as well as availability of Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Mn, and Zn in Zebu cattle fed with or without supplemental sources of Ca and P or a micromineral premix. Five rumen- and ileum-cannulated Nellore bulls (BW = 200 ± 10.5 kg; 9 mo) were used in the experiment, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The experiment was developed in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial design to measure the effects of mineral supplementation on intake, digestibility, and site of nutrient absorption. The factors consisted of 2 Ca and P levels (macromineral factor; CaP+ or CaP-) and 2 microminerals levels (micromineral factor; CuMnZn+ or CuMnZn-). In addition, a treatment with alimentary restriction (REST) was evaluated at 1.7% of BW. Nutrient fluxes were measured in the omasum and ileum, in addition to intake and fecal excretion. Microbial efficiency was estimated using purine derivative excretion. Dry matter, OM, NDF, CP intake, and total digestibility were not affected ( ≥ 0.058) by the absence of Ca, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn supplementation. Intake of Ca, P, and Mg were reduced ( < 0.01) by CaP-. The absence of CuMnZn reduced ( < 0.01) Cu, Mn, and Zn intake. Ruminal recycling of P, Na, and K is significant for increasing the influx of these minerals to the digestive tract; however, influences of treatments were not observed. The small and large intestines contributed to mineral absorption in different proportions ( < 0.05), according to minerals and treatments. Because of the similarity ( > 0.05) of OM, NDF, and CP digestion sites and coefficients, we assume that omitting supplemental sources of Ca, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn may be an option in raising cattle on feedlots. If supplementation is viable, knowledge about the specific absorption site of each mineral could positively impact choices about the supplemental source.

  15. Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements, Regardless of Their Zinc Content, Increase Growth and Reduce the Prevalence of Stunting and Wasting in Young Burkinabe Children: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sonja Y.; Abbeddou, Souheila; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Somé, Jérôme W.; Vosti, Stephen A.; Ouédraogo, Zinéwendé P.; Guissou, Rosemonde M.; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) are promising home fortification products, but the optimal zinc level needed to improve growth and reduce morbidity is uncertain. We aimed to assess the impact of providing SQ-LNS with varied amounts of zinc, along with illness treatment, on zinc-related outcomes compared with standard care. In a placebo-controlled, cluster-randomized trial, 34 communities were stratified to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). 2435 eligible IC children were randomly assigned to one of four groups:1) SQ-LNS without zinc, placebo tablet; 2) SQ-LNS containing 5mg zinc, placebo tablet; 3) SQ-LNS containing 10mg zinc, placebo tablet; or 4) SQ-LNS without zinc and 5mg zinc tablet from 9–18 months of age. During weekly morbidity surveillance, oral rehydration salts were provided for reported diarrhea and antimalarial therapy for confirmed malaria. Children in NIC (n = 785) did not receive SQ-LNS, tablets, illness surveillance or treatment. At 9 and 18 months, length, weight and hemoglobin were measured in all children. Reported adherence was 97±6% for SQ-LNS and tablets. Mean baseline hemoglobin was 89±15g/L. At 18 months, change in hemoglobin was greater in IC than NIC (+8 vs -1g/L, p<0.0001), but 79.1% of IC were still anemic (vs. 91.1% in NIC). Final plasma zinc concentration did not differ by group. During the 9-month observation period, the incidence of diarrhea was 1.10±1.03 and of malaria 0.54±0.50 episodes per 100 child-days, and did not differ by group. Length at 18 months was significantly greater in IC compared to NIC (77.7±3.0 vs. 76.9±3.4cm; p<0.001) and stunting prevalence was significantly lower in IC (29.3%) than NIC (39.3%; p<0.0001), but did not differ by intervention group within IC. Wasting prevalence was also significantly lower in IC (8.7%) than in NIC (13.5%; p = 0.0003). Providing SQ-LNS daily with or without zinc, along with malaria and diarrhea treatment, significantly increased

  16. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements, regardless of their zinc content, increase growth and reduce the prevalence of stunting and wasting in young burkinabe children: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Somé, Jérôme W; Vosti, Stephen A; Ouédraogo, Zinéwendé P; Guissou, Rosemonde M; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) are promising home fortification products, but the optimal zinc level needed to improve growth and reduce morbidity is uncertain. We aimed to assess the impact of providing SQ-LNS with varied amounts of zinc, along with illness treatment, on zinc-related outcomes compared with standard care. In a placebo-controlled, cluster-randomized trial, 34 communities were stratified to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). 2435 eligible IC children were randomly assigned to one of four groups:1) SQ-LNS without zinc, placebo tablet; 2) SQ-LNS containing 5mg zinc, placebo tablet; 3) SQ-LNS containing 10mg zinc, placebo tablet; or 4) SQ-LNS without zinc and 5mg zinc tablet from 9–18 months of age. During weekly morbidity surveillance, oral rehydration salts were provided for reported diarrhea and antimalarial therapy for confirmed malaria. Children in NIC (n = 785) did not receive SQ-LNS, tablets, illness surveillance or treatment. At 9 and 18 months, length, weight and hemoglobin were measured in all children. Reported adherence was 97 ± 6% for SQ-LNS and tablets. Mean baseline hemoglobin was 89 ± 15g/L. At 18 months, change in hemoglobin was greater in IC than NIC (+8 vs -1g/L, p<0.0001), but 79.1% of IC were still anemic (vs. 91.1% in NIC). Final plasma zinc concentration did not differ by group. During the 9-month observation period, the incidence of diarrhea was 1.10 ± 1.03 and of malaria 0.54 ± 0.50 episodes per 100 child-days, and did not differ by group. Length at 18 months was significantly greater in IC compared to NIC (77.7 ± 3.0 vs. 76.9 ± 3.4 cm; p<0.001) and stunting prevalence was significantly lower in IC (29.3%) than NIC (39.3%; p<0.0001), but did not differ by intervention group within IC. Wasting prevalence was also significantly lower in IC (8.7%) than in NIC (13.5%; p = 0.0003). Providing SQ-LNS daily with or without zinc, along with malaria and diarrhea treatment, significantly

  17. Reducing Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems.…

  18. Plants as useful vectors to reduce environmental toxic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  19. Zeolite (clinoptilolite) as feed additive to reduce manure mineral content.

    PubMed

    Leung, S; Barrington, S; Wan, Y; Zhao, X; El-Husseini, B

    2007-12-01

    Clinoptilolite (a species of zeolite) as grower hog feed additive can potentially improve nutrient ingestion and lower manure nutrient levels. A first objective was to establish the optimal particle size of the zeolite powder, as a fine size increases the adsorption surface while a coarse size can facilitate handling. The second objective tested the effect of feeding zeolite on manure nutrient levels. For the first objective, three zeolite powders (250-500 microm; 50-250 microm, and 50-500 microm) were exposed to an NH(4)(+) solution under a pH of either 7.0 or 2.0. The resulting solutions were tested for cation exchange. A commercial zeolite was also tested for the pH of 2.0 to evaluate zeolite stability. At 0%, 5% and 10% humidity, the same three particle size powders were subjected to shear tests to determine the zeolite's angle of friction. For the second objective using metabolic cages, female hogs were subjected to one of four rations (a control and three with zeolite) while collecting and analyzing their manures. For the first objective, the coarse particle zeolite performed best, adsorbing 158 and 123 Cmol(+)/kg of NH(4)(+) under neutral and acid pH, respectively, and releasing an equivalent amount of minerals only under neutral pH. The commercial zeolite with less clinoptilolite released more Al, Fe, Cu and Pb, showing less stability. The high internal angle of friction of zeolite did not vary with particle size and moisture, indicating funnel flow under gravity. For the second objective, hogs fed a zeolite diet produced manure with 15% and 22% less N and P, respectively, and demonstrated a better feed conversion, although not statistically significant (P>0.05). These results show that there is some potential in using high quality clinoptilolite in the ration of grower hogs.

  20. Designing a Clean Label Sponge Cake with Reduced Fat Content.

    PubMed

    Eslava-Zomeño, Cristina; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in texture, flavor and overall acceptance between the control and the 30% substitution cake, nor in the rapidly digestible starch values. Consequently, replacing up to 30% of the fat with OptiSol™5300 gives a new product with health benefits and a clean label that resembles the full-fat sponge cake. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Nosheen; Mahmood, Qaisar; Maroof Shah, Mohammad; Pervez, Arshid; Sultan, Sikander

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system) that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants. PMID:24526924

  2. Create and Maintain Content

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find resources and guidance on writing for the web, keeping your content relevant, using social media, meeting accessibility standards, and how to transform your content into the WebCMS to meet One EPA Web standards.

