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Sample records for reduced rank mixed

  1. Reduced Rank Mixed Effects Models for Spatially Correlated Hierarchical Functional Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lan; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Martinez, Josue G.; Maity, Arnab; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Hierarchical functional data are widely seen in complex studies where sub-units are nested within units, which in turn are nested within treatment groups. We propose a general framework of functional mixed effects model for such data: within unit and within sub-unit variations are modeled through two separate sets of principal components; the sub-unit level functions are allowed to be correlated. Penalized splines are used to model both the mean functions and the principal components functions, where roughness penalties are used to regularize the spline fit. An EM algorithm is developed to fit the model, while the specific covariance structure of the model is utilized for computational efficiency to avoid storage and inversion of large matrices. Our dimension reduction with principal components provides an effective solution to the difficult tasks of modeling the covariance kernel of a random function and modeling the correlation between functions. The proposed methodology is illustrated using simulations and an empirical data set from a colon carcinogenesis study. Supplemental materials are available online. PMID:20396628

  2. Model diagnostics in reduced-rank estimation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Reduced-rank methods are very popular in high-dimensional multivariate analysis for conducting simultaneous dimension reduction and model estimation. However, the commonly-used reduced-rank methods are not robust, as the underlying reduced-rank structure can be easily distorted by only a few data outliers. Anomalies are bound to exist in big data problems, and in some applications they themselves could be of the primary interest. While naive residual analysis is often inadequate for outlier detection due to potential masking and swamping, robust reduced-rank estimation approaches could be computationally demanding. Under Stein's unbiased risk estimation framework, we propose a set of tools, including leverage score and generalized information score, to perform model diagnostics and outlier detection in large-scale reduced-rank estimation. The leverage scores give an exact decomposition of the so-called model degrees of freedom to the observation level, which lead to exact decomposition of many commonly-used information criteria; the resulting quantities are thus named information scores of the observations. The proposed information score approach provides a principled way of combining the residuals and leverage scores for anomaly detection. Simulation studies confirm that the proposed diagnostic tools work well. A pattern recognition example with hand-writing digital images and a time series analysis example with monthly U.S. macroeconomic data further demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approaches. PMID:28003860

  3. Text mixing shapes the anatomy of rank-frequency distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jake Ryland; Bagrow, James P.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-05-01

    Natural languages are full of rules and exceptions. One of the most famous quantitative rules is Zipf's law, which states that the frequency of occurrence of a word is approximately inversely proportional to its rank. Though this "law" of ranks has been found to hold across disparate texts and forms of data, analyses of increasingly large corpora since the late 1990s have revealed the existence of two scaling regimes. These regimes have thus far been explained by a hypothesis suggesting a separability of languages into core and noncore lexica. Here we present and defend an alternative hypothesis that the two scaling regimes result from the act of aggregating texts. We observe that text mixing leads to an effective decay of word introduction, which we show provides accurate predictions of the location and severity of breaks in scaling. Upon examining large corpora from 10 languages in the Project Gutenberg eBooks collection, we find emphatic empirical support for the universality of our claim.

  4. Method for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.H.; Bonnecaze, B.F.; Matthews, J.D.; Skinner, J.L.; Wunderlich, D.K.

    1983-08-02

    A method is disclosed for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal by drying the low rank coal and thereafter cooling the dried coal to a temperature below about 100/sup 0/F. Optionally the dried coal is partially oxidized prior to cooling and optionally the dried coal is mixed with a deactivating fluid.

  5. Reduced rank regression via adaptive nuclear norm penalization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; Dong, Hongbo; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Summary We propose an adaptive nuclear norm penalization approach for low-rank matrix approximation, and use it to develop a new reduced rank estimation method for high-dimensional multivariate regression. The adaptive nuclear norm is defined as the weighted sum of the singular values of the matrix, and it is generally non-convex under the natural restriction that the weight decreases with the singular value. However, we show that the proposed non-convex penalized regression method has a global optimal solution obtained from an adaptively soft-thresholded singular value decomposition. The method is computationally efficient, and the resulting solution path is continuous. The rank consistency of and prediction/estimation performance bounds for the estimator are established for a high-dimensional asymptotic regime. Simulation studies and an application in genetics demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:25045172

  6. Efficient implementation of minimal polynomial and reduced rank extrapolation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram

    1990-01-01

    The minimal polynomial extrapolation (MPE) and reduced rank extrapolation (RRE) are two effective techniques that have been used in accelerating the convergence of vector sequences, such as those that are obtained from iterative solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equation. Their definitions involve some linear least squares problems, and this causes difficulties in their numerical implementation. Timewise efficient and numerically stable implementations for MPE and RRE are developed. A computer program written in FORTRAN 77 is also appended and applied to some model problems.

  7. Podium: Ranking Data Using Mixed-Initiative Visual Analytics.

    PubMed

    Wall, Emily; Das, Subhajit; Chawla, Ravish; Kalidindi, Bharath; Brown, Eli T; Endert, Alex

    2017-08-29

    People often rank and order data points as a vital part of making decisions. Multi-attribute ranking systems are a common tool used to make these data-driven decisions. Such systems often take the form of a table-based visualization in which users assign weights to the attributes representing the quantifiable importance of each attribute to a decision, which the system then uses to compute a ranking of the data. However, these systems assume that users are able to quantify their conceptual understanding of how important particular attributes are to a decision. This is not always easy or even possible for users to do. Rather, people often have a more holistic understanding of the data. They form opinions that data point A is better than data point B but do not necessarily know which attributes are important. To address these challenges, we present a visual analytic application to help people rank multi-variate data points. We developed a prototype system, Podium, that allows users to drag rows in the table to rank order data points based on their perception of the relative value of the data. Podium then infers a weighting model using Ranking SVM that satisfies the user's data preferences as closely as possible. Whereas past systems help users understand the relationships between data points based on changes to attribute weights, our approach helps users to understand the attributes that might inform their understanding of the data. We present two usage scenarios to describe some of the potential uses of our proposed technique: (1) understanding which attributes contribute to a user's subjective preferences for data, and (2) deconstructing attributes of importance for existing rankings.Our proposed approach makes powerful machine learning techniques more usable to those who may not have expertise in these areas.

  8. Association of patient case-mix adjustment, hospital process performance rankings, and eligibility for financial incentives.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Liang, Li; Karve, Amrita M; Hernandez, Adrian F; Rumsfeld, John S; Fonarow, Gregg C; Peterson, Eric D

    2008-10-22

    While most comparisons of hospital outcomes adjust for patient characteristics, process performance comparisons typically do not. To evaluate the degree to which hospital process performance ratings and eligibility for financial incentives are altered after accounting for hospitals' patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and mix of treatment opportunities. Using data from the American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines program between January 2, 2000, and March 28, 2008, we analyzed hospital process performance based on the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' defined core measures for acute myocardial infarction. Hospitals were initially ranked based on crude composite process performance and then ranked again after accounting for hospitals' patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and eligibility for measures using a hierarchical model. We then compared differences in hospital performance rankings and pay-for-performance financial incentive categories (top 20%, middle 60%, and bottom 20% institutions). Hospital process performance ranking and pay-for-performance financial incentive categories. A total of 148,472 acute myocardial infarction patients met the study criteria from 449 centers. Hospitals for which crude composite acute myocardial infarction performance was in the bottom quintile (n = 89) were smaller nonacademic institutions that treated a higher percentage of patients from racial or ethnic minority groups and also patients with greater comorbidities than hospitals ranked in the top quintile (n = 90). Although there was overall agreement on hospital rankings based on observed vs adjusted composite scores (weighted kappa, 0.74), individual hospital ranking changed with adjustment (median, 22 ranks; range, 0-214; interquartile range, 9-40). Additionally, 16.5% of institutions (n = 74) changed pay-for-performance financial status categories after accounting for patient and treatment opportunity mix. Our findings suggest that

  9. Rank-Based Similarity Search: Reducing the Dimensional Dependence.

    PubMed

    Houle, Michael E; Nett, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a data structure for k-NN search, the Rank Cover Tree (RCT), whose pruning tests rely solely on the comparison of similarity values; other properties of the underlying space, such as the triangle inequality, are not employed. Objects are selected according to their ranks with respect to the query object, allowing much tighter control on the overall execution costs. A formal theoretical analysis shows that with very high probability, the RCT returns a correct query result in time that depends very competitively on a measure of the intrinsic dimensionality of the data set. The experimental results for the RCT show that non-metric pruning strategies for similarity search can be practical even when the representational dimension of the data is extremely high. They also show that the RCT is capable of meeting or exceeding the level of performance of state-of-the-art methods that make use of metric pruning or other selection tests involving numerical constraints on distance values.

  10. Reduced-rank technique for joint channel estimation in TD-SCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamil Marzook, Ali; Ismail, Alyani; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Sali, Adawati; Khatun, Sabira

    2013-02-01

    In time division-synchronous code division multiple access systems, increasing the system capacity by exploiting the inserting of the largest number of users in one time slot (TS) requires adding more estimation processes to estimate the joint channel matrix for the whole system. The increase in the number of channel parameters due the increase in the number of users in one TS directly affects the precision of the estimator's performance. This article presents a novel channel estimation with low complexity, which relies on reducing the rank order of the total channel matrix H. The proposed method exploits the rank deficiency of H to reduce the number of parameters that characterise this matrix. The adopted reduced-rank technique is based on truncated singular value decomposition algorithm. The algorithms for reduced-rank joint channel estimation (JCE) are derived and compared against traditional full-rank JCEs: least squares (LS) or Steiner and enhanced (LS or MMSE) algorithms. Simulation results of the normalised mean square error showed the superiority of reduced-rank estimators. In addition, the channel impulse responses founded by reduced-rank estimator for all active users offers considerable performance improvement over the conventional estimator along the channel window length.

  11. Reducing Statistics Anxiety: A Ranking of Sixteen Specific Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Vicki A.

    As part of an ongoing study of statistics anxiety, 37 students in the Master of Education program in a small, private liberal arts college completed a Likert-scale instrument asking them to rate from 1 ("not at all") to 5 ("a great deal") the extent to which 16 specific strategies reduced their statistics anxiety in the educational research…

  12. Modified Hazard Ranking System/Hazard Ranking System for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes: Software documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Peloquin, R.A.; Hawley, K.A.

    1986-11-01

    The mHRS/HRS software package was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a uniform method for DOE facilities to use in performing their Conservation Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Phase I Modified Hazard Ranking System or Hazard Ranking System evaluations. The program is designed to remove the tedium and potential for error associated with the performing of hand calculations and the interpreting of information on tables and in reference books when performing an evaluation. The software package is designed to operate on a microcomputer (IBM PC, PC/XT, or PC/AT, or a compatible system) using either a dual floppy disk drive or a hard disk storage system. It is written in the dBASE III language and operates using the dBASE III system. Although the mHRS/HRS software package was developed for use at DOE facilities, it has direct applicability to the performing of CERCLA Phase I evaluations for any facility contaminated by hazardous waste. The software can perform evaluations using either the modified hazard ranking system methodology developed by DOE/PNL, the hazard ranking system methodology developed by EPA/MITRE Corp., or a combination of the two. This document is a companion manual to the mHRS/HRS user manual. It is intended for the programmer who must maintain the software package and for those interested in the computer implementation. This manual documents the system logic, computer programs, and data files that comprise the package. Hardware and software implementation requirements are discussed. In addition, hand calculations of three sample situations (problems) with associated computer runs used for the verification of program calculations are included.

  13. Parameter expansion for estimation of reduced rank covariance matrices (Open Access publication)

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Parameter expanded and standard expectation maximisation algorithms are described for reduced rank estimation of covariance matrices by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting the leading principal components only. Convergence behaviour of these algorithms is examined for several examples and contrasted to that of the average information algorithm, and implications for practical analyses are discussed. It is shown that expectation maximisation type algorithms are readily adapted to reduced rank estimation and converge reliably. However, as is well known for the full rank case, the convergence is linear and thus slow. Hence, these algorithms are most useful in combination with the quadratically convergent average information algorithm, in particular in the initial stages of an iterative solution scheme. PMID:18096112

  14. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Michael L.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.; Chapman, Chris C.; Peters, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  15. L1-norm principal-component analysis in L2-norm-reduced-rank data subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markopoulos, Panos P.; Pados, Dimitris A.; Karystinos, George N.; Langberg, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Standard Principal-Component Analysis (PCA) is known to be very sensitive to outliers among the processed data.1 On the other hand, it has been recently shown that L1-norm-based PCA (L1-PCA) exhibits sturdy resistance against outliers, while it performs similar to standard PCA when applied to nominal or smoothly corrupted data.2, 3 Exact calculation of the K L1-norm Principal Components (L1-PCs) of a rank-r data matrix X∈ RD×N costs O(2NK), in the general case, and O(N(r-1)K+1) when r is fixed with respect to N.2, 3 In this work, we examine approximating the K L1-PCs of X by the K L1-PCs of its L2-norm-based rank-d approximation (K<=d<=r), calculable exactly with reduced complexity O(N(d-1)K+1). Reduced-rank L1-PCA aims at leveraging both the low computational cost of standard PCA and the outlier-resistance of L1-PCA. Our novel approximation guarantees and experiments on dimensionality reduction show that, for appropriately chosen d, reduced-rank L1-PCA performs almost identical to L1-PCA.

  16. Existence and stability, and discrete BB and rank conditions, for general mixed-hybrid finite elements in elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, W.-M.; Atluri, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, all possible forms of mixed-hybrid finite element methods that are based on multi-field variational principles are examined as to the conditions for existence, stability, and uniqueness of their solutions. The reasons as to why certain 'simplified hybrid-mixed methods' in general, and the so-called 'simplified hybrid-displacement method' in particular (based on the so-called simplified variational principles), become unstable, are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the 'discrete' BB-conditions, and the rank conditions, of the matrices arising in mixed-hybrid methods, is given. Some recent studies aimed at the assurance of such rank conditions, and the related problem of the avoidance of spurious kinematic modes, are presented.

  17. A reduced-rank approach for implementing higher-order Volterra filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O. Batista, Eduardo L.; Seara, Rui

    2016-12-01

    The use of Volterra filters in practical applications is often limited by their high computational burden. To cope with this problem, many strategies for implementing Volterra filters with reduced complexity have been proposed in the open literature. Some of these strategies are based on reduced-rank approaches obtained by defining a matrix of filter coefficients and applying the singular value decomposition to such a matrix. Then, discarding the smaller singular values, effective reduced-complexity Volterra implementations can be obtained. The application of this type of approach to higher-order Volterra filters (considering orders greater than 2) is however not straightforward, which is especially due to some difficulties encountered in the definition of higher-order coefficient matrices. In this context, the present paper is devoted to the development of a novel reduced-rank approach for implementing higher-order Volterra filters. Such an approach is based on a new form of Volterra kernel implementation that allows decomposing higher-order kernels into structures composed only of second-order kernels. Then, applying the singular value decomposition to the coefficient matrices of these second-order kernels, effective implementations for higher-order Volterra filters can be obtained. Simulation results are presented aiming to assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. A SPARSE REDUCED RANK FRAMEWORK FOR GROUP ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING DATA.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mihye; Shen, Haipeng; Lin, Weili; Zhu, Hongtu

    2015-01-01

    In spatial-temporal neuroimaging studies, there is an evolving literature on the analysis of functional imaging data in order to learn the intrinsic functional connectivity patterns among different brain regions. However, there are only few efficient approaches for integrating functional connectivity pattern across subjects, while accounting for spatial-temporal functional variation across multiple groups of subjects. The objective of this paper is to develop a new sparse reduced rank (SRR) modeling framework for carrying out functional connectivity analysis across multiple groups of subjects in the frequency domain. Our new framework not only can extract both frequency and spatial factors across subjects, but also imposes sparse constraints on the frequency factors. It thus leads to the identification of important frequencies with high power spectra. In addition, we propose two novel adaptive criteria for automatic selection of sparsity level and model rank. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that SRR outperforms several existing methods. Finally, we apply SRR to detect group differences between controls and two subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients, through analyzing the ADHD-200 data.

  19. Rank restriction for the variational calculation of two-electron reduced density matrices of many-electron atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Naftchi-Ardebili, Kasra; Hau, Nathania W.; Mazziotti, David A.

    2011-11-15

    Variational minimization of the ground-state energy as a function of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM), constrained by necessary N-representability conditions, provides a polynomial-scaling approach to studying strongly correlated molecules without computing the many-electron wave function. Here we introduce a route to enhancing necessary conditions for N representability through rank restriction of the 2-RDM. Rather than adding computationally more expensive N-representability conditions, we directly enhance the accuracy of two-particle (2-positivity) conditions through rank restriction, which removes degrees of freedom in the 2-RDM that are not sufficiently constrained. We select the rank of the particle-hole 2-RDM by deriving the ranks associated with model wave functions, including both mean-field and antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave functions. Because the 2-positivity conditions are exact for quantum systems with AGP ground states, the rank of the particle-hole 2-RDM from the AGP ansatz provides a minimum for its value in variational 2-RDM calculations of general quantum systems. To implement the rank-restricted conditions, we extend a first-order algorithm for large-scale semidefinite programming. The rank-restricted conditions significantly improve the accuracy of the energies; for example, the percentages of correlation energies recovered for HF, CO, and N{sub 2} improve from 115.2%, 121.7%, and 121.5% without rank restriction to 97.8%, 101.1%, and 100.0% with rank restriction. Similar results are found at both equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries. While more accurate, the rank-restricted N-representability conditions are less expensive computationally than the full-rank conditions.

  20. On the degrees of freedom of reduced-rank estimators in multivariate regression

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, A.; Chen, K.; Wang, N.; Zhu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We study the effective degrees of freedom of a general class of reduced-rank estimators for multivariate regression in the framework of Stein's unbiased risk estimation. A finite-sample exact unbiased estimator is derived that admits a closed-form expression in terms of the thresholded singular values of the least-squares solution and hence is readily computable. The results continue to hold in the high-dimensional setting where both the predictor and the response dimensions may be larger than the sample size. The derived analytical form facilitates the investigation of theoretical properties and provides new insights into the empirical behaviour of the degrees of freedom. In particular, we examine the differences and connections between the proposed estimator and a commonly-used naive estimator. The use of the proposed estimator leads to efficient and accurate prediction risk estimation and model selection, as demonstrated by simulation studies and a data example. PMID:26702155

  1. Reduced-rank models of growth and reproductive traits in Nelore cattle.

    PubMed

    Boligon, A A; Silveira, F A; Silveira, D D; Dionello, N J L; Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Souza, F R P

    2015-05-01

    In beef cattle genetic evaluation, principal component models of the additive genetic effect could be used to incorporate several traits in the same analysis, without an important increase in the number of parameters to be estimated. In this study, multitrait (MT) and reduced-rank models were compared for their ability to estimate parameters and predict breeding values for weaning weight, yearling weight, weaning hip height, yearling hip height, weaning to yearling weight gain, scrotal circumference, and age at the first calving. Data obtained were from 74,388 Nelore animals, born to 1441 sires and 28,502 cows. Six analyses were performed using a MT model that incorporated all the traits simultaneously and five reduced-rank models for the genetic additive direct (co)variance matrix, fitting the first one (PC1), two (PC2), three (PC3), four (PC4), and five (PC5) principal components. The model considering the first three principal components (PC3) provided the best fit. Direct and maternal heritability and the respective standard errors obtained from the MT and PC3 models were similar. In general, the PC3 model provided slightly stronger genetic correlations between the traits when compared with those obtained with the MT model. The rank correlations between the breeding values predicted with the MT and PC3 models for the different traits ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. When 2% and 10% of the best sires were selected on the basis of breeding values predicted by the MT model, the degree of concordance with the PC3 model ranged from 86% to 97%. The first three principal components explained most of the genetic variation among animals, suggesting that major changes should not be expected in the sire's classification on the basis of breeding values predicted for growth and reproductive traits. Models of principal components could be used for beef cattle genetic evaluation, especially when considering several economic traits in the same analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  2. Modified hazard ranking system for sites with mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes. User manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, K.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Stenner, R.D.

    1986-04-01

    This document describes both the original Hazard Ranking System and the modified Hazard Ranking System as they are to be used in evaluating the relative potential for uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities to cause human health or safety problems or ecological or environmental damage. Detailed instructions for using the mHRS/HRS computer code are provided, along with instructions for performing the calculations by hand. Uniform application of the ranking system will permit the DOE to identify those releases of hazardous substances that pose the greatest hazard to humans or the environment. However, the mHRS/HRS by itself cannot establish priorities for the allocation of funds for remedial action. The mHRS/HRS is a means for applying uniform technical judgment regarding the potential hazards presented by a facility relative to other facilities. It does not address the feasibility, desirability, or degree of cleanup required. Neither does it deal with the readiness or ability of a state to carry out such remedial action, as may be indicated, or to meet other conditions prescribed in CERCLA. 13 refs., 13 figs., 27 tabs.

  3. Non-parametric three-way mixed ANOVA with aligned rank tests.

    PubMed

    Oliver-Rodríguez, Juan C; Wang, X T

    2015-02-01

    Research problems that require a non-parametric analysis of multifactor designs with repeated measures arise in the behavioural sciences. There is, however, a lack of available procedures in commonly used statistical packages. In the present study, a generalization of the aligned rank test for the two-way interaction is proposed for the analysis of the typical sources of variation in a three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. It can be implemented in the usual statistical packages. Its statistical properties are tested by using simulation methods with two sample sizes (n = 30 and n = 10) and three distributions (normal, exponential and double exponential). Results indicate substantial increases in power for non-normal distributions in comparison with the usual parametric tests. Similar levels of Type I error for both parametric and aligned rank ANOVA were obtained with non-normal distributions and large sample sizes. Degrees-of-freedom adjustments for Type I error control in small samples are proposed. The procedure is applied to a case study with 30 participants per group where it detects gender differences in linguistic abilities in blind children not shown previously by other methods.

  4. Dietary patterns by reduced rank regression are associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Katherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Evidence linking dietary patterns (DP) and obesity and hypertension prevalence is inconsistent. We aimed to identify DP derived from energy density, fibre and sugar intakes, as well as Na, K, fibre, SFA and PUFA, and investigate associations with obesity and hypertension. Adults (n 4908) were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls estimated food and nutrient intakes. Reduced rank regression derived DP with dietary energy density (DED), fibre density and total sugar intake as response variables for obesity and Na:K, SFA:PUFA and fibre density as variables for hypertension. Poisson regression investigated relationships between DP and prevalence ratios (PR) of overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and hypertension (blood pressure≥140/90 mmHg). Obesity-DP1 was positively correlated with fibre density and sugars and inversely with DED. Obesity-DP2 was positively correlated with sugars and inversely with fibre density. Individuals in the highest tertile of Obesity-DP1 and Obesity-DP2, compared with the lowest, had lower (PR 0·88; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·95) and higher (PR 1·09; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·18) prevalence of obesity, respectively. Na:K and SFA:PUFA were positively correlated with Hypertension-DP1 and inversely correlated with Hypertension-DP2, respectively. There was a trend towards higher hypertension prevalence in the highest tertile of Hypertension-DP1 compared with the lowest (PR 1·18; 95 % CI 0·99, 1·41). Hypertension-DP2 was not associated with hypertension. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with low-DED, high-fibre and high-sugar (natural sugars) diets and positively associated with low-fibre and high-sugar (added sugars) diets. Hypertension prevalence was higher on low-fibre and high-Na and SFA diets.

  5. Does the Introduction of the Ranking Task in Valuation Studies Improve Data Quality and Reduce Inconsistencies? The Case of the EQ-5D-5L.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Goñi, Juan M; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2016-06-01

    Time trade-off (TTO)-based valuation studies for the three-level version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) typically started off with a ranking task (ordering the health states by preference). This was not included in the protocol for the five-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) valuation study. To test whether reintroducing a ranking task before the composite TTO (C-TTO) could help to reduce inconsistencies in C-TTO responses and improve the data quality. Respondents were randomly assigned to three study arms. The control arm was the present EQ-5D-5L study protocol, without ranking. The second arm (ranking without sorting) preceded the present protocol by asking respondents to rank the target health states using physical cards. The states were then valued in random order using C-TTO. In the third arm (ranking and sorting), the ranked states remained visible through the C-TTO tasks and the order of valuation was determined by the ranking. The study used only 10 EQ-5D-5L health states. We compared the C-TTO-based inconsistent pairs of health states and ties. The final sample size was 196 in the control arm, 205 in the ranking without sorting arm, and 199 in the ranking and sorting arm. The percentages of ties by respondents were 15.1%, 12.5%, and 12.6% for the control arm, the ranking without sorting arm, and the ranking and sorting arm, respectively. The extra cost for adding the ranking task was about 15%. The benefit does not justify the effort involved in the ranking task. For this reason, the addition of the ranking task to the present EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol is not an attractive option. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixed reality virtual pets to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2014-04-01

    Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality.

  7. Dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) and depressive symptoms in Japanese employees: The Furukawa nutrition and health study.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takako; Kochi, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kurotani, Kayo; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Ito, Rie; Kabe, Isamu; Kawakami, Norito; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Nanri, Akiko

    2015-09-30

    Depression has been linked to the overall diet using both exploratory and pre-defined methods. However, neither of these methods incorporates specific knowledge on nutrient-disease associations. The aim of the present study was to empirically identify dietary patterns using reduced rank regression and to examine their relations to depressive symptoms. Participants were 2006 Japanese employees aged 19-69 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Diet was assessed using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary patterns were extracted by reduced rank regression with 6 depression-related nutrients as response variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of depressive symptoms adjusted for potential confounders. A dietary pattern characterized by a high intake of vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, soybean products, green tea, potatoes, fruits, and small fish with bones and a low intake of rice was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of having depressive symptoms were 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.81) in the highest versus lowest tertiles of dietary score. Results suggest that adherence to a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, and typical Japanese foods, including mushrooms, seaweeds, soybean products, and green tea, is associated with a lower probability of having depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A reduced rank approach for covariance matrix estimation in EEG signal classification.

    PubMed

    Tomida, Naoki; Yamagishi, Masao; Yamada, Isao; Tanaka, Toshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) methods are widely used to extract the brain activity for brain machine interfacing (BMI) based on electroencephalogram (EEG). For each mental task, CSP methods estimate a covariance matrix of EEG signals and adopt the uniform average of the sample covariance matrices over trials. However, the uniform average is sensitive to outliers caused by e.g. unrelated brain activity. In this paper, we propose an improvement of the estimated covariance matrix utilized in CSP methods by reducing the influence of the outliers as well as guaranteeing positive definiteness. More precisely, our estimation is the projection of the uniform average onto the intersection of two convex sets: the first set is a special reduced dimensional subspace which alleviates the influence of the outliers; the second is the positive definite cone. A numerical experiment supports the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  9. A marginal approach to reduced-rank penalized spline smoothing with application to multilevel functional data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaihou; Paik, Myunghee Cho; Choi, H. Alex

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel functional data is collected in many biomedical studies. For example, in a study of the effect of Nimodipine on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), patients underwent multiple 4-hour treatment cycles. Within each treatment cycle, subjects’ vital signs were reported every 10 minutes. This data has a natural multilevel structure with treatment cycles nested within subjects and measurements nested within cycles. Most literature on nonparametric analysis of such multilevel functional data focus on conditional approaches using functional mixed effects models. However, parameters obtained from the conditional models do not have direct interpretations as population average effects. When population effects are of interest, we may employ marginal regression models. In this work, we propose marginal approaches to fit multilevel functional data through penalized spline generalized estimating equation (penalized spline GEE). The procedure is effective for modeling multilevel correlated generalized outcomes as well as continuous outcomes without suffering from numerical difficulties. We provide a variance estimator robust to misspecification of correlation structure. We investigate the large sample properties of the penalized spline GEE estimator with multilevel continuous data and show that the asymptotics falls into two categories. In the small knots scenario, the estimated mean function is asymptotically efficient when the true correlation function is used and the asymptotic bias does not depend on the working correlation matrix. In the large knots scenario, both the asymptotic bias and variance depend on the working correlation. We propose a new method to select the smoothing parameter for penalized spline GEE based on an estimate of the asymptotic mean squared error (MSE). We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine property of the proposed estimator under different correlation structures and sensitivity of the variance estimation to the choice

  10. A marginal approach to reduced-rank penalized spline smoothing with application to multilevel functional data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaihou; Wang, Yuanjia; Paik, Myunghee Cho; Choi, H Alex

    2013-10-01

    Multilevel functional data is collected in many biomedical studies. For example, in a study of the effect of Nimodipine on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), patients underwent multiple 4-hour treatment cycles. Within each treatment cycle, subjects' vital signs were reported every 10 minutes. This data has a natural multilevel structure with treatment cycles nested within subjects and measurements nested within cycles. Most literature on nonparametric analysis of such multilevel functional data focus on conditional approaches using functional mixed effects models. However, parameters obtained from the conditional models do not have direct interpretations as population average effects. When population effects are of interest, we may employ marginal regression models. In this work, we propose marginal approaches to fit multilevel functional data through penalized spline generalized estimating equation (penalized spline GEE). The procedure is effective for modeling multilevel correlated generalized outcomes as well as continuous outcomes without suffering from numerical difficulties. We provide a variance estimator robust to misspecification of correlation structure. We investigate the large sample properties of the penalized spline GEE estimator with multilevel continuous data and show that the asymptotics falls into two categories. In the small knots scenario, the estimated mean function is asymptotically efficient when the true correlation function is used and the asymptotic bias does not depend on the working correlation matrix. In the large knots scenario, both the asymptotic bias and variance depend on the working correlation. We propose a new method to select the smoothing parameter for penalized spline GEE based on an estimate of the asymptotic mean squared error (MSE). We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine property of the proposed estimator under different correlation structures and sensitivity of the variance estimation to the choice

  11. Implementation of a reduced rank square-root smoother for high resolution ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosme, E.; Brankart, J.-M.; Verron, J.; Brasseur, P.; Krysta, M.

    Optimal smoothers enable the use of future observations to estimate the state of a dynamical system. In this paper, a square-root smoother algorithm is presented, extended from the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, a square-root Kalman filter routinely used for ocean data assimilation. With this filter algorithm, the smoother extension appears almost cost-free. A modified algorithm implementing a particular parameterization of model error is also described. The smoother is applied with an ocean circulation model in a double-gyre, 1/4° configuration, able to represent mid-latitude mesoscale dynamics. Twin experiments are performed: the true fields are drawn from a simulation at a 1/6° resolution, and noised. Then, altimetric satellite tracks and sparse vertical profiles of temperature are extracted to form the observations. The smoother is efficient in reducing errors, particularly in the regions poorly covered by the observations at the filter analysis time. It results in a significant reduction of the global error: the Root Mean Square Error in Sea Surface Height from the filter is further reduced by 20% by the smoother. The actual smoothing of the global error through time is also verified. Three essential issues are then investigated: (i) the time distance within which observations may be favourably used to correct the state estimates is found to be 8 days with our system. (ii) The impact of the model error parameterization is stressed. When this parameterization is spuriously neglected, the smoother can deteriorate the state estimates. (iii) Iterations of the smoother over a fixed time interval are tested. Although this procedure improves the state estimates over the assimilation window, it also makes the subsequent forecast worse than the filter in our experiment.

  12. Learning oncogenetic networks by reducing to mixed integer linear programming.

    PubMed

    Shahrabi Farahani, Hossein; Lagergren, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be a result of accumulation of different types of genetic mutations such as copy number aberrations. The data from tumors are cross-sectional and do not contain the temporal order of the genetic events. Finding the order in which the genetic events have occurred and progression pathways are of vital importance in understanding the disease. In order to model cancer progression, we propose Progression Networks, a special case of Bayesian networks, that are tailored to model disease progression. Progression networks have similarities with Conjunctive Bayesian Networks (CBNs) [1],a variation of Bayesian networks also proposed for modeling disease progression. We also describe a learning algorithm for learning Bayesian networks in general and progression networks in particular. We reduce the hard problem of learning the Bayesian and progression networks to Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). MILP is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time complete (NP-complete) problem for which very good heuristics exists. We tested our algorithm on synthetic and real cytogenetic data from renal cell carcinoma. We also compared our learned progression networks with the networks proposed in earlier publications. The software is available on the website https://bitbucket.org/farahani/diprog.

  13. A Dietary Pattern Derived by Reduced Rank Regression is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in An Urban Ghanaian Population

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Laura K.; Jannasch, Franziska; Kröger, Janine; Bedu-Addo, George; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Reduced rank regression (RRR) is an innovative technique to establish dietary patterns related to biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but has not been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. In a hospital-based case-control study for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi (diabetes cases, 538; controls, 668) dietary intake was assessed by a specific food frequency questionnaire. After random split of our study population, we derived a dietary pattern in the training set using RRR with adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as responses and 35 food items as predictors. This pattern score was applied to the validation set, and its association with type 2 diabetes was examined by logistic regression. The dietary pattern was characterized by a high consumption of plantain, cassava, and garden egg, and a low intake of rice, juice, vegetable oil, eggs, chocolate drink, sweets, and red meat; the score correlated positively with serum triglycerides and negatively with adiponectin. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile compared to the lowest was 4.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.87–10.50, p for trend < 0.001). The identified dietary pattern increases the odds of type 2 diabetes in urban Ghanaians, which is mainly attributed to increased serum triglycerides. PMID:26198248

  14. Exploiting sparsity and low-rank structure for the recovery of multi-slice breast MRIs with reduced sampling error.

    PubMed

    Yin, X X; Ng, B W-H; Ramamohanarao, K; Baghai-Wadji, A; Abbott, D

    2012-09-01

    It has been shown that, magnetic resonance images (MRIs) with sparsity representation in a transformed domain, e.g. spatial finite-differences (FD), or discrete cosine transform (DCT), can be restored from undersampled k-space via applying current compressive sampling theory. The paper presents a model-based method for the restoration of MRIs. The reduced-order model, in which a full-system-response is projected onto a subspace of lower dimensionality, has been used to accelerate image reconstruction by reducing the size of the involved linear system. In this paper, the singular value threshold (SVT) technique is applied as a denoising scheme to reduce and select the model order of the inverse Fourier transform image, and to restore multi-slice breast MRIs that have been compressively sampled in k-space. The restored MRIs with SVT for denoising show reduced sampling errors compared to the direct MRI restoration methods via spatial FD, or DCT. Compressive sampling is a technique for finding sparse solutions to underdetermined linear systems. The sparsity that is implicit in MRIs is to explore the solution to MRI reconstruction after transformation from significantly undersampled k-space. The challenge, however, is that, since some incoherent artifacts result from the random undersampling, noise-like interference is added to the image with sparse representation. These recovery algorithms in the literature are not capable of fully removing the artifacts. It is necessary to introduce a denoising procedure to improve the quality of image recovery. This paper applies a singular value threshold algorithm to reduce the model order of image basis functions, which allows further improvement of the quality of image reconstruction with removal of noise artifacts. The principle of the denoising scheme is to reconstruct the sparse MRI matrices optimally with a lower rank via selecting smaller number of dominant singular values. The singular value threshold algorithm is performed

  15. Substantial shifts in ranking of California hospitals by hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection following adjustment for hospital characteristics and case mix.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, David M; Phelan, Michael J; Cao, Chenghua; Billimek, John; Datta, Rupak; Nguyen, Hoanglong; Kwark, Homin; Huang, Susan S

    2014-10-01

    States have established public reporting of hospital-associated (HA) infections-including those of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-but do not account for hospital case mix or postdischarge events. Identify facility-level characteristics associated with HA-MRSA infection admissions and create adjusted hospital rankings. A retrospective cohort study of 2009-2010 California acute care hospitals. We defined HA-MRSA admissions as involving MRSA pneumonia or septicemia events arising during hospitalization or within 30 days after discharge. We used mandatory hospitalization and US Census data sets to generate hospital population characteristics by summarizing across admissions. Facility-level factors associated with hospitals' proportions of HA-MRSA infection admissions were identified using generalized linear models. Using state methodology, hospitals were categorized into 3 tiers of HA-MRSA infection prevention performance, using raw and adjusted values. Among 323 hospitals, a median of 16 HA-MRSA infections (range, 0-102) per 10,000 admissions was found. Hospitals serving a greater proportion of patients who had serious comorbidities, were from low-education zip codes, and were discharged to locations other than home were associated with higher HA-MRSA infection risk. Total concordance between all raw and adjusted hospital rankings was 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.51). Among 53 community hospitals in the poor-performance category, more than 20% moved into the average-performance category after adjustment. Similarly, among 71 hospitals in the superior-performance category, half moved into the average-performance category after adjustment. When adjusting for nonmodifiable facility characteristics and case mix, hospital rankings based on HA-MRSA infections substantially changed. Quality indicators for hospitals require adequate adjustment for patient population characteristics for valid interhospital performance comparisons.

  16. Using both Principal Component Analysis and Reduced Rank Regression to Study Dietary Patterns and Diabetes in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Batis, Carolina; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between dietary patterns and diabetes using the strengths of two methods: principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the eating patterns of the population and reduced rank regression (RRR) to derive a pattern that explains the variation in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting glucose. Design We measured diet over a 3-day period with 24-hour recalls and a household food inventory in 2006 and used it to derive PCA and RRR dietary patterns. The outcomes were measured in 2009. Setting Adults (n = 4,316) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Results The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes prevalence (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%), comparing the highest dietary pattern score quartile to the lowest, was 1.26 (0.76, 2.08) for a modern high-wheat pattern (PCA; wheat products, fruits, eggs, milk, instant noodles and frozen dumplings), 0.76 (0.49, 1.17) for a traditional southern pattern (PCA; rice, meat, poultry, and fish), and 2.37 (1.56, 3.60) for the pattern derived with RRR. By comparing the dietary pattern structures of RRR and PCA, we found that the RRR pattern was also behaviorally meaningful. It combined the deleterious effects of the modern high-wheat (high intake of wheat buns and breads, deep-fried wheat, and soy milk) with the deleterious effects of consuming the opposite of the traditional southern (low intake of rice, poultry and game, fish and seafood). Conclusions Our findings suggest that using both PCA and RRR provided useful insights when studying the association of dietary patterns with diabetes. PMID:26784586

  17. Dietary patterns by reduced rank regression predicting changes in obesity indices in a cohort study: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Roya; Egtesadi, Shahryar; Mirmiran, Parvin; Gohari, Mahmoud; Farahani, Sara Jalali; Esfahani, Firoozeh Hosseini; Vafa, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mehdi; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between dietary patterns and obesity indices (BMI, WC, WHR) among Tehranian adults in a 6-year follow-up study. Within frame of a cohort study in Tehran (mean follow up 6.6+/-0.9 years), 141 adults were recruited with: two 24 hour dietary recalls at the beginning, as well as obesity indices at the beginning and end of the study period. Dietary intakes were converted into grams of intakes of food items and categorized into 16 groups. Reduced rank regression analysis derived five patterns with total and polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat intake, cholesterol, fiber and calcium intake as response variables. Factors (dietary patterns) were generated retaining a corresponding factor loading > or = |0.17| on the food groups. Changes in obesity indices were scrutinized within quintiles of factor scores. There were high loadings on refined carbohydrates, whole grain, starchy vegetables, other vegetables, red and refined meat, saturated/trans fat, and egg for the first factor named "traditional". All obesity indices had increasing trend across quintiles of pattern score. The fifth pattern (namely egg pattern) had high loading for eggs, salty snacks, as well as fruits and dry fruits, and negative loadings for red and processed meat, saturated and trans fat, plant oils, and dairy products. This pattern showed increasing trends for WC and WHR after adjustment for potential confounders. Other patterns showed non-significant trends for obesity indices. The results were indicative of a traditional pattern which is dominated in the Tehran region and associated with increase in obesity indices.

