Science.gov

Sample records for reduced physical activity

  1. Integrated Health and Physical Education Program to Reduce Media Use and Increase Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clocksin, Brian D.; Wattson, Doris L.; Williams, Daniel P.; Randsell, Lynda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare an integrated health and physical education curriculum, focused on reducing media use and on increasing physical activity in middle school adolescents, to traditional and nonintegrated health and physical education curricula. Two middle schools' health and physical education classes were assigned to an…

  2. Barriers associated with reduced physical activity in COPD patients*

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Priscila Batista; Stelmach, Rafael; Carvalho, Celso Ricardo Fernandes; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Cukier, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of COPD patients to perform activities of daily living (ADL); to identify barriers that prevent these individuals from performing ADL; and to correlate those barriers with dyspnea severity, six-minute walk test (6MWT), and an ADL limitation score. METHODS: In COPD patients and healthy, age-matched controls, the number of steps, the distance walked, and walking time were recorded with a triaxial accelerometer, for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire regarding perceived barriers and the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale were used in order to identify the factors that prevent the performance of ADL. The severity of dyspnea was assessed with two scales, whereas submaximal exercise capacity was determined on the basis of the 6MWT. RESULTS: We evaluated 40 COPD patients and 40 controls. In comparison with the control values, the mean walk time was significantly shorter for COPD patients (68.5 ± 25.8 min/day vs. 105.2 ± 49.4 min/day; p < 0.001), as was the distance walked (3.9 ± 1.9 km/day vs. 6.4 ± 3.2 km/day; p < 0.001). The COPD patients also walked fewer steps/day. The most common self-reported barriers to performing ADL were lack of infrastructure, social influences, and lack of willpower. The 6MWT distance correlated with the results obtained with the accelerometer but not with the LCADL scale results. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COPD are less active than are healthy adults of a comparable age. Physical inactivity and the barriers to performing ADL have immediate implications for clinical practice, calling for early intervention measures. PMID:25410838

  3. Using Stable Isotopes to Assess Reduced Physical Activity of Individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter S. W.; Joughlin, C.

    1993-01-01

    This study found that the physical activity levels of 10 children with Prader-Willi syndrome were significantly reduced in comparison to children without the syndrome. Increasing activity levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome is suggested as a way to raise total energy expenditure and control weight gain. (Author/JDD)

  4. Retention of sedentary obese visceral white adipose tissue phenotype with intermittent physical activity despite reduced adiposity.

    PubMed

    Wainright, Katherine S; Fleming, Nicholas J; Rowles, Joe L; Welly, Rebecca J; Zidon, Terese M; Park, Young-Min; Gaines, T'Keaya L; Scroggins, Rebecca J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Padilla, Jaume

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical activity is effective in reducing visceral white adipose tissue (AT) inflammation and oxidative stress, and these changes are commonly associated with reduced adiposity. However, the impact of multiple periods of physical activity, intercalated by periods of inactivity, i.e., intermittent physical activity, on markers of AT inflammation and oxidative stress is unknown. In the present study, 5-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into three groups (n = 10/group): sedentary, regular physical activity, and intermittent physical activity, for 24 wk. All animals were singly housed and fed a diet containing 45% kcal from fat. Regularly active mice had access to voluntary running wheels throughout the study period, whereas intermittently active mice had access to running wheels for 3-wk intervals (i.e., 3 wk on/3 wk off) throughout the study. At death, regular and intermittent physical activity was associated with similar reductions in visceral AT mass (approximately -24%, P < 0.05) relative to sedentary. However, regularly, but not intermittently, active mice exhibited decreased expression of visceral AT genes related to inflammation (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), immune cell infiltration (e.g., CD68, CD11c, F4/80, CD11b/CD18), oxidative stress (e.g., p47 phagocyte oxidase), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (e.g., CCAAT enhancer-binding protein homologous protein; all P < 0.05). Furthermore, regular, but not intermittent, physical activity was associated with a trend toward improvement in glucose tolerance (P = 0.059). Collectively, these findings suggest that intermittent physical activity over a prolonged period of time may lead to a reduction in adiposity but with retention of a sedentary obese white AT and metabolic phenotype. PMID:26180183

  5. Reduced risk of breast cancer associated with recreational physical activity varies by HER2 status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huiyan; Xu, Xinxin; Ursin, Giske; Simon, Michael S; Marchbanks, Polly A; Malone, Kathleen E; Lu, Yani; McDonald, Jill A; Folger, Suzanne G; Weiss, Linda K; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Deapen, Dennis M; Press, Michael F; Bernstein, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Convincing epidemiologic evidence indicates that physical activity is inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Whether this association varies by the tumor protein expression status of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), or p53 is unclear. We evaluated the effects of recreational physical activity on risk of invasive breast cancer classified by the four biomarkers, fitting multivariable unconditional logistic regression models to data from 1195 case and 2012 control participants in the population-based Women’s Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Self-reported recreational physical activity at different life periods was measured as average annual metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure [MET]-hours per week. Our biomarker-specific analyses showed that lifetime recreational physical activity was negatively associated with the risks of ER-positive (ER+) and of HER2-negative (HER2−) subtypes (both Ptrend ≤ 0.04), but not with other subtypes (all Ptrend > 0.10). Analyses using combinations of biomarkers indicated that risk of invasive breast cancer varied only by HER2 status. Risk of HER2–breast cancer decreased with increasing number of MET-hours of recreational physical activity in each specific life period examined, although some trend tests were only marginally statistically significant (all Ptrend ≤ 0.06). The test for homogeneity of trends (HER2– vs. HER2+ ) reached statistical significance only when evaluating physical activity during the first 10 years after menarche (Phomogeneity = 0.03). Our data suggest that physical activity reduces risk of invasive breast cancers that lack HER2 overexpression, increasing our understanding of the biological mechanisms by which physical activity acts. PMID:25924995

  6. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  7. Physical and chemical activation of reduced graphene oxide for enhanced adsorption and catalytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shizhen; Peng, Wenchao; Sun, Hongqi; Wang, Shaobin

    2014-01-21

    Physical and chemical activation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using different reagents, CO2, ZnCl2 and CO2/ZnCl2, to obtain highly porous and metal-free carbonaceous materials was carried out and their adsorption and catalytic behavior were investigated. Physical activation using CO2 was proved to be much more effective than chemical ZnCl2 activation, and increased the specific surface area (SSA) of RGO from ~200 to higher than 600 m(2) g(-1). Methylene blue (MB) was then used to evaluate the adsorption and catalytic activity of the activated RGO (A-RGO) materials with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) as an oxidant. It was found that the SSA and oxygen containing groups are two important factors determining the adsorptive and catalytic performance of the A-RGO materials. RGO by physicochemical CO2/ZnCl2 activation presented the best adsorption and RGO by physical CO2 activation exhibited the highest catalytic degradation of MB.

  8. Increasing Level of Leisure Physical Activity Could Reduce the Risk of Hip Fracture in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Ke; Liu, Xiao-yu; Wu, Xu-hua; Li, Xiao-liu; Xia, Qing-quan; Chen, Jiong; Yin, Xiao-fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We carried out the study to investigate and quantitatively assess the potential association between current level of physical activity and the risk of osteoporosis hip fracture in older women. Relevant publications before October 2015 were identified using the PubMed and Ovid searching tools. A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out to combine and analysis results. Fourteen prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. A general analysis of 9 studies showed a significant inverse relationship between increasing level of physical activity and risk of hip fracture in older women [relative risk (RR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.91–0.96]. The result of a sensitivity analysis was consistent with the general analysis (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93–0.96). The association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was not statistically significant in a general analysis of three studies (RR = 1.004, 95% CI: 0.98–1.03). A potential direct association between increasing level of physical activity and risk of wrist fracture was observed after removing 1 study with the greatest weight (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.03). No significant publication bias was observed in our analysis. Our results show that increasing level of physical activity within an appropriate range may reduce the risk of hip fracture but not the risk of wrist fracture in older women. PMID:26986111

  9. American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Byers, Tim; Nestle, Marion; McTiernan, Anne; Doyle, Colleen; Currie-Williams, Alexis; Gansler, Ted; Thun, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) has set aggressive challenge goals for the nation to decrease cancer incidence and mortality--and to improve the quality of life of cancer survivors--by the year 2015. To address these critical goals, the ACS publishes the Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These guidelines, published every five years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and as such, they represent the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The American Cancer Society guidelines include recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or interferes with healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents one key recommendation for community action to accompany the four recommendations for individual choices for nutrition and physical activity to reduce cancer risk. This recommendation for community action underscores just how important community measures are to the support of healthy behaviors by means of increasing access to healthful food choices and opportunities to be physically active. The ACS guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the Department of Health and Human Services' 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  10. Role of physical activity in reducing cognitive decline in older Mexican-American adults.

    PubMed

    Ottenbacher, Allison J; Snih, Soham Al; Bindawas, Saad M; Markides, Kyriakos S; Graham, James E; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Raji, Mukaila; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2014-09-01

    The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults from minority and disadvantaged populations is not well understood. This study examined the longitudinal association between physical activity and cognition in older Mexican Americans. The study methodology included a prospective cohort with longitudinal analysis of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly. General linear mixed models were used to assess the associations and interactions between physical activity and cognitive function over 14 years. Community-based assessments were performed in participants' homes. Physical activity was recorded for 1,669 older Mexican Americans using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and separated into memory and nonmemory components. A statistically significant positive association was observed between levels of physical activity and cognitive function after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, education, and comorbid health conditions. There was a statistically significant difference in MMSE scores over time between participants in the third (β = 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.05) and fourth (β = 0.10, SE = 0.2) quartiles of physical activity and those in the first. The protective effect of physical activity on cognitive decline was evident for the memory component of the MMSE but not the nonmemory component after adjusting for covariates. Greater physical activity at baseline was associated with less cognitive decline over 14 years in older Mexican Americans. The reduction in cognitive decline appeared to be related to the memory components of cognitive function.

  11. Reduced physical activity and risk of chronic disease: the biology behind the consequences.

    PubMed

    Booth, Frank W; Laye, Matthew J; Lees, Simon J; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P

    2008-03-01

    This review focuses on three preserved, ancient, biological mechanisms (physical activity, insulin sensitivity, and fat storage). Genes in humans and rodents were selected in an environment of high physical activity that favored an optimization of aerobic metabolic pathways to conserve energy for a potential, future food deficiency. Today machines and other technologies have replaced much of the physical activity that selected optimal gene expression for energy metabolism. Distressingly, the negative by-product of a lack of ancient physical activity levels in our modern civilization is an increased risk of chronic disease. We have been employing a rodent wheel-lock model to approximate the reduction in physical activity in humans from the level under which genes were selected to a lower level observed in modern daily functioning. Thus far, two major changes have been identified when rats undertaking daily, natural voluntary running on wheels experience an abrupt cessation of the running (wheel lock model). First, insulin sensitivity in the epitrochlearis muscle of rats falls to sedentary values after 2 days of the cessation of running, confirming the decline to sedentary values in whole-body insulin sensitivity when physically active humans stop high levels of daily exercise. Second, visceral fat increases within 1 week after rats cease daily running, confirming the plasticity of human visceral fat. This review focuses on the supporting data for the aforementioned two outcomes. Our primary goal is to better understand how a physically inactive lifestyle initiates maladaptations that cause chronic disease.

  12. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kushi, Lawrence H; Doyle, Colleen; McCullough, Marji; Rock, Cheryl L; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Bandera, Elisa V; Gapstur, Susan; Patel, Alpa V; Andrews, Kimberly; Gansler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These Guidelines, published approximately every 5 years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and they reflect the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS Guidelines focus on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. The ACS Guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

  13. Reduced physical activity in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes who curtail their sleep

    PubMed Central

    Booth, J.N.; Bromley, L.E.; Darukhanavala, A.P.; Whitmore, H.R.; Imperial, J.G.; Penev, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes have high metabolic morbidity, which is exacerbated by physical inactivity. Self-reported sleep <6 h/day is associated with increased incidence of obesity and diabetes, which may be mediated in part by sleep-loss-related reduction in physical activity. We examined the relationship between habitual sleep curtailment and physical activity in adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes. Forty-eight young urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes (27F/21M; mean [SD] age 26 [4] y; BMI 23.8 [2.5] kg/m2) each completed 13 [2] days of sleep and physical activity monitoring by wrist actigraphy and waist accelerometry while following their usual lifestyle at home. Laboratory polysomnography was used to screen for sleep disorders. The primary outcome of the study was the comparison of total daily activity counts between participants with habitual sleep <6 vs. ≥6 h/night. Secondary measures included daily time spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Short sleepers had no sleep abnormalities and showed signs of increased sleep pressure consistent with a behavioral pattern of habitual sleep curtailment. Compared to participants who slept ≥6 h/night, short sleepers had 27% fewer daily activity counts (P=0.042), spent less time in moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity (−43 min/day; P=0.010), and remained more sedentary (+69 min/day; P=0.026). Our results indicate that young urban adults with parental history of type 2 diabetes who habitually curtail their sleep have less daily physical activity and more sedentary living, which may enhance their metabolic risk. PMID:21996665

  14. American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kushi, Lawrence H; Byers, Tim; Doyle, Colleen; Bandera, Elisa V; McCullough, Marji; McTiernan, Anne; Gansler, Ted; Andrews, Kimberly S; Thun, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These Guidelines, published every 5 years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and as such, they represent the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS Guidelines include recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or interferes with healthy behaviors. Community efforts are essential to create a social environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity. Therefore, this committee presents one key recommendation for community action to accompany the four recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. This recommendation for community action recognizes that a supportive social environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. The ACS Guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the Department of Health and Human Services' 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  15. Physical activity reduces the risk of subsequent depression for older adults.

    PubMed

    Strawbridge, William J; Deleger, Stéphane; Roberts, Robert E; Kaplan, George A

    2002-08-15

    Previous studies assessing protective effects of physical activity on depression have had conflicting results; one recent study argued that excluding disabled subjects attenuated any observed effects. The authors' objective was to compare the effects of higher levels of physical activity on prevalent and incident depression with and without exclusion of disabled subjects. Participants were 1,947 community-dwelling adults from the Alameda County Study aged 50-94 years at baseline in 1994 with 5 years of follow-up. Depression was measured using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Physical activity was measured with an eight-point scale; odds ratios are based upon a one-point increase on the scale. Even with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, financial strain, chronic conditions, disability, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, and social relations, greater physical activity was protective for both prevalent depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79, 1.01) and incident depression (adjusted OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96) over 5 years. Exclusion of disabled subjects did not attenuate the incidence results (adjusted OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67, 0.92). Findings support the protective effects of physical activity on depression for older adults and argue against excluding disabled subjects from similar studies.

  16. Does physical activity reduce risk of estrogen-dependent cancer in women?

    PubMed

    Kramer, M M; Wells, C L

    1996-03-01

    The estrogen-dependent cancers (breast, endometrial, and ovarian) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in American women. Increased incidence of these cancers is predicted in the future, and the need for primary prevention is clear. Sufficient evidence has accumulated to warrant an analysis of the relationship between physical activity and estrogen-dependent cancer. Recent epidemiological studies confirm an inverse relationship between physical activity and estrogen-dependent cancer, with stronger associations appearing for occupational activity than for leisure time or nonoccupational activity. Several hypothesized mechanisms are described for the prevention of estrogen-dependent cancer by physical activity: 1) maintenance of low body fat and moderation of extraglandular estrogen, 2) reduction in number of ovulatory cycles and subsequent diminution of lifetime exposure to endogenous estrogen, 3) enhancement of natural immune function, and 4) the association of other healthy lifestyle habits. Although the mechanisms are not well defined, several lines of evidence support the inclusion of low-to-moderate physical activity as a preventive strategy for estrogen-dependent cancer.

  17. Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women.

    PubMed

    Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0 ± 3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7 ± 6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration.

  18. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 2004 and 2009 reveals that there is a correlation between obesity and psychological distress among the farming community where suicide rates are recognised as high. Chronic stress overstimulates the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that is associated with abdominal obesity. Increasing physical activity may block negative thoughts, increase social contact, positively influence brain chemistry and improve both physical and mental health. This paper describes the design of the Farming Fit study that aims to identify the effect of physical activity on psychological distress, obesity and health behaviours such as diet patterns and smoking in farm men and women. Methods/Design For this quasi-experimental (convenience sample) control-intervention study, overweight (Body Mass Index ≥25 kg/m2) farm men and women will be recruited from Sustainable Farm Families™ (SFF) programs held across Victoria, Australia. Baseline demographic data, health data, depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) scores, dietary information, physical activity data, anthropometric data, blood pressure and biochemical analysis of plasma and salivary cortisol levels will be collected. The intervention group will receive an exercise program and regular phone coaching in order to increase their physical activity. Analysis will evaluate the impact of the intervention by longitudinal data (baseline and post intervention) comparison of intervention and control groups. Discussion This study is designed

  19. Regular physical activity and reduced occurrence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Calle-Pascual, A L; Martin-Alvarez, P J; Reyes, C; Calle, J R

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of regular non-strenuous physical exercise on the appearance of microalbuminuria in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, we have studied a cohort of 372 Type 2 diabetic patients (152 males and 220 females, mean age: 63.59 +/- 0.70 years, evolution time: 10.31 +/- 0.4 years, M +/- SEM). One hundred and ninety seven (52.9%) presented normo-albuminuria, 124 (33.3%) microalbuminuria and 51 (13.7%) proteinuria. These three groups were different with regard to evolution time, weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio, Hb1Ac value, prevalence of hypertension and physical activity level. 132 (35.4%) patients had a regular exercise-induced caloric expenditure under 500 kcal/wk whereas 122 (32.7%) were between 500 and 1.000 kcal/wk and 118 (31.7%) over 1.000 kcal/wk. Prevalence of normo-albuminuric patients was 40.1%, 52.4% and 67.7% respectively (p < 0.01). Prevalence of normo-albuminuric patients remained significatively higher in the patient with the greater physical activity level when adjusted to systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, evolution time and HbA1c value. Our results stress the fact that regular non-strenuous physical activity may have a protective effect on the appearance of microalbuminuria in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Whether the cardiovascular protective influence of exercise in these patients depends on such an effect remains unknown. On the basis of this cross-sectional evidence, a longitudinal study is now under way.

  20. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  1. The Risk of Reduced Physical Activity in Children with Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Lingam, Raghu; Mattocks, Calum; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy; Emond, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder have an increased risk of reduced moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), using data from a large population based study. Prospectively collected data from 4331 children (boys = 2065, girls = 2266) who had completed motor…

  2. Increased physical activity has a greater effect than reduced energy intake on lifestyle modification-induced increases in testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Hiroshi; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Yoshikawa, Toru; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Obesity results in reduced serum testosterone levels, which causes many disorders in men. Lifestyle modifications (increased physical activity and calorie restriction) can increase serum testosterone levels. However, it is unknown whether increased physical activity or calorie restriction during lifestyle modifications has a greater effects on serum testosterone levels. Forty-one overweight and obese men completed a 12-week lifestyle modification program (aerobic exercise training and calorie restriction). We measured serum testosterone levels, the number of steps, and the total energy intake. We divided participants into two groups based on the median change in the number of steps (high or low physical activities) or that in calorie restriction (high or low calorie restrictions). After the program, serum testosterone levels were significantly increased. Serum testosterone levels in the high physical activity group were significantly higher than those in the low activity group. This effect was not observed between the groups based on calorie restriction levels. We found a significant positive correlation between the changes in serum testosterone levels and the number of steps. Our results suggested that an increase in physical activity greatly affected the increased serum testosterone levels in overweight and obese men during lifestyle modification. PMID:26798202

  3. Effectiveness of physical activity in reducing pain in patients with fibromyalgia: a blinded randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kayo, Andrea Harumi; Peccin, Maria Stella; Sanches, Carla Munhoz; Trevisani, Virgínia Fernandes Moça

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of muscle-strengthening exercises (MS) and a walking program (WA) in reducing pain in patients with fibromyalgia. Ninety women, 30-55 years of age, diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria, were randomized into 3 groups: WA Group, MS Group, and control group. Pain (visual analog scale) was evaluated as the primary outcome. Physical functioning (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, FIQ), health-related quality of life (Short-Form 36 Health Survey, SF-36), and use of medication were evaluated as secondary outcomes. Assessments were performed at baseline, 8, 16, and 28 weeks. Intention-to-treat and efficacy analyses were conducted. Sixty-eight patients completed the treatment protocol. All 3 groups showed improvement after the 16-week treatment compared to baseline. At the 28-week follow-up, pain reduction was similar for the WA and MS groups (P = 0.39), but different from the control group (P = 0.01). At the end of the treatment, 80% of subjects in the control group took pain medication, but only 46.7% in the WA and 41.4% in the MS groups. Mean FIQ total scores were lower for the WA and MS groups (P = 0.96) compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Patients in the WA and MS groups reported higher scores (better health status) than controls in almost all SF-36 subscales. MS was as effective as WA in reducing pain regarding all study variables; however, symptoms management during the follow-up period was more efficient in the WA group.

  4. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001) was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day) and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day). Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day), p < 0.001), moderate- (33% (1 h/day) p < 0.001), vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day), p < 0.001), and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day), p < 0.001). Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. PMID:25568971

  5. Physical activity and reduced intra-abdominal fat in midlife African-American and white women.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Sheila A; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F; Wesley, Deidre E; Powell, Lynda H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm(2) lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Depression symptoms reduce physical activity in COPD patients: a prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas-Espín, Iván; Demeyer, Heleen; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Rabinovich, Roberto A; Dobbels, Fabienne; Karlsson, Niklas; Troosters, Thierry; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of anxiety and depression in the physical activity (PA) of patients with COPD is controversial. We prospectively assessed the effect of symptoms of anxiety and depression on PA in COPD patients. Methods We evaluated anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), PA (Dynaport® accelerometer), and other relevant characteristics in 220 COPD patients from five European countries at baseline and at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. HADS score was categorized as: no symptoms (score 0–7), suggested (8–10), and probable (>11) anxiety or depression. We estimated the association between anxiety and depression at t (baseline and 6 months) and PA at t+1 (6 and 12 months) using regression models with a repeated measures approach. Results Patients had a mean (standard deviation) age of 67 (8) years, forced expiratory volume in 1 second 57 (20)% predicted. At baseline, the prevalence of probable anxiety and depression was 10% and 5%, respectively. In multivariable models adjusted by confounders and previous PA, patients performed 81 fewer steps/day (95% confidence interval, −149 to −12, P=0.02) per extra point in HADS-depression score. HADS-anxiety symptoms were not associated with PA. Conclusion In COPD patients, symptoms of depression are prospectively associated with a measurable reduction in PA 6 months later. PMID:27354787

  7. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  8. Enhanced cognitive activity--over and above social or physical activity--is required to protect Alzheimer's mice against cognitive impairment, reduce Abeta deposition, and increase synaptic immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Cracchiolo, Jennifer R; Mori, Takashi; Nazian, Stanley J; Tan, Jun; Potter, Huntington; Arendash, Gary W

    2007-10-01

    Although social, physical, and cognitive activities have each been suggested to reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), epidemiologic studies cannot determine which activity or combination of activities is most important. To address this question, mutant APP transgenic AD mice were reared long-term in one of four housing conditions (impoverished, social, social+physical, or complete enrichment) from 1(1/2) through 9 months of age. Thus, a stepwise layering of social, physical, and enhanced cognitive activity was created. Behavioral evaluation in a full battery of sensorimotor, anxiety, and cognitive tasks was carried out during the final 5 weeks of housing. Only AD mice raised in complete enrichment (i.e., enhanced cognitive activity) showed: (1) protection against cognitive impairment, (2) decreased brain beta-amyloid deposition, and (3) increased hippocampal synaptic immunoreactivity. The protection provided by enhanced cognitive activity spanned multiple cognitive domains (working memory, reference learning, and recognition/identification). Cognitive and neurohistologic benefits of complete enrichment occurred without any changes in blood cytokine or corticosterone levels, suggesting that enrichment-dependent mechanisms do not involve changes in the inflammatory response or stress levels, respectively. These results indicate that the enhanced cognitive activity of complete enrichment is required for cognitive and neurologic benefit to AD mice-physical and/or social activity are insufficient. Thus, our data suggest that humans who emphasize a high lifelong level of cognitive activity (over and above social and physical activities) will attain the maximal environmental protection against AD.

  9. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Results Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Conclusions Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF. PMID:27594875

  10. Submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Scott L; Herald, John; Alpert, Craig; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A; Champoux, Wendy S; Dengel, Donald R; Vaitkevicius, Peter V; Alexander, Neil B

    2016-01-01

    Background Submaximal oxygen uptake measures are more feasible and may better predict clinical cardiac outcomes than maximal tests in older adults with heart failure (HF). We examined relationships between maximal oxygen uptake, submaximal oxygen kinetics, functional mobility, and physical activity in older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction. Methods Older adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction (n = 25, age 75 ± 7 years) were compared to 25 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Assessments included a maximal treadmill test for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake kinetics at onset of and on recovery from a submaximal treadmill test, functional mobility testing [Get Up and Go (GUG), Comfortable Gait Speed (CGS), Unipedal Stance (US)], and self-reported physical activity (PA). Results Compared to controls, HF had worse performance on GUG, CGS, and US, greater delays in submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics, and lower PA. In controls, VO2peak was more strongly associated with functional mobility and PA than submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics. In HF patients, submaximal oxygen uptake kinetics were similarly associated with GUG and CGS as VO2peak, but weakly associated with PA. Conclusions Based on their mobility performance, older HF patients with reduced ejection fraction are at risk for adverse functional outcomes. In this population, submaximal oxygen uptake measures may be equivalent to VO2 peak in predicting functional mobility, and in addition to being more feasible, may provide better insight into how aerobic function relates to mobility in older adults with HF.

  11. A microenvironment approach to reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity of children and adults at a playground

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. Test whether a micro-environment park intervention in Grand Forks, ND, movement of seating away from a playground, would increase the physical activity and length of stay of park users. Method. STUDY 1, summer 2012: physical activity of children and adults was assessed during baseline (...

  12. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  13. Physical Activity and Albuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily S.; Fisher, Naomi D.; Forman, John P.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2010-01-01

    Higher urinary albumin excretion predicts future cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Physical activity improves endothelial function so activity may reduce albuminuria. Among diabetics, physical activity decreases albuminuria. In nondiabetics, prior studies have shown no association. The authors explored the cross-sectional association between physical activity and albuminuria in 3,587 nondiabetic women in 2 US cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study I in 2000 and the Nurses’ Health Study II in 1997. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalents per week. The outcome was the top albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) decile. Multivariate logistic regression was used. Secondary analyses explored the ACR association with strenuous activity and walking. The mean age was 58.6 years. Compared with women in the lowest physical activity quintile, those in the highest quintile had a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the top ACR decile of 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.93). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the top ACR decile for those with greater than 210 minutes per week of strenuous activity compared with no strenuous activity was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.99), and for those in the highest quintile of walking compared with the lowest quintile, it was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.02). Greater physical activity is associated with a lower ACR in nondiabetic women. PMID:20133515

  14. Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution

  15. Efficacy of an Integrated School Curriculum Pedometer Intervention to Enhance Physical Activity and to Reduce Weight Status in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael; Birch, Samantha; Woodfield, Lorayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an integrated school curriculum pedometer intervention on children's physical activity and weight status. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 59 children (22 boys, 27 girls, aged 10-11) from a primary school in central England completed a four-week integrated physical activity…

  16. Recommended Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Reduced Risk of the Metabolic Syndrome in Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenghui; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; Reininger, Belinda; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To measure the association between physical activity and the metabolic syndrome risk in Mexican-Americans. Methods Participants were drawn from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (n = 3,414), a randomly selected Mexican-American cohort in Texas on the US-Mexico border. Moderate and vigorous physical activity was assessed using reliable and validated instruments. The metabolic syndrome was defined as having 3 or more metabolic abnormalities. Results One thousand five hundred and twenty-four participants of the cohort (45.02%) were found to have the metabolic syndrome. Compared to participants who did not meet US physical activity guidelines, participants who met physical activity guidelines of 150 moderate and vigorous minutes per week (≥ 600 MET adjusted minutes) had 36% lower risk for the metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42–0.98), and participants with total minutes per week of moderate and vigorous/strenuous activity greater than 743 MET adjusted minutes had 37% lower risk for the metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42–0.94) compared with their counterparts, after adjusting for age, gender, annual household income, body mass index, smoking and alcohol drinking status, total portions of fruit and vegetable intake, census tracts and blocks, and survey version for physical activity. Conclusions Meeting or exceeding physical activity guidelines significantly was inversely associated with the risk for the metabolic syndrome in Mexican-Americans. Improving levels of physical activity appears to be an effective target for the metabolic syndrome prevention and control among Mexican-Americans independent of other factors. PMID:27054324

  17. Harnessing Different Motivational Frames via Mobile Phones to Promote Daily Physical Activity and Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    King, Abby C.; Hekler, Eric B.; Grieco, Lauren A.; Winter, Sandra J.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Buman, Matthew P.; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N.; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An “analytically” framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A “socially” framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An “affectively” framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring

  18. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Hekler, Eric B; Grieco, Lauren A; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring sustained use

  19. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    PubMed

    King, Abby C; Hekler, Eric B; Grieco, Lauren A; Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Banerjee, Banny; Robinson, Thomas N; Cirimele, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring sustained use

  20. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-Time in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lubans, David R.; Smith, Jordan J.; Skinner, Geoff; Morgan, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys considered “at-risk” of obesity. Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the “Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time” (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7 ± 0.5 years) in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation, and evaluation of the app are also described. Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data, and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app. Conclusion: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys. PMID:24904909

  1. Physical Activity Is Associated with Reduced Implicit Learning but Enhanced Relational Memory and Executive Functioning in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Chelsea M; Watt, Jennifer C; Grove, George A; Wollam, Mariegold E; Uyar, Fatma; Mataro, Maria; Cohen, Neal J; Howard, Darlene V; Howard, James H; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity improves explicit memory and executive cognitive functioning at the extreme ends of the lifespan (i.e., in older adults and children). However, it is unknown whether these associations hold for younger adults who are considered to be in their cognitive prime, or for implicit cognitive functions that do not depend on motor sequencing. Here we report the results of a study in which we examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and (1) explicit relational memory, (2) executive control, and (3) implicit probabilistic sequence learning in a sample of healthy, college-aged adults. The main finding was that physical activity was positively associated with explicit relational memory and executive control (replicating previous research), but negatively associated with implicit learning, particularly in females. These results raise the intriguing possibility that physical activity upregulates some cognitive processes, but downregulates others. Possible implications of this pattern of results for physical health and health habits are discussed. PMID:27584059

  2. Physical Activity Is Associated with Reduced Implicit Learning but Enhanced Relational Memory and Executive Functioning in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Jennifer C.; Grove, George A.; Wollam, Mariegold E.; Uyar, Fatma; Mataro, Maria; Cohen, Neal J.; Howard, Darlene V.; Howard, James H.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity improves explicit memory and executive cognitive functioning at the extreme ends of the lifespan (i.e., in older adults and children). However, it is unknown whether these associations hold for younger adults who are considered to be in their cognitive prime, or for implicit cognitive functions that do not depend on motor sequencing. Here we report the results of a study in which we examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and (1) explicit relational memory, (2) executive control, and (3) implicit probabilistic sequence learning in a sample of healthy, college-aged adults. The main finding was that physical activity was positively associated with explicit relational memory and executive control (replicating previous research), but negatively associated with implicit learning, particularly in females. These results raise the intriguing possibility that physical activity upregulates some cognitive processes, but downregulates others. Possible implications of this pattern of results for physical health and health habits are discussed. PMID:27584059

  3. Facts about Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  4. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop. PMID:24007856

  5. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop.