  3. Motivation in Content Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    Motivational devices are useful in content-area reading because the content load of most content textbooks is so extensive that few if any students can be expected to understand all that an author intends to communicate. Many students who are inexperienced with the subject matter are unable to read the assignments independently. The recognition of…

  4. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  5. Naturalising Representational Content

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  6. Multimedia content description framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  7. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  8. Content-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CATESOL Journal, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodical devotes entire issues to specific issues. The theme of this issue is "Content-Base Instruction." Articles include: "Syllabus Design in Content-Based Instruction" (David E. Eskey); "How Relevant Is Relevance?: An Examination of Student Needs, Interests, and…

  9. Creativity, Content, and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Creativity, content, and policy have multiple relationships. Creativity and disciplinary content are inextricably linked. In dealing with creativity, the first education policy choice is whether to recognize and act on that fact. Care is needed in using the term "creativity" in advocacy contexts, lest the relationship between creativity and…

  10. Content-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  11. Content-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  12. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  13. Content Area Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael P., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The theme for this focused journal issue is reading in the content areas. Articles discuss the following topics: (1) teaching reading strategies instead of skills; (2) teaching reading in elementary content areas; (3) metacognition and mapping; (4) a summer school program designed to appeal to poorly motivated junior high school students who are…

  14. Reduced Magmatic Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Ardia, P.; Stanley, B. D.; Foley, N.

    2012-12-01

    Volatiles in Earth's upper mantle are dominated by H2O and CO2, but under more reduced conditions likely deeper in the mantle, other volatile species may be important or dominant. However, the speciation, solubilities, and effect on physical properties of reduced magmatic volatiles are poorly constrained. Here we summarize results from an experimental campaign to better understand reduced volatiles in magmas. Experiments emphasize spectroscopic and SIMS characterization of dissolved species in experiments for which fluid fugacities are known, thereby facilitating thermodynamic parameterization. Experimental determinations of molecular H2 solubility in basaltic and andesitic liquids show concentrations that are proportional to H2 fugacity. Because H2 increases with fH2 whereas dissolved H2O increases with fH2O1/2, the relative importance of H2 increases with pressure and for more hydrous magmas. At 1 GPa and IW-1, solubility in basalt reaches 0.3 wt.% (equivalent to 2.7 wt.% H2O). Solubilities at pressures of the deep upper mantle have not been explored experimentally (as is also true for H2O and CO2), but H2 could become the dominant hydrous species at 400 km and deeper, and so deep hydrous melts may have chiefly H2 rather than H2O or OH. Experiments suggest an extremely low partial specific density (0.18 kg/m3) for dissolved H2 at low pressure, and so appreciable dissolved H2 in melt atop the 410 km discontinuity or in the lower mantle may promote positive buoyancy. Solubilities of reduced C-species remain poorly known. In contrast to results in Na2O-SiO2 liquids (Mysen et al., 2009), experiments with a haplobasaltic liquid at controlled CH4 fugacities indicated very small (<0.05 wt.%) CH4 solubilities even at very reduced conditions (content, increasing approximately with the cube of total H. Experiments with Fe-rich (martian) basalt under reduced conditions and in

  15. Show Me the Invisible: Visualizing Hidden Content

    PubMed Central

    Geymayer, Thomas; Steinberger, Markus; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Content on computer screens is often inaccessible to users because it is hidden, e.g., occluded by other windows, outside the viewport, or overlooked. In search tasks, the efficient retrieval of sought content is important. Current software, however, only provides limited support to visualize hidden occurrences and rarely supports search synchronization crossing application boundaries. To remedy this situation, we introduce two novel visualization methods to guide users to hidden content. Our first method generates awareness for occluded or out-of-viewport content using see-through visualization. For content that is either outside the screen’s viewport or for data sources not opened at all, our second method shows off-screen indicators and an on-demand smart preview. To reduce the chances of overlooking content, we use visual links, i.e., visible edges, to connect the visible content or the visible representations of the hidden content. We show the validity of our methods in a user study, which demonstrates that our technique enables a faster localization of hidden content compared to traditional search functionality and thereby assists users in information retrieval tasks. PMID:25325078

  16. High CD3+ and CD34+ peripheral blood stem cell grafts content is associated with increased risk of graft-versus-host disease without beneficial effect on disease control after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation from matched unrelated donors for acute myeloid leukemia — an analysis from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Czerw, Tomasz; Labopin, Myriam; Schmid, Christoph; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Chevallier, Patrice; Blaise, Didier; Kuball, Jürgen; Vigouroux, Stephane; Garban, Frédéric; Lioure, Bruno; Fegueux, Nathalie; Clement, Laurence; Sandstedt, Anna; Maertens, Johan; Guillerm, Gaëlle; Bordessoule, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the influence of graft composition on the incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD), disease control and survival after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT). These discrepancies may be at least in part explained by the differences in disease categories, disease status at transplant, donor type and conditioning. The current retrospective EBMT registry study aimed to analyze the impact of CD3+ and CD34+ cells dose on the outcome of RIC allo-PBSCT in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in first complete remission, allografted from HLA-matched unrelated donors (10 of 10 match). We included 203 adults. In univariate analysis, patients transplanted with the highest CD3+ and CD34+ doses (above the third quartile cut-off point values, >347 × 10^6/kg and >8.25 × 10^6 /kg, respectively) had an increased incidence of grade III-IV acute (a) GVHD (20% vs. 6%, P = .003 and 18% vs. 7%, P = .02, respectively). There was no association between cellular composition of grafts and transplant-related mortality, AML relapse, incidence of chronic GVHD and survival. Neither engraftment itself nor the kinetics of engraftment were affected by the cell dose. In multivariate analysis, CD3+ and CD34+ doses were the only adverse predicting factors for grade III-IV aGVHD (HR = 3.6; 95%CI: 1.45-9.96, P = .006 and 2.65 (1.07-6.57), P = .04, respectively). These results suggest that careful assessing the CD3+ and CD34+ graft content and tailoring the cell dose infused may help in reducing severe acute GVHD risk without negative impact on the other transplantation outcomes. PMID:27036034

  17. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2017-02-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution, we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  18. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sugar substitutes, per 50 g (for dehydrated foods that must be reconstituted before typical consumption... specifically for use by infants and children less than 2 years of age. (5) The terms “reduced sugar,” “reduced... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Nutrient Content...

  19. Reduced CD300LG mRNA tissue expression, increased intramyocellular lipid content and impaired glucose metabolism in healthy male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG: a novel genometabolic cross-link between CD300LG and common metabolic phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Støy, Julie; Kampmann, Ulla; Mengel, Annette; Magnusson, Nils E; Jessen, Niels; Grarup, Niels; Rungby, Jørgen; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Møller, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background CD300LG rs72836561 (c.313C>T, p.Arg82Cys) has in genetic-epidemiological studies been associated with the lipoprotein abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. CD300LG belongs to the CD300-family of membrane-bound molecules which have the ability to recognize and interact with extracellular lipids. We tested whether this specific polymorphism results in abnormal lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver and other indices of metabolic dysfunction. Methods 40 healthy men with a mean age of 55 years were characterized metabolically including assessment of insulin sensitivity by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC) and intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL) by MR spectroscopy, and β-cell function by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Changes in insulin signaling and CD300LG mRNA expression were determined by western blotting and quantitative PCR in muscle and adipose tissue. Results Compared with the 20 controls (CC carriers), the 20 CT carriers (polymorphism carriers) had higher IMCL (p=0.045), a reduced fasting forearm glucose uptake (p=0.011), a trend toward lower M-values during the clamp; 6.0 mg/kg/min vs 7.1 (p=0.10), and higher IHLC (p=0.10). CT carriers had lower CD300LG mRNA expression and CD300LG expression in muscle correlated with IMCL (β=−0.35, p=0.046), forearm glucose uptake (β=0.37, p=0.03), and tended to correlate with the M-value (β=0.33, p=0.06), independently of CD300LG genotype. β-cell function was unaffected. Conclusions The CD300LG polymorphism was associated with decreased CD300LG mRNA expression in muscle and adipose tissue, increased IMCL, and abnormalities of glucose metabolism. CD300LG mRNA levels correlated with IMCL and forearm glucose uptake. These findings link a specific CD300LG polymorphism with features of the metabolic syndrome suggesting a role for CD300LG in the regulation of common metabolic traits. Trial registration number NCT01571609. PMID:26336608

  20. Lead Content of Foodstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Douglas G.; Aldous, Kenneth M.

    1974-01-01

    The lead content of a number of foodstuffs, particularly baby fruit juices and milk, is reported. Samples were analyzed in quadruplicate by using an automated Delves cup atomic absorption procedure. A large proportion of the products examined contained significant amounts of lead. Of 256 metal can examined, the contents of 62% contained a lead level of 100 μg/l. or more, 37% contained 200 μg/l. or more and 12% contained 400 μg/l. lead or more. Of products in glass and aluminum containers, only 1% had lead levels in excess of 200 μg/l. Lead levels of contents also correlate with the seam length/volume ratio of the leaded seam can. A survey of bulk milk showed a mean lead level of 40 μg/l. for 270 samples; for canned evaporated milk the mean level was 202 μg/l. These data indicate a potential health hazard. PMID:4406645

  1. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D.

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  2. Regulating contents and furnishings.

    PubMed

    Koffel, W E

    1991-01-01

    The criteria in the 1991 edition of the Life Safety Code are a first attempt to address the fire hazards associated with upholstered furniture and mattresses. Recognizing that the criteria do not represent a complete hazard analysis, it is anticipated that the subcommittee will continue its efforts and will evaluate the appropriateness of additional criteria. The NFPA Standards Council also has appointed a Technical Committee on Contents and Furnishings, which will meet in August 1991. This committee will have primary responsibility for developing fire hazard calculation procedures and documents that other committees can use to control the fire hazards of contents and furnishings.

  3. Reduction of hydrogen content in pure Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, N.; Suganuma, K.; Hikichi, Y.; Kamiya, J.; Kinsho, M.; Sukenobu, S.