  18. Using both principal component analysis and reduced rank regression to study dietary patterns and diabetes in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Batis, Carolina; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association between dietary patterns and diabetes using the strengths of two methods: principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the eating patterns of the population and reduced rank regression (RRR) to derive a pattern that explains the variation in glycated Hb (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting glucose. We measured diet over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory in 2006 and used it to derive PCA and RRR dietary patterns. The outcomes were measured in 2009. Adults (n 4316) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes prevalence (HbA1c≥6·5 %), comparing the highest dietary pattern score quartile with the lowest, was 1·26 (95 % CI 0·76, 2·08) for a modern high-wheat pattern (PCA; wheat products, fruits, eggs, milk, instant noodles and frozen dumplings), 0·76 (95 % CI 0·49, 1·17) for a traditional southern pattern (PCA; rice, meat, poultry and fish) and 2·37 (95 % CI 1·56, 3·60) for the pattern derived with RRR. By comparing the dietary pattern structures of RRR and PCA, we found that the RRR pattern was also behaviourally meaningful. It combined the deleterious effects of the modern high-wheat pattern (high intakes of wheat buns and breads, deep-fried wheat and soya milk) with the deleterious effects of consuming the opposite of the traditional southern pattern (low intakes of rice, poultry and game, fish and seafood). Our findings suggest that using both PCA and RRR provided useful insights when studying the association of dietary patterns with diabetes.

  19. Scaling Laws for Reduced-Scale Tests of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems in Non-Newtonian Slurries: Mixing Cavern Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Etchells, Arthur W.

    2006-03-02

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at the Hanford Site will use pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology for mixing and gas retention control applications in tanks expected to contain waste slurries exhibiting a non-Newtonian rheology. This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies undertaken to establish a methodology to perform reduced-scale mixing tests with PJM systems in non-Newtonian fluids. A theoretical model for mixing cavern formation from steady and pulsed jets is developed and compared with data from a single unsteady jet in a yield stress simulant. Dimensional analysis is used to identify the important dimensionless parameters affecting mixing performance in more complex systems. Scaling laws are proposed based on the modeling and dimensional analysis. Experimental validation of the scaling laws governing unsteady jet mixing in non-Newtonian fluids are also presented. Tests were conducted at three scales using two non-Newtonian simulants. The data were compared non-dimensionally, and the important scale laws were confirmed. The key dimensionless parameters were found to be the Strouhal number (which describes unsteady pulse jet mixer operation), the yield Reynolds number (which governs cavern formation due to non-Newtonian fluid behavior), and the viscous Reynolds number (which determines the flow regime and the degree of turbulence). The experimentally validated scaling laws provide the basis for reduced scale testing of prototypic WTP mixing systems. It is argued that mixing systems developed from reduced scale testing will produce conservative designs at full scale.

  20. Rank Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenson, Carlos

    Studies of rank distributions have been popular for decades, especially since the work of Zipf. For example, if we rank words of a given language by use frequency (most used word in English is 'the', rank 1; second most common word is 'of', rank 2), the distribution can be approximated roughly with a power law. The same applies for cities (most populated city in a country ranks first), earthquakes, metabolism, the Internet, and dozens of other phenomena. We recently proposed ``rank diversity'' to measure how ranks change in time, using the Google Books Ngram dataset. Studying six languages between 1800 and 2009, we found that the rank diversity curves of languages are universal, adjusted with a sigmoid on log-normal scale. We are studying several other datasets (sports, economies, social systems, urban systems, earthquakes, artificial life). Rank diversity seems to be universal, independently of the shape of the rank distribution. I will present our work in progress towards a general description of the features of rank change in time, along with simple models which reproduce it

  1. Plastic scintillators: a powerful tool to reduce mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Tarancon, A.; Bagan, H.; Garcia, J.F.; Rauret, G.

    2008-07-01

    Wastes containing radioactive and organic compounds (mixed wastes) are difficult to dispose because of the regulations established for nuclear and hazardous wastes. Mixed wastes originate mainly in the emulsions generated in beta emitter determinations by Liquid Scintillation techniques. The use of plastic scintillators instead of liquid cocktails may facilitate the segregation, after measurement, of sample and scintillator without introducing additional wastes in the measurement step. In this study, we compare the capability of Plastic Scintillation (PS) versus Liquid Scintillation (LS) and Cerenkov (C) techniques to determine beta emitters in routine measurements. Results obtained show that high and medium energy beta emitters (Sr-90/Y-90 and C-14) can be quantified in aqueous samples by using PS with similar relative errors (< 5%) as those obtained by LS or C, for any activity level considered. For low energy emitters (H-3), best results using PS are achieved for medium activity levels. Additionally, measurements performed in solutions including alpha (Pu-238) and beta-gamma (Cs-134) emitters confirm the capability of PS to extent the application of this technique to the determination of these types of isotopes. (authors)

  2. Ranking games.

    PubMed

    Osterloh, Margit; Frey, Bruno S

    2015-02-01

    Research rankings based on bibliometrics today dominate governance in academia and determine careers in universities. Analytical approach to capture the incentives by users of rankings and by suppliers of rankings, both on an individual and an aggregate level. Rankings may produce unintended negative side effects. In particular, rankings substitute the "taste for science" by a "taste for publication." We show that the usefulness of rankings rests on several important assumptions challenged by recent research. We suggest as alternatives careful socialization and selection of scholars, supplemented by periodic self-evaluations and awards. The aim is to encourage controversial discourses in order to contribute meaningful to the advancement of science. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Memory Efficient Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Alistair; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an approximate document ranking process that uses a compact array of in-memory, low-precision approximations for document length. Combined with another rule for reducing the memory required by partial similarity accumulators, the approximation heuristic allows the ranking of large document collections using less than one byte of memory…

  4. Mixed-Mode Surveys: A Strategy to Reduce Costs and Enhance Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; Radhakrishna, Rama; LaBorde, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-mode surveys present one opportunity for Extension to determine program outcomes at lower costs. In order to conduct a follow-up evaluation, we implemented a mixed-mode survey that relied on communication using the Web, postal mailings, and telephone calls. Using multiple modes conserved costs by reducing the number of postal mailings yet…

  5. Mixed-Mode Surveys: A Strategy to Reduce Costs and Enhance Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; Radhakrishna, Rama; LaBorde, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-mode surveys present one opportunity for Extension to determine program outcomes at lower costs. In order to conduct a follow-up evaluation, we implemented a mixed-mode survey that relied on communication using the Web, postal mailings, and telephone calls. Using multiple modes conserved costs by reducing the number of postal mailings yet…

  6. Reduced-Rank Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Air Pollution Concentrations in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution1

    PubMed Central

    Olives, Casey; Sheppard, Lianne; Lindström, Johan; Sampson, Paul D.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Szpiro, Adam A.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence in the epidemiologic literature of the relationship between air pollution and adverse health outcomes. Prediction of individual air pollution exposure in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded Multi-Ethnic Study of Atheroscelerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) study relies on a flexible spatio-temporal prediction model that integrates land-use regression with kriging to account for spatial dependence in pollutant concentrations. Temporal variability is captured using temporal trends estimated via modified singular value decomposition and temporally varying spatial residuals. This model utilizes monitoring data from existing regulatory networks and supplementary MESA Air monitoring data to predict concentrations for individual cohort members. In general, spatio-temporal models are limited in their efficacy for large data sets due to computational intractability. We develop reduced-rank versions of the MESA Air spatio-temporal model. To do so, we apply low-rank kriging to account for spatial variation in the mean process and discuss the limitations of this approach. As an alternative, we represent spatial variation using thin plate regression splines. We compare the performance of the outlined models using EPA and MESA Air monitoring data for predicting concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx)—a pollutant of primary interest in MESA Air—in the Los Angeles metropolitan area via cross-validated R2. Our findings suggest that use of reduced-rank models can improve computational efficiency in certain cases. Low-rank kriging and thin plate regression splines were competitive across the formulations considered, although TPRS appeared to be more robust in some settings. PMID:27014398

  7. MRPrimer: a MapReduce-based method for the thorough design of valid and ranked primers for PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyerin; Kang, NaNa; Chon, Kang-Wook; Kim, Seonho; Lee, NaHye; Koo, JaeHyung; Kim, Min-Soo

    2015-11-16

    Primer design is a fundamental technique that is widely used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although many methods have been proposed for primer design, they require a great deal of manual effort to generate feasible and valid primers, including homology tests on off-target sequences using BLAST-like tools. That approach is inconvenient for many target sequences of quantitative PCR (qPCR) due to considering the same stringent and allele-invariant constraints. To address this issue, we propose an entirely new method called MRPrimer that can design all feasible and valid primer pairs existing in a DNA database at once, while simultaneously checking a multitude of filtering constraints and validating primer specificity. Furthermore, MRPrimer suggests the best primer pair for each target sequence, based on a ranking method. Through qPCR analysis using 343 primer pairs and the corresponding sequencing and comparative analyses, we showed that the primer pairs designed by MRPrimer are very stable and effective for qPCR. In addition, MRPrimer is computationally efficient and scalable and therefore useful for quickly constructing an entire collection of feasible and valid primers for frequently updated databases like RefSeq. Furthermore, we suggest that MRPrimer can be utilized conveniently for experiments requiring primer design, especially real-time qPCR. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. MRPrimer: a MapReduce-based method for the thorough design of valid and ranked primers for PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyerin; Kang, NaNa; Chon, Kang-Wook; Kim, Seonho; Lee, NaHye; Koo, JaeHyung; Kim, Min-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Primer design is a fundamental technique that is widely used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although many methods have been proposed for primer design, they require a great deal of manual effort to generate feasible and valid primers, including homology tests on off-target sequences using BLAST-like tools. That approach is inconvenient for many target sequences of quantitative PCR (qPCR) due to considering the same stringent and allele-invariant constraints. To address this issue, we propose an entirely new method called MRPrimer that can design all feasible and valid primer pairs existing in a DNA database at once, while simultaneously checking a multitude of filtering constraints and validating primer specificity. Furthermore, MRPrimer suggests the best primer pair for each target sequence, based on a ranking method. Through qPCR analysis using 343 primer pairs and the corresponding sequencing and comparative analyses, we showed that the primer pairs designed by MRPrimer are very stable and effective for qPCR. In addition, MRPrimer is computationally efficient and scalable and therefore useful for quickly constructing an entire collection of feasible and valid primers for frequently updated databases like RefSeq. Furthermore, we suggest that MRPrimer can be utilized conveniently for experiments requiring primer design, especially real-time qPCR. PMID:26109350

  9. A novel mixing strategy for maximizing yields of glucose and reducing sugar in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Pal, Ramendra Kishor; Chakraborty, Saikat

    2013-11-01

    This work explores the effects of mixing on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to innovate a novel mixing strategy that maximizes glucose and reducing sugar yields for production of cellulosic ethanol while reducing the power required for reactor mixing. Batch experiments of cellulose hydrolysis are performed under aseptic conditions for 72 h at various substrate loading (2-6% wt./vol.), where the reactor mixing is terminated after different intervals of time ranging from 0 to 72 h. We find that initial mixing for a certain 'optimal mixing time' followed by no mixing for the rest of the reaction time maximizes glucose and reducing sugar yields. We report a maximum of 26% and 31% increase in glucose and reducing yields, respectively, in case of optimal mixing over continuous mixing for 2% substrate loading. We obtain an algebraic expression that predicts that the optimal mixing time increases exponentially with substrate loading.

  10. Mixed models and reduced/selective integration displacement models for nonlinear shell analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    One of the objectives of the present investigation is to identify classes of equivalent mixed models and reduced/selective integration displacement models for curved shell structures. A second objective is concerned with the identification of the spurious modes exhibited by various mixed models and their equivalent reduced integration displacement models. The merits of using mixed models are also evaluated. The mixed elements developed in the current investigation differ from those presented by Noor and Hartley (1977) by the fact that the stress resultants are discontinuous at interelement boundaries and, therefore, are eliminated on the element level. The high accuracy and effectiveness of the elements developed is demonstrated by means of numerical examples, taking into account three geometrically nonlinear problems of shallow shells.

  11. Optimal state discrimination with an error margin of pure and mixed symmetric states: irreducible qudit and reducible qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Mahmoudi, P.; Akhgar, D.; Faizi, E.

    2017-06-01

    Minimum error discrimination (MED) and Unambiguous discrimination (UD) are two common strategies for quantum state discrimination that can be modified by imposing a finite error margin on the error probability. Error margins 0 and 1 correspond to two common strategies. In this paper, for an arbitrary error margin m, the discrimination problem of equiprobable quantum symmetric states is analytically solved for four distinct cases. A generating set of irreducible and reducible representations of a subgroup of a unitary group are considered, separately, as unitary operators that produce one set of the symmetric states. In the irreducible case, for N≥slant d mixed and pure qudit states, one critical m which divides the parameter space into two domains is obtained. The number of critical values m in the reducible case is two, for both N mixed and pure qubit states. The reason for this difference between numbers of critical values m is explained. The optimal set of measurements and corresponding maximum success probability in fully analytical form are determined for all values of the error margin. The relationship between the amount of error that is imposed on error probability and geometrical situation of states with changes in rank of element corresponding to inconclusive result is determined. The behaviors of elements of measurement are explained geometrically in order to decrease the error probability in each domain. Furthermore, the problem of the discrimination with error margin among elements of two different sets of symmetric quantum states is studied. The number of critical values m is equivalent to one set in both reducible and irreducible cases. In addition, optimal measurements in each domain are obtained.

  12. Ranking Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Werf, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the "U.S. News" ranking profiles of four colleges, namely: (1) Smith College; (2) Washington University in St. Louis; (3) Colorado State University at Fort Collins; and (4) Whitman College. Smith College was in the top 10 of the nation's liberal-arts colleges, or just outside it, almost since the "U.S.…

  13. Reduced mixing generates oscillations and chaos in the oceanic deep chlorophyll maximum.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Jef; Pham Thi, Nga N; Karl, David M; Sommeijer, Ben

    2006-01-19

    Deep chlorophyll maxima (DCMs) are widespread in large parts of the world's oceans. These deep layers of high chlorophyll concentration reflect a compromise of phytoplankton growth exposed to two opposing resource gradients: light supplied from above and nutrients supplied from below. It is often argued that DCMs are stable features. Here we show, however, that reduced vertical mixing can generate oscillations and chaos in phytoplankton biomass and species composition of DCMs. These fluctuations are caused by a difference in the timescales of two processes: (1) rapid export of sinking plankton, withdrawing nutrients from the euphotic zone and (2) a slow upward flux of nutrients fuelling new phytoplankton production. Climate models predict that global warming will reduce vertical mixing in the oceans. Our model indicates that reduced mixing will generate more variability in DCMs, thereby enhancing variability in oceanic primary production and in carbon export into the ocean interior.

  14. Increasing vertical mixing to reduce Southern Ocean deep convection in NEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuzé, C.; Ridley, J. K.; Calvert, D.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.

    2015-03-01

    Most CMIP5 models unrealistically form Antarctic Bottom Water by open ocean deep convection in the Weddell and Ross Seas. To identify the triggering mechanisms leading to Southern Ocean deep convection in models, we perform sensitivity experiments on the ocean model NEMO forced by prescribed atmospheric fluxes. We vary the vertical velocity scale of the Langmuir turbulence, the fraction of turbulent kinetic energy transferred below the mixed layer, and the background diffusivity and run short simulations from 1980. All experiments exhibit deep convection in the Riiser-Larsen Sea in 1987; the origin is a positive sea ice anomaly in 1985, causing a shallow anomaly in mixed layer depth, hence anomalously warm surface waters and subsequent polynya opening. Modifying the vertical mixing impacts both the climatological state and the associated surface anomalies. The experiments with enhanced mixing exhibit colder surface waters and reduced deep convection. The experiments with decreased mixing are warmer, open larger polynyas and have deep convection across the Weddell Sea until the simulations end. Extended experiments reveal an increase in the Drake Passage transport of 4 Sv each year deep convection occurs, leading to an unrealistically large transport at the end of the simulation. North Atlantic deep convection is not significantly affected by the changes in mixing parameters. As new climate model overflow parameterisations are developed to form Antarctic Bottom Water more realistically, we argue that models would benefit from stopping Southern Ocean deep convection, for example by increasing their vertical mixing.

  15. Obstacles and benefits of the implementation of a reduced rank smoother with a high resolution model of the Atlantic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freychet, N.; Cosme, E.; Brasseur, P.; Brankart, J.-M.; Kpemlie, E.

    2012-03-01

    Most of oceanographic operational centers use three-dimensional data assimilation schemes to produce reanalyses. We investigate here the benefits of a smoother, i.e. a four-dimensional formulation of statistical assimilation. A square-root sequential smoother is implemented with a tropical Atlantic ocean circulation model. A simple twin experiment is performed to investigate its benefits, compared to its corresponding filter. Results show that the smoother leads to a better estimation of the ocean state, both on statistical (i.e. mean error level) and dynamical point of view. Smoothed states are more in phase with the dynamics of the reference state, an aspect that is nicely illustrated with the chaotic dynamics of the north-Brazil rings. We also show that the smoother efficiency is strongly related to the filter configuration. One of the main obstacles to implement the smoother is then to accurately estimate the error covariances of the filter. Considering this, benefits of the smoother are also investigated with a configuration close to situations that can be managed by operational centers systems, where covariances matrices are fixed (optimal interpolation). We define here a simplified smoother scheme, called half-fixed basis smoother, that could be implemented with current reanalysis schemes. Its main assumption is to neglect the propagation of the error covariances matrix, what leads to strongly reduce the cost of assimilation. Results illustrate the ability of this smoother to provide a solution more consistent with the dynamics, compared to the filter. The smoother is also able to produce analyses independently of the observation frequency, so the smoothed solution appears more continuous in time, especially in case of a low frenquency observation network.

  16. Mixed models and reduced/selective integration displacement models for nonlinear analysis of curved beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Simple mixed models are developed for use in the geometrically nonlinear analysis of deep arches. A total Lagrangian description of the arch deformation is used, the analytical formulation being based on a form of the nonlinear deep arch theory with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The fundamental unknowns comprise the six internal forces and generalized displacements of the arch, and the element characteristic arrays are obtained by using Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The polynomial interpolation functions employed in approximating the forces are one degree lower than those used in approximating the displacements, and the forces are discontinuous at the interelement boundaries. Attention is given to the equivalence between the mixed models developed herein and displacement models based on reduced integration of both the transverse shear and extensional energy terms. The advantages of mixed models over equivalent displacement models are summarized. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy and effectiveness of the mixed models developed and to permit a comparison of their performance with that of other mixed models reported in the literature.

  17. Model's sparse representation based on reduced mixed GMsFE basis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijian; Li, Qiuqi

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a model's sparse representation based on reduced mixed generalized multiscale finite element (GMsFE) basis methods for elliptic PDEs with random inputs. A typical application for the elliptic PDEs is the flow in heterogeneous random porous media. Mixed generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) is one of the accurate and efficient approaches to solve the flow problem in a coarse grid and obtain the velocity with local mass conservation. When the inputs of the PDEs are parameterized by the random variables, the GMsFE basis functions usually depend on the random parameters. This leads to a large number degree of freedoms for the mixed GMsFEM and substantially impacts on the computation efficiency. In order to overcome the difficulty, we develop reduced mixed GMsFE basis methods such that the multiscale basis functions are independent of the random parameters and span a low-dimensional space. To this end, a greedy algorithm is used to find a set of optimal samples from a training set scattered in the parameter space. Reduced mixed GMsFE basis functions are constructed based on the optimal samples using two optimal sampling strategies: basis-oriented cross-validation and proper orthogonal decomposition. Although the dimension of the space spanned by the reduced mixed GMsFE basis functions is much smaller than the dimension of the original full order model, the online computation still depends on the number of coarse degree of freedoms. To significantly improve the online computation, we integrate the reduced mixed GMsFE basis methods with sparse tensor approximation and obtain a sparse representation for the model's outputs. The sparse representation is very efficient for evaluating the model's outputs for many instances of parameters. To illustrate the efficacy of the proposed methods, we present a few numerical examples for elliptic PDEs with multiscale and random inputs. In particular, a two-phase flow model in random porous

  18. Increasing vertical mixing to reduce Southern Ocean deep convection in NEMO3.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuzé, C.; Ridley, J. K.; Calvert, D.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.

    2015-10-01

    Most CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) models unrealistically form Antarctic Bottom Water by open ocean deep convection in the Weddell and Ross seas. To identify the mechanisms triggering Southern Ocean deep convection in models, we perform sensitivity experiments on the ocean model NEMO3.4 forced by prescribed atmospheric fluxes. We vary the vertical velocity scale of the Langmuir turbulence, the fraction of turbulent kinetic energy transferred below the mixed layer, and the background diffusivity and run short simulations from 1980. All experiments exhibit deep convection in the Riiser-Larsen Sea in 1987; the origin is a positive sea ice anomaly in 1985, causing a shallow anomaly in mixed layer depth, hence anomalously warm surface waters and subsequent polynya opening. Modifying the vertical mixing impacts both the climatological state and the associated surface anomalies. The experiments with enhanced mixing exhibit colder surface waters and reduced deep convection. The experiments with decreased mixing give warmer surface waters, open larger polynyas causing more saline surface waters and have deep convection across the Weddell Sea until the simulations end. Extended experiments reveal an increase in the Drake Passage transport of 4 Sv each year deep convection occurs, leading to an unrealistically large transport at the end of the simulation. North Atlantic deep convection is not significantly affected by the changes in mixing parameters. As new climate model overflow parameterisations are developed to form Antarctic Bottom Water more realistically, we argue that models would benefit from stopping Southern Ocean deep convection, for example by increasing their vertical mixing.

  19. The "sweet science" of reducing periorbital lacerations in mixed martial arts.

    PubMed

    Bastidas, Nicholas; Levine, Jamie P; Stile, Frank L

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of mixed martial arts competitions and televised events has grown exponentially since its inception, and with the growth of the sport, unique facial injury patterns have surfaced. In particular, upper eyelid and brow lacerations are common and are especially troublesome given the effect of hemorrhage from these areas on the fighter's vision and thus ability to continue. We propose that the convexity of the underlying supraorbital rim is responsible for the high frequency of lacerations in this region after blunt trauma and offer a method of reducing subsequent injury by reducing its prominence.

  20. Rheological properties of reduced fat ice cream mix containing octenyl succinylated pearl millet starch.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Singh, Ashish K; Yadav, Deep N

    2017-05-01

    The octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA) esterified pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch was evaluated as fat replacer in soft serve ice cream in comparison to other fat replacers viz. inulin, whey protein concentrate-70 and commercial starch. During temperature sweep test, the yield stress and flow behaviour index of un-pasteurized ice cream mixes increased as the temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C, while the consistency index decreased. Consistency index of aged ice cream mixes containing 2% fat replacer was higher as compared to mixes with 1% level. The aged ice cream mixes exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour as flow behaviour index values were less than one. Apparent viscosity (at 50 s(-1) shear rate) of control as well as ice cream mix containing 1% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch samples was 417 and 415 mPas, respectively and did not differ significantly. The overrun of the ice cream (with 5 and 7.5% fat) containing 1 and 2% of above fat replacers ranged between 29.7 and 34.3% and was significantly lower than control (40.3%). The percent melted ice cream was also low for the ice creams containing 2% of above fat replacers at 5% fat content as compared to control. However, sensory acceptability and rheological characteristics of reduced fat ice creams containing 1.0 and 2.0% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch were at par with other fat replacers under the study. Thus, OSA-esterified pearl millet starch has potential to be used as fat replacer in reduced fat ice cream.

  1. Effect of Hydrogenase and Mixed Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Populations on the Corrosion of Steel

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard D.; Jansen, Wayne; Boivin, Joe; Laishley, Edward J.; Costerton, J. William

    1991-01-01

    The importance of hydrogenase activity to corrosion of steel was assessed by using mixed populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from corroded and noncorroded oil pipelines. Biofilms which developed on the steel studs contained detectable numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria (104 increasing to 107/0.5 cm2). However, the biofilm with active hydrogenase activity (i.e., corrosion pipeline organisms), as measured by a semiquantitative commercial kit, was associated with a significantly higher corrosion rate (7.79 mm/year) relative to noncorrosive biofilm (0.48 mm/year) with 105 sulfate-reducing bacteria per 0.5 cm2 but no measurable hydrogenase activity. The importance of hydrogenase and the microbial sulfate-reducing bacterial population making up the biofilm are discussed relative to biocorrosion. Images PMID:16348560

  2. Associations of dietary intake patterns identified using reduced rank regression with markers of arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liese, Angela D.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Crandell, Jamie L.; Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Dabelea, Dana; Black, Mary Helen; Merchant, Anwar T.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are at substantially increased risk for adverse vascular outcomes, but little is known about the influence of dietary behavior on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. We aimed to identify dietary intake patterns associated with CVD risk factors and evaluate their impact on arterial stiffness (AS) measures collected thereafter in a cohort of youth with T1DM. SUBJECTS/METHODS Baseline diet data from a food frequency questionnaire and CVD risk factors (triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, systolic BP, HbA1c, C-reactive protein and waist circumference) were available for 1,153 youth aged ≥10 years with T1DM from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. A dietary intake pattern was identified using 33 food-groups as predictors and six CVD risk factors as responses in reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis. Associations of this RRR-derived dietary pattern with AS measures [augmentation index(AIx75), n=229; pulse wave velocity(PWV), n=237; and brachial distensibility(BrachD), n=228] were then assessed using linear regression. RESULTS The RRR-derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda, eggs, potatoes and high-fat meats, and low intakes of sweets/desserts and low-fat dairy; major contributors were SSB and diet soda. This pattern captured the largest variability in adverse CVD risk profile and was subsequently associated with AIx75 (β=0.47; p<0.01). The mean difference in AIx75 concentration between the highest and the lowest dietary pattern quartiles was 4.3% in fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS Intervention strategies to reduce consumption of unhealthful foods and beverages among youth with T1DM may significantly improve CVD risk profile and ultimately reduce the risk for AS. PMID:24865480

  3. Properties of experimental titanium cast investment mixing with water reducing agent solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zutai; Ding, Ning; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Han-Cheol, Cho; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a dental investment for titanium casting. ZrO(2) and Al(2)O(3) were selected as refractory materials to prepare three investments (Codes: A-C) according to the quantity of Zr. Al(2)O(3) cement was used as a binder at a ratio of 15%, they were mixed with special mixing liquid. B1 was used as a control mixed with water. Fundamental examinations were statistically evaluated. A casting test was performed with investment B. Fluidities, setting times, and green strengths showed no remarkable differences; however, they were significantly different from those of B1. Expansion values for A, B, C, and B1 at 850°C were 1.03%±0.08%, 1.96%±0.17%, 4.35%±0.23%, and 1.50%±0.28%, respectively. Castings were covered by only small amounts of mold materials. The hardness test showed no significant differences between castings from B and the ones from commercial investments. The experimental special mixing liquid effectively reduced the water/powder ratio and improved the strength and thermal expansion.

  4. Reduced mixing from the breaking of internal waves in equatorial waters.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Michael C; Sanford, Thomas B; Winkel, David P

    2003-04-03

    In the oceans, heat, salt and nutrients are redistributed much more easily within water masses of uniform density than across surfaces separating waters of different densities. But the magnitude and distribution of mixing across density surfaces are also important for the Earth's climate as well as the concentrations of organisms. Most of this mixing occurs where internal waves break, overturning the density stratification of the ocean and creating patches of turbulence. Predictions of the rate at which internal waves dissipate were confirmed earlier at mid-latitudes. Here we present observations of temperature and velocity fluctuations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans between 42 degrees N and 2 degrees S to extend that result to equatorial regions. We find a strong latitude dependence of dissipation in accordance with the predictions. In our observations, dissipation rates and accompanying mixing across density surfaces near the Equator are less than 10% of those at mid-latitudes for a similar background of internal waves. Reduced mixing close to the Equator will have to be taken into account in numerical simulations of ocean dynamics--for example, in climate change experiments.

  5. A comparison of principal component analysis, partial least-squares and reduced-rank regressions in the identification of dietary patterns associated with bone mass in ageing Australians.

    PubMed

    Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert; Shi, Zumin

    2017-06-12

    The relative advantages of dietary analysis methods, particularly in identifying dietary patterns associated with bone mass, have not been investigated. We evaluated principal component analysis (PCA), partial least-squares (PLS) and reduced-rank regressions (RRR) in determining dietary patterns associated with bone mass. Data from 1182 study participants (45.9% males; aged 50 years and above) from the North West Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS) were used. Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using PCA, PLS and RRR and compared based on the performance to identify plausible patterns associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC). PCA, PLS and RRR identified two, four and four dietary patterns, respectively. All methods identified similar patterns for the first two factors (factor 1, "prudent" and factor 2, "western" patterns). Three, one and none of the patterns derived by RRR, PLS and PCA were significantly associated with bone mass, respectively. The "prudent" and dairy (factor 3) patterns determined by RRR were positively and significantly associated with BMD and BMC. Vegetables and fruit pattern (factor 4) of PLS and RRR was negatively and significantly associated with BMD and BMC, respectively. RRR was found to be more appropriate in identifying more (plausible) dietary patterns that are associated with bone mass than PCA and PLS. Nevertheless, the advantage of RRR over the other two methods (PCA and PLS) should be confirmed in future studies.

  6. Vapor Phase Hydrogenolysis of Furanics Utilizing Reduced Cobalt Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Sulmonetti, Taylor P.; Hu, Bo; Ifkovits, Zachary; ...

    2017-03-21

    Vapor phase hydrogenolysis of both furfuryl alcohol and furfural were investigated over reduced Co based mixed metal oxides derived from the calcination of a layered double hydroxide precursor. Although a reduced cobalt aluminate sample displays promising selectivity towards 2-methylfuran (2-MF) production, the addition of an Fe dopant into the oxide matrix significantly enhances the activity and selectivity per gram of catalyst. Approximately 82% 2-MF yield is achieved at high conversion when furfuryl alcohol is fed into the reactor at 180 °C over the reduced 3Co-0.25Fe-0.75Al catalyst. Based on structural characterization studies including TPR, XPS, and in-situ XAS it is suggestedmore » that Fe facilitates the reduction of Co, allowing for formation of more metallic species. Altogether, this study demonstrates that non-precious metal catalysts offer promise for the selective conversion of a key biomass oxygenate to a proposed fuel additive.« less

  7. Reduced kinetic mechanism of ignition for nonpremixed hydrogen/air in a supersonic mixing layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Y.; Niioka, T. . Inst. of Fluid Science)

    1994-11-01

    Transient ignition processes in a two-dimensional spatially evolving supersonic mixing layer consisting of a parallel nonpremixed airstream and a hydrogen stream both with temperatures higher than 1,000 K were investigated numerically by using the full chemistry and its reduced chemistry. A phenomenon different from that examined in previous studies, in which ignition of hydrogen/oxygen mixtures was considered, was found in the nonpremixed case examined here. It was shown that the concentration of O was greater than that of OH before ignition, but became smaller with the development of ignition process. Fourteen important reactions for ignition were obtained and verified using sensitivity analyses of ignition delay time and radical concentrations. Several different four-step and three-step reduced kinetic mechanisms were then deduced by introducing the steady-state approximation to different species. Comparison of these reduced kinetic mechanisms with the full chemistry showed that the steady-state approximation of O used in previous studies caused serious errors in the prediction of ignition delay time in supersonic flow, in which nonpremixed character is predominant and the transport phenomenon is important. Ignition locations predicted with the proper four-step and three-step reduced kinetic mechanisms were within 5% and 20% of those predicted with the full chemistry. Finally, these two reduced mechanisms were used to evaluate the effect of viscous dissipation on ignition in the supersonic shear layer. Good agreements between the results of the present reduced kinetic mechanisms and those of the full chemistry were obtained.

  8. Using ocean tracers to reduce uncertainties about ocean diapycnal mixing and model projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, M. P.; Urban, N.; Keller, K.; Schmittner, A.; Tonkonojenkov, R.; Haran, M.

    2010-12-01

    Current projections of the oceanic response to anthropogenic climate forcings are uncertain. Two key sources of these uncertainties are (i) structural errors in current Earth system models and (ii) imperfect knowledge of model parameters. Ocean tracers observations have the potential to reduce these uncertainties. Previous studies typically consider each tracer separately, neglect potentially important statistical properties of the system, or use methods that impose rather daunting computational demands. Here we extend and improve upon a recently developed approach using horizontally averaged vertical profiles of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11), radiocarbon (DC14), and temperature (T) observations to reduce model parametric and structural uncertainties. Our method estimates a joint probability density function, which considers cross-tracer correlations and spatial autocorrelations of the errors. We illustrate this method by estimating two model parameters related to the vertical diffusivity, the background vertical diffusivity and the upper Southern Ocean mixing. We show that enhancing the upper Southern Ocean mixing in the model improves the representations of ocean tracers, as well as improves hindcasts of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and Ocean Carbon uptake. The most probable value of the background vertical diffusivity in the pelagic pycnocline is between 0.1-0.2 cm2/s. According to the statistical method, observations of DC14 reduce the uncertainty about the background vertical diffusivity the most followed by CFC-11 and T. Using all three tracers jointly reduces the model uncertainty by 40%, more than each tracer individually. Given several important caveats, we illustrate how the reduced model parametric uncertainty improves probabilistic projections of the AMOC and Ocean Carbon uptake.

  9. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  10. University Rankings in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Nian Cai; Liu, Li

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s of last Century, university rankings have become very popular in China. Six institutions have published such rankings; some of them have also detailed their ranking methodologies. This paper features a general introduction to university ranking in China, and to the methodologies of each ranking discussed. The paper also…

  11. Acceptability of Strategies to Reduce Student Sitting: A Mixed-Methods Study With College Teachers.

    PubMed

    Laine, Hanna; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Haukkala, Ari; Hankonen, Nelli

    2016-11-18

    Background As school days among adolescents include long periods of prolonged sitting, teachers are key agents to deliver interventions to reduce youth sedentary behavior. To develop an intervention, acceptability and feasibility of alternative strategies should be tested. We aimed to examine teachers' current use and willingness to use various strategies to decrease student sitting and potential barriers and facilitators of use. Method Mixed-methods design with college teachers using an online cross-sectional survey (n = 192) and focus group interviews (n = 13). Findings Although a vast majority (87%) of the teachers found reducing prolonged sitting an important goal, only 47% were actually including practices to reduce sitting in their classroom. 89% of the teachers reported willingness to use at least one of the five alternative strategies presented. Focus groups revealed a discussion emphasis on environmental opportunity and motivation as key to implementation. Teachers also generated additional ideas for intervention content. Discussion Despite low levels of current sitting reduction, teachers were willing to try at least one strategy to reduce sitting. Results informed intervention development regarding parameters of use for each strategy. When possible, interventions should provide teachers with a variety of alternative strategies that are easy to use to reduce prolonged sitting.

  12. Trial type mixing substantially reduces the response set effect in the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Hasshim, Nabil; Parris, Benjamin A

    2017-03-20

    The response set effect refers to the finding that an irrelevant incongruent colour-word produces greater interference when it is one of the response options (referred to as a response set trial), compared to when it is not (a non-response set trial). Despite being a key effect for models of selective attention, the magnitude of the effect varies considerably across studies. We report two within-subjects experiments that tested the hypothesis that presentation format modulates the magnitude of the response set effect. Trial types (e.g. response set, non-response set, neutral) were either presented in separate blocks (pure) or in blocks containing trials from all conditions presented randomly (mixed). In the first experiment we show that the response set effect is substantially reduced in the mixed block context as a result of a decrease in RTs to response set trials. By demonstrating the modulation of the response set effect under conditions of trial type mixing we present evidence that is difficult for models of the effect based on strategic, top-down biasing of attention to explain. In a second experiment we tested a stimulus-driven account of the response set effect by manipulating the number of colour-words that make up the non-response set of distractors. The results show that the greater the number of non-response set colour concepts, the smaller the response set effect. Alternative accounts of the data and its implications for research debating the automaticity of reading are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Dustler on Reducing Stripping Failure in Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baizura Hamid, Nor; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Erwan Sanik, Mohd; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kaamin, Masiri; Syazwani Saari, Nur

    2017-08-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is one type of premix widely used in road construction worldwide. Aggregates for HMA are usually classified by size as coarse aggregates, fine aggregates, or mineral fillers. Moisture damage or stripping is one of the major concerns in HMA industry. The existence of water in asphalt pavement is often one of the major factors affecting the durability of HMA. The water- induced damage in HMA layers may be associated with two mechanisms a loss of adhesion and loss of cohesion. The main focus of this study based on these two objectives which is to develop HMA that involves used of dustler in asphalt mixture and to investigate the performance of dustler against stripping failure. The asphalt mixture of combination virgin aggregate and this waste material was studied. The percentages of dustler used in this study were 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% respectively. The method used in this study was Superpave mix design method. From the laboratory test, the indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to show the stripping performance. The result from that test showed that the value of ITS for dry sample is higher compared to wet sample for all percentages. The moisture sensitivity was determined through tensile strength ratio (TSR) test. From the results, it showed that the percentages of dustler were fulfilled the minimum requirement of AASHTO T283 which is 80% minimum requirement of moisture susceptibility. The highest value of TSR is 0.5% of dustler sample which is 98.55% compared to 1.0% of dustler sample, control sample and 2.0% of dustler sample. So, it can be concluded that dustler inhibits great potential on reducing stripping failure in hot mix asphalt.

  14. Influence of membrane fouling reducers (MFRs) on filterability of disperse mixed liquor of jet loop bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu-Imer, Derya Yuksel; Dizge, Nadir; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2011-07-01

    The effects of membrane fouling reducers (MFRs) (the cationic polyelectrolyte (CPE) and FeCI(3)) on membrane fouling were studied in a lab-scale jet loop submerged membrane bioreactor (JL-SMBR) system. The optimum dosages of MFRs (CPE dosage=20 mg g(-1)MLSS, FeCI(3) dosage=14 mg g(-1)MLSS) were continuously fed to JL-SMBR system. The soluble and bound EPS concentrations as well as MLSS concentration in the mixed liquor of JL-SMBR were not changed substantially by the addition of MFRs. However, significant differences were observed in particle size and relative hydrophobicity. Filtration tests were performed by using different membrane types (polycarbonate (PC) and nitrocellulose mixed ester (ME)) and various pore sizes (0.45-0.22-0.1 μm). The steady state fluxes (J(ss)) of membranes increased at all membranes after MFRs addition to JL-SMBR. The filtration results showed that MFRs addition was an effective approach in terms of improvement in filtration performance for both membrane types.