  6. Physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A

    1999-04-01

    The regular practice of physical activity promotes metabolic adaptations that facilitate the regulation of energy and fat balance. These effects are important for a better control of body weight in the obese individual and should enable him or her to involve adipose tissue to a lesser extent in this regulation. Physical activity favours a negative energy and fat balance, particularly if activities are prolonged and vigorous. The achievement of a negative energy and fat balance with physical activity also strongly depends on the nutritional context in which it is performed. In the long term, an active lifestyle and low-fat food habits are expected to induce a substantial body weight loss in the obese. This weight loss is progressively attenuated over time, presumably because of the decreased impact of a reduced adipose tissue mass on the regulation of energy and fat balance. For the obese individual complying with an activity programme and healthy food habits, a body weight loss of 10% is a realistic goal before the occurrence of resistance to further loss of body fat.

  7. [Practical strategies for lifestyle modification in people with hyperuricemia and gout treatment through diet, physical activity, and reduced alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Mineo, Ikuo; Kamiya, Hiroki; Tsukuda, Akiko

    2008-04-01

    There has been an explosive increase in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in Japan, suggesting the recent lifestyle change may be a key factor leading to this pathophysiological condition. In addition, people with hyperuricemia are often associated with various morbid conditions constituting the metabolic syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Therefore, healthy lifestyle interventions would be a basic therapeutic approach not only to hyperuricemia but to metabolic syndrome, though it is not easy to promote behaviour changes. This review focuses on strategies for lifestyle intervention for clinical practice, including how we advise patients on appropriate diets, physical activity and alcoholic beverage consumption.

  8. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  9. Developing an award program for children's settings to support healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Honisett, Suzy; Woolcock, Suzi; Porter, Creina; Hughes, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper aimed to identify the best way to engage, motivate and support early childhood services (ECS) and primary schools (PS) to create policy and practise changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity. This information would be used to develop a suitable program to implement within these children's settings to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Methods The Medical Research Council's (UK) framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide the development of the healthy eating and physical activity program suitable for ECS and PS. Within this framework a range of evaluation methods, including stakeholder planning, in-depth interviews with ECS and PS staff and acceptability and feasibility trials in one local government area, were used to ascertain the best way to engage and support positive changes in these children's settings. Results Both ECS and PS identified that they had a role to play to improve children's healthy eating and physical activity. ECS identified their role in promoting healthy eating and physical activity as important for children's health, and instilling healthy habits for life. PS felt that these were health issues, rather than educational issues; however, schools saw the link between healthy eating and physical activity and student learning outcomes. These settings identified that a program that provides a simple guide that recognises good practise in these settings, such as an award scheme using a health promoting schools approach, as a feasible and acceptable way for them to support children's healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusion Through the process of design and evaluation a program - Kids - 'Go for your life', was developed to promote and support children's healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Kids - 'Go for your life' used an award program, based on a health promoting schools approach, which was

  10. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  11. How physical activity can work?

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This review examines how physical activity can work for health during childhood and adolescence. Special emphasis is put on weight control and prevention of obesity-related morbidity. Both low sedentary and high exercise activities contribute to increased energy expenditure, improved weight control and prevention of obesity. Exercise, if intensity is at least moderate, has also a positive effect on fat distribution by decreasing the proportion of abdominal or visceral fat. The prevalence of clustered (multiple) cardiovascular risk factors is lower in children and adolescents, who are physically active or fit. However, the risks of obesity are greater than those from being sedentary, i.e., high physical activity reduces, but does not totally offset risks related to obesity. Good health in youth is easily lost by an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. An additional benefit of childhood physical activity is that it increases the likelihood of physical activity later in adulthood. PMID:18278627

  12. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  13. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of scientists, ranging from experts in basic biological science to those with expertise in community behavioral interventions to increase physical activity. This combination of scientists and expertise will ...

  14. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  15. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  16. Short-term dietary energy restriction reduces lean body mass but not performance in physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, J J; Ezell, D M; Cline, A D; Ricketts, J C; Vicknair, P C; Schorle, S M; Ryan, D H

    2001-05-01

    We studied the effect of moderate, short-term energy restriction on physical performance in physically fit men (n = 13) and women (n = 11) in a controlled clinical research setting with a metabolic kitchen, exercise testing laboratory and training facility. The experiment consisted of a 10 d baseline period followed by either 2 wk of dietary energy restriction (750 kcal/d; n = 16) or energy balance (control; n = 8). During this 24 day study, exercise energy expenditure averaged 465 +/- 5.7 kcal/d in all subjects and was accomplished through treadmill running at a self-selected pace. Body weight was maintained in the control group (-0.36 +/- 0.24kg), but energy restriction resulted in weight loss of -1.29 +/- 0.16 kg (p < 0.001). There was a trend for lean body mass to decline more in the energy restriction group (p = 0.093), accounting for 61% of the weight loss, and urinary nitrogen excretion also tended to be higher in the energy restriction vs. control group (i.e., 13.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.0g/d; p = 0.089). Muscle strength (leg & shoulder press; 1 repetition maximum) was maintained or increased during the energy restriction period. Muscle endurance, assessed by leg squats to fatigue, and 5 mile run time improved following two weeks of energy restriction or balance. Anaerobic capacity (Wingate Test) increased slightly in the restriction (+ 368 +/- 219 joules) but declined in the control group 649 +/- 288 joules; p<0.05). We conclude that short-term (2 weeks) moderate energy restriction (approximately 750 kcal/d) results in weight loss but does not impair performance in physically fit young men and women.

  17. Extremely reduced motion in front of screens: investigating real-world physical activity of adolescents by accelerometry and electronic diary.

    PubMed

    Streb, Judith; Kammer, Thomas; Spitzer, Manfred; Hille, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports accelerometer and electronic dairy data on typical daily activities of 139 school students from grade six and nine. Recordings covered a typical school day for each student and lasted on average for 23 h. Screen activities (watching television and using the computer) are compared to several other activities performed while sitting (e.g., playing, eating, sitting in school, and doing homework). Body movement was continuously recorded by four accelerometers and transformed into a motion sore. Our results show that extremely low motion scores, as if subjects were freezing, emerge to a greater extent in front of screens compared to other investigated activities. Given the substantial amount of time young people spend in front of screens and the rising obesity epidemic, our data suggest a mechanism for the association of screen time and obesity. PMID:25955531

  18. Communication strategies to help reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases: proceedings from the inaugural IFIC Foundation Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Reed, Kimberly A; Rahavi, Elizabeth B; Dooher, Carrie C

    2012-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which include cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes, all of which are associated with the common risk factors of poor diet and insufficient physical activity, caused 63% of all deaths globally in 2008. The increasing discussion of global NCDs, including at the 2011 United Nations General Assembly High-level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases, and a request for multi-stakeholder engagement, prompted the International Food Information Council Foundation to sponsor the Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit: "Insights to Motivate Healthful, Active Lifestyles" on September 19, 2011, in New York City. The Summit brought together a diverse group of stakeholders, representing 34 nations from governments; communication, health, nutrition, and fitness professions; civil society; nonprofits; academia; and the private sector. The Summit provided expert insights and best practices for the use of science-based, behavior-focused communications to motivate individuals to achieve healthful, active lifestyles, with the goal of reducing the prevalence of NCDs. Presented here are some of the highlights and key findings from the Summit.

  19. Communication strategies to help reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases: Proceedings from the inaugural IFIC Foundation Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Reed, Kimberly A; Rahavi, Elizabeth B; Dooher, Carrie C

    2012-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which include cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes, all of which are associated with the common risk factors of poor diet and insufficient physical activity, caused 63% of all deaths globally in 2008. The increasing discussion of global NCDs, including at the 2011 United Nations General Assembly High-level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases, and a request for multi-stakeholder engagement, prompted the International Food Information Council Foundation to sponsor the Global Diet and Physical Activity Communications Summit: “Insights to Motivate Healthful, Active Lifestyles” on September 19, 2011, in New York City. The Summit brought together a diverse group of stakeholders, representing 34 nations from governments; communication, health, nutrition, and fitness professions; civil society; nonprofits; academia; and the private sector. The Summit provided expert insights and best practices for the use of science-based, behavior-focused communications to motivate individuals to achieve healthful, active lifestyles, with the goal of reducing the prevalence of NCDs. Presented here are some of the highlights and key findings from the Summit. PMID:22537216

  20. Designing an intervention to help people with colorectal adenomas reduce their intake of red and processed meat and increase their levels of physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) arise from adenomatous polyps and malignant potential is greatest in high risk adenomas. There is convincing observational evidence that red and processed meat increase the risk of CRC and that higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk. However, no definitive randomised trial has demonstrated the benefit of behaviour change on reducing polyp recurrence and no consistent advice is currently offered to minimise patient risk. This qualitative study aimed to assess patients’ preferences for dietary and physical activity interventions and ensure their appropriate and acceptable delivery to inform a feasibility trial. Methods Patients aged 60–74 included in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP) were selected from a patient tracking database. After a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBt), all had been diagnosed with an intermediate or high risk adenoma (I/HRA) at colonoscopy between April 2008 and April 2010. Interested patients and their partners were invited to attend a focus group or interview in July 2010. A topic guide, informed by the objectives of the study, was used. A thematic analysis was conducted in which transcripts were examined to ensure that all occurrences of each theme had been accounted for and compared. Results Two main themes emerged from the focus groups: a) experiences of having polyps and b) changing behaviour. Participants had not associated polyp removal with colorectal cancer and most did not remember being given any information or advice relating to this at the time. Heterogeneity of existing diet and physical activity levels was noted. There was a lack of readiness to change behaviour in many people in the target population. Conclusions This study has confirmed and amplified recently published factors involved in developing interventions to change dietary and physical activity behaviour in this population. The need to tailor the intervention to

  1. Physical Activity Promotion and School Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Jackson, Allen W.; Payne, V. Gregory

    1999-01-01

    This report examines school physical education (PE) and how it can be an important part of the national physical activity promotion effort. Section 1 introduces the issue of youth activity and PE, noting that schools and universities must reintroduce daily, quality physical activity as a key component of comprehensive education. Section 2…

  2. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874

  3. Walkability and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  4. Active gel physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, J.; Jülicher, F.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical behaviour of cells is largely controlled by a structure that is fundamentally out of thermodynamic equilibrium: a network of crosslinked filaments subjected to the action of energy-transducing molecular motors. The study of this kind of active system was absent from conventional physics and there was a need for both new theories and new experiments. The field that has emerged in recent years to fill this gap is underpinned by a theory that takes into account the transduction of chemical energy on the molecular scale. This formalism has advanced our understanding of living systems, but it has also had an impact on research in physics per se. Here, we describe this developing field, its relevance to biology, the novelty it conveys to other areas of physics and some of the challenges in store for the future of active gel physics.

  5. Patient‐centred physical therapy is (cost‐) effective in increasing physical activity and reducing frailty in older adults with mobility problems: a randomized controlled trial with 6 months follow‐up

    PubMed Central

    Staal, J Bart; van der Wees, Philip J.; Adang, Eddy M. M.; Akkermans, Reinier; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G. M.; Nijhuis‐van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2015-01-01

    .027)]. Compared with usual treatment, the Coach2Move strategy resulted in cost savings (€849.8; 95% CI: 1607 to 90; P = 0.028), an improvement in QALYs, (0.02; 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.03; P = 0.03), and a higher NMB at every willingness to pay threshold. Conclusions Older adults with mobility problems are able to safely increase physical activity in their own environment and reduce frailty. This study emphasizes both the potential cost‐effectiveness of a patient‐centred approach in the frail elderly and the importance of physical activity promotion in older adults with mobility limitations. PMID:27239405

  6. [Physical activity and obesity].

    PubMed

    Winkler, S; Hebestreit, A; Ahrens, W

    2012-01-01

    One reason for the high prevalence of overweight and obesity might be the differences in lifestyle compared to earlier decades, called the "obesogenic environment." With this, the decline in physical activity (PA) in favor of a sedentary lifestyle is assumed to play an important role. Physical activity or inactivity has a major impact on the development of overweight and obesity as well as on certain metabolic disorders. This review summarizes current scientific knowledge regarding the association between PA and overweight/obesity. The term "physical activity" is defined and different methods of its assessment are introduced. In addition, certain methods for the evaluation/operationalization of collected PA data are described. Finally, some epidemiological studies dealing with the associations between PA and overweight/obesity in children/adolescents as well as in adults are presented.

  7. [Adolescents' physical activity].

    PubMed

    Pagaeva, E K; Misho, P -A; Zhanin, A; Chanturishvili, T P; Pagaeva, K I

    2006-01-01

    The paper defines the parameters reflecting the physical activity of adolescents and their correlation with health and a risk of behavioral disorders, bad habits, and cravings. A total of 9499 Georgian adolescents aged 14-18 years, the senior (9th-llth-form) pupils, selected through two-step cluster sampling were surveyed. The pupils anonymously filled in special questionnaires. This yielded the parameters reflecting the intensity of physical activity of the adolescents and the latter's going in for sports. The parameters were shown to have a beneficial effect on health, including mental health, and on the magnitude of unhealthy behavior.

  8. Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Letty P.

    1978-01-01

    Described are three physical activity games designed to help young children develop a sense of mastery over their bodies: (which will in turn improve their self concepts): a poem to be acted out, Simon Says, and a story play to be acted out. (DLS)

  9. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  10. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of aerobic exercise in reducing metabolic risk in healthy older people: The Hertfordshire Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Francis M; Horton, Jessica; Purslow, Lisa R; Savage, David B; Brage, Soren; Besson, Hervé; Horton, Kenneth; Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Sharp, Stephen J; Martin, Helen J; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    Background While there are compelling observational data confirming that individuals who exercise are healthier, the efficacy of aerobic exercise interventions to reduce metabolic risk and improve insulin sensitivity in older people has not been fully elucidated. Furthermore, while low birth weight has been shown to predict adverse health outcomes later in life, its influence on the response to aerobic exercise is unknown. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of a fully supervised twelve week aerobic exercise intervention in reducing clustered metabolic risk in healthy older adults. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of low birth weight on the response to exercise in this group. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 100 participants born between 1931–1939, from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study and randomly assign them to no intervention or to 36 fully supervised one hour sessions on a cycle ergometer, over twelve weeks. Each participant will undergo detailed anthropometric and metabolic assessment pre- and post-intervention, including muscle biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, objective measurement of physical activity and sub-maximal fitness testing. Discussion Given the extensive phenotypic characterization, this study will provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise as well as the efficacy, feasibility and safety of such interventions in this age group. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN60986572 PMID:19545359

  11. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  12. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  13. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  14. Classification of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Paulino, Thiago Marques Luz; Zaharieva, Dessi P.; Yavelberg, Loren; Jamnik, Veronica; Riddell, Michael C.; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency. We developed a classification system that identifies, in real time, the exercise intensity and its reliance on aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and tested this approach using clinical data collected from 5 persons with T1D and 3 individuals without T1D in a controlled laboratory setting using a variety of common types of physical activity. The classifier had an average sensitivity of 98.7% for physiological data collected over a range of exercise modalities and intensities in these subjects. The classifier will be added as a new module to the integrated multivariable adaptive AP system to enable the detection of aerobic and anaerobic exercise for enhancing the accuracy of insulin infusion strategies during and after exercise. PMID:26443291

  15. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  16. Ten weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training reduces fear-avoidance beliefs about work-related activity: Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Berthelsen, Kasper Gymoese; Schraefel, Mc; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-08-01

    People with chronic musculoskeletal pain often experience pain-related fear of movement and avoidance behavior. The Fear-Avoidance model proposes a possible mechanism at least partly explaining the development and maintenance of chronic pain. People who interpret pain during movement as being potentially harmful to the organism may initiate a vicious behavioral cycle by generating pain-related fear of movement accompanied by avoidance behavior and hyper-vigilance.This study investigates whether an individually adapted multifactorial approach comprised of biopsychosocial elements, with a focus on physical exercise, mindfulness, and education on pain and behavior, can decrease work-related fear-avoidance beliefs.As part of a large scale 10-week worksite randomized controlled intervention trial focusing on company initiatives to combat work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress, we evaluated fear-avoidance behavior in 112 female laboratory technicians with chronic neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back, elbow, and hand/wrist pain using the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire at baseline, before group allocation, and again at the post intervention follow-up 10 weeks later.A significant group by time interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for work-related fear-avoidance beliefs. The between-group difference at follow-up was -2.2 (-4.0 to -0.5), corresponding to a small to medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.30).Our study shows that work-related, but not leisure time activity-related, fear-avoidance beliefs, as assessed by the Fear-avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, can be significantly reduced by 10 weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic pain.

  17. Ten weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training reduces fear-avoidance beliefs about work-related activity: Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Berthelsen, Kasper Gymoese; Schraefel, Mc; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-08-01

    People with chronic musculoskeletal pain often experience pain-related fear of movement and avoidance behavior. The Fear-Avoidance model proposes a possible mechanism at least partly explaining the development and maintenance of chronic pain. People who interpret pain during movement as being potentially harmful to the organism may initiate a vicious behavioral cycle by generating pain-related fear of movement accompanied by avoidance behavior and hyper-vigilance.This study investigates whether an individually adapted multifactorial approach comprised of biopsychosocial elements, with a focus on physical exercise, mindfulness, and education on pain and behavior, can decrease work-related fear-avoidance beliefs.As part of a large scale 10-week worksite randomized controlled intervention trial focusing on company initiatives to combat work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress, we evaluated fear-avoidance behavior in 112 female laboratory technicians with chronic neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back, elbow, and hand/wrist pain using the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire at baseline, before group allocation, and again at the post intervention follow-up 10 weeks later.A significant group by time interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for work-related fear-avoidance beliefs. The between-group difference at follow-up was -2.2 (-4.0 to -0.5), corresponding to a small to medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.30).Our study shows that work-related, but not leisure time activity-related, fear-avoidance beliefs, as assessed by the Fear-avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, can be significantly reduced by 10 weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic pain. PMID:27559939

  18. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.

  19. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences. PMID:24972459

  20. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce sedentary behavior and promote physical activity and health of 8-9 year olds: The Transform-Us! Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with positive cardio-metabolic health and emerging evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB) may be detrimental to children's health independent of PA. The primary aim of the Transform-Us! study is to determine whether an 18-month, behavioral and environmental intervention in the school and family settings results in higher levels of PA and lower rates of SB among 8-9 year old children compared with usual practice (post-intervention and 12-months follow-up). The secondary aims are to determine the independent and combined effects of PA and SB on children's cardio-metabolic health risk factors; identify the factors that mediate the success of the intervention; and determine whether the intervention is cost-effective. Methods/design A four-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design, with schools as the unit of randomization. Twenty schools will be allocated to one of four intervention groups, sedentary behavior (SB-I), physical activity (PA-I), combined SB and PA (SB+PA-I) or current practice control (C), which will be evaluated among approximately 600 children aged 8-9 years in school year 3 living in Melbourne, Australia. All children in year 3 at intervention schools in 2010 (8-9 years) will receive the intervention over an 18-month period with a maintenance 'booster' delivered in 2012 and children at all schools will be invited to participate in the evaluation assessments. To maximize the sample and to capture new students arriving at intervention and control schools, recruitment will be on-going up to the post-intervention time point. Primary outcomes are time spent sitting and in PA assessed via accelerometers and inclinometers and survey. Discussion To our knowledge, Transform-Us! is the first RCT to examine the effectiveness of intervention strategies for reducing children's overall sedentary time, promoting PA and optimizing health outcomes. The integration of consistent

  1. Teaching Physics from a Reduced Gravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benge, Raymond D.; Young, C.; Davis, S.; Worley, A.; Smith, L.; Gell, A.

    2010-01-01

    This poster reports on an educational experiment flown in January 2009 as part of NASA's Microgravity University program. The experiment flown was an investigation into the properties of harmonic oscillators in reduced gravity. Harmonic oscillators are studied in every introductory physics class. The equation for the period of a harmonic oscillator does not include the acceleration due to gravity, so the period should be independent of gravity. However, the equation for the period of a pendulum does include the acceleration due to gravity, so the period of a pendulum should appear longer under reduced gravity (such as lunar or Martian gravity) and shorter under hyper-gravity. Typical homework problems for introductory physics classes ask questions such as "What would be the period of oscillation if this experiment were performed on the Moon or Mars?” This gives students a chance to actually see the effects predicted by the equations. These environments can be simulated aboard an aircraft. Video of the experiments being performed aboard the aircraft is to be used in introductory physics classes. Students will be able to record information from watching the experiment performed aboard the aircraft in a similar manner to how they collect data in the laboratory. They can then determine if the experiment matches theory. Video and an experimental procedure are being prepared based upon this flight, and these materials will be available for download by faculty anywhere with access to the internet who wish to use the experiment in their own classrooms in both college and high school physics classes.

  2. [Psychotropic effects of physical activity].

    PubMed

    Nespor, K; Csémy, L

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity can improve mental health. Positive effect of physical activity on depression and anxiety are mentioned. Moreover physical activity increases resistance against memory loss during aging. Physical activity also improves quality and life satisfaction in all age group; this fact was confirmed also in Czech children. Physical activity should be sufficient, but not excessive, and it should be combined with pharmacotherapy in severe and long-term depression. The kind of physical activity depends on the preferences and possibilities of patients; walking, yoga, swimming, etc. are usually appropriate.

  3. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  4. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  5. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  6. Motivating Kids in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2000-01-01

    This article adopts a motivational stance in identifying factors that strongly predict physical activity in children. One model for understanding physical activity motivation in children portrays the sources and consequences of self-esteem for physical activity behavior (perceived competency/adequacy, social support, enjoyment, and physical…

  7. Physical activity and health in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhavesh; Robinson, Rebecca; Till, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Adolescence represents a critical period of development during which personal lifestyle choices and behaviour patterns establish, including the choice to be physically active. Physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and low cardiorespiratory fitness are strong risk factors for the development of chronic diseases with resulting morbidity and mortality, as well as economic burden to wider society from health and social care provision, and reduced occupational productivity. Worrying trends in adverse physical activity behaviours necessitate urgent and concerted action. Healthcare professionals caring for adolescents and young adults are ideally placed and suited to deliver powerful messages promoting physical activity and behaviour change. Every encounter represents an opportunity to ask about physical activity, provide advice, or signpost to appropriate pathways or opportunities. Key initial targets include getting everyone to reduce their sedentary behaviour and be more active, with even a little being more beneficial than none at all.

  8. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part.

  9. Physical activity, immunity and infection.

    PubMed

    Romeo, J; Wärnberg, J; Pozo, T; Marcos, A

    2010-08-01

    During the last few decades, scientific evidence has confirmed a wide range of health benefits related to regular physical activity. How physical activity affects the immune function and infection risk is, however, still under debate. Commonly, intensive exercise suppresses the activity and levels of several immune cells, while other immune functions may be stimulated by moderate physical activity. With this knowledge, the understanding of the relationship between different levels of physical activity on the immune function has been raised as a potential tool to protect health not only in athletes but also in the general population; the mechanisms that translate a physically active lifestyle into good health continue to be investigated. Reviewing the literature, although several outcomes (i.e. the mechanisms by which different levels and duration of physical activity programmes affect numerous cell types and responses) remain unclear, given that the additional benefits encompass healthy habits including exercise, the use of physical activity programmes may result in improved health of elderly populations. Moderate physical activity or moderate-regulated training may enhance the immune function mainly in less fit subjects or sedentary population and the pre-event fitness status also seems to be an important individual factor regarding this relationship. Although adequate nutrition and regular physical activity habits may synergistically improve health, clinical trials in athletes using nutritional supplements to counteract the immune suppression have been inconclusive so far.Further research is necessary to find out to what extent physical activity training can exert an effect on the immune function.

  10. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  11. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well known and well publicized. Healthy People 2020 has determined that physical activity is one of their key interventions to improve health in America. Despite wide acceptance that physical activity is a low-cost alternative to disease treatment and prevention, most Americans still do not exercise the recommended minimum of 150 minutes per week. Underpinning such recommendations is the growing concern that unless we change our behavior around active living, health care costs to treat preventable disease will become unsustainable and have a substantial impact on the financial health of the US. For this reason, physicians, health care executives, and community leaders are working together to improve total health for all Americans. One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving. The five strategies discussed in this paper include 1) measure physical activity as a vital sign; 2) encourage patients to be physically active at least 150 minutes per week; 3) create healthy environments by making it easier for patients to be physically active where they live, learn, work, play, and pray; 4) monitor disease incidence of patients who are physically active vs those who are not physically active; and 5) spread best practices. PMID:26517440

  12. Prediction of physical workload in reduced gravity.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J H; Alred, J W

    1988-12-01

    As we plan for long-term living and working in low-gravity environments, a system to predict mission support requirements, such as food and water, becomes critical. Such a system must consider the workload imposed by physical tasks for efficient estimation of these supplies. An accurate estimate of human energy expenditure on a space station or lunar base is also necessary to allocate personnel to tasks, and to assign work-rest schedules. An elemental analysis approach for predicting one's energy expenditure in industrial jobs was applied to low-gravity conditions in this paper. This was achieved by a reduction of input body and load weights in a well-accepted model, in proportion to lowered gravity, such as on the moon. Validation was achieved by applying the model to Apollo-era energy expenditure data. These data were from simulated lunar gravity walking studies, observed Apollo 14 walking, simulated lunar gravity upper body torquing, and simulated lunar gravity cart pulling. The energy expenditure model generally underpredicted high energy expenditures, and overpredicted low to medium energy expenditures. The predictions for low to medium workloads were, however, within 15-30% of actual values. Future developmental work will be necessary to include the effects of traction changes, as well as other nonlinear expenditure changes in reduced gravity environments.

  13. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fitness. Your fitness routine should include aerobic and strength-training activities, and may also include stretching activities. Aerobic ... Examples include walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, and tennis. Strength-training activities These activities increase the strength and endurance ...

  14. Effect of intervention aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children: Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school based cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kipping, Ruth R; Howe, Laura D; Jago, Russell; Campbell, Rona; Wells, Sian; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mytton, Julie; Noble, Sian M; Peters, Tim J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a school based intervention to increase physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviour, and increase fruit and vegetable consumption in children. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 60 primary schools in the south west of England. Participants Primary school children who were in school year 4 (age 8-9 years) at recruitment and baseline assessment, in year 5 during the intervention, and at the end of year 5 (age 9-10) at follow-up assessment. Intervention The Active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) intervention consisted of teacher training, provision of lesson and child-parent interactive homework plans, all materials required for lessons and homework, and written materials for school newsletters and parents. The intervention was delivered when children were in school year 5 (age 9-10 years). Schools allocated to control received standard teaching. Main outcome measures The pre-specified primary outcomes were accelerometer assessed minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day, accelerometer assessed minutes of sedentary behaviour per day, and reported daily consumption of servings of fruit and vegetables. Results 60 schools with more than 2221 children were recruited; valid data were available for fruit and vegetable consumption for 2121 children, for accelerometer assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour for 1252 children, and for secondary outcomes for between 1825 and 2212 children for the main analyses. None of the three primary outcomes differed between children in schools allocated to the AFLY5 intervention and those allocated to the control group. The difference in means comparing the intervention group with the control group was –1.35 (95% confidence interval –5.29 to 2.59) minutes per day for moderate to vigorous physical activity, –0.11 (–9.71 to 9.49) minutes per day for sedentary behaviour, and 0.08 (–0.12 to 0.28) servings per day for fruit and vegetable consumption

  15. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  16. Physical Activity, Gender Difference, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Yen, Steven T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of physical activity (exercise) and sociodemographic factors in depressive symptoms among men and women in the United States. Data Source 2011 U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Study Design Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8) scores are aggregated and divided into five categories. An ordered switching probability model with binary endogenous physical activity is developed to accommodate ordinality of depression categories and ameliorate statistical biases due to endogeneity of physical activity. Principal Findings Average treatment effects suggest physical activity ameliorates depressive symptoms among mildly and moderately depressed individuals, most notably among mildly depressed women. Gender differences exist in the roles of sociodemographic factors, with age, income, race, education, employment status, and recent mental health condition playing differentiated roles in affecting depressive symptoms. Conclusions Regular physical activity reduces depressive symptoms among both men and women with mild to moderate depression, notably among women. PMID:25630931

  17. Atrial fibrillation and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence on the effects of various levels of physical activity (PA) on the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in both the general population and in endurance athletes. Data sources A PubMed search was done initially using the MeSH headings or text words (with the search-field descriptor TIAB [title and abstract]) atrial fibrillation and exercise or physical activity or athlet* or sport*, without additional filters. Conclusions regarding quality and strength of evidence were based on the GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) system. Study selection No interventional studies were available. Observational studies were therefore considered acceptable, and, although larger long-term prospective cohort studies were preferred, case-control or cross-sectional trials were also included in this review. Synthesis Available evidence suggests a dose-response association linking increased exercise levels with reduced incident AF in women. The same is true in men at low and moderate levels of exertional activity. In men only, high levels of PA are associated with increased risk of AF in most, but not all, studies. This risk is moderate, with a hazard ratio of 1.29 in one of the better studies. The risk of AF for most people who exercise regularly is lower than that of a matched sedentary population. Conclusion Atrial fibrillation is probably less common as PA increases, with a demonstrable dose-response relationship. Exercise at any level should be promoted for its effect on physical well-being and mortality reduction. In men exercising at high levels, beneficial effects on AF might be lost and risk might exceed that of the sedentary population; however, the evidence is neither robust nor consistent. These men should be made aware of this modest increase in risk should they choose to continue to engage in high levels of PA. PMID:26668285

  18. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  19. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  20. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  1. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part. PMID:8244725

  2. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  3. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  4. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  5. [Physical activity among growing children].

    PubMed

    Tammelin, Tuija; Iljukov, Sergei; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity poses a risk to the health and well-being of growing children, and should also be considered at a medical consultation. According to recommendations, those of 7 to 18 years of age should carry out at least one hour of physical activity daily. Of the Finnish school-aged children, 50% of the elementary school children but only 17% of the secondary school children follow the physical activity recommendations. Some children exercise and play sports in abundance, and in their case it should be especially made sure that the prevention and, when necessary, treatment of exercise-related injuries, overexertion and eating disorders are taken care of.

  6. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  7. [Adapting physical activities for an active retirement].