    2008-03-01

    Pure Ti is adopted as a material for ducts and bellows at the proton accelerator 3 GeV-RCS in J-PARC project, because of its small residual radioactivity. In the particle accelerator, the H2 outgassing due to ion impact is often the dominant source of gas release. As the reduction of hydrogen content will probably suppress ion induced desorption, we attempted to reduce the hydrogen content in the Ti by in-situ vacuum baking. First, thermal desorption behavior and the change in hydrogen content after the heat treatment were investigated. Vacuum firing at temperatures higher than 550°C was effective in reducing the hydrogen content in the Ti. At the same time, the mechanical properties were monitored because grain growth leads to decrease in mechanical strength. Even after treatment at 750°C for 12 hr, the decreases in tensile and yield strength were so small (~10%) that we have no anxiety about the reduction of mechanical strength. Based upon the results of this study, vacuum firing has been applied to reduce the hydrogen content in the Ti bellows and ducts of the RCS machine.

  4. Effect of moisture content and drying method on the amylose content of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janaun, J.; Kong, V. V.; Toyu, C. G.; Kamin, N. H.; Wolyna, P.; Lee, J. S.

    2016-06-01

    Rice is a primary source to all human beings. It gives energy and supply carbohydrate in human daily life. It is also one of the main sources of employment for people living in the rural area to generate incomes. In this study, determinations of quality of rice dried in an oven and in a Laterally Aerated Moving Bed (LAMB) dryer were performed., tTe drying in an oven was performed with initial moisture content (MC) of 18% reduced to 14% w.b. at temperatures of 35, 45, 55, 65 and 75 0C. The amylose contents of the rice were 20.78, 21.81, 21.53, 21.63 and 22.50%, respectively. Furthermore, drying of paddy with temperature of 45 0C and initial moisture content of 15% w.b was performed with different final moisture content of 14, 12, 10 and 8% w.b using oven drying. The amylose content were 21.79, 20.17, 20.85, 26.35%, respectively. As for paddy dried in LAMB dryer, it was found that the amylose content were in the intermediate range (20 - 25.50%). The drying temperature of the LAMB dryer was at 25 0C with 100 to 200 L/min of air flowrate resulted in the intermediate amylose content of the rice despite the final moisture content reduced to 8% w.b.

  5. Natural genetic variability reduces recalcitrance in poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Muchero, Wellington; Kumar, Rajeev; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2016-05-20

    Here, lignin content and structure are known to affect recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to chemical/biochemical conversion. Previously, we identified rare Populus trichocarpa natural variants with significantly reduced lignin content. Because reduced lignin content may lower recalcitrance, 18 rare variants along with 4 comparators, and BESC standard Populus was analyzed for composition of structural carbohydrates and lignin. Sugar yields from these plants were measured at 5 process conditions: one for just enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment and four via our combined high-throughput hot water pretreatment and co-hydrolysis (HTPH) technique.

  6. Natural genetic variability reduces recalcitrance in poplar

    DOE PAGES

    Bhagia, Samarthya; Muchero, Wellington; Kumar, Rajeev; ...

    2016-05-20

    Here, lignin content and structure are known to affect recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to chemical/biochemical conversion. Previously, we identified rare Populus trichocarpa natural variants with significantly reduced lignin content. Because reduced lignin content may lower recalcitrance, 18 rare variants along with 4 comparators, and BESC standard Populus was analyzed for composition of structural carbohydrates and lignin. Sugar yields from these plants were measured at 5 process conditions: one for just enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment and four via our combined high-throughput hot water pretreatment and co-hydrolysis (HTPH) technique.

  7. Content in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1985

    1985-01-01

    Six articles from health journals since 1898 discuss content in health education: (1) "Mental Health and the Schools" (Cromwell); (2) "You Must Relax--But How?" (Nash); (3) "School Hygiene and the Teaching of Hygiene in the Public Schools" (Egbert); (4) "A Sex Education Program" (Leibee); (5) "Sexual Education" (McCurdy); and (6) "Sex Education"…

  8. Basic Structure Content Scaling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; Helmes, Edward

    1979-01-01

    A basic structure approach is proposed for obtaining multidimensional scale values for attitude, achievement, or personality items from response data. The technique permits the unconfounding of scale values due to response bias and content and partitions item indices of popularity or difficulty among a number of relevant dimensions. (Author/BH)

  9. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  10. Content Area Instructional Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this working paper is to identify research-supported strategies for content that can be integrated effectively to promote the development of biliterate academic literacy by English language learners (ELLs) in middle-school bilingual classrooms. The paper provides a research-based summary of relevant learning needs of adolescent…

  11. Semantische Content Management Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gams, Erich; Mitterdorfer, Daniel

    Content Management Systeme (CMS) sind in vielen Organisationen bereits seit längerer Zeit fester Bestandteil zur Verwaltung und kollaborativen Bearbeitung von Text- und Multimedia-Inhalten. Im Zuge der rasch ansteigenden Fülle an Informationen und somit auch Wissen wird die Überschaubarkeit der Datenbestände jedoch massiv eingeschränkt. Diese und zusätzliche Anforderungen, wie automatisch Datenquellen aus dem World Wide Web (WWW) zu extrahieren, lassen traditionelle CMS immer mehr an ihre Grenzen stoßen. Dieser Beitrag diskutiert die neuen Herausforderungen an traditionelle CMS und bietet Lösungsvorschläge, wie CMS kombiniert mit semantischen Technologien diesen Herausforderungen begegnen können. Die Autoren stellen eine generische Systemarchitektur für Content Management Systeme vor, die einerseits Inhalte für das Semantic Web generieren, andererseits Content aus dem Web 2.0 syndizieren können und bei der Aufbereitung des Content den User mittels semantischer Technologien wie Reasoning oder Informationsextraktion unterstützen. Dabei wird auf Erfahrungen bei der prototypischen Implementierung von semantischer Technologie in ein bestehendes CMS System zurückgegriffen.

  12. Language, the Forgotten Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patricia P., Ed.; Small, Robert C., Jr., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The ways that students can learn about the nature of the English language and develop a sense of excitement about their language are explored in this focused journal issue. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "Language, the Forgotten Content" (R. Small and P. P. Kelly); (2) "What Should English Teachers…

  13. LCS Content Document Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  14. 21-Day Content Screen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under PRIA, EPA has 21 days after it receives the pesticide application and the fee to conduct an initial screen of the application’s contents for completeness and for the applicant to make necessary corrections. This page provides the checklists we use.

  15. Teaching Content Outrageously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrow, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    This article first explores the theoretical bases for why dramatic forms of instruction stimulate student learning and recall. Next, the article considers a practice that systematically applies drama, fun, and fantasy to embed selected content objectives into students' memory. This practical tool, which facilitates instructional reform in the…

  16. Integrating Language and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their…

  17. Shaping Digital Library Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rush G.

    2002-01-01

    Explores issues related to the selection and purchase of digital content in academic libraries, including commercially-produced databases, electronic journals, and books and other electronic resources that are purchased from vendors; and in-house digitization projects. Considers the degree to which standard collection management principles apply.…

  18. Content Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jeff; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a guide in acquiring content management system. They conducted a vendor survey that covers four areas: (1) general information about the product (including standards supported); (2) administration of the product; (3) functionality; and (4) contact information for readers who want to know more. A list of product…

  19. Integrating Language and Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their…

  20. Content in Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1985

    1985-01-01

    Six articles from health journals since 1898 discuss content in health education: (1) "Mental Health and the Schools" (Cromwell); (2) "You Must Relax--But How?" (Nash); (3) "School Hygiene and the Teaching of Hygiene in the Public Schools" (Egbert); (4) "A Sex Education Program" (Leibee); (5) "Sexual Education" (McCurdy); and (6) "Sex Education"…

  1. Pedagogical Content Knowledge Taxonomies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; MaKinster, James G.

    1999-01-01

    Presents two taxonomies that offer a relatively comprehensive categorization scheme for future studies of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development in teacher education. "The General Taxonomy of PCK" addresses distinctions within and between the knowledge bases of various disciplines, science subjects, and science topics. "The Taxonomy of…

  2. Teaching Content Outrageously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogrow, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    This article first explores the theoretical bases for why dramatic forms of instruction stimulate student learning and recall. Next, the article considers a practice that systematically applies drama, fun, and fantasy to embed selected content objectives into students' memory. This practical tool, which facilitates instructional reform in the…