  15. Mixed-Valent Fe Films ('Schwimmeisen') on the Surface of Reduced Ephemeral Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Grathoff, Georg H.; Baham, John E.; Easterly, Heather R.; Gassman, Paul L.; Hugo, Rick C.

    2007-12-01

    Floating, mixed-valent Fe films have been observed worldwide in wetlands, ferrous iron rich seeps, and in seasonally reduced soils, but are usually misidentified as oil or biofilms. Little characterization or explanation to their formation has taken place. Along the Oregon coast such films were found on ephemeral pools where Fe(II) rich groundwater (~ 100 μM Fe) discharged at the base of Pleistocene sand dunes. Fe(II) oxidized to Fe(III) at the air-water interface to form ~ 100 to 300nm thick films. Analyses indicated that the films contained both Fe(III) and Fe(II) in a ratio of 3:1. Si was the other main cation, OH was the main anion and some C was identified as well. The film morphology was flat, under optical and electron microscopy with some attached floccules having a stringlike morphology. Energy filtered electron diffraction patterns (EFED) showed three diffraction rings at 4.5, 2.6, and 1.4 Å in some places and 2 rings (2.6 and 1.4 Å) in others. Upon further oxidation the films became 2-line ferrihydrite. We are proposing the name „Schwimmeisen“ for the floating, mixed-valent Fe film.

  16. Reducing Interface Recombination through Mixed Nanocrystal Interlayers in PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Santanu; Stavrinadis, Alexandros; Gupta, Shuchi; Konstantatos, Gerasimos

    2017-08-23

    The performance of ZnO/PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD)-based heterojunction solar cells is hindered by charge carrier recombination at the heterojunction interface. Reducing interfacial recombination can improve charge collection and the photocurrent of the device. Here we report the use of a mixed nanocrystal (MNC) buffer layer comprising zinc oxide nanocrystals and lead sulfide quantum dots at the respective heterojunction interface. Remote trap passivation of the PbS CQDs taking place within this MNC layer reduces interfacial recombination and electron back transfer which in turn improves charge collection efficiency. Upon the addition of the MNC layer, the overall power conversion efficiency increases from 9.11 to 10.16% and Short-circuit current density (JSC) increases from 23.54 to 25.23 mA/cm(2). Optoelectronic characterization of the solar cells confirms that the effects underlying device improvement are reduced trap density and improved charge collection efficiency due to the presence of the MNC buffer layer.

  17. Treatment of Acidified Blood Using Reduced Osmolarity Mixed-Base Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Thomas G.; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that reduced osmolarity mixed-base (ROMB) solutions can potentially serve as customizable treatments for acidoses, going beyond standard solutions in clinical use, such as 1.0 M sodium bicarbonate. Through in silico quantitative modeling, by treating acidified canine blood using ROMB solutions, and by performing blood-gas and optical microscopy measurements in vitro, we demonstrate that ROMB solutions having a high proportion of a strong base, such as disodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide, can be effective in reducing carbon dioxide pressure PCO2 while raising pH and bicarbonate ion concentration without causing significant osmotic damage to red blood cells, which can occur during rapid administration of hypertonic solutions of weak bases. These results suggest that a ROMB solution, which is composed mostly of a strong base, could be administered in a safe and effective manner, when compared to a hypertonic solution of sodium bicarbonate. Because of the reduced osmolarity and the customizable content of strong base in ROMB solutions, this approach differs from prior approaches involving hypertonic solutions that only considered a single molar ratio of strong to weak base. Our calculations and measurements suggest that custom-tailored ROMB solutions merit consideration as potentially efficacious treatments for specific types of acidosis, particularly acute metabolic acidosis and acute respiratory acidosis. PMID:28082905

  18. Brief maternal deprivation of rats reduces hepatic mixed function oxidase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Vesell, E.S. ); Heubel, F.; Netter, K.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Deprivation of pups from mother and sibs for 3 min daily from day 5 today 41 of life reduced activities of 4 hepatic mixed function oxidases (MFO) expressed per mg protein in male rats compared to unhandled control rats. These decreases, though generally small, 22.4% and under, reached statistical significance for the substrates aminopyrine, benzphetamine and ethoxycoumarin. This handling procedure did not consistently affect the inductive response to phenobarbital. Previously ignored as a source of variability in response to xenobiotics, handling appears from these results to merit further investigation as such a factor in uninduced rats. Differences among rats in handling could contribute to large day-to-day variations in their metabolism of xenobiotics.

  19. Inheritance of Chiari-Like Malformation: Can a Mixed Breeding Reduce the Risk of Syringomyelia?

    PubMed Central

    Knowler, Susan P.; v/d Berg, Henny; McFadyen, Angus; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Rusbridge, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Canine Chiari-like malformation (CM) is a complex abnormality of the skull and craniocervical junction associated with miniaturization and brachycephaly which can result in the spinal cord disease syringomyelia (SM). This study investigated the inheritance of CM in a Griffon Bruxellois (GB) family and feasibility of crossbreeding a brachycephalic CM affected GB with a mesaticephalic normal Australian terrier and then backcrossing to produce individuals free of the malformation and regain GB breed characteristics. The study family cohort (n = 27) included five founder dogs from a previous baseline study of 155 GB which defined CM as a global malformation of the cranium and craniocervical junction with a shortened skull base and increased proximity of the cervical vertebrae to the skull. T1-weighted sagittal DICOM images of the brain and craniocervical junction were analysed for five significant traits (two angles, three lines) identified from the previous study and subsequent Qualitative Trait Loci analysis. Mean measurements for mixed breed, pure-breed and baseline study groups were compared. Results indicated that mixed breed traits posed less risk for CM and SM and were useful to distinguish the phenotype. Moreover on the MR images, the filial relationships displayed by the traits exhibited segregation and those presenting the greatest risk for CM appeared additive towards the severity of the condition. The external phenotypes revealed that by outcrossing breed types and with careful selection of appropriate conformation characteristics in the first generation, it is possible to regain the GB breed standard and reduce the degree of CM. The four GB affected with SM in the study all exhibited reduced caudal skull development compared to their relatives. The craniocervical traits may be useful for quantifying CM and assessing the possibility of SM thus assisting breeders with mate selection. However, such a system requires validation to ensure appropriateness for

  20. Inheritance of Chiari-Like Malformation: Can a Mixed Breeding Reduce the Risk of Syringomyelia?

    PubMed

    Knowler, Susan P; v/d Berg, Henny; McFadyen, Angus; La Ragione, Roberto M; Rusbridge, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Canine Chiari-like malformation (CM) is a complex abnormality of the skull and craniocervical junction associated with miniaturization and brachycephaly which can result in the spinal cord disease syringomyelia (SM). This study investigated the inheritance of CM in a Griffon Bruxellois (GB) family and feasibility of crossbreeding a brachycephalic CM affected GB with a mesaticephalic normal Australian terrier and then backcrossing to produce individuals free of the malformation and regain GB breed characteristics. The study family cohort (n = 27) included five founder dogs from a previous baseline study of 155 GB which defined CM as a global malformation of the cranium and craniocervical junction with a shortened skull base and increased proximity of the cervical vertebrae to the skull. T1-weighted sagittal DICOM images of the brain and craniocervical junction were analysed for five significant traits (two angles, three lines) identified from the previous study and subsequent Qualitative Trait Loci analysis. Mean measurements for mixed breed, pure-breed and baseline study groups were compared. Results indicated that mixed breed traits posed less risk for CM and SM and were useful to distinguish the phenotype. Moreover on the MR images, the filial relationships displayed by the traits exhibited segregation and those presenting the greatest risk for CM appeared additive towards the severity of the condition. The external phenotypes revealed that by outcrossing breed types and with careful selection of appropriate conformation characteristics in the first generation, it is possible to regain the GB breed standard and reduce the degree of CM. The four GB affected with SM in the study all exhibited reduced caudal skull development compared to their relatives. The craniocervical traits may be useful for quantifying CM and assessing the possibility of SM thus assisting breeders with mate selection. However, such a system requires validation to ensure appropriateness for

  1. An Intermediate Alemtuzumab Schedule Reduces the Incidence of Mixed Chimerism Following Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Rebecca A.; Kim, Mi-Ok; Liu, Chunyan; Bellman, Denise; Hart, Laura; Grimley, Michael; Kumar, Ashish; Jodele, Sonata; Myers, Kasiani C.; Chandra, Sharat; Leemhuis, Tom; Mehta, Parinda A.; Bleesing, Jack J.; Davies, Stella M.; Jordan, Michael B.; Filipovich, Alexandra H.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) improves the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Proximal (ie, close to graft infusion) dosing of alemtuzumab is associated with a high incidence of mixed chimerism, whereas distal (ie, distant from graft infusion) dosing is associated with less mixed chimerism but more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The alemtuzumab dose per kilogram of body weight also influences these outcomes. We hypothesized that an intermediate alemtuzumab dosing schedule would reduce mixed chimerism and maintain a low incidence of acute GVHD. In this study, 24 consecutive HCTs were performed in patients with HLH or a related disorder using a novel intermediate alemtuzumab schedule of 1 mg/kg starting on day -14. The cumulative incidences (CIs) of mixed chimerism, upfront acute GVHD grades II-IV, and receipt of additional hematopoietic cell products after HCT were compared in patients treated with a distal alemtuzumab schedule (n = 15) and those treated with a proximal alemtuzumab schedule (n = 33). All patients received fludarabine and melphalan. The CI of mixed chimerism was 31% in the intermediate group, 72% in the proximal group (P < .01), and 75% in the distal group patients who received ≥2 mg/kg alemtuzumab (P = .03). The CI of acute GVHD grades II-IV before the development of mixed chimerism was 4% in the intermediate group, 0% in the proximal group, and 13% in the distal group (P = .04, proximal versus distal). The 1-year CI of administration of additional hematopoietic cell products for mixed chimerism (donor lymphocyte infusion ± hematopoietic stem cell boost ± repeat HCT) was 14% in the intermediate group, 53% in the proximal group (P = .01), and 38% in the distal ≥2 mg/kg alemtuzumab group (P = .02). Our findings indicate that intermediate RIC reduces the incidence of mixed chimerism, is associated with a low incidence of upfront acute GVHD, and decreases

  2. Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed fermentations to reduce ethanol content in wine.

    PubMed

    Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cravero, Francesco; Torchio, Fabrizio; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Rolle, Luca; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Decreasing the ethanol content in wine is a current challenge, mainly due to the global climate change and to the consumer preference for wines from grapes with increased maturity. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) approach was used to investigate the potential application of Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed (co-inoculated and sequential) cultures, to understand better the mechanism of co-habitation and achieve the objective of reducing the ethanol in wines. Laboratory scale fermentations demonstrated a decrease up to 0.7 % (v/v) of ethanol and an increase of about 4.2 g/L of glycerol when S. cerevisiae was inoculated with a delay of 48 h with respect to the inoculation of S. bacillaris. Pilot-scale fermentations, carried out in winemaking conditions, confirmed the laboratory results. This study demonstrates that the combination of strains and inoculation protocol could help to reduce the ethanol content in wines.

  3. Reduced graphene oxide/InGaZn mixed oxide nanocomposite photocatalysts for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Martha, Satyabadi; Padhi, Deepak Ku; Parida, Kulamani

    2014-02-01

    A series of reduced graphene oxide and indium-gallium-zinc mixed oxide (RGO/IGZ) nanocomposites were successfully synthesised by a simple one-step hydrothermal method. The as-synthesised nanocomposites were characterised by crystallographic, microscopic, and spectroscopic methods to explore the robust photocatalytic activity of the prepared materials. XRD patterns confirmed the formation of highly pure, single-phase, hexagonal In2 Ga2 ZnO7 with no impurity-related peaks. All the photocatalysts absorbed visible light as observed from the diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectra. The electron-hole recombination is effectively minimised by the formation of an RGO/metal oxide nanocomposite, which was successfully derived from a photoluminescence (PL) study and photoelectrochemical measurements. The decoration of IGZ nanocrystals onto reduced graphene sheets leads to significant quenching of its luminescent intensity, dramatically improved photocurrent generation (33 times more than neat IGZ) and significantly enhanced photostability. The high photocatalytic activity for H2 production is explained by the strong interaction between the IGZ nanocrystals with RGO sheets, low PL intensity, high photocurrent and large surface area. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Prior Exercise Does Not Reduce Postprandial Lipemia Following a Mixed Glucose Meal When Compared with a Mixed Fructose Meal.

    PubMed

    Rowe, James R; Biggerstaff, Kyle D; Ben-Ezra, Vic; Nichols, David L; DiMarco, Nancy

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipemia (PPL) concentration following a mixed meal (MM) made with either glucose or fructose. Sedentary women completed four trials in random order: 1) Rest-Fructose: RF, 2) Rest-Glucose: RG, 3) Exercise-Fructose: EF, 4) Exercise-Glucose: EG. Exercise expended 500 kcal while walking at 70%VO2max. Rest was 60 min of sitting. The morning after each trial, a fasting (12 hr) blood sample was collected followed by consumption of the MM. The MM was blended with whole milk and ice cream plus a glucose or fructose powder. Glucose and fructose powder accounted for 30% of the total kcal within the MM. Blood was collected periodically for 6 hr post-MM and analyzed for PPL. Magnitude of PPL over the 6 hr postmeal was quantified using the triglyceride incremental area under the curve (TG AUCI). Significant differences (p < .05) between trials were determined using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. There was no significant difference in the TG AUCI between the four trials (p > .05). A significant trial by time interaction for TG concentration was reported (p < .05). Despite lack of change in the AUCI with prior exercise, the lower TG concentration at multiple time points in the EG trial does indicate that prior exercise has some desirable effect on PPL. This study suggests that replacing fructose with glucose sugars and incorporating exercise may minimize PPL following a mixed meal but exercise will need to elicit greater energy expenditure.

  5. Cluster-based reduced-order modelling of a mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Eurika; Noack, Bernd R.; Cordier, Laurent; Spohn, Andreas; Segond, Marc; Abel, Markus; Daviller, Guillaume; Niven, Robert K.

    2013-11-01

    We propose a novel cluster-based reduced-order modelling (CROM) strategy of unsteady flows. CROM builds on the pioneering works of Gunzburger's group in cluster analysis (Burkardt et al. 2006) and Eckhardt's group in transition matrix models (Schneider et al. 2008) and constitutes a potential alternative to POD models. This strategy processes a time-resolving sequence of flow snapshots in three steps. First, the snapshot data is clustered into a small number of representative states in the phase space. The states are sorted by probability and transition considerations. Secondly, the transitions between the states are dynamically modelled via a Markov process. Finally, physical mechanisms are distilled by a refined analysis of the Markov process. The resulting CROM is applied to the Lorenz attractor as illustrating example and velocity fields of the spatially evolving incompressible mixing layer. For these examples, CROM is shown to distill non-trivial quasi-attractors and transitions processes. CROM has numerous potential applications for the systematic identification of physical mechanisms of complex dynamics, for comparison of flow evolution models, and for the identification of precursors for desirable and undesirable events. Partially funded by ANR Chair of Excellence TUCOROM, NSF PIRE grant OISE-0968313, and EC's Marie-Curie ITN program.

  6. Repeat Effort Performance is Reduced 24 h following Acute Dehydration in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    PubMed

    Barley, Oliver R; Iredale, Fiona; Chapman, Dale W; Hopper, Amanda; Abbiss, Chris

    2017-09-11

    This study sought to determine the influence of acute dehydration on physical performance and physiology in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). MMA athletes (n=14; age: 23±4 years), completed in a randomised counterbalanced order a dehydration protocol, (DHY: 3 h cycling at 60 W in 40°C to induce 5% dehydration) or thermoneutral control (25°C: CONT) exercise, followed by ad libitum fluid/food intake. Performance testing (a repeat sled push test, medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump) was completed 3 and 24 h following the intervention, while urine and blood samples were collected before, 20 min, 3 and 24 h following the intervention. Body mass was reduced (4.8±0.8%) following DHY (p<0.001) and remained lower than CONT at 3 and 24 h post (p=0.003 and p=0.024, respectively). Compared to CONT average sled push times were slower 3 and 24 h following DHY (19±15%; p=0.001; g=1.229 and 14±15%; p=0.012; g=0.671, respectively). When compared to the CONT hand grip was weaker 3 h following DHY (53±8 and 51±8 kg; p=0.044, g=0.243 respectively) and medicine ball chest throw distances were shorter 24 h following DHY (474±52 and 449±44 cm; p=0.016, g=0.253 respectively). No significant differences were observed in vertical jump (p=0.467). Urine specific gravity was higher than CONT 20 min (p=0.035) and 24 h (p=0.035) following DHY. Acute dehydration of 4.8% body mass results in reduced physical performance 3 and 24 h following. There is need for caution when athletes use dehydration for weight loss 24 h prior to competition.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  8. Rank 4 Premodular Categories

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul J.; Galindo, Cesar; Ng, Siu Hung; Plavnik, Julia; Rowell, Eric; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-09-01

    We consider the classification problem for rank 4 premodular categories. We uncover a formula for the 2nd Frobenius-Schur indicator of a premodular category is determined and the classification of rank 4 premodular categories (up to Grothendieck equivalence) is completed. In the appendix we show rank finiteness for premodular categories.

  9. A mixed model reduces spurious genetic associations produced by population stratification in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jimin; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2015-04-01

    Population stratification can produce spurious genetic associations in genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Mixed model methodology has been regarded useful for correcting population stratification. This study explored statistical power and false discovery rate (FDR) with the data simulated for dichotomous traits. Empirical FDRs and powers were estimated using fixed models with and without genomic control and using mixed models with and without reflecting loci linked to the candidate marker in genetic relationships. Population stratification with admixture degree ranged from 1% to 10% resulted in inflated FDRs from the fixed model analysis without genomic control and decreased power from the fixed model analysis with genomic control (P<0.05). Meanwhile, population stratification could not change FDR and power estimates from the mixed model analyses (P>0.05). We suggest that the mixed model methodology was useful to reduce spurious genetic associations produced by population stratification in GWAS, even with a high degree of admixture (10%).

  10. Brood mixing and reduced polyandry in a maternally mouthbrooding cichlid with elevated among-breeder relatedness.

    PubMed

    Sefc, Kristina M; Hermann, Caroline M; Taborsky, Barbara; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Uniparental maternal brood care often coincides with multiple paternity and single maternity of broods, possibly reflecting benefits of polyandry and costs of uniparental care. Genetic data from the maternally mouthbrooding cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus revealed the opposite pattern--low polyandry and allomaternal care. More than 70% of the investigated females had mated with a single male, and 14% of the females had unrelated fry in their broods. Broods with foreign fry were in the late stage of brood care, in which females guard free-swimming fry and recall the broods into their mouths for protection. With one exception, fostering females were related to their adopted fry at the level of first cousins (R(QG) > 0.12), but relatedness between fosters and adopted fry was not significantly higher than between fosters and fry tended by other females. Relatedness among breeders extended to the level of first-order relatives. Mean relatedness among contemporaneously breeding dams (R(QG) = 0.08) was significantly higher than among dams breeding in different seasons (R(QG) = -0.04), which suggests a temporal or spatial concentration of mouthbrooding relatives. Indeed, females sometimes brood in small groups. This behaviour may reduce brood predation but will increase the risk of brood mixing, which is possibly mitigated by low costs of brood care and indirect benefits accrued by relatedness among the breeders in the group. Remarkably, the apparent inbreeding potential did not give rise to bet-hedging polyandry or active avoidance of relatives, as half of the mated individuals were related at R(QG)  > 0.13 and polyandry did not coincide with high within-pair relatedness. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Reducing the blame culture through clinical audit in nuclear medicine: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Ross, P; Hubert, J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the barriers and facilitators of doctors’ engagement with clinical audit and to explore how and why these factors influenced doctors’ decisions to engage with the NHS National Clinical Audit Programme. Design A single-embedded case study. Mixed methods sequential approach with explorative pilot study and follow-up survey. Pilot study comprised 13 semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected consultant doctors over a six-month period. Interview data coded and analysed using directed thematic content analysis with themes compared against the study’s propositions. Themes derived from the pilot study informed the online survey question items. Exploratory factor analysis using STATA and descriptive statistical methods applied to summarise findings. Data triangulation techniques used to corroborate and validate findings across the different methodological techniques. Setting NHS National PET-CT Clinical Audit Programme. Participants Doctors reporting on the Audit Programme. Main Outcome measures Extent of engagement with clinical audit, factors that influence engagement with clinical audit. Results Online survey: 58/59 doctors responded (98.3%). Audit was found to be initially threatening (79%); audit was reassuring (85%); audit helped validate professional competence (93%); participation in audit improved reporting skills (76%). Three key factors accounted for 97.6% of the variance in survey responses: (1) perception of audit’s usefulness, (2) a common purpose, (3) a supportive blame free culture of trust. Factor 1 influenced medical engagement most. Conclusions The study documents performance feedback as a key facilitator of medical engagement with clinical audit. It found that medical engagement with clinical audit was associated with reduced levels of professional anxiety and higher levels of perceived self-efficacy. PMID:28210493

  12. Reducing the blame culture through clinical audit in nuclear medicine: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Ross, P; Hubert, J; Wong, W L

    2017-02-01

    To identify the barriers and facilitators of doctors' engagement with clinical audit and to explore how and why these factors influenced doctors' decisions to engage with the NHS National Clinical Audit Programme. A single-embedded case study. Mixed methods sequential approach with explorative pilot study and follow-up survey. Pilot study comprised 13 semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected consultant doctors over a six-month period. Interview data coded and analysed using directed thematic content analysis with themes compared against the study's propositions. Themes derived from the pilot study informed the online survey question items. Exploratory factor analysis using STATA and descriptive statistical methods applied to summarise findings. Data triangulation techniques used to corroborate and validate findings across the different methodological techniques. NHS National PET-CT Clinical Audit Programme. Doctors reporting on the Audit Programme. Extent of engagement with clinical audit, factors that influence engagement with clinical audit. Online survey: 58/59 doctors responded (98.3%). Audit was found to be initially threatening (79%); audit was reassuring (85%); audit helped validate professional competence (93%); participation in audit improved reporting skills (76%). Three key factors accounted for 97.6% of the variance in survey responses: (1) perception of audit's usefulness, (2) a common purpose, (3) a supportive blame free culture of trust. Factor 1 influenced medical engagement most. The study documents performance feedback as a key facilitator of medical engagement with clinical audit. It found that medical engagement with clinical audit was associated with reduced levels of professional anxiety and higher levels of perceived self-efficacy.

  13. An intermediate alemtuzumab schedule reduces the incidence of mixed chimerism following reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Rebecca A; Kim, Mi-Ok; Liu, Chunyan; Bellman, Denise; Hart, Laura; Grimley, Michael; Kumar, Ashish; Jodele, Sonata; Myers, Kasiani C; Chandra, Sharat; Leemhuis, Tom; Mehta, Parinda A; Bleesing, Jack J; Davies, Stella M; Jordan, Michael B; Filipovich, Alexandra H

    2013-11-01

    Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) improves the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Proximal (ie, close to graft infusion) dosing of alemtuzumab is associated with a high incidence of mixed chimerism, whereas distal (ie, distant from graft infusion) dosing is associated with less mixed chimerism but more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The alemtuzumab dose per kilogram of body weight also influences these outcomes. We hypothesized that an intermediate alemtuzumab dosing schedule would reduce mixed chimerism and maintain a low incidence of acute GVHD. In this study, 24 consecutive HCTs were performed in patients with HLH or a related disorder using a novel intermediate alemtuzumab schedule of 1 mg/kg starting on day -14. The cumulative incidences (CIs) of mixed chimerism, upfront acute GVHD grades II-IV, and receipt of additional hematopoietic cell products after HCT were compared in patients treated with a distal alemtuzumab schedule (n = 15) and those treated with a proximal alemtuzumab schedule (n = 33). All patients received fludarabine and melphalan. The CI of mixed chimerism was 31% in the intermediate group, 72% in the proximal group (P < .01), and 75% in the distal group patients who received ≥2 mg/kg alemtuzumab (P = .03). The CI of acute GVHD grades II-IV before the development of mixed chimerism was 4% in the intermediate group, 0% in the proximal group, and 13% in the distal group (P = .04, proximal versus distal). The 1-year CI of administration of additional hematopoietic cell products for mixed chimerism (donor lymphocyte infusion ± hematopoietic stem cell boost ± repeat HCT) was 14% in the intermediate group, 53% in the proximal group (P = .01), and 38% in the distal ≥2 mg/kg alemtuzumab group (P = .02). Our findings indicate that intermediate RIC reduces the incidence of mixed chimerism, is associated with a low incidence of upfront acute

  14. Line balancing and model sequencing to reduce work overload in mixed-model U-line production environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Yakup

    2008-07-01

    Mixed-model U-lines (MMULs) are important elements of just-in-time production systems. For successful implementation of MMULs, a smoothed workload distribution among workstations is important. This requires that line balancing and model sequencing problems are solved simultaneously. This article presents a mixed, zero-one, nonlinear mathematical programming formulation for balancing and sequencing MMULs simultaneously with the objective of reducing work overload. Since the problem is NP-hard, an effective simulated annealing approach is also presented and its performance compared with existing approaches. The results show that the proposed simulated annealing algorithm outperforms existing approaches.

  15. A Minimum-Residual Mixed Reduced Basis Method: Exact Residual Certification and Simultaneous Finite-Element Reduced-Basis Refinement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    µ)w. The Helmholtz equation — with the wavenumber as the parameter — results from A(w,∇w;µ) = −∇w and C(w;µ) = −µ2w. The form also supports the...reduced basis method for parametrized partial differential equations certified by a dual-norm bound of the residual computed not in the typical finite...effectiveness of the approach for a parametrized reaction-diffusion equation and a parametrized advection-diffusion equation with a corner singularity; not only

  16. Centrality based Document Ranking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their similarity. Given a query, we compute...similarity of the query with respect to every document in the graph . Based on these similarity values, documents are ranked for a given query...clinical documents using centrality based approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their

  17. A fuel treatment reduces fire severity and increases suppression efficiency in a mixed conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Jason J. Moghaddas; Larry Craggs

    2007-01-01

    Fuel treatments are being implemented on public and private lands across the western United States. Although scientists and managers have an understanding of how fuel treatments can modify potential fire behaviour under modelled conditions, there is limited information on how treatments perform under real wildfire conditions in Sierran mixed conifer forests. The Bell...

  18. How to Rank Journals.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W

    2016-01-01

    There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68-0.84 Spearman's ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows.

  19. How to Rank Journals

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2016-01-01

    There are now many methods available to assess the relative citation performance of peer-reviewed journals. Regardless of their individual faults and advantages, citation-based metrics are used by researchers to maximize the citation potential of their articles, and by employers to rank academic track records. The absolute value of any particular index is arguably meaningless unless compared to other journals, and different metrics result in divergent rankings. To provide a simple yet more objective way to rank journals within and among disciplines, we developed a κ-resampled composite journal rank incorporating five popular citation indices: Impact Factor, Immediacy Index, Source-Normalized Impact Per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank and Google 5-year h-index; this approach provides an index of relative rank uncertainty. We applied the approach to six sample sets of scientific journals from Ecology (n = 100 journals), Medicine (n = 100), Multidisciplinary (n = 50); Ecology + Multidisciplinary (n = 25), Obstetrics & Gynaecology (n = 25) and Marine Biology & Fisheries (n = 25). We then cross-compared the κ-resampled ranking for the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set to the results of a survey of 188 publishing ecologists who were asked to rank the same journals, and found a 0.68–0.84 Spearman’s ρ correlation between the two rankings datasets. Our composite index approach therefore approximates relative journal reputation, at least for that discipline. Agglomerative and divisive clustering and multi-dimensional scaling techniques applied to the Ecology + Multidisciplinary journal set identified specific clusters of similarly ranked journals, with only Nature & Science separating out from the others. When comparing a selection of journals within or among disciplines, we recommend collecting multiple citation-based metrics for a sample of relevant and realistic journals to calculate the composite rankings and their relative uncertainty windows. PMID:26930052

  20. Reducing Behavior Problems Among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Coaching Teachers in a Mixed-Reality Setting.

    PubMed

    Pas, Elise T; Johnson, Stacy R; Larson, Kristine E; Brandenburg, Linda; Church, Robin; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2016-12-01

    Most approaches aiming to reduce behavior problems among youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on individual students; however, school personnel also need professional development to better support students. This study targeted teachers' skill development to promote positive outcomes for students with ASD. The sample included 19 teachers in two non-public special education settings serving students with moderate to severe ASD. Participating teachers received professional development and coaching in classroom management, with guided practice in a mixed-reality simulator. Repeated-measures ANOVAs examining externally-conducted classroom observations revealed statistically significant improvements in teacher management and student behavior over time. Findings suggest that coaching and guided practice in a mixed-reality simulator is perceived as acceptable and may reduce behavior problems among students with ASD.

  1. Fuel-air mixing apparatus for reducing gas turbine combustor exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zupanc, Frank J. (Inventor); Yankowich, Paul R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A fuel-air mixer for use in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine is provided. The fuel air mixing apparatus comprises an annular fuel injector having a plurality of discrete plain jet orifices, a first swirler wherein the first swirler is located upstream from the fuel injector and a second swirler wherein the second swirler is located downstream from the fuel injector. The plurality of discrete plain jet orifices are situated between the highly swirling airstreams generated by the two radial swirlers. The distributed injection of the fuel between two highly swirling airstreams results in rapid and effective mixing to the desired fuel-air ratio and prevents the formation of local hot spots in the combustor primary zone. A combustor and a gas turbine engine comprising the fuel-air mixer of the present invention are also provided as well as a method using the fuel-air mixer of the present invention.

  2. Reissner-Mindlin Legendre Spectral Finite Elements with Mixed Reduced Quadrature

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, K. D.; Sprague, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Legendre spectral finite elements (LSFEs) are examined through numerical experiments for static and dynamic Reissner-Mindlin plate bending and a mixed-quadrature scheme is proposed. LSFEs are high-order Lagrangian-interpolant finite elements with nodes located at the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre quadrature points. Solutions on unstructured meshes are examined in terms of accuracy as a function of the number of model nodes and total operations. While nodal-quadrature LSFEs have been shown elsewhere to be free of shear locking on structured grids, locking is demonstrated here on unstructured grids. LSFEs with mixed quadrature are, however, locking free and are significantly more accurate than low-order finite-elements for a given model size or total computation time.

  3. Evaluation of a mixed controller that amplifies spatial errors while reducing timing errors.

    PubMed

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Baumann, Tanja; Fichmann, Daniela; Maassen, Steve; Duarte, Jaime E; Riener, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Previous results suggest that haptic guidance enhances learning of the timing components of motor tasks, whereas error amplification is better for learning the spatial components. In this paper we evaluate a novel mixed guidance controller that combines haptic guidance and error amplification to simultaneously promote learning of the timing and spatial components. The controller is realized using a saddle-like force field around the desired movement position. This force field has a stable manifold tangential to the trajectory that guides subjects in velocity related aspects. The force field has its unstable manifold perpendicular to the trajectory, which amplifies the normal (spatial) error. We conducted an experiment with twenty nine healthy subjects to test whether training with the mixed guidance controller resulted in better learning than training without guidance or with guidance-as-needed. Subjects trained two tasks: a continuous rhythmic task (circle) and a continuous single task (line). We found that the effectiveness of the training strategy depended on the task. Training with mixed guidance was especially beneficial for learning the timing components of the line, but limited learning of the circle. Perhaps the continuous change in the force directions during training of the circle was too difficult to interpret.

  4. On Rank and Nullity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    This note explains how Emil Artin's proof that row rank equals column rank for a matrix with entries in a field leads naturally to the formula for the nullity of a matrix and also to an algorithm for solving any system of linear equations in any number of variables. This material could be used in any course on matrix theory or linear algebra.

  5. On Rank and Nullity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    This note explains how Emil Artin's proof that row rank equals column rank for a matrix with entries in a field leads naturally to the formula for the nullity of a matrix and also to an algorithm for solving any system of linear equations in any number of variables. This material could be used in any course on matrix theory or linear algebra.

  6. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  7. Green Power Partnership Top Partner Rankings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Top Partner Rankings highlight the annual green power use of leading Green Power Partners.

  8. Mixing of acid and base pretreated corncobs for improved production of reducing sugars and reduction in water use during neutralization.

    PubMed

    Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Baadhe, Rama Raju; Jetty, Annapurna

    2012-09-01

    Pretreatment of biomass for bioethanol production makes it necessary to use large amounts of water for removing inhibitors and neutralization. In order to reduce water usage, separate batches of corncobs were hydrolyzed in 1M NaOH and 0.05 M H(2)SO(4), respectively, and the hydrolysis products were mixed to achieve a pH of 7. This approach lowered water usage by 10-fold compared with neutralization by distilled and recycling wash water. Mixing of the pretreated biomasses (121°C, 20 min) increased release of reducing sugars during enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulases (38.49 FPU(IU)) produced by Phanerochaete chrysosporium NCIM 1106 by 2- and 15-fold compared with the sugars released from the unmixed NaOH- and H(2)SO(4)-treated corncobs, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis (EH, cell free extract) of the mixed material released 395.15 mg/ml of sugars during 48 h, slightly less than what was achieved by microbial hydrolysis (whole cell hydrolysis), 424.50mg after 120 h. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

  10. Monophyletic group of unclassified γ-Proteobacteria dominates in mixed culture biofilm of high-performing oxygen reducing biocathode.

    PubMed

    Rothballer, Michael; Picot, Matthieu; Sieper, Tina; Arends, Jan B A; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Boon, Nico; Buisman, Cees J N; Barrière, Frédéric; Strik, David P B T B

    2015-12-01

    Several mixed microbial communities have been reported to show robust bioelectrocatalysis of oxygen reduction over time at applicable operation conditions. However, clarification of electron transfer mechanism(s) and identification of essential micro-organisms have not been realised. Therefore, the objective of this study was to shape oxygen reducing biocathodes with different microbial communities by means of surface modification using the electrochemical reduction of two different diazonium salts in order to discuss the relation of microbial composition and performance. The resulting oxygen reducing mixed culture biocathodes had complex bacterial biofilms variable in size and shape as observed by confocal and electron microscopy. Sequence analysis of ribosomal 16S rDNA revealed a putative correlation between the abundance of certain microbiota and biocathode performance. The best performing biocathode developed on the unmodified graphite electrode and reached a high current density for oxygen reducing biocathodes at neutral pH (0.9 A/m(2)). This correlated with the highest domination (60.7%) of a monophyletic group of unclassified γ-Proteobacteria. These results corroborate earlier reports by other groups, however, higher current densities and higher presence of these unclassified bacteria were observed in this work. Therefore, members of this group are likely key-players for highly performing oxygen reducing biocathodes.

  11. Ozone interaction with rodent lung. III. Oxidation of reduced glutathione and formation of mixed disulfides between protein and nonprotein sulfhydryls.

    PubMed Central

    DeLucia, A J; Mustafa, M G; Hussain, M Z; Cross, C E

    1975-01-01

    Nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), a major source of cellular reducing substances, were examined in lung tissue after short-term exposure of rats to O3. While the NPSH level was unaffected by low-level exposures (e.g., 0.8 ppm for up to 24 h or 1.5 ppm for up to 8 h), it was significantly lowered by higher exposure regimens (e.g., 25 per cent after 2 ppm for 8 h and 49 per cent after 4 ppm for 6 h). After exposure to 4 ppm O3 for 6 h the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), which accounted for approximately 90 per cent of NPSH in the lung, decreased 40 per cent but without a rise in the level of oxidized gluathione (GSSG). Treatment of lung homogenate with borohydride led to recovery of NPSH in exposed lungs to control values, suggesting that NPSH or GSH oxidation during in vivo O3 exposure resulted in formation of mixed disulfides with other sulfhydryl (SH) groups of lung tissue. Extracts of borohydride-treated particulate and supernatant fractions of lung homogenate were analyzed for NPSH by paper chromatography. From this analysis GSH appeared to be the only NPSH bound to lung tissue proteins via mixed disulfide linkage. The formation of mixed disulfides appeared to be a transient phenomenon. Immediately after a 4-h exposure to 3 ppm O3 the level of mixed disulfides was small (15 per cent of the total NPSH) but attained a peak (equivalent to 0.6 mumol NPSH/lung) after a recovery for 24 h. However, the level diminished considerably within 48 h of recovery. PMID:1120782

  12. Scaling laws and reduced-order models for mixing and reactive-transport in heterogeneous anisotropic porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Karra, S.; Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2016-12-01

    Fundamental to enhancement and control of the macroscopic spreading, mixing, and dilution of solute plumes in porous media structures is the topology of flow field and underlying heterogeneity and anisotropy contrast of porous media. Traditionally, in literature, the main focus was limited to the shearing effects of flow field (i.e., flow has zero helical density, meaning that flow is always perpendicular to vorticity vector) on scalar mixing [2]. However, the combined effect of anisotropy of the porous media and the helical structure (or chaotic nature) of the flow field on the species reactive-transport and mixing has been rarely studied. Recently, it has been experimentally shown that there is an irrefutable evidence that chaotic advection and helical flows are inherent in porous media flows [1,2]. In this poster presentation, we present a non-intrusive physics-based model-order reduction framework to quantify the effects of species mixing in-terms of reduced-order models (ROMs) and scaling laws. The ROM framework is constructed based on the recent advancements in non-negative formulations for reactive-transport in heterogeneous anisotropic porous media [3] and non-intrusive ROM methods [4]. The objective is to generate computationally efficient and accurate ROMs for species mixing for different values of input data and reactive-transport model parameters. This is achieved by using multiple ROMs, which is a way to determine the robustness of the proposed framework. Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the important parameters. Representative numerical examples from reactive-transport are presented to illustrate the importance of the proposed ROMs to accurately describe mixing process in porous media. [1] Lester, Metcalfe, and Trefry, "Is chaotic advection inherent to porous media flow?," PRL, 2013. [2] Ye, Chiogna, Cirpka, Grathwohl, and Rolle, "Experimental evidence of helical flow in porous media," PRL, 2015. [3] Mudunuru, and Nakshatrala, "On

  13. Sync-rank: Robust Ranking, Constrained Ranking and Rank Aggregation via Eigenvector and SDP Synchronization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-28

    spectral algorithms, semidefinite programming, rank aggregation, partial rankings, least squares, singular value decomposition, densest subgraph problem. 1...provided by Google [42, 53], eBay’s feedback-based reputation mechanism [64], Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) system for crowdsourcing which enables...compute a universal (non-negative) value πi associated to each item i, such that aij = πi πj , which can easily be seen as equivalent to the pairwise

  14. Obstacles and benefits of the implementation of a reduced-rank smoother with a high resolution model of the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freychet, N.; Cosme, E.; Brasseur, P.; Brankart, J.-M.; Kpemlie, E.