    PubMed

    Renaudie, François

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of doing adapted physical exercise for elderly people have been proven. For more than thirty years, the French Federation for an Active Retirement has been striving to help people age well by proposing multiple activities to remain in good health after the age of 50. Doctors, activity leaders and federal instructors are attentive to each individual's capacities. PMID:27449307

  8. Strategies for Physical Activity Promotion beyond the Physical Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Larry; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Darst, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The current need for physical activity has extended beyond the limited time given to students in physical education classes. In order for students to receive appropriate levels of physical activity (i.e., at least 60 minutes per day), it is necessary for physical educators to incorporate physical activity opportunities outside the traditional…

  9. “Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pain and maintaining physical activity in children and adolescents with calcaneal apophysitis (Sever’s disease): a systematic review”

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcaneal apophysitis, also commonly known as sever’s disease, is a condition seen in children usually aged between 8–15 years. Conservative therapies, such as taping, heel lifts and orthotic intervention are accepted management practices for calcaneal apophysitis, though there is very little high quality research examining the efficacy of such treatment modalities. Previous narrative literature reviews and opinion pieces provide some evidence for the use of heel raises or orthoses. The aim of this manuscript was to complete a systemic review on the treatment options for calcaneal apophysitis as measured by pain reduction and maintenance of physical activity. Methods A search strategy completed by two reviewers examined nine databases from inception to May 2012. Search terms included heel pain, children, adolescent, calcaneal apophysitis, sever’s disease, treatment, and management (full text publications, human studies). Systematic reviews, randomised control trials, case series, and case studies were included. The reference lists of the selected articles were also examined. The methodology, quality and risk of bias was examined and assessed using the PEDro scale. Results Nine articles were retrieved including three clinical trials involving randomisation, two case series, two retrospective case reviews, and two case reports. Effect size calculations and a meta analysis were unable to be completed due to the limited data reported within the literature. Numerous treatment options were reported throughout the literature, though few were examined against a control or alternate treatment option in well-designed trials. The limited evidence indicated that orthoses provided greater short-term pain relief than heel raises. Health practitioners should view these results with caution, as there were apparent methodological problems with the employed study design and limited follow-up of participants. Conclusion There is limited evidence to support the use

  10. From exercise to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Speck, Barbara J

    2002-10-01

    Recommendations for regular exercise have been evident in the nursing literature since the early 1900s. Health professionals and popular media have promoted vigorous exercise for positive health benefits since the 1960s. The concept of exercise as it appeared in the nursing literature during the early part of the 20th century is closer to the concept of physical activity of today--regular, moderate-intensity activities that become part of one's lifestyle. Nurses are in a unique position to counsel individuals, families, and communities on the importance of regular physical activity and to correct misconceptions that only vigorous exercise has health benefits. PMID:12465215

  11. Physical activity and the healthy mind.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians should seek to enhance the quality rather than the quantity of human life. Physical activity programs can increase life satisfaction through an immediate increase of arousal and a long-term enhancement of self-esteem and body image. In the young child competition can cause excessive arousal, but long-term adverse effects are rare. In the adult a reduction of anxiety and stress and a general feeling of well-being reduce the frequency of minor medical complaints, generating important economic benefits. Physical activity programs also help to correct the reactive depression that accompanies conditions such as myocardial infarction. Interest in physical activity should be stimulated from the earliest years of primary school. The allocation of curricular time to physical education does not hamper academic achievement. Rather, through its impact on psychomotor learning, it enhances the total process of intellectual and psychomotor development. PMID:6337692

  12. Who Attends Physical Activity Programmes in Deprived Neighbourhoods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withall, J.; Jago, R.; Fox, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity can reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Such diseases are most prevalent in economically-disadvantaged groups where physical activity levels are consistently lower. There is a need to engage disadvantaged groups in programmes to increase physical activity. This case study examined programmes on offer in a…

  13. Physical activity and mental health: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Paluska, S A; Schwenk, T L

    2000-03-01

    Physical activity may play an important role in the management of mild-to-moderate mental health diseases, especially depression and anxiety. Although people with depression tend to be less physically active than non-depressed individuals, increased aerobic exercise or strength training has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms significantly. However, habitual physical activity has not been shown to prevent the onset of depression. Anxiety symptoms and panic disorder also improve with regular exercise, and beneficial effects appear to equal meditation or relaxation. In general, acute anxiety responds better to exercise than chronic anxiety. Studies of older adults and adolescents with depression or anxiety have been limited, but physical activity appears beneficial to these populations as well. Excessive physical activity may lead to overtraining and generate psychological symptoms that mimic depression. Several differing psychological and physiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the effect of physical activity on mental health disorders. Well controlled studies are needed to clarify the mental health benefits of exercise among various populations and to address directly processes underlying the benefits of exercise on mental health.

  14. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  15. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  16. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  17. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  18. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  19. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  20. Cardiovascular function following reduced aerobic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Shi, X.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a sustained reduction of physical activity (deconditioning) would alter the cardiovascular regulatory function. METHODS: Nineteen young, healthy volunteers participated in physical deconditioning for a period of 8 wk. Before (pre) and following (post) physical deconditioning, the responses of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by Finapres), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV, Doppler), and forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography) were determined during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The carotid baroreflex (CBR) function was assessed using a train of pulsatile neck pressure (NP) and suction, and the aortic baroreflex control of HR was assessed during steady-state phenylephrine (PE) infusion superimposed by LBNP and NP to counteract the PE increased CVP and carotid sinus pressure, respectively. RESULTS: Active physical deconditioning significantly decreased maximal oxygen uptake (-7%) and LBNP tolerance (-13%) without a change in baseline hemodynamics. Plasma volume (-3% at P = 0.135), determined by Evans Blue dilution, and blood volume (-4% at P = 0.107) were not significantly altered. During LBNP -20 to -50 torr, there was a significantly greater drop of SV per unit decrease in CVP in the post- (14.7 +/- 1.6%/mm Hg) than predeconditioning (11.2 +/- 0.7%/mm Hg) test accompanied by a greater tachycardia. Deconditioning increased the aortic baroreflex sensitivity (pre vs post: -0.61 +/- 0.12 vs -0.84 +/- 0.14 bpm.mm-1 Hg, P = 0.009) and the slope of forearm vascular resistance (calculated from [MAP-CVP]/FBF) to CVP (-2.75 +/- 0.26 vs -4.94 +/- 0.97 PRU/mm Hg, P = 0.086). However, neither the CBR-HR (-0.28 +/- 0.03 VS -0.39 +/- 0.10 bpm.mm-1 Hg) nor the CBR-MAP (-0.37 +/- 0.16 vs -0.25 +/- 0.07 mm Hg/mm Hg) gains were statistically different between pre- and postdeconditioning. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the functional modification of the cardiac pressure

  1. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  2. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Donald; Insley, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which the pattern on a rotating turntable can be affected by humming and adjusting the pitch of the hum. At some frequency, if conditions are right, the pattern can be stopped, or "strobed." Also describes a way to introduce humor into physics instruction. (JN)

  3. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  4. Employee physical activity: how does it compare to the nation?

    PubMed

    Aldana, S G; Stone, W J

    1992-04-01

    1. Working adults exercise as much as the rest of society. 2. The amount of physical activity declines with age until 55, at which point increases were observed. 3. Marriage appears to have the largest effect on reducing the amount of physical activity a person gets. 4. Males are 1 1/2 times more likely than females to be vigorously active.

  5. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  6. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-06-25

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health. PMID:27350847

  7. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health. PMID:27350847

  8. Summary of International Guidelines for Physical Activity Following Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Mottola, Michelle F.; Owe, Katrine M.; Rousham, Emily K.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum physical activity can improve mood, maintain cardiorespiratory fitness, improve weight control, promote weight loss, and reduce depression and anxiety. This review summarizes current guidelines for postpartum physical activity worldwide. PubMed (MedLINE) was searched for country-specific government and clinical guidelines on physical activity following pregnancy through the year 2013. Only the most recent guideline was included in the review. An abstraction form facilitated extraction of key details and helped to summarize results. Six guidelines were identified from five countries (Australia, Canada, Norway, United Kingdom, United States). All guidelines were embedded within pregnancy-related physical activity recommendations. All provided physical activity advice related to breastfeeding and three remarked about physical activity following Caesarean delivery. Recommended physical activities mentioned in the guidelines included aerobic (3/6), pelvic floor exercise (3/6), strengthening (2/6), stretching (2/6), and walking (2/6). None of the guidelines discussed sedentary behavior. The guidelines that were identified lacked specificity for physical activity. Greater clarity in guidelines would be more useful to both practitioners and the women they serve. Postpartum physical activity guidelines have the potential to assist women to initiate or resume physical activity following childbirth, so that they can transition to meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Health care providers have a critical role in encouraging women to be active at this time, and the availability of more explicit guidelines may assist them to routinely include physical activity advice in their postpartum care. PMID:25112589

  9. Gross motor development and physical activity in kindergarten age children.

    PubMed

    Colella, Dario; Morano, Milena

    2011-10-01

    Physical activity in kindergarten is a fundamental part of the child's educational process. Body experience and physical activity contribute to the development of self-awareness and the learning of different modes of expression, as well as encouraging the acquisition of physically active lifestyles. Recent scientific evidence has confirmed the role of physical activity in disease prevention and quality of life improvement, and stressed the importance of integrated educational programmes promoting physical activity and healthy eating habits. A key priority of scientific research is to identify the opportunities and methods of motor learning and to increase the daily physical activity levels of children by reducing sedentary time and promoting active play and transport (i.e. walking, cycling). Family, school and community involvement are all needed to assure adherence to the official guidelines on how much physical activity children need to boost their health and stave off obesity.

  10. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  11. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  12. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a sample of youth aged 10–17 years (N=720). Results Peer support, parent physical activity, and perceived barriers were directly related to youth activity. The proposed model accounted for 14.7% of the variance in physical activity. Conclusions The results demonstrate a need to further explore additional individual, social, and environmental factors that may influence youth’s regular participation in physical activity. PMID:20524889

  13. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  14. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  15. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  16. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F; Wells, Jonathan C; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Brian W

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking of physical activity throughout life. An understanding of correlates and determinants, especially in countries of low and middle income, could reduce the eff ect of future epidemics of inactivity and contribute to effective global prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  17. Weight Status and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helen; Blanco, Estela; Algarín, Cecilia; Peirano, Patricio; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Wing, David; Godino, Job G.; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    We tested the independent and combined influence of overweight/obesity and meeting moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines (≥60 minutes per day) on cardiometabolic risk factors among healthy adolescents. We measured anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and activity by accelerometer in 223 adolescents. They were categorized as overweight/obese versus normal weight and meeting the World Health Organization guidelines for MVPA per day. Adolescents were 16.8 years, 41% overweight/obese, 30% met MVPA guidelines, 50% low high-density lipoprotein, 22% high triglycerides, 12% high blood pressure, and 6% high fasting glucose. Controlling for sex, overweight/obese adolescents who did not meet MVPA guidelines had 4.0 and 11.9 increased odds for elevated triglycerides and systolic blood pressure, respectively, compared to normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines. Overweight/obese and normal weight adolescents who met MVPA guidelines did not differ in cardiometabolic risk factors. Among overweight/obese adolescents, being physically active attenuated the likelihood of high triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. PMID:27803943

  18. Hybrid Reduced Order Modeling Algorithms for Reactor Physics Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Youngsuk

    Reduced order modeling (ROM) has been recognized as an indispensable approach when the engineering analysis requires many executions of high fidelity simulation codes. Examples of such engineering analyses in nuclear reactor core calculations, representing the focus of this dissertation, include the functionalization of the homogenized few-group cross-sections in terms of the various core conditions, e.g. burn-up, fuel enrichment, temperature, etc. This is done via assembly calculations which are executed many times to generate the required functionalization for use in the downstream core calculations. Other examples are sensitivity analysis used to determine important core attribute variations due to input parameter variations, and uncertainty quantification employed to estimate core attribute uncertainties originating from input parameter uncertainties. ROM constructs a surrogate model with quantifiable accuracy which can replace the original code for subsequent engineering analysis calculations. This is achieved by reducing the effective dimensionality of the input parameter, the state variable, or the output response spaces, by projection onto the so-called active subspaces. Confining the variations to the active subspace allows one to construct an ROM model of reduced complexity which can be solved more efficiently. This dissertation introduces a new algorithm to render reduction with the reduction errors bounded based on a user-defined error tolerance which represents the main challenge of existing ROM techniques. Bounding the error is the key to ensuring that the constructed ROM models are robust for all possible applications. Providing such error bounds represents one of the algorithmic contributions of this dissertation to the ROM state-of-the-art. Recognizing that ROM techniques have been developed to render reduction at different levels, e.g. the input parameter space, the state space, and the response space, this dissertation offers a set of novel

  19. Promoting Physical Activity in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Joel; Lindsay, Elizabeth A.; Wilson, Douglas M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The principle barriers preventing health care professionals from promoting physical activity include an incomplete understanding of the evidence linking physical activity and health, difficulty in translating research findings into a feasible and efficacious clinical intervention, resistance to adopting a preventive orientation, and concerns about the risks of physical activity. Low level activities likely provide benefit with little risk. PMID:21229089

  20. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  1. Activities report in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  2. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  3. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure in Dutch Adolescents: Contribution of Active Transport to School, Physical Education, and Leisure Time Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Menno; Borghouts, Lars B.; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Detailed knowledge about physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) can guide the development of school interventions aimed at reducing overweight in adolescents. However, relevant components of PAEE have never been objectively quantified in this population. This study investigated the contribution of active transport to and from…

  4. Physical aspects of biological activity and cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jiří

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are organelles at the boundary between chemical-genetic and physical processes in living cells. Mitochondria supply energy and provide conditions for physical mechanisms. Protons transferred across the inner mitochondrial membrane diffuse into cytosol and form a zone of a strong static electric field changing water into quasi-elastic medium that loses viscosity damping properties. Mitochondria and microtubules form a unique cooperating system in the cell. Microtubules are electrical polar structures that make possible non-linear transformation of random excitations into coherent oscillations and generation of coherent electrodynamic field. Mitochondria supply energy, may condition non-linear properties and low damping of oscillations. Electrodynamic activity might have essential significance for material transport, organization, intra- and inter-cellular interactions, and information transfer. Physical processes in cancer cell are disturbed due to suppression of oxidative metabolism in mitochodria (Warburg effect). Water ordering level in the cell is decreased, excitation of microtubule electric polar oscilations diminished, damping increased, and non-linear energy transformation shifted towards the linear region. Power and coherence of the generated electrodynamic field are reduced. Electromagnetic activity of healthy and cancer cells may display essential differences. Local invasion and metastastatic growth may strongly depend on disturbed electrodynamic activity. Nanotechnological measurements may disclose yet unknown properties and parameters of electrodynamic oscillations and other physical processes in healthy and cancer cells.

  5. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  6. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  7. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2014 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  8. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  9. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  10. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  11. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  12. Physical Activity among Ethnically Diverse College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suminski, Richard R.; Petosa, Rick; Utter, Alan C.; Zhang, James J.

    2002-01-01

    Compared physical activity patterns among Asian, African, white, and Hispanic, American college students. Self-report data indicated that nearly half of the sample did not engage in vigorous physical activity, and 16.7 percent were inactive. Weight-training, youthful physical activity, and television viewing accounted for a significant portion of…

  13. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  14. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  15. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere

    2010-01-01

    Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967

  16. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  17. Mental Health in Multiple Sclerosis Patients without Limitation of Physical Function: The Role of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Tallner, Alexander; Waschbisch, Anne; Hentschke, Christian; Pfeifer, Klaus; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-07-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in general, show reduced physical function, physical activity, and quality of life. Positive associations between physical activity and quality of life have been reported. In particular, we were interested in the relation between physical activity and mental health in MS patients without limitation of physical function, since limitations of physical function may influence both physical activity and quality of life. Assessment comprised the Baecke questionnaire on physical activity, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We ranked our sample according to physical activity into four groups and performed an ANOVA to analyze the relationship between levels of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Then we performed a subgroup analysis and included patients with unlimited walking distance and a score of less than 18 in the BDI. Most active vs. inactive patients were compared for the mental subscales of the SF-36 and depression scores. From 632 patients, 265 met inclusion criteria and hence quartiles were filled with 67 patients each. Active and inactive patients did not differ considerably in physical function. In contrast, mental subscales of the SF-36 were higher in active patients. Remarkable and significant differences were found regarding vitality, general health perception, social functioning and mental health, all in favor of physically active patients. Our study showed that higher physical activity is still associated with higher mental health scores even if limitations of physical function are accounted for. Therefore, we believe that physical activity and exercise have considerable health benefits for MS patients.

  18. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  19. Environmental influences on eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    French, S A; Story, M; Jeffery, R W

    2001-01-01

    Obesity has increased dramatically over the past two decades and currently about 50% of US adults and 25% of US children are overweight. The current epidemic of obesity is caused largely by an environment that promotes excessive food intake and discourages physical activity. This chapter reviews what is known about environmental influences on physical activity and eating behaviors. Recent trends in food supply, eating out, physical activity, and inactivity are reviewed, as are the effects of advertising, promotion, and pricing on eating and physical activity. Public health interventions, opportunities, and potential strategies to combat the obesity epidemic by promoting an environment that supports healthy eating and physical activity are discussed.

  20. The Role of Exergaming in Improving Physical Activity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sween, Jennifer; Wallington, Sherrie Flynnt; Sheppard, Vanessa; Taylor, Teletia; Llanos, Adana A.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Background The high prevalence of obesity in America can be attributed to inadequate energy expenditure as a result of high levels of physical inactivity. This review presents an overview of the current literature on physical activity, specifically through active videogame systems (exergaming) and how these systems can help to increase physical activity levels. Methods The search strategy for this review was to identify previous studies which investigated energy expenditure levels using a single active video game or a combination of active videogames. Results Based on data from 27 studies, a strong correlation exists between exergaming and increased energy expenditure (up to 300% above resting levels). The majority of active videogames tested were found to achieve physical activity levels of moderate intensity, which meet American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for health and fitness. Conclusions Exergaming is a new and exciting strategy to potentially improve physical activity levels and reduce obesity among Americans. PMID:25078529

  1. Self-affirmation promotes physical activity.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard; Trebaczyk, Helena; Harris, Peter; Wright, Alison J

    2014-04-01

    The present study tests whether a self-affirmation intervention (i.e., requiring an individual to focus on a valued aspect of their self-concept, such as honesty) can increase physical activity and change theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables linked to physical activity. Eighty young people completed a longitudinal intervention study. Baseline physical activity was assessed using the Godin Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (LTPAQ). Next, participants were randomly allocated to either a self-affirmation or a nonaffirmation condition. Participants then read information about physical activity and health, and completed measures of TPB variables. One week later, participants again completed LTPAQ and TPB items. At follow up, self-affirmed participants reported significantly more physical activity, more positive attitudes toward physical activity, and higher intentions to be physically active compared with nonaffirmed participants. Neither attitudes nor intentions mediated the effects of self-affirmation on physical activity. Self-affirmation can increase levels of physical activity and TPB variables. Self-affirmation interventions have the potential to become relatively simple methods for increasing physical activity levels. PMID:24686957

  2. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children’s MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150min) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs’ physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  3. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities. PMID:25586132

  4. Physical activity opportunities in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Huberty, Jennifer; Freedman, Darcy; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Ward, Diane

    2015-05-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have potential to provide children moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The availability and types (e.g., free play or organized activities) of physical activity opportunities, their structure (e.g., presence of lines, elimination games), and staff behaviors (e.g., encouragement, engaged) can influence children's MVPA. This study explored these factors in 20 ASPs serving over 1,700 elementary-age children. The occurrence, types, and structure of physical activity opportunities, and staff behaviors were collected via the SOSPAN (System for Observing Staff Promotion of Physical Activity and Nutrition). A total of 4,660 SOSPAN scans were completed across 63 complete program days (1,733 during physical activity opportunities). Physical activity opportunities were observed on 60 program days across all 20 sites, with 73% of those opportunities classified as free play. ASPs scheduled an average of 66.3 minutes (range 15-150 minutes) of physical activity opportunities daily. Games played included basketball, tag, soccer, and football. Staff rarely engaged in physical activity promotion behaviors, and the structure of organized games discouraged MVPA. For example, staff verbally promoted physical activity in just 6.1% of scans, while organized games were more likely to involve lines and elimination. Professional development training may enhance staffs' physical activity promotion and the structure of activity opportunities.

  5. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  6. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  7. Reducing Skin Picking via Competing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Thompson, Ada; Reske, Cara L.; Gable, Lauren M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a competing activities intervention to decrease skin picking exhibited by a 9-year-old student with comorbid diagnoses. Results of an ABCBAB design revealed that the use of student-selected manipulatives resulted in reduced skin picking. (Contains 1 figure.)

  8. Longitudinal 2-Year Follow-up on the Effect of a Non-Randomised School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Reducing Overweight and Obesity of Czech Children Aged 10–12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assessed whether the benefits of a 2-year longitudinal non-randomised school-based physical activity (PA) intervention programme to reduce overweight and obesity were still apparent two years after completion of the controlled intervention. Methods: The study involved 84 girls (G) and 92 boys (B) aged 10–12 years who had participated in the PA intervention in 2006–2008 as 6- to 9-year olds and were included in the intervention (I) (43 G and 45 B) and the control (C) groups (41 G and 47 B). Participants’ overweight/obesity was assessed using the percentile graph of Body Mass Index (BMI) from the World Health Organization for girls and boys aged 5–19. Logistic regression (Enter method) determined the overweight/obesity occurrence in a follow-up measurement (2010) two years after completion of the controlled intervention was used. Results: Two years after the controlled PA intervention had finished, the intervention children were less likely to be overweight/obese than the control children (2.3%GI vs. 17.1%GC, 6.7%BI vs. 23.4%BC, odds ratio: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.12; 0.53; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The current study indicates favourable effects of an everyday school-based PA intervention programme on lower overweight/obesity incidence, which was maintained two years after the end of the direct involvement of the researchers. PMID:23959084

  9. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. Results We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT. PMID:23223750

  10. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Foord, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations. PMID:27631498

  11. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Foord, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  12. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images

    PubMed Central

    Foord, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations. PMID:27631498

  13. Reduced-Order Modeling: New Approaches for Computational Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we review the development of new reduced-order modeling techniques and discuss their applicability to various problems in computational physics. Emphasis is given to methods ba'sed on Volterra series representations and the proper orthogonal decomposition. Results are reported for different nonlinear systems to provide clear examples of the construction and use of reduced-order models, particularly in the multi-disciplinary field of computational aeroelasticity. Unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic behaviors of two- dimensional and three-dimensional geometries are described. Large increases in computational efficiency are obtained through the use of reduced-order models, thereby justifying the initial computational expense of constructing these models and inotivatim,- their use for multi-disciplinary design analysis.

  14. Physical Activity and Sport in the Lives of Girls. Physical & Mental Health Dimensions from an Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Research on Girls and Women in Sport.

    This report highlights relevant research and expert opinion on girls' involvement in physical activity and sport. Research findings revealed: (1) more girls are participating in a wider array of physical activities than ever before; (2) regular physical activity in adolescence can reduce risk for obesity and hyperlipidemia, increase bone mass and…

  15. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  16. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Jennifer L; Malone, Laurie A; Fidopiastis, Cali M; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H

    2016-04-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  17. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Jennifer L; Malone, Laurie A; Fidopiastis, Cali M; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H

    2016-04-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  18. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Laurie A.; Fidopiastis, Cali M.; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H.

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  19. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  20. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  1. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  2. Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazi, Robert P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A series of questions and answers helps teachers and leaders understand how much physical activity is enough for children and adolescents, discussing the guidelines used to make recommendations; childrens' and adolescents' unique physical activity needs; lifetime activity needs; and aerobic versus strength, endurance, and flexibility training. (SM)

  3. The Evolution of the Physical Activity Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.; Powell, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    This article includes an historical review of research on physical activity and health, and how the findings have contributed to physical activity participation and promotion today. In the 20th century, research began to accumulate on the effects of exercise on physiological functions, and later on the relation between regular activity and various…

  4. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: "physical activity" and "physical capacity". Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  5. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Helping All Students Achieve 60 Minutes of Physical Activity Each Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Eloise; Erwin, Heather; Hall, Tina; Heidorn, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommends that all schools implement a comprehensive school physical activity program. Physical activity is important to the overall health and well-being of everyone, including all school age children. The benefits of physical activity are well documented and include the…

  6. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  7. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  8. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  9. Reflections on Physical Activity and Health: What Should We Recommend?

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Bredin, Shannon S D

    2016-04-01

    The health benefits of regular physical activity are irrefutable; virtually everyone can benefit from being active. The evidence is overwhelming with risk reductions of at least 20%-30% for more than 25 chronic medical conditions and premature mortality. Even higher risk reductions (ie, ≥ 50%) are observed when objective measures of physical fitness are taken. International physical activity guidelines generally recommend 150 minutes per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. A critical review of the literature indicates that half of this volume of physical activity might lead to marked health benefits. There is compelling evidence to support health promotion strategies that emphasize that health benefits can be accrued at a lower volume and/or intensity of physical activity. Public health policies are needed that reduce the barriers to physical activity participation such that everyone can reap the benefits of physical activity. It is also important to highlight that sedentary time (particularly sitting time) carries independent health risks. The simple message of "move more and sit less" likely is more understandable by contemporary society and is formed on the basis of a strong body of evidence. For practitioners who work directly with clients, it is recommended that an individualized prescription (dosage) that takes into consideration the unique characteristics and needs of the client is provided. Physical activity or exercise promotion should not be done in isolation; it should be part of an integrated approach to enhance healthy lifestyle behaviours. PMID:26995692

  10. Rest Rust ! Physical active for active and healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Pais, S; Ponce, S; Dekker-van Weering, M; Jansen-Kosterink, S; Schena, F; Tabarini, N; Carotenuto, F; Iadicicco, V; Illario, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an insight on how physical activity can be defined, parameterized and measured in older adults and on different options to deal with citizen physical activity promotion at European level. Three relevant aspects are highlighted: When talking about physical activity, two different aspects are often unfairly mixed up: “physical activity” and “physical capacity”. Physical activity, is referred to as the level of physical activity someone is actually performing in daily life.Physical capacity is referred to as the maximum physical activity a person can perform.Both physical activity and physical capacity can be expressed in different dimensions such as time, frequency, or type of activity with the consequence that there are many tools and techniques available. In order to support people to choose an appropriate instrument in their everyday practice a list of 9 criteria that are considered important is defined.Older adults score differently across the various physical dimensions, so strategies to promote physical activity should consider individual differences, in order to adapt for these variations. PMID:27042429

  11. Physical activity level, waist circumference, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Reeder, Bruce A.; Elliott, Susan; Joffres, Michel R.; Pahwa, Punam; Kirkland, Susan A.; Paradis, Gilles; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    This study predicted all-cause mortality based on physical activity level (active or inactive) and waist circumference (WC) in 8208 Canadian adults in Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Saskatchewan, surveyed between 1986–1995 and followed through 2004. Physically inactive adults had higher mortality risk than active adults overall (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval = 1.20, 1.05–1.37) and within the low WC category (1.51, 1.19–1.92). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity and high WC demonstrate the need for physical activity promotion. PMID:22703160

  12. Physical Separation of Straw Stem Components to Reduce Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, John Richard; Thompson, David Neal; Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Shaw, Peter Gordon; Grant, D.R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, we describe ongoing efforts to solve challenges to using straw for bioenergy and bioproducts. Among these, silica in straw forms a low-melting eutectic with potassium, causing slag deposits, and chlorides cause corrosion beneath the deposits. Straw consists principally of stems, leaves, sheaths, nodes, awns, and chaff. Leaves and sheaths are higher in silica, while chaff, leaves and nodes are the primary source of fines. Our approach to reducing silica is to selectively harvest the straw stems using an in-field physical separation, leaving the remaining components in the field to build soil organic matter and contribute soil nutrients.

  13. Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation has been shown to be helpful in improving physical and mental well-being among cancer survivors. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on the determinants of physical activity motivation and behavior among cancer survivors. Using theories of behavior change, researchers have sought to identify the correlates of motivation that predict the participation in regular physical activity in observational studies, while intervention studies have focused on manipulating those factors to support the initiation of physical activity. The majority of this work has been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and there is an interest in expanding this work to survivors of others cancers (e.g., prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer). Results suggest that constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) are associated with greater motivation for physical activity, and some of these constructs have been used in interventions to promote physical activity adoption. There is scope for understanding the determinants of physical activity adoption in various cancer survivor populations. Much more needs to done to identify the determinants of maintenance of physical activity.