  3. Gluten content of medications.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Joseph E; Cocchio, Craig; Lai, Pak Tsun; Hermes-DeSantis, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of a database for the identification of the presence of gluten in excipients of prescription medications is described. While resources are available to ascertain the gluten content of a given medication, these resources are incomplete and often do not contain a source and date of contact. The drug information service (DIS) at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RWJUH) determined that directly contacting the manufacturer of a product is the best method to determine the gluten content of medications. The DIS sought to establish a resource for use within the institution and create directions for obtaining this information from manufacturers to ensure uniformity of the data collected. To determine the gluten content of a medication, the DIS analyzed the manufacturer's package insert to identify any statement indicating that the product contained gluten or inactive ingredients from known sources of gluten. If there was any question about the source of an inactive ingredient or if no information about gluten content appeared in the package insert, the manufacturer of the particular formulation of the queried medication was contacted to provide clarification. Manufacturers' responses were collected, and medications were categorized as "gluten free," "contains gluten," or "possibly contains gluten." To date, the DIS at RWJUH has received queries about 84 medications and has cataloged their gluten content. The DIS at RWJUH developed a database that categorizes the gluten status of medications, allowing clinicians to easily identify drugs that are safe for patients with celiac disease. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling Ontogenetic Changes of Nitrogen and Water Content in Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    SEGINER, IDO; BLEYAERT, PETER; BREUGELMANS, MAAIKE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims It is well established that the nitrogen content of plants, including lettuce, decreases with time. It has also been observed that water content of lettuce increases between planting and harvest. This paper is an attempt at modelling these observations. • Methods An existing dynamic model (Nicolet), designed to predict growth and nitrate content of glasshouse lettuce, is modified to accommodate the ontogenetic changes of reduced-nitrogen and water contents (on a dry matter basis). The decreasing reduced-N content and the increasing water content are mimicked by dividing the originally uniform plant into ‘metabolically active’ tissue and ‘support’ tissue. The ‘metabolic’ tissue is assumed to contain a higher nitrogen content and a lower water content than the ‘support’ tissue. As the plants grow, the ratio of ‘support’ to ‘metabolic’ tissue increases, resulting in an increased mean water content and a decreased reduced-N content. Simulations with the new model are compared with experimental glasshouse data over four seasons. • Key Results The empirical linear relationship between water and reduced-N contents, matches, to a good approximation, the corresponding relationship based on the model. The agreement between the two makes it possible to effectively uncouple the estimation of the ‘ontogenetic’ parameters from the estimation of the other parameters. The growth and nitrate simulation results match the data rather well and are hardly affected by the new refinement. The reduced-N and water contents are predicted much better with the new model. • Conclusion Prediction of nitrogen uptake for the substantial nitrate pool of lettuce depends on the water content. Hence, the modified model may assist in making better fertilization decisions and better estimates of nitrogen leaching. PMID:15294851

  5. Content Maps: A Teaching and Assessment Tool for Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…

  6. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  7. [Lead content in alginates].

    PubMed

    Castagnola, L; Wirz, J

    1977-03-01

    Alginates containing a high level of lead may lead to health damages in dentists and their personnel. Walter and Söremark have pointed out these hazards. The author's investigations with the Perkin-Elmer absorption-photospectrometer shall show how high the lead content of the 25 brands of alginate sold in this country is. Ca 37, Protex and Algihard S contain sizeable amounts of lead. Recommendations are given towards the protection of dentist and assistant.

  8. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  9. Content Documents Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  10. Determination of Fat Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  11. A Contents Encryption Mechanism Using Reused Key in IPTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae; Cho, Young-Bok; Lee, Ki-Jeong; Park, Gil-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Ho

    Recently IPTV is being spotlighted as a new stream service to stably provide video, audio and control signals to subscribers through the application of IP protocol. However, the IPTV system is facing more security threats than the traditional TV. This study proposes a multicasting encryption mechanism for secure transmission of the contents of IPTV by which the content provider encrypts their contents and send the encrypted contents and the key used for encryption of the contents to the user. In order to reduce the time and cost of Head-End, the proposed mechanism encrypts the media contents at the Head-End, embeds the code of the IPTV terminal used at the Head-End in the media contents for user tracking, and performs desynchronization for protection of the media contents from various attacks.

  12. Math: Basic Skills Content Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…

  13. Inorganic contents of peats

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Cohen, A.D.

    1988-02-01

    Peat, the precursor of coal, is composed primarily of plant components and secondarily of inorganic matter derived from a variety of sources. The elemental, mineralogic, and petrographic composition of a peat is controlled by a combination of both its botanical and depositional environment. Inorganic contents of peats can vary greatly between geographically separated peat bogs as well as vertially and horizontally within an individual bog. Predicting the form and distribution of inorganic matter in a coal deposit requires understanding the distribution and preservation of inorganic matter in peat-forming environments and diagenetic alterations affecting such material during late-stage peatification and coalification processes. 43 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Personalized professional content recommendation

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  15. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  16. 19 CFR 10.595 - Regional value content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.595 Regional value content. (a) General. Except...

  17. Oil and Fatty Acid Content Among Diverse Sesame Genetic Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sesame, Sesamum indicum contains oil used for salads, cooking while the seeds are used on hamburger buns, candies, and are used to make tahini. Sesame oil is known to reduce cholesterol due to the high polyunsaturated fat content in the oil. Oil content ranges from about 40 to 63% among sesame acces...

  18. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  19. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    PubMed

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  20. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    SciTech Connect

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  1. Approaching Academic Digital Content Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital content management in higher education. Highlights include learning objects that make content more modular so it can be used in other courses or by other institutions; and a system at Ohio State University for content management that includes the creation of learner profiles. (LRW)

  2. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  3. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    PubMed

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  4. [Inheritance analysis of resistant starch content in kernels of wheat].

    PubMed

    Pang, Huan; Li, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Lin; Yin, Yong-An; Yuan, Hui-Gong; Wang, Zi-Bu

    2010-02-01

    In this study, three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with high and low levels of resistant starch contents each were selected to obtain 15 F1 combinations from a diallel cross without reciprocals to be used to study the inheritance of resistant starch content. The results of this study are useful to select new wheat cultivar with high level of resistant starch content. Annong 90202 and D68-20 were the best among the wheat cultivars tested for general combining ability of resistant starch content, which significantly increased the resistant starch content in its progenies. The specific combining ability of Annong 90202 x 04 Dan 28 and 06-5 x D68-20 were the best among the F1 combinations, and the values of specific combining ability effects were significantly higher than other combinations. The inheritance of resistant starch content fitted the additive-dominance model, and the degree of dominance was super dominance. The alleles for increasing resistant starch content were recessive. The distribution of alleles for increasing and reducing resistant starch contents in the parental lines was not even. The number of recessive alleles for resistant starch content was greater than the dominant alleles. Annong 90202 and 04 Dan 28 had more recessive genes controlling resistant starch content, while Ningchun 18 and Xinchun 5 had more dominant genes. The narrow sense heritability of resistant starch content was 36.49%.

  5. Modification of lignin content and composition in plants

    DOEpatents

    Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Plants and methods of preparing plants having reduced lignin content and/or altered lignin composition are provided. The activities of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase and/or caffeic acid O-methyltransferase enzymes in the modified plants are reduced.

  6. Content analysis in information flows

    SciTech Connect

    Grusho, Alexander A.; Grusho, Nick A.; Timonina, Elena E.

    2016-06-08

    The paper deals with architecture of content recognition system. To analyze the problem the stochastic model of content recognition in information flows was built. We proved that under certain conditions it is possible to solve correctly a part of the problem with probability 1, viewing a finite section of the information flow. That means that good architecture consists of two steps. The first step determines correctly certain subsets of contents, while the second step may demand much more time for true decision.

  7. Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Restaurant Foods

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Lorien E.; McCrory, Megan A.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Das, Sai Krupa; Saltzman, Edward; Weber, Judith L.; Roberts, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Context National recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake. Foods purchased in restaurants provide approximately 35% of the daily energy intake in US individuals but the accuracy of the energy contents listed for these foods is unknown. Objective To examine the accuracy of stated energy contents of foods purchased in restaurants. Design and Setting A validated bomb calorimetry technique was used to measure dietary energy in food from 42 restaurants, comprising 269 total food items and 242 unique foods. The restaurants and foods were randomly selected from quick-serve and sit-down restaurants in Massachusetts, Arkansas, and Indiana between January and June 2010. Main Outcome Measure The difference between restaurant-stated and laboratory-measured energy contents, which were corrected for standard metabolizable energy conversion factors. Results The absolute stated energy contents were not significantly different from the absolute measured energy contents overall (difference of 10 kcal/portion; 95% confidence interval [CI], −15 to 34 kcal/portion; P=.52); however, the stated energy contents of individual foods were variable relative to the measured energy contents. Of the 269 food items, 50 (19%) contained measured energy contents of at least 100 kcal/portion more than the stated energy contents. Of the 10% of foods with the highest excess energy in the initial sampling, 13 of 17 were available for a second sampling. In the first analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 289 kcal/portion (95% CI, 186 to 392 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents; in the second analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 258 kcal/portion (95% CI, 154 to 361 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents (P<.001 for each vs 0 kcal/portion difference). In addition, foods with lower stated energy contents contained higher measured energy contents than stated, while foods

  8. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  9. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Content Knowledge of Secondary Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Stefan; Brunner, Martin; Kunter, Mareike; Baumert, Jurgen; Neubrand, Michael; Blum, Werner; Jordan, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the work of L. S. Shulman (1986), the authors present a conceptualization of the pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of secondary-level mathematics teachers. They describe the theory-based construction of tests to assess these knowledge categories and the implementation of these tests in a sample of German mathematics…

  10. Web content management by self-organization.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Richard T; Yin, Hujun

    2005-09-01

    We present a new method for content management and knowledge discovery using a topology-preserving neural network. The method, termed topological organization of content (TOC), can generate a taxonomy of topics from a set of unannotated, unstructured documents. The TOC consists of a hierarchy of self-organizing growing chains (GCs), each of which can develop independently in terms of size and topics. The dynamic development process is validated continuously using a proposed entropy-based Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Each chain meeting the criterion spans child chains, with reduced vocabularies and increased specializations. This results in a topological tree hierarchy, which can be browsed like a table of contents directory or web portal. A brief review is given on existing methods for document clustering and organization, and clustering validation measures. The proposed approach has been tested and compared with several existing methods on real world web page datasets. The results have clearly demonstrated the advantages and efficiency in content organization of the proposed method in terms of computational cost and representation. The TOC can be easily adapted for large-scale applications. The topology provides a unique, additional feature for retrieving related topics and confining the search space.