    2012-09-01

    Most of oceanographic operational centers use three-dimensional data assimilation schemes to produce reanalyses. We investigate here the benefits of a smoother, i.e. a four-dimensional formulation of statistical assimilation. A square-root sequential smoother is implemented with a tropical Atlantic Ocean circulation model. A simple twin experiment is performed to investigate its benefits, compared to its corresponding filter. Despite model's non-linearities and the various approximations used for its implementation, the smoother leads to a better estimation of the ocean state, both on statistical (i.e. mean error level) and dynamical points of view, as expected from linear theory. Smoothed states are more in phase with the dynamics of the reference state, an aspect that is nicely illustrated with the chaotic dynamics of the North Brazil Current rings. We also show that the smoother efficiency is strongly related to the filter configuration. One of the main obstacles to implement the smoother is then to accurately estimate the error covariances of the filter. Considering this, benefits of the smoother are also investigated with a configuration close to situations that can be managed by operational center systems, where covariances matrices are fixed (optimal interpolation). We define here a simplified smoother scheme, called half-fixed basis smoother, that could be implemented with current reanalysis schemes. Its main assumption is to neglect the propagation of the error covariances matrix, what leads to strongly reduce the cost of assimilation. Results illustrate the ability of this smoother to provide a solution more consistent with the dynamics, compared to the filter. The smoother is also able to produce analyses independently of the observation frequency, so the smoothed solution appears more continuous in time, especially in case of a low frenquency observation network.

  15. Perennial grasses reduce woody plant seedlings...on mixed conifer fuel-break

    Treesearch

    Harry E. Schimke Lisle R. Green Danny Heavilin

    1970-01-01

    After initial clearing, parts of a fuelbreak on the Stanislaus Nationd Forest, central California, were planted to perennial grasses; other parts were not. After 5 years, a comparison between adjacent seeded sand unseeded strips shows that the perernnials had reduced the number of woody plant seedlings by a factor of 8, height of seedlings by 50 percent, and amount of...

  16. Ranking of Rankings: Benchmarking Twenty-Five Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Ingo; Hendel, Darwin D.; Horn, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ranking practices of 25 European higher education ranking systems (HERSs). Ranking practices were assessed with 14 quantitative measures derived from the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutions (BPs). HERSs were then ranked according to their degree of congruence with the BPs.…

  17. Ranking of Rankings: Benchmarking Twenty-Five Higher Education Ranking Systems in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Ingo; Hendel, Darwin D.; Horn, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ranking practices of 25 European higher education ranking systems (HERSs). Ranking practices were assessed with 14 quantitative measures derived from the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher Education Institutions (BPs). HERSs were then ranked according to their degree of congruence with the BPs.…

  18. A note on rank reduction in sparse multivariate regression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Chan, Kung-Sik

    A reduced-rank regression with sparse singular value decomposition (RSSVD) approach was proposed by Chen et al. for conducting variable selection in a reduced-rank model. To jointly model the multivariate response, the method efficiently constructs a prespecified number of latent variables as some sparse linear combinations of the predictors. Here, we generalize the method to also perform rank reduction, and enable its usage in reduced-rank vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling to perform automatic rank determination and order selection. We show that in the context of stationary time-series data, the generalized approach correctly identifies both the model rank and the sparse dependence structure between the multivariate response and the predictors, with probability one asymptotically. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method by simulations and analyzing a macro-economical multivariate time series using a reduced-rank VAR model.

  19. Reducing Physical Risk Factors in Construction Work Through a Participatory Intervention: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Process Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ajslev, Jeppe; Brandt, Mikkel; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Skals, Sebastian; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Madeleine, Pascal; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-05-26

    Previous research has shown that reducing physical workload among workers in the construction industry is complicated. In order to address this issue, we developed a process evaluation in a formative mixed-methods design, drawing on existing knowledge of the potential barriers for implementation. We present the design of a mixed-methods process evaluation of the organizational, social, and subjective practices that play roles in the intervention study, integrating technical measurements to detect excessive physical exertion measured with electromyography and accelerometers, video documentation of working tasks, and a 3-phased workshop program. The evaluation is designed in an adapted process evaluation framework, addressing recruitment, reach, fidelity, satisfaction, intervention delivery, intervention received, and context of the intervention companies. Observational studies, interviews, and questionnaires among 80 construction workers organized in 20 work gangs, as well as health and safety staff, contribute to the creation of knowledge about these phenomena. At the time of publication, the process of participant recruitment is underway. Intervention studies are challenging to conduct and evaluate in the construction industry, often because of narrow time frames and ever-changing contexts. The mixed-methods design presents opportunities for obtaining detailed knowledge of the practices intra-acting with the intervention, while offering the opportunity to customize parts of the intervention.

  20. The Averaging Effect of Odorant Mixing as Determined by Air Dilution Sensory Tests: A Case Study on Reduced Sulfur Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    To learn more about the effects of mixing different odorants, a series of air dilution sensory (ADS) tests were conducted using four reduced sulfur compounds [RSC: hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (CH3SH), dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS)] at varying concentration levels. The tests were initially conducted by analyzing samples containing single individual RSCs at a wide range of concentrations. The resulting data were then evaluated to define the empirical relationship for each RSC between the dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio and odor intensity (OI) scaling. Based on the relationships defined for each individual RSC, the D/T ratios were estimated for a synthetic mixture of four RSCs. The effect of mixing was then examined by assessing the relative contribution of each RSC to those estimates with the aid of the actually measured D/T values. This stepwise test confirmed that the odor intensity of the synthetic mixture is not governed by the common theoretical basis (e.g., rule of additivity, synergism, or a stronger component model) but is best represented by the averaged contribution of all RSC components. The overall results of this study thus suggest that the mixing phenomenon between odorants with similar chemical properties (like RSC family) can be characterized by the averaging effect of all participants. PMID:22319360

  1. Reducing Physical Risk Factors in Construction Work Through a Participatory Intervention: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Process Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Mikkel; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Skals, Sebastian; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Madeleine, Pascal; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that reducing physical workload among workers in the construction industry is complicated. In order to address this issue, we developed a process evaluation in a formative mixed-methods design, drawing on existing knowledge of the potential barriers for implementation. Objective We present the design of a mixed-methods process evaluation of the organizational, social, and subjective practices that play roles in the intervention study, integrating technical measurements to detect excessive physical exertion measured with electromyography and accelerometers, video documentation of working tasks, and a 3-phased workshop program. Methods The evaluation is designed in an adapted process evaluation framework, addressing recruitment, reach, fidelity, satisfaction, intervention delivery, intervention received, and context of the intervention companies. Observational studies, interviews, and questionnaires among 80 construction workers organized in 20 work gangs, as well as health and safety staff, contribute to the creation of knowledge about these phenomena. Results At the time of publication, the process of participant recruitment is underway. Conclusions Intervention studies are challenging to conduct and evaluate in the construction industry, often because of narrow time frames and ever-changing contexts. The mixed-methods design presents opportunities for obtaining detailed knowledge of the practices intra-acting with the intervention, while offering the opportunity to customize parts of the intervention. PMID:27230696

  2. The averaging effect of odorant mixing as determined by air dilution sensory tests: a case study on reduced sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    To learn more about the effects of mixing different odorants, a series of air dilution sensory (ADS) tests were conducted using four reduced sulfur compounds [RSC: hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methanethiol (CH(3)SH), dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS)] at varying concentration levels. The tests were initially conducted by analyzing samples containing single individual RSCs at a wide range of concentrations. The resulting data were then evaluated to define the empirical relationship for each RSC between the dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio and odor intensity (OI) scaling. Based on the relationships defined for each individual RSC, the D/T ratios were estimated for a synthetic mixture of four RSCs. The effect of mixing was then examined by assessing the relative contribution of each RSC to those estimates with the aid of the actually measured D/T values. This stepwise test confirmed that the odor intensity of the synthetic mixture is not governed by the common theoretical basis (e.g., rule of additivity, synergism, or a stronger component model) but is best represented by the averaged contribution of all RSC components. The overall results of this study thus suggest that the mixing phenomenon between odorants with similar chemical properties (like RSC family) can be characterized by the averaging effect of all participants.

  3. Multiplex PageRank.

    PubMed

    Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Overcoming Comfort Issues Due to Reduced Flow Room Air Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. In this project, IBACOS studied when HVAC equipment is downsized and ducts are unaltered to determine conditions that could cause a supply air delivery problem and to evaluate the feasibility of modifying the duct systems using minimally invasive strategies to improve air distribution.

  5. Scale Free Reduced Rank Image Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Paul

    In the traditional Guttman-Harris type image analysis, a transformation is applied to the data matrix such that each column of the transformed data matrix is the best least squares estimate of the corresponding column of the data matrix from the remaining columns. The model is scale free. However, it assumes (1) that the correlation matrix is…

  6. Dimension-Reduced Analog-Digital Mixed Measurement Method of Inductive Proximity Sensor.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi-Xin; Shao, Zhi-Biao; Tao, Hui-Bin; Xu, Kai-Liang; Li, Ting

    2017-06-30

    Inductive proximity sensors (IPSs) present a unique no-contact advantage. They are widely preferred for displacement measurement in various industrial fields (e.g., aviation and aerospace), and they are improved continuously. When the inductance and resistance components of the IPS sensing core are separated, the influence of temperature drift on measurement can be eliminated. The complexity of online computation of component separation can be reduced using a two-dimensional look-up table method. However, this method exhibits disadvantages, such as large capacity of the look-up table, dependency on precision measurement of sensing core parameter, and nonlinear distribution of measurement resolution. This study aims to overcome these disadvantages by examining the nonlinear relationship between the response of the sensing core and the ambient temperature, and proposes a dimension-reduced measurement method. The proposed method extracts the characteristics of the response curves at two temperatures and calculates the characteristics of the response curves at any temperature using a linear approximation. The look-up table capacity is less than 0.37% of the two-dimensional look-up table capacity (condensed) under the same condition; dimension reduction enables the construction of a complete look-up table directly by calibration procedures and avoids precise measurement on sensing core parameters; the calibration procedures establish uniform mapping of the distribution of measurement resolution. The experiment shows that, when the measurement ranges are 0-6, 0-5, and 0-4 mm, the maximum measurement errors are 0.140, 0.065, and 0.040 mm, respectively, under temperature ranging from 20 ∘ C to 110 ∘ C. This study extends the measurement range from 0-5 mm to 0-7 mm and improves the measurement accuracy over 0.1 mm (50% at 5 mm) compared with the two-dimensional look-up table method. Therefore, the proposed method not only inherits the advantages of the original method

  7. Dimension-Reduced Analog—Digital Mixed Measurement Method of Inductive Proximity Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zhi-Biao; Tao, Hui-Bin; Xu, Kai-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Inductive proximity sensors (IPSs) present a unique no-contact advantage. They are widely preferred for displacement measurement in various industrial fields (e.g., aviation and aerospace), and they are improved continuously. When the inductance and resistance components of the IPS sensing core are separated, the influence of temperature drift on measurement can be eliminated. The complexity of online computation of component separation can be reduced using a two-dimensional look-up table method. However, this method exhibits disadvantages, such as large capacity of the look-up table, dependency on precision measurement of sensing core parameter, and nonlinear distribution of measurement resolution. This study aims to overcome these disadvantages by examining the nonlinear relationship between the response of the sensing core and the ambient temperature, and proposes a dimension-reduced measurement method. The proposed method extracts the characteristics of the response curves at two temperatures and calculates the characteristics of the response curves at any temperature using a linear approximation. The look-up table capacity is less than 0.37% of the two-dimensional look-up table capacity (condensed) under the same condition; dimension reduction enables the construction of a complete look-up table directly by calibration procedures and avoids precise measurement on sensing core parameters; the calibration procedures establish uniform mapping of the distribution of measurement resolution. The experiment shows that, when the measurement ranges are 0–6, 0–5, and 0–4 mm, the maximum measurement errors are 0.140, 0.065, and 0.040 mm, respectively, under temperature ranging from 20 ∘C to 110 ∘C. This study extends the measurement range from 0–5 mm to 0–7 mm and improves the measurement accuracy over 0.1 mm (50% at 5 mm) compared with the two-dimensional look-up table method. Therefore, the proposed method not only inherits the advantages of the original

  8. Ranking Information in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliassi-Rad, Tina; Henderson, Keith

    Given a network, we are interested in ranking sets of nodes that score highest on user-specified criteria. For instance in graphs from bibliographic data (e.g. PubMed), we would like to discover sets of authors with expertise in a wide range of disciplines. We present this ranking task as a Top-K problem; utilize fixed-memory heuristic search; and present performance of both the serial and distributed search algorithms on synthetic and real-world data sets.

  9. The mixed serotonin receptor agonist psilocybin reduces threat-induced modulation of amygdala connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Schmidt, André; Friston, Karl; Preller, Katrin H; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of serotonergic neurotransmission by psilocybin has been shown to shift emotional biases away from negative towards positive stimuli. We have recently shown that reduced amygdala activity during threat processing might underlie psilocybin's effect on emotional processing. However, it is still not known whether psilocybin modulates bottom-up or top-down connectivity within the visual-limbic-prefrontal network underlying threat processing. We therefore analyzed our previous fMRI data using dynamic causal modeling and used Bayesian model selection to infer how psilocybin modulated effective connectivity within the visual-limbic-prefrontal network during threat processing. First, both placebo and psilocybin data were best explained by a model in which threat affect modulated bidirectional connections between the primary visual cortex, amygdala, and lateral prefrontal cortex. Second, psilocybin decreased the threat-induced modulation of top-down connectivity from the amygdala to primary visual cortex, speaking to a neural mechanism that might underlie putative shifts towards positive affect states after psilocybin administration. These findings may have important implications for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.

  10. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    SciTech Connect

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J.

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  11. Application of Fenton oxidation to reduce the toxicity of mixed parabens.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui C; Gmurek, Marta; Rossi, André F; Corceiro, Vanessa; Costa, Raquel; Quinta-Ferreira, M Emília; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present work were to assess the application of a chemical process to degrade a mixture of parabens and determine the influence of a natural river water matrix on toxicity. Model effluents containing either a single compound, namely methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, benzylparaben or p-hydroxybenzoic acid, or to mimic realistic conditions a mixture of the six compounds was used. Fenton process was applied to reduce the organic charge and toxic properties of the model effluents. The efficiency of the decontamination has been investigated using a chemical as well as a toxicological approach. The potential reduction of the effluents' toxicity after Fenton treatment was evaluated by assessing (i) Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition, (ii) lethal effects amongst freshwater Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea), and (iii) the impact on mammalian neuronal activity using brain slices. From the environmental point of view such a broad toxicity analysis has been performed for the first time. The results indicate that Fenton reaction is an effective method for the reduction of chemical oxygen demand of a mixture of parabens and their toxicity to V. fischeri and C. fluminea. However, no important differences were found between raw and treated samples in regard to mammalian neuronal activity.

  12. The mixed serotonin receptor agonist psilocybin reduces threat-induced modulation of amygdala connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Schmidt, André; Friston, Karl; Preller, Katrin H.; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of serotonergic neurotransmission by psilocybin has been shown to shift emotional biases away from negative towards positive stimuli. We have recently shown that reduced amygdala activity during threat processing might underlie psilocybin's effect on emotional processing. However, it is still not known whether psilocybin modulates bottom-up or top-down connectivity within the visual-limbic-prefrontal network underlying threat processing. We therefore analyzed our previous fMRI data using dynamic causal modeling and used Bayesian model selection to infer how psilocybin modulated effective connectivity within the visual–limbic–prefrontal network during threat processing. First, both placebo and psilocybin data were best explained by a model in which threat affect modulated bidirectional connections between the primary visual cortex, amygdala, and lateral prefrontal cortex. Second, psilocybin decreased the threat-induced modulation of top-down connectivity from the amygdala to primary visual cortex, speaking to a neural mechanism that might underlie putative shifts towards positive affect states after psilocybin administration. These findings may have important implications for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26909323

  13. Diversifying customer review rankings.

    PubMed

    Krestel, Ralf; Dokoohaki, Nima

    2015-06-01

    E-commerce Web sites owe much of their popularity to consumer reviews accompanying product descriptions. On-line customers spend hours and hours going through heaps of textual reviews to decide which products to buy. At the same time, each popular product has thousands of user-generated reviews, making it impossible for a buyer to read everything. Current approaches to display reviews to users or recommend an individual review for a product are based on the recency or helpfulness of each review. In this paper, we present a framework to rank product reviews by optimizing the coverage of the ranking with respect to sentiment or aspects, or by summarizing all reviews with the top-K reviews in the ranking. To accomplish this, we make use of the assigned star rating for a product as an indicator for a review's sentiment polarity and compare bag-of-words (language model) with topic models (latent Dirichlet allocation) as a mean to represent aspects. Our evaluation on manually annotated review data from a commercial review Web site demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach, outperforming plain recency ranking by 30% and obtaining best results by combining language and topic model representations.

  14. Outflanking the Rankings Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that American higher education is allowing itself to be held hostage by the rankings industry, which can lead institutions to consider actions harmful to the public interest and encourage the public's infatuation with celebrity at the expense of substance. Instead of sitting quietly by during the upcoming ratings…

  15. Playing the Rankings Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.; Van Der Werf, Martin

    2007-01-01

    While some colleges claim not to care what "U.S. News & World Report" says, and experts cite problems in the way its annual rankings are done, many institutions scramble to improve their positions. There are well-documented examples of institutions that have solicited nominal donations from alumni to boost their percentage of giving, encouraged…

  16. Rapid-mix and chemical quench studies of ferredoxin-reduced stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Karen S; Haas, Jeffrey A; Fox, Brian G

    2003-05-20

    Stearoyl-ACP Delta9 desaturase (Delta9D) catalyzes the NADPH- and O(2)-dependent insertion of a cis double bond between the C9 and C10 positions of stearoyl-ACP (18:0-ACP) to produce oleoyl-ACP (18:1-ACP). This work revealed the ability of reduced [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (Fd) to act as a catalytically competent electron donor during the rapid conversion of 18:0-ACP into 18:1-ACP. Experiments on the order of addition for substrate and reduced Fd showed high conversion of 18:0-ACP to 18:1-ACP (approximately 95% per Delta9D active site in a single turnover) when 18:0-ACP was added prior to reduced Fd. Reactions of the prereduced enzyme-substrate complex with O(2) and the oxidized enzyme-substrate complex with reduced Fd were studied by rapid-mix and chemical quench methods. For reaction of the prereduced enzyme-substrate complex, an exponential burst phase (k(burst) = 95 s(-1)) of product formation accounted for approximately 90% of the turnover expected for one subunit in the dimeric protein. This rapid phase was followed by a slower phase (k(linear) = 4.0 s(-1)) of product formation corresponding to the turnover expected from the second subunit. For reaction of the oxidized enzyme-substrate complex with excess reduced Fd, a slower, linear rate (k(obsd) = 3.4 s(-1)) of product formation was observed over approximately 1.5 turnovers per Delta9D active site potentially corresponding to a third phase of reaction. An analysis of the deuterium isotope effect on the two rapid-mix reaction sequences revealed only a modest effect on k(burst) ((D)k(burst) approximately 1.5) and k(linear) (D)k(linear) approximately 1.4), indicating C-H bond cleavage does not contribute significantly to the rate-limiting steps of pre-steady-state catalysis. These results were used to assemble and evaluate a minimal kinetic model for Delta9D catalysis.

  17. Ranking facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Knight, Helen; Keith, Olly

    2005-08-01

    The first aim of this investigation was to assemble a group of photographs of 30 male and 30 female faces representing a standardized spectrum of facial attractiveness, against which orthognathic treatment outcomes could be compared. The second aim was to investigate the influence of the relationship between ANB differences and anterior lower face height (ALFH) percentages on facial attractiveness. The initial sample comprised standardized photographs of 41 female and 35 male Caucasian subjects. From these, the photographs of two groups of 30 male and 30 female subjects were compiled. A panel of six clinicians and six non-clinicians ranked the photographs. The results showed there to be a good level of reliability for each assessor when ranking the photographs on two occasions, particularly for the clinicians (female subjects r = 0.76-0.97, male subjects r = 0.72-0.94). Agreement among individuals within each group was also high, particularly when ranking facial attractiveness in male subjects (female subjects r = 0.57-0.84, male subjects r = 0.91-0.94). Antero-posterior (AP) discrepancies, as measured by soft tissue ANB, showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, a trend emerged that would suggest that in faces where the ANB varies widely from 5 degrees, the face is considered less attractive. The ALFH percentage also showed minimal correlation with facial attractiveness. However, there was a trend that suggested that greater ALFH percentages are considered less attractive in female faces, while in males the opposite trend was seen. Either of the two series of ranked photographs as judged by clinicians and non-clinicians could be used as a standard against which facial attractiveness could be assessed, as both were in total agreement about the most attractive faces. However, to judge the outcome of orthognathic treatment, the series of ranked photographs produced by the non-clinician group should be used as the 'standard' to reflect lay

  18. Reduced-gravity Environment Hardware Demonstrations of a Prototype Miniaturized Flow Cytometer and Companion Microfluidic Mixing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Candice; Sharpe, Julia Z.; Bishara, Andrew M.; Nelson, Emily S.; Weaver, Aaron S.; Brown, Daniel; McKay, Terri L.; Griffin, DeVon; Chan, Eugene Y.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, astronaut blood samples were collected in-flight, transported to earth on the Space Shuttle, and analyzed in terrestrial laboratories. If humans are to travel beyond low Earth orbit, a transition towards space-ready, point-of-care (POC) testing is required. Such testing needs to be comprehensive, easy to perform in a reduced-gravity environment, and unaffected by the stresses of launch and spaceflight. Countless POC devices have been developed to mimic laboratory scale counterparts, but most have narrow applications and few have demonstrable use in an in-flight, reduced-gravity environment. In fact, demonstrations of biomedical diagnostics in reduced gravity are limited altogether, making component choice and certain logistical challenges difficult to approach when seeking to test new technology. To help fill the void, we are presenting a modular method for the construction and operation of a prototype blood diagnostic device and its associated parabolic flight test rig that meet the standards for flight-testing onboard a parabolic flight, reduced-gravity aircraft. The method first focuses on rig assembly for in-flight, reduced-gravity testing of a flow cytometer and a companion microfluidic mixing chip. Components are adaptable to other designs and some custom components, such as a microvolume sample loader and the micromixer may be of particular interest. The method then shifts focus to flight preparation, by offering guidelines and suggestions to prepare for a successful flight test with regard to user training, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), and other issues. Finally, in-flight experimental procedures specific to our demonstrations are described. PMID:25490614

  19. Development of strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in iran 2012-2014: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Razieh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Dovom, Marzieh Rostami; Torkestani, Farahnaz; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Sajedinejad, Sima

    2014-12-01

    With the change in population policy from birth control toward encouraging birth and population growth in Iran, repeated cesarean deliveries as a main reason of cesarean section are associated with more potential adverse consequences. The aim of this research was to explore effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in Iran. A mixed methodological study was designed and implemented. First, using a qualitative approach, concepts and influencing factors of increased cesarean delivery were explored. Based on the findings of this phase of the study, a questionnaire including the proposed strategies to reduce cesarean delivery was developed. Then in a quantitative phase, the questionnaire was assessed by key informants from across the country and evaluated to obtain more effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery. Ten participants in the qualitative study included policy makers from the Ministry of Health, obstetricians, midwives and anthropologists. In the next step, 141 participants from private and public hospitals, insurance experts, Academic Associations of Midwifery, and policy makers in Maternity Health Affairs of Ministry of Health were invited to assess and provide feedback on the strategies that work to reduce cesarean deliveries. Qualitative data analysis showed four concept related to increased cesarean delivery rates including; "standardization", "education", "amending regulations", and "performance supervision". Effective strategies extracted from qualitative data were rated by participants then, using ACCEPT derived from A as attainability, C as costing, C as complication, E as effectiveness, P as popularity, and T as timing table 19 strategies were detected as priorities. Although developing effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates is complex process because of the multi-factorial nature of increased cesarean deliveries, in this study we have achieved strategies that in the context of Iran could work.

  20. Reduced-gravity environment hardware demonstrations of a prototype miniaturized flow cytometer and companion microfluidic mixing technology.

    PubMed

    Phipps, William S; Yin, Zhizhong; Bae, Candice; Sharpe, Julia Z; Bishara, Andrew M; Nelson, Emily S; Weaver, Aaron S; Brown, Daniel; McKay, Terri L; Griffin, DeVon; Chan, Eugene Y

    2014-11-13

    Until recently, astronaut blood samples were collected in-flight, transported to earth on the Space Shuttle, and analyzed in terrestrial laboratories. If humans are to travel beyond low Earth orbit, a transition towards space-ready, point-of-care (POC) testing is required. Such testing needs to be comprehensive, easy to perform in a reduced-gravity environment, and unaffected by the stresses of launch and spaceflight. Countless POC devices have been developed to mimic laboratory scale counterparts, but most have narrow applications and few have demonstrable use in an in-flight, reduced-gravity environment. In fact, demonstrations of biomedical diagnostics in reduced gravity are limited altogether, making component choice and certain logistical challenges difficult to approach when seeking to test new technology. To help fill the void, we are presenting a modular method for the construction and operation of a prototype blood diagnostic device and its associated parabolic flight test rig that meet the standards for flight-testing onboard a parabolic flight, reduced-gravity aircraft. The method first focuses on rig assembly for in-flight, reduced-gravity testing of a flow cytometer and a companion microfluidic mixing chip. Components are adaptable to other designs and some custom components, such as a microvolume sample loader and the micromixer may be of particular interest. The method then shifts focus to flight preparation, by offering guidelines and suggestions to prepare for a successful flight test with regard to user training, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), and other issues. Finally, in-flight experimental procedures specific to our demonstrations are described.

  1. Athletic Training Education Programs: To Rank or Not To Rank?

    PubMed Central

    Voll, Craig A.; Goodwin, Jeff E.; Pitney, William A.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the literature regarding educational program ranking and to provide insights concerning undergraduate and graduate athletic training education ranking systems. Background: The demand for accountability and the need to evaluate the quality of educational programs have led to program ranking in many academic disciplines. As athletic training becomes more recognized within the medical community, determining a program's quality will become increasingly important. Description: We describe program rankings used in other disciplines for determining quality and providing measures of accountability. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of both subjective and objective ranking systems, as well as the arguments for using program rankings in athletic training. Future directions for program ranking and potential research questions are suggested. Applications: Ranking systems on the basis of levels of perceived quality and academic productivity of programs that prepare future professionals will help potential undergraduate and graduate students make informed decisions when selecting an educational program. PMID:16558548

  2. Reponses of sheep to a vaccination of entodinial or mixed rumen protozoal antigens to reduce rumen protozoal numbers.

    PubMed

    Williams, Yvette J; Rea, Suzanne M; Popovski, Sam; Pimm, Carolyn L; Williams, Andrew J; Toovey, Andrew F; Skillman, Lucy C; Wright, André-Denis G

    2008-01-01

    Two rumen protozoa vaccine formulations containing either whole fixed Entodinium or mixed rumen protozoa cells were tested on Merino sheep with the aim of decreasing the number and/or activity of protozoa in the rumen. Negative control (no antigen) and positive control (Tetrahymena corlissi antigens) treatments were also included in the experiment. Blood and saliva were sampled to measure the specific immune response. Protozoal numbers in the rumen were monitored by microscopic counts. Vaccination with protozoal formulations resulted in the presence of specific IgG in plasma and saliva, but saliva titres were low. Titres after secondary vaccination were higher (P 0.05) by the vaccination and there was also no difference (P>0.05) between treatments in rumen fluid ammonia-N concentration or wool growth. In vitro studies investigated the binding ability of the antibodies and estimated the amount of antibody required to reduce cell numbers in the rumen. The studies showed that the antibodies did bind to and reduced protozoa numbers, but the amount of antibody generated by vaccination was not enough to produce results in an in vivo system. It is suggested that the vaccine could be improved if specific protozoal antigens are determined and isolated and that improved understanding of the actions of protozoa antibodies in rumen fluid and the relationships between levels of antibodies and numbers of protozoa in the rumen is needed.

  3. The potential of bike desks to reduce sedentary time in the office: a mixed-method study.

    PubMed

    Torbeyns, T; de Geus, B; Bailey, S; Decroix, L; Meeusen, R

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the use of bike desks in an office setting and office workers' experiences of bike desks. Mixed-method study; quantitative data of cycling desk use in combination with qualitative data of users' experience were obtained via questionnaires. Bike desks were provided in an office setting during a five-month period. The amount of cycled time, distance and the cycling intensity were registered. At the end of the intervention period, participants filled out a questionnaire about their experiences of cycling desks in the office. Participants cycled for approximately 98 min/week. Most participants were very positive about their bike desk experience and almost all of them would continue using them. About one third of the participants experienced a positive effect on attention and work performance and for about two thirds it positively influenced their motivation during work. Furthermore, about half of the participants felt more energetic, more self-confident and perceived a positive effect on their health and lifestyle. Providing bike desks in an office reduces office workers sedentary time. Furthermore, people experienced positive effects on several personal and work-related parameters. Therefore, providing bike desks in office settings seems to be a promising means to reduce sedentary time. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nickel, manganese and copper removal by a mixed consortium of sulfate reducing bacteria at a high COD/sulfate ratio.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, L P; Costa, P F; Bertolino, S M; Silva, J C C; Guerra-Sá, R; Leão, V A; Teixeira, M C

    2014-08-01

    The use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in passive treatments of acidic effluents containing heavy metals has become an attractive alternative biotechnology. Treatment efficiency may be linked with the effluent conditions (pH and metal concentration) and also to the amount and nature of the organic substrate. Variations on organic substrate and sulfate ratios clearly interfere with the biological removal of this ion by mixed cultures of SRB. This study aimed to cultivate a mixed culture of SRB using different lactate concentrations at pH 7.0 in the presence of Ni, Mn and Cu. The highest sulfate removal efficiency obtained was 98 %, at a COD/sulfate ratio of 2.0. The organic acid analyses indicated an acetate accumulation as a consequence of lactate degradation. Different concentrations of metals were added to the system at neutral pH conditions. Cell proliferation and sulfate consumption in the presence of nickel (4, 20 and 50 mg l(-1)), manganese (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) and copper (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) were measured. The presence of metals interfered in the sulfate biological removal however the concentration of sulfide produced was high enough to remove over 90 % of the metals in the environment. The molecular characterization of the bacterial consortium based on dsrB gene sequencing indicated the presence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomonas pigra and Desulfobulbus sp. The results here presented indicate that this SRB culture may be employed for mine effluent bioremediation due to its potential for removing sulfate and metals, simultaneously.

  5. On Row Rank Equal Column Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalili, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    We will prove a well-known theorem in Linear Algebra, that is, for any "m x n" matrix the dimension of row space and column space are the same. The proof is based on the subject of "elementary matrices" and "reduced row-echelon" form of a matrix.

  6. On Row Rank Equal Column Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalili, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    We will prove a well-known theorem in Linear Algebra, that is, for any "m x n" matrix the dimension of row space and column space are the same. The proof is based on the subject of "elementary matrices" and "reduced row-echelon" form of a matrix.

  7. University Rankings and Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  8. University Rankings and Social Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    University rankings widely affect the behaviours of prospective students and their families, university executive leaders, academic faculty, governments and investors in higher education. Yet the social science foundations of global rankings receive little scrutiny. Rankings that simply recycle reputation without any necessary connection to real…

  9. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Novack, Steven David; Marshall, Frances Mc Clellan; Stromberg, Howard Merion; Grant, Gary Michael

    1999-06-01

    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEELs lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  10. Issue Management Risk Ranking Systems

    SciTech Connect

    F. M. Marshall; G. M. Grant; H. M. Stromberg; S. D. Novack

    1999-06-01

    Thousands of safety issues have been collected on-line at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) as part of the Issue Management Plan. However, there has been no established approach to prioritize collected and future issues. The authors developed a methodology, based on hazards assessment, to identify and risk rank over 5000 safety issues collected at INEEL. This approach required that it was easily applied and understandable for site adaptation and commensurate with the Integrated Safety Plan. High-risk issues were investigated and mitigative/preventive measures were suggested and ranked based on a cost-benefit scheme to provide risk-informed safety measures. This methodology was consistent with other integrated safety management goals and tasks providing a site-wide risk-informed decision tool to reduce hazardous conditions and focus resources on high-risk safety issues. As part of the issue management plan, this methodology was incorporated at the issue collection level and training was provided to management to better familiarize decision-makers with concepts of safety and risk. This prioritization methodology and issue dissemination procedure will be discussed. Results of issue prioritization and training efforts will be summarized. Difficulties and advantages of the process will be reported. Development and incorporation of this process into INEEL's lessons learned reporting and the site-wide integrated safety management program will be shown with an emphasis on establishing self reliance and ownership of safety issues.

  11. Rank-Size Distribution of Notes in Harmonic Music: Hierarchic Shuffling of Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Río, Manuel Beltrán; Cocho, Germinal

    We trace the rank size distribution of notes in harmonic music, which on previous works we suggested was much better represented by the Two-parameter, first class Beta distribution than the customary power law, to the ranked mixing of distributions dictated by the harmonic and instrumental nature of the piece. The same representation is shown to arise in other fields by the same type of ranked shuffling of distributions. We include the codon content of intergenic DNA sequences and the ranked distribution of sizes of trees in a determined area as examples. We show that the fittings proposed increase their accuracy with the number of distributions that are mixed and ranked.

  12. Quantification of toxic and inhibitory impact of copper and zinc on mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Utgikar, Vivek P; Tabak, Henry H; Haines, John R; Govind, Rakesh

    2003-05-05

    The adverse effects of copper and zinc on an acetate-utilizing mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at concentrations below the toxic concentration (minimum metal concentration at which no sulfate reduction is observed) are reported in this paper. Mathematical models were developed to incorporate the toxic and inhibitory effects (defined as the reduction in bacterial population upon exposure to the metal and the decrease in the metabolic rate of sulfate reduction by the SRB, respectively) into the sulfate-reduction biokinetics. The characteristic toxicity and inhibition constants were obtained from the measurements of bacterial populations and dissolved metal concentrations in serum bottle studies conducted at 35 degrees C and pH 6.6. Both copper and zinc had toxic and inhibitory effects on SRB. The toxicity constants for copper and zinc were 10.6 and 2.9 mM(-1), respectively, indicating that exposure to copper resulted in a higher mortality of SRB than did exposure to zinc. The values of the inhibition constants were found to be 17.9 +/- 2.5 and 25.2 +/- 1.0 mM(-1) for copper and zinc, respectively. This implies that dissolved zinc was slightly more inhibitory to SRB than copper. The models presented in the paper can be used to predict the response of a sulfate-reduction bioreactor to heavy metals during acid mine drainage treatment. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dramatic robustness of a multiple delay dispersed interferometer to spectrograph errors: how mixing delays reduces or cancels wavelength drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, David J.; Linder, E.; Wishnow, E.; Edelstein, J.; Sirk, M.; Muirhead, P.; Lloyd, J.; Kim, A.

    2016-08-01

    We describe demonstrations of remarkable robustness to instrumental noises by using a multiple delay externally dispersed interferometer (EDI) on stellar observations at the Hale telescope. Previous observatory EDI demonstrations used a single delay. The EDI (also called "TEDI") boosted the 2,700 resolution of the native TripleSpec NIR spectrograph (950-2450 nm) by as much as 10x to 27,000, using 7 overlapping delays up to 3 cm. We observed superb rejection of fixed pattern noises due to bad pixels, since the fringing signal responds only to changes in multiple exposures synchronous to the applied delay dithering. Remarkably, we observed a 20x reduction of reaction in the output spectrum to PSF shifts of the native spectrograph along the dispersion direction, using our standard processing. This allowed high resolution observations under conditions of severe and irregular PSF drift otherwise not possible without the interferometer. Furthermore, we recently discovered an improved method of weighting and mixing data between pairs of delays that can theoretically further reduce the net reaction to PSF drift to zero. We demonstrate a 350x reduction in reaction to a native PSF shift using a simple simulation. This technique could similarly reduce radial velocity noise for future EDI's that use two delays overlapped in delay space (or a single delay overlapping the native peak). Finally, we show an extremely high dynamic range EDI measurement of our ThAr lamp compared to a literature ThAr spectrum, observing weak features ( 0.001x height of nearest strong line) that occur between the major lines. Because of individuality of each reference lamp, accurate knowledge of its spectrum between the (unfortunately) sparse major lines is important for precision radial velocimetry.

  14. Improving the Incoherence of a Learned Dictionary via Rank Shrinkage.

    PubMed

    Ubaru, Shashanka; Seghouane, Abd-Krim; Saad, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    This letter considers the problem of dictionary learning for sparse signal representation whose atoms have low mutual coherence. To learn such dictionaries, at each step, we first update the dictionary using the method of optimal directions (MOD) and then apply a dictionary rank shrinkage step to decrease its mutual coherence. In the rank shrinkage step, we first compute a rank 1 decomposition of the column-normalized least squares estimate of the dictionary obtained from the MOD step. We then shrink the rank of this learned dictionary by transforming the problem of reducing the rank to a nonnegative garrotte estimation problem and solving it using a path-wise coordinate descent approach. We establish theoretical results that show that the rank shrinkage step included will reduce the coherence of the dictionary, which is further validated by experimental results. Numerical experiments illustrating the performance of the proposed algorithm in comparison to various other well-known dictionary learning algorithms are also presented.

  15. Beyond Low Rank + Sparse: Multi-scale Low Rank Matrix Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Frank; Lustig, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a natural generalization of the recent low rank + sparse matrix decomposition and consider the decomposition of matrices into components of multiple scales. Such decomposition is well motivated in practice as data matrices often exhibit local correlations in multiple scales. Concretely, we propose a multi-scale low rank modeling that represents a data matrix as a sum of block-wise low rank matrices with increasing scales of block sizes. We then consider the inverse problem of decomposing the data matrix into its multi-scale low rank components and approach the problem via a convex formulation. Theoretically, we show that under various incoherence conditions, the convex program recovers the multi-scale low rank components either exactly or approximately. Practically, we provide guidance on selecting the regularization parameters and incorporate cycle spinning to reduce blocking artifacts. Experimentally, we show that the multi-scale low rank decomposition provides a more intuitive decomposition than conventional low rank methods and demonstrate its effectiveness in four applications, including illumination normalization for face images, motion separation for surveillance videos, multi-scale modeling of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and collaborative filtering exploiting age information. PMID:28450978

  16. Beyond Low Rank + Sparse: Multi-scale Low Rank Matrix Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Ong, Frank; Lustig, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We present a natural generalization of the recent low rank + sparse matrix decomposition and consider the decomposition of matrices into components of multiple scales. Such decomposition is well motivated in practice as data matrices often exhibit local correlations in multiple scales. Concretely, we propose a multi-scale low rank modeling that represents a data matrix as a sum of block-wise low rank matrices with increasing scales of block sizes. We then consider the inverse problem of decomposing the data matrix into its multi-scale low rank components and approach the problem via a convex formulation. Theoretically, we show that under various incoherence conditions, the convex program recovers the multi-scale low rank components either exactly or approximately. Practically, we provide guidance on selecting the regularization parameters and incorporate cycle spinning to reduce blocking artifacts. Experimentally, we show that the multi-scale low rank decomposition provides a more intuitive decomposition than conventional low rank methods and demonstrate its effectiveness in four applications, including illumination normalization for face images, motion separation for surveillance videos, multi-scale modeling of the dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and collaborative filtering exploiting age information.

  17. Sucrose mixed with spinosad enhances kill and reduces oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under low-food conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...