  14. Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

  15. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  16. A multi-nutrient supplement reduced markers of inflammation and improved physical performance in active individuals of middle to older age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While exercise acts to combat inflammation and aging, the ability to exercise may itself be compromised by inflammation and inflammation's impact on muscle recovery and joint inflammation. A number of nutritional supplements have been shown to reduce inflammation and improve recovery. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effect of a multi-nutrient supplement containing branched chain amino acids, taurine, anti-inflammatory plant extracts, and B vitamins on inflammatory status, endothelial function, physical function, and mood in middle-aged individuals. Methods Thirty-one healthy and active men (N = 16, mean age 56 ± 6.0 yrs) and women (N = 15, mean age = 52 ± 7.5 yrs) participated in this investigation. Subjects completed one 28 day cycle of placebo supplementation and one 28 day cycle of multi-nutrient supplementation (separated by a one week washout period) in a balanced, randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Subjects completed weekly perceptual logs (PROMIS-57, KOOS) and pre- and post- testing around the supplementation period. Testing consisted of brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), blood measures, and physical performance on vertical jump, handgrip strength, and balance (dispersion from center of pressure). Significance for the investigation was p ≤ 0.05. Results IL-6 significantly decreased in both men (from 1.2 ± 0.2 to 0.7 ± 0.4 pg·mL-1) and women (from 1.16 ± 0.04 to 0.7 ± 0.4 pg·mL-1). Perceived energy also improved for both men (placebo: 1.8 ± 0.7; supplement: 3.7 ± 0.8 AUC) and women (placebo: 1.2 ± 0.7; supplement: 2.8 ± 0.8 AUC). Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (from 108.9 ± 38.6 to 55.5 ± 22.2 ug·mL-1), Creatine Kinase (from 96 ± 34 to 67 ± 23 IU·L-1), general pain, and joint pain decreased in men only, while anxiety and balance (from 0.52 ± 0.13 to 0.45 ± 0.12 cm) improved in women only. Men showed increased performance in vertical jump power (from 2642 ± 244 to 3134 ± 282 W) and

  17. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  18. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity. PMID:24416640

  19. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  20. Adolescent physical activity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Azevedo, Mario R; Wells, Jonathan C K

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity in adolescence may contribute to the development of healthy adult lifestyles, helping reduce chronic disease incidence. However, definition of the optimal amount of physical activity in adolescence requires addressing a number of scientific challenges. This article reviews the evidence on short- and long-term health effects of adolescent physical activity. Systematic reviews of the literature were undertaken using a reference period between 2000 and 2004, based primarily on the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Relevant studies were identified by examination of titles, abstracts and full papers, according to inclusion criteria defined a priori. A conceptual framework is proposed to outline how adolescent physical activity may contribute to adult health, including the following pathways: (i) pathway A--tracking of physical activity from adolescence to adulthood; (ii) pathway B--direct influence of adolescent physical activity on adult morbidity; (iii) pathway C--role of physical activity in treating adolescent morbidity; and (iv) pathway D - short-term benefits of physical activity in adolescence on health. The literature reviews showed consistent evidence supporting pathway 'A', although the magnitude of the association appears to be moderate. Thus, there is an indirect effect on all health benefits resulting from adult physical activity. Regarding pathway 'B', adolescent physical activity seems to provide long-term benefits on bone health, breast cancer and sedentary behaviours. In terms of pathway 'C', water physical activities in adolescence are effective in the treatment of asthma, and exercise is recommended in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Self-esteem is also positively affected by adolescent physical activity. Regarding pathway 'D', adolescent physical activity provides short-term benefits; the strongest evidence refers to bone and mental health. Appreciation of different mechanisms through which adolescent physical activity may influence adult

  1. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  2. Making Sense of Multiple Physical Activity Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; LeMasurier, Guy; Franks, B. Don

    2002-01-01

    This digest provides basic information designed to help people determine which of the many physical activity guidelines are most appropriate for use in specific situations. After an introduction, the digest focuses on: "Factors to Consider in Selecting Appropriate Physical Activity Guidelines" (group credibility and purpose, benefits to be…

  3. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  4. Promoting Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Erwin, Heather E.; Huberty, Jennifer; Moore, Justin B.; Stellino, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Children in the United States are not engaging in sufficient amounts of routine physical activity, and this lack is an emerging public health concern (Strong, Malina, Blimkie, Daniels, Dishman, Gutin, et al., 2005). Efforts to increase the physical activity levels of children and adolescents has become a national priority, attracting attention…

  5. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  6. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  7. Promoting Physical Activity during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidoni, Carla; Ignico, Arlene

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents from low-income families in the USA has become a significant concern over the last 20 years. One of the major contributors to this problem is the lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper is to describe initiatives designed to: (1) engage young children in physical activity during…

  8. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  9. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  10. Physical Activity before and after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a variety of before- and after-school programs (BASPs) that can be implemented from preschool through 12th grade. These programs offer physical activity opportunities before and after school for youths of various ages, skill levels, and socioeconomic levels. In addition, strategies for the director of physical activity to…

  11. Activity Specificity, Physical and Psychosocial Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Frederick C.

    The position is taken that the physical parameters of one's involvement in activity learning depend in large measure upon the objectives of the participant. General comments regarding the physical parameters of most activity classes are made. Underlying commonalities existing among these parameters are identified as: (1) freedom from disease; (2)…

  12. Increasing Physical Activity in Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Teri; Reid, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the outcomes of an intervention package on participation in two physical activities: snowshoeing and walking/jogging. Three male secondary school students who had been diagnosed with autism and were attending a school for students with intellectual disabilities participated in a 6-month outdoor physical activity program.…

  13. Promote Physical Activity--It's Proactive Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan; Sonsteng, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Healthy child development relies on physical activity. New curriculum models are effectively integrating physical activity in education programs. The authors describe three such models: S.M.A.R.T. (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training); Kids in Action, incorporating cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance,…

  14. Physiological Response to Physical Activity in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    This is a report on research in the field of physical responses of children to strenuous activity. The paper is divided into three subtopics: (1) peak performance measure in children; (2) training effects on children; and (3) importance of physical activity for children. Measurements used are oxygen consumption, ventilation, heart rate, cardiac…

  15. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  16. Environmental influences on children's physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Pouliou, Theodora; Sera, Francesco; Griffiths, Lucy; Joshi, Heather; Geraci, Marco; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Law, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper aims to assess whether 7-year-olds’ physical activity is associated with family and area-level measures of the physical and socioeconomic environments. Methods We analysed the association of environments with physical activity in 6497 singleton children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study with reliable accelerometer data (≥2 days and ≥10 h/day). Activity levels were assessed as counts per minute; minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA); and whether meeting recommended guidelines (≥60 min/day MVPA). Results Higher levels of children's physical activity were associated with households without use of a car and with having a television in a child's bedroom (for counts per minute only). Aspects of the home socioeconomic environment that were associated with more children's physical activity were lone motherhood, lower maternal socioeconomic position and education, family income below 60% national median, and not owning the home. Children's activity levels were higher when parents perceived their neighbourhood as poor for bringing up children and also when families were living in the most deprived areas. Relationships were independent of characteristics such as child's body mass index and ethnic group. When adjusted for physical and socioeconomic correlates, the factors remaining significant in all outcomes were: household car usage and maternal education. Conclusions Although physical and socioeconomic environments are associated with children’s physical activity, much of the variation appears to be determined by the child's home socioeconomic circumstances rather than the wider environment where they live. PMID:25359920

  17. Tianeptine reduces morphine antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chin-Chen; Shieh, Ja-Ping; Shui, Hao-Ai; Chen, Jen-Yin; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Ho, Shung-Tai

    2010-09-01

    Long-term use of morphine can cause neuronal dystrophic changes in specific areas of the brain. These changes may underlie the mechanism for developing morphine antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence. We evaluated the effect of tianeptine, an antidepressant with prominent neuroprotective and neuroplastic properties, on the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence. Male C57BL/6 mice were rendered tolerant to or dependent on morphine by subcutaneously injecting them with morphine (10 mg/kg) and intraperitoneally with saline or tianeptine (1, 3, or 5 mg/kg) twice daily for 6 days. The mice were given a daily tail-flick test 1 h after the first morphine injection to evaluate the development of their tolerance to morphine antinociception. To evaluate their physical dependence on morphine, 3 h after the final morphine injection on day 6, naloxone-HCl-precipitated (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) withdrawal symptoms were counted for 30 min, and body weight was checked 1 h after the naloxone injection. Tianeptine per se produced no antinociception, neither did it modify the antinociception produced by morphine, nor did it evoke the behavioral responses different from those in the saline controls. The combination of tianeptine with morphine significantly reduced the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance and suppressed the incidence of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms. We conclude that tianeptine is an effective inhibitor of morphine-induced antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence in mice. Our results would imply that comedication with tianeptine and morphine might benefit those who need long-term morphine treatment.

  18. Recommendations for physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Petajan, J H; White, A T

    1999-03-01

    For many years, patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, have been advised to avoid exercise. MS is believed to be autoimmune in origin, mediated by activated T cells which penetrate the blood-brain barrier and attack myelin. The pathophysiology, with respect to function is an impairment of saltatory conduction, specifically, slowing of conduction speed and/or conduction block. Symptoms can temporarily worsen on exposure to heat or during physical exercise. Exercise programmes must be designed to activate working muscles but avoid overload that results in conduction block. Fatigue, often severe, affects about 85% of MS patients and, along with motor and sensory symptoms, results in decreased mobility and reduced quality of life. Physical activity and recreation are reduced in patients with MS. Before developing recommendations, physical activity patterns and the physical effects of MS should be assessed in individual patients. Patients may then be functionally classified. Physical activity can also be classified in a pyramid structure, with the most basic functions forming the base and the most integrated functions on top. The muscular fitness pyramid progresses through passive range of motion, active resistive, specific strengthening and integrated strength exercises Overall physical activity may be increased according to functional level by performing activities of daily living, incorporating inefficiencies into daily living, pursuing more active recreation and eventually developing a structured exercise programme. The importance of the proper exercise environment, balance and coordination issues and factors related to adherence are discussed. PMID:10222541

  19. Physics Matters: An Introduction to Conceptual Physics, Activity Book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefil, James; Hazen, Robert M.

    2004-02-01

    From amusement park rides to critical environmental issues such as energy generation-physics affects almost every aspect of our world. In PHYSICS MATTERS, James Trefil and Robert Hazen examine the fundamental physics principles at work behind the many practical applications that fuel our society and individual lives. Their goal is to promote a deeper understanding of how the great ideas of physics connect to form a much larger understanding of the universe in which we live. Highlights Helps readers build a general knowledge of key ideas in physics and their connection to technology and other areas of science. Promotes an appreciation of what science is, how scientific knowledge is developed, and how it differs from other intellectual activities. Examines modern technologies, including GPS, the Internet, and information technologies, as well as medical technologies, such as MRI, PET scans, CAT scans, and radioisotope tracers. Explores key issues facing the world today, such as global warning, nuclear waste, and government funding for research.

  20. Physics Education activities sponsored by LAPEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora Ley, Cesar E.

    2007-05-01

    In this work we present the first activities of the Latin-American Physics Education Network (LAPEN) organized by representatives of Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, Peru and Spain. These activities include Seminars, Congress, Postgraduate Programs on Physics Education and several publications. The creation of LAPEN has been inspired and warranted by members of the International Commission on Physics Education of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. LAPEN was constituted in the International Meeting on Teaching Physics and Training Teachers (RIEFEP 2005) which was held in Matanzas, Cuba in November 2005. The creation of LAPEN was also warranted by the General Assembly of the IX Inter-American Conference on Physics Education held in San José, Costa Rica from 3 to 7 July 2006, and by the ICPE Committee in the International Conference on Physics Education 2006 at Tokyo, Japan. LAPEN has a Coordinator Committee integrated by a President, a Vice-president and an Executive Secretary.

  1. Active Learning in the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naron, Carol

    Many students enter physics classes filled with misconceptions about physics concepts. Students tend to retain these misconceptions into their adult lives, even after physics instruction. Constructivist researchers have found that students gain understanding through their experiences. Researchers have also found that active learning practices increase conceptual understanding of introductory physics students. This project study sought to examine whether incorporating active learning practices in an advanced placement physics classroom increased conceptual understanding as measured by the force concept inventory (FCI). Physics students at the study site were given the FCI as both a pre- and posttest. Test data were analyzed using two different methods---a repeated-measures t test and the Hake gain method. The results of this research project showed that test score gains were statistically significant, as measured by the t test. The Hake gain results indicated a low (22.5%) gain for the class. The resulting project was a curriculum plan for teaching the mechanics portion of Advanced Placement (AP) physics B as well as several active learning classroom practices supported by the research. This project will allow AP physics teachers an opportunity to improve their curricular practices. Locally, the results of this project study showed that research participants gained understanding of physics concepts. Social change may occur as teachers implement active learning strategies, thus creating improved student understanding of physics concepts.

  2. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  3. [Specific risks of physical activity in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Paillard, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the specific risks of physical activity in elderly subjects. These risks mainly consist of the loss of physical integrity and the weakening of the capabilities of metabolic regulation. The risk of impairment of physical integrity (e.g. injury) related to regular physical activity is not overall greater in elderly subjects than in young subjects. The choice of a physical activity that is suited to the elderly subject's physical and cognitive abilities largely limits these risks. When physical activity is adapted to suit elderly subjects, the number of accidents in relation to the number of participants is actually very low. In fact, participation in a program of education for prevention related to physical activity reduces the risk of accidents and injuries (and, thus, falls) occurring thereafter. In the case of metabolic risks, isometric muscular contractions carried out under certain conditions (duration: > 6 seconds; intensity: > 50% of maximal voluntary contraction) are inappropriate. Physical activity carried out in extreme thermal atmospheres (0-5° < and > 25-30°) should be avoided. Hydration is very important and liquids should be drunk well before any thirst sensation occurs.

  4. Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Jeffrey B; Bury, David C; Richardson, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. One-third of these deaths may be preventable through healthy lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity. The Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, whereas the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, although exogenous supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids does not improve cardiovascular outcomes. There is an association between increased sodium intake and cardiovascular risk, but reducing dietary sodium has not consistently shown a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Physical activity recommendations for adults are at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination. Increases in physical activity by any level are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Introducing muscle-strengthening activities at least twice per week in previously inactive adults is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes. Inactive adults without known CVD can gradually increase activity to a moderate-intensity level without consulting a physician. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends behavioral counseling to promote healthy diet and physical activity in adults at high risk of CVD. Evidence of benefit for counseling patients at average risk is less established.

  5. Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Jeffrey B; Bury, David C; Richardson, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. One-third of these deaths may be preventable through healthy lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity. The Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, whereas the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, although exogenous supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids does not improve cardiovascular outcomes. There is an association between increased sodium intake and cardiovascular risk, but reducing dietary sodium has not consistently shown a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Physical activity recommendations for adults are at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination. Increases in physical activity by any level are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Introducing muscle-strengthening activities at least twice per week in previously inactive adults is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes. Inactive adults without known CVD can gradually increase activity to a moderate-intensity level without consulting a physician. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends behavioral counseling to promote healthy diet and physical activity in adults at high risk of CVD. Evidence of benefit for counseling patients at average risk is less established. PMID:27281836

  6. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  7. Physical exercise reduces risk of breast cancer in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Kaoru; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Takezaki, Toshiro; Miura, Shigeto; Tajima, Kazuo

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of physical exercise on breast cancer risk, a large-scale case-referent study of 2376 incident breast cancer cases and 18,977 non-cancer referents was conducted using data from the hospital-based epidemiologic research program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC). To adjust appropriately for possible confounders, we examined the effects within subgroups of the study population. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69-0.94) for twice a week or more regular exercise. We observed a decreased risk of breast cancer for women who regularly exercised for health twice a week or more, irrespective of menopausal status, and were able to detect greater risk reductions within particular subgroups, including women who were parous, without a family history or non-drinkers. Among premenopausal women, a particularly strong protective effect of physical exercise was observed (OR=0.57, 95%CI: 0.28-1.15) for those women whose body mass index (BMI) was high (BM > or = 25). In contrast, risk reduction was found (OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.50-1.01) among postmenopausal women whose BMI was medium (BMI: 22-25). Stratification of history of stomach cancer screening to adjust modifying effects of healthy consciousness allows a more precise assessment of the protective effect of exercise twice a week or more, independent of stomach cancer screening history. This study provides evidence that physical exercise, especially exercise twice a week or more, reduces the risk of breast cancer among Japanese women.

  8. [Brain, psyche and physical activity].

    PubMed

    Hollmann, W; Strüder, H K

    2000-11-01

    Modern technical and biochemical methods allow investigation of hemodynamic and metabolic responses of the human brain during muscular work. Following a general introduction to the topic results from selected studies on endogenous opioid peptides, pain sensitivity and psyche, regional cerebral blood flow and cerebral glucose metabolism, amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier, impact of physical work on the serotonergic system, influence of oxygen partial pressure on neurotransmitters and hormones during exercise, role of the brain as performance limiting factor as well as age-related changes in cerebral blood flow and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/-gonadal axis function will be presented. PMID:11149280

  9. Physically Active Academic Lessons in Elementary Children

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomew, John B.; Jowers, Esbelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. Methods We will review on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. Results The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. Conclusions If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools. PMID:21281672

  10. Effects of Physical (In)activity on Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Heber, Stefan; Volf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    As platelet activation is closely related to the liberation of growth factors and inflammatory mediators, platelets play a central role in the development of CVD. Virtually all cardiovascular risk factors favor platelet hyperreactivity and, accordingly, also physical (in)activity affects platelet function. Within this paper, we will summarize and discuss the current knowledge on the impact of acute and habitual exercise on platelet function. Although there are apparent discrepancies regarding the reported effects of acute, strenuous exercise on platelet activation, a deeper analysis of the available literature reveals that the applied exercise intensity and the subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness represent critical determinants for the observed effects. Consideration of these factors leads to the summary that (i) acute, strenuous exercise can lead to platelet activation, (ii) regular physical activity and/or physical fitness diminish or prevent platelet activation in response to acute exercise, and (iii) habitual physical activity and/or physical fitness also favorably modulate platelet function at physical rest. Notably, these effects of exercise on platelet function show obvious similarities to the well-recognized relation between exercise and the risk for cardiovascular events where vigorous exercise transiently increases the risk for myocardial infarction and a physically active lifestyle dramatically reduces cardiovascular mortality. PMID:26557653

  11. Consensus physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Nigam, Priyanka; Hills, Andrew P; Chadha, Davinder S; Sharma, Vineeta; Deepak, K K; Vikram, Naval K; Joshi, Shashank; Chauhan, Ashish; Khanna, Kumud; Sharma, Rekha; Mittal, Kanchan; Passi, Santosh Jain; Seth, Veenu; Puri, Seema; Devi, Ratna; Dubey, A P; Gupta, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    India is currently undergoing rapid economic, demographic, and lifestyle transformations. A key feature of the latter transformation has been inappropriate and inadequate diets and decreases in physical activity. Data from various parts of India have shown a steady increase in the prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), etc., frequently in association with overweight or obesity. Comparative data show that Asian Indians are more sedentary than white Caucasians. In this review, the Consensus Group considered the available physical activity guidelines from international and Indian studies and formulated India-specific guidelines. A total of 60 min of physical activity is recommended every day for healthy Asian Indians in view of the high predisposition to develop T2DM and CHD. This should include at least 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, 15 min of work-related activity, and 15 min of muscle-strengthening exercises. For children, moderate-intensity physical activity for 60 min daily should be in the form of sport and physical activity. This consensus statement also includes physical activity guidelines for pregnant women, the elderly, and those suffering from obesity, T2DM, CHD, etc. Proper application of guidelines is likely to have a significant impact on the prevalence and management of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, T2DM, and CHD in Asian Indians.

  12. Policies and Opportunities for Physical Activity in Middle School Environments

    PubMed Central

    Young, Deborah R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Grieser, Mira; Elder, John P.; Johnson, Carolyn; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kubik, Martha Y.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined physical activity opportunities and barriers at 36 geographically diverse middle schools participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. METHODS Principals, physical education and health education department heads, and program leaders were interviewed to assess policies and instructional practices that support physical activity. RESULTS Schools provided approximately 110 hours per year in physical education instruction. Approximately 20% of students walked or bicycled to school. Eighty-three percent of schools offered interscholastic sports and 69% offered intramural sports. Most schools offered programs for girls, but on average, only 24 girls (~5%) in the schools attended any programs. Only 25% of schools allowed after school free play. An overall score created to assess school environmental support for physical activity indicated that, on average, schools met 6.7 items of 10 items. Free/reduced lunch program participation versus not (p = .04), perceived priority of physical education instruction over coaching (p = .02), and safety for walking/bicycling to school (p = .02) predicted environmental support score. CONCLUSIONS Schools have policies and practices that support physical activity, although unfavorable practices exist. Schools must work with community partners and officials to provide environments that optimally support physical activity, especially schools that serve low-income students. PMID:17212759

  13. Designing Physical Activities for Metaphorical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. Lee; Edwards, Marianne

    1987-01-01

    Presents to student affairs professionals a process for designing physical activities that can actively and metaphorically communicate a message and that can be implemented as part of staff inservice, retreats, or orientations. Describes rationale for activities, historical overview, and example of burnout prevention metaphor for resident…

  14. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  15. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  16. Adolescent Girls' Participation in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Janice; Hall, M. Ann

    A longitudinal study of girls from the sixth through tenth grades sought to determine if the extent and type of participation in physical activities changed with age. A sample of 207 girls was selected with 140 completing the survey over 5 years. Participation was measured by activities in interschool teams, intramural activities,…

  17. Physical activity and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, Mireille N M; Ruchat, Stephanie-May; Mottola, Michelle F

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as 'carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy'. GDM is associated with several detrimental health consequences during pregnancy and delivery for both mother and baby. The largest public health impact of GDM is through its role on future diabetes in the mother and obesity and diabetes in the offspring. Physical activity (PA) is likely an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of GDM, given its known effectiveness in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Based on observational studies, PA initiated before and/or during pregnancy has a positive influence on maternal glucose and insulin metabolism and reduces the risk of GDM. However, although PA interventions have been reported to be effective at improving glycemic control in women who already developed GDM, prenatal PA interventions aimed at preventing GDM have shown modest effectiveness in increasing PA levels and thus were not effective in improving glucose/insulin metabolism or reducing GDM incidence. There is therefore a strong need to develop effective strategies for increasing PA levels, especially in women at high risk for GDM who are often obese and inactive. The optimal intervention for preventing or managing GDM is still unknown, and further studies are needed to determine the type, intensity, frequency and duration for the most successful PA intervention. Furthermore, the effects of PA on neonatal outcomes are not clear, and it is highly recommended that future studies examine more specific neonatal outcomes such as body composition. PMID:25226805

  18. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  19. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  20. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  1. Fostering Physical Activity among Canadians with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    This article shares some current thoughts, actions, and plans to foster physical activity among Canadians with disabilities. Topics include mainstreaming physically disabled students, impact of the Jasper Talks Symposium, a national action plan (Blueprint for Action), and recent initiatives that reflect Canadian commitment to adapted physical…

  2. Adherence to Exercise and Physical Activity: Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.; Dishman, Rod K.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of papers on adherence to exercise programs and physical activity from the 2000 American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education conference, which included research on middle school boys and girls, college men and women, and men and women in the later years, as well as on the more traditional subject of middle aged…

  3. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  4. Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

    2004-02-01

    In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

  5. Congenital Heart Defects and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Team or court sports such as basketball, soccer, football, tennis, squash and volleyball are also aerobic activities. ... year after surgery. Intensely physical sports such as football, boxing or hockey may increase the chance for ...

  6. What Young People Say about Physical Activity: The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…

  7. Physical activity and health outcomes: evidence from Canada.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Brad R; McLeod, Logan; Ruseski, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    Health production models include participation in physical activity as an input. We investigate the relationship between participation in physical activity and health using a bivariate probit model. Participation is identified with an exclusion restriction on a variable reflecting sense of belonging to the community. Estimates based on data from Cycle 3.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey indicate that participation in physical activity reduces the reported incidence of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, asthma, and arthritis as well as being in fair or poor health. Increasing the intensity above the moderate level and frequency of participation in physical activity appears to have a diminishing marginal impact on adverse health outcomes. Our results provide support for guidelines about engaging in exercise regularly to achieve health benefits. PMID:23364850

  8. Physical activity patterns among Minnesota Somali adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thul, Chelsey M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the physical activity patterns of Somali adolescents. This study compared time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and participation in specific physical activities among Somali, other Non-Hispanic black and white adolescents. Methods A subsample of 1,268 adolescents (mean age= 14.6) who completed surveys as part of the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study was included in analyses. Gender-stratified linear and logistic regressions, controlling for body mass index and demographic characteristics, were conducted to estimate mean weekly hours of self-reported MVPA and mean weekly hours and prevalence of engagement in each of 26 physical activities assessed by ethnic/racial group. Results Somali girls had lower mean MVPA hours than their peers; however, no differences were found for Somali boys. Involvement in most activities was similar for Somali and other groups, but some differences were observed. For example, Somali youth were more likely to play soccer than their same-sex other black peers (boys: 52.4% vs. 20.4%; girls: 34.6% vs. 14.6%; p<.05). Somali girls also engaged in more hours per week of soccer than their black or white peers. Conclusions Activities for which Somali youth indicated higher involvement may be particularly relevant for culturally-tailored physical activity programming. PMID:25493419

  9. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion. PMID:21347937

  10. Physical activity information seeking and advertising recall.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    The purposes of this research were to examine the characteristics of those who look for physical activity-related information, where they find it, and to examine what types of physical activity-related advertisements are recalled (i.e., publicly funded or commercial). These purposes were tested using secondary data analyses from two population health surveys. Results from the first survey (n=1211) showed gender, age, education, and activity-level differences in who is more likely to search for physical activity-related information. Adding the goal of being active into the model made age and activity level no longer significant but gender and education remained significant factors. The Internet was the most often cited source of physical activity information. The second survey (n=1600) showed that adults 55 years of age or older and participants with the least amount of education were more than twice as likely to name commercial advertisements than were participants aged 18-54 years or those with more education. These results help further our understanding of how publicly funded promotional campaigns fare against commercial advertising and also highlight the need to understand physical activity information-seeking behavior on the Internet and its implications for health promotion.

  11. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  12. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  13. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  14. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  15. How Active Are Your Students? Increasing Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Brandt, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Health and Human Services recommends that youth engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day, most of which should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Half of this amount (30 minutes) should be achieved during the school day. NASPE provides guidance in the form of a…

  16. Student Active Learning Methods in Physical Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinde, Robert J.; Kovac, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    We describe two strategies for implementing active learning in physical chemistry. One involves supplementing a traditional lecture course with heavily computer-based active-learning exercises carried out by cooperative groups in a department computer lab. The other uses cooperative learning almost exclusively, supplemented by occasional mini-lectures. Both approaches seemed to result in better student learning and a more positive attitude toward the subject. On the basis of our respective experiences using active learning techniques, we discuss some of the strengths of these techniques and some of the challenges we encountered using the active-learning approach in teaching physical chemistry.

  17. A "nephrological" approach to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Aucella, Filippo; Gesuete, Antonio; Battaglia, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus among nephrologists that exercise is important and probably beneficial for their patients, assessment of physical function or encouragement of physical activity is not a part of the routine management of patients with CKD. In order to plan an useful strategy for exercise training we need to clearly define some questions. First of all, nephrologists need to be aware of physical exercise benefits; lack of motivation and increased perceived risk by health care professionals have been identified as contributing factors to physical inactivity. Moreover, the main elements necessary for sustaining exercise programs in this population have to take in account, such as the requirement of exercise professionals, equipment and space, individual prescription, adequate commitment from dialysis and medical staff. When PA may not be implemented, a comprehensive, individualized occupational therapy program may improve functional independence and activity of daily living. Finally, physical function has to be careful monitored and assesses by medical staff.

  18. Lifetime physical activity and risk of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Koo, Jocelyn; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Background The role of moderate physical activity and life patterns of activity in reducing endometrial cancer risk remains uncertain. Methods We assessed lifetime histories of activity from recreation, transportation, chores, and occupation and other risk factors in a population-based case-control study of endometrial cancer conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. The analysis was based on 472 newly diagnosed cases ascertained by the regional cancer registry and 443 controls identified by random-digit dialing who completed an in-person interview. Results Reduced risks associated with greater lifetime physical activity (highest vs. lowest tertile) were found for both total activity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.43–0.87, ptrend = 0.01) and activity of moderate intensity (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.30–0.64, ptrend < 0.0001). Compared to women with low lifetime physical activity (below median), those with greater activity throughout life had the highest reduction in risk (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.44–0.88). Inverse associations were stronger in obese and overweight women, but differences were not statistically significantly different from those in normal weight women. Conclusion These findings suggest that physical activity in adulthood, even of moderate intensity, may be effective in lowering the risk of endometrial cancer, particularly among those at highest risk for this disease. Impact The results emphasize the importance of evaluating lifetime histories of physical activity from multiple sources, including both recreational and non-recreational activities of various intensities, in order to fully understand the relation between physical activity and disease risk. PMID:20406960

  19. Physical activity in adolescence. A review with clinical suggestions.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Meir; Merrick, Joav; Carmeli, Eli

    2005-01-01

    Despite some inconsistencies in research methodologies, most findings support a positive correlation between participation in physical activities and well-being in adulthood. The results are consistent across the life span of both genders. Favorable connection between physical exercise to physical, psychological, emotional and educational benefits has been constantly proven. Despite such results a comparison between present to past findings show a global tendency for sedentary life style and reduced physical activities in many countries across ages and genders. There are claims that achieving an adult healthy life style is rooted in habits acquired at early ages, thus pointing at childhood and adolescence as the starting point of an active and healthy adulthood. The present article reviews the current literature and findings relating to physical activity with better health and an emphasis on adolescence. Factors correlated to participation of adolescents in physical activities are presented and some clinical issues to promote such activity are discussed. The authors strongly recommend enhanced initiation of community based easily accessed physical exercise programs, for children and adolescents.

  20. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  1. Promoting Physical Activity among Underserved Populations.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Linke, Sarah; Muñoz, Mario; Pekmezi, Dori; Ainsworth, Cole; Cano, Mayra; Williams, Victoria; Marcus, Bess H; Larsen, Britta A

    2016-01-01

    Underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities, individuals with low socioeconomic status, and individuals with physical disabilities, are less likely to engage in sufficient moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and are thus at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. These populations face unique challenges to engaging in MVPA. Learning how to overcome these challenges is a necessary first step in achieving health equity through health promotion research. In this review of the literature, we discuss issues and strategies that have been used to promote MVPA among individuals from underserved populations, focusing on recruitment, intervention delivery, and the use of technology in interventions. Physical activity promotion research among these vulnerable populations is scarce. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence of efficacy in the use of certain recruitment and intervention strategies including tailoring, cultural adaptation, incorporation of new technologies, and multilevel and community-based approaches for physical activity promotion among different underserved populations. PMID:27399827

  2. Correlation between pedometer and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire on physical activity measurement in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001), fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis

  4. [Investigation of physical activity among adults].

    PubMed

    Meboniia, N M; Kalandadze, I L; Chachava, T D; Sadzhaia, M V

    2006-06-01

    Lack of physical activity as well as smoking, overweight, high blood cholesterol level and hypertension are independent risk factors for development of various chronic diseases. Lack of physical activity is a main cause of non-communicable diseases morbidity and mortality in about 23% of cases (WHO, 2002). Goal of the survey was the identification and characteristics of physical activity among adults. We conducted epidemiologic survey among the school-children and students in Tbilisi. Survey was carried out in 40 schools from all regions of Tbilisi and 9 state and private institutes. Schools were selected by randomized trail in each region of Tbilisi and in each school were questioned all teen-agers from 14-17 year old. For selecting group of survey was used method of "proportional probability of value". There were questioned 2 500 school children and 1000 students, 38% boys and 62% girls. The results of survey ascertained that 23,5%-39,5% of respondents are training or engaged in sport everyday, or several times per week; 17,2% - once in a month; 9,3% once in a year; or 10,5% - never. Adults are less informed about useful effect of physical activity. Respondents had different point of on the role of physical activity: some of them thought it controls weight; others - prevents development of different diseases; the rest thinks that it copes with psycho-emotional stress, and none of them precise about effectiveness of physical activity in all cases mentioned above. Propaganda of healthy life stile must be associated with the effectiveness of physical activity on health.

  5. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  6. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  7. Girls' Physically Active Play and Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Margaret A.

    Sex differences in children's physical activity levels, and associations between girls' activity level, childrearing characteristics and parent-child play behavior were investigated in a quasi-naturalistic situation. As part of a longitudinal project, 144 third grade children were videotaped in a 1-hour play session with one of their parents. A…

  8. Physical Activity Opportunities before and after School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the many ways in which schools can provide physical activity opportunities for students by taking advantage of hours that students might otherwise spend waiting for school to begin or playing computer games after school has ended. The article presents creative strategies for engaging students in activities that are…

  9. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  10. Mildly negative social encounters reduce physical pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Borsook, Terry K; MacDonald, Geoff

    2010-11-01

    While previous research has demonstrated a reduction in physical pain sensitivity in response to social exclusion, the manipulations employed have arguably been far removed from typical daily experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of relatively ordinary social encounters on the perception of pain. Healthy participants rated the intensity and unpleasantness of painful stimuli before and after engaging in a structured interaction with a confederate who was instructed to either be warm and friendly or indifferent. A control group was asked to perform a similar structured activity, but alone. Consistent with predictions, participants who experienced the mildly negative social exchange reported lower pain intensity and unpleasantness after the encounter relative to baseline, whereas those exposed to the positive social exchange did not evidence any change in pain ratings. These results were not mediated by changes in mood or perceived connectedness. If mildly negative social encounters can provoke an analgesic effect, it is possible that social hypoalgesia may be considerably more commonplace than previously realized. Discussion focuses on the role of stress-induced hypoalgesia, and the implications of the results for clinical assessments of pain.