  11. Reduce HIV Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... incidence could be reduced if people changed their sexual behaviors. Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Spring 2008 ...

  12. Front Matter and Contents.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The present study is primarily aimed at an audience of evolutionary biologists in the broad sense for Parts 1-3, as well as at scientists from other professional disciplines looking for new approaches to explore phenomena in nature. However, the content is in general not written as technical text or filled with equations that make it utterly incomprehensible for 'normal' people, although they would have to skip strictly professional biochemical and biological terms that are a constituent part of the evidence in a scientific sense. Therefore, large parts of Part 2 may also be enjoyed by a broader audience with little prior insight into evolutionary biology or science, when in search of explanations for the phenomena that we see in nature. Finally, Part 4 - with a view into Parts 1-3 - is meant for systems analysts and researchers striving to find a general systems theory. Parts 3 and 4 are the only parts that are not relevant for a general audience. A Note for the Reader Extensive use of references in scientific literature is generally perceived as evidence in favour of an author's statement when synthesizing findings in the literature on a given topic. At the same time, when applying citations of such literature one has to copy the text literally including printing errors, references and everything relevant, unless otherwise explicitly stated. Including such references in cited text often a) creates confusion because such references are not included in the reference list even if they appear in the text; and furthermore b) they tend to add an unnecessary cognitive burden on the reader. Therefore, references with cited text in the present publication have been replaced by the Italicized text 'ref' or 'refs', i.e. single or plural, depending on the number of references omitted in a given place. About the Author/Contributors The authorJBMcNis the initiatorsole contributor to the present study. JBMcN and her husband, Dr. Peter McNair, in close cooperation developed the

  13. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  14. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  15. Shared end-to-content backup path protection in k-node (edge) content connected elastic optical datacenter networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Huang, Shanguo; Yin, Shan; Guo, Bingli; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Min; Gu, Wanyi

    2016-05-02

    To quantitatively measure content connectivity and provide protection for different kinds of content, the concept of k-node (edge) content connectivity is proposed recently. Based on k-node (edge) content connectivity, k-node (edge) content connected elastic optical datacenter network (KC-EODN) is proposed to design disaster-resilient and spectrum-efficient optical datacenter networks. In KC-EODN, k independent end-to-content paths are established for each request. However, it will consume too much resource to assign dedicated spectrum for each end-to-content path. Spectrum sharing among multiple end-to-content paths of different requests can greatly improve resource efficiency. In this paper, a novel perfect matching based sharing principle among multiple end-to-content paths of different requests is proposed. Based on the new proposed sharing principle, we present the shared end-to-content backup path protection (SEBPP) scheme for KC-EODN. Integer linear program (ILP) model and heuristic algorithms are designed for SEBPP scheme with the objective of minimizing the total of working and backup spectrum resources. Numerical results show that the proposed SEBPP scheme can greatly reduce spectrum consumption while ensuring the survivability against natural disaster and multi-failures.

  16. Getting Past "Inquiry versus Content"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Robertson discusses the "perceived dichotomy" that permeates science teaching: teachers can either stress inquiry learning with lots of hands-on experiences or stress content knowledge and swap hands-on inquiry for direct instruction. Although a curriculum of unstructured hands-on science activities leads to shallow content knowledge, it is…

  17. 78 FR 13876 - Content Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Content Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its content policy. A list of the questions and issues...

  18. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…

  19. Content Selection in Advanced Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter C.; Lo, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced high-school courses, such as Advanced Placement (AP) courses in the United States, present a content selection conundrum of major proportions. Judicious content selection is necessary if students are to learn subject matter meaningfully, but the sheer breadth of tested material in these courses promotes nearly the opposite:…

  20. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy…

  1. Content Selection in Advanced Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Walter C.; Lo, Jane C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced high-school courses, such as Advanced Placement (AP) courses in the United States, present a content selection conundrum of major proportions. Judicious content selection is necessary if students are to learn subject matter meaningfully, but the sheer breadth of tested material in these courses promotes nearly the opposite:…

  2. Content Independence in Multimedia Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Arjen P.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the role of data management in multimedia digital libraries, and its implications for the design of database management systems. Introduces the notions of content abstraction and content independence. Proposes a blueprint of a new class of database technology, which supports the basic functionality for the management of both content…

  3. Teaching Content through the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Thomas R., Jr.; Gibbs-Griffith, Brian; D'Acquisto, Linda; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Croley, Cynthia B.

    2007-01-01

    Policymakers sometimes view arts education and experiential learning as distractions from the goal of enabling all students to master rigorous content standards. The three school programs described in this article, however, demonstrate that content standards can be integrated into engaging, motivating curriculums based on the arts and authentic…

  4. Teaching Content through the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Thomas R., Jr.; Gibbs-Griffith, Brian; D'Acquisto, Linda; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Croley, Cynthia B.

    2007-01-01

    Policymakers sometimes view arts education and experiential learning as distractions from the goal of enabling all students to master rigorous content standards. The three school programs described in this article, however, demonstrate that content standards can be integrated into engaging, motivating curriculums based on the arts and authentic…

  5. Plating under reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Beat, T.G.; Cowden, W.C. ); Ryan, L.E.; Hewitt, W.B. )

    1992-06-01

    Plating under reduced pressure was evaluated for both electroless nickel and electrodeposited copper systems. The objective was to reduce pitting of these coatings thereby further enhancing their usage for diamond turning applications. Cursory experiments with electroless nickel showed reduced porosity when deposition was done at around 500 torr. Detailed experiments with electrodeposited copper at around 100 torr provided similar results. Scanning tunneling microscopy was effectively used to show the improvement in the copper deposits plated under reduced pressure. Benefits included reduced surface roughness and finer and denser grain structure.

  6. The qualitative content analysis process.

    PubMed

    Elo, Satu; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2008-04-01

    This paper is a description of inductive and deductive content analysis. Content analysis is a method that may be used with either qualitative or quantitative data and in an inductive or deductive way. Qualitative content analysis is commonly used in nursing studies but little has been published on the analysis process and many research books generally only provide a short description of this method. When using content analysis, the aim was to build a model to describe the phenomenon in a conceptual form. Both inductive and deductive analysis processes are represented as three main phases: preparation, organizing and reporting. The preparation phase is similar in both approaches. The concepts are derived from the data in inductive content analysis. Deductive content analysis is used when the structure of analysis is operationalized on the basis of previous knowledge. Inductive content analysis is used in cases where there are no previous studies dealing with the phenomenon or when it is fragmented. A deductive approach is useful if the general aim was to test a previous theory in a different situation or to compare categories at different time periods.

  7. Does thermophoresis reduce aggregate stability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Eyal; Sarah, Pariente

    2017-04-01

    Thermophoresis is mass flow driven by a thermal gradient. As a result of Seebeck effect and Soret effect, colloids can move from the hot to the cold region or vice versa, depending on the electrolyte composition and on the particle size. This migration of colloids can weaken aggregates. The effect of raindrop temperatures on runoff generation and erosion on clayey soil was investigated in sprinkling experiments with a laboratory rotating disk rain simulator. The experiments were applied to Rhodoxeralt (Terra Rossa) soil with two pre-prepared moisture contents: hygroscopic and field capacity. For each moisture content three rainfall temperatures were applied: 2, 20, and 35°C. Erosion was generally lower in the pre-wetted soil than in the dry soil (12.5 and 24.4 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain,respectively). Whereas there was no significant effect of raindrop temperature on the dry soil the soil that was pre-moistened to field capacity was affected by rainwater temperature: runoff and erosion were high when the temperature difference between rainfall and soil surface was high, sediment yields were 13.9, 5.2, and 18.3 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain, for rain temperature of 2, 20, and 35 °C, respectively. It is reasonable to conclude that thermophoresis caused by thermal gradients within the soil solution reduces the stability of aggregates and then increase the soil losses.

  8. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  9. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  10. Computer-Mediated Collaboration to Reduce Isolation for Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Rural secondary content area teachers have little opportunity to discuss issues with similar content area teachers. Professional isolation can impact teacher satisfaction and ultimately affect rural student achievement. The purpose of this study was to investigate computer-mediated collaboration as a means of reducing isolation for rural teachers.…

  11. On the Information Content of Program Traces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Program traces are used for analysis of program performance, memory utilization, and communications as well as for program debugging. The trace contains records of execution events generated by monitoring units inserted into the program. The trace size limits the resolution of execution events and restricts the user's ability to analyze the program execution. We present a study of the information content of program traces and develop a coding scheme which reduces the trace size to the limit given by the trace entropy. We apply the coding to the traces of AIMS instrumented programs executed on the IBM SPA and the SCSI Power Challenge and compare it with other coding methods. Our technique shows size of the trace can be reduced by more than a factor of 5.