  18. Having to identify a target reduces antisaccade latencies in mixed saccadic paradigms: A top-down effect released by tonic prefrontal activation?

    PubMed

    Malsert, Jennifer; Guyader, Nathalie; Chauvin, Alan; Marendaz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Instructing participants to "identify a target" dramatically reduces saccadic reaction times in prosaccade tasks (PS). However, it has been recently shown that this effect disappears in antisaccade tasks (AS). The instruction effect observed in PS may result from top-down processes, mediated by pathways connecting the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the superior colliculus. In AS, the PFC's prior involvement is in competition with the instruction process, annulling its effect. This study aims to discover whether the instruction effect persists in mixed paradigms. According to Dyckman's fMRI study (2007), the difficulty of mixed tasks leads to PFC involvement. The antisaccade-related PFC activation observed on comparison of blocked AS and PS therefore disappears when the two are compared in mixed paradigms. However, we continued to observe the instruction effect for both PS and AS. We therefore posit different types of PFC activation: phasic during blocked AS, and tonic during mixed saccadic experiments.

  19. The Privileges of Rank

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Alair

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the effects of peacetime cold war military service on the life course according to four potentially overlapping theories that state that military service (1) was a disruption, (2) was a positive turning point, (3) allowed veterans to accumulate advantage, and (4) was an agent of social reproduction. The article argues that the extent to which the effect of military service on veterans' lives corresponds with one or another of the preceding theories depends on historical shifts in three dimensions: conscription, conflict, and benefits. Military service during the peacetime draft era of the late 1950s had a neutral effect on the socioeconomic attainment of enlisted veterans. However, it had a positive effect on veterans who served as officers, which partly stemmed from status reproduction and selection. Yet net of pre-service and educational differences by rank, officers in this peacetime draft era were still able to accumulate advantage. PMID:20842210

  20. Optimized mixed oils remarkably reduce the amount of surfactants in microemulsions without affecting oral bioavailability of ibuprofen by simultaneously enlarging microemulsion areas and enhancing drug solubility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yizhen; Tuo, Jue; Huang, Huizhi; Liu, Dan; You, Xiuhua; Mai, Jialuo; Song, Jiaqi; Xie, Yanqi; Wu, Chuanbin; Hu, Haiyan

    2015-06-20

    The toxicity and irritation associated with high amounts of surfactants restrict the extensive utilization of microemulsions. To address these shortcomings, employing mixed oils to enlarge microemulsion areas therefore reducing surfactant contents is a promising strategy. However, what kinds of mixed oils are more efficient in enlarging microemulsion areas still remains unclear. In this research, we found that the chain length and degree of unsaturation of oils play a key role in enlarging microemulsion areas. The combination of moderate chain saturated oil caprylic/capric triglyceride (GTCC) with long chain unsaturated oil glycerol trioleate significantly increased the microemulsion areas. Solubility of ibuprofen in the mixed oils was unexpectedly and remarkably increased (almost 300mg/mL) compared with that (around 100mg/mL) of the single oil (GTCC), which also resulted in greatly increased solubility of ibuprofen in mixed oils-containing microemulsions. By optimizing the mixed oil formulation, the absolute amount of surfactant in drug-loaded microemulsions was reduced but increased drug oral bioavailability in rats was maintained. It could be concluded that the combined use of moderate chain oils and long chain unsaturated oils could not only acquire enlarged microemulsion areas but also enhanced drug solubility, therefore doubly reducing surfactant amount, which is extremely beneficial for developing safe microemulsions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Can an ethics officer role reduce delays in research ethics approval? A mixed-method evaluation of an improvement project

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Foy, Chris; Hayden, Charlotte; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Tebbutt, Stephen; Schroter, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Objective Frustration continues to be directed at delays in gaining approvals for undertaking health research in the UK. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an ethics officer intervention on rates of favourable opinions (approval) and provisional opinions (requiring revision and resubmission) and on the time taken to reach a final opinion by research ethics committees (RECs), to characterise how the role operated in practice, and to investigate applicants' views. Design Mixed-method study involving (i) a 2-group, non-randomised before-and-after intervention study of RECs assigned an ethics officer and a matched comparator group; (ii) a process evaluation involving a survey of applicants and documentary analysis. Participants 6 RECs and 3 associated ethics officers; 18 comparator RECs; REC applicants. Results Rates of provisional and favourable opinions between ethics officer and comparator RECs did not show a statistically significant effect of the intervention (logistic regression, p=0.26 for favourable opinions and p=0.31 for provisional opinions). Mean time to reach a decision showed a non-significant reduction (ANOVA, p=0.22) from 33.3 to 32.0 days in the ethics officer RECs compared with the comparator RECs (32.6 to 32.9 days). The survey (30% response rate) indicated applicant satisfaction and also suggested that ethics officer support might be more useful before submission. Ethics officers were successful in identifying many issues with applications, but the intervention did not function exactly as designed: in 31% of applicants, no contact between the applicants and the ethics officer took place before REC review. Limitations This study was a non-randomised comparison cohort study. Some data were missing. Conclusions An ethics officer intervention, as designed and implemented in this study, did not increase the proportion of applications to RECs that were approved on first review and did not reduce the time to a committee decision. PMID:27580832

  2. Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large. Ensemble and reduced-state approaches to prediction and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank representations to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank representations of the steady-state response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.

  3. Neophilia Ranking of Scientific Journals

    PubMed Central

    Packalen, Mikko; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2017-01-01

    The ranking of scientific journals is important because of the signal it sends to scientists about what is considered most vital for scientific progress. Existing ranking systems focus on measuring the influence of a scientific paper (citations)—these rankings do not reward journals for publishing innovative work that builds on new ideas. We propose an alternative ranking based on the proclivity of journals to publish papers that build on new ideas, and we implement this ranking via a text-based analysis of all published biomedical papers dating back to 1946. In addition, we compare our neophilia ranking to citation-based (impact factor) rankings; this comparison shows that the two ranking approaches are distinct. Prior theoretical work suggests an active role for our neophilia index in science policy. Absent an explicit incentive to pursue novel science, scientists underinvest in innovative work because of a coordination problem: for work on a new idea to flourish, many scientists must decide to adopt it in their work. Rankings that are based purely on influence thus do not provide sufficient incentives for publishing innovative work. By contrast, adoption of the neophilia index as part of journal-ranking procedures by funding agencies and university administrators would provide an explicit incentive for journals to publish innovative work and thus help solve the coordination problem by increasing scientists' incentives to pursue innovative work. PMID:28713181

  4. Specific food group combinations explaining the variation in intakes of nutrients and other important food components in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: an application of the reduced rank regression method.

    PubMed

    Kröger, J; Ferrari, P; Jenab, M; Bamia, C; Touvier, M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Fahey, M T; Benetou, V; Schulz, M; Wirfält, E; Boeing, H; Hoffmann, K; Schulze, M B; Orfanos, P; Oikonomou, E; Huybrechts, I; Rohrmann, S; Pischon, T; Manjer, J; Agren, A; Navarro, C; Jakszyn, P; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Niravong, M; Khaw, K T; Crowe, F; Ocké, M C; van der Schouw, Y T; Mattiello, A; Bellegotti, M; Engeset, D; Hjartåker, A; Egeberg, R; Overvad, K; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To identify combinations of food groups that explain as much variation in absolute intakes of 23 key nutrients and food components as possible within the country-specific populations of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis covered single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) from 36,034 subjects (13,025 men and 23,009 women), aged 35-74 years, from all 10 countries participating in the EPIC study. In a set of 39 food groups, reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to identify those combinations (RRR factors) that explain the largest proportion of variation in intake of 23 key nutrients and food components, namely, proteins, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, sugars (sum of mono- and disaccharides), starch, fibre, alcohol, calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, B12 and C (RRR responses). Analyses were performed at the country level and for all countries combined. In the country-specific analyses, the first RRR factor explained a considerable proportion of the total nutrient intake variation in all 10 countries (27.4-37.1%). The subsequent RRR factors were much less important in explaining the variation (

  5. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  6. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  7. Item Response Modeling of Paired Comparison and Ranking Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Brown, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The comparative format used in ranking and paired comparisons tasks can significantly reduce the impact of uniform response biases typically associated with rating scales. Thurstone's (1927, 1931) model provides a powerful framework for modeling comparative data such as paired comparisons and rankings. Although Thurstonian models are generally…

  8. Item Response Modeling of Paired Comparison and Ranking Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Brown, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The comparative format used in ranking and paired comparisons tasks can significantly reduce the impact of uniform response biases typically associated with rating scales. Thurstone's (1927, 1931) model provides a powerful framework for modeling comparative data such as paired comparisons and rankings. Although Thurstonian models are generally…

  9. Mixed-method pre-cooling reduces physiological demand without improving performance of medium-fast bowling in the heat.

    PubMed

    Minett, Geoffrey M; Duffield, Rob; Kellett, Aaron; Portus, Marc

    2012-05-01

    This study examined physiological and performance effects of pre-cooling on medium-fast bowling in the heat. Ten, medium-fast bowlers completed two randomised trials involving either cooling (mixed-methods) or control (no cooling) interventions before a 6-over bowling spell in 31.9±2.1°C and 63.5±9.3% relative humidity. Measures included bowling performance (ball speed, accuracy and run-up speeds), physical characteristics (global positioning system monitoring and counter-movement jump height), physiological (heart rate, core temperature, skin temperature and sweat loss), biochemical (serum concentrations of damage, stress and inflammation) and perceptual variables (perceived exertion and thermal sensation). Mean ball speed (114.5±7.1 vs. 114.1±7.2 km · h(-1); P = 0.63; d = 0.09), accuracy (43.1±10.6 vs. 44.2±12.5 AU; P = 0.76; d = 0.14) and total run-up speed (19.1±4.1 vs. 19.3±3.8 km · h(-1); P = 0.66; d = 0.06) did not differ between pre-cooling and control respectively; however 20-m sprint speed between overs was 5.9±7.3% greater at Over 4 after pre-cooling (P = 0.03; d = 0.75). Pre-cooling reduced skin temperature after the intervention period (P = 0.006; d = 2.28), core temperature and pre-over heart rates throughout (P = 0.01-0.04; d = 0.96-1.74) and sweat loss by 0.4±0.3 kg (P = 0.01; d = 0.34). Mean rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were lower during pre-cooling trials (P = 0.004-0.03; d = 0.77-3.13). Despite no observed improvement in bowling performance, pre-cooling maintained between-over sprint speeds and blunted physiological and perceptual demands to ease the thermoregulatory demands of medium-fast bowling in hot conditions.

  10. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  11. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  12. Technical Pitfalls in University Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bougnol, Marie-Laure; Dulá, Jose H.

    2015-01-01

    Academicians, experts, and other stakeholders have contributed extensively to the literature on university rankings also known as "league tables". Often the tone is critical usually focused on the subjective aspects of the process; e.g., the list of the universities' attributes used in the rankings, their respective weights, and the size…

  13. Obsession with Rankings Goes Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    A Chinese list of the world's top universities would seem an unlikely concern for French politicians. But this year, France's legislature took aim at the annual rankings produced by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, which claims to list the 500 best universities in the world. The highest-ranked French entry, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, comes in…

  14. Obsession with Rankings Goes Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    A Chinese list of the world's top universities would seem an unlikely concern for French politicians. But this year, France's legislature took aim at the annual rankings produced by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, which claims to list the 500 best universities in the world. The highest-ranked French entry, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, comes in…

  15. University Rankings in Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pusser, Brian; Marginson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses global postsecondary ranking systems by using critical-theoretical perspectives on power. This research suggests rankings are at once a useful lens for studying power in higher education and an important instrument for the exercise of power in service of dominant norms in global higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1…

  16. University Ranking as Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsler, Sarah S.; Bolsmann, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In this article we explore the dual role of global university rankings in the creation of a new, knowledge-identified, transnational capitalist class and in facilitating new forms of social exclusion. We examine how and why the practice of ranking universities has become widely defined by national and international organisations as an important…

  17. US dermatology residency program rankings.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Lisa L; Wen, Ge; Wu, Jashin J

    2014-10-01

    Unlike many other adult specialties, US News & World Report does not rank dermatology residency programs annually. We conducted a study to rank individual US dermatology residency programs based on set criteria. For each residency program, data from 2008 related to a number of factors were collected, including annual amount of National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Dermatology Foundation (DF) funding received; number of publications from full-time faculty members; number of faculty lectures given at 5 annual society meetings; and number of full-time faculty members who were on the editorial boards of 6 dermatology journals with the highest impact factors. Most of the data were obtained through extensive Internet searches, and missing data were obtained by contacting individual residency programs. The programs were ranked based on the prior factors according to a weighted ranking algorithm. A list of overall rankings also was created.

  18. A fuel treatment reduces potential fire severity and increases suppression efficiency in a Sierran mixed conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Jason J. Moghaddas

    2006-01-01

    Fuel treatments are being widely implemented on public and private lands across the western U.S. While scientists and managers have an understanding of how fuel treatments can modify potential fire behavior under modeled conditions, there is limited information on how treatments perform under real wildfire conditions in Sierran mixed conifer forests. The Bell Fire...

  19. Estimation of rank correlation for clustered data.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Bernard; Glynn, Robert J

    2017-06-30

    It is well known that the sample correlation coefficient (Rxy ) is the maximum likelihood estimator of the Pearson correlation (ρxy ) for independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) bivariate normal data. However, this is not true for ophthalmologic data where X (e.g., visual acuity) and Y (e.g., visual field) are available for each eye and there is positive intraclass correlation for both X and Y in fellow eyes. In this paper, we provide a regression-based approach for obtaining the maximum likelihood estimator of ρxy for clustered data, which can be implemented using standard mixed effects model software. This method is also extended to allow for estimation of partial correlation by controlling both X and Y for a vector U_ of other covariates. In addition, these methods can be extended to allow for estimation of rank correlation for clustered data by (i) converting ranks of both X and Y to the probit scale, (ii) estimating the Pearson correlation between probit scores for X and Y, and (iii) using the relationship between Pearson and rank correlation for bivariate normally distributed data. The validity of the methods in finite-sized samples is supported by simulation studies. Finally, two examples from ophthalmology and analgesic abuse are used to illustrate the methods. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Obtaining Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductivity in Perovskite Oxides in a Reducing Environment: A Computational Prediction for Doped SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Suthirakun, Suwit; Ammal, Salai Cheettu; Xiao, Guoliang; Chen, Fanglin; Huang, Kevin; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad; Heyden, Andreas

    2012-11-30

    The electronic conductivity and thermodynamic stability of mixed p- and n-doped SrTiO3 perovskites have been investigated under anodic solid oxide fuel cell conditions using density functional theory (DFT). In particular, constrained ab initio thermodynamic calculations have been performed to evaluate the phase stability of various Ga- and La-doped SrTiO3 at synthesized and anodic SOFC conditions. The density of states (DOS) of these materials was analyzed to determine the number of charge carriers and the degree of electronic conductivity. We find that a mixed ionic/electronic conductor can be obtained when doping SrTiO3 perovskite oxide with both p-type and n-type dopants. Calculations show that 10% Ga- and 20% La-doped SrTiO3 exhibit mixed ionic/electronic conductivity at high temperature and low oxygen partial pressure whereas doping with higher concentrations of Ga, e.g., 20%, diminishes the electronic conductivity of the material. Furthermore, changing the n-dopant from La (A-site) to Nb (B-site) does not significantly affect the reducibility and number of charge carriers in p- and n-doped SrTiO3. However, a higher degree of oxygen vacancy clustering is observed for the La-doped material which reduces the oxygen ion diffusion rate and traps electrons. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that independent of doping site, mixed ionic/ electronic conductivity can be obtained in SrTiO3 perovskite oxides under reducing conditions and high temperatures when using a mixed p- and n-type doping strategy that uses a p-dopant concentration smaller than the n-dopant concentration.

  1. Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

    2009-06-01

    Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.

  2. A simple route to improve rate performance of LiFePO4/reduced graphene oxide composite cathode by adding Mg2+ via mechanical mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan; Liu, Hao; Gong, Li; Hou, Yanglong; Li, Quan

    2017-04-01

    Introducing Mg2+ to LiFePO4 and reduced graphene oxide composite via mechanical mixing and annealing leads to largely improved rate performance of the cathode (e.g. ∼78 mA h g-1 at 20 C for LiFePO4 and reduced graphene oxide composite with Mg2+ introduction vs. ∼37 mA h g-1 at 20 C for LiFePO4 and reduced graphene oxide composite). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy unravels that the enhanced reduction of Fe2+ to Fe0 occurs in the simultaneous presence of Mg2+ and reduced graphene oxide, which is beneficial for the rate capability of cathode. The simple fabrication process provides a simple and effective means to improve the rate performance of the LiFePO4 and reduced graphene oxide composite cathode.

  3. Universal scaling in sports ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Weibing; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu; Bulou, Alain; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2012-09-01

    Ranking is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human society. On the web pages of Forbes, one may find all kinds of rankings, such as the world's most powerful people, the world's richest people, the highest-earning tennis players, and so on and so forth. Herewith, we study a specific kind—sports ranking systems in which players' scores and/or prize money are accrued based on their performances in different matches. By investigating 40 data samples which span 12 different sports, we find that the distributions of scores and/or prize money follow universal power laws, with exponents nearly identical for most sports. In order to understand the origin of this universal scaling we focus on the tennis ranking systems. By checking the data we find that, for any pair of players, the probability that the higher-ranked player tops the lower-ranked opponent is proportional to the rank difference between the pair. Such a dependence can be well fitted to a sigmoidal function. By using this feature, we propose a simple toy model which can simulate the competition of players in different matches. The simulations yield results consistent with the empirical findings. Extensive simulation studies indicate that the model is quite robust with respect to the modifications of some parameters.

  4. Producing titanium by reducing TiCl2-MgCl2 mixed salt with magnesium in the molten state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwa, Akio; Takaya, Satoru

    2005-10-01

    In the Kroll process for titanium sponge metal production, TiCl4 gas is introduced and reacted with molten magnesium metal via a gas-liquid reduction reaction. The magnesium reduction reaction of the mixed salt of TiCl2-MgCl2 via a liquid-liquid reaction has been investigated and the results are reported in this article. First, the molten mixed salt was synthesized through chlorination reaction of solid titanium sponge placed in molten MgCl2 salt, while TiCl4 gas was bubbled at around 1,173K. Then, the TiCl2-MgCl2 was reacted with molten magnesium at similar temperatures. This proposed magnesium reduction reaction of the TiCl2-MgCl2 in the molten state may be more efficient, easier to control, and suitable for realizing continuous titanium production.

  5. Ranking Theory and Conditional Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard-Olsen, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Ranking theory is a formal epistemology that has been developed in over 600 pages in Spohn's recent book The Laws of Belief, which aims to provide a normative account of the dynamics of beliefs that presents an alternative to current probabilistic approaches. It has long been received in the AI community, but it has not yet found application in experimental psychology. The purpose of this paper is to derive clear, quantitative predictions by exploiting a parallel between ranking theory and a statistical model called logistic regression. This approach is illustrated by the development of a model for the conditional inference task using Spohn's (2013) ranking theoretic approach to conditionals.

  6. Long-term operation of microbial electrosynthesis cell reducing CO2 to multi-carbon chemicals with a mixed culture avoiding methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, Suman; Yuliasni, Rustiana; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J N; Strik, David P B T B; Pant, Deepak

    2017-02-01

    In microbial electrosynthesis (MES), CO2 can be reduced preferably to multi-carbon chemicals by a biocathode-based process which uses electrochemically active bacteria as catalysts. A mixed anaerobic consortium from biological origin typically produces methane from CO2 reduction which circumvents production of multi-carbon compounds. This study aimed to develop a stable and robust CO2 reducing biocathode from a mixed culture inoculum avoiding the methane generation. An effective approach was demonstrated based on (i) an enrichment procedure involving inoculum pre-treatment and several culture transfers in H2:CO2 media, (ii) a transfer from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth and (iii) a sequential batch operation. Biomass growth and gradual acclimation to CO2 electro-reduction accomplished a maximum acetate production rate of 400mgLcatholyte(-1)d(-1) at -1V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Methane was never detected in more than 300days of operation. Accumulation of acetate up to 7-10gL(-1) was repeatedly attained by supplying (80:20) CO2:N2 mixture at -0.9 to -1V (vs. Ag/AgCl). In addition, ethanol and butyrate were also produced from CO2 reduction. Thus, a robust CO2 reducing biocathode can be developed from a mixed culture avoiding methane generation by adopting the specific culture enrichment and operation procedures without the direct addition of chemical inhibitor.

  7. Influence Analysis of Ranking Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Wai-Yin; Chan, Wai

    2002-01-01

    Developed diagnostic measures to identify observations in Thurstonian models for ranking data that unduly influence parameter estimates obtained by the partition maximum likelihood approach of W. Chan and P. Bender (1998). (SLD)

  8. Influence Analysis of Ranking Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Wai-Yin; Chan, Wai

    2002-01-01

    Developed diagnostic measures to identify observations in Thurstonian models for ranking data that unduly influence parameter estimates obtained by the partition maximum likelihood approach of W. Chan and P. Bender (1998). (SLD)

  9. Dimension Reduction for Object Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamishima, Toshihiro; Akaho, Shotaro

    Ordered lists of objects are widely used as representational forms. Such ordered objects include Web search results and bestseller lists. Techniques for processing such ordinal data are being developed, particularly methods for an object ranking task: i.e., learning functions used to sort objects from sample orders. In this article, we propose two dimension reduction methods specifically designed to improve prediction performance in an object ranking task.

  10. Label Ranking Algorithms: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembu, Shankar; Gärtner, Thomas

    Label ranking is a complex prediction task where the goal is to map instances to a total order over a finite set of predefined labels. An interesting aspect of this problem is that it subsumes several supervised learning problems, such as multiclass prediction, multilabel classification, and hierarchical classification. Unsurprisingly, there exists a plethora of label ranking algorithms in the literature due, in part, to this versatile nature of the problem. In this paper, we survey these algorithms.

  11. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-04-01

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features.

  12. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  13. Can Mixed-Species Groups Reduce Individual Parasite Load? A Field Test with Two Closely Related Poeciliid Fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta)

    PubMed Central

    Dargent, Felipe; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Scott, Marilyn E.; Ramnarine, Indar; Fussmann, Gregor F.

    2013-01-01

    Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta) and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp.) in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size. PMID:23437237

  14. Can mixed-species groups reduce individual parasite load? A field test with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta).

    PubMed

    Dargent, Felipe; Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Scott, Marilyn E; Ramnarine, Indar; Fussmann, Gregor F

    2013-01-01

    Predation and parasitism are two of the most important sources of mortality in nature. By forming groups, individuals can gain protection against predators but may increase their risk of being infected with contagious parasites. Animals might resolve this conflict by forming mixed-species groups thereby reducing the costs associated with parasites through a relative decrease in available hosts. We tested this hypothesis in a system with two closely related poeciliid fishes (Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia picta) and their host-specific monogenean ectoparasites (Gyrodactylus spp.) in Trinidad. Fish from three different rivers were sampled from single and mixed-species groups, measured and scanned for Gyrodactylus. The presence and abundance of Gyrodactylus were lower when fish of both species were part of mixed-species groups relative to single-species groups. This is consistent with the hypothesis that mixed-species groups provide a level of protection against contagious parasites. We discuss the importance of potentially confounding factors such as salinity and individual fish size.

  15. Scaling Laws for Reduced-Scale Tests of Pulse Jet Mixing Systems in Non-Newtonian Slurries: Gas Retention and Release Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Meyer, Perry A.; Kurath, Dean E.; Barnes, Steven M.

    2006-03-02

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction at the Hanford Site will use pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology for mixing and gas retention control applications in tanks expected to contain waste slurries exhibiting a non-Newtonian rheology. This paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies performed to establish the methodology to perform reduced-scale gas retention and release tests with PJM systems in non-Newtonian fluids with gas generation. The technical basis for scaled testing with unsteady jet mixing systems in gas-generating non-Newtonian fluids is presented in the form of a bubble migration model that accounts for the gas generation rate, the average bubble rise velocity, and the geometry of the vessel. Scaling laws developed from the model were validated with gas holdup and release tests conducted at three scales: large scale, 1/4 scale, and 1/9 scale. Experiments were conducted with two non-Newtonian simulants with in-situ gas generation by decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The data were compared non-dimensionally, and the important scale laws were examined. From these results, scaling laws are developed which allow the design of mixing systems at a reduced scale.

  16. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes. PMID:26553630

  17. Ranking structures and rank-rank correlations of countries: The FIFA and UEFA cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Cloots, Rudi; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2014-04-01

    Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures in both cases.

  18. Reduction of Sn-Bearing Iron Concentrate with Mixed H2/CO Gas for Preparation of Sn-Enriched Direct Reduced Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhixiong; Li, Guanghui; Wen, Peidan; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The development of manufacturing technology of Sn-bearing stainless steel inspires a novel concept for using Sn-bearing complex iron ore via reduction with mixed H2/CO gas to prepare Sn-enriched direct reduced iron (DRI). The thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process confirms the easy reduction of stannic oxide to metallic tin and the rigorous conditions for volatilizing SnO. Although the removal of tin is feasible by reduction of the pellet at 1223 K (950 °C) with mixed gas of 5 vol pct H2, 28.5 vol pct CO, and 66.5 vol pct CO2 (CO/(CO + CO2) = 30 pct), it is necessary that the pellet be further reduced for preparing DRI. In contrast, maintaining Sn in the metallic pellet is demonstrated to be a promising way to effectively use the ore. It is indicated that only 5.5 pct of Sn is volatilized when the pellet is reduced at 1223 K (950 °C) for 30 minutes with the mixed gas of 50 vol pct H2, 50 vol pct CO (CO/(CO + CO2) = 100 pct). A metallic pellet (Sn-bearing DRI) with Sn content of 0.293 pct, Fe metallization of 93.5 pct, and total iron content of 88.2 pct is prepared as a raw material for producing Sn-bearing stainless steel. The reduced tin in the Sn-bearing DRI either combines with metallic iron to form Sn-Fe alloy or it remains intact.

  19. Reduction of Sn-Bearing Iron Concentrate with Mixed H2/CO Gas for Preparation of Sn-Enriched Direct Reduced Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhixiong; Li, Guanghui; Wen, Peidan; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    2017-06-01

    The development of manufacturing technology of Sn-bearing stainless steel inspires a novel concept for using Sn-bearing complex iron ore via reduction with mixed H2/CO gas to prepare Sn-enriched direct reduced iron (DRI). The thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process confirms the easy reduction of stannic oxide to metallic tin and the rigorous conditions for volatilizing SnO. Although the removal of tin is feasible by reduction of the pellet at 1223 K (950 °C) with mixed gas of 5 vol pct H2, 28.5 vol pct CO, and 66.5 vol pct CO2 (CO/(CO + CO2) = 30 pct), it is necessary that the pellet be further reduced for preparing DRI. In contrast, maintaining Sn in the metallic pellet is demonstrated to be a promising way to effectively use the ore. It is indicated that only 5.5 pct of Sn is volatilized when the pellet is reduced at 1223 K (950 °C) for 30 minutes with the mixed gas of 50 vol pct H2, 50 vol pct CO (CO/(CO + CO2) = 100 pct). A metallic pellet (Sn-bearing DRI) with Sn content of 0.293 pct, Fe metallization of 93.5 pct, and total iron content of 88.2 pct is prepared as a raw material for producing Sn-bearing stainless steel. The reduced tin in the Sn-bearing DRI either combines with metallic iron to form Sn-Fe alloy or it remains intact.

  20. Wavelength conversion for polarization multiplexing signal using four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier with reduced polarization crosstalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Ming; Wan, Qiuzhen; Zheng, Zhiwei

    2016-06-01

    We investigated wavelength conversion for polarization multiplexing signal based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier. We found that the converted signals endured crosstalk among the pol-muxed channels. We also proposed and demonstrated a wavelength conversion scheme with polarization diversity technique. By utilizing the technique, the converted polarization multiplexing signal can be received without crosstalk. In addition, the performance of the proposed system is numerically analyzed with respect to the bit error rate of the converted signal, different frequency spacing between signal and pump and modulated data rate. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme may be a promising method to realize transparent wavelength conversion for polarization multiplexing signals.

  1. Reducing the Strength: a mixed methods evaluation of alcohol retailers' willingness to voluntarily reduce the availability of low cost, high strength beers and ciders in two UK local authorities.

    PubMed

    Sumpter, Colin; McGill, Elizabeth; Dickie, Esther; Champo, Enes; Romeri, Ester; Egan, Matt

    2016-05-26

    Reducing the Strength is an increasingly popular intervention in which local authorities ask retailers to stop selling 'super-strength' beers and ciders. The intervention cannot affect alcohol availability, nor consumption, unless retailers participate. In this paper, we ask whether and why retailers choose or refuse to self-impose restrictions on alcohol sales in this way. Mixed method assessment of retailers' participation in Reducing the Strength in two London (UK) local authorities. Compliance rates and the cheapest available unit of alcohol at each store were assessed. Qualitative interviews with retailer managers and staff (n = 39) explored attitudes towards the intervention and perceptions of its impacts. Shops selling super-strength across both areas fell from 78 to 25 (18 % of all off-licences). The median price of the cheapest unit of alcohol available across all retailers increased from £0.29 to £0.33 and in shops that participated in Reducing the Strength it rose from £0.33 to £0.43. The project received a mixed response from retailers. Retailers said they participated to deter disruptive customers, reduce neighbourhood disruptions and to maintain a good relationship with the local authority. Reducing the Strength participants and non-participants expressed concern about its perceived financial impact due to customers shopping elsewhere for super-strength. Some felt that customers' ability to circumvent the intervention would limit its effectiveness and that a larger scale compulsory approach would be more effective. Reducing the Strength can achieve high rates of voluntary compliance, reduce availability of super-strength and raise the price of the cheapest available unit of alcohol in participating shops. Questions remain over the extent to which voluntary interventions of this type can achieve wider social or health goals if non-participating shops attract customers from those who participate.

  2. Ranking species in mutualistic networks.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2015-02-02

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm--similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity--here we propose a method which--by exploiting their nested architecture--allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.

  3. Ranking species in mutualistic networks

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic “nested” structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm –similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity– here we propose a method which –by exploiting their nested architecture– allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made. PMID:25640575

  4. What is the skill of ocean tracers in reducing uncertainties about ocean diapycnal mixing and projections of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, Marlos; Urban, Nathan M.; Tonkonojenkov, Roman; Haran, Murali; Schmittner, Andreas; Keller, Klaus

    2010-12-01

    Current projections of the oceanic response to anthropogenic climate forcings are uncertain. Two key sources of these uncertainties are (1) structural errors in current Earth system models and (2) imperfect knowledge of model parameters. Ocean tracer observations have the potential to reduce these uncertainties. Previous studies typically consider each tracer separately, neglect potentially important statistical properties of the system, or use methods that impose rather daunting computational demands. Here we extend and improve upon a recently developed approach using horizontally averaged vertical profiles of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11), radiocarbon (Δ14C), and temperature (T) observations to reduce model parametric and structural uncertainties. Our method estimates a joint probability density function, which considers cross-tracer correlations and spatial autocorrelations of the errors. We illustrate this method by estimating two model parameters related to the vertical diffusivity, the background vertical diffusivity, and the upper Southern Ocean mixing. We show that enhancing the upper Southern Ocean mixing in the model improves the representations of ocean tracers and improves the hindcasts of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The most probable value of the background vertical diffusivity in the pelagic pycnocline is between 0.1 and 0.2 cm2 s-1. According to the statistical method, observations of Δ14C reduce the uncertainty about the background vertical diffusivity mostly followed by CFC-11 and T. Using all three tracers jointly reduces the model uncertainty by 40%, more than each tracer individually. Given several important caveats, we illustrate how the reduced model parametric uncertainty improves probabilistic projections of the AMOC.

  5. Spectroscopic and Kinetic Investigation of the Fully Reduced and Mixed Valence States of ba3-Cytochrome c Oxidase from Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Koutsoupakis, Constantinos; Soulimane, Tewfik; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2012-01-01

    The complete understanding of a molecular mechanism of action requires the thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of different states and intermediates. Cytochrome c oxidase reduces O2 to H2O, a reaction coupled to proton translocation across the membrane. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake a thorough characterization of the reduced form of the enzyme and the determination of the electron transfer processes and pathways between the redox-active centers. In this study Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy have been applied to study the fully reduced and mixed valence states of cytochrome ba3 from Thermus thermophilus. We used as probe carbon monoxide (CO) to characterize both thermodynamically and kinetically the cytochrome ba3-CO complex in the 5.25–10.10 pH/pD range and to study the reverse intramolecular electron transfer initiated by the photolysis of CO in the two-electron reduced form. The time-resolved step-scan FTIR data revealed no pH/pD dependence in both the decay of the transient CuB1+-CO complex and rebinding to heme a3 rates, suggesting that no structural change takes place in the vicinity of the binuclear center. Surprisingly, photodissociation of CO from the mixed valence form of the enzyme does not lead to reverse electron transfer from the reduced heme a3 to the oxidized low-spin heme b, as observed in all the other aa3 and bo3 oxidases previously examined. The heme b-heme a3 electron transfer is guaranteed, and therefore, there is no need for structural rearrangements and complex synchronized cooperativities. Comparison among the available structures of ba3- and aa3-cytochrome c oxidases identifies possible active pathways involved in the electron transfer processes and key structural elements that contribute to the different behavior observed in cytochrome ba3. PMID:22927441

  6. Crystal Structures of the Reduced, Sulfenic Acid, and Mixed Disulfide Forms of SarZ, a Redox Active Global Regulator in Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Poor, Catherine B.; Chen, Peng R.; Duguid, Erica; Rice, Phoebe A.; He, Chuan

    2010-01-20

    SarZ is a global transcriptional regulator that uses a single cysteine residue, Cys{sup 13}, to sense peroxide stress and control metabolic switching and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. SarZ belongs to the single-cysteine class of OhrR-MgrA proteins that play key roles in oxidative resistance and virulence regulation in various bacteria. We present the crystal structures of the reduced form, sulfenic acid form, and mixed disulfide form of SarZ. Both the sulfenic acid and mixed disulfide forms are structurally characterized for the first time for this class of proteins. The Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid modification is stabilized through two hydrogen bonds with surrounding residues, and the overall DNA-binding conformation is retained. A further reaction of the Cys{sup 13} sulfenic acid with an external thiol leads to formation of a mixed disulfide bond, which results in an allosteric change in the DNA-binding domains, disrupting DNA binding. Thus, the crystal structures of SarZ in three different states provide molecular level pictures delineating the mechanism by which this class of redox active regulators undergoes activation. These structures help to understand redox-mediated virulence regulation in S. aureus and activation of the MarR family proteins in general.

  7. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model. Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without<440-nm wavelengths, FB50 (half the irradiance of filtered blue), mixed (filtered 50% blue and 50% green), and green (490-590 nm) LED irradiation for 24h. The effects of phototherapy are expressed as ratios of serum total (TB) and unbound (UB) bilirubin before and after exposure to each LED. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured by HPLC before and after exposure to each LED to determine photo-oxidative stress. Values < 1.00 indicate effective phototherapy. The ratios of TB and UB were decreased to 0.85, 0.89, 1.07, 0.90, and 1.04, and 0.85, 0.94, 0.93, 0.89, and 1.09 after exposure to blue, filtered blue, FB50, and filtered blue mixed with green LED, respectively. In contrast, urinary 8-OHdG increased to 2.03, 1.25, 0.96, 1.36, 1.31, and 1.23 after exposure to blue, filtered blue, FB50, mixed, green LED, and control, indicating side-effects (> 1.00), respectively. Blue plus green phototherapy is as effective as blue phototherapy and it attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Combined blue and green spectra might be effective against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Globalization of College and University Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, accountability, and benchmarking, university rankings have achieved a kind of iconic status. The major ones--the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU, or the "Shanghai rankings"), the QS (Quacquarelli Symonds Limited) World University Rankings, and the "Times Higher Education" World…

  9. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. PMID:23157331

  10. The Globalization of College and University Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    In the era of globalization, accountability, and benchmarking, university rankings have achieved a kind of iconic status. The major ones--the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU, or the "Shanghai rankings"), the QS (Quacquarelli Symonds Limited) World University Rankings, and the "Times Higher Education" World…

  11. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  12. Mixed-valence polyoxometalate clusters. III. Vibronic problem for the 2-electron reduced heteropoly blue with the Keggin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrás-Almenar, J. J.; Clemente, J. M.; Coronado, E.; Tsukerblat, B. S.

    1995-06-01

    A general approach to the vibronic problem of delocalized electronic pairs in mixed-valence compounds is developed and applied to understand the ways of electron delocalization in dodecanuclear polyoxometalate clusters containing two moving electrons. The interplay between electronic and vibronic interactions is examined. The electronic spectrum is shown to consist of two spin triplets 3T 1 and 3T 2 and three spin singlets 1A 1, 1E and 1T 2 levels determined by the double-transfer processes (parameter P). Jahn-Teller and pseudo-Jahn-Teller problems ( 3T1 + 3T2) ⊗ ( e + t2) and ( 1A1 + 1E + 1T2) ⊗ ( e + t2) have been considered in the framework of the Piepho-Krausz-Schatz model dealing with the only vibronic parameter. Several kinds of spatial electronic distribution have been found corresponding to the stable points of the energy surfaces. For spin-triplet states, potential surfaces contain six minima in e space corresponding to partially delocalized electronic pairs over four sides of the T d structure (limiting case of weak coupling), or delocalized over two opposite sides (limiting case of strong coupling). The former situation restricts electron delocalization to two of the three metal octahedra of each M 3O 12 triad in such a way that each electron moves over a tetrameric unit in which the metal sites are alternatively sharing edges and corners. In the t 2 space the electronic pair can be either delocalized over three sides, giving rise to a trigonal-type distortion of the cluster and a partial electron delocalization over two opposite M 3O 12 triads (four trigonal minima in the case of strong transfer or relatively weak vibronic interaction), or be completely localized (case of strong vibronic coupling). For spin-singlet states the system possesses a stable point in the high-symmetrical nuclear configuration, corresponding to a full delocalization of the electronic pairs in the Keggin cluster. The influence of vibronic interaction on the nature of the

  13. Money and happiness: rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Christopher J; Brown, Gordon D A; Moore, Simon C

    2010-04-01

    Does money buy happiness, or does happiness come indirectly from the higher rank in society that money brings? We tested a rank-income hypothesis, according to which people gain utility from the ranked position of their income within a comparison group. The rank hypothesis contrasts with traditional reference-income hypotheses, which suggest that utility from income depends on comparison to a social reference-group norm. We found that the ranked position of an individual's income predicts general life satisfaction, whereas absolute income and reference income have no effect. Furthermore, individuals weight upward comparisons more heavily than downward comparisons. According to the rank hypothesis, income and utility are not directly linked: Increasing an individual's income will increase his or her utility only if ranked position also increases and will necessarily reduce the utility of others who will lose rank.