  11. "No Time to Play": Perceptions toward Physical Activity in Youth with Cystic Fibrosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moola, Fiona; Faulkner, Guy E. J.; Schneiderman, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    Although physical activity may reduce lung function decline in youth with cystic fibrosis (CF), most patients are inactive. Little is known about why youth with CF are inactive or how to facilitate physical activity. This study explored perceptions toward physical activity in 14 youth with CF at a Canadian Hospital. Qualitative interviews were…

  12. Developing Long-Term Physical Activity Participation: A Grounded Theory Study with African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Amy E.; Buckworth, Janet; Katz, Mira L.; Willis, Sharla K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Heaney, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is linked to a reduced risk of obesity and chronic disease. African American women bear a disproportionate burden from these conditions and many do not get the recommended amount of physical activity. Long-term success of interventions to initiate and maintain a physically active lifestyle among African American women has…

  13. Benefits of physical activity on COPD hospitalisation depend on intensity.

    PubMed

    Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Balcells, Eva; de Batlle, Jordi; Ramon, Maria A; Rodriguez, Esther; Farrero, Eva; Benet, Marta; Guerra, Stefano; Sauleda, Jaume; Ferrer, Antoni; Ferrer, Jaume; Barberà, Joan A; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Gea, Joaquim; Agustí, Alvar; Antó, Josep M; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims to disentangle the independent effects of the quantity and the intensity of physical activity on the risk reduction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalisations.177 patients from the Phenotype Characterization and Course of COPD (PAC-COPD) cohort (mean±sd age 71±8 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s 52±16% predicted) wore the SenseWear Pro 2 Armband accelerometer (BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) for eight consecutive days, providing data on quantity (steps per day, physically active days and daily active time) and intensity (average metabolic equivalent tasks) of physical activity. Information on COPD hospitalisations during follow-up (2.5±0.8 years) was obtained from validated centralised datasets. During follow-up 67 (38%) patients were hospitalised. There was an interaction between quantity and intensity of physical activity in their effects on COPD hospitalisation risk. After adjusting for potential confounders in the Cox regression model, the risk of COPD hospitalisation was reduced by 20% (hazard ratio (HR) 0.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.93; p=0.005) for every additional 1000 daily steps at low average intensity. A greater quantity of daily steps at high average intensity did not influence the risk of COPD hospitalisations (HR 1.01, p=0.919). Similar results were found for the other measures of quantity of physical activity. Greater quantity of low-intensity physical activity reduces the risk of COPD hospitalisation, but high-intensity physical activity does not produce any risk reduction. PMID:26206873

  14. Obesity in Rural Youth: Looking beyond Nutrition and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Debra B.; Patterson, Patti J.; Wasserman, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Contributors to excessive obesity in rural youth include well-documented nutrition and physical activity behaviors. However, emerging research suggests that preventing excessive weight gain and smoking during pregnancy, teen pregnancy, and child abuse also could reduce obesity in this vulnerable population. These traditional and emerging,…

  15. Energy balance, physical activity, and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Fair, Alecia Malin; Montgomery, Kara

    2009-01-01

    This chapter posits that cancer is a complex and multifactorial process as demonstrated by the expression and production of key endocrine and steroid hormones that intermesh with lifestyle factors (physical activity, body size, and diet) in combination to heighten cancer risk. Excess weight has been associated with increased mortality from all cancers combined and for cancers of several specific sites. The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic levels in many parts of the world; more than 1 billion adults are overweight with a body mass index (BMI) exceeding 25. Overweight and obesity are clinically defined indicators of a disease process characterized by the accumulation of body fat due to an excess of energy intake (nutritional intake) relative to energy expenditure (physical activity). When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over a prolonged period of time, the result is a positive energy balance (PEB), which leads to the development of obesity. This physical state is ideal for intervention and can be modulated by changes in energy intake, expenditure, or both. Nutritional intake is a modifiable factor in the energy balance-cancer linkage primarily tested by caloric restriction studies in animals and the effect of energy availability. Restriction of calories by 10 to 40% has been shown to decrease cell proliferation, increasing apoptosis through anti-angiogenic processes. The potent anticancer effect of caloric restriction is clear, but caloric restriction alone is not generally considered to be a feasible strategy for cancer prevention in humans. Identification and development of preventive strategies that "mimic" the anticancer effects of low energy intake are desirable. The independent effect of energy intake on cancer risk has been difficult to estimate because body size and physical activity are strong determinants of total energy expenditure. The mechanisms that account for the inhibitory effects of physical activity on the carcinogenic process

  16. Do Physical Activity Facilities near Schools Affect Physical Activity in High School Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Trilk, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Porter, Dwayne E.; Hibbert, James; Pate, Russell R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between the number of physical activity facilities within walking distance of school and physical activity behavior in 12th grade girls during after-school hours. Methods Girls (N=1394) from 22 schools completed a self-report to determine physical activity after 3:00 pm. The number of physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile buffer of the school was counted with a Geographic Information System. Associations between the number of facilities and girls’ physical activity were examined using linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Results Overall, girls who attended schools with ≥ 5 facilities within the buffer reported more physical activity per day than girls in schools with < 5 facilities. In addition, girls who attended rural schools with ≥ 5 facilities reported ~12% more physical activity per day than girls who attended rural schools with < 5 facilities. No difference existed for girls in urban/suburban schools with ≥ 5 vs. < 5 facilities. Conclusion When school siting decisions are made, the number of physical activity facilities surrounding the school should be considered to encourage physical activity in 12th grade girls. PMID:21334248

  17. Internet-Based Physical Activity Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Durant, Nefertiti H.; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dorothy W.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of Internet– and Website–based physical activity interventions targeting adult populations. Search procedures identified 72 unique Internet-based physical activity interventions published in peer-reviewed journals. Participants of the studies were predominately White, middle-aged (mean age = 43.3 years), and female (65.9%). Intervention durations ranged from 2 weeks to 13 months (median = 12 weeks). Forty-six of the studies were randomized controlled trials, 21 were randomized trials without a control condition, 2 were non–randomized controlled trials, and 3 used a single-group design. The majority of studies (n = 68) assessed outcomes immediately following the end of the intervention period, and 16 studies provided delayed postintervention assessments. Forty-four of the 72 studies (61.1%) reported significant increases in physical activity. Future directions for Internet-based physical activity interventions include increasing representation of minority and male populations in Internet-based efforts, conducting delayed postintervention follow-up assessments, and incorporating emerging technologies (ie, cellular and Smartphones) into Internet-based physical activity efforts. PMID:25045343

  18. Physical activity is medicine for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Denise

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence from high quality studies to strongly support the positive association between increased levels of physical activity, exercise participation and improved health in older adults. Worldwide, around 3.2 million deaths per year are being attributed to inactivity. In industrialised countries where people are living longer lives, the levels of chronic health conditions are increasing and the levels of physical activity are declining. Key factors in improving health are exercising at a moderate-to-vigorous level for at least 5 days per week and including both aerobic and strengthening exercises. Few older adults achieve the level of physical activity or exercise that accompanies health improvements. A challenge for health professionals is to increase physical activity and exercise participation in older adults. Some success in this has been reported when physicians have given specific, detailed and localised information to their patients, but more high quality research is needed to continue to address this issue of non-participation in physical activity and exercise of a high enough level to ensure health benefits. PMID:24255119

  19. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs. PMID:19137991

  20. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health. PMID:18298849

  1. Physical activity and fitness in obese children.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, N P; Knip, M; Paavilainen, T

    1986-01-01

    Daily physical activity and physical fitness were studied in 31 obese and 31 normal-weight children matched for age and sex. The ages of the children ranged from 5.7 to 16.1 years. The history of their physical activity was examined using a questionnaire completed by the child and the parents. Physical fitness was measured using a two-stage exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. There were no significant differences in daily activities between the obese and the non-obese children, while the sports grades at school were lower and participation in the training teams of sports clubs was less frequent among obese than normal-weight subjects. The obese children were physically less fit than the normal-weight subjects as judged from the pedalling time in exercise test (P less than 0.05) and from the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) related to lean body mass (LBM) (P less than 0.001). Twenty-seven children participated for 1 year in a weight-reduction programme which comprised individual nutrition counselling, guidance on physical activities and supportive therapy. The reduction in weight was successful in 25 out of 27 children and VO2 max increased on average from 44.2 to 47.1 ml/min/kg of LBM (P less than 0.025). There was no change in the time used for physical activities during the weight reduction period although the children's participation in the training teams of sports clubs increased. It was concluded that obese children are less fit than their non-obese counterparts. Weight reduction results, however, in an improvement of the maximum oxygen consumption towards normal.

  2. Influence of physical activity to bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Drenjančević, Ines; Davidović Cvetko, Erna

    2013-02-01

    Bone remodeling is a lifetime process. Peak bone mass is achieved in the twenties, and that value is very important for skeleton health in older years of life. Modern life style with its diet poor in nutrients, and very low intensity of physical activity negatively influences health in general, and bone health as well. Bones are adapting to changes in load, so applying mechanical strain to bones results in greater bone mass and hardness. That makes physical activity important in maintaining skeleton health. Numerous studies confirm good influence of regular exercising to bone health, and connection of physical activity in youth to better bone density in older age. To activate bone remodeling mechanisms, it is necessary to apply mechanical strain to bones by exercise. Considering global problem of bone loss and osteoporosis new ways of activating young people to practice sports and active stile of life are necessary to maintain skeleton health and health in general. This paper aims to review physiological mechanisms of bone remodeling that are influenced by physical exercise. PMID:23348155

  3. Sixth-Grade Boys' Perceived Benefits of and Barriers to Physical Activity and Suggestions for Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Talley, Henry C.; Wu, Tsu-Yin; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2010-01-01

    Interventions are needed to reduce the high overweight prevalence noted among boys in early high school. Because decreased physical activity (PA) is a factor for weight gain and a decline in boys' PA occurs across the middle school years, a need exists to intervene, as soon as boys reach middle school, to help them get adequate PA. The purpose of…

  4. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  5. On reducing terrorism power: a hint from physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galam, Serge; Mauger, Alain

    2003-05-01

    The September 11 attack on the US has revealed an unprecedented terrorism worldwide range of destruction. Recently, it has been related to the percolation of worldwide spread passive supporters. This scheme puts the suppression of the percolation effect as the major strategic issue in the fight against terrorism. Accordingly the world density of passive supporters should be reduced below the percolation threshold. In terms of solid policy, it means to neutralize millions of random passive supporters, which is contrary to ethics and out of any sound practical scheme. Given this impossibility we suggest instead a new strategic scheme to act directly on the value of the terrorism percolation threshold itself without harming the passive supporters. Accordingly we identify the space hosting the percolation phenomenon to be a multi-dimensional virtual social space which extends the ground earth surface to include the various independent terrorist-fighting goals. The associated percolating cluster is then found to create long-range ground connections to terrorism activity. We are thus able to modify the percolation threshold pc in the virtual space to reach p

  6. Physical activity and Native Americans: a review.

    PubMed

    Coble, James D; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2006-07-01

    The physical activity behaviors of Native-American populations in the United States and Canada have received little attention in the health literature. The purpose of this review was to unite the literature regarding the physical activity behaviors of Native Americans. A majority of the literature was obtained using online databases. Reference lists were also reviewed to gain further access to the literature. Key-word searches included various combinations of Aboriginal, Native Indian, American Indian, Native American, First Nation, Métis, or Alaska Native with physical activity, exercise, and health behavior. Articles included were those published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals from 1990 until November 2005 that focused on participants aged 18 years and older. This review is organized according to ecologic models of health behavior, which take into account several correlates to explain human behavior, including demographic, personal health, environmental, and psychosocial. Correlates were included if they appeared at least three times in the literature. As a result of these inclusion criteria, the number of reviewed articles includes 28 quantitative, 4 qualitative, and 3 intervention studies. Results indicate that age, gender, and social support are important factors associated with physical activity. The remaining correlates show inconsistent or indeterminate results due in part to the paucity of research. It is suggested that an increase in the number of studies, especially those using longitudinal designs, is needed. Further, the application of psychosocial models to understand physical activity motivations as well as culturally appropriate and validated measurement tools are largely absent in the Native-American physical activity literature. PMID:16777541

  7. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  8. Selected physical activities and the risk of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, F.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Franceschi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between various indicators of physical activity and endometrial cancer risk was analysed using data of a case-control study conducted in 1988-1991 in Switzerland and Italy on 274 histologically confirmed cases and 572 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non neoplastic, non hormone-related diseases. Using a self-rated assessment of total physical activity, there was a systematic tendency for the cases to report more frequently 'low' or 'very low' physical activity. The relative risks were similar for 'very high' or 'moderately high' physical activity, but increased in the two lowest levels, with point estimates, in various decades of age, between 1.3 and 2.3 for 'moderately low' and over 2.5 for 'very low' physical activity. Although the association was apparently stronger at older ages, all the trends in risk were significant. Allowance for major identified potential distorting factors, including body mass index and a measure of total energy intake, could explain only in part the association, and the inverse trends in risk remained statistically significant. When selected types of physical activity were analysed, no association was observed with climbing stairs or walking, but the risk estimates for the lowest level of activity was over 4 for housework, and between 1.5 and 1.9 for sport and leisure and occupational activity. Thus, the present findings suggest that a moderate or high physical activity is an indicator of reduced endometrial cancer risk, although this observation still requires epidemiologic confirmation and clearer definition from a pathogenic point of view. PMID:8471444

  9. Physical Activity Change through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeio, Erin E.; McCaughtry, Nate; Gutuskey, Lila; Garn, Alex C.; Somers, Cheryl; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulik, Noel L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs) on urban children's, educators', and parents' physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore overall changes in student, educator, and parent PA after an 8-month CSPAP-based program. This longitudinal, exploratory study…

  10. Lack of knowledge of physical activity guidelines: can physical activity promotion campaigns do better?

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Emily C L; Esliger, Dale W; Biddle, Stuart J H; Sherar, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the prevalence of knowledge of the current UK physical activity guidelines which were introduced in 2011 and prior physical activity guidelines (30 min on 5 days each week) within two large samples of UK adult's. To investigate whether knowledge of physical activity guidelines differs according to demographics such as ethnicity, age, education and employment status. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study comparing two distinctive adult samples. Setting National survey and online-administered survey conducted in England. Participants The 2007 Health Survey for England provides data on knowledge of physical activity guidelines from 2860 UK adults (56% women, 89% white, 63% under 45 years old). In 2013, an online survey was disseminated and data were collected from 1797 UK adults on knowledge of the most recent physical activity guidelines. The 2013 sample was 70% women, 92% white and 57% under 45 years old. All adults in both samples were >18 years old and without illnesses/disorders likely to restrict physical activity. Main outcomes Knowledge of physical activity guidelines in 2007 and 2013. Demographic correlates of knowledge of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity guidelines. Results 18% of the 2013 sample accurately recalled the current physical activity guidelines compared with 11% of the 2007 sample who accurately recalled the previous guidelines. The differences in knowledge of physical activity guidelines existed for marital status, gender, age, education and employment status within both 2007 and 2013 samples (p<0.05). Men with lower education and employment status (unemployed including student and retired) and older adults were less likely to know physical activity guidelines (p<0.05). Knowledge of physical activity guidelines remained higher in the 2013 sample after controlling for demographic differences (p<0.05). Conclusions Disadvantaged population groups are less knowledgeable about physical activity guidelines

  11. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement). Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR) reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time) in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise) can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD. PMID:24223557

  12. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although research has found an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents, few studies have examined this relation prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical activity. Method Data from a longitudinal study involving annual assessments of 496 adolescent girls (M age = 13, SD 0.7) followed over a 6-year period were analyzed to address these questions. Results Physical activity significantly reduced risk for future increases in depressive symptoms and risk for onset of major/minor depression and depressive symptoms and major/minor depression significantly reduced future physical activity, controlling for several covariates, though predictive effects were modest. Conclusions Results support a bidirectional relation between exercise and depression and imply that interventions that increase physical activity may reduce risk for depression among this high-risk population. PMID:20350037

  13. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  14. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-10-07

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  15. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  16. [Physical activity in basic and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Sobieszczańska, Małgorzata; Kałka, Dariusz; Pilecki, Witold; Adamus, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    On account of the frequency of appearing and character of atherosclerosis cardiac vascular disease, one of the most crucial elements of effective fight against it is preparation of complex preventive programs including as vast number of population as possible. Consequently, Benjamin and Smitch suggested attaching the notion of basic prevention to the standard division into primary and secondary one. The basic prevention, carrying out in the general population, should concern genetic predisposition, psychosocial factors, keeping up proper body weight, healthy eating and physical activity. Especially high hopes are connected with high efficiency, simplicity and low money-consumption of preventive activities associated with physical activity modification, which has a crucial influence on reducing negative impact of atherosclerosis hazard. The results of numerous scientific research, carried out in many countries and on various, large groups, proved undoubtedly that at the healthy adult people of both sex the systematic physical activity of moderate intensification plays an essential part in preventing CVD and decreasing the death risk because of that reason as well. Moreover, systematic physical exercises show many other health-oriented actions, thanks to which they have an influence on decreasing premature and total death rate. The risk of incidence of civilization-related diseases such as diabetes type II, hypertension, obesity, osteoporosis, tumors (of large intestine, breast, prostatic gland) and depression has decreased significantly. Unequivocally positive influence has been proved at many observations dedicated to health recreational physical activity and physical activity connected with professional work based on aerobe effort. The positive effects have been also observed at children population and senior population which is more and more numerous and the most at risk. The beneficial action of physical activity is connected with direct effect on organism

  17. A social neuroscience perspective on physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Elias, Lorin J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Harrison, Amabilis H; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the cognitive characteristics of individuals who demonstrate successful and unsuccessful self-regulation of physical activity behavior. In Study 1, participants articulated 1-week intentions for physical activity and wore a triaxial accelerometer over the subsequent 7 days. Among those who were motivated to increase their physical activity, those who were most and least successful were administered an IQ test. In Study 2, a second sample of participants completed the same protocol and a smaller subset of matched participants attended a functional imaging (fMRI) session. In Study 1, successful self-regulators (SSRs) scored significantly higher than unsuccessful self-regulators (USRs) on a test of general cognitive ability, and this difference could not be accounted for by favorability of attitudes toward physical activity or conscientiousness. In Study 2, the IQ effect was replicated, with SSRs showing a full standard deviation advantage over USRs. In the imaging protocol, USRs showed heavier recruitment of cognitive resources relative to SSRs in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex during performance of a Stroop task; SSRs showed heavier recruitment in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:18723901

  18. Promoting Physical Activity through Goal Setting Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are used to setting specific goals for students within a given unit. Here, the author emphasizes that they should also encourage students to set their own goals. Goal setting engages students in the learning process and allows them to develop the skills that support an active lifestyle. The author presents goal setting…

  19. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  20. Why Should I Be Physically Active?

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to develop health problems. Regular, moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity can lower your risk of: • Heart disease and heart attack • High blood pressure • High total cholesterol, high LDL (bad) cholesterol and low HDL (good) cholesterol • Overweight or obesity • Diabetes • Stroke ...

  1. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  2. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  3. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  4. Addressing childhood obesity through increased physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Okely, Anthony D; Baur, Louise A

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children globally. Despite an appreciation that physical activity is essential for the normal growth and development of children and prevents obesity and obesity-related health problems, too few children are physically active. A concurrent problem is that today's young people spend more time than previous generations did in sedentary pursuits, including watching television and engaging in screen-based games. Active behavior has been displaced by these inactive recreational choices, which has contributed to reductions in activity-related energy expenditure. Implementation of multifactorial solutions considered to offer the best chance of combating these trends is urgently required to redress the energy imbalance that characterizes obesity. The counterproductive 'shame and blame' mentality that apportions responsibility for the childhood obesity problem to sufferers, their parents, teachers or health-care providers needs to be changed. Instead, these groups should offer constant support and encouragement to promote appropriate physical activity in children. Failure to provide activity opportunities will increase the likelihood that the children of today will live less healthy (and possibly shorter) lives than their parents.

  5. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce AIDS Risk Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Randomly assigned homosexual men (N=104) with history of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) risk behavior to experimental and control groups. Experimentals received AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and social support development training. Experimentals greatly reduced frequency…

  6. Ambulatory physical activity in Swiss Army recruits.

    PubMed

    Wyss, T; Scheffler, J; Mäder, U

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess and compare the type, duration and intensity of physical activity during the basic training provided by each of 5 selected Swiss Army occupational specialties. The first objective was to develop and validate a method to assess distance covered on foot. The second objective was to describe and compare physical activity levels among occupational specialties. In the first part of the study, 30 male volunteers completed 6 laps of 290 m at different gait velocities. Data from 15 volunteers were used to develop linear regression equations for the relationship between step frequency and gait velocity, and data from the other 15 volunteers were used to verify the accuracy of these equations. In the second part of the study, 250 volunteers from 5 military schools (each training school for a different occupational specialty) wore heart-rate, acceleration and step-count monitors during workdays of weeks 2, 4, 8 and 10 of their basic training. Sensor data were used to identify physically demanding activities, estimate energy expenditure (based on already published algorithms) and estimate distance covered on foot (based on the algorithm developed in the first part of this study). A branched model using 2 regression equations (gait velocity=0.705∙step frequency for walking speeds below 1 m/s and gait velocity=1.675∙step frequency - 1.464 for faster gait velocities) was shown to be accurate for estimating distance covered on foot. In the training schools investigated, average physical activity energy expenditure was 10.5 ± 2.4 MJ per day, and trainees covered 12.9 ± 3.3 km per day on foot. Recruits spent 61.0 ± 23.3 min per day marching and 33.1 ± 19.5 min per day performing physically demanding materials-handling activities. Average physical activity energy expenditure decreased significantly from week 2 to week 8. The measurement system utilised in the present study yielded data comparable to those of prior studies that

  7. Stop Staring! Proposed Strategies to Reduce Students' Body-Related Concerns in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crombie, Patricia-Ann; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical activity may provide a means for adolescents to improve their physical appearance and subsequently lessen body-related concerns, the fear of being negatively evaluated by others can act as a barrier to physical activity. Moreover, environments where people are constantly looked at and evaluated--such as physical education…

  8. Is physical activity in natural environments better for mental health than physical activity in other environments?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that there may be synergy between the psychological benefits of physical activity, and the restorative effects of contact with a natural environment; physical activity in a natural environment might produce greater mental health benefits than physical activity elsewhere. However, such experiments are typically short-term and, by definition, artificially control the participant types, physical activity and contact with nature. This observational study asked whether such effects can be detected in everyday settings at a population level. It used data from the Scottish Health Survey 2008, describing all environments in which respondents were physically active. Associations were sought between use of each environment, and then use of environments grouped as natural or non-natural, and the risk of poor mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)) and level of wellbeing (measured by the Warwick Edinburgh Mental health and Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS). Results showed an independent association between regular use of natural environments and a lower risk of poor mental health, but not for activity in other types of environment. For example, the odds of poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4) among those regularly using woods or forests for physical activity were 0.557 (95% CI 0.323-0.962), compared to non-users. However, regular use of natural environments was not clearly associated with greater wellbeing, whilst regular use of non-natural environments was. The study concludes that physical activity in natural environments is associated with a reduction in the risk of poor mental health to a greater extent than physical activity in other environments, but also that activity in different types of environment may promote different kinds of positive psychological response. Access to natural environments for physical activity should be protected and promoted as a contribution to protecting and improving population mental health.

  9. Physical activity and quality of life experienced by highly active individuals with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Giacobbi, Peter R; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-07-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M=31.12, SD=10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that impacted their daily living. They were administered the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (Washburn, Weimo, McAuley, Frogley, & Figoni, 2002) and in-depth interviews focused on their physical activity experiences and evaluations about their quality of life. Grounded theory analyses (Charmaz, 2000, 2002) revealed that individuals who use wheelchairs perceived a number of psychological, social, and health benefits associated with physical activity involvement. The participants' evaluations and descriptions of their physical activity experiences appeared to support self-efficacy beliefs, feelings of empowerment, and motivation for continued involvement. First-person descriptions are presented to demonstrate how and why physical activity behaviors were perceived to enhance the quality of the participants' lives.

  10. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  11. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  12. Physical activity to overcome the adversity of widowhood

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Lee, June Han; Chang, Ly-yun; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chan, Yan-Lan; Wen, Christopher; Chiu, Mu-Lin; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Wai, Jackson Pui Man; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widowhood has been increasingly encountered because of increasing longevity of women, often characterized by social stigmatization and poor physical and mental health. However, applied research to overcome its adversity has been quite limited. The goal of this study is to explore the role of physical activity in improving the health of widows. A cohort of 446,582 adults in Taiwan who successively participated in a comprehensive medical screening program starting in 1994, including 232,788 women, was followed up for mortality until 2008. Each individual provided detailed health history, and extensive lab tests results. The number of widows increased with time trend. Every other woman above age 65 was a widow (44%). Widows were less active, more obese, and smoked and drank more, had sleep problems, were more depressed with taking sedatives or psychoactive drugs, leading to more suicides. In the global development of health policies by World Health Organization (WHO), physical activity is one of the main factors to reverse poor health. The poor health of inactive widow was mitigated when becoming fully active in this study. Exercise not only reduced the observed 18% increase in all-cause mortality, but also gained 4 years and as much as 14% mortality advantage over the married but inactive. More importantly, becoming physically active energized their mental status, improved sleep quality and quantity, reduced depressions and the need for psychoactive drugs, and increased socialization circles. Widows, a rapidly growing and socially stigmatized group, suffered from social and financial inequality and tended to develop poorer health. Sustained physical activity could be one of the ways for them to overcome and reverse some of the physical and mental adversities of widowhood, and improve their quality and quantity of life. PMID:27512856

  13. Stimuli Reduce the Dimensionality of Cortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The activity of ensembles of simultaneously recorded neurons can be represented as a set of points in the space of firing rates. Even though the dimension of this space is equal to the ensemble size, neural activity can be effectively localized on smaller subspaces. The dimensionality of the neural space is an important determinant of the computational tasks supported by the neural activity. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the sensory cortex of alert rats during periods of ongoing (inter-trial) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that dimensionality grows linearly with ensemble size, and grows significantly faster during ongoing activity compared to evoked activity. We explain these results using a spiking network model based on a clustered architecture. The model captures the difference in growth rate between ongoing and evoked activity and predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size that could be tested in high-density multi-electrode recordings. Moreover, we present a simple theory that predicts the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality. This upper bound is inversely proportional to the amount of pair-wise correlations and, compared to a homogeneous network without clusters, it is larger by a factor equal to the number of clusters. The empirical estimation of such bounds depends on the number and duration of trials and is well predicted by the theory. Together, these results provide a framework to analyze neural dimensionality in alert animals, its behavior under stimulus presentation, and its theoretical dependence on ensemble size, number of clusters, and correlations in spiking network models. PMID:26924968

  14. Stimuli Reduce the Dimensionality of Cortical Activity.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The activity of ensembles of simultaneously recorded neurons can be represented as a set of points in the space of firing rates. Even though the dimension of this space is equal to the ensemble size, neural activity can be effectively localized on smaller subspaces. The dimensionality of the neural space is an important determinant of the computational tasks supported by the neural activity. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the sensory cortex of alert rats during periods of ongoing (inter-trial) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that dimensionality grows linearly with ensemble size, and grows significantly faster during ongoing activity compared to evoked activity. We explain these results using a spiking network model based on a clustered architecture. The model captures the difference in growth rate between ongoing and evoked activity and predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size that could be tested in high-density multi-electrode recordings. Moreover, we present a simple theory that predicts the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality. This upper bound is inversely proportional to the amount of pair-wise correlations and, compared to a homogeneous network without clusters, it is larger by a factor equal to the number of clusters. The empirical estimation of such bounds depends on the number and duration of trials and is well predicted by the theory. Together, these results provide a framework to analyze neural dimensionality in alert animals, its behavior under stimulus presentation, and its theoretical dependence on ensemble size, number of clusters, and correlations in spiking network models. PMID:26924968

  15. The Prescribed Amount of Physical Activity in Randomized Clinical Trials in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Judy; Buchner, David M.; Prohaska, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past two decades, a consensus has formed that increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior in older adults are important for physical and cognitive health. Although there is strong evidence that regular physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of many chronic diseases, a major concern is ensuring that…

  16. Evidence-Based Practice Guideline: Increasing Physical Activity in Schools--Kindergarten through 8th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagby, Karen; Adams, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Because of the growing obesity epidemic across all age groups in the United States, interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have become a priority. Evidence is growing that interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have positive results and are generally inexpensive to implement.…

  17. Decreasing Stereotypy in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Increased Physical Activity and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Constance Ann Hylton

    2010-01-01

    This study used increased physical activity during recess to reduce stereotypy in preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Results indicate increasing physical activity can be used as an intervention to reduce automatically maintained stereotypy in preschoolers with ASD. The intervention had a lesser effect on a preschooler whose stereotypy was…

  18. Physical activity to overcome the adversity of widowhood: Benefits beyond physical health.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Lee, June Han; Chang, Ly-Yun; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chan, Yan-Lan; Wen, Christopher; Chiu, Mu-Lin; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Wai, Jackson Pui Man; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang

    2016-08-01

    Widowhood has been increasingly encountered because of increasing longevity of women, often characterized by social stigmatization and poor physical and mental health. However, applied research to overcome its adversity has been quite limited. The goal of this study is to explore the role of physical activity in improving the health of widows.A cohort of 446,582 adults in Taiwan who successively participated in a comprehensive medical screening program starting in 1994, including 232,788 women, was followed up for mortality until 2008. Each individual provided detailed health history, and extensive lab tests results.The number of widows increased with time trend. Every other woman above age 65 was a widow (44%). Widows were less active, more obese, and smoked and drank more, had sleep problems, were more depressed with taking sedatives or psychoactive drugs, leading to more suicides. In the global development of health policies by World Health Organization (WHO), physical activity is one of the main factors to reverse poor health. The poor health of inactive widow was mitigated when becoming fully active in this study. Exercise not only reduced the observed 18% increase in all-cause mortality, but also gained 4 years and as much as 14% mortality advantage over the married but inactive. More importantly, becoming physically active energized their mental status, improved sleep quality and quantity, reduced depressions and the need for psychoactive drugs, and increased socialization circles.Widows, a rapidly growing and socially stigmatized group, suffered from social and financial inequality and tended to develop poorer health. Sustained physical activity could be one of the ways for them to overcome and reverse some of the physical and mental adversities of widowhood, and improve their quality and quantity of life.