  12. The hydroxyl content of staurolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonker, Steven W.

    1983-03-01

    The composition of forty-six staurolite samples spanning a range in metamorphic grade has been determined by electron microprobe analysis and an improved micro-analytical technique for water determination. The hydroxyl content per unit cell calculated on the basis for fortyeight oxygen and hydroxyl atoms ranges from 3.15 to 3.57 at Black Mountain, western New Hampshire, 2.45 to 2.94 at Jamaica, Vermont, 1.79 to 3.01 in western Maine, and 1.96 to 3.32 in northwestern Connecticut. The OH-content of staurolite is controlled by homogeneous reactions (cation-hydroxyl substitutions) and heterogeneous reactions (redox and dehydration equilibria). Closely-spaced samples in all four areas show differences in OH-content due to variations inμ _{O_2 } between adjacent beds. A decrease in the OH-content of staurolite was observed only in the highest grade rocks.

  13. Reducing Teacher Incompetence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    1988-01-01

    Suggests how administrators may reduce teacher incompetence. Teacher incompetence can be reduced if administrators fully understand and undertake appropriate preventive and remedial measures. Two sections comprise this article. First, a taxonomy of teacher incompetence reveals the magnitude of the problem. Second, preventive and remedial measures…

  14. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  15. Vitamin content of camel milk.

    PubMed

    Farah, Z; Rettenmaier, R; Atkins, D

    1992-01-01

    The content of vitamin C, vitamin B2 and fat-soluble vitamins E and A in camel milk was studied. The milk samples were collected from 20 individual camels (Camelus dromedarius) in two different occasions. The study showed that camel milk contains considerably less vitamin A and B2 than cow milk while the content of vitamin E was about the same level. The level of vitamin C was in average three times higher than that of cow milk.

  16. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...package is developed which allows simulation of CAM commands within job programs run on the IBM 7090 and derives tallies of execution times corresponding to a particular realization of a CAM system . (Author)

  17. Mercury content of Illinois soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreher, G.B.; Follmer, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    For a survey of Illinois soils, 101 cores had been collected and analyzed to determine the current and background elemental compositions of Illinois soils. Mercury and other elements were determined in six samples per core, including a surface sample from each core. The mean mercury content in the surface samples was 33 ?? 20 ??g/kg soil, and the background content was 20 ?? 9 ??g/kg. The most probable sources of mercury in these soils were the parent material, and wet and dry deposition of Hg0 and Hg2+ derived from coal-burning power plants, other industrial plants, and medical and municipal waste incinerators. Mercury-bearing sewage sludge or other fertilizers applied to agricultural fields could have been the local sources of mercury. Although the mercury content correlated with organic carbon content or clay content in individual cores, when all the data were considered, there was no strong correlation between mercury and either the organic carbon or the clay-size content.

  18. Effect of fat content on sensory characteristics of marbled beef from Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Iida, Fumiko; Saitou, Kaoru; Kawamura, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Shizuko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the sensory characteristics of meat samples with a crude fat content between 23.8% and 48.6% taken from 34 Japanese Black steers, we grilled the meat and subjected it to analytical sensory evaluation. We also measured the amounts of moisture, protein, nucleic acid and glutamic acid. An increase in crude fat content increased the tenderness, juiciness, and fattiness in the meat quality evaluation. An increase in crude fat content reduced the crude protein and moisture contents; it also slightly reduced the nucleic acid and glutamic acid contents, although when the reductions in these umami components were assessed relative to the moisture content they changed little. Increasing the fat content up to a certain point greatly enhanced the umami intensity and beef flavor intensity in the meat quality evaluation and raised the overall evaluation score; the peak of the appropriate crude fat content for these purposes was about 36%.

  19. Photosynthesis, light use efficiency, and yield of reduced-chlorophyll soybean mutants in field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing chlorophyll (chl) content may improve the conversion efficiency of absorbed radiation into biomass (ec) and therefore yield in dense monoculture crops by improving light penetration and distribution within the canopy. Modeling suggests that reducing chl content may also reduce leaf temperat...

  20. Does content knowledge matter for new teachers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, Todd D.

    reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.

  1. High chloride content calcium silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojing; Karpukhina, Natalia; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2017-03-08

    Chloride is known to volatilize from silicate glass melts and until now, only a limited number of studies on oxychloride silicate glasses have been reported. In this paper we have synthesized silicate glasses that retain large amounts of CaCl2. The CaCl2 has been added to the calcium metasilicate composition (CaO·SiO2). Glasses were produced via a melt quench route and an average of 70% of the chloride was retained after melting. Up to 31.6 mol% CaCl2 has been successfully incorporated into these silicate glasses without the occurrence of crystallization. (29)Si MAS-NMR spectra showed the silicon being present mainly as a Q(2) silicate species. This suggests that chloride formed Cl-Ca(n) species, rather than Si-Cl bonds. Upon increasing the CaCl2 content, the Tg reduced markedly from 782 °C to 370 °C. Glass density and glass crystallization temperature decreased linearly with an increase in the CaCl2 content. However, both linear regressions revealed a breakpoint at a CaCl2 content just below 20 mol%. This might be attributed to a significant change in the structure and is also correlated with the nature of the crystallizing phases formed upon heat treatment. The glasses with less than 19.2 mol% CaCl2 crystallized to wollastonite, whilst the compositions with CaCl2 content equal to or greater than 19.2 mol% are thought to crystallize to CaCl2. In practice, the crystallization of CaCl2 could not occur until the crystallization temperature fell below the melting point of CaCl2. The implications of the results along with the high chloride retention are discussed.

  2. Reduced shear power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Shapiro, Charles; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /UC, Berkeley

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  3. Content Management for a Content-Rich Website.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeysett, Nik

    Over the last year the J. Paul Getty Trust's Web presence has evolved from a group of disparate, independently maintained Web sites into a homogeneous consistently branded one. This transformation recently culminated with the implementation of a leading Content Management System (CMS). There were and are many process-changes and challenges in…

  4. Increasing the Content of High-Content Screening

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shantanu; Genovesio, Auguste

    2014-01-01

    Target-based high-throughput screening (HTS) has recently been critiqued for its relatively poor yield compared to phenotypic screening approaches. One type of phenotypic screening, image-based high-content screening (HCS), has been seen as particularly promising. In this article, we assess whether HCS is as high content as it can be. We analyze HCS publications and find that although the number of HCS experiments published each year continues to grow steadily, the information content lags behind. We find that a majority of high-content screens published so far (60−80%) made use of only one or two image-based features measured from each sample and disregarded the distribution of those features among each cell population. We discuss several potential explanations, focusing on the hypothesis that data analysis traditions are to blame. This includes practical problems related to managing large and multidimensional HCS data sets as well as the adoption of assay quality statistics from HTS to HCS. Both may have led to the simplification or systematic rejection of assays carrying complex and valuable phenotypic information. We predict that advanced data analysis methods that enable full multiparametric data to be harvested for entire cell populations will enable HCS to finally reach its potential. PMID:24710339

  5. Learning Language through Content: Learning Content through Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    1991-01-01

    A definition and description of elementary school content-based foreign language instruction notes how it promotes natural language learning and higher-order thinking skills, and also addresses curriculum development, language objective definition, and specific applications in mathematics, science, reading and language arts, social studies, and…

  6. RF Microalgal lipid content characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps. PMID:24870372

  7. RF microalgal lipid content characterization.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali

    2014-05-29

    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps.

  8. RF Microalgal lipid content characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mahmoud Al; Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Most conventional techniques for the determination of microalgae lipid content are time consuming and in most cases are indirect and require excessive sample preparations. This work presents a new technique that utilizes radio frequency (RF) for rapid lipid quantification, without the need for sample preparation. Tests showed that a shift in the resonance frequency of a RF open-ended coaxial resonator and a gradual increase in its resonance magnitude may occur as the lipids content of microalgae cells increases. These response parameters can be then calibrated against actual cellular lipid contents and used for rapid determination of the cellular lipids. The average duration of lipid quantification using the proposed technique was of about 1 minute, which is significantly less than all other conventional techniques, and was achieved without the need for any time consuming treatment steps.

  9. Reducing lead exposure in children

    SciTech Connect

    Farfel, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The near elimination of lead-related childhood fatalities and encephalopathy by the 1970s and the sharp decline in mean blood lead levels nationwide documented between 1976 and 1980 are two milestones in the fight against lead poisoning. In the case of the latter, we know the antecedents, such as controls on the sale, use, and lead content of lead paint, improved chelation therapy, and increased awareness and case finding; however, the antecedents' relative contributions are not known due to a lack of evaluation. Similarly, the effect of a variety of social-welfare programs has not been evaluated. Since the 1970s, our perception of the problem of lead toxicity and consequently its control has changed. First steps have been made toward attaining one primary preventive objective, controlling the multiple sources of new inputs of lead to the biosphere that contribute to asymptomatic lead toxicity. The lead content of widely used commodities has been reduced (canned foods and gasoline) or virtually eliminated (paint). The benefits of passive measures used to attain reductions in lead exposure have been documented to a greater extent than those of active programs. The best example of a successful primary and passive preventive measure is the availability of lead-free gasoline since 1974, which largely accounts for decreases in ambient air lead concentrations nationwide and the recent shift to lower values in the distribution curve of children's blood lead levels. The latter provides a margin of safety for children before known toxic levels are reached. The contribution of reductions in dietary lead to changes in blood lead levels has not been well documented. Studies also show the benefits of the use of lead-free paint in new housing. Compared to children living in older homes with deteriorating lead paint, those living in lead-free homes are at low risk for lead toxicity.