  14. Mixed evidence for reduced local adaptation in wild salmon resulting from interbreeding with escaped farmed salmon: complexities in hybrid fitness

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Cook, Adam M; Eddington, James D; Bentzen, Paul; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Interbreeding between artificially-selected and wild organisms can have negative fitness consequences for the latter. In the Northwest Atlantic, farmed Atlantic salmon recurrently escape into the wild and enter rivers where small, declining populations of wild salmon breed. Most farmed salmon in the region derive from an ancestral source population that occupies a nonacidified river (pH 6.0–6.5). Yet many wild populations with which escaped farmed salmon might interbreed inhabit acidified rivers (pH 4.6–5.2). Using common garden experimentation, and examining two early-life history stages across two generations of interbreeding, we showed that wild salmon populations inhabiting acidified rivers had higher survival at acidified pH than farmed salmon or F1 farmed-wild hybrids. In contrast, however, there was limited evidence for reduced performance in backcrosses, and F2 farmed-wild hybrids performed better or equally well to wild salmon. Wild salmon also survived or grew better at nonacidified than acidified pH, and wild and farmed salmon survived equally well at nonacidified pH. Thus, for acid tolerance and the stages examined, we found some evidence both for and against the theory that repeated farmed-wild interbreeding may reduce adaptive genetic variation in the wild and thereby negatively affect the persistence of depleted wild populations. PMID:25567731

  15. Art-based occupation group reduces parent anxiety in the neonatal intensive care unit: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Mouradian, Laurie E; DeGrace, Beth W; Thompson, David M

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether an art-based occupation group using scrapbooking in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) would reduce parent stress, operationalized as anxiety. We also wanted to understand the parents' lived experience of the group. Forty parents from a Level 3 NICU in a large metropolitan hospital participated. We administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory preactivity and postactivity along with a brief interview. The decline in parents' mean state anxiety (12.7 points, SD = 11.8; p < .0001) was clinically significant. The decline in mean trait anxiety (2.6 points, SD = 5.2; p = .0036) was statistically significant but not clinically meaningful. Parents said that participation offered distraction and engagement, pleasure, relaxation, a sense of hope, and an opportunity to share. An art-based occupation group using scrapbooking was an effective brief intervention to reduce parent anxiety in the neonatal intensive care unit; parent interviews suggested that participation has broad clinical implications for parent well-being. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  16. Re-Ranking Algorithms for Name Tagging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    incorporating information from relation extraction, event extraction, and coreference. We evaluate three state- of-the-art re-ranking algorithms ( MaxEnt - Rank...select the best analysis. Various supervised learn- ing algorithms have been adapted to the task of re- ranking for NLP systems, such as MaxEnt -Rank... MaxEnt -Rank, SVMRank and a new algorithm, p-Norm Push Ranking – for this problem, and show how an approach based on multi-stage re-ranking can

  17. Time evolution of Wikipedia network ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Frahm, Klaus M.; Benczúr, András; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-12-01

    We study the time evolution of ranking and spectral properties of the Google matrix of English Wikipedia hyperlink network during years 2003-2011. The statistical properties of ranking of Wikipedia articles via PageRank and CheiRank probabilities, as well as the matrix spectrum, are shown to be stabilized for 2007-2011. A special emphasis is done on ranking of Wikipedia personalities and universities. We show that PageRank selection is dominated by politicians while 2DRank, which combines PageRank and CheiRank, gives more accent on personalities of arts. The Wikipedia PageRank of universities recovers 80% of top universities of Shanghai ranking during the considered time period.

  18. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction. PMID:27583683

  19. Compressive Sensing via Nonlocal Smoothed Rank Function.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ya-Ru; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Xi-Le

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory asserts that we can reconstruct signals and images with only a small number of samples or measurements. Recent works exploiting the nonlocal similarity have led to better results in various CS studies. To better exploit the nonlocal similarity, in this paper, we propose a non-convex smoothed rank function based model for CS image reconstruction. We also propose an efficient alternating minimization method to solve the proposed model, which reduces a difficult and coupled problem to two tractable subproblems. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method performs better than several existing state-of-the-art CS methods for image reconstruction.

  20. Let Us Rank Journalism Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unlike law, business, and medical schools, as well as universities in general, journalism schools and journalism programs have rarely been ranked. Publishers such as "U.S. News & World Report," "Forbes," "Bloomberg Businessweek," and "Washington Monthly" do not pay them much mind. What is the best…

  1. Let Us Rank Journalism Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Unlike law, business, and medical schools, as well as universities in general, journalism schools and journalism programs have rarely been ranked. Publishers such as "U.S. News & World Report," "Forbes," "Bloomberg Businessweek," and "Washington Monthly" do not pay them much mind. What is the best…

  2. Rank distributions: Frequency vs. magnitude.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    We examine the relationship between two different types of ranked data, frequencies and magnitudes. We consider data that can be sorted out either way, through numbers of occurrences or size of the measures, as it is the case, say, of moon craters, earthquakes, billionaires, etc. We indicate that these two types of distributions are functional inverses of each other, and specify this link, first in terms of the assumed parent probability distribution that generates the data samples, and then in terms of an analog (deterministic) nonlinear iterated map that reproduces them. For the particular case of hyperbolic decay with rank the distributions are identical, that is, the classical Zipf plot, a pure power law. But their difference is largest when one displays logarithmic decay and its counterpart shows the inverse exponential decay, as it is the case of Benford law, or viceversa. For all intermediate decay rates generic differences appear not only between the power-law exponents for the midway rank decline but also for small and large rank. We extend the theoretical framework to include thermodynamic and statistical-mechanical concepts, such as entropies and configuration.

  3. Mixed yeasts inocula for simultaneous production of SCP and treatment of vinasse to reduce soil and fresh water pollution.

    PubMed

    Pires, Josiane F; Ferreira, Gustavo M R; Reis, Kelly C; Schwan, Rosane F; Silva, Cristina F

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the use of vinasse as a substrate for microbial biomass production and its disposal impact on the environment. After grown in vinasse, the microbial biomass (SCP) of two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CCMA 0137 and CCMA 0188, showed high levels of essential amino acids (3.78%), varying levels of chemical elements, and low nucleic acid content (2.38%), i. e, good characteristics to food supplemements. Following biological treatment, spent vinasse biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased to 51.56 and 29.29%, respectively. Cultivation with S. cerevisiae significantly reduced short term phytotoxicity and toxicity on soil microbiota of spent vinasse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zeolite Combined with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Mixed with Agricultural Slurries Reduces Carbon Losses in Runoff from Grassed Soil Boxes.

    PubMed

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Fenton, O; Healy, M G

    2016-11-01

    Carbon (C) losses from agricultural soils to surface waters can migrate through water treatment plants and result in the formation of disinfection by-products, which are potentially harmful to human health. This study aimed to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic C losses in runoff after application of dairy slurry, pig slurry, or milk house wash water (MWW) to land and to mitigate these losses through coamendment of the slurries with zeolite (2.36-3.35 mm clinoptilolite) and liquid polyaluminum chloride (PAC) (10% AlO) for dairy and pig slurries or liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) (8% AlO) for MWW. Four treatments under repeated 30-min simulated rainfall events (9.6 mm h) were examined in a laboratory study using grassed soil runoff boxes (0.225 m wide, 1 m long; 10% slope): control soil, unamended slurries, PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (13.3 and 11.7 kg t, respectively), alum-amended MWW (3.2 kg t), combined zeolite and PAC-amended dairy (160 and 13.3 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively) and pig slurries (158 and 11.7 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively), and combined zeolite and alum-amended MWW (72 and 3.2 kg t zeolite and alum, respectively). The unamended and amended slurries were applied at net rates of 31, 34, and 50 t ha for pig and dairy slurries and MWW, respectively. Significant reductions of TOC in runoff compared with unamended slurries were measured for PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (52 and 56%, respectively) but not for alum-amended MWW. Dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW significantly reduced TOC in runoff compared with alum amendment only. We conclude that use of PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries and dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW, although effective, may not be economically viable to reduce TOC losses from organic slurries given the relatively low amounts of TOC measured in runoff from unamended slurries compared with the amounts applied.

  5. Ranking online quality and reputation via the user activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Lei; Cheng, Can; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    How to design an accurate algorithm for ranking the object quality and user reputation is of importance for online rating systems. In this paper we present an improved iterative algorithm for online ranking object quality and user reputation in terms of the user degree (IRUA), where the user's reputation is measured by his/her rating vector, the corresponding objects' quality vector and the user degree. The experimental results for the empirical networks show that the AUC values of the IRUA algorithm can reach 0.9065 and 0.8705 in Movielens and Netflix data sets, respectively, which is better than the results generated by the traditional iterative ranking methods. Meanwhile, the results for the synthetic networks indicate that user degree should be considered in real rating systems due to users' rating behaviors. Moreover, we find that enhancing or reducing the influences of the large-degree users could produce more accurate reputation ranking lists.

  6. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms. PMID:28293256

  7. Ranking Support Vector Machine with Kernel Approximation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Li, Rongchun; Dou, Yong; Liang, Zhengfa; Lv, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Learning to rank algorithm has become important in recent years due to its successful application in information retrieval, recommender system, and computational biology, and so forth. Ranking support vector machine (RankSVM) is one of the state-of-art ranking models and has been favorably used. Nonlinear RankSVM (RankSVM with nonlinear kernels) can give higher accuracy than linear RankSVM (RankSVM with a linear kernel) for complex nonlinear ranking problem. However, the learning methods for nonlinear RankSVM are still time-consuming because of the calculation of kernel matrix. In this paper, we propose a fast ranking algorithm based on kernel approximation to avoid computing the kernel matrix. We explore two types of kernel approximation methods, namely, the Nyström method and random Fourier features. Primal truncated Newton method is used to optimize the pairwise L2-loss (squared Hinge-loss) objective function of the ranking model after the nonlinear kernel approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method gets a much faster training speed than kernel RankSVM and achieves comparable or better performance over state-of-the-art ranking algorithms.

  8. Twisted Yangians of small rank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay, Nicolas; Regelskis, Vidas; Wendlandt, Curtis

    2016-04-01

    We study quantized enveloping algebras called twisted Yangians associated with the symmetric pairs of types CI, BDI, and DIII (in Cartan's classification) when the rank is small. We establish isomorphisms between these twisted Yangians and the well known Olshanskii's twisted Yangians of types AI and AII, and also with the Molev-Ragoucy reflection algebras associated with symmetric pairs of type AIII. We also construct isomorphisms with twisted Yangians in Drinfeld's original presentation.

  9. Functional Multiplex PageRank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-10-01

    Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.

  10. Organic acid blend with pure botanical product treatment reduces Escherichia coli and Salmonella populations in pure culture and in in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Ester; Bari, Riccardo; Piva, Andrea; Edrington, Tom S; Pitta, Dipti W; Pinchak, William E; Nisbet, David J; Callaway, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne pathogenic bacteria can live in the intestinal tract of food animals and can be transmitted to humans via food or indirectly through animal or fecal contact. Organic acid blend products have been used as nonantibiotic modifiers of the gastrointestinal fermentation of food animals to improve growth performance efficiency. However, the impact of these organic acid products on the microbial population, including foodborne pathogens, remains unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effects of a commercial organic acid and botanical blend product (OABP) on populations of the foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. Pure cultures (2×10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) of each pathogen were added to tubes that contained water-solubilized OABP added at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10% (vol/vol; n=3). Water-solubilized OABP reduced (p<0.05) the growth rate and final populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in pure culture at concentrations >2%. E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were added (2×10(5) and 3×10(6) CFU/mL, respectively) to in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentations that contained water-solubilized OABP at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 5, and 10% (vol/vol; n=3) that were incubated for 24 h. OABP addition reduced (p<0.05) final populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in the ruminal fluid at concentrations ≥5%. The acetate-to-propionate ratios from the in vitro fermentations were reduced (p<0.05) by OABP treatment ≥5%. Treatments to reduce foodborne pathogens must be economically feasible to implement, and results indicate that organic acid products, such as OABP, can enhance animal growth efficiency and can be used to reduce populations of pathogenic bacteria.

  11. SibRank: Signed bipartite network analysis for neighbor-based collaborative ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Bita; Haratizadeh, Saman

    2016-09-01

    Collaborative ranking is an emerging field of recommender systems that utilizes users' preference data rather than rating values. Unfortunately, neighbor-based collaborative ranking has gained little attention despite its more flexibility and justifiability. This paper proposes a novel framework, called SibRank that seeks to improve the state of the art neighbor-based collaborative ranking methods. SibRank represents users' preferences as a signed bipartite network, and finds similar users, through a novel personalized ranking algorithm in signed networks.

  12. Testing for Correlation between Two Journal Ranking Methods: A Comparison of Citation Rankings and Expert Opinion Rankings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Robert Lowell, Jr.

    This study tests for correlation between two journal ranking methods--citation rankings and expert opinion surveys. Political science professors from four major universities were asked to rank a list of the 20 most highly cited political science journals. Citation data were taken from the "Social Sciences Citation Index Journal Citation…

  13. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods.

  14. Robust Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiarong; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the intrinsic low rank structure of some datasets has been extensively exploited to reduce dimensionality, remove noise and complete the missing entries. As a well-known technique for dimensionality reduction and data compression, Generalized Low Rank Approximations of Matrices (GLRAM) claims its superiority on computation time and compression ratio over the SVD. However, GLRAM is very sensitive to sparse large noise or outliers and its robust version does not have been explored or solved yet. To address this problem, this paper proposes a robust method for GLRAM, named Robust GLRAM (RGLRAM). We first formulate RGLRAM as an l1-norm optimization problem which minimizes the l1-norm of the approximation errors. Secondly, we apply the technique of Augmented Lagrange Multipliers (ALM) to solve this l1-norm minimization problem and derive a corresponding iterative scheme. Then the weak convergence of the proposed algorithm is discussed under mild conditions. Next, we investigate a special case of RGLRAM and extend RGLRAM to a general tensor case. Finally, the extensive experiments on synthetic data show that it is possible for RGLRAM to exactly recover both the low rank and the sparse components while it may be difficult for previous state-of-the-art algorithms. We also discuss three issues on RGLRAM: the sensitivity to initialization, the generalization ability and the relationship between the running time and the size/number of matrices. Moreover, the experimental results on images of faces with large corruptions illustrate that RGLRAM obtains the best denoising and compression performance than other methods. PMID:26367116

  15. Class Rank Weighs Down True Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining class rank does not help students achieve more or reach higher levels of proficiency. Evidence indicates ranking students may diminish students' motivation. High school educators argue that they are compelled to rank-order graduating students because selective colleges and universities require information about…

  16. Rank Ordering or Judge-Awarded Ratings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    Rank ordering examinees is an easier task for judges than is awarding numerical ratings. A measurement model for rankings based on Rasch's objectivity axioms provides linear, sample-independent and judge-independent measures. Estimates of examinee measures are obtained from the data set of rankings, along with standard errors and fit statistics.…

  17. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of...

  18. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of...

  19. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Final ranking. 1214.1105 Section 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a combination of...

  1. A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

  2. The Privilege of Ranking: Google Plays Ball.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of ranking systems used in various settings, including college football and academic admissions, focuses on the Google search engine. Explains the PageRank mathematical formula that scores Web pages by connecting the number of links; limitations, including authenticity and accuracy of ranked Web pages; relevancy; adjusting algorithms;…

  3. A Comprehensive Analysis of Marketing Journal Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Michelle D.; Lewis, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to offer a comprehensive assessment of journal standings in Marketing from two perspectives. The discipline perspective of rankings is obtained from a collection of published journal ranking studies during the past 15 years. The studies in the published ranking stream are assessed for reliability by examining internal…

  4. The Academic Ranking of World Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Nian Cai; Cheng, Ying

    2005-01-01

    Shanghai Jiao Tong University has published on the Internet an Academic Ranking of World Universities that has attracted worldwide attention. Institutions are ranked according to academic or research performance and ranking indicators include major international awards, highly cited researchers in important fields, articles published in selected…

  5. Synthesis, modeling, and pharmacological evaluation of UMB 425, a mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist opioid analgesic with reduced tolerance liabilities.

    PubMed

    Healy, Jason R; Bezawada, Padmavani; Shim, Jihyun; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; MacKerell, Alexander D; Coop, Andrew; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2013-09-18

    Opioid narcotics are used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain and primarily exert their analgesic effects through μ receptors. Although traditional μ agonists can cause undesired side effects, including tolerance, addition of δ antagonists can attenuate said side effects. Herein, we report 4a,9-dihydroxy-7a-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-7(7aH)-one (UMB 425) a 5,14-bridged morphinan-based orvinol precursor synthesized from thebaine. Although UMB 425 lacks δ-specific motifs, conformationally sampled pharmacophore models for μ and δ receptors predict it to have efficacy similar to morphine at μ receptors and similar to naltrexone at δ receptors, due to the compound sampling conformations in which the hydroxyl moiety interacts with the receptors similar to orvinols. As predicted, UMB 425 exhibits a mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist profile as determined in receptor binding and [(35)S]GTPγS functional assays in CHO cells. In vivo studies in mice show that UMB 425 displays potent antinociception in the hot plate and tail-flick assays. The antinociceptive effects of UMB 425 are blocked by naloxone, but not by the κ-selective antagonist norbinaltorphimine. During a 6-day tolerance paradigm, UMB 425 maintains significantly greater antinociception compared to morphine. These studies thus indicate that, even in the absence of δ-specific motifs fused to the C-ring, UMB 425 has mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist properties in vitro that translate to reduced tolerance liabilities in vivo.

  6. Synthesis, Modeling, and Pharmacological Evaluation of UMB 425, a Mixed μ Agonist/δ Antagonist Opioid Analgesic with Reduced Tolerance Liabilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Opioid narcotics are used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain and primarily exert their analgesic effects through μ receptors. Although traditional μ agonists can cause undesired side effects, including tolerance, addition of δ antagonists can attenuate said side effects. Herein, we report 4a,9-dihydroxy-7a-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6-hexahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-7(7aH)-one (UMB 425) a 5,14-bridged morphinan-based orvinol precursor synthesized from thebaine. Although UMB 425 lacks δ-specific motifs, conformationally sampled pharmacophore models for μ and δ receptors predict it to have efficacy similar to morphine at μ receptors and similar to naltrexone at δ receptors, due to the compound sampling conformations in which the hydroxyl moiety interacts with the receptors similar to orvinols. As predicted, UMB 425 exhibits a mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist profile as determined in receptor binding and [35S]GTPγS functional assays in CHO cells. In vivo studies in mice show that UMB 425 displays potent antinociception in the hot plate and tail-flick assays. The antinociceptive effects of UMB 425 are blocked by naloxone, but not by the κ-selective antagonist norbinaltorphimine. During a 6-day tolerance paradigm, UMB 425 maintains significantly greater antinociception compared to morphine. These studies thus indicate that, even in the absence of δ-specific motifs fused to the C-ring, UMB 425 has mixed μ agonist/δ antagonist properties in vitro that translate to reduced tolerance liabilities in vivo. PMID:23713721

  7. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking.

  8. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  9. 24 CFR 599.401 - Ranking of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Communities § 599.401 Ranking of applications. (a) Ranking order. Rural and urban applications will be ranked... applications ranked first. (b) Separate ranking categories. After initial ranking, both rural and urban... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ranking of applications....

  10. Impact of Doximity Residency Rankings on Emergency Medicine Applicant Rank Lists.

    PubMed

    Peterson, William J; Hopson, Laura R; Khandelwal, Sorabh; White, Melissa; Gallahue, Fiona E; Burkhardt, John; Rolston, Aimee M; Santen, Sally A

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the impact of the Doximity rankings on the rank list choices made by residency applicants in emergency medicine (EM). We sent an 11-item survey by email to all students who applied to EM residency programs at four different institutions representing diverse geographical regions. Students were asked questions about their perception of Doximity rankings and how it may have impacted their rank list decisions. Response rate was 58% of 1,372 opened electronic surveys. This study found that a majority of medical students applying to residency in EM were aware of the Doximity rankings prior to submitting rank lists (67%). One-quarter of these applicants changed the number of programs and ranks of those programs when completing their rank list based on the Doximity rankings (26%). Though the absolute number of programs changed on the rank lists was small, the results demonstrate that the EM Doximity rankings impact applicant decision-making in ranking residency programs. While applicants do not find the Doximity rankings to be important compared to other factors in the application process, the Doximity rankings result in a small change in residency applicant ranking behavior. This unvalidated ranking, based principally on reputational data rather than objective outcome criteria, thus has the potential to be detrimental to students, programs, and the public. We feel it important for specialties to develop consensus around measurable training outcomes and provide freely accessible metrics for candidate education.

  11. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    2000-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  12. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, Arthur J.; Richards, Jeff M.

    1999-01-01

    A process for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process.

  13. Stabilized thermally beneficiated low rank coal and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Viall, A.J.; Richards, J.M.

    1999-01-26

    A process is described for reducing the spontaneous combustion tendencies of thermally beneficiated low rank coals employing heat, air or an oxygen containing gas followed by an optional moisture addition. Specific reaction conditions are supplied along with knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. 3 figs.

  14. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  15. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Alina; Fischer, Helen; Amelung, Dorothee; Litvine, Dorian; Aall, Carlo; Andersson, Camilla; Baltruszewicz, Marta; Barbier, Carine; Bruyère, Sébastien; Bénévise, Françoise; Dubois, Ghislain; Louis, Valérie R; Nilsson, Maria; Richardsen Moberg, Karen; Sköld, Bore; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2017-08-01

    It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat). The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds' Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries) that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households' decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households' willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and whether health co-benefits can serve as a motivator for households to

  16. A mixed methods study on evaluating the performance of a multi-strategy national health program to reduce maternal and child health disparities in Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhu; Bosma, Hans; Angeli, Federica; Kaur, Manmeet; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Rana, Monica; van Schayck, Onno C P

    2017-09-11

    A multi pronged community based strategy, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), was implemented from 2005-06 to 2012-13 in India to curtail maternal and child health (MCH) disparities between poor and rich, rural and urban areas, and boys and girls,. This study aimed to determine the degree to which MCH plans of NRHM implemented, and resulted in improving the MCH outcomes and reducing the inequalities. An explanatory sequential mixed methods study was conducted, first to assess the degree of implementation of MCH plans by estimating the budget utilization rates of each MCH plan, and the effectiveness of these plans by comparing demographic health surveys data conducted post (2012-13), during (2007-08) and pre- (2002-04) NRHM implementation period, in the quantitative study. Then, perceptions and beliefs of stakeholders regarding extent and effectiveness of NRHM in Haryana were explored in the qualitative study during 2013. A logistic regression analysis was done for quantitative data, and inductive applied thematic analysis for qualitative data. The findings of the quantitative and qualitative parts of study were mixed at the interpretation level. The MCH plans, like free ambulance service, availability of free drugs and logistics, accredited social health activists were fully implemented according to the budget spent on implementing these activities in Haryana. This was also validated by qualitative study. Availability of free medicines and treatment in the public health facilities had benefitted the poor patients the most. Accredited Social Health Activists scheme was also the most appreciated scheme that had increased the institutional delivery rates. There was acute shortage of human resources in-spite of full utilization of funds allocated for this plan. The results of the qualitative study validated the findings of quantitative study of significant (p < 0.05) improvement in MCH indicators and reduction in MCH disparities between higher and lower

  17. Ranking and clustering of nodes in networks with smart teleportation.

    PubMed

    Lambiotte, R; Rosvall, M

    2012-05-01

    Random teleportation is a necessary evil for ranking and clustering directed networks based on random walks. Teleportation enables ergodic solutions, but the solutions must necessarily depend on the exact implementation and parametrization of the teleportation. For example, in the commonly used PageRank algorithm, the teleportation rate must trade off a heavily biased solution with a uniform solution. Here we show that teleportation to links rather than nodes enables a much smoother trade-off and effectively more robust results. We also show that, by not recording the teleportation steps of the random walker, we can further reduce the effect of teleportation with dramatic effects on clustering.

  18. Ranking and clustering of nodes in networks with smart teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiotte, R.; Rosvall, M.

    2012-05-01

    Random teleportation is a necessary evil for ranking and clustering directed networks based on random walks. Teleportation enables ergodic solutions, but the solutions must necessarily depend on the exact implementation and parametrization of the teleportation. For example, in the commonly used PageRank algorithm, the teleportation rate must trade off a heavily biased solution with a uniform solution. Here we show that teleportation to links rather than nodes enables a much smoother trade-off and effectively more robust results. We also show that, by not recording the teleportation steps of the random walker, we can further reduce the effect of teleportation with dramatic effects on clustering.

  19. Methods to rank traffic rule violations resulting in crashes for allocation of funds.

    PubMed

    Penmetsa, Praveena; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2017-02-01

    Education, enforcement and engineering countermeasures are implemented to make road users comply with the traffic rules. Not all the traffic rule violations can be addressed nor countermeasures be implemented at all unsafe locations, at once, due to limited funds. Therefore, this study aims at ranking the traffic rule violations resulting in crashes based on individual ranks, such as 1) frequency (expressed as a function of the number of drivers violating a traffic rule and involved in crashes), 2) crash severity, 3) total crash cost, and, 4) cost severity index, to assist transportation system managers in prioritizing the allocation of funds and improving safety on roads. Crash data gathered for the state of North Carolina was processed and used in this study. Variations in the ranks of traffic rule violations were observed when individual ranking methods are used. As an example, exceeding authorized speed limit and driving under the influence of alcohol are ranked 1st and 2nd based on crash severity while failure to reduce speed and failure to yield the right-of-way are ranked 1st and 2nd based on frequency. To minimize the variations and capture the merits of individual ranking methods, four different composite ranks were computed by combining selected individual ranks. The computed averages and standard deviations of absolute rank differences between composite ranks is lower than those obtained from individual ranks. The weights to combine the selected individual ranks have a marginal effect on the computed averages and standard deviations of absolute rank differences. Combining frequency and crash severity or cost severity index, using equal weights, is recommended for prioritization and allocation of funds.

  20. A Web-Based Program to Increase Knowledge and Reduce Cigarette and Nargila Smoking Among Arab University Students in Israel: Mixed-Methods Study to Test Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Linn, Shai; Rafaeli, Sheizaf

    2015-01-01

    Background Among Arab citizens in Israel, cigarette and nargila (hookah, waterpipe) smoking is a serious public health problem, particularly among the young adult population. With the dramatic increase of Internet and computer use among Arab college and university students, a Web-based program may provide an easy, accessible tool to reduce smoking rates without heavy resource demands required by traditional methods. Objective The purpose of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a pilot Web-based program that provides tailored feedback to increase smoking knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking behaviors among Arab college/university students in Israel. Methods A pilot Web-based program was developed, consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and feedback system on cigarette and nargila smoking. Arab university students were recruited to participate in a mixed-methods study, using both quantitative (pre-/posttest study design) and qualitative tools. A posttest was implemented at 1 month following participation in the intervention to assess any changes in smoking knowledge and behaviors. Focus group sessions were implemented to assess acceptability and preferences related to the Web-based program. Results A total of 225 participants—response rate of 63.2% (225/356)—completed the intervention at baseline and at 1-month poststudy, and were used for the comparative analysis. Statistically significant reductions in nargila smoking among participants (P=.001) were found. The intervention did not result in reductions in cigarette smoking. However, the tailored Web intervention resulted in statistically significant increases in the intention to quit smoking (P=.021). No statistically significant increases in knowledge were seen at 1-month poststudy. Participants expressed high satisfaction with the intervention and 93.8% (211/225) of those who completed the intervention at both time intervals reported that they would

  1. A web-based program to increase knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking among Arab university students in Israel: mixed-methods study to test acceptability.

    PubMed

    Essa-Hadad, Jumanah; Linn, Shai; Rafaeli, Sheizaf

    2015-02-20

    Among Arab citizens in Israel, cigarette and nargila (hookah, waterpipe) smoking is a serious public health problem, particularly among the young adult population. With the dramatic increase of Internet and computer use among Arab college and university students, a Web-based program may provide an easy, accessible tool to reduce smoking rates without heavy resource demands required by traditional methods. The purpose of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a pilot Web-based program that provides tailored feedback to increase smoking knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking behaviors among Arab college/university students in Israel. A pilot Web-based program was developed, consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and feedback system on cigarette and nargila smoking. Arab university students were recruited to participate in a mixed-methods study, using both quantitative (pre-/posttest study design) and qualitative tools. A posttest was implemented at 1 month following participation in the intervention to assess any changes in smoking knowledge and behaviors. Focus group sessions were implemented to assess acceptability and preferences related to the Web-based program. A total of 225 participants-response rate of 63.2% (225/356)-completed the intervention at baseline and at 1-month poststudy, and were used for the comparative analysis. Statistically significant reductions in nargila smoking among participants (P=.001) were found. The intervention did not result in reductions in cigarette smoking. However, the tailored Web intervention resulted in statistically significant increases in the intention to quit smoking (P=.021). No statistically significant increases in knowledge were seen at 1-month poststudy. Participants expressed high satisfaction with the intervention and 93.8% (211/225) of those who completed the intervention at both time intervals reported that they would recommend the program to their friends

  2. A novel marketing mix and choice architecture framework to nudge restaurant customers toward healthy food environments to reduce obesity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kraak, V I; Englund, T; Misyak, S; Serrano, E L

    2017-08-01

    This review identified and adapted choice architecture frameworks to develop a novel framework that restaurant owners could use to promote healthy food environments for customers who currently overconsume products high in fat, sugar and sodium that increase their risk of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. This review was conducted in three steps and presented as a narrative summary to demonstrate a proof of concept. Step 1 was a systematic review of nudge or choice architecture frameworks used to categorize strategies that cue healthy behaviours in microenvironments. We searched nine electronic databases between January 2000 and December 2016 and identified 1,244 records. Inclusion criteria led to the selection of five choice architecture frameworks, of which three were adapted and combined with marketing mix principles to highlight eight strategies (i.e. place, profile, portion, pricing, promotion, healthy default picks, prompting or priming and proximity). Step 2 involved conducting a comprehensive evidence review between January 2006 and December 2016 to identify U.S. recommendations for the restaurant sector organized by strategy. Step 3 entailed developing 12 performance metrics for the eight strategies. This framework should be tested to determine its value to assist restaurant owners to promote and socially normalize healthy food environments to reduce obesity and non-communicable diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  3. Accuracy of embedded fragment calculation for evaluating electron interactions in mixed valence magnetic systems: study of 2e-reduced lindqvist polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Suaud, Nicolas; López, Xavier; Ben Amor, Nadia; Bandeira, Nuno A G; de Graaf, Coen; Poblet, Josep M

    2015-02-10

    Accurate quantum chemical calculations on real-world magnetic systems are challenging, the inclusion of electron correlation being the bottleneck of such task. One method proposed to overcome this difficulty is the embedded fragment approach. It tackles a chemical problem by dividing it into small fragments, which are treated in a highly accurate way, surrounded by an embedding included at an approximate level. For the vast family of medium-to-large sized polyoxometalates, two-electron-reduced systems are habitual and their magnetic properties are interesting. In this paper, we aim at assessing the quality of embedded fragment calculations by checking their ability to reproduce the electronic spectra of a complete system, here the mixed-metal series [MoxW6-xO19](4-) (x = 0-6). The microscopic parameters extracted from fragment calculations (electron hopping, intersite electrostatic repulsion, local orbital energy, etc.) have been used to reproduce the spectra through model Hamiltonian calculations. These energies are compared to the results of the highly accurate ab initio difference dedicated configuration interaction (DDCI) method on the complete system. In general, the model Hamiltonian calculations using parameters extracted from embedded fragments nearly exactly reproduce the DDCI spectra. This is quite an important result since it can be generalized to any inorganic magnetic system. Finally, the occurrence of singlet or triplet ground states in the series of molecules studied is rationalized upon the interplay of the parameters extracted.

  4. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhu; Angeli, Federica; van Schayck, Onno C P; Bosma, Hans

    2015-01-01

    A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005-2012) and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the broader themes across the

  5. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhu; Angeli, Federica; van Schayck, Onno C P; Bosma, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005-2012) and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the broader

  6. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madhu; Angeli, Federica; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Bosma, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012) and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the

  7. Ranking Reputation and Quality in Online Rating Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Xiao, Rui; Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Chen, Duan-Bing; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    How to design an accurate and robust ranking algorithm is a fundamental problem with wide applications in many real systems. It is especially significant in online rating systems due to the existence of some spammers. In the literature, many well-performed iterative ranking methods have been proposed. These methods can effectively recognize the unreliable users and reduce their weight in judging the quality of objects, and finally lead to a more accurate evaluation of the online products. In this paper, we design an iterative ranking method with high performance in both accuracy and robustness. More specifically, a reputation redistribution process is introduced to enhance the influence of highly reputed users and two penalty factors enable the algorithm resistance to malicious behaviors. Validation of our method is performed in both artificial and real user-object bipartite networks. PMID:24819119

  8. Distillability and PPT entanglement of low-rank quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Đoković, Dragomir Ž.

    2011-07-01

    The bipartite quantum states ρ, with rank strictly smaller than the maximum of the ranks of the reduced states ρA and ρB, are distillable by local operations and classical communication (Horodecki P, Smolin J A, Terhal B M and Thapliyal A V 2003 Theor. Comput. Sci. 292 589-96 1999 arXiv:quant-ph/9910122). Our first main result is that this is also true for NPT states with rank equal to this maximum. (A state is PPT if the partial transpose of its density matrix is positive semidefinite, and otherwise it is NPT.) This was conjectured first in 1999 in the special case when the ranks of ρA and ρB are equal (see (Horodecki P, Smolin J A, Terhal B M and Thapliyal A V 2003 Theor. Comput. Sci. 292 589-96 1999 arXiv:quant-ph/9910122). Our second main result provides a complete solution of the separability problem for bipartite states of rank 4. Namely, we show that such a state is separable if and only if it is PPT and its range contains at least one product state. We also prove that the so-called checkerboard states are distillable if and only if they are NPT.

  9. A Document Clustering and Ranking System for Exploring MEDLINE Citations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yongjing; Li, Wenyuan; Chen, Keke; Liu, Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective A major problem faced in biomedical informatics involves how best to present information retrieval results. When a single query retrieves many results, simply showing them as a long list often provides poor overview. With a goal of presenting users with reduced sets of relevant citations, this study developed an approach that retrieved and organized MEDLINE citations into different topical groups and prioritized important citations in each group. Design A text mining system framework for automatic document clustering and ranking organized MEDLINE citations following simple PubMed queries. The system grouped the retrieved citations, ranked the citations in each cluster, and generated a set of keywords and MeSH terms to describe the common theme of each cluster. Measurements Several possible ranking functions were compared, including citation count per year (CCPY), citation count (CC), and journal impact factor (JIF). We evaluated this framework by identifying as “important” those articles selected by the Surgical Oncology Society. Results Our results showed that CCPY outperforms CC and JIF, i.e., CCPY better ranked important articles than did the others. Furthermore, our text clustering and knowledge extraction strategy grouped the retrieval results into informative clusters as revealed by the keywords and MeSH terms extracted from the documents in each cluster. Conclusions The text mining system studied effectively integrated text clustering, text summarization, and text ranking and organized MEDLINE retrieval results into different topical groups. PMID:17600104

  10. Rank-based model selection for multiple ions quantum tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guţă, Mădălin; Kypraios, Theodore; Dryden, Ian

    2012-10-01

    The statistical analysis of measurement data has become a key component of many quantum engineering experiments. As standard full state tomography becomes unfeasible for large dimensional quantum systems, one needs to exploit prior information and the ‘sparsity’ properties of the experimental state in order to reduce the dimensionality of the estimation problem. In this paper we propose model selection as a general principle for finding the simplest, or most parsimonious explanation of the data, by fitting different models and choosing the estimator with the best trade-off between likelihood fit and model complexity. We apply two well established model selection methods—the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC)—two models consisting of states of fixed rank and datasets such as are currently produced in multiple ions experiments. We test the performance of AIC and BIC on randomly chosen low rank states of four ions, and study the dependence of the selected rank with the number of measurement repetitions for one ion states. We then apply the methods to real data from a four ions experiment aimed at creating a Smolin state of rank 4. By applying the two methods together with the Pearson χ2 test we conclude that the data can be suitably described with a model whose rank is between 7 and 9. Additionally we find that the mean square error of the maximum likelihood estimator for pure states is close to that of the optimal over all possible measurements.

  11. Implementation of a new prenatal care model to reduce office visits and increase connectivity and continuity of care: protocol for a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, Jennifer L; LeBlanc, Annie; Branda, Megan; Harms, Roger W; Morris, Megan A; Nesbitt, Kate; Gostout, Bobbie S; Barkey, Lenae M; Sobolewski, Susan M; Brodrick, Ellen; Inselman, Jonathan; Baron, Anne; Sivly, Angela; Baker, Misty; Finnie, Dawn; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Famuyide, Abimbola O

    2015-12-02

    Most low-risk pregnant women receive the standard model of prenatal care with frequent office visits. Research suggests that a reduced schedule of visits among low-risk women could be implemented without increasing adverse maternal or fetal outcomes, but patient satisfaction with these models varies. We aim to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of a new prenatal care model (OB Nest) that enhances a reduced visit model by adding virtual connections that improve continuity of care and patient-directed access to care. This mixed-methods study uses a hybrid effectiveness-implementation design in a single center randomized controlled trial (RCT). Embedding process evaluation in an experimental design like an RCT allows researchers to answer both "Did it work?" and "How or why did it work (or not work)?" when studying complex interventions, as well as providing knowledge for translation into practice after the study. The RE-AIM framework was used to ensure attention to evaluating program components in terms of sustainable adoption and implementation. Low-risk patients recruited from the Obstetrics Division at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) will be randomized to OB Nest or usual care. OB Nest patients will be assigned to a dedicated nursing team, scheduled for 8 pre-planned office visits with a physician or midwife and 6 telephone or online nurse visits (compared to 12 pre-planned physician or midwife office visits in the usual care group), and provided fetal heart rate and blood pressure home monitoring equipment and information on joining an online care community. Quantitative methods will include patient surveys and medical record abstraction. The primary quantitative outcome is patient-reported satisfaction. Other outcomes include fidelity to items on the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists standards of care list, health care utilization (e.g. numbers of antenatal office visits), and maternal and fetal outcomes (e.g. gestational age at delivery

  12. Iran Mortality and Measures of Risk: Rankings for Public policy

    PubMed Central

    Aalabaf-Sabaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper offers mortality risk rankings for Iranian mortality data. It extends methods to include mixed cohorts, tests changes in mortality risks, compares measures of risk and discusses public policy implications. Methods: The methodology used in risk measures takes current practice and extends it to include variations in population dynamics. The specification is presented and compared with existing literature. Results: Our findings confirm literature results in the re-ordering that takes place when different risk measures are used. In addition, we find there is consistency in risk rankings between 1999 and 2000 records of Iranian mortality data. Thus, these risk measures are stable, robust across time and relay risk information consistently. Conclusions: There are considerable implications in adopting particular risk measures for public policy. However, given properties of risk measures discussed here, it is clear that policy makers can select relevant risk measures depending on their priorities. PMID:23112989

  13. Decision Tree Modeling for Ranking Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Philip L. H.; Wan, Wai Ming; Lee, Paul H.