  19. Physical activity to overcome the adversity of widowhood: Benefits beyond physical health.

    PubMed

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Lee, June Han; Chang, Ly-Yun; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chan, Yan-Lan; Wen, Christopher; Chiu, Mu-Lin; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsai, Shan Pou; Wai, Jackson Pui Man; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng; Wen, Chi Pang

    2016-08-01

    Widowhood has been increasingly encountered because of increasing longevity of women, often characterized by social stigmatization and poor physical and mental health. However, applied research to overcome its adversity has been quite limited. The goal of this study is to explore the role of physical activity in improving the health of widows.A cohort of 446,582 adults in Taiwan who successively participated in a comprehensive medical screening program starting in 1994, including 232,788 women, was followed up for mortality until 2008. Each individual provided detailed health history, and extensive lab tests results.The number of widows increased with time trend. Every other woman above age 65 was a widow (44%). Widows were less active, more obese, and smoked and drank more, had sleep problems, were more depressed with taking sedatives or psychoactive drugs, leading to more suicides. In the global development of health policies by World Health Organization (WHO), physical activity is one of the main factors to reverse poor health. The poor health of inactive widow was mitigated when becoming fully active in this study. Exercise not only reduced the observed 18% increase in all-cause mortality, but also gained 4 years and as much as 14% mortality advantage over the married but inactive. More importantly, becoming physically active energized their mental status, improved sleep quality and quantity, reduced depressions and the need for psychoactive drugs, and increased socialization circles.Widows, a rapidly growing and socially stigmatized group, suffered from social and financial inequality and tended to develop poorer health. Sustained physical activity could be one of the ways for them to overcome and reverse some of the physical and mental adversities of widowhood, and improve their quality and quantity of life. PMID:27512856

  20. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  1. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  2. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  3. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  4. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  5. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  6. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  7. Light physical activity determined by a motion sensor decreases insulin resistance, improves lipid homeostasis and reduces visceral fat in high-risk subjects: PreDiabEx study RCT

    PubMed Central

    Herzig, K-H; Ahola, R; Leppäluoto, J; Jokelainen, J; Jämsä, T; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine physical activity (PA) thresholds affecting glucose, insulin and lipid concentrations and body fat composition in high-risk patients for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Intervention: A total of 113 subjects of both genders having abnormal glucose levels in the oral glucose tolerance test were contacted. A total of 78 subjects with age 58.8±10.4 years and body mass index 31.7±5.3 kg m−2 were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Intervention consisted of a supervised walking (60 min three times weekly) for 3 months. All the subjects received standard care for PA and weight reduction and wore an accelerometer during the whole wakeful time. Results: Over 80% of the daily steps clustered at an acceleration level of 0.3–0.7 g (2–3 km h−1 of walking) and were 5870 in the intervention and 4434 in the control group (P<0.029). Between 0 and 3 months no significant changes were observed in fasting and 2-h glucose, body weight or maximal oxygen uptake. In contrast, changes in fasting and 2-h insulin (−3.4 mU l−1, P=0.035 and −26.6, P=0.003, respectively), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (−1.0, P=0.036), total cholesterol (−0.55 mmol l−1, P=0.041), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (−0.36 mmol l−1, P=0.008) and visceral fat area (−5.5 cm2, P=0.030) were significantly greater in the intervention than in control subjects. The overall effects of PA were analyzed by quartiles of daily steps of all subjects. There were significant reductions in total and LDL cholesterol and visceral fat area between the highest (daily steps over 6520) and the lowest quartile (1780–2810 daily steps). The changes associated with PA remained significant after adjustments of baseline, sex, age and body weight change. Conclusion: Habitual and structured PAs with the acceleration levels of 0.3–0.7 g and daily steps over 6520, equivalent to walking at 2–3 km h−1 for 90

  8. Physical activity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Eric P; Grandjean, Peter W

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains one of the leading causes of death and disability in developed countries around the world despite the documented success of lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. This illustrates the multifactorial nature of atherosclerosis and the use of novel inflammatory markers as an adjunct to risk factor reduction strategies. As evidence continues to accumulate that inflammation is involved in all stages of the development and progression of atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) may provide additional information regarding the biological status of the atherosclerotic lesion. Recent investigations suggest that physical activity reduces CRP levels. Higher levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are consistently associated with 6-35% lower CRP levels. Longitudinal training studies that have demonstrated reductions in CRP concentrations range from 16% to 41%, an effect that may be independent of baseline levels of CRP, body composition or weight loss. The average change in CRP associated with physical activity appears to be at least as good, if not better, than currently prescribed pharmacological interventions in similar populations. The primary purpose of this review will be to present evidence from both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations that physical activity lowers CRP levels in a dose-response manner. Finally, this review will examine factors such as body composition, sex, blood sample timing, diet and smoking, which may influence the CRP response to physical activity. PMID:16646631

  9. Physical Activity and Obesity: Biomechanical and Physiological Key Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Nantel, Julie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Prince, François

    2011-01-01

    Overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) are often associated with low levels of physical activity. Physical activity is recommended to reduce excess body weight, prevent body weight regain, and decrease the subsequent risks of developing metabolic and orthopedic conditions. However, the impact of OW and OB on motor function and daily living activities must be taken into account. OW and OB are associated with musculoskeletal structure changes, decreased mobility, modification of the gait pattern, and changes in the absolute and relative energy expenditures for a given activity. While changes in the gait pattern have been reported at the ankle, knee, and hip, modifications at the knee level might be the most challenging for articular integrity. This review of the literature combines concepts and aims to provide insights into the prescription of physical activity for this population. Topics covered include the repercussions of OW and OB on biomechanical and physiological responses associated with the musculoskeletal system and daily physical activity. Special attention is given to the effect of OW and OB in youth during postural (standing) and various locomotor (walking, running, and cycling) activities. PMID:21113311

  10. Mental and physical countermeasures reduce the accuracy of polygraph tests.

    PubMed

    Honts, C R; Raskin, D C; Kircher, J C

    1994-04-01

    Effects of countermeasures on the control-question polygraph test were examined in an experiment with 120 Ss recruited from the general community. Ss were given polygraph tests by an examiner who used field techniques. Twenty Ss were innocent, and of the 100 guilty Ss, 80 were trained in the use of either a physical countermeasure (biting the tongue or pressing the toes to the floor) or a mental countermeasure (counting backward by 7) to be applied while control questions were being presented during their examinations. The mental and physical countermeasures were equally effective: Each enabled approximately 50% of the Ss to defeat the polygraph test. The strongest countermeasure effects were observed in the cardiovascular measures. Moreover, the countermeasures were difficult to detect either instrumentally or through observation.

  11. Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Greg; Davenne, Damien

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap. PMID:17067643

  12. Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Davenne, Damien

    2007-02-28

    Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap.

  13. Prediction of physical workload in reduced gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The background, development, and application of a methodology to predict human energy expenditure and physical workload in low gravity environments, such as a Lunar or Martian base, is described. Based on a validated model to predict energy expenditures in Earth-based industrial jobs, the model relies on an elemental analysis of the proposed job. Because the job itself need not physically exist, many alternative job designs may be compared in their physical workload. The feasibility of using the model for prediction of low gravity work was evaluated by lowering body and load weights, while maintaining basal energy expenditure. Comparison of model results was made both with simulated low gravity energy expenditure studies and with reported Apollo 14 Lunar EVA expenditure. Prediction accuracy was very good for walking and for cart pulling on slopes less than 15 deg, but the model underpredicted the most difficult work conditions. This model was applied to example core sampling and facility construction jobs, as presently conceptualized for a Lunar or Martian base. Resultant energy expenditures and suggested work-rest cycles were well within the range of moderate work difficulty. Future model development requirements were also discussed.

  14. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Physical Activity: The Moderating Role of Mental Toughness.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas E; Moffitt, Robyn L; Neumann, David L; Thomas, Patrick R

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention-behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement.

  15. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Physical Activity: The Moderating Role of Mental Toughness.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas E; Moffitt, Robyn L; Neumann, David L; Thomas, Patrick R

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention-behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement. PMID:26524097

  16. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  17. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages.

  18. Role of Physical Activity and Diet After Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Van Blarigan, Erin L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:25918293

  19. Mucin Binding Reduces Colistin Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Johnny X; Blaskovich, Mark A T; Pelingon, Ruby; Ramu, Soumya; Kavanagh, Angela; Elliott, Alysha G; Butler, Mark S; Montgomery, A Bruce; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-10-01

    Colistin has found increasing use in treating drug-resistant bacterial lung infections, but potential interactions with pulmonary biomolecules have not been investigated. We postulated that colistin, like aminoglycoside antibiotics, may bind to secretory mucin in sputum or epithelial mucin that lines airways, reducing free drug levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured binding of colistin and other antibiotics to porcine mucin, a family of densely glycosylated proteins used as a surrogate for human sputum and airway mucin. Antibiotics were incubated in dialysis tubing with or without mucin, and concentrations of unbound antibiotics able to penetrate the dialysis tubing were measured over time using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The percentage of antibiotic measured in the dialysate after 4 h in the presence of mucin, relative to the amount without mucin, was 15% for colistin, 16% for polymyxin B, 19% for tobramycin, 52% for ciprofloxacin, and 78% for daptomycin. Antibiotics with the strongest mucin binding had an overall polybasic positive charge, whereas those with comparatively little binding were less basic. When comparing MICs measured with or without added mucin, colistin and polymyxin B showed >100-fold increases in MICs for multiple Gram-negative bacteria. Preclinical evaluation of mucin binding should become a standard procedure when considering the potential pulmonary use of new or existing antibiotics, particularly those with a polybasic overall charge. In the airways, mucin binding may reduce the antibacterial efficacy of inhaled or intravenously administered colistin, and the presence of sub-MIC effective antibiotic concentrations could result in the development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26169405

  20. Mucin Binding Reduces Colistin Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Johnny X; Blaskovich, Mark A T; Pelingon, Ruby; Ramu, Soumya; Kavanagh, Angela; Elliott, Alysha G; Butler, Mark S; Montgomery, A Bruce; Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-10-01

    Colistin has found increasing use in treating drug-resistant bacterial lung infections, but potential interactions with pulmonary biomolecules have not been investigated. We postulated that colistin, like aminoglycoside antibiotics, may bind to secretory mucin in sputum or epithelial mucin that lines airways, reducing free drug levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured binding of colistin and other antibiotics to porcine mucin, a family of densely glycosylated proteins used as a surrogate for human sputum and airway mucin. Antibiotics were incubated in dialysis tubing with or without mucin, and concentrations of unbound antibiotics able to penetrate the dialysis tubing were measured over time using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The percentage of antibiotic measured in the dialysate after 4 h in the presence of mucin, relative to the amount without mucin, was 15% for colistin, 16% for polymyxin B, 19% for tobramycin, 52% for ciprofloxacin, and 78% for daptomycin. Antibiotics with the strongest mucin binding had an overall polybasic positive charge, whereas those with comparatively little binding were less basic. When comparing MICs measured with or without added mucin, colistin and polymyxin B showed >100-fold increases in MICs for multiple Gram-negative bacteria. Preclinical evaluation of mucin binding should become a standard procedure when considering the potential pulmonary use of new or existing antibiotics, particularly those with a polybasic overall charge. In the airways, mucin binding may reduce the antibacterial efficacy of inhaled or intravenously administered colistin, and the presence of sub-MIC effective antibiotic concentrations could result in the development of antibiotic resistance.

  1. Physical activity, physical fitness and the effect of exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.

  2. Biomarkers of physical activity and exercise.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Gonzalo; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Palacios, Nieves; Maroto-Sánchez, Beatriz; Aznar, Susana; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-02-26

    Traditionally, biomarkers have been of interest in sports in order to measure performance, progress in training and for identifying overtraining. During the last years, growing interest is set on biomarkers aiming at evaluating health-related aspects which can be modulated by regular physical activity and sport. The value or concentration of a biomarker depends on many factors, as the training status of the subject, the degree of fatigue and the type, intensity and duration of exercise, apart from age and sex. Most of the biomarkers are measured in blood, urine and saliva. One of the main limitations for biochemical biomarkers is that reference values for blood concentration of biomarkers specifically adapted to physically active people and athletes are lacking. Concentrations can differ widely from normal reference ranges. Therefore, it is important to adapt reference values as much as possible and to control each subject regularly, in order to establish his/her own reference scale. Other useful biomarkers are body composition (specifically muscle mass, fat mass, weight), physical fitness (cardiovascular capacity, strength, agility, flexibility), heart rate and blood pressure. Depending on the aim, one or several biomarkers should be measured. It may differ if it is for research purpose, for the follow up of training or to prevent risks. For this review, we will get deeper into the biomarkers used to identify the degree of physical fitness, chronic stress, overtraining, cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation.

  3. Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

  4. Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Dengel, Donald R; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and resources, plus poor quality teaching are barriers to PA promotion in schools. The school setting and physical educators in particular, must embrace their role in public health by adopting a comprehensive school PA program. We provide an overview of key issues and challenges in the area plus best bets and recommendations for physical education and PA promotion in the school system moving forward.

  5. Capitalizing on the Teachable Moment: Osteoarthritis Physical Activity and Exercise Net for Improving Physical Activity in Early Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lineker, Sydney; Cibere, Jolanda; Crooks, Valorie A; Jones, Catherine A; Kopec, Jacek A; Lear, Scott A; Pencharz, James; Rhodes, Ryan E; Esdaile, John M

    2013-01-01

    Background Practice guidelines emphasize the use of exercise and weight reduction as the first line of management for knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, less than half of the people with mild OA participate in moderate intensity physical activity. Given that physical activities have been shown to reduce pain, improve quality of life, and have the potential to reduce the progression of joint damage, many people with OA are missing the benefits of this inexpensive intervention. Objective The objectives of this study are (1) to develop a behavioral theory-informed Internet intervention called Osteoarthritis Physical Activity & Exercise Net (OPEN) for people with previously undiagnosed knee OA, and (2) to assess the efficacy of the OPEN website for improving physical activity participation through a proof-of-concept study. Methods OPEN was developed based on the theory of planned behavior. Efficacy of this online intervention is being assessed by an ongoing proof-of-concept, single-blind randomized controlled trial in British Columbia, Canada. We are currently recruiting participants and plan to recruit a total of 252 sedentary people with previously undiagnosed knee OA using a set of validated criteria. Half of the participants will be randomized to use OPEN and receive an OA education pamphlet. The other half only will receive the pamphlet. Participants will complete an online questionnaire at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months about their participation in physical activities, health-related quality of life, and motivational outcomes. In addition, we will perform an aerobic fitness test in a sub-sample of participants (n=20 per study arm). In the primary analysis, we will use logistic regression to compare the proportion of participants reporting being physically active at or above the recommended level in the 2 groups, adjusting for baseline measurement, age, and sex. Results This study evaluates a theory-informed behavioral intervention at a time when people affected

  6. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  7. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  8. Physical Activity Measurement Device Agreement: Pedometer Steps/Minute and Physical Activity Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Mungen, Jonathan D.; Oh, Yoonsin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine agreement between the Walk4Life DUO pedometer (W4L; Walk4Life, Plainfield, Illinois, USA) and two criterion instruments in the measurement of physical activity. Participants (N = 189, M = 16.74 years, SD = 0.99) in high school physical education concurrently wore the DUO (i.e., comparison instrument) and…

  9. [Nutrition, lifestyle, physical activity, and supportive care during chemotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Lümmen, G; Jäger, T; Sommer, F; Ebert, T; Schmitz-Draeger, B

    2006-05-01

    With improvements in cancer survival rates, more patients with cancer are living longer and the influence of nutrition, lifestyle, physical activity as well as supportive care during and after chemotherapy is of increasing interest. In several malignancies smoking cessation increases cancer survival. Similar effects are expected by healthy nutrition. Regular physical activity of cancer patients reduces drug interactions of chemotherapy, decreases the number of comorbid conditions, and helps patients maintain independence as long as possible. For supportive care during chemotherapy the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are more effective for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. There are several colony-stimulating factors (e.g. GCSF, erythropoietin) for hematopoietic recovery post-chemotherapy. Altogether supportive care of chemotherapy reduces toxicity and increases efficacy.

  10. Regulatory fit messages and physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual's regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

  11. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore the association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6-months to 1-year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. PMID:24952993

  12. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

  13. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume.

  14. Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition.

  15. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    PubMed

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training. PMID:10919953

  16. Defining adapted physical activity: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative methodology. Data sources were online surveys, APA literature, and expertise of researchers. Findings, with the identification of further considerations, were provided for each APA component to stimulate reflection and further inquiry among international professionals with diverse backgrounds.

  17. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  18. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  19. Connecting Physical Education to Out-of-School Physical Activity through Sport Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwamberger, Benjamin; Sinelnikov, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of physical education, according to The Society of Health and Physical Educators, is for children to establish "patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity." However, participation alone in physical education classes is not enough for students to reach daily recommended levels of physical activity.…

  20. Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity as Perceived by Older Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain…

  1. Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons Downs, Danielle; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Evenson, Kelly R.; Leiferman, Jenn; Yeo, SeonAe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this review, we provide researchers and practitioners with an overview of the physical activity and pregnancy literature to promote prenatal physical activity, improve measurement, further elucidate the role of activity in reducing maternal health complications, and inform future research. Method: We examined past and present physical…

  2. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  3. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  4. [Physical activity in patients with microvascular complications of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Matoulek, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Physical activity is often underestimated and little used in the treatment of diabetes. The fear of damage, especially in patients with diabetes complications is one of the reasons why it occurs. Physical activity plays an important role in prevention of the progression of peripheral neuropathy and its impact is primarily on the development of muscle strength and the ability to replace the function of nerve fibers damaged disabilities. Demonstrable effect on neuropathy is already recorded a few weeks of regular exercise, long-term programs then demonstrate the safety of occurrence of ulcers in compliance with basic foot care. Present autonomic neuropathy cannot predict response to cardiac respectively, heart rate and blood pressure. Due to other risks (silent ischemia, arrhythmia etc.), it is appropriate to stress test before a prescription of exercise programs. Monitoring of blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose during the first hours of physical activity is necessary. In patients with autonomic neuropathy of the gastrointestinal tract may significantly affect the composition of the diet not only the ability of physical activity, but can also affect hypoglycaemia due to a slow carbohydrate absorption in these patients. Another risk in patients with autonomic neuropathy is orthostatic hypotension, which may potentiate antihypertensive drugs in "white coat" hypertension. Prescription of patients with retinopathy depends on the form and degree of retinopathy. Only proliferative retinopathy can significantly reduce exercise prescription, and it is always necessary to consult with ophthalmologist. In patients with nephropathy is an important stage of renal insufficiency for prescription of physical activity. Prescription is then influenced by the degree of renal insufficiency in addition to the presence of other associated diseases (anemia, hypertension, osteopathy etc.). Physical activity is essential in patients on dialysis respectively. After renal

  5. Moderate physical exercise reduces parasitaemia and protects colonic myenteric neurons in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Neide M; Santos, Franciele d N; Toledo, Max Jean d O; Moraes, Solange M F d; Araujo, Eduardo J d A; Sant'Ana, Debora d M G; Araujo, Silvana M d

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of moderate physical exercise on the myenteric neurons in the colonic intestinal wall of mice that had been infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology and immunological aspects of the mice were considered. Forty-day-old male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: Trained Infected (TI), Sedentary Infected (SI), Trained Control (TC), and Sedentary Control (SC). The TC and TI were subjected to a moderate physical exercise program on a treadmill for 8 weeks. Three days after finishing exercise, the TI and SI groups were inoculated with 1,300 blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain-T. cruzi. After 75 days of infection results were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis or Analyze of variance (Tukey post hoc test) at 5% level of significance was performed. Moderate physical exercise reduced both the parasite peak (day 8 of infection) and total parasitemia compared with the sedentary groups (P < 0.05). This activity also contributed to neuronal survival (P < 0.05). Exercise caused neuronal hypertrophy (P < 0.05) and an increase in the total thickness of the intestinal wall (P < 0.05). The TI group exhibited an increase in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (P > 0.05). In trained animals, the number of goblet cells was reduced compared with sedentary animals (P < 0.05). Physical exercise prevented the formation of inflammatory foci in the TI group (P < 0.05) and increased the synthesis of TNF-α (P < 0.05) and TGF-β (P > 0.05). The present results demonstrated the benefits of moderate physical exercise, and reaffirmed the possibility of that it may contribute to improving clinical treatment in Chagas' disease patients. PMID:24205797

  6. Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

  7. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  8. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  9. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  10. Activated coconut shell charcoal carbon using chemical-physical activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Esmar; Umiatin, Nasbey, Hadi; Bintoro, Ridho Akbar; Wulandari, Futri; Erlina

    2016-02-01

    The use of activated carbon from natural material such as coconut shell charcoal as metal absorbance of the wastewater is a new trend. The activation of coconut shell charcoal carbon by using chemical-physical activation has been investigated. Coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours in producing charcoal. The charcoal as the sample was shieved into milimeter sized granule particle and chemically activated by immersing in various concentration of HCl, H3PO4, KOH and NaOH solutions. The samples then was physically activated using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology and carbon content of activated carbon were characterized by using SEM/EDS. The result shows that the pores of activated carbon are openned wider as the chemical activator concentration is increased due to an excessive chemical attack. However, the pores tend to be closed as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing.

  11. Influence of High School Physical Education on University Student's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jessica; Jenkins, Jayne; Wallhead, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the Lifelong Physical Activity (LLPA) framework to examine the influence of high school physical education (PE) on university students' level of physical activity (PA). Participants included 365 undergraduate students from the Rocky Mountain West of the USA enrolled in a university physical activity course.…

  12. The Effect of Physical Education Climates on Elementary Students' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gell, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background: With the growing need for children from underserved populations to be physically active it is imperative to create developmentally appropriate and enjoyable physical education programs that promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mastery and performance climates on physical activity during…

  13. Physical barrier to reduce WP mortalities of foraging waterfowl

    SciTech Connect

    Pochop, P.A.; Cummings, J.L.; Yoder, C.A.; Gossweiler, W.A.

    2000-02-01

    White phosphorus (WP) has been identified as the cause of mortality to certain species of water-fowl at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh in Alaska, used as an ordinance impact area by the US Army. A blend of calcium bentonite/organo clays, gravel, and binding polymers was tested for effectiveness as a barrier to reduce duck foraging and mortality. Following the application of the barrier to one of two contaminated ponds, the authors observed greater duck foraging and higher mortality in the untreated pond and no mortality in the treated pond after a year of tidal inundations and ice effects. Emergent vegetation recovered within a year of treatment. WP levels in the barrier were less than the method limit of detection, indicating no migration of WP into the materials. Barrier thickness remained relatively stable over a period of 4 years, and vegetation was found to be important in stabilizing the barrier material.

  14. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  15. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  16. A Reduced-Content 16+ Syllabus in Physics. A Working Paper Prepared for the Physics Education Joint Committee of the Royal Society and Institute of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    After publication in 1982 of the Royal Society report "Science Education 11-18 in England and Wales," the Physics Education Joint Committee of the Royal Society and Institute of Physics was established. A working party of this Joint Committee has now produced this reduced-content 16+ syllabus in physics. The main intention of the working party was…

  17. Motivational considerations in physical activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Lewthwaite, R

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine movement science research on personal and social-environmental motivational influences in physical activity contexts. Motivation is defined as a process in which internal and external factors direct and energize thoughts, feelings, and actions. Motivation is described as a consequence of meaning, which is derived from a combination of personal and social factors, including personal goals or incentives, expectations of personal efficacy, movement-related perceptual and affective experiences, and social and physical features of the environment. Recent literature from sport and exercise psychology is presented on these variables, their determinants, and their consequences for choice, effort, persistence, and performance behavior in exercise and sport contexts.

  18. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  19. Reducing gender differences in performance in introductory college physics through values affirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Despite males and females being equally represented at the college level in several STEM disciplines (including biology, chemistry and mathematics), females continue to be under-represented in physics. Our research documents and addresses this participation gender gap in the introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. We characterize gender differences in performance, psychological factors (including attitudes and beliefs) and retention that exist in Physics 1 and 2 [L. E. Kost, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009); L. E. Kost-Smith, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 6, 020112 (2010)]. We find that the gender differences in performance can largely be accounted for by measurable differences in the physics and mathematics backgrounds and incoming attitudes and beliefs of males and females. But these background factors do not completely account for the gender gaps. We hypothesize, based on gender differences in responses to survey questions about students' sense of physics identity and confidence levels, that identity threat (the fear of confirming a negative characterization about one's identity) is playing a role in our courses. Working with researchers in psychology, we implemented an intervention where students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the course [A. Miyake, et al., Science, 330, 1234 (2010)]. This ``values affirmation'' activity reduced the male-female performance difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. This brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance.

  20. [Relation between physical activity, weight balance and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Maître, Carole

    2013-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies, with a good methodology, support the evidence of the positive role of regular physical activity on primary and tertiary prevention of breast cancer on the risk of recurrence and mortality. This relation depends on the level of total energy expenditure by week, which helps balance weight on lifetime, an essential part of benefit. The beneficial effects of physical activity are linked to many interrelated additional mechanisms: in a short-term, contraction of skeletal muscles involves aerobic metabolism which utilizes glucose and amino acids like glutamine, improves insulin sensitivity and lowers plasma insulin; in a long-term, physical activity produces favorable changes in body composition, decreasing body fat and increasing lean mass. That is a key point to reduce the intake of energy substrates stimulating carcinogenesis, to improve insulin sensitivity, to change the ratio of leptin and adiponectin, to enhance cellular immunity and to block cellular pathways of cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Maintaining a healthy weight through regular physical activity well balanced with energy intake is it a goal for prevention of breast cancer. PMID:23566614

  1. The effect of physical activity on mediators of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, M A; Leggate, M; Viana, J L; King, J A

    2013-09-01

    Being physically active and undertaking exercise on a regular basis are critical lifestyle behaviours which protect against the development of numerous chronic metabolic conditions. One of the key mechanisms by which physical activity exerts favourable health effects appears to be due to its capacity to reduce chronic low-grade inflammation. Single bouts of exercise have a potent anti-inflammatory influence with recent advances describing important effects of acute exercise on inflammatory mediators produced within skeletal muscle (myokines), adipose tissue (adipokines) and leucocytes. The accumulated effects of physical activity or exercise training on systemic inflammation have been studied widely within epidemiological research; however, information from intervention trials is still emerging. Current data suggest that the most marked improvements in the inflammatory profile are conferred with exercise performed at higher intensities, with combined aerobic and resistance exercise training potentially providing the greatest benefit. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in our understanding surrounding the acute and chronic effects of physical activity on key mediators of inflammation. Within this, particular attention is given to the interleukin-6 system owing to its apparent centrality in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise.

  2. Nutritional strategies of physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary strategies for physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia based on a systematic literature review. Method References were included if the study population consisted of adults over 18 years old who were physically active in fitness centers. We identified reports through an electronic search ofScielo, Lilacs and Medline using the following keywords: muscle dysmorphia, vigorexia, distorted body image, and exercise. We found eight articles in Scielo, 17 in Medline and 12 in Lilacs. Among the total number of 37 articles, only 17 were eligible for inclusion in this review. Results The results indicated that the feeding strategies used by physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia did not include planning or the supervision of a nutritionist. Diet included high protein and low fat foods and the ingestion of dietary and ergogenic supplements to reduce weight. Conclusion Physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia could benefit from the help of nutritional professionals to evaluate energy estimation, guide the diet and its distribution in macronutrient and consider the principle of nutrition to functional recovery of the digestive process, promote liver detoxification, balance and guide to organic adequate intake of supplemental nutrients and other substances. PMID:23706013

  3. Diet and physical activity patterns of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Zhu, Lei; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2009-01-01

    Childhood provides an opportunity for establishing healthful lifestyle habits, yet little is known about diet and physical activity patterns of elementary school-aged children. A cohort of 35 boys and girls in grades 3 through 5 (mean age=9.5 years) was studied during the course of the 2004-2005 school year, providing seasonal assessments of diet and physical activity. Objectively measured data included height, weight, and pedometer step counts. Subjective data included seasonal 3-day diet diaries, a food frequency questionnaire, and a physical activity questionnaire. Participants were white, well-nourished, and within the healthy range for body mass index for age. Only three students (9%) were overweight and another three were "at risk" for overweight. Food intake patterns fell far below MyPyramid guidelines for average daily servings of fruits and vegetables. High intakes of saturated fat (average of 12% of calories) and sodium were noted, along with inadequate fiber intakes. Snacks, desserts, and entrees that contributed most to calorie and saturated fat intake were identified. Self-reported physical activity appears in line with recommendations, but step counts fall short, particularly for girls and during winter months. These findings identify targets for behavioral and environmental interventions to reduce childhood obesity risks. Additional research involving more diverse populations is warranted.

  4. MEDIATORS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Papandonatos, George D.; Lewis, Beth A.; Whiteley, Jessica A.; Williams, David M.; King, Abby C.; Bock, Beth C.; Pinto, Bernardine; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a multivariate extension of the Baron and Kenny (1986) mediation framework, we examined the simultaneous effect of psychosocial variables hypothesized to mediate the relationship between a motivationally-tailored physical activity intervention, and 6-month physical activity behavior in 239 healthy, under-active adults (mean age=47.5; 82% women). Participants were randomly assigned to 1) Print-based feedback; 2) Telephone-based feedback; or 3) Contact Control. All mediation criteria were satisfied for both intervention arms. In terms of effect size, a moderate indirect effect of Print (0.39, 95% CI=0.21, 0.57) was due to increases in behavioral processes (0.54, 95% CI= 0.29, 0.80) being attenuated by decreases due to cognitive processes (-0.17, 95%CI= -0.31,-.03). A moderate indirect effect was observed for Telephone (0.47, 95% CI=0.28, 0.66), with increases due to behavioral processes (0.61, 95% CI=0.34, 0.87) attenuated by decreases due to cognitive processes (0.15, 95% CI=-0.27, -0.02); self-efficacy and decisional balance mediational paths did not attain statistical significance. These findings highlight the importance of studies that deconstruct the theoretical components of interventions to determine which combination produces the greatest behavior changes at the lowest cost. PMID:18642998

  5. Differences in Children's Recess Physical Activity: Recess Activity of the Week Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina D.; Partridge, Julie A.; King, Kristi McClary

    2010-01-01

    Background: The increased prevalence in recent childhood obesity rates raises concern about youth health and the role that lack of physical activity plays in this trend. A focus on how children today choose to spend their discretionary time is one approach that may yield ideas for how to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of the present study…

  6. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  7. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Gay Men.

    PubMed

    Cary, Miranda A; Brittain, Danielle R; Dinger, Mary K; Ford, Melissa L; Cain, Meagan; Sharp, Teresa A

    2016-09-01

    Gay men may not be physically active at recommended levels to achieve health benefits. Thus, a need exists to identify general (i.e., common across populations) and population-specific barriers that hinder or stop gay men from participating in physical activity (PA). Salient barriers may be identified through the extent each barrier limits PA (i.e., barrier limitation) and the level of one's confidence to overcome barriers and engage in PA (i.e., self-regulatory efficacy). The purposes of this study were to (1) provide a description of general and population-specific barriers to PA among sufficiently and insufficiently active gay men, (2) identify barrier limitation and self-regulatory efficacy for the reported barriers, and (3) examine the associations between meeting the current PA recommendation, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy. Participants were 108 self-identified gay males aged 21 to 64 years who completed a web-based survey. A total of 35 general barriers and no population-specific barriers were identified by the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups. The sufficiently active group reported higher self-regulatory efficacy and lower barrier limitation for nearly all reported barriers. A binary logistic regression used to examine the associations between PA, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy was statistically significant, χ(2)(2, N = 108) = 19.26, p < .0001, R(2) = .16. Only barrier limitation significantly contributed to the model. Future research should continue to examine barriers to PA among gay men to determine whether an intervention needs to be designed specifically for gay men or whether a one-size-fits-all intervention would be effective in helping all men overcome common barriers to engaging in PA.