  10. Reduce FCCU fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.C.

    1986-07-01

    Fouling of equipment in fluid catalytic cracking units can significantly affect unit operation by reducing the necessary transfer of heat in heat exchangers, by restricting unit thruput due to increased pressure drop and, in general, by reducing the overall operating efficiency of the production unit. A loss in heat transfer can result in increased fuel costs to operate the unit or may affect product separation when the lost heat cannot be replaced by other means. The physical restriction of flow can cause production limitations due to increased pressure drop in the system. Pumparound or recycle stream flows may have to be reduced, which will affect heat recovery and product separation. Pluggage in the separation towers can also restrict necessary separation efficiencies and subsequent product separation. The overall unit performance can be adversely affected, even when the flexibility of unit operations exists to compensate for the effects of fouling.

  11. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  12. Reduced Vector Preisach Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Torre, Edward Della; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new vector Preisach model, called the Reduced Vector Preisach model (RVPM), was developed for fast computations. This model, derived from the Simplified Vector Preisach model (SVPM), has individual components that like the SVPM are calculated independently using coupled selection rules for the state vector computation. However, the RVPM does not require the rotational correction. Therefore, it provides a practical alternative for computing the magnetic susceptibility using a differential approach. A vector version, using the framework of the DOK model, is implemented. Simulation results for the reduced vector Preisach model are also presented.

  13. Reduce olefin plant fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.F. )

    1988-11-01

    Process-side fouling reduces the overall operating efficiency of an olefin plant. The fouling is commonly caused by the formation of organic polymers which also can contain small amounts of inorganic constituents. The fouling is measured reduced if a properly selected antifoulant is used. Specific equipment and areas of the plant affected by process fouling are listed. The fouling tendency in each area is related to the pyrolysis furnace charge and unit operating conditions. To a lesser extent, the design of the plant will dictate which process equipment will experience fouling.

  14. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  15. Colorado Model Content Standards: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…

  16. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  17. Quality Content in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  18. The Contents of My Backpack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    As Mr. Goldman empties his backpack, his philosophy of teaching spills out, along with an interesting assortment of odds and ends. In this article Mr. Goldman describes the contents of his L.L. Bean daypack with two large compartments in the back, a smaller forward compartment, and a little zippered pocket in the very front, along with his…

  19. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  20. Variation in seasonal moisture content

    Treesearch

    John E. Phelps

    1992-01-01

    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  1. Motivating Students for Content Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    With ever-changing government mandates, new standards for accountability, and the uniquely diverse classroom of this millennium, educators are scrambling to meet the needs of all students, such that each unique learner, regardless of background, special needs, or level of commitment to coursework can demonstrate content mastery. In this article,…

  2. ESL through Content Area Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Tarey

    Content-based ESL is a method that integrated English-as-a-second-language instruction with subject-matter instruction. The technique not only focuses on learning a second language, but on using that language as a medium to learn mathematics, science, social studies, and other academic subjects. Although this approach has been used for many years…

  3. Optimizing chlorophyll content in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditionally, leaf chlorophyll content has not been among the target traits for improving crop yield. However, current chlorophyll concentrations may be in excess of the amount that would maximize the season integral of photosynthesis in a crop monoculture, such as soybean, that achieves a high lea...

  4. Telenovelas as Art Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2010-01-01

    In February and March 2007, the author investigated the possibilities of visual culture art education in two Greek Primary schools in Athens with students in Grades 5 and 6. One of her goals was to determine whether or not the telenovela genre was appropriate as curriculum content in primary art education. She chose telenovelas because they are a…

  5. Digital Content: Making Learning Relevant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 15 states are changing their policies to give school districts more flexibility in acquiring content. They have changed laws or policies or have bills pending in state legislatures to redefine "textbooks". Most of those changes are similar to the approach Indiana took in its new law: a "textbook" is not only a…

  6. Profiling soil water content sensor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A waveguide-on-access-tube (WOAT) sensor system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles was developed to sense soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity in 20-cm (8 inch) deep layers from the soil surface to depths of 3 m (10 ft) (patent No. 13/404,491 pending). A Cooperative R...

  7. Content Area Reading in Retrospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Leonard

    A review of the literature on reading instruction shows that the earliest reference to content area reading practice was in 1919 when William S. Gray reported that he had asked high school teachers to list the uses that pupils make of reading in preparing assignments. In 1925, the adage "every teacher a teacher of reading" first appeared…

  8. Home media server content management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokmakoff, Andrew A.; van Vliet, Harry

    2001-07-01

    With the advent of set-top boxes, the convergence of TV (broadcasting) and PC (Internet) is set to enter the home environment. Currently, a great deal of activity is occurring in developing standards (TV-Anytime Forum) and devices (TiVo) for local storage on Home Media Servers (HMS). These devices lie at the heart of convergence of the triad: communications/networks - content/media - computing/software. Besides massive storage capacity and being a communications 'gateway', the home media server is characterised by the ability to handle metadata and software that provides an easy to use on-screen interface and intelligent search/content handling facilities. In this paper, we describe a research prototype HMS that is being developed within the GigaCE project at the Telematica Instituut . Our prototype demonstrates advanced search and retrieval (video browsing), adaptive user profiling and an innovative 3D component of the Electronic Program Guide (EPG) which represents online presence. We discuss the use of MPEG-7 for representing metadata, the use of MPEG-21 working draft standards for content identification, description and rights expression, and the use of HMS peer-to-peer content distribution approaches. Finally, we outline explorative user behaviour experiments that aim to investigate the effectiveness of the prototype HMS during development.

  9. The Contents of My Backpack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    As Mr. Goldman empties his backpack, his philosophy of teaching spills out, along with an interesting assortment of odds and ends. In this article Mr. Goldman describes the contents of his L.L. Bean daypack with two large compartments in the back, a smaller forward compartment, and a little zippered pocket in the very front, along with his…

  10. Information Gateways: Collaboration on Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heery, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    This report, informed by discussion of content activities at the 1999 IMesh Workshop, considers implications for subject based gateways of co-operation regarding coverage policy, creation of metadata, and provision of searching and browsing across services. Other possibilities for co-operation include working more closely with information…

  11. Telenovelas as Art Curriculum Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2010-01-01

    In February and March 2007, the author investigated the possibilities of visual culture art education in two Greek Primary schools in Athens with students in Grades 5 and 6. One of her goals was to determine whether or not the telenovela genre was appropriate as curriculum content in primary art education. She chose telenovelas because they are a…

  12. Reading in the Content Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, James L., Ed.

    The purpose of this monograph is twofold. First, it reviews, analyzes, and synthesizes where possible the findings of selected research related to content reading which has been conducted during the past two decades. Secondly, it describes how the findings of this research apply to classroom instruction. The topics discussed are: Reading in…

  13. Effects of SBS Content on the Performance of Modified Asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Chuanyi; Li, Ning; Zhao, Wei; Cai, Chuanfeng

    2017-06-01

    The effects of different dosage SBS (Styrene-butadiene-styrene) modifiers on the properties of asphalt were compared and analyzed from the temperature sensitivity, high temperature performance and low temperature performance of modified asphalt. The results show that with the increase of the content of SBS modifier, the softening point and kinematic viscosity of SBS modified asphalt are increased and the high temperature performance is improved. The low temperature ductility is improved; the penetration of modified asphalt is reduced, the temperature sensitivity of the asphalt is reduced. However, when the content of modifier is more than 4%, the penetration index of SBS modified asphalt decreases linearly with the increase of the content of modifier, and the temperature sensitivity increases. The engineering application should be determined according to the specific technical requirements.

  14. Automated Content Detection for Cassini Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanboli, A.; Bue, B.; Wagstaff, K.; Altinok, A.

    2017-06-01

    NASA missions generate numerous images ever organized in increasingly large archives. Image archives are currently not searchable by image content. We present an automated content detection prototype that can enable content search.

  15. 47 CFR 22.953 - Content and form of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.953 Content and form of applications... area boundary beyond the CGSA (see § 22.911) and the relevant portions of the cellular market boundary... market by reducing the full-size map. In such instance, an 81/2×11 inch map of a different scale may be...

  16. The energy content of restaurant foods without stated calorie information

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Context: National recommendations for prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake through self-monitoring food consumption. However, there is little information on the energy content of foods offered by non-chain restaurants, which account for approximately 50% of restauran...

  17. 19 CFR 10.1015 - Regional value content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade... the basis of the net cost method described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. (2) Net cost method. Under the net cost method, the regional value content is calculated on the basis of the formula RVC...

  18. 19 CFR 10.454 - Regional value content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regional value content. 10.454 Section 10.454 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade...

  19. Expression of modified tocopherol content and profile in sunflower tissues.

    PubMed

    Del Moral, Lidia; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2012-01-30

    Alpha-tocopherol is the predominant tocopherol form in sunflower seeds. Sunflower lines that accumulate increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds as well as lines with reduced and increased total seed tocopherol content have been developed. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the modified tocopherol levels are expressed in plant tissues other than seeds. Lines with increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds also possessed increased levels of these tocopherols in leaves, roots and pollen. Correlation coefficients for the proportion of individual tocopherols in different plant tissues were significantly positive in all cases, ranging from 0.68 to 0.97. A line with reduced tocopherol content in seeds also showed reduced content in roots and pollen. Genetic modifications producing altered seed tocopherol profiles in sunflower are also expressed in leaves, roots and pollen. Reduced total seed tocopherol content is mainly expressed at the root and pollen level. The expression of tocopherol mutations in other plant tissues will enable further studies on the physiological role of tocopherols and could be of interest for early selection for these traits in breeding programmes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Modifying glycoalkaloid content in transgenic potato – Metabolome impacts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Metabolite profiling has been used to assess the potential for unintended composition changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers, which have been genetically modified (GM) to reduce glycoalkaloid content via the independent down-regulation of three genes SGT1, SGT2 and SGT3 known t...