    Ranking/preference data arises from many applications in marketing, psychology, and politics. We establish a new decision tree model for the analysis of ranking data by adopting the concept of classification and regression tree. The existing splitting criteria are modified in a way that allows them to precisely measure the impurity of a set of ranking data. Two types of impurity measures for ranking data are introduced, namelyg-wise and top-k measures. Theoretical results show that the new measures exhibit properties of impurity functions. In model assessment, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is applied to evaluate the tree performance. Experiments are carried out to investigate the predictive performance of the tree model for complete and partially ranked data and promising results are obtained. Finally, a real-world application of the proposed methodology to analyze a set of political rankings data is presented.

  14. Error Analysis of Stochastic Gradient Descent Ranking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2012-12-31

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  15. Dynamics of ranking processes in complex systems.

    PubMed

    Blumm, Nicholas; Ghoshal, Gourab; Forró, Zalán; Schich, Maximilian; Bianconi, Ginestra; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-09-21

    The world is addicted to ranking: everything, from the reputation of scientists, journals, and universities to purchasing decisions is driven by measured or perceived differences between them. Here, we analyze empirical data capturing real time ranking in a number of systems, helping to identify the universal characteristics of ranking dynamics. We develop a continuum theory that not only predicts the stability of the ranking process, but shows that a noise-induced phase transition is at the heart of the observed differences in ranking regimes. The key parameters of the continuum theory can be explicitly measured from data, allowing us to predict and experimentally document the existence of three phases that govern ranking stability.

  16. Error analysis of stochastic gradient descent ranking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Tang, Yi; Li, Luoqing; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Xuelong; Tang, Yuanyan

    2013-06-01

    Ranking is always an important task in machine learning and information retrieval, e.g., collaborative filtering, recommender systems, drug discovery, etc. A kernel-based stochastic gradient descent algorithm with the least squares loss is proposed for ranking in this paper. The implementation of this algorithm is simple, and an expression of the solution is derived via a sampling operator and an integral operator. An explicit convergence rate for leaning a ranking function is given in terms of the suitable choices of the step size and the regularization parameter. The analysis technique used here is capacity independent and is novel in error analysis of ranking learning. Experimental results on real-world data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in ranking tasks, which verifies the theoretical analysis in ranking error.

  17. Dynamics of Ranking Processes in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumm, Nicholas; Ghoshal, Gourab; Forró, Zalán; Schich, Maximilian; Bianconi, Ginestra; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Barabási, Albert-László

    2012-09-01

    The world is addicted to ranking: everything, from the reputation of scientists, journals, and universities to purchasing decisions is driven by measured or perceived differences between them. Here, we analyze empirical data capturing real time ranking in a number of systems, helping to identify the universal characteristics of ranking dynamics. We develop a continuum theory that not only predicts the stability of the ranking process, but shows that a noise-induced phase transition is at the heart of the observed differences in ranking regimes. The key parameters of the continuum theory can be explicitly measured from data, allowing us to predict and experimentally document the existence of three phases that govern ranking stability.

  18. Otto Rank: beginnings, endings, and current experience.

    PubMed

    Novey, R

    1983-01-01

    I have traced the theories of Otto Rank as they appeared in his major technical writings. Against this background, I have discussed references to Rank in past and contemporary psychoanalytic literature. This paper describes three important contributions of Rank--his birth trauma theory, leading to his theory of the birth of the self; his emphasis on present experience (forerunner of the current "here-and-now" theory); and his writings about the creative potential of the termination process.

  19. On Boolean matrices with full factor rank

    SciTech Connect

    Shitov, Ya

    2013-11-30

    It is demonstrated that every (0,1)-matrix of size n×m having Boolean rank n contains a column with at least √n/2−1 zero entries. This bound is shown to be asymptotically optimal. As a corollary, it is established that the size of a full-rank Boolean matrix is bounded from above by a function of its tropical and determinantal ranks. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  20. The rank product method with two samples.

    PubMed

    Koziol, James A

    2010-11-05

    Breitling et al. (2004) introduced a statistical technique, the rank product method, for detecting differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments. The technique has achieved widespread acceptance and is now used more broadly, in such diverse fields as RNAi analysis, proteomics, and machine learning. In this note, we extend the rank product method to the two sample setting, provide distribution theory attending the rank product method in this setting, and give numerical details for implementing the method.

  1. Mediating the Use of Global University Rankings: Perspectives from Education Facilitators in an International Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Catherine; Saunders, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This study explores responses to rankings from a group of staff working as education partnership facilitators for a professional intermediary organisation, the British Council. The study adopts an activity systems perspective from which to view the contexts in which rankings are encountered and the range of practices used to reduce tensions…

  2. Robust rankings: Review of multivariate assessments illustrated by the Shanghai rankings.

    PubMed

    Freyer, Leo

    2014-01-01

    Defined errors are entered into data collections in order to test their influence on the reliability of multivariate rankings. Random numbers and real ranking data serve as data origins. In the course of data collection small random errors often lead to a switch in ranking, which can influence the general ranking picture considerably. For stabilisation an objective weighting method is evaluated. The robustness of these rankings is then compared to the original forms. Robust forms of the published Shanghai top 100 rankings are calculated and compared to each other. As a result, the possibilities and restrictions of this type of weighting become recognisable.

  3. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    PubMed

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis.

  4. Ranking chemicals based on chronic toxicity data.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, C T; Stara, J F; Durkin, P R

    1985-12-01

    During the past 3 years, EPA's ECAO/Cincinnati has developed a method to rank chemicals based on chronic toxicity data. This ranking system reflects two primary attributes of every chemical: the minimum effective dose and the type of effect elicited at that dose. The purpose for developing this chronic toxicity ranking system was to provide the EPA with the technical background required to adjust the RQs of hazardous substances designated in Section 101(14) of CERCLA or "Superfund." This approach may have applications to other areas of interest to the EPA and other regulatory agencies where ranking of chemicals based on chronic toxicity is desired.

  5. Rank-based decompositions of morphological templates.

    PubMed

    Sussner, P; Ritter, G X

    2000-01-01

    Methods for matrix decomposition have found numerous applications in image processing, in particular for the problem of template decomposition. Since existing matrix decomposition techniques are mainly concerned with the linear domain, we consider it timely to investigate matrix decomposition techniques in the nonlinear domain with applications in image processing. The mathematical basis for these investigations is the new theory of rank within minimax algebra. Thus far, only minimax decompositions of rank 1 and rank 2 matrices into outer product expansions are known to the image processing community. We derive a heuristic algorithm for the decomposition of matrices having arbitrary rank.

  6. Mixed chimerism and graft loss in pediatric recipients of an alemtuzumab-based reduced-intensity conditioning regimen for non-malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Oshrine, Benjamin R; Olson, Timothy S; Bunin, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens can mitigate the toxicity of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in children with non-malignant diseases, but are associated with increased risk for post-transplant mixed donor/recipient chimerism (MC) and/or graft loss (GL). Intervention with donor lymphocytes or stem cell boosts (DLI/boost) may be necessary, but there is limited information about timing and results of intervention. We retrospectively evaluated 31 consecutive pediatric recipients of an alemtuzumab-based RIC HCT at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from May 2007 to December 2012 to determine the incidence of MC, GL, and use of DLI/boost. All patients received alemtuzumab with either fludarabine (150 mg/m(2) )/melphalan (140 mg/m(2) ) (n = 30) or fludarabine/busulfan (n = 1), and unmanipulated marrow grafts from related (48%) or matched unrelated (52%) donors. Of surviving patients, 67% and 44% displayed MC and MC with ≤80% donor contribution (MC ≤ 80%), respectively. Rates of MC, MC ≤ 80%, DLI/boost, and GL were significantly higher in recipients of proximal/intermediate (100%, 73%, 46%, and 46%, respectively) compared to distal alemtuzumab (44%, 25%, 6%, and 6%, respectively). Event-free and overall survival was significantly lower in HLH compared with non-HLH patients. Twenty percent of patients required DLI/boost, and DLI/boost did not affect the incidence of GL. RIC with proximal/intermediate alemtuzumab is associated with high rates of MC, need for DLI/boost, and GL. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. DebtRank-transparency: Controlling systemic risk in financial networks

    PubMed Central

    Thurner, Stefan; Poledna, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Nodes in a financial network, such as banks, cannot assess the true risks associated with lending to other nodes in the network, unless they have full information on the riskiness of all other nodes. These risks can be estimated by using network metrics (as DebtRank) of the interbank liability network. With a simple agent based model we show that systemic risk in financial networks can be drastically reduced by increasing transparency, i.e. making the DebtRank of individual banks visible to others, and by imposing a rule, that reduces interbank borrowing from systemically risky nodes. This scheme does not reduce the efficiency of the financial network, but fosters a more homogeneous risk-distribution within the system in a self-organized critical way. The reduction of systemic risk is due to a massive reduction of cascading failures in the transparent system. A regulation-policy implementation of the proposed scheme is discussed. PMID:23712454

  8. A Comparison of Teacher Rankings of Reading Readiness, Metropolitan Readiness Test Score Rankings, and Socioeconomic Status Rankings of First Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elijah, David V., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with reading readiness test results, (2) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with pupil socioeconomic status, and (3) to determine to what extent readiness test results compare with pupil socioeconomic…

  9. The County Health Rankings: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Remington, Patrick L; Catlin, Bridget B; Gennuso, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    Annually since 2010, the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation have produced the County Health Rankings-a "population health checkup" for the nation's over 3,000 counties. The purpose of this paper is to review the background and rationale for the Rankings, explain in detail the methods we use to create the health rankings in each state, and discuss the strengths and limitations associated with ranking the health of communities. We base the Rankings on a conceptual model of population health that includes both health outcomes (mortality and morbidity) and health factors (health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and the physical environment). Data for over 30 measures available at the county level are assembled from a number of national sources. Z-scores are calculated for each measure, multiplied by their assigned weights, and summed to create composite measure scores. Composite scores are then ordered and counties are ranked from best to worst health within each state. Health outcomes and related health factors vary significantly within states, with over two-fold differences between the least healthy counties versus the healthiest counties for measures such as premature mortality, teen birth rates, and percent of children living in poverty. Ranking within each state depicts disparities that are not apparent when counties are ranked across the entire nation. The County Health Rankings can be used to clearly demonstrate differences in health by place, raise awareness of the many factors that influence health, and stimulate community health improvement efforts. The Rankings draws upon the human instinct to compete by facilitating comparisons between neighboring or peer counties within states. Since no population health model, or rankings based off such models, will ever perfectly describe the health of its population, we encourage users to look to local sources of data to understand more about

  10. College Rankings: History, Criticism and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Luke; Robe, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Today, college quality rankings in news magazines and guidebooks are a big business with tangible impacts on the operation of higher education institutions. The college rankings published annually by "U.S. News and World Report" ("U.S. News") are so influential that Don Hossler of Indiana University derisively claims that higher education is the…

  11. Public Perception of Cancer Survival Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Scherr, Courtney L.; Brown, Natasha; Jones, Christina; Christy, Katheryn

    2013-01-01

    Past research has observed that certain subgroups (e.g., individuals who are overweight/obese) have inaccurate estimates of survival rates for particular cancers (e.g., colon cancer). However, no study has examined whether the lay public can accurately rank cancer survival rates in comparison with one another (i.e., rank cancers from most deadly…

  12. A Rational Method for Ranking Engineering Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glower, Donald D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares two methods for ranking academic programs, the opinion poll v examination of career successes of the program's alumni. For the latter, "Who's Who in Engineering" and levels of research funding provided data. Tables display resulting data and compare rankings by the two methods for chemical engineering and civil engineering. (CS)

  13. Ranking of Scientists: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, B. K.; Pandalai, T. A.; Karanjai, Aruna

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a formula for the ranking of scientists based on diachronous citation counts. Generalizes the fact that the citation-generation potential is not the same for all papers, and states that the proposed method of ranking does not replace peer review, but rather acts as an aid for them. (Author/LRW)

  14. Fundamental Measurement of Rank-Ordered Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    A Rasch measurement model can be constructed to meet the requirements of rank ordered data. If multiple rankings of the same objects are available, then the parameters of the objects can be estimated, along with their standard errors and also with statistics summarizing the fit of the data to the measurement model. This paper summarizes the…

  15. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2014-10-01

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  16. Embedded feature ranking for ensemble MLP classifiers.

    PubMed

    Windeatt, Terry; Duangsoithong, Rakkrit; Smith, Raymond

    2011-06-01

    A feature ranking scheme for multilayer perceptron (MLP) ensembles is proposed, along with a stopping criterion based upon the out-of-bootstrap estimate. To solve multi-class problems feature ranking is combined with modified error-correcting output coding. Experimental results on benchmark data demonstrate the versatility of the MLP base classifier in removing irrelevant features.

  17. A Ranking Method for Evaluating Constructed Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparative judgment approach for holistically scored constructed response tasks. In this approach, the grader rank orders (rather than rate) the quality of a small set of responses. A prior automated evaluation of responses guides both set formation and scaling of rankings. Sets are formed to have similar prior scores and…

  18. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-10-17

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  19. Mining Feedback in Ranking and Recommendation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Ziming

    2009-01-01

    The amount of online information has grown exponentially over the past few decades, and users become more and more dependent on ranking and recommendation systems to address their information seeking needs. The advance in information technologies has enabled users to provide feedback on the utilities of the underlying ranking and recommendation…

  20. A Different Approach to University Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofallis, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Educationalists are well able to find fault with rankings on numerous grounds and may reject them outright. However, given that they are here to stay, we could also try to improve them wherever possible. All currently published university rankings combine various measures to produce an overall score using an additive approach. The individual…

  1. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-01-01

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected. PMID:25322852

  2. Canadian University Rankings: Buyer Beware Once Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Stewart; Cramer, Kenneth M.; Page, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We present a data-based perspective concerning recent (e.g., 2008) "Maclean's" magazine rankings of Canadian universities, including cluster analysis of the 2008 data. Canadian universities empirically resemble and relate to each other in a manner different from their formal classification and final rank ordering in the…

  3. Rankings and the Global Reputation Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This chapter delves into the growing influence and impact of rankings on higher education, as a lens through which to view how the race for reputation and status is changing the higher education landscape, both globally and nationally. The author considers the extent to which rankings are driving policy choices and institutional decisions and the…

  4. Rankings and the Global Reputation Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This chapter delves into the growing influence and impact of rankings on higher education, as a lens through which to view how the race for reputation and status is changing the higher education landscape, both globally and nationally. The author considers the extent to which rankings are driving policy choices and institutional decisions and the…

  5. Public Perception of Cancer Survival Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Scherr, Courtney L.; Brown, Natasha; Jones, Christina; Christy, Katheryn

    2013-01-01

    Past research has observed that certain subgroups (e.g., individuals who are overweight/obese) have inaccurate estimates of survival rates for particular cancers (e.g., colon cancer). However, no study has examined whether the lay public can accurately rank cancer survival rates in comparison with one another (i.e., rank cancers from most deadly…

  6. A Ranking Method for Evaluating Constructed Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comparative judgment approach for holistically scored constructed response tasks. In this approach, the grader rank orders (rather than rate) the quality of a small set of responses. A prior automated evaluation of responses guides both set formation and scaling of rankings. Sets are formed to have similar prior scores and…

  7. The Rankings Game: Who's Playing Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burness, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This summer, Forbes magazine published its new rankings of "America's Best Colleges," implying that it had developed a methodology that would give the public the information that it needed to choose a college wisely. "U.S. News & World Report," which in 1983 published the first annual ranking, just announced its latest ratings last week--including…

  8. Gender Equity in Academic Rank and Salary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Study of gender disparities in rank/salary of college faculty used causal model to examine variables commonly used in human capital and structural/functional perspectives that have guided most research on gender equity. More than 60 percent of total effect of gender on academic rank/salaries is indirect. Model's usefulness and implications for…

  9. Rankings as a Catalyst: Improving Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, John; Fyfe, Diane

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss why ranking has become so popular in schools. Those who promote ranking believe that it provides information to help parents and students choose a "good school"; that it puts pressure on the underperforming school to improve; and that it provides an opportunity for a school to be scrutinized through a…

  10. University Rankings: Status Quo, Dilemmas, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongcai, Wang

    2009-01-01

    It has been exactly twenty years since the term "university rankings" came into being in China, and people have become relatively rational about the process, after an impetuous beginning. In a sense, the appearance of university rankings in China indicates the birth of something new, or the beginning of social voices in higher education…

  11. The Rankings Game: Who's Playing Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burness, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This summer, Forbes magazine published its new rankings of "America's Best Colleges," implying that it had developed a methodology that would give the public the information that it needed to choose a college wisely. "U.S. News & World Report," which in 1983 published the first annual ranking, just announced its latest ratings last week--including…

  12. PageRank and rank-reversal dependence on the damping factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S.-W.; Christensen, C.; Grassberger, P.; Paczuski, M.

    2012-12-01

    PageRank (PR) is an algorithm originally developed by Google to evaluate the importance of web pages. Considering how deeply rooted Google's PR algorithm is to gathering relevant information or to the success of modern businesses, the question of rank stability and choice of the damping factor (a parameter in the algorithm) is clearly important. We investigate PR as a function of the damping factor d on a network obtained from a domain of the World Wide Web, finding that rank reversal happens frequently over a broad range of PR (and of d). We use three different correlation measures, Pearson, Spearman, and Kendall, to study rank reversal as d changes, and we show that the correlation of PR vectors drops rapidly as d changes from its frequently cited value, d0=0.85. Rank reversal is also observed by measuring the Spearman and Kendall rank correlation, which evaluate relative ranks rather than absolute PR. Rank reversal happens not only in directed networks containing rank sinks but also in a single strongly connected component, which by definition does not contain any sinks. We relate rank reversals to rank pockets and bottlenecks in the directed network structure. For the network studied, the relative rank is more stable by our measures around d=0.65 than at d=d0.

  13. Comparing classical and quantum PageRanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, T.; Tang, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Small, M.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Following recent developments in quantum PageRanking, we present a comparative analysis of discrete-time and continuous-time quantum-walk-based PageRank algorithms. Relative to classical PageRank and to different extents, the quantum measures better highlight secondary hubs and resolve ranking degeneracy among peripheral nodes for all networks we studied in this paper. For the discrete-time case, we investigated the periodic nature of the walker's probability distribution for a wide range of networks and found that the dominant period does not grow with the size of these networks. Based on this observation, we introduce a new quantum measure using the maximum probabilities of the associated walker during the first couple of periods. This is particularly important, since it leads to a quantum PageRanking scheme that is scalable with respect to network size.

  14. A Ranking Approach to Genomic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Mathieu; Onogi, Akio; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ueda, Naonori

    2015-01-01

    Background Genomic selection (GS) is a recent selective breeding method which uses predictive models based on whole-genome molecular markers. Until now, existing studies formulated GS as the problem of modeling an individual’s breeding value for a particular trait of interest, i.e., as a regression problem. To assess predictive accuracy of the model, the Pearson correlation between observed and predicted trait values was used. Contributions In this paper, we propose to formulate GS as the problem of ranking individuals according to their breeding value. Our proposed framework allows us to employ machine learning methods for ranking which had previously not been considered in the GS literature. To assess ranking accuracy of a model, we introduce a new measure originating from the information retrieval literature called normalized discounted cumulative gain (NDCG). NDCG rewards more strongly models which assign a high rank to individuals with high breeding value. Therefore, NDCG reflects a prerequisite objective in selective breeding: accurate selection of individuals with high breeding value. Results We conducted a comparison of 10 existing regression methods and 3 new ranking methods on 6 datasets, consisting of 4 plant species and 25 traits. Our experimental results suggest that tree-based ensemble methods including McRank, Random Forests and Gradient Boosting Regression Trees achieve excellent ranking accuracy. RKHS regression and RankSVM also achieve good accuracy when used with an RBF kernel. Traditional regression methods such as Bayesian lasso, wBSR and BayesC were found less suitable for ranking. Pearson correlation was found to correlate poorly with NDCG. Our study suggests two important messages. First, ranking methods are a promising research direction in GS. Second, NDCG can be a useful evaluation measure for GS. PMID:26068103

  15. The highest-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn.

    PubMed

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-07-23

    The "cock-a-doodle-doo" crowing of roosters, which symbolizes the break of dawn in many cultures, is controlled by the circadian clock. When one rooster announces the break of dawn, others in the vicinity immediately follow. Chickens are highly social animals, and they develop a linear and fixed hierarchy in small groups. We found that when chickens were housed in small groups, the top-ranking rooster determined the timing of predawn crowing. Specifically, the top-ranking rooster always started to crow first, followed by its subordinates, in descending order of social rank. When the top-ranking rooster was physically removed from a group, the second-ranking rooster initiated crowing. The presence of a dominant rooster significantly reduced the number of predawn crows in subordinates. However, the number of crows induced by external stimuli was independent of social rank, confirming that subordinates have the ability to crow. Although the timing of subordinates' predawn crowing was strongly dependent on that of the top-ranking rooster, free-running periods of body temperature rhythms differed among individuals, and crowing rhythm did not entrain to a crowing sound stimulus. These results indicate that in a group situation, the top-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn, and that subordinate roosters are patient enough to wait for the top-ranking rooster's first crow every morning and thus compromise their circadian clock for social reasons.

  16. The highest-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn

    PubMed Central

    Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The “cock-a-doodle-doo” crowing of roosters, which symbolizes the break of dawn in many cultures, is controlled by the circadian clock. When one rooster announces the break of dawn, others in the vicinity immediately follow. Chickens are highly social animals, and they develop a linear and fixed hierarchy in small groups. We found that when chickens were housed in small groups, the top-ranking rooster determined the timing of predawn crowing. Specifically, the top-ranking rooster always started to crow first, followed by its subordinates, in descending order of social rank. When the top-ranking rooster was physically removed from a group, the second-ranking rooster initiated crowing. The presence of a dominant rooster significantly reduced the number of predawn crows in subordinates. However, the number of crows induced by external stimuli was independent of social rank, confirming that subordinates have the ability to crow. Although the timing of subordinates’ predawn crowing was strongly dependent on that of the top-ranking rooster, free-running periods of body temperature rhythms differed among individuals, and crowing rhythm did not entrain to a crowing sound stimulus. These results indicate that in a group situation, the top-ranking rooster has priority to announce the break of dawn, and that subordinate roosters are patient enough to wait for the top-ranking rooster’s first crow every morning and thus compromise their circadian clock for social reasons. PMID:26203594

  17. Geobacter daltonii sp. nov., an Fe(III)- and uranium(VI)-reducing bacterium isolated from a shallow subsurface exposed to mixed heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Gihring, Thomas M; Dalton, Dava D; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Green, Stefan J; Akob, Denise M; Wanger, Greg; Kostka, Joel E

    2010-03-01

    An Fe(III)- and uranium(VI)-reducing bacterium, designated strain FRC-32(T), was isolated from a contaminated subsurface of the USA Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where the sediments are exposed to mixed waste contamination of radionuclides and hydrocarbons. Analyses of both 16S rRNA gene and the Geobacteraceae-specific citrate synthase (gltA) mRNA gene sequences retrieved from ORFRC sediments indicated that this strain was abundant and active in ORFRC subsurface sediments undergoing uranium(VI) bioremediation. The organism belonged to the subsurface clade of the genus Geobacter and shared 92-98 % 16S rRNA gene and 75-81 % rpoB gene sequence similarities with other recognized species of the genus. In comparison to its closest relative, Geobacter uraniireducens Rf4(T), according to 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain FRC-32(T) showed a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 21 %. Cells of strain FRC-32(T) were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, curved rods, 1.0-1.5 microm long and 0.3-0.5 microm in diameter; the cells formed pink colonies in a semisolid cultivation medium, a characteristic feature of the genus Geobacter. The isolate was an obligate anaerobe, had temperature and pH optima for growth at 30 degrees C and pH 6.7-7.3, respectively, and could tolerate up to 0.7 % NaCl although growth was better in the absence of NaCl. Similar to other members of the Geobacter group, strain FRC-32(T) conserved energy for growth from the respiration of Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide coupled with the oxidation of acetate. Strain FRC-32(T) was metabolically versatile and, unlike its closest relative, G. uraniireducens, was capable of utilizing formate, butyrate and butanol as electron donors and soluble ferric iron (as ferric citrate) and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors. Growth on aromatic compounds including benzoate and toluene was predicted from preliminary genomic analyses and was confirmed through successive transfer with

  18. Assessing introduction risk using species’ rank-abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Farrah T.; Bradie, Johanna; Briski, Elizabeta; Bailey, Sarah A.; Simard, Nathalie; MacIsaac, Hugh J.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-species assemblages are often unintentionally introduced into new ecosystems. Analysing how assemblage structure varies during transport may provide insights into how introduction risk changes before propagules are released. Characterization of introduction risk is typically based on assessments of colonization pressure (CP, the number of species transported) and total propagule pressure (total PP, the total abundance of propagules released) associated with an invasion vector. Generally, invasion potential following introduction increases with greater CP or total PP. Here, we extend these assessments using rank-abundance distributions to examine how CP : total PP relationships change temporally in ballast water of ocean-going ships. Rank-abundance distributions and CP : total PP patterns varied widely between trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific voyages, with the latter appearing to pose a much lower risk than the former. Responses also differed by taxonomic group, with invertebrates experiencing losses mainly in total PP, while diatoms and dinoflagellates sustained losses mainly in CP. In certain cases, open-ocean ballast water exchange appeared to increase introduction risk by uptake of new species or supplementation of existing ones. Our study demonstrates that rank-abundance distributions provide new insights into the utility of CP and PP in characterizing introduction risk. PMID:25473007

  19. Assessing introduction risk using species' rank-abundance distributions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Farrah T; Bradie, Johanna; Briski, Elizabeta; Bailey, Sarah A; Simard, Nathalie; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2015-01-22

    Mixed-species assemblages are often unintentionally introduced into new ecosystems. Analysing how assemblage structure varies during transport may provide insights into how introduction risk changes before propagules are released. Characterization of introduction risk is typically based on assessments of colonization pressure (CP, the number of species transported) and total propagule pressure (total PP, the total abundance of propagules released) associated with an invasion vector. Generally, invasion potential following introduction increases with greater CP or total PP. Here, we extend these assessments using rank-abundance distributions to examine how CP : total PP relationships change temporally in ballast water of ocean-going ships. Rank-abundance distributions and CP : total PP patterns varied widely between trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific voyages, with the latter appearing to pose a much lower risk than the former. Responses also differed by taxonomic group, with invertebrates experiencing losses mainly in total PP, while diatoms and dinoflagellates sustained losses mainly in CP. In certain cases, open-ocean ballast water exchange appeared to increase introduction risk by uptake of new species or supplementation of existing ones. Our study demonstrates that rank-abundance distributions provide new insights into the utility of CP and PP in characterizing introduction risk.

  20. Validation of SmartRank: A likelihood ratio software for searching national DNA databases with complex DNA profiles.

    PubMed

    Benschop, Corina C G; van de Merwe, Linda; de Jong, Jeroen; Vanvooren, Vanessa; Kempenaers, Morgane; Kees van der Beek, C P; Barni, Filippo; Reyes, Eusebio López; Moulin, Léa; Pene, Laurent; Haned, Hinda; Sijen, Titia

    2017-07-01

    Searching a national DNA database with complex and incomplete profiles usually yields very large numbers of possible matches that can present many candidate suspects to be further investigated by the forensic scientist and/or police. Current practice in most forensic laboratories consists of ordering these 'hits' based on the number of matching alleles with the searched profile. Thus, candidate profiles that share the same number of matching alleles are not differentiated and due to the lack of other ranking criteria for the candidate list it may be difficult to discern a true match from the false positives or notice that all candidates are in fact false positives. SmartRank was developed to put forward only relevant candidates and rank them accordingly. The SmartRank software computes a likelihood ratio (LR) for the searched profile and each profile in the DNA database and ranks database entries above a defined LR threshold according to the calculated LR. In this study, we examined for mixed DNA profiles of variable complexity whether the true donors are retrieved, what the number of false positives above an LR threshold is and the ranking position of the true donors. Using 343 mixed DNA profiles over 750 SmartRank searches were performed. In addition, the performance of SmartRank and CODIS were compared regarding DNA database searches and SmartRank was found complementary to CODIS. We also describe the applicable domain of SmartRank and provide guidelines. The SmartRank software is open-source and freely available. Using the best practice guidelines, SmartRank enables obtaining investigative leads in criminal cases lacking a suspect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-rank approximation pursuit for matrix completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, An-Bao; Xie, Dongxiu

    2017-10-01

    We consider the matrix completion problem that aims to construct a low rank matrix X that approximates a given large matrix Y from partially known sample data in Y . In this paper we introduce an efficient greedy algorithm for such matrix completions. The greedy algorithm generalizes the orthogonal rank-one matrix pursuit method (OR1MP) by creating s ⩾ 1 candidates per iteration by low-rank matrix approximation. Due to selecting s ⩾ 1 candidates in each iteration step, our approach uses fewer iterations than OR1MP to achieve the same results. Our algorithm is a randomized low-rank approximation method which makes it computationally inexpensive. The algorithm comes in two forms, the standard one which uses the Lanzcos algorithm to find partial SVDs, and another that uses a randomized approach for this part of its work. The storage complexity of this algorithm can be reduced by using an weight updating rule as an economic version algorithm. We prove that all our algorithms are linearly convergent. Numerical experiments on image reconstruction and recommendation problems are included that illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of our algorithms.

  2. A multiple shift QR-step for structured rank matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandebril, Raf; van Barel, Marc; Mastronardi, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Eigenvalue computations for structured rank matrices are the subject of many investigations nowadays. There exist methods for transforming matrices into structured rank form, QR-algorithms for semiseparable and semiseparable plus diagonal form, methods for reducing structured rank matrices efficiently to Hessenberg form and so forth. Eigenvalue computations for the symmetric case, involving semiseparable and semiseparable plus diagonal matrices have been thoroughly explored. A first attempt for computing the eigenvalues of nonsymmetric matrices via intermediate Hessenberg-like matrices (i.e. a matrix having all subblocks in the lower triangular part of rank at most one) was restricted to the single shift strategy. Unfortunately this leads in general to the use of complex shifts switching thereby from real to complex operations. This paper will explain a general multishift implementation for Hessenberg-like matrices (semiseparable matrices are a special case and hence also admit this approach). Besides a general multishift QR-step, this will also admit restriction to real computations when computing the eigenvalues of arbitrary real matrices. Details on the implementation are provided as well as numerical experiments proving the viability of the presented approach.

  3. RankExplorer: Visualization of Ranking Changes in Large Time Series Data.

    PubMed

    Shi, Conglei; Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Xu, Panpan; Chen, Wei; Qu, Huamin

    2012-12-01

    For many applications involving time series data, people are often interested in the changes of item values over time as well as their ranking changes. For example, people search many words via search engines like Google and Bing every day. Analysts are interested in both the absolute searching number for each word as well as their relative rankings. Both sets of statistics may change over time. For very large time series data with thousands of items, how to visually present ranking changes is an interesting challenge. In this paper, we propose RankExplorer, a novel visualization method based on ThemeRiver to reveal the ranking changes. Our method consists of four major components: 1) a segmentation method which partitions a large set of time series curves into a manageable number of ranking categories; 2) an extended ThemeRiver view with embedded color bars and changing glyphs to show the evolution of aggregation values related to each ranking category over time as well as the content changes in each ranking category; 3) a trend curve to show the degree of ranking changes over time; 4) rich user interactions to support interactive exploration of ranking changes. We have applied our method to some real time series data and the case studies demonstrate that our method can reveal the underlying patterns related to ranking changes which might otherwise be obscured in traditional visualizations.

  4. Adiabatic Quantum Algorithm for Search Engine Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2012-06-01

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log⁡(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in “q-sampling” protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.

  5. Adiabatic quantum algorithm for search engine ranking.

    PubMed

    Garnerone, Silvano; Zanardi, Paolo; Lidar, Daniel A

    2012-06-08

    We propose an adiabatic quantum algorithm for generating a quantum pure state encoding of the PageRank vector, the most widely used tool in ranking the relative importance of internet pages. We present extensive numerical simulations which provide evidence that this algorithm can prepare the quantum PageRank state in a time which, on average, scales polylogarithmically in the number of web pages. We argue that the main topological feature of the underlying web graph allowing for such a scaling is the out-degree distribution. The top-ranked log(n) entries of the quantum PageRank state can then be estimated with a polynomial quantum speed-up. Moreover, the quantum PageRank state can be used in "q-sampling" protocols for testing properties of distributions, which require exponentially fewer measurements than all classical schemes designed for the same task. This can be used to decide whether to run a classical update of the PageRank.

  6. Inhibition effect of enteropeptidase on RANKL-RANK signalling by cleavage of RANK.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunfeng; Jin, Mengmeng; Ma, Juan; Zhang, Shiqian; Li, Wei; Chen, Yuan; Zhou, Yingsheng; Tao, Hong; Liu, Yu; Wang, Lei; Han, Huamin; Niu, Ge; Tao, Hua; Liu, Changzhen; Gao, Bin

    2013-09-17

    Enteropeptidase can cleave trypsinogen on the sequence of Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys and plays an important role in food digestion. The RANKL-RANK signalling pathway plays a pivotal role in bone remodelling. In this study, we reported that enteropeptidase can inhibit the RANKL-RANK signalling pathway through the cleavage of RANK. A surrogate peptide blocking assay indicated that enteropeptidase could specifically cleave RANK on the sequence NEEDK. Osteoclast differentiation assay and NF-κB activity assay confirmed that enteropeptidase could inhibit osteoclastogenesis in vitro through the cleavage of RANK. This is the first study to prove that the RANKL-RANK signalling pathway can be inhibited by cleavage of RANK instead of targeting RANKL.

  7. Method for stabilizing dried low rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, T.Y.

    1987-03-17

    A method is described for protection of heated and dried pyrophoric particles, such as low rank coals, containing a reduced moisture content by treating the particles with a pyrophoric protection fluid within a vessel having a gas-solid separator in combination with a cooling fluid comprising: (a) introducing the heated and dried pyrophoric particles into a vessel which vessel lacks a means for supporting the particles during cooling thereof; (b) fluidizing the particles with the cooling fluid at ambient temperature; (c) applying a pyrophoric protection fluid to the fluidized particles thereby coating the particles sufficiently to cause at least a substantial portion of the particles to agglomerate and fall while simultaneously cooling the agglomerated particles; and (d) removing continuously the agglomerated cooled particles and the cooling fluid from the vessel. The method is also described where in step (b) the pyrophoric protection fluid is at least one member selected from the group consisting of petroleum residual oil, heavy oil, a mixture of tall oil and rosin, and gelatinized starch, in an amount of from about 0.01 weight percent to about 5 weight percent of the particles.

  8. College and School of Pharmacy Characteristics Associated With US News and World Report Rankings

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Craig I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the association between characteristics of colleges and schools of pharmacy and their rankings according to US News and World Report. Methods. The 2008 US News and World Report, mean ranking scores (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0) for 78 US colleges and schools of pharmacy were compared with college and school characteristics, including academic program, students, faculty, and scholarship. The adjusted difference in mean ranking score associated with each characteristic was determined using a multivariate mixed linear regression model. Results. The most powerful identified predictors of mean ranking score included the amount of grant funding (National Institutes of Health [NIH] and non-NIH funding) a college or school of pharmacy received and the yearly publication rates of its department of pharmacy (p≤0.001 for both). The adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools receiving >$5 million and $1 million to $5 million in scholarly grant funding were respectively 0.77 and 0.26 points higher than those receiving none. Adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools whose departments of pharmacy practice had publishing rates of >20 papers and 11 to 20 papers were respectively 0.40 and 0.17 points higher than those publishing ≤10 (p<0.05 for both). Conclusion. The characteristic of colleges and schools of pharmacy most associated with US News and World Report rankings appears to be their scholarly productivity. PMID:23610473

  9. College and school of pharmacy characteristics associated with US News and World Report rankings.

    PubMed

    Schlesselman, Lauren; Coleman, Craig I

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVE. To determine the association between characteristics of colleges and schools of pharmacy and their rankings according to US News and World Report. METHODS. The 2008 US News and World Report, mean ranking scores (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0) for 78 US colleges and schools of pharmacy were compared with college and school characteristics, including academic program, students, faculty, and scholarship. The adjusted difference in mean ranking score associated with each characteristic was determined using a multivariate mixed linear regression model. RESULTS. The most powerful identified predictors of mean ranking score included the amount of grant funding (National Institutes of Health [NIH] and non-NIH funding) a college or school of pharmacy received and the yearly publication rates of its department of pharmacy (p≤0.001 for both). The adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools receiving >$5 million and $1 million to $5 million in scholarly grant funding were respectively 0.77 and 0.26 points higher than those receiving none. Adjusted mean ranking scores for colleges and schools whose departments of pharmacy practice had publishing rates of >20 papers and 11 to 20 papers were respectively 0.40 and 0.17 points higher than those publishing ≤10 (p<0.05 for both). CONCLUSION. The characteristic of colleges and schools of pharmacy most associated with US News and World Report rankings appears to be their scholarly productivity.

  10. Ranked set sampling with unequal samples.

    PubMed

    Bhoj, D S

    2001-09-01

    A ranked set sampling procedure with unequal samples (RSSU) is proposed and used to estimate the population mean. This estimator is then compared with the estimators based on the ranked set sampling (RSS) and median ranked set sampling (MRSS) procedures. It is shown that the relative precisions of the estimator based on RSSU are higher than those of the estimators based on RSS and MRSS. An example of estimating the mean diameter at breast height of longleaf-pine trees on the Wade Tract in Thomas County, Georgia, is presented.

  11. A Universal Rank-Size Law

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A mere hyperbolic law, like the Zipf’s law power function, is often inadequate to describe rank-size relationships. An alternative theoretical distribution is proposed based on theoretical physics arguments starting from the Yule-Simon distribution. A modeling is proposed leading to a universal form. A theoretical suggestion for the “best (or optimal) distribution”, is provided through an entropy argument. The ranking of areas through the number of cities in various countries and some sport competition ranking serves for the present illustrations. PMID:27812192

  12. Otto Rank and man's urge to immortality.

    PubMed

    Goldwert, M

    1985-04-01

    Otto Rank, one of Sigmund Freud's original followers, posited the existence of an "urge to immortality" as man's deepest drive. In his Psychology and the Soul, Rank traced the desire for immortality through four historical eras, with particular emphasis on the creativity of the hero and the artist. By the end of his life, Rank had not only repudiated orthodox psychoanalysis and developed then abandoned a psychology of the will, he had moved "beyond psychology" to a religious view of history and the nature of man.

  13. Sustainable Planning Practices in St. Joseph Watershed as a Mixed Land-Use Watershed to Reduce the Risk of Chemical Impairment of Surface Water Supplies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased population growth in St. Joseph Watershed and the mix of land-use with urban and agricultural production brings about chemical impairment of metropolitan drinking water supplies. Furthermore, the St. Joseph Watershed is not only a drinking water supply, but also it provides water for recre...