  8. [Exercise and Physical Activity for Dementia Prevention].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko

    2016-07-01

    The effects of exercise and physical activity on cognitive function and brain health have been established by longitudinal and intervention studies. However, it is not clear whether exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Further studies, including a ramdomized controlled trial with a larger sample size, are required to identify the effects of exercise and multicomponent intervention on cognitive function in the older adults with mild cognitive impairment. It is also important to identify the adequate duration, frequency, and intensity of exercise intervention that is most effective for older individuals. PMID:27395464

  9. Physical activity, inflammation, and muscle loss.

    PubMed

    Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2007-12-01

    Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle that occurs naturally in individuals as they age. Although many factors underlie sarcopenia, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that low-grade chronic inflammation is an important contributor to its progression. Still, few healthcare professionals have a clear understanding of the profound effects of cytokines on sarcopenia, or how these effects may be counteracted. Interestingly, mounting evidence suggests that along with good diet and vitamin supplementation, this muscle damage can be mitigated with regular physical activity. Without a doubt, exercise is an intervention that reliably counteracts the loss of muscle mass, strength, and power common in our increasingly aged, and pervasively sedentary, population.

  10. Lifestyle intervention: nutrition therapy and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Evert, Alison B; Riddell, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes now affects more than 29 million Americans, and more than 9 million of these people do not know they have diabetes. In adults, type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes and is the focus of this article. Lifestyle intervention is part of the initial treatment as well as the ongoing management of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle intervention encompasses a healthful eating plan, physical activity, and often medication to assist in achievement of glucose, lipid, and blood pressure goals. Patient education and self-care practices are also important aspects of disease management.

  11. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-08-17

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  12. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  13. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8–14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children’s sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children’s sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the

  14. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior of Korean American Dry Cleaner Couples

    PubMed Central

    Sukyung, Ju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Eunice, Lee; Arlene, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe and compare lifestyle physical activity (leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity), using both self-report and an objective measure of step counts, in self-employed Korean American married couples working together at dry cleaners, and (2) examine the relationship between self-report and objective measures of physical activity. Design and Sample Seventy couples participated in this cross-sectional, descriptive, face-to-face interview survey. Measures Two self-reports (28-item Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors Physical Activity Questionnaire and Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire) and one objective measure (New Lifestyles-800 pedometer) were used. Results The husbands spent significantly more time than their wives in moderate- to vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity (207 vs. 122 minutes/week) and occupational physical activity (2,585 vs. 1,065 minutes/week). Most couples (91%) met recommended levels of physical activity based on their occupational physical activity. Pedometer steps correlated significantly only with leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Study findings suggest that to increase physical activity in Korean American couples who work in a small business, moderate-intensity lifestyle physical activity interventions across leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity will be more successful than traditional leisure-time interventions. In addition, results suggest that there is a need for interventions that target both members of the married couple. PMID:22092460

  15. The Effects of Exergaming on Physical Activity in a Third-Grade Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shayne, Rachel K.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Koehler, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    We compared the effects of exergaming and traditional physical education on physical activity among 4 active children who were not overweight and who had experience with the exergaming activities prior to the study. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially higher percentages of physical activity and opportunity to engage in physical…

  16. Mechanisms of physical activity limitation in chronic lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Zakynthinos, George; Andrianopoulos, Vasileios

    2012-01-01

    In chronic lung diseases physical activity limitation is multifactorial involving respiratory, hemodynamic, and peripheral muscle abnormalities. The mechanisms of limitation discussed in this paper relate to (i) the imbalance between ventilatory capacity and demand, (ii) the imbalance between energy demand and supply to working respiratory and peripheral muscles, and (iii) the factors that induce peripheral muscle dysfunction. In practice, intolerable exertional symptoms (i.e., dyspnea) and/or leg discomfort are the main symptoms that limit physical performance in patients with chronic lung diseases. Furthermore, the reduced capacity for physical work and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, in an attempt to avoid breathlessness upon physical exertion, cause profound muscle deconditioning which in turn leads to disability and loss of functional independence. Accordingly, physical inactivity is an important component of worsening the patients' quality of life and contributes importantly to poor prognosis. Identifying the factors which prevent a patient with lung disease to easily carry out activities of daily living provides a unique as well as important perspective for the choice of the appropriate therapeutic strategy.

  17. Analysis of physical activities in Taekwondo Pumsae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Bock; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is very important element for successful aging. Among many sports events, Korea is the suzerain of Taekwondo. When competing (Taekwondo Free Fighting) after learning Poomse as basic movements and inuring them, people compete with movements depending on situation. Among Poomses of Taekwondo, Taegeuk Poomse consists of very basic movements from 1 Jang to 8 Jang and they are for inuring to body. In order to prescribe Taegeuk Jang, which is the basic movement of Taekwondo that Korea is the suzerain, as an exercise for successful aging, it is necessary to analyze physical activity level of each Taegeuk Jang (From 1 Jang through 8 Jang) and suggest the same. Therefore, in this study, I analyzed physical activity level of each Jang of Taegeuk Poomse by attaching Armband made by Body Media Company on brachia and legs below knee of Taekwondo trainees. The result of the analysis of the whole momentum from Taegeuk 1 Jang to 8 Jang is as follows: First, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of vertical direction signal (L-MAD): 5.15. Second, the average absolute value of acceleration variation of horizontal direction signal (T-MAD): 3.44. Finally, the average of calorie consumption per minute (AEE/Min): 5.06 Cal. The obtained result corresponds to proper exercise condition for successful aging and it can be utilized as data for exercise prescription for the young and the old.

  18. Decreased physical activity in Pima Indian compared with Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Fontvieille, A M; Kriska, A; Ravussin, E

    1993-08-01

    Since reduced physical activity might be a risk factor for body weight gain, we studied the relationship between physical activity and body composition in 43 Pima Indian children (22 male/21 female, mean +/- s.d.: 9.9 +/- 1.1 years) and 42 Caucasian children (21 male/21 female, 9.7 +/- 1.2 years). A list of usual sport leisure activities was established (e.g. bicycling, swimming, basketball) and the subjects were asked how much time they had devoted to each activity over the past week and the last year. Data on time spent playing outside (excluding sport leisure activities for the estimation of physical activity) and watching television/videos were also collected. Pima Indians were taller (143 +/- 9 vs. 137 +/- 8 cm, P < 0.001), heavier (48.6 +/- 15.8 vs. 32.9 +/- 7.8 kg, P < 0.0001) and fatter (39 +/- 16 vs. 24 +/- 7% fat, P < 0.001) than Caucasians. Pima Indian girls showed significantly lower past year and past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian girls (P < 0.01) and spent significantly more time watching television/videos (P < 0.05). Pima boys also showed significantly lower past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian boys (P < 0.05). In Pima Indian boys, past year sport leisure activity correlated negatively (P < 0.05) with body mass index (r = -0.49) and percentage body fat (r = -0.56). However, such correlations were not found in Pima Indian girls, possibly due their very low levels of activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effect of university physical education courses on intention for physical activity adherence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Soo; Lee, Hwa-Suk

    2010-10-01

    Individuals' intentions of adopting physical activity as part of their lifestyle changed after university physical education courses in Korea. Male students (N = 264) taking physical education courses at a university in Korea were tested on the first and last day of a semester using a physical activity adherence questionnaire. The results showed that the intention to continue physical activity increased after taking the courses. PMID:21162447

  20. Becoming the Physical Activity Champion: Empowerment through Social Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colquitt, Gavin; Alfonso, Moya L.; Walker, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers can champion their profession through marketing the importance of physical activity to children and families in the communities they serve. Social marketing, a consumer-based approach to behavior change, is an excellent choice for physical education teachers who want to "sell" physical activity to their…

  1. Certification and Duties of a Director of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell

    2012-01-01

    In order for a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program to meet its full potential, a director of physical activity (DPA) is needed. To train physical educators for this new role, a task force recently created a professional development program endorsed by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education that certifies current…

  2. Movement and Learning: Integrating Physical Activity into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Emily; Miller, Stacia; Chavez, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    We know the benefits of physical activity, and yet recess and physical education classes are being cut or scaled back to make room for meeting academic standards. Is cutting recess and physical education really benefiting academics? A look at some recent studies suggests that it is not. Integrating physical activity into the classroom may increase…

  3. Implications for Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Grace Goc; Scruggs, Philip W.; Brown, Helen; Kelder, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction, Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs and physical education teachers will need to identify and resolve the tensions of shifting from a traditional role of a self-contained physical education program to that of an expanding role of physical education that supports lifelong physical activity in…

  4. Curriculum Diversity and Young Adult Physical Activity: Reflections from High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    This study was to evaluate if exposure to a diverse curriculum in high school physical education had an impact on young adult physical activity. Students from two universities were surveyed concerning high school physical education content exposure and physical activity in four areas. By investigating relationships between content exposure and…

  5. The Effects of Physical Education Requirements on Physical Activity of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if requiring multiple credits of high school physical education for graduation has an impact on promoting physical activity in young adults. Participants in this study (N=361) were surveyed concerning their high school physical education experiences and current performance of physical activity. Results…

  6. Optimizing the Role of Physical Education in Promoting Physical Activity: A Social-Ecological Approach.

    PubMed

    Solmon, Melinda A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits associated with being physically active are well documented, but a significant proportion of the population is insufficiently active. Physical inactivity is a major health risk factor in our society, and physical education programs are consistently identified as a means to address this concern. The purpose of this article is to use the social-ecological model as a framework to examine ways in which physical education programs can play an important role in promoting physical activity. Policies that require time allocations and resources for physical education and physical activity in schools and community designs that provide infrastructure that makes being physically active accessible and convenient are important factors in making schools and communities healthier spaces. It is clear, however, that policies alone are not sufficient to address concerns about physical inactivity. We must consider individual factors that influence decisions to be physically active in efforts to engage children in physical education programs that promote active lifestyles. The learning climate that teachers create determines what students do and learn in physical education classes. Ensuring that students see value in the content presented and structuring classes so that students believe they can experience success when they exert effort are key elements in an effective motivational climate. Efforts to address public health concerns about physical inactivity require a comprehensive approach including quality physical education. It is critical that kinesiology professionals emerge as leaders in these efforts to place physical education programs at the center of promoting children's physical activity. PMID:26558638

  7. Children's Physical Activity and Environmental Influences during Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bik C.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Louie, Lobo

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) during physical education is important for health purposes and for developing physical fitness and movement skills. To examine PA levels and how PA was influenced by environmental and instructor-related characteristics, we assessed children's activity during 368 lessons taught by 105 physical education specialists in 42…

  8. Children's Objective Physical Activity by Location: Why the Neighborhood Matters

    PubMed Central

    Kneeshaw-Price, Stephanie; Saelens, Brian; Sallis, James; Glanz, Karen; Frank, Lawrence; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hannon, Peggy; Grembowski, David; Chan, KC Gary; Cain, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of where children are active may lead to more informed policies about how and where to intervene and improve physical activity. This study examined where children aged 6–11 were physically active using time-stamped accelerometer data and parent-reported place logs and assessed the association of physical-activity location variation with demographic factors. Children spent most time and did most physical activity at home and school. Although neighborhood time was limited, this time was more proportionally active than time in other locations (e.g., active 42.1% of time in neighborhood vs. 18.1% of time at home). Children with any neighborhood-based physical activity had higher average total physical activity. Policies and environments that encourage children to spend time outdoors in their neighborhoods could result in higher overall physical activity. PMID:23877357

  9. Perspectives on Physical Activity Among People with Multiple Sclerosis Who Are Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Rice, Ian M.; Ostler, Teresa; Rice, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: People with advanced multiple sclerosis (MS) are less physically active than those with milder forms of the disease, and wheelchair use has a negative association with physical activity participation. Thus, wheelchair users with MS are doubly disadvantaged for accruing the benefits of physical activity and exercise. Appropriate physical activity and exercise interventions are needed for this population. Methods: We undertook a qualitative study to explore the meanings, motivations, and outcomes of physical activity in wheelchair users with MS. We sought to understand daily opportunities to accumulate physical activity and exercise, and to identify perceived barriers, facilitators, and benefits that might inform the design of future interventions. Results: We interviewed 15 wheelchair users (mean age, 52 ± 8.8 years; n = 12 women). Data were transcribed and analyzed to identify and explore common themes. Our first theme was the reduced opportunity to participate in physical activity due to participants' dependence on mobility devices, environmental adaptations, and tangible support. Our second theme was the importance of incorporating physical activity and exercise into the everyday environment, highlighting the need for adaptive exercise and accessible environments. This indicated the need to incorporate behavior change modulators into physical activity and exercise interventions for those with advanced MS. Health-care professionals played an important role in promoting increased physical activity and exercise participation in those with advanced MS. Conclusions: Our findings may inform future interventions to increase initiation and maintenance of physical activity and exercise among people with advanced MS. PMID:26052256

  10. Physical and Leisure Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Canadians Who Use Wheelchairs: A Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Best, Krista L.; Miller, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Physical and leisure activities are proven health promotion modalities and have not been examined in older wheelchair users. Main Objectives. Examine physical and leisure activity in older wheelchair users and explore associations between wheelchair use and participation in physical and leisure activity, and wheelchair use, physical and leisure activity, and perceived health. Methods. 8301 Canadians ≥60 years of age were selected from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Sociodemographic, health-related, mobility-related, and physical and leisure activity variables were analysed using logistic regression to determine, the likelihood of participation in physical and leisure activity, and whether participation in physical and leisure activities mediates the relationship between wheelchair use and perceived health. Results. 8.3% and 41.3% older wheelchair users were physically and leisurely active. Wheelchair use was a risk factor for reduced participation in physical (OR = 44.71) and leisure activity (OR = 10.83). Wheelchair use was a risk factor for poor perceived health (OR = 10.56) and physical and leisure activity negatively mediated the relationship between wheelchair user and perceived health. Conclusion. There is a need for the development of suitable physical and leisure activity interventions for older wheelchair users. Participation in such interventions may have associations with health benefits. PMID:21584226

  11. Physical activity in the EPIC-Italy centers.

    PubMed

    Salvini, Simonetta; Saieva, Calogero; Ciardullo, Anna Vittoria; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Veglia, Fabrizio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition offers the opportunity to explore patterns of physical activity in a large series of healthy adults enrolled in the different local cohorts of the Italian section of the European EPIC project. Physical activity is considered one of the means by which chronic disease could be prevented. Subjects in the EPIC study completed a life-style questionnaire, with a section dedicated to the assessment of physical activity at work and during leisure time. Time spent in the various activities was transformed into an index of physical activity (physical activity level, PAL) and an activity index that includes intense activity (PAL; intense activity included). Quintiles of these indexes were computed in order to observe the distribution of subject characteristics according to levels of physical activity. In general, the population was characterized by low levels of physical activity at work, with more than 50% of the sample reporting sedentary occupations. During leisure time, only a small percentage of subjects compensated for the inactivity at work by engaging in energy-consuming activities. In particular, organized fitness activities were reported by a small percentage of people, whereas walking was the most common sort of physical activity. Specific types of activity seemed to characterize subjects in the different areas of the country, reflecting local traditions or specific living situations. Detailed information about physical activity habits, together with a description of other characteristics, could help in designing physical activity promotion programs in different Italian populations and age groups.

  12. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's…

  13. Physical Activity Experiences and Beliefs among Single Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single motherhood has been associated with negative health consequences such as depression and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity might reduce these consequences, but little is known about physical activity experiences and beliefs that might inform interventions and programs for single mothers. The present study used…

  14. Prospective Reciprocal Relations between Physical Activity and Depression in Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerstad, Sarah J.; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although an inverse correlation between physical activity and depression among adolescents has been found in research, this relation has seldom been examined prospectively. Thus, we tested whether physical activity reduces risk for future escalations in depression and whether depression decreases likelihood of future change in physical…

  15. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease: Preliminary findings from the MDRD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. In the general population, physical activity is associated with reduced mortality. We examined physical activity status in CKD patients and its relation to all-cause mortality. The Modified...

  16. Utility of pedometers for assessing physical activity: convergent validity.

    PubMed

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Williams, Joel E; Reis, Jared P; Pluto, Delores

    2002-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity is important to researchers and practitioners interested in surveillance, screening, programme evaluation and intervention. The validity of an assessment instrument is commonly considered its most important attribute. Convergent validity is the extent to which an instrument's output is associated with that of other instruments intended to measure the same exposure of interest. A systematic review of the literature produced 25 articles directly relevant to the question of convergent validity of pedometers against accelerometers, observation, and self-reported measures of physical activity. Reported correlations were pooled and a median r-value was computed. Pedometers correlate strongly (median r = 0.86) with different accelerometers (specifically uniaxial accelerometers) depending on the specific instruments used, monitoring frame and conditions implemented, and the manner in which the outputs are expressed. Pedometers also correlate strongly (median r = 0.82) with time in observed activity. Time in observed inactivity correlated negatively with pedometer outputs (median r = -0.44). The relationship with observed steps taken depended upon monitoring conditions and speed of walking. The highest agreement was apparent during ambulatory activity (running, walking) or during sitting (when both observation and pedometers would register few steps taken). There was consistent evidence of reduced accuracy during slow walking. Pedometers correlate moderately with different measures of energy expenditure (median r = 0.68). The relationship between pedometer outputs and energy expenditure is complicated by the use of many different direct and indirect measures of energy expenditure and population samples. Concordance with self-reported physical activity (median r = 0.33) varied depending upon the self-report instrument used, individuals assessed, and how pedometer outputs are expressed (e.g. steps, distance travelled, energy expenditure

  17. Assessment of nutrition and physical activity education programmes in children.

    PubMed

    Burke, V; Beilin, L J; Milligan, R; Thompson, C

    1995-03-01

    1. Studies in children relating blood lipids to the extent of atherosclerosis at post-mortem suggest a link between risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood and adult life. Tracking of blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol from childhood also supports this association. However, prospective studies have not yet established the outcome in children with increased levels of risk factors. 2. In a controlled trial in Perth, Western Australia, involving over 1000 10-12 year old children, fitness was improved by physical activity programmes which were associated with a greater fall in diastolic BP and triceps skinfolds in girls compared with controls. Sugar intake decreased in boys and fat intake fell in girls, mainly affecting participants in home nutrition programmes. 3. In higher risk children, identified by cluster analysis, major benefits were associated with the fitness and home nutrition programmes. Physical activity combined with involvement of the family in nutrition education is likely to be the most successful approach to modifying lifestyle in children, including those with higher levels of risk. 4. Undernutrition by too rigid restriction of fat intake must be avoided in young children who need calorie-dense foods. Undernutrition, in itself, may predispose to cardiovascular disease in later life. Programmes should aim to establish a prudent diet appropriate to the age of the child combined with physical activity. As regular activity and a healthy diet in adult life will reduce risks of cardiovascular disease it is likely that childhood education will establish lifestyle habits of potential long-term benefit.

  18. Low Energy Physical Activity Recognition System on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Luis Miguel Soria; Gonzalez-Abril, Luis; Ramirez, Juan Antonio Ortega; de la Concepcion, Miguel Angel Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    An innovative approach to physical activity recognition based on the use of discrete variables obtained from accelerometer sensors is presented. The system first performs a discretization process for each variable, which allows efficient recognition of activities performed by users using as little energy as possible. To this end, an innovative discretization and classification technique is presented based on the χ2 distribution. Furthermore, the entire recognition process is executed on the smartphone, which determines not only the activity performed, but also the frequency at which it is carried out. These techniques and the new classification system presented reduce energy consumption caused by the activity monitoring system. The energy saved increases smartphone usage time to more than 27 h without recharging while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25742171

  19. Physical Activity and Youth with Disabilities: Barriers and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Martin E.; Taliaferro, Andrea; Moran, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity and active use of leisure time is important for everyone but particularly important for youth with disabilities. Unfortunately, youth with disabilities often have a difficult time or are even excluded from participating in physical activity due to limited physical and cognitive skills, attitudinal barriers in the community, lack…

  20. Intentional Development: A Model to Guide Lifelong Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Framed in the context of researching influences on physical activity and actually working with individuals and groups seeking to initiate, increase or maintain physical activity, the purpose of this review is to present the model of Intentional Development as a multi-theoretical approach to guide research and applied work in physical activity.…

  1. Focus on Freshman: Basic Instruction Programs Enhancing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Jarred; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity sharply decreases after different life stages, particularly high school graduation to beginning university education. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a specifically designed university physical activity class, Exercise Planning for Freshman (EPF), on students' physical activity and group cohesion…

  2. Best Practices and Recommendations for Increasing Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beets, Michael W.; Centeio, Erin; Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts to increase the physical activity levels of Americans have been introduced and implemented over the past 20 years. National Physical Activity Guidelines have been established, and the National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is now in place, which includes a specific sector dedicated to education. This article addresses the Education…

  3. Future Directions of Inquiry in Adapted Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Sketches some future trends of inquiry in adapted physical activity. These include investigation into ethics in adapted physical activity. Empirically based issues of inquiry include physical activity as a dependent measure, diverse and changing populations, theoretical and applied research, nomothetic and idiographic research perspectives,…

  4. International Approaches to Whole-of-School Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; Ní Chróinín, Déirdre; Tammelin, Tuija; Pogorzelska, Malgorzata; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Increasing physical activity opportunities in schools has emerged as a global priority among school-aged youth. As a result, many countries have designed and implemented whole-of-school physical activity initiatives that seek to increase physical activity opportunities that are available to school-aged children before, during, and after school.…

  5. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  6. Striding Toward Social Justice: The Ecologic Milieu of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Cubbin, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in physical activity should be investigated in light of social justice principles. This manuscript critically evaluates evidence and trends in disparities research within an ecologic framework, focusing on multi-level factors such as neighborhood and racial discrimination that influence physical activity. Discussion focuses on strategies for integrating social justice into physical activity promotion and intervention programming within an ecologic framework. PMID:19098519

  7. Parental Mediatory Role in Children's Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, P. Y. Peggy; Chow, Bik C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are important agents in the physical activity socializing process in children. The present study aims to examine the parental mediatory role in children's physical activity participation via a youth physical activity promotion (YPAP) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 872 Hong Kong Chinese children (aged ten to 13) in…

  8. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  9. Physical activity and metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kallwitz, Eric R; Loy, Veronica; Mettu, Praveen; Von Roenn, Natasha; Berkes, Jamie; Cotler, Scott J

    2013-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients, a population that tends to be physically inactive. The aim of this study was to characterize physical activity and evaluate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients more than 3 months after transplantation. Metabolic syndrome was classified according to National Cholesterol Education Panel Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Physical activity, including duration, frequency, and metabolic equivalents of task (METs), was assessed. The study population consisted of 204 subjects, with 156 more than 1 year after transplantation. The median time after transplantation was 53.5 months (range = 3-299 months). The mean duration of exercise was 90 ± 142 minutes, and the mean MET score was 3.6 ± 1.5. Metabolic syndrome was observed in 58.8% of all subjects and in 63.5% of the subjects more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis involving all subjects, metabolic syndrome was associated with a time after transplantation greater than 1 year [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.389-6.092] and older age (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.001-1.072). A second analysis was performed for only patients more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with lower exercise intensity (OR = 0.690, 95% CI = 0.536-0.887), older age (OR = 1.056, 95% CI = 1.014-1.101), and pretransplant diabetes (OR = 4.246, 95% CI = 1.300-13.864). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is common after liver transplantation, and the rate is significantly higher in patients more than 1 year after transplantation. The observation that exercise intensity is inversely related to metabolic syndrome after transplantation is novel and suggests that physical activity might provide a means for reducing metabolic syndrome complications in liver

  10. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  11. [Afterschool physical activity programs: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Reloba-Martínez, Sergio; Martín-Tamayo, Ignacio; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Guerrero-Almeida, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze the scientific production about extra-curricular physical activity (PA) in western children of 6-12 years. Medline / Pub-Med, Scopus and Google Scholar were used. This search collects articles published between January 1990 and May 2013. A total of 104 publications were analyzed. The body composition parameters are best used to assess the results of the studies, followed by those which estimate the maximum aerobic capacity. Articles of intervention are presented with very heterogeneous methodological features but there are clear trends in the use of certain aspects. As for the reviews, most are systematic and include meta-analysis. In this studies, body mass index (BMI) is the most used parameter.

  12. [Afterschool physical activity programs: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Reloba-Martínez, Sergio; Martín-Tamayo, Ignacio; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Guerrero-Almeida, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze the scientific production about extra-curricular physical activity (PA) in western children of 6-12 years. Medline / Pub-Med, Scopus and Google Scholar were used. This search collects articles published between January 1990 and May 2013. A total of 104 publications were analyzed. The body composition parameters are best used to assess the results of the studies, followed by those which estimate the maximum aerobic capacity. Articles of intervention are presented with very heterogeneous methodological features but there are clear trends in the use of certain aspects. As for the reviews, most are systematic and include meta-analysis. In this studies, body mass index (BMI) is the most used parameter. PMID:26679320

  13. Exercise and physical activity of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lugo, L; Calderón, C; Visbal, G; Martínez, V

    1990-05-01

    Multiple studies point toward the beneficial role of regular exercise in preventing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of physical activity and exercise among adolescents from the only high school in Cataño, Puerto Rico. An open-ended, multiple choice questionnaire was administered to 106 students who were randomly chosen. Questions included frequency of exercise, type of sports which they practiced and would like to practice. Results were statistically analyzed. The study revealed that 53% of the participants did not exercise regularly, exercising less than once a week. Those who did exercise were involved in a competitive team sport (35% of females: volleyball; 65.8% of males: basketball). Approximately 1/3 of the females and of the males replied they would like to practice noncompetitive sports which should be incorporated into their lifestyles through early intervention in the school, home and through the primary care physician.

  14. Physical Activity Intensity, Lesson Context, and Teacher Interactions during an Unstructured Afterschool Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Miller, Daniel J.; Schuna, John M.; Liebert, Mina L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Afterschool programs are promising arenas to improve youth physical activity (PA) levels. During the school year for 2012-2013, 5 elementary schools from a low-socioeconomic status (SES) school district in southern Colorado participated in evaluation of the afterschool program entitled Keep It Moving! (KIM). Methods: In this…

  15. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  16. Promoting Children's Physical Activity in Physical Education: The Role of Active Video Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Moore, William; Gu, Xiangli; Chu, Tsz Lun; Gao, Zan

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of the children in the United States do not meet the global physical activity guidelines, and many children adopt sedentary lifestyles. Given the fact about two-thirds children are classified as overweight or obese, traditional video games have been blamed as a major contributor to children's sedentary behavior and excessive…

  17. Sex-specific associations of moderate and vigorous physical activity with physical fitness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kidokoro, T; Tanaka, H; Naoi, K; Ueno, K; Yanaoka, T; Kashiwabara, K; Miyashita, M

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the sex-specific associations of moderate and vigorous physical activity (VPA) with physical fitness in 300 Japanese adolescents aged 12-14 years. Participants were asked to wear an accelerometer to evaluate physical activity (PA) levels of various intensities (i.e. moderate PA (MPA), 3-5.9 metabolic equivalents (METs); VPA, ≥6 METs; moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), ≥3 METs). Eight fitness items were assessed (grip strength, bent-leg sit-up, sit-and-reach, side step, 50 m sprint, standing long jump, handball throw, and distance running) as part of the Japanese standardised fitness test. A fitness composite score was calculated using Japanese fitness norms, and participants were categorised according to their score from category A (most fit) to category E (least fit), with participants in categories D and E defined as having low fitness. It was found that for boys, accumulating more than 80.7 min/day of MVPA may reduce the probability of low fitness (odds ratio (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.17 [0.06-0.47], p = .001). For girls, accumulating only 8.4 min of VPA could reduce the likelihood of exhibiting low fitness (ORs [95% CI] = 0.23 [0.05-0.89], p = .032). These results reveal that there are sex-specific differences in the relationship between PA and physical fitness in adolescents, suggesting that sex-specific PA recommendation may be needed to improve physical fitness in adolescents.

  18. Feelings of well being in elderly people: relationship to physical activity and physical function.

    PubMed

    Garatachea, Nuria; Molinero, Olga; Martínez-García, Raquel; Jiménez-Jiménez, Rodrigo; González-Gallego, Javier; Márquez, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate in a sample of Spanish elderly whether measures of physical activity and physical function are related to feelings of well being, and whether level of dependence is a moderator in the relation of well being, physical activity and physical function. The sample was a cohort of 151 elderly people (89 women and 62 men, aged 60-98 years) from the North of Spain. Participants completed surveys including demographic characteristics, and measures of physical activity (Yale Physical Activity Survey, YPAS), instrumental activities of daily living (Barthel Index, BI) and well being (Psychological Well Being Scale, from Spanish: Escala de Bienestar Psicológico=EBP). Components of the physical function were measured by the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Upper and lower body strength, dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, self-reported weekly energy expenditure and physical activity total time were significantly correlated with both Material and Subjective well being. All components of physical function were significantly impaired in dependent subjects when compared to independent individuals of the same sex and physical activity category. Significant differences were also observed in Subjective well being among less active dependent or independent individuals. In conclusion, physical function and physical activity are related to feelings of well being, and results emphasize the positive functional and psychological effects of physical activity in dependent subjects.

  19. Trajectory of change in pain, depression, and physical functioning after physical activity adoption in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Bigatti, Silvia M; Ang, Dennis C

    2015-07-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with widespread pain, depression, and declines in physical functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectory of these symptoms over time related to physical activity adoption and maintenance via motivational interviewing versus education, to increase physical activity. There were no treatment group differences; we divided the sample (n = 184) based on changes in physical activity. Repeated measures analyses demonstrated differential patterns in depression, pain, and physical functioning at 24 and 36 weeks. Findings suggest increased physical activity may serve as a multiple-target intervention that provides moderate to large, long-lasting benefits for individuals with fibromyalgia.