  1. 19 CFR 10.535 - Regional value content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regional value content. 10.535 Section 10.535 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  2. 19 CFR 10.535 - Regional value content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regional value content. 10.535 Section 10.535 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  3. 19 CFR 10.535 - Regional value content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Regional value content. 10.535 Section 10.535 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  4. 19 CFR 10.535 - Regional value content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regional value content. 10.535 Section 10.535 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free...

  5. Please Reduce Cycle Time

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Defense AT&L: November–December 2014 4 Please Reduce Cycle Time Brian Schultz “Time is what we want most but what we use worst.” — William Penn ...Schultz is a professor of program management at the Defense Acquisition University’s Mid-Atlantic Region in California, Md. As William Penn noted

  6. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

  7. Reduced journal rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) offers reduced rates for subscriptions to its journals to individual members of affiliated societies, including AGU. The offer is limited to one subscription per person to each journal.Rates for 1985 for AGU members are listed below

  8. Reducing Behavior through Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitz, Diane E. D.; Repp, Alan C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of reinforcement to reduce inappropriate behaviors of mentally retarded and emotionally disturbed students may involve the following procedures: differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL), the differential reinforcement of response omission (DRO), and the differential reinforcement of incompatible (DRI) or alternative…

  9. Reduced Braginskii equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W. )

    1994-07-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite [beta] that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure [del][center dot][bold j]=0 for energy conservation.

  10. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  11. Reduced Braginskii equations

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite {beta} that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm`s law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation {del} {center_dot} j = 0.

  12. Reduce FCC corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    Efficiency of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) vapor recovery units can be significantly reduced by corrosion and fouling. The fundamentals of FCC light ends corrosion, including diagnoses, control and monitoring of hydrogen blistering, general metal loss, pitting, erosion and under-deposit attack are discussed, relating actual unit problems to effective treatment program solutions.

  13. Sugar and phenol content in apple with or without watercore.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Anka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Watercore is a physiological disorder affecting fruit of some apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars. Intercellular spaces are filled with fluid, which reduces intercellular air space volume. In this study individual phenolic content, sugars and organic acids in watercore affected flesh have been identified and quantified. Peroxidase activity was also measured, as a potential stress indicator. The study was performed on three cultivars prone to watercore development 'Delicious', 'Gloster' and 'Fuji'. Total phenolic content was higher in flesh of fruit without watercore in all three cultivars, which was mainly due to higher individual and total flavanol content. In contrast, total and individual dihydrochalcone content was higher in watercore flesh, where it was up to 2.4 times higher from the flesh of fruit without watercore. Also, peroxidase activity was higher in watercore flesh. Higher peroxidase activity and total and individual dihydrochalcone content leads us to believe that oxidative stress occurred. These results show that watercore has an influence on apple fruit sugar and phenol content even before any visual signs of internal breakdown and browning. With the development of non-destructive techniques for phenol content determination, the knowledge about phenolic changes in watercore affected fruits could aid with apple fruit sorting. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Thioredoxin reduces post-ischemic myocardial apoptosis by reducing oxidative/nitrative stress

    PubMed Central

    Tao, L; Gao, E; Hu, A; Coletti, C; Wang, Y; Christopher, T A; Lopez, B L; Koch, W; Ma, X L

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase that prevents free radical-induced cell death in cultured cells. Here we assessed the mechanism(s) underlying the cardioprotective effects of Trx in vivo. Experimental approach: The effects of myocardial ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion were measured in mice, with assays of myocardial apoptosis, superoxide production, NOx and nitrotyrosine content, and myocardial infarct size. Recombinant human Trx (rhTrx, 0.7–20 mg kg-1, i.p.) was given 10 min before reperfusion. Key results: Treatment with 2 mg kg-1 rhTrx significantly decreased myocardial apoptosis and reduced infarct size (P<0.01). Nitrotyrosine content of cardiomyocytes was markedly reduced in rhTrx-treated animals (P<0.01). To further identify the mechanisms by which rhTrx may exert its anti-nitrative effect, iNOS expression and production of NOx and superoxide were determined. Treatment with rhTrx had no significant effect on iNOS expression or NOx content in the ischemic/reperfused heart. However, it markedly upregulated mSOD and reduced tissue superoxide content. To further establish a causative link between the anti- peroxynitrite effect and the cardioprotective effect of rhTrx, cultured adult cardiomyocytes were incubated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite donor, (50 μM for 3 h) resulting in a nitrotyrosine content comparable to that seen in the ischemic/reperfused heart and causing significant cardiomyocyte apoptosis (P<0.01). Treatment with rhTrx markedly decreased SIN-1 induced apoptosis (P<0.01). Conclusions and implications: These results demonstrate that Trx is a novel anti-apoptotic and cardioprotective molecule that exerts its cardioprotective effects by reducing ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative/nitrative stress. PMID:16921396

  15. Thioredoxin reduces post-ischemic myocardial apoptosis by reducing oxidative/nitrative stress.

    PubMed

    Tao, L; Gao, E; Hu, A; Coletti, C; Wang, Y; Christopher, T A; Lopez, B L; Koch, W; Ma, X L

    2006-10-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase that prevents free radical-induced cell death in cultured cells. Here we assessed the mechanism(s) underlying the cardioprotective effects of Trx in vivo. The effects of myocardial ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion were measured in mice, with assays of myocardial apoptosis, superoxide production, NOx and nitrotyrosine content, and myocardial infarct size. Recombinant human Trx (rhTrx, 0.7-20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was given 10 min before reperfusion. Treatment with 2 mg kg(-1) rhTrx significantly decreased myocardial apoptosis and reduced infarct size (P<0.01). Nitrotyrosine content of cardiomyocytes was markedly reduced in rhTrx-treated animals (P<0.01). To further identify the mechanisms by which rhTrx may exert its anti-nitrative effect, iNOS expression and production of NOx and superoxide were determined. Treatment with rhTrx had no significant effect on iNOS expression or NOx content in the ischemic/reperfused heart. However, it markedly upregulated mSOD and reduced tissue superoxide content. To further establish a causative link between the anti- peroxynitrite effect and the cardioprotective effect of rhTrx, cultured adult cardiomyocytes were incubated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite donor, (50 microM for 3 h) resulting in a nitrotyrosine content comparable to that seen in the ischemic/reperfused heart and causing significant cardiomyocyte apoptosis (P<0.01). Treatment with rhTrx markedly decreased SIN-1 induced apoptosis (P<0.01). These results demonstrate that Trx is a novel anti-apoptotic and cardioprotective molecule that exerts its cardioprotective effects by reducing ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative/nitrative stress.

  16. Aluminium content of Spanish infant formula.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Alvarez-Galindo, J I

    2003-05-01

    Levels of aluminium in 82 different infant formulae from nine different manufacturers in Spain were determined by acid-microwave digestion and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The influence of aluminium content in tap water in reconstituted powder formulae was examined and an estimate was made of the theoretical toxic aluminium intake in comparison with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). Possible interactions between aluminium and certain essential trace elements added to infant formulations have been studied according to the type or main protein-based infant formula. In general, the infant formulae contained a higher aluminium content than that found in human milk, especially in the case of soya, preterm or hydrolysed casein-based formulae. Standard formulae gave lower aluminium intakes amounting to about 4% PTWI. Specialized and preterm formulae resulted in a moderate intake (11-12 and 8-10% PTWI, respectively) and soya formulae contributed the highest intake (15% PTWI). Aluminium exposure from drinking water used for powder formula reconstitution was not considered a potential risk. In accordance with the present state of knowledge about aluminium toxicity, it seems prudent to call for continued efforts to standardize routine quality control and reduce aluminium levels in infant formula as well as to keep the aluminium concentration under 300 microg l(-1) for all infant formulae, most specifically those formulae for premature and low birth neonates.

  17. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  18. Reducing float coal dust

    PubMed Central

    Patts, J.R.; Colinet, J.F.; Janisko, S.J.; Barone, T.L.; Patts, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling float coal dust in underground coal mines before dispersal into the general airstream can reduce the risk of mine explosions while potentially achieving a more effective and efficient use of rock dust. A prototype flooded-bed scrubber was evaluated for float coal dust control in the return of a continuous miner section. The scrubber was installed inline between the face ventilation tubing and an exhausting auxiliary fan. Airborne and deposited dust mass measurements were collected over three days at set distances from the fan exhaust to assess changes in float coal dust levels in the return due to operation of the scrubber. Mass-based measurements were collected on a per-cut basis and normalized on the basis of per ton mined by the continuous miner. The results show that average float coal dust levels measured under baseline conditions were reduced by more than 90 percent when operating the scrubber. PMID:28018004

  19. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  20. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.