  14. A Perceptual Pathway to Bias: Interracial Exposure Reduces Abrupt Shifts in Real-Time Race Perception That Predict Mixed-Race Bias.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Pauker, Kristin; Sanchez, Diana T

    2016-04-01

    In two national samples, we examined the influence of interracial exposure in one's local environment on the dynamic process underlying race perception and its evaluative consequences. Using a mouse-tracking paradigm, we found in Study 1 that White individuals with low interracial exposure exhibited a unique effect of abrupt, unstable White-Black category shifting during real-time perception of mixed-race faces, consistent with predictions from a neural-dynamic model of social categorization and computational simulations. In Study 2, this shifting effect was replicated and shown to predict a trust bias against mixed-race individuals and to mediate the effect of low interracial exposure on that trust bias. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that interracial exposure shapes the dynamics through which racial categories activate and resolve during real-time perceptions, and these initial perceptual dynamics, in turn, may help drive evaluative biases against mixed-race individuals. Thus, lower-level perceptual aspects of encounters with racial ambiguity may serve as a foundation for mixed-race prejudice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1988-04-01

    Co-processing of low-rank coals (LRCs) with petroleum resids under mild conditions may produce a product that extends petroleum refinery feeds with a partially coal-derived material. These co-processing products may also provide a lower-cost way to introduce coal-derived materials into the commercial market. In this staged process, the petroleum resid acts as a solvent, aiding in the solubilization of the coal during the first stage, and both the dissolved coal and the resid are upgraded during a second-stage catalytic hydrogenation. Another method of upgrading coal in a liquefaction process is the ChemCoal Process. The process uses chemical methods to transform coal into clean solid and liquid products. It features low-severity conversion of coal in a phenolic solvent, using an alkali promotor and carbon monoxide as the reductant. Oil agglomeration has been used to reduce the ash and mineral matter in bituminous coals to obtain a product with increased heating value, reduced moisture, and lower sulfur content. This method can be used to produce a clean coal feedstock for liquefaction. During agglomeration, an oil is used to preferentially wet the organic phases of the coal, and water is used to wet the minerals, resulting in a separation of ash and water from the coal. The primary objective of this project is to expand the scientific and engineering data base of LRC liquefaction by investigating direct liquefaction processes that will produce the most competitive feedstocks or liquid fuels. The work effort which was proposed for the second year of this cooperative agreement dealt primarily with co-processing and the ChemCoal Process.

  16. Faculty Hiring at Top-Ranked Higher Education Administration Programs: An Examination Using Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRamio, David; Theroux, Ryan; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Using network analysis we investigated faculty hiring at 21 U. S. News top-ranked programs in higher education administration. Our research questions were as follows. Do top programs hire from each other? Are faculty from the "outside" finding positions at top programs? Mixed results hint at implications for the "health" of the hiring network.…

  17. Faculty Challenges across Rank in Liberal Arts Colleges: A Human Resources Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Vicki L.; Pifer, Meghan J.; Lunsford, Laura G.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges faced by faculty members in a consortium of 13 Liberal Arts Colleges (LACs). We present findings, by academic rank, from a mixed-methods study of faculty development needs and experiences within the consortium. Relying on human resource principles, we advocate a greater focus on the development of the person,…

  18. Faculty Hiring at Top-Ranked Higher Education Administration Programs: An Examination Using Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiRamio, David; Theroux, Ryan; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Using network analysis we investigated faculty hiring at 21 U. S. News top-ranked programs in higher education administration. Our research questions were as follows. Do top programs hire from each other? Are faculty from the "outside" finding positions at top programs? Mixed results hint at implications for the "health" of the hiring network.…

  19. Texas Students Rank Prestige of Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    A survey of 701 Texas high school students revealed that they ranked the prestige of six careers in the following order: (1) minister, (2) television reporter, (3) accountant, (4) policeman, (5) high school teacher, (6) newspaper reporter. (GT)

  20. Superfund Hazard Ranking System Training Course

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Hazard Ranking System (HRS) training course is a four and ½ day, intermediate-level course designed for personnel who are required to compile, draft, and review preliminary assessments (PAs), site inspections (SIs), and HRS documentation records/packag

  1. Rasch analysis of rank-ordered data.

    PubMed

    Linacre, John M

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of several methods for the construction of linear measures from rank-ordered data are presented. The final partial-rankings of 356 professional golfers participating in 47 stroke-play tournaments are used for illustration. The methods include decomposing the rankings into independent paired comparisons without ties, into dependent paired comparisons without ties and into independent paired comparisons with ties. A further method, which is easier to implement, entails modeling each tournament as a partial-credit item in which the rank of each golfer is treated as the observation of a category on a partial-credit rating scale. For the golf data, the partial-credit method yields measures with greater face validity than the paired comparison methods. The methods are implemented with the computer programs FACETS and WINSTEPS.

  2. Quantum Navigation and Ranking in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo; Duch, Jordi; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Zueco, David

    2012-08-01

    Complex networks are formal frameworks capturing the interdependencies between the elements of large systems and databases. This formalism allows to use network navigation methods to rank the importance that each constituent has on the global organization of the system. A key example is Pagerank navigation which is at the core of the most used search engine of the World Wide Web. Inspired in this classical algorithm, we define a quantum navigation method providing a unique ranking of the elements of a network. We analyze the convergence of quantum navigation to the stationary rank of networks and show that quantumness decreases the number of navigation steps before convergence. In addition, we show that quantum navigation allows to solve degeneracies found in classical ranks. By implementing the quantum algorithm in real networks, we confirm these improvements and show that quantum coherence unveils new hierarchical features about the global organization of complex systems.

  3. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  4. Quantum Navigation and Ranking in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Burillo, Eduardo; Duch, Jordi; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Zueco, David

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks are formal frameworks capturing the interdependencies between the elements of large systems and databases. This formalism allows to use network navigation methods to rank the importance that each constituent has on the global organization of the system. A key example is Pagerank navigation which is at the core of the most used search engine of the World Wide Web. Inspired in this classical algorithm, we define a quantum navigation method providing a unique ranking of the elements of a network. We analyze the convergence of quantum navigation to the stationary rank of networks and show that quantumness decreases the number of navigation steps before convergence. In addition, we show that quantum navigation allows to solve degeneracies found in classical ranks. By implementing the quantum algorithm in real networks, we confirm these improvements and show that quantum coherence unveils new hierarchical features about the global organization of complex systems. PMID:22930671

  5. Ranking Forestry Investments With Parametric Linear Programming

    Treesearch

    Paul A. Murphy

    1976-01-01

    Parametric linear programming is introduced as a technique for ranking forestry investments under multiple constraints; it combines the advantages of simple tanking and linear programming as capital budgeting tools.

  6. Let your users do the ranking.

    SciTech Connect

    Spomer, Judith E.

    2010-12-01

    Ranking search results is a thorny issue for enterprise search. Search engines rank results using a variety of sophisticated algorithms, but users still complain that search can't ever seem to find anything useful or relevant! The challenge is to provide results that are ranked according to the users' definition of relevancy. Sandia National Laboratories has enhanced its commercial search engine to discover user preferences, re-ranking results accordingly. Immediate positive impact was achieved by modeling historical data consisting of user queries and subsequent result clicks. New data is incorporated into the model daily. An important benefit is that results improve naturally and automatically over time as a function of user actions. This session presents the method employed, how it was integrated with the search engine,metrics illustrating the subsequent improvement to the users' search experience, and plans for implementation with Sandia's FAST for SharePoint 2010 search engine.

  7. Efficiency improved scalar wave low-rank extrapolation with an effective perfectly matched layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanming; Zhou, Hui; Xia, Muming

    2017-02-01

    Low-rank extrapolation is a relatively new method for seismic wave simulation. However, the low-rank method involved requires several fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) per time step, and the number of FFTs increases with the time-stepping size and complexity of the model, which leads to high computational cost at each step. To reduce the cost per time step, a more efficient low-rank extrapolation scheme is presented by splitting the original wave propagator into two parts. The first part represents the traditional pseudo-spectral operator, and is calculated by FFT directly. The residual part compensates the time-stepping error, and is approximated by low-rank decomposition. Compared with the conventional low-rank extrapolation scheme, the improved extrapolation scheme enables using a lower rank for the decomposition to attain similar approximation accuracy, which reduces the number of floating-point operations per time step, and thus reduces the total computational cost. To avoid the wraparound effect caused by FFTs, we develop an effective split perfectly matched layer (PML) to absorb outgoing waves near the boundary. Numerical examples verify the accuracy of the developed low-rank extrapolation scheme and the effectiveness of the PML.

  8. Block models and personalized PageRank

    PubMed Central

    Kloumann, Isabel M.; Ugander, Johan; Kleinberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Methods for ranking the importance of nodes in a network have a rich history in machine learning and across domains that analyze structured data. Recent work has evaluated these methods through the “seed set expansion problem”: given a subset S of nodes from a community of interest in an underlying graph, can we reliably identify the rest of the community? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate in the space of “landing probabilities” of a random walk rooted at the seed set, ranking nodes according to weighted sums of landing probabilities of different length walks. Both schemes, however, lack an a priori relationship to the seed set objective. In this work, we develop a principled framework for evaluating ranking methods by studying seed set expansion applied to the stochastic block model. We derive the optimal gradient for separating the landing probabilities of two classes in a stochastic block model and find, surprisingly, that under reasonable assumptions the gradient is asymptotically equivalent to personalized PageRank for a specific choice of the PageRank parameter α that depends on the block model parameters. This connection provides a formal motivation for the success of personalized PageRank in seed set expansion and node ranking generally. We use this connection to propose more advanced techniques incorporating higher moments of landing probabilities; our advanced methods exhibit greatly improved performance, despite being simple linear classification rules, and are even competitive with belief propagation. PMID:27999183

  9. New methods to identify and rank high pedestrian crash zones: an illustration.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Krishnakumar, Vanjeeswaran K; Nambisan, Shashi S

    2007-07-01

    Identifying and ranking high pedestrian crash zones plays a key role in developing efficient and effective strategies to enhance pedestrian safety. This paper presents (1) a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) methodology to study the spatial patterns of pedestrian crashes in order to identify high pedestrian crash zones, and (2) an evaluation of methods to rank these high pedestrian crash zones. The GIS based methodology to identify high pedestrian crash zones includes geocoding crash data, creating crash concentration maps, and then identifying high pedestrian crash zones. Two methods generally used to create crash concentration maps based on density values are the Simple Method and the Kernel Method. Ranking methods such as crash frequency, crash density, and crash rate, as well as composite methods such as the sum-of-the-ranks and the crash score methods are used to rank the selected high pedestrian crash zones. The use of this methodology and ranking methods for high pedestrian crash zones are illustrated using the Las Vegas metropolitan area as the study area. Crash data collected for a 5-year period (1998-2002) were address matched using the street name/reference street name intersection location reference system. A crash concentration map was then created using the Kernel Method as it facilitates the creation of a smooth density surface when compared to the Simple Method. Twenty-two linear high crash zones and seven circular high crash zones were then identified. The GIS based methodology reduced the subjectivity in the analysis process. Results obtained from the evaluation of methods to rank high pedestrian crash zones show a significant variation in ranking when individual methods were considered. However, rankings of high pedestrian crash zones were relatively consistent with little to no variation when the sum-of-the-ranks method and the crash score method were used. Thus, these composite methods are recommended for use in ranking high pedestrian

  10. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  11. Hierarchical Rank Aggregation with Applications to Nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trina; Telesca, Donatello; Rallo, Robert; George, Saji; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2013-06-01

    The development of high throughput screening (HTS) assays in the field of nanotoxicology provide new opportunities for the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). It is often necessary to rank lists of materials based on multiple risk assessment parameters, often aggregated across several measures of toxicity and possibly spanning an array of experimental platforms. Bayesian models coupled with the optimization of loss functions have been shown to provide an effective framework for conducting inference on ranks. In this article we present various loss-function-based ranking approaches for comparing ENM within experiments and toxicity parameters. Additionally, we propose a framework for the aggregation of ranks across different sources of evidence while allowing for differential weighting of this evidence based on its reliability and importance in risk ranking. We apply these methods to high throughput toxicity data on two human cell-lines, exposed to eight different nanomaterials, and measured in relation to four cytotoxicity outcomes. This article has supplementary material online.

  12. Rank distributions: a panoramic macroscopic outlook.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo I; Cohen, Morrel H

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions-top-down, bottom-up, and global-and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  13. Hierarchical Rank Aggregation with Applications to Nanotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Telesca, Donatello; Rallo, Robert; George, Saji; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    The development of high throughput screening (HTS) assays in the field of nanotoxicology provide new opportunities for the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). It is often necessary to rank lists of materials based on multiple risk assessment parameters, often aggregated across several measures of toxicity and possibly spanning an array of experimental platforms. Bayesian models coupled with the optimization of loss functions have been shown to provide an effective framework for conducting inference on ranks. In this article we present various loss-function-based ranking approaches for comparing ENM within experiments and toxicity parameters. Additionally, we propose a framework for the aggregation of ranks across different sources of evidence while allowing for differential weighting of this evidence based on its reliability and importance in risk ranking. We apply these methods to high throughput toxicity data on two human cell-lines, exposed to eight different nanomaterials, and measured in relation to four cytotoxicity outcomes. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:24839387

  14. On the Number of Ranked Species Trees Producing Anomalous Ranked Gene Trees.

    PubMed

    Disanto, Filippo; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of probability distributions conditional on species trees has demonstrated the existence of anomalous ranked gene trees (ARGTs), ranked gene trees that are more probable than the ranked gene tree that accords with the ranked species tree. Here, to improve the characterization of ARGTs, we study enumerative and probabilistic properties of two classes of ranked labeled species trees, focusing on the presence or avoidance of certain subtree patterns associated with the production of ARGTs. We provide exact enumerations and asymptotic estimates for cardinalities of these sets of trees, showing that as the number of species increases without bound, the fraction of all ranked labeled species trees that are ARGT-producing approaches 1. This result extends beyond earlier existence results to provide a probabilistic claim about the frequency of ARGTs.

  15. PageRank as a method to rank biomedical literature by importance.

    PubMed

    Yates, Elliot J; Dixon, Louise C

    2015-01-01

    Optimal ranking of literature importance is vital in overcoming article overload. Existing ranking methods are typically based on raw citation counts, giving a sum of 'inbound' links with no consideration of citation importance. PageRank, an algorithm originally developed for ranking webpages at the search engine, Google, could potentially be adapted to bibliometrics to quantify the relative importance weightings of a citation network. This article seeks to validate such an approach on the freely available, PubMed Central open access subset (PMC-OAS) of biomedical literature. On-demand cloud computing infrastructure was used to extract a citation network from over 600,000 full-text PMC-OAS articles. PageRanks and citation counts were calculated for each node in this network. PageRank is highly correlated with citation count (R = 0.905, P < 0.01) and we thus validate the former as a surrogate of literature importance. Furthermore, the algorithm can be run in trivial time on cheap, commodity cluster hardware, lowering the barrier of entry for resource-limited open access organisations. PageRank can be trivially computed on commodity cluster hardware and is linearly correlated with citation count. Given its putative benefits in quantifying relative importance, we suggest it may enrich the citation network, thereby overcoming the existing inadequacy of citation counts alone. We thus suggest PageRank as a feasible supplement to, or replacement of, existing bibliometric ranking methods.

  16. Unusual mixed valent FeIIIFeII complex (St = 3/2) stabilised by a reduced bulky 1,2-diketone.

    PubMed

    Spikes, Geoffrey H; Bill, Eckhard; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Wieghardt, Karl

    2007-11-14

    The reduction of the bulky 1,2-diketone bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)glyoxal () and FeBr(2) with 1.5 equivalents of Na results in a Class 2 mixed valent H.S. Fe(II) L.S. Fe(III) complex (2) with two five-coordinate Fe centres which are antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to give a total spin S(t) = 3/2 ground state and an S(t) = 5/2 excited state that are separated by about 25 cm(-1) (for Delta(J) approximately 5J).

  17. Classification of hyperbolic singularities of rank zero of integrable Hamiltonian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oshemkov, Andrey A

    2010-10-06

    A complete invariant is constructed that is a solution of the problem of semilocal classification of saddle singularities of integrable Hamiltonian systems. Namely, a certain combinatorial object (an f{sub n}-graph) is associated with every nondegenerate saddle singularity of rank zero; as a result, the problem of semilocal classification of saddle singularities of rank zero is reduced to the problem of enumeration of the f{sub n}-graphs. This enables us to describe a simple algorithm for obtaining the lists of saddle singularities of rank zero for a given number of degrees of freedom and a given complexity. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  18. An improved procedure for estimation of malignant breast cancer prevalence using partially rank ordered set samples with multiple concomitants.

    PubMed

    Hatefi, Armin; Jafari Jozani, Mohammad

    2015-08-26

    Rank-based sampling designs are widely used in situations where measuring the variable of interest is costly but a small number of sampling units (set) can be easily ranked prior to taking the final measurements on them and this can be done at little cost. When the variable of interest is binary, a common approach for ranking the sampling units is to estimate the probabilities of success through a logistic regression model. However, this requires training samples for model fitting. Also, in this approach once a sampling unit has been measured, the extra rank information obtained in the ranking process is not used further in the estimation process. To address these issues, in this paper, we propose to use the partially rank-ordered set sampling design with multiple concomitants. In this approach, instead of fitting a logistic regression model, a soft ranking technique is employed to obtain a vector of weights for each measured unit that represents the probability or the degree of belief associated with its rank among a small set of sampling units. We construct an estimator which combines the rank information and the observed partially rank-ordered set measurements themselves. The proposed methodology is applied to a breast cancer study to estimate the proportion of patients with malignant (cancerous) breast tumours in a given population. Through extensive numerical studies, the performance of the estimator is evaluated under various concomitants with different ranking potentials (i.e. good, intermediate and bad) and tie structures among the ranks. We show that the precision of the partially rank-ordered set estimator is better than its counterparts under simple random sampling and ranked set sampling designs and, hence, the sample size required to achieve a desired precision is reduced.

  19. Ranking welding intensity in pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quane, Steven L.; Russell, James K.

    2005-02-01

    Welding of pyroclastic deposits involves flattening of glassy pyroclasts under a compactional load at temperatures above the glass transition temperature. Progressive welding is recorded by changes in the petrographic (e.g., fabric) and physical (e.g., density) properties of the deposits. Mapping the intensity of welding can be integral to studies of pyroclastic deposits, but making systematic comparisons between deposits can be problematical. Here we develop a scheme for ranking welding intensity in pyroclastic deposits on the basis of petrographic textural observations (e.g., oblateness of pumice lapilli and micro-fabric orientation) and measurements of physical properties, including density, porosity, point load strength and uniaxial compressive strength. Our dataset comprises measurements on 100 samples collected from a single cooling unit of the Bandelier Tuff and parallel measurements on 8 samples of more densely welded deposits. The proposed classification comprises six ranks of welding intensity ranging from unconsolidated (Rank I) to obsidian-like vitrophyre (Rank VI) and should allow for reproducible mapping of subtle variations in welding intensity between different deposits. The application of the ranking scheme is demonstrated by using published physical property data on welded pyroclastic deposits to map the total accumulated strain and to reconstruct their pre-welding thicknesses.

  20. Modeling Area-Level Health Rankings

    PubMed Central

    Courtemanche, Charles; Soneji, Samir; Tchernis, Rusty

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rank county health using a Bayesian factor analysis model. Data Sources Secondary county data from the National Center for Health Statistics (through 2007) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (through 2009). Study Design Our model builds on the existing county health rankings (CHRs) by using data-derived weights to compute ranks from mortality and morbidity variables, and by quantifying uncertainty based on population, spatial correlation, and missing data. We apply our model to Wisconsin, which has comprehensive data, and Texas, which has substantial missing information. Data Collection Methods The data were downloaded from www.countyhealthrankings.org. Principal Findings Our estimated rankings are more similar to the CHRs for Wisconsin than Texas, as the data-derived factor weights are closer to the assigned weights for Wisconsin. The correlations between the CHRs and our ranks are 0.89 for Wisconsin and 0.65 for Texas. Uncertainty is especially severe for Texas given the state's substantial missing data. Conclusions The reliability of comprehensive CHRs varies from state to state. We advise focusing on the counties that remain among the least healthy after incorporating alternate weighting methods and accounting for uncertainty. Our results also highlight the need for broader geographic coverage in health data. PMID:26256684

  1. A low rank approach to automatic differentiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Khalik, H. S.; Hovland, P. D.; Lyons, A.; Stover, T. E.; Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; North Carolina State Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript introduces a new approach for increasing the efficiency of automatic differentiation (AD) computations for estimating the first order derivatives comprising the Jacobian matrix of a complex large-scale computational model. The objective is to approximate the entire Jacobian matrix with minimized computational and storage resources. This is achieved by finding low rank approximations to a Jacobian matrix via the Efficient Subspace Method (ESM). Low rank Jacobian matrices arise in many of today's important scientific and engineering problems, e.g. nuclear reactor calculations, weather climate modeling, geophysical applications, etc. A low rank approximation replaces the original Jacobian matrix J (whose size is dictated by the size of the input and output data streams) with matrices of much smaller dimensions (determined by the numerical rank of the Jacobian matrix). This process reveals the rank of the Jacobian matrix and can be obtained by ESM via a series of r randomized matrix-vector products of the form: Jq, and J{sup T} {omega} which can be evaluated by the AD forward and reverse modes, respectively.

  2. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  3. Groundwater contaminant plume ranking. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    Containment plumes at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites were ranked to assist in Subpart B (i.e., restoration requirements of 40 CFR Part 192) compliance strategies for each site, to prioritize aquifer restoration, and to budget future requests and allocations. The rankings roughly estimate hazards to the environment and human health, and thus assist in determining for which sites cleanup, if appropriate, will provide the greatest benefits for funds available. The rankings are based on the scores that were obtained using the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Modified Hazard Ranking System (MHRS). The MHRS and HRS consider and score three hazard modes for a site: migration, fire and explosion, and direct contact. The migration hazard mode score reflects the potential for harm to humans or the environment from migration of a hazardous substance off a site by groundwater, surface water, and air; it is a composite of separate scores for each of these routes. For ranking the containment plumes at UMTRA Project sites, it was assumed that each site had been remediated in compliance with the EPA standards and that relict contaminant plumes were present. Therefore, only the groundwater route was scored, and the surface water and air routes were not considered. Section 2.0 of this document describes the assumptions and procedures used to score the groundwater route, and Section 3.0 provides the resulting scores for each site. 40 tabs.

  4. Factors influencing subjective ranking of driver distractions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayesh; Ball, David J; Jones, Huw

    2008-01-01

    Driver distraction is recognised as a significant cause of road traffic incidents. However, the more objective measurement and ranking of the relative importance of individual distractions in contributing to incidents tend to differ from subjectively-held rankings. To investigate this, the present study examines qualitative characteristics of 14 driver distractions to determine if these characteristics might explain the discrepancy. The conclusion is that for laypersons, qualitative characteristics, such as equity and familiarity, do contribute to their ranking of driver distractions. This poses some interesting issues for risk managers. For example, should safety interventions aimed at driver distractions be based purely on factual data and life-saving potential, or should they accommodate qualitative factors of salience to the public?

  5. Higher-rank fields and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfond, O. A.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Sp(2 M) invariant field equations in the space ℳ M with symmetric matrix coordinates are classified. Analogous results are obtained for Minkowski-like subspaces of ℳ M which include usual 4 d Minkowski space as a particular case. The constructed equations are associated with the tensor products of the Fock (singleton) representation of Sp(2 M) of any rank r. The infinite set of higher-spin conserved currents multilinear in rank-one fields in ℳ M is found. The associated conserved charges are supported by rM-r(r-1)/2 -dimensional differential forms in ℳ M , that are closed by virtue of the rank-2 r field equations. The cohomology groups H p ( σ - r ) with all p and r, which determine the form of appropriate gauge fields and their field equations, are found both for ℳ M and for its Minkowski-like subspace.

  6. Social rank strategies in hierarchical relationships.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Marc A; Moskowitz, D S; Zuroff, David C

    2002-08-01

    Social rank theorists propose that threat appraisals evoke escalation behavior toward subordinates and de-escalation behavior toward superiors. These hypotheses were examined among records of behavior sampled ecologically from the work environments of 90 individuals. At the level of the event, situated threat appraisals (feeling criticized) predicted different kinds of behavior across status situations. Individuals tended to quarrel when criticized by subordinates and to submit when criticized by superiors. At the level of the person, aggregated rank appraisals (feeling inferior) predicted different kinds of behavior across status situations. Individuals who typically felt more inferior tended to quarrel more frequently with subordinates and to submit more frequently with superiors. Findings implicated inferiority and threat as fundamental dimensions underlying the behavior of the social rank system.

  7. Ranking of facial profiles among Asians.

    PubMed

    Lew, K K; Soh, G; Loh, E

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the facial profile preferences in a sample of 1,189 Asian teenagers (aged 15.3 +/- 3.2 years). Five facial profile types were computer-generated by trained personnel (orthodontists and oral maxillofacial surgeons) to represent distinct facial types. Subjects were asked to rank the profiles in descending order of attractiveness. The ranking was as follows: orthognathic profile, bimaxillary retrusive profile, bimaxillary protrusive profile, mandibular retrognathic profile, and mandibular prognathic profile. The differences in rank scores between all the profile types were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Assessment of profile types among lay personnel could provide clinicians an indication into the relative attractiveness among profile types and health care workers in treatment prioritization among dysmorphic facial types.

  8. Statistically efficient tomography of low rank states with incomplete measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Anirudh; Kypraios, Theodore; Guţă, Mădălin

    2016-04-01

    The construction of physically relevant low dimensional state models, and the design of appropriate measurements are key issues in tackling quantum state tomography for large dimensional systems. We consider the statistical problem of estimating low rank states in the set-up of multiple ions tomography, and investigate how the estimation error behaves with a reduction in the number of measurement settings, compared with the standard ion tomography setup. We present extensive simulation results showing that the error is robust with respect to the choice of states of a given rank, the random selection of settings, and that the number of settings can be significantly reduced with only a negligible increase in error. We present an argument to explain these findings based on a concentration inequality for the Fisher information matrix. In the more general setup of random basis measurements we use this argument to show that for certain rank r states it suffices to measure in O(r{log}d) bases to achieve the average Fisher information over all bases. We present numerical evidence for random states of up to eight atoms, which suggests that a similar behaviour holds in the case of Pauli bases measurements, for randomly chosen states. The relation to similar problems in compressed sensing is also discussed.

  9. A mixed method study of an education intervention to reduce use of restraint and implement person-centered dementia care in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Frode F; Mekki, Tone Elin; Førland, Oddvar; Folkestad, Bjarte; Kirkevold, Øyvind; Skår, Randi; Tveit, Eva Marie; Øye, Christine

    2017-01-01

    People living with dementia in nursing homes are most likely to be restrained. The primary aim of this mixed-method education intervention study was to investigate which factors hindered or facilitated staff awareness related to confidence building initiatives based on person-centred care, as an alternative to restraint in residents with dementia in nursing homes. The education intervention, consisting of a two-day seminar and monthly coaching sessions for six months, targeted nursing staff in 24 nursing homes in Western Norway. The present article reports on staff-related data from the study. We employed a mixed-method design combining quantitative and qualitative methods. The P-CAT (Person-centred Care Assessment Tool) and QPS-Nordic (The General Nordic questionnaire for psychological and social factors at work) instruments were used to measure staff effects in terms of person-centred care and perception of leadership. The qualitative data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork, qualitative interviews and analysis of 84 reflection notes from eight persons in the four teams who facilitated the intervention. The PARIHS (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) theoretical framework informed the study design and the data analysis. Six nursing homes were selected for ethnographic study post-intervention. Qualitative data indicated increased staff awareness related to using restraint - or not- in the context of person-centered care. A slight increase in P-CAT supported these findings. Thirteen percent of the P-CAT variation was explained by institutional belonging. Qualitative data indicated that whether shared decisions of alternative measures to restraint were applied was a function of dynamic interplay between facilitation and contextual elements. In this connection, the role of the nursing home leaders appeared to be a pivotal element promoting or hindering person-centered care. However, leadership-staff relations varied substantially

  10. Resonances under rank-one perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Olivier; Cortés, Víctor H.; Del Río, Rafael; Fernández, Claudio

    2017-09-01

    We study resonances generated by rank-one perturbations of self-adjoint operators with eigenvalues embedded in the continuous spectrum. Instability of these eigenvalues is analyzed and almost exponential decay for the associated resonant states is exhibited. We show how these results can be applied to Sturm-Liouville operators. Main tools are the Aronszajn-Donoghue theory for rank-one perturbations, a reduction process of the resolvent based on the Feshbach-Livsic formula, the Fermi golden rule, and a careful analysis of the Fourier transform of quasi-Lorentzian functions. We relate these results to sojourn time estimates and spectral concentration phenomena.

  11. Ranking USRDS provider specific SMRs from 1998-2001

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Thomas A.; Paddock, Susan M.; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Provider profiling (ranking/percentiling) is prevalent in health services research. Bayesian models coupled with optimizing a loss function provide an effective framework for computing non-standard inferences such as ranks. Inferences depend on the posterior distribution and should be guided by inferential goals. However, even optimal methods might not lead to definitive results and ranks should be accompanied by valid uncertainty assessments. We outline the Bayesian approach and use estimated Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) in 1998-2001 from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) as a platform to identify issues and demonstrate approaches. Our analyses extend Liu et al. (2004) by computing estimates developed by Lin et al. (2006) that minimize errors in classifying providers above or below a percentile cut-point, by combining evidence over multiple years via a first-order, autoregressive model on log(SMR), and by use of a nonparametric prior. Results show that ranks/percentiles based on maximum likelihood estimates of the SMRs and those based on testing whether an SMR = 1 substantially under-perform the optimal estimates. Combining evidence over the four years using the autoregressive model reduces uncertainty, improving performance over percentiles based on only one year. Furthermore, percentiles based on posterior probabilities of exceeding a properly chosen SMR threshold are essentially identical to those produced by minimizing classification loss. Uncertainty measures effectively calibrate performance, showing that considerable uncertainty remains even when using optimal methods. Findings highlight the importance of using loss function guided percentiles and the necessity of accompanying estimates with uncertainty assessments. PMID:19343106

  12. Ranked motives of long-term care providing family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Beneken Genaamd Kolmer, Deirdre; Tellings, Agnes; Gelissen, John; Garretsen, Henk; Bongers, Inge

    2008-03-01

    Family caregivers provide long-term care to their chronically ill loved ones and as a consequence they experience physical, relational and financial problems. This study investigates how long-term family caregivers rank 12 motives for caregiving. Motives are derived from the views of four philosophical anthropologists and are related to self-reported stress and joy and to several different background characteristics of respondents. Motives that focus on feelings concerning the relationship between caregiver and care recipient are more popular as a first choice than motives stemming from feelings of obligation or a general feeling of happiness and are also more popular than more self-directed motives. An analysis of full ranking data shows that two groups can be distinguished, one group of family caregivers with mixed motives and one group of family caregivers with motives that focus on reciprocal mutually equal relationships. The latter are mainly women taking care for a partner or a child, the former report high levels of stress. Implications for intervention programmes and health policy are being discussed.

  13. A New Powerful Nonparametric Rank Test for Ordered Alternative Problem

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guogen; Young, Daniel; Kang, Le

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new nonparametric test for ordered alternative problem based on the rank difference between two observations from different groups. These groups are assumed to be independent from each other. The exact mean and variance of the test statistic under the null distribution are derived, and its asymptotic distribution is proven to be normal. Furthermore, an extensive power comparison between the new test and other commonly used tests shows that the new test is generally more powerful than others under various conditions, including the same type of distribution, and mixed distributions. A real example from an anti-hypertensive drug trial is provided to illustrate the application of the tests. The new test is therefore recommended for use in practice due to easy calculation and substantial power gain. PMID:25405757

  14. Deans' Perceptions of Published Rankings of Business Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athavale, Manoj; Bott, Jennifer; Myring, Mark; Richardson, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    Using a survey of college of business deans, the authors investigate perceptions of published rankings of academic programs. Published rankings have become quite prominent, and anecdotal evidence suggests great efforts are being undertaken to be included in rankings or enhance rankings. The authors conducted a survey of business school deans to…

  15. World University Rankings: Take with a Large Pinch of Salt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Soh Kay

    2011-01-01

    Equating the unequal is misleading, and this happens consistently in comparing rankings from different university ranking systems, as the NUT saga shows. This article illustrates the problem by analyzing the 2011 rankings of the top 100 universities in the AWUR, QSWUR and THEWUR ranking results. It also discusses the reasons why the rankings…

  16. 5 CFR 451.302 - Ranks for senior career employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ranks for senior career employees. 451... AWARDS Presidential Rank Awards § 451.302 Ranks for senior career employees. (a) The circumstances under... Professional to a senior career employee are set forth in 5 U.S.C. 4507a. (b) To be eligible for a rank...

  17. 5 CFR 451.302 - Ranks for senior career employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ranks for senior career employees. 451... AWARDS Presidential Rank Awards § 451.302 Ranks for senior career employees. (a) The circumstances under... Professional to a senior career employee are set forth in 5 U.S.C. 4507a. (b) To be eligible for a rank...

  18. Nominal versus Attained Weights in Universitas 21 Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2014-01-01

    Universitas 21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems (U21 Ranking) is one of the three new ranking systems appearing in 2012. In contrast with the other systems, U21 Ranking uses countries as the unit of analysis. It has several features which lend it with greater trustworthiness, but it also shared some methodological issues with the other…

  19. Examining Major Rankings According to the Berlin Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Nian Cai

    2008-01-01

    While the ranking of higher education institutions (HEIs) has become more and more popular, there are increasing concerns about the quality of such ranking. In response to such legitimate expectations, in May 2006, the International Ranking Expert Group (IREG) developed and endorsed a guideline document--the Berlin Principles on Ranking of Higher…

  20. Academic Quality Rankings of American Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David S.

    Past and current methods used in academic quality rankings of U.S. colleges and universities are discussed. In addition to a literature and historical review, modern quality rankings are compared with early (pre-1959) rankings, including past rankings of medical, dental, legal and black education. Also considered are the exemplary 1982 evaluation…

  1. Rehabbing the Rankings: Fool's Errand or the Lord's Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.

    2011-01-01

    For better or worse, rankings shape public conceptions of collegiate quality. This paper reviews the history of rankings, analyzes what they represent, explores recent efforts to employ indicators in addition to institutional resources and reputation on which the most popular rankings are based, and evaluates the extent to which rankings serve…

  2. Statistical and Mathematical Aspects of Ranking: Lessons from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocki, Marek

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents both the formal and methodological variety of ranking approaches, and asks whether a really objective ranking is possible. A ranking represents compiled information, provided according to a criterion or set of criteria. Its purpose is to highlight real or perceived differences in quality. Ranking methodology refers to its…

  3. 5 CFR 451.302 - Ranks for senior career employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ranks for senior career employees. 451... AWARDS Presidential Rank Awards § 451.302 Ranks for senior career employees. (a) The circumstances under... Professional to a senior career employee are set forth in 5 U.S.C. 4507a. (b) To be eligible for a rank award...

  4. 5 CFR 451.302 - Ranks for senior career employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ranks for senior career employees. 451... AWARDS Presidential Rank Awards § 451.302 Ranks for senior career employees. (a) The circumstances under... Professional to a senior career employee are set forth in 5 U.S.C. 4507a. (b) To be eligible for a rank award...

  5. 5 CFR 451.302 - Ranks for senior career employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ranks for senior career employees. 451... AWARDS Presidential Rank Awards § 451.302 Ranks for senior career employees. (a) The circumstances under... Professional to a senior career employee are set forth in 5 U.S.C. 4507a. (b) To be eligible for a rank award...

  6. On Classification of Modular Categories by Rank: Table A.1

    SciTech Connect

    Bruillard, Paul; Ng, Siu-Hung; Rowell, Eric C.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2016-04-10

    The feasibility of a classification-by-rank program for modular categories follows from the Rank-Finiteness Theorem. We develop arithmetic, representation theoretic and algebraic methods for classifying modular categories by rank. As an application, we determine all possible fusion rules for all rank=5 modular categories and describe the corresponding monoidal equivalence classes.

  7. Nominal versus Attained Weights in Universitas 21 Ranking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2014-01-01

    Universitas 21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems (U21 Ranking) is one of the three new ranking systems appearing in 2012. In contrast with the other systems, U21 Ranking uses countries as the unit of analysis. It has several features which lend it with greater trustworthiness, but it also shared some methodological issues with the other…

  8. Ending the Reign of the Fraser Institute's School Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The Fraser Institute "Report Card" of school rankings has won the hearts of parents and the press. For over a decade, the rankings have been particularly burdensome for low-ranking (usually low socio-economic status, high-poverty) schools when parents of high-achieving children move them to higher-ranking schools. In February 2010, after…

  9. Experience with Alemtuzumab, Fludarabine, and Melphalan Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients with Nonmalignant Diseases Reveals Good Outcomes and That the Risk of Mixed Chimerism Depends on Underlying Disease, Stem Cell Source, and Alemtuzumab Regimen.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Rebecca A; Rao, Marepalli B; Gefen, Aharon; Bellman, Denise; Mehta, Parinda A; Khandelwal, Pooja; Chandra, Sharat; Jodele, Sonata; Myers, Kasiani C; Grimley, Michael; Dandoy, Christopher; El-Bietar, Javier; Kumar, Ashish R; Leemhuis, Tom; Zhang, Kejian; Bleesing, Jack J; Jordan, Michael B; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Davies, Stella M

    2015-08-01

    Alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens are increasingly used for the hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) of pediatric and young adult patients with nonmalignant diseases. Early experience suggests that these regimens are associated with good survival but a high incidence of mixed chimerism, which we have previously shown to be influenced by the alemtuzumab schedule. We hypothesized that the underlying diagnosis and donor graft source would also affect the development of mixed chimerism and that the majority of patients would survive RIC HCT without graft loss. To examine this, we conducted a retrospective study of 206 patients with metabolic diseases, non-Fanconi anemia marrow failure disorders, and primary immune deficiencies who underwent 210 consecutive RIC HCT procedures at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. Ninety-seven percent of the patients engrafted. Mixed donor and recipient chimerism developed in 46% of patients. Patients with marrow failure had a low risk of mixed chimerism (hazard ratio [HR], .208; 95% confidence interval [CI], .061 to .709; P = .012). The risk of mixed chimerism was high in patients who received a cord blood graft (HR, 3.122; 95% CI, 1.236 to 7.888; P = .016). As expected, patients who received a proximal or higher dose per kilogram of alemtuzumab schedule also experienced higher rates of mixed chimerism (all HR > 2, all P < .05). At the time of last follow-up (median, 654 days; range, 13 to 3337), over 75% of patients had greater than 90% whole blood donor chimerism. A second transplantation was performed in 5% of patients. Three-year survival without retransplantation was 84% (95% CI, 71% to 98%) for patients who underwent transplantation with an HLA-matched sibling donor. Survival without retransplantation was negatively affected by lack of a matched related donor, increasing age, and development of grades III and IV acute graft-versus-host disease. We conclude that alemtuzumab

  10. Experience with Alemtuzumab, Fludarabine, and Melphalan Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients with Nonmalignant Diseases Reveals Good Outcomes and That the Risk of Mixed Chimerism Depends on Underlying Disease, Stem Cell