  20. Assessing physical activity intensity by video analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, P; Santiago, C; Reis, L P; Sousa, A; Mota, J; Welk, G

    2015-05-01

    Assessing physical activity (PA) is a challenging task and many different approaches have been proposed. Direct observation (DO) techniques can objectively code both the behavior and the context in which it occurred, however, they have significant limitations such as the cost and burden associated with collecting and processing data. Therefore, this study evaluated the utility of an automated video analysis system (CAM) designed to record and discriminate the intensity of PA using a subject tracking methodology. The relative utility of the CAM system and DO were compared with criterion data from an objective accelerometry-based device (Actigraph GT3X+). Eight 10 year old children (three girls and five boys) wore the GT3X+ during a standard basketball session. PA was analyzed by two observers using the SOPLAY instrument and by the CAM system. The GT3X+ and the CAM were both set up to collect data at 30 Hz while the DO was performed every two minutes, with 10 s of observation for each gender. The GT3X+ was processed using cut points by Evanson and the outcome measure was the percentage of time spent in different intensities of PA. The CAM data were processed similarly using the same speed thresholds as were used in establishing the Evenson cut-off points (light: <2 mph; walking: 2-4 mph; very active: >4 mph). Similar outcomes were computed from the SOPLAY default analyses. A chi-square test was used to test differences in the percentage of time at the three intensity zones (light, walking and very active). The Yates' correction was used to prevent overestimation of statistical significance for small data. When compared with GT3X+, the CAM had better results than the SOPLAY. The chi-square test yielded the following pairwise comparisons: CAM versus GT3x+ was χ(2) (5) = 24.18, p < .001; SOPLAY2 versus GT3x+ was χ(2) (5) = 144.44, p < .001; SOPLAY1 versus GT3x+ was χ(2) (5) = 119.55, p < .001. The differences were smaller between CAM and GT3x

  1. Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Among University Employees

    PubMed Central

    FOUNTAINE, CHARLES J.; PIACENTINI, MEREDITH; LIGUORI, GARY A.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obese in the U.S. has been thoroughly documented. With the advent of inactivity physiology research and the subsequent interest in sedentary behavior, the work environment has come under closer scrutiny as a potential opportunity to reverse inactivity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the sitting and physical activity (PA) habits among different classifications of university employees. University employees (n=625) completed an online survey based on the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). Participants were instructed to describe time spent sitting, standing, walking, and in heavy physical labor during the last seven days, along with the number of breaks from sitting taken per hour. To establish habitual patterns of PA outside of work, employees recalled their participation in structured PA in the past seven days. Prior to data analysis, employees were categorized as Administration, Faculty, Staff, or Facilities Management. Statistically significant differences were found among employee classifications for min sit/d, p<.001; min stand/d, p<.001; min walk/d, p<.001; and min heavy labor/d, p<.001. No significant differences were found for breaks/h from sitting, p=.259 or participation in structured PA, p=. 33. With the exception of facilities management workers, university employees spent 75% of their workday seated. In conjunction with low levels of leisure time PA, university employees appear to be prime candidates for workplace interventions to reduce physical inactivity. PMID:27182407

  2. Motives for and barriers to physical activity in twin pairs discordant for leisure time physical activity for 30 years.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, S; Leskinen, T; Morris, T; Alen, M; Kaprio, J; Liukkonen, J; Kujala, U

    2012-02-01

    Long-term persistent physical activity is important in the prevention of chronic diseases, but a large number of people do not participate in physical activity to obtain health benefits. The purpose of this study was to examine the motives and perceived barriers to long-term engagement in leisure time physical activity. Same-sex twin pairs (N=16, mean age 60) discordant for physical activity over 30 years were identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort. We evaluated participants' physical activity motivation with the 73-item Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure and assessed barriers to physical activity with a 25-item questionnaire. The characteristics of physical activity motivation and perceived barriers between the active and inactive co-twins were analysed using paired tests. Motives related to the sub-dimensions of enjoyment and physical fitness and psychological state were the most important reasons for participation in physical activity among all the twin individuals analysed. The sub-dimensions mastery (p=0.018, Cohen's d=0.76), physical fitness (p=0.029, Cohen's d=0.69), and psychological state (p=0.039, Cohen's d=0.65) differed significantly between active and inactive co-twins. More than half of the participants reported no reasons for not being physically active. If reasons existed, participation in physical activity was deterred mostly by pain and various health problems. This study found no differences in perceived barriers between active and inactive co-twins. We conclude from our results that the main factors promoting persistent leisure time physical activity were participants' wish to improve or maintain their physical skills or techniques, a feeling that exercise would improve their mental and physical health and that they found the activity enjoyable. This study helps us understand the importance of the role of motives and the minor role of perceived barriers for engagement in persistent physical activity. PMID:22318531

  3. Recreational Activities to Reduce Behavioural Symptoms in Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Fick, Donna M.; Buettner, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Few clinicians have an educational grounding in the use of nonpharmacological therapies for people with dementia. In this article, we explore the utility of recreational activities as one nonpharmacological intervention that has demonstrated effectiveness for reducing the behavioural symptoms of dementia. The implementation of effective recreational activities involves three components: understanding the evidence for this approach; acknowledging the need to reduce medications that have the potential to interfere with activity effectiveness; and individualizing activities so that the maximum benefit from the intervention is obtained. PMID:20046903

  4. Physical Activity Among Rural Older Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Snively, Beverly M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose This analysis describes physical activity levels and factors associated with physical activity in an ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) sample of rural older adults with diabetes. Method Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 701 community-dwelling elders with diabetes completed in 2 rural North Carolina counties. Outcome measures were as follows: first, physical activity in the past year, and second, days physically active in the prior week (0-7). Potential correlates included personal and health characteristics and were evaluated for statistical significance using logistic regression models. Findings About half (52.5%) of the participants stated that they had engaged in physical activity in the past year. Among those, 42.5% stated that they had no days with at least 30 minutes of continuous physical activity in the prior week, while 21.5% reported daily physical activity. Common activities were walking and housework. Correlates of physical activity in the past year and days active in the prior week included measures of physical health and mobility. Conclusions Physical activity in this ethnically diverse sample of rural elders with diabetes is limited. Effort must be invested to increase physical activity in these groups. PMID:16606429

  5. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  6. Reduced cerebellar gray matter is a neural signature of physical frailty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Pei-Lin; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Kung; Wang, Pei-Ning; Lin, Ching-Po

    2015-09-01

    Physical frailty has been recognized as a clinical syndrome resulting from declines in various physiological systems; however, the role of the central nervous system in the pathophysiology of frailty remains unclear. The I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study randomly sampled community-dwelling people aged 50 or older for a brain magnetic resonance imaging study. All participants were assessed for frailty status (robust, prefrail, and frail) based on the presence of five frailty components: slow walking speed, muscle weakness, low physical activity, exhaustion and weight loss (Fried criteria). Gray matter volume (GMV) changes associated with frailty status and individual frailty components were examined. Overall, 456 participants (64.0 ± 8.5 years, 47.6% women) were included in this study. The prefrail (n = 178, 39.0%) and frail (n = 19, 4.2%) subjects were grouped for analysis. The prefrail-frail group showed reduced GMV, compared to the robust group (n = 259, 56.8%), in the cerebellum, hippocampi, middle frontal gyri, and several other cerebral regions (corrected P < 0.05). Each frailty component was associated with GMV changes in functionally related brain areas. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized these components into three subsets. Motor-related components, including weakness, low activity, and slowness, comprised one subset with a common cerebellar involvement. Exhaustion and weight loss were the other two subsets without cerebellar changes. To conclude, physical frailty is associated with a decreased reserve in specific brain regions, especially cerebellum. Further longitudinal studies are needed to explore if the cerebellum- and noncerebellum-based frailty components reflect a distinctive future risk for developing frailty. PMID:26096356

  7. Validation of Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity: A Case Study Using the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…

  8. Gender Differences in Barriers to Physical Activity among College Students Reporting Varying Levels of Regular Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munford, Shawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the primary determinants of physical activity in an effort to enhance health promotion initiatives nationwide. These physical activity determinants have been observed to differ among various segments of the population, suggesting a further examination of physical activity barriers among differing populations. Little…

  9. Obesity in rural youth: looking beyond nutrition and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Reed, Debra B; Patterson, Patti J; Wasserman, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Contributors to excessive obesity in rural youth include well-documented nutrition and physical activity behaviors. However, emerging research suggests that preventing excessive weight gain and smoking during pregnancy, teen pregnancy, and child abuse also could reduce obesity in this vulnerable population. These traditional and emerging, nontraditional factors need to be addressed within the confines of current challenges faced by rural communities. An enhanced ecological model provides a framework for combining traditional and nontraditional factors into a more comprehensive approach that addresses the complexity of the issues contributing to youth obesity. PMID:21906552

  10. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  11. Preventing cancer: the role of food, nutrition and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The recommendations of a major report on dietary aspects of cancer prevention are summarised and discussed. The findings of The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Second Expert Report Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective were published in 2007 and remain valid. The Report reviewed the relationship between food, nutrition, physical activity, body fatness and 17 cancer sites. The goal of the Report was to review all the relevant research, using precise and reproducible methodologies. An expert panel reviewed the evidence. Based upon evidence that was graded "convincing" or "probable", a series of 10 recommendations to reduce the risk of developing cancer was produced. One of the most important factors is maintaining a healthy weight throughout life, which can be achieved by regular physical activity and limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks. Other important dietary measures include consuming a diet high in plant-based foods, limiting intakes of red meat, and avoiding salty foods and processed meat. Alcohol should be consumed in modest amounts, if at all. Dietary supplements are not recommended for cancer prevention.

  12. Correlates of physical activity behavior in rural youth.

    PubMed

    Pate, R R; Trost, S G; Felton, G M; Ward, D S; Dowda, M; Saunders, R

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of physical activity behavior in a sample of rural, predominantly African American youth. Three hundred sixty-one fifth-grade students from two rural counties in South Carolina (69% African American, median age = 11 years) completed a questionnaire designed to measure beliefs and social influences regarding physical activity, physical activity self-efficacy, perceived physical activity habits of family members and friends, and access to exercise and fitness equipment at home. After school physical activity and television watching were assessed using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall (PDPAR). Students were classified as physically active according to a moderate physical activity standard: two or more 30-min blocks at an intensity of 3 METs (metabolic equivalents) or greater, and a vigorous physical activity standard: one or more 30-min blocks at an intensity of 6 METs or greater. According to the moderate physical activity standard, 34.9% of students were classified as low-active. Multivariate analysis revealed age, gender, television watching, and exercise equipment at home to be significant correlates of low activity status. According to the vigorous physical activity standard, 32.1% of the students were classified as low-active. Multivariate analysis revealed age, gender, television watching, and self-efficacy with respect to seeking support for physical activity to be significant correlates of low activity status. In summary, gender and the amount of television watching were found to be the most important correlates of physical activity in rural, predominantly African American youth. PMID:9294878

  13. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    PubMed Central

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  14. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity.

  15. Association between Physical Activity Levels and Physical Symptoms or Illness among University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Um, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min; Kwon, Hyuktae

    2016-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity can cause various physical symptoms or illness. However, few studies on this association have been conducted in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity levels and physical symptoms or illness in young adults. Methods Subjects were university students who participated in a web-based self-administered questionnaire in a university in Seoul in 2013. We obtained information on physical activities and physical symptoms or illness in the past year. Independent variables were defined as symptoms or illness which were associated with decreased academic performance. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of each physical symptom or illness with adjustment for covariables. Results A total of 2,201 participants were included in the study. The main physical symptoms or illness among participants were severe fatigue (64.2%), muscle or joint pain (46.3%), gastrointestinal problems (43.1%), headache or dizziness (38.6%), frequent colds (35.1%), and sleep problems (33.3%). Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with high ORs of physical symptoms or illness. Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the lowest vs. highest tertile of physical activity were 1.45 (1.14–1.83) for severe fatigue, 1.35 (1.07–1.70) for frequent colds, and 1.29 (1.02–1.63) for headaches or dizziness. We also found that lower levels of physical activity were associated with more physical symptoms or bouts of illness. Conclusion Low physical activity levels were significantly associated with various physical symptoms or illness among university students. Also, individuals in the lower levels of physical activity were more likely to experience more physical symptoms or bouts of illness than those in the highest tertile of physical activity. PMID:27688861

  16. The Benefits of Natural Environments for Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Danielle F; Franco, Lara; Lin, Brenda B; Gaston, Kevin J; Fuller, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Urbanisation has a profound effect on both people and the environment, as levels of physical activity decline and many natural ecosystems become lost or degraded. Here we draw on emerging research to examine the role of green spaces in providing a venue for outdoor physical activity, and in enhancing the benefit of a given amount of physical activity for urban residents. We identify critical knowledge gaps, including (1) whether (and for whom) levels of physical activity increase as new green spaces are introduced or old spaces reinvigorated; (2) which characteristics of nature promote physical activity; (3) the extent to which barriers to outdoor physical activity are environmental or social; and (4) whether the benefits of physical activity and experiences of nature accrue separately or synergistically. A clear understanding of these issues will help guide effective investment in green space provision, ecological enhancement and green exercise promotion. PMID:26886475

  17. Attachment relationships and physical activity motivation of college students.

    PubMed

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Smith, Alan L; Cox, Anne E

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the link of attachment relationships with physical activity motivation. Potential mediators of this link were examined in a cross-sectional study targeting college student physical activity motivation and behaviour. Participants completed self-reports of attachment relationships (with mother, father and best friend), self-determined motivation for physical activity, physical activity behaviour and the hypothesised mediator variables of perceived competence, autonomy and relatedness. The results provide support for the mediating role of these variables in the association of father attachment with self-determined motivation. Meaningful variance in self-determined motivation for physical activity and physical activity behaviour was explained. Overall, attachment relationships appear to be relevant, albeit modestly, to physical activity motivation of college students. The findings support continued efforts to integrate attachment and motivational perspectives in the study of college student health behaviour.

  18. [Assessing and evaluating physical activity during counseling in health care].

    PubMed

    Hagströmer, Maria; Wisén, Anita; Hassmén, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To make individualized counseling possible, valid and reliable measures of physical activity are necessary. In health care, quality must be continuously secured and developed. Follow-up of life-style habits such as physical activity does not differ from monitoring of other treatment in the health care setting.  After counseling and appropriate period of time, evaluation should be done to assess if there has been any change in the physical activity level. For assessment and evaluation of physical activity in routine clinical practice the National Board for Health and Social Welfare indicator questions regarding physical activity are recommended. For a more detailed assessment and evaluation of physical activity and sedentary behavior comprehensive validated instruments/diaries should be used. For precise and objective assessment and evaluation of both physical activity and sedentary behavior, movement sensors are recommended.

  19. Motivations associated with physical activity in young breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Voege, Patricia; Bower, Julienne E; Stanton, Annette L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with positive health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, factors that promote or discourage physical activity in this population are not fully understood. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine approach and avoidance motivations, barriers for exercise, and their association with physical activity in breast cancer survivors younger than 50 years old at time of diagnosis. Current physical activity levels, approach and avoidance motivations, and barriers to exercise were assessed through self-report questionnaires in young breast cancer survivors (N = 156). Results indicated that barriers to exercise were negatively associated with physical activity (p < .01) while approach motivations were positively associated with physical activity (p < .01) and were most relevant in the context of low perceived barriers (p < .05). Avoidance motivations were not associated with physical activity (p = .91).

  20. Energy expenditure, physical activity, and obesity in children.

    PubMed

    Goran, M I; Treuth, M S

    2001-08-01

    Although there are physiologic and genetic influences on the various components of energy metabolism and body weight regulation, and a major portion of individual differences in body weight can be explained by genetic differences, it seems unlikely that the increased global prevalence of obesity has been driven by a dramatic change in the gene pool. It is more likely and more reasonable that acute changes in behavior and environment have contributed to the rapid increase in obesity and that genetic factors may be important in the deferring individual susceptibilities to these changes. The most striking behavioral changes that have occurred have been an increased reliance on high-fat and energy-dense "fast foods," with larger portion sizes, coupled with an ever-increasing sedentary lifestyle. The more sedentary lifestyle is caused by an increased reliance on technology and labor-saving devices, which has reduced the need for physical exertion for everyday activities. Examples of energy-saving devices that have resulted in a secular decline in physical activity include: Increased use of automated transport rather than walking or biking Central heating and use of automated equipment, such as washing machines, in the household. Reduction in physical activity in the workplace because of computers, automated equipment, and electronic mail. Increased use of television and computers for entertainment and leisure activities. Use of elevators and escalators rather than stairs. Increased concern for crime, which has reduced the likelihood of outdoor playing. Poor urban planning that does not provide adequate biking paths or even sidewalks in some communities. Thus, the increasing prevalence, numerous health risks, and astounding economic costs of obesity clearly justify widespread efforts toward prevention efforts. These prevention efforts should begin in childhood because the behaviors are learned and continue through the lifetime.

  1. Millikan Lecture 1996: Promoting active learning based on physics education research in introductory physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, P. W.

    1997-01-01

    Early in his career Robert Millikan experimented with a laboratory-based method of teaching introductory physics that bears close resemblance to Workshop Physics.® In this talk, key elements of Workshop Physics are summarized. Some Workshop Physics activities are described which involve apparati that are used for rapid observations of conceptual aspects of physical phenomena as well as for equation verification experiments. Challenges are discussed that must be faced if recently developed activity-based approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of physics education research are to provide a foundation for a major paradigm shift in physics teaching.

  2. Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines and Musculoskeletal Injury: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, James R.; DeFina, Laura F.; Leonard, David; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Custodio, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The United States Department of Health and Human Services disseminated physical activity guidelines for Americans in 2008. The guidelines are based on appropriate quantities of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity and resistance exercise associated with decreased morbidity and mortality risk and increased health benefits. However, increases in physical activity levels are associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries. We related the amount and type of physical activity conducted on a weekly basis with the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Methods Prospective, observational study using weekly Internet tracking of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and resistance exercise behaviors and musculoskeletal injuries in 909 community-dwelling women for up to 3 years. Primary outcome was self-reported musculoskeletal injuries (total, physical activity-related, and non physical activity-related) interrupting typical daily work and/or exercise behaviors for ≥2 days or necessitating health care provider visit. Results Meeting versus not meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with more musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 – 1.85, P = 0.02), but was not associated with musculoskeletal injuries unrelated to physical activity (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.75 – 1.29, P = 0.92), or with musculoskeletal injuries overall (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.95 – 1.39, P = 0.14). Conclusions Results illustrate the risk of musculoskeletal injury with physical activity. Musculoskeletal injury risk rises with increasing physical activity. Despite this modest increase in musculoskeletal injuries, the known benefits of aerobic and resistance physical activities should not hinder physicians from encouraging patients to meet current physical activity guidelines for both moderate-to-vigorous exercise and resistance exercise behaviors with the intent of achieving health benefits

  3. The Intricacies of Children’s Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, Timothy A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the physical activity patterns of youth is an essential step in preparing programming and interventions needed to change behavior. To date, little is known about the intricacies of youth physical activity across various physical activity segments (i.e. in school, out of school, recess, classroom physical activity, physical education, weekends, etc.). Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the physical activity patterns of elementary school children across various segments and during two seasons. A total of 287 fourth and fifth graders from the Southwest US wore the Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 pedometer for 7 consecutive days during the Fall and Spring seasons. Children were prompted to record their step counts when arriving and leaving school, before and after physical education and recess, as well as on the weekends. Means and standard deviations were calculated and ANOVAs and t tests were utilized to examine difference by sex, season, and segment. Youth were more active outside of school and on weekdays (p<0.05). Boys were generally more active than girls and all youth were more active during the milder Spring season. There is a clear need for Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming and weekend physical activity opportunities. Furthermore, greater emphasis is needed on PE and across other activity segments for girls to increase their physical activity levels. PMID:26557210

  4. Physical Activity Correlates for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined potential correlates that might influence physical activity (PA) of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in physical education. Students with (n = 19) and without (n = 76) ASD wore an accelerometer during physical education. Data were collected in 38 physical education lessons. The results showed that (a) students…

  5. Physical Activity and Fitness for Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Janet A.; Corbin, Chuck, Ed.; Pangrazi, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the approach to physical activity for people with disabilities has been couched in medical rationale and focused on rehabilitation. This does not account for physical activity for the joy of it as in play, exercise to improve or maintain fitness, or activity required in employment. The new paradigm of healthy, active lifestyles for…

  6. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  7. Physical Activity & Sport for the Secondary School Student. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Neil J., Ed.

    This collection of papers offers a comprehensive text about contemporary physical activities and sports forms. It provides students with an overview of the various physical activities, skill technique required, safety, scoring, rules and etiquette, strategies, equipment, and related terminology. The 26 papers are: (1) "Physical Fitness" (Carolyn…

  8. Physical Activity among Young People in the Context of Lifestyle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Pieron, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of a healthy lifestyle is the main goal of physical education in many countries. However, very little is known about the relationship between different lifestyles and physical activity patterns among young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lifestyle and physical activity among 12- and…

  9. Patterns of Children's Participation in Unorganized Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Garner, Rochelle E.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2010-01-01

    Children's leisure-time or unorganized physical activity is associated with positive physical and mental health, yet there is little information available on tracking and predicting participation throughout the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of the current study was to explore patterns of unorganized physical activity participation of…

  10. Students' Attitudes toward an After-School Physical Activity Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Though considerable research on student attitudes has been conducted in physical education, little information exists concerning student attitudes toward after-school physical activity programmes. This study assessed students' attitudes toward their after-school physical activity programme located in southwest Texas, USA. Participants included 158…

  11. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Physical Activity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this literature review is to summarise and synthesise the research base concerning childhood obesity and physical activity, particularly in relation to teachers and schools and within a policy context of the UK. The review investigates childhood obesity, physical activity, physical education, the role of teachers, the role of…

  12. Perceptions and Evaluation of a Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study, conducted in the Midwestern United States, explored the perceptions of teachers at two different elementary schools as they implemented a physical activity program during the school day. The program engaged students in daily physical activity through brief, organized, structured physical exercise. Interviews and…

  13. Motives of College Women for Participating in Physical Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundegren, Herberta

    One hundred and fifty-one college women, 88 non-physical education majors, and 63 physical education majors were given a 75-item Q-sort of statements on motives for participation in physical activity and a background questionnaire that elicited demographic data and information on sports activity experience. The Q-sort data for each major group…

  14. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Children Physical Activity Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity…

  15. Initiating and Strengthening College and University Instructional Physical Activity Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education supports the offering of strong college and university instructional physical activity programs (C/UIPAPs). With a rapid decline in physical activity levels, high stress levels, and unhealthy weight-loss practices among college-age students, it is apparent that C/UIPAPs embedded in the…

  16. Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from…

  17. Correlates of School-Day Physical Activity in Preschool Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Peoples, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among sex, body mass index, motor skill competence (MSC), perceived physical competence (PPC), and school-day physical activity in preschool students (N = 34). Physical activity was assessed by steps accumulated during the school day, while MSC and PPC were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd…

  18. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School: Making a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet on asthma for physical education teachers and other school personnel offers guidelines for the maximum inclusion of students with asthma in regular physical education activities. It stresses that today's treatments can successfully control asthma so that students can participate fully in physical activities most of the time. First…

  19. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  20. Physical and Sedentary Activity in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carol A.; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim; Lane, Alison E.

    2007-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity (PA) provides health, psychological, and physiological benefits for people with and without a physical disability. This study investigated the physical and sedentary activity patterns of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional, descriptive, postal survey was used, consisting of the…

  1. Physical Activity Opportunity in United States Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lisa; Butterfield, Stephen A.; Pratt, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that many elementary schools have curtailed recess and Physical Education (Morrow, Jackson & Payne 1999). These finding are at a variance with the goal of Healthy People 2010 to increase physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity opportunities (PAO) in U. S. public elementary schools.…

  2. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  3. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  4. Validating Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Time against Accelerometer in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Solmon, Melinda A.; Kosma, Maria; Carson, Russell L.; Zhang, Tao; Domangue, Elizabeth; Moore, Delilah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate physical activity time in middle school physical education as measured by pedometers in relation to a criterion measure, namely, students' accelerometer determined moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Participants were 155 sixth to eighth graders participating in regularly scheduled physical…

  5. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  6. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  7. Self-Efficacy Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Teaching Physically Active Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers'…

  8. Effects of a Physical Education Supportive Curriculum and Technological Devices on Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily Dean; Sullivan, Eileen C.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a physical education supportive curriculum and technological devices, heart rate monitor (HRM) and pedometer (PED), on physical activity. A single-subject ABAB research design was used to examine amount and level of participation in physical activity among 106 suburban fourth and fifth…

  9. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  10. Adolescent Physical Self-Perceptions, Sport/Exercise and Lifestyle Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, N. D.; Cooke, C. B.; Mahoney, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Domain and sub-domain physical self-perceptions have been associated with adolescent moderate intensity physical activity although the association with different types of adolescent moderate intensity physical activity remains unclear. This study seeks to examine the relationship between personal self-perceptions and adolescent…

  11. Physical activity promotion: a local and state health department perspective.

    PubMed

    Simon, Paul; Gonzalez, Eloisa; Ginsburg, David; Abrams, Jennifer; Fielding, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Local and state health departments are well-positioned to serve as catalysts for the institutional and community changes needed to increase physical activity across the population. Efforts should focus on evidence-based strategies, including promotion of high-quality physical education in schools, social support networks and structured programs for physical activity in communities, and organizational practices, policies, and programs that promote physical activity in the workplace. Health departments must also focus on land use and transportation practices and policies in communities where the built environment creates major impediments to physical activity, particularly in economically disadvantaged communities disproportionately burdened by chronic disease. PMID:19540872

  12. The effects of exergaming on physical activity among inactive children in a physical education classroom.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Victoria A; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Graves, Rachel; Koehler, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity, which is due in part to lack of physical activity, is a serious concern that requires the attention of the behavioral community. Although excessive video game play has been noted in the literature as a contributor to childhood obesity, newer video gaming technology, called exergaming, has been designed to capitalize on the reinforcing effects of video games to increase physical activity in children. This study evaluated the effects of exergaming on physical activity among 4 inactive children in a physical education (PE) classroom. Results showed that exergaming produced substantially more minutes of physical activity and more minutes of opportunity to engage in physical activity than did the standard PE program. In addition, exergaming was socially acceptable to both the students and the PE teacher. Exergaming appears to hold promise as a method for increasing physical activity among inactive children and might be a possible intervention for childhood obesity.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTS' MOTIVATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR BELIEFS, AND SUPPORT OF THEIR CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: A CLUSTER ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Naisseh, Matilda; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude; Hautier, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have neglected the multivariate nature of motivation. The purpose of the current study was to first identify motivational profiles of parents' own physical activity. Second, the study examined if such profiles differ in the way in which parents perceive their children's competence in physical activity and the importance and support given to their children's physical activity. 711 physically active parents (57% mothers; M age = 39.7 yr.; children 6-11 years old) completed the Situational Motivation Scale, the Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity Importance and their Children's Ability Questionnaire, and the Parental Support for Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses indicated four motivational profiles: Highly self-determined, Moderately self-determined, Non-self-determined, and Externally motivated profiles. Parents' beliefs and support toward their children's physical activity significantly differed across these profiles. It is the first study using Self-Determination Theory that provides evidence for the interpersonal outcomes of motivation.

  14. Physical activity increases bone mass during growth

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Magnus K.; Nordqvist, Anders; Karlsson, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Background The incidence of fragility fractures has increased during the last half of the 1990′s. One important determinant of fractures is the bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD), the amount of mineralised bone. If we could increase peak bone mass (the highest value of BMC reached during life) and/or decrease the age-related bone loss, we could possibly improve the skeletal resistance to fracture. Objective This review evaluates the importance of exercise as a strategy to improve peak bone mass, including some aspects of nutrition. Design Publications within the field were searched through Medline (PubMed) using the search words: exercise, physical activity, bone mass, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, BMC, BMD, skeletal structure and nutrition. We included studies dealing with exercise during growth and young adolescence. We preferably based our inferences on randomised controlled trials (RCT), which provide the highest level of evidence. Results Exercise during growth increases peak bone mass. Moderate intensity exercise intervention programs are beneficial for the skeletal development during growth. Adequate nutrition must accompany the exercise to achieve the most beneficial skeletal effects by exercise. Conclusion Exercise during growth seems to enhance the building of a stronger skeleton through a higher peak bone mass and a larger bone size. PMID:19109652

  15. Probing the Physics of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Bradley M.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of a number of large multiwavelength monitoring campaigns that have taken place since the late 1980s, there are now several very large data sets on bright variable active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that are well-sampled in time and can be used to probe the physics of the AGN continuum source and the broad-line emitting region. Most of these data sets have been underutilized, as the emphasis thus far has been primarily on reverberation-mapping issues alone. Broader attempts at analysis have been made on some of the earlier IUE data sets (e.g., data from the 1989 campaign on NGC5 548) , but much of this analysis needs to be revisited now that improved versions of the data are now available from final archive processing. We propose to use the multiwavelength monitoring data that have been accumulated to undertake more thorough investigations of the AGN continuum and broad emission lines, including a more detailed study of line-profile variability, making use of constraints imposed by the reverberation results.

  16. Physical activity participation in African American churches.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Melissa; Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; McClorin, Lottie

    2009-01-01

    The potential benefit of physical activity (PA) programs delivered through churches is largely unexamined. This study examined availability of PA programs, interpersonal support for PA, and PA participation in African-American churches. Individuals from a random sample of 20 churches in South Carolina participated in a telephone survey (N = 571). Forty two percent of respondents reported PA programs at their churches. Walking programs (20%), aerobics (22%) or a combination of both (20%) were most common. Respondents who reported having these programs were more likely to meet PA recommendations than those who did not (p = 0.05). Larger churches were more likely to offer PA programs (p = 0.02) than small or medium sized churches. Only 24% of respondents had spoken with the health director at their church about participating in a PA program, and only 25% and 33% had ever spoken with another church member about a PA program or were encouraged to join a PA program, respectively. Individuals with more interpersonal support from other church members for PA were significantly more likely to meet PA recommendations (p = 0.01). This study indicates that program and interpersonal supports within African American churches may offer a venue for increasing PA among members.

  17. Adolescents' physical activity in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular sport by motivational profiles.

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in adolescents´ objective physical activity levels and perceived effort in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular organized sport by motivational profiles in physical education. A sample of 102 students 11-16 yr. old completed a self-report questionnaire assessing self-determined motivation toward physical education. Subsequently, students' objective physical activity levels (steps/min., METs, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and perceived effort were evaluated for each situation. Cluster analysis identified a two-cluster structure: "Moderate motivation toward physical education profile" and "High motivation toward physical education profile." Adolescents in the second cluster had higher physical activity and perceived effort values than adolescents in the first cluster, except for METs and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in extra-curricular sport. These results support the importance of physical education teachers who should promote self-determined motivation toward physical education so that students can reach the recommended physical activity levels.

  18. Bringing Nature to Schools to Promote Children's Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe; Bland, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) is essential for human health and wellbeing across all age, socioeconomic, and ethnic groups. Engagement with the natural world is a new defining criterion for enhancing the benefits of PA, particularly for children and young people. Interacting with nature benefits children's social and emotional wellbeing, develops resilience, and reduces the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus across all population groups. Governments around the world are now recognizing the importance of children spending more active time outdoors. However, children's outdoor activities, free play, and nature-related exploration are often structured and supervised by adults due to safety concerns and risks. In this context, schools become more accessible and safe options for children to engage in PA outdoors with the presence of nature features. Research on school designs involving young children has revealed that children prefer nature-related features in school environments. Affordances in nature may increase children's interest in physically active behaviors. Given that present school campuses are designed for operational efficiency and economic reasons, there is a need to re-design schools responding to the positive role of nature on human health. If schools were re-designed to incorporate diverse natural features, children's PA and consequent health and wellbeing would likely improve markedly. PMID:26888647

  19. Bringing Nature to Schools to Promote Children's Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe; Bland, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) is essential for human health and wellbeing across all age, socioeconomic, and ethnic groups. Engagement with the natural world is a new defining criterion for enhancing the benefits of PA, particularly for children and young people. Interacting with nature benefits children's social and emotional wellbeing, develops resilience, and reduces the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus across all population groups. Governments around the world are now recognizing the importance of children spending more active time outdoors. However, children's outdoor activities, free play, and nature-related exploration are often structured and supervised by adults due to safety concerns and risks. In this context, schools become more accessible and safe options for children to engage in PA outdoors with the presence of nature features. Research on school designs involving young children has revealed that children prefer nature-related features in school environments. Affordances in nature may increase children's interest in physically active behaviors. Given that present school campuses are designed for operational efficiency and economic reasons, there is a need to re-design schools responding to the positive role of nature on human health. If schools were re-designed to incorporate diverse natural features, children's PA and consequent health and wellbeing would likely improve markedly.

  20. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Scott M; Alosco, Michael L; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E; Sperling, Reisa A; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-11-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n=29, age 18-31 years) and older adults (n=31, ages 55-82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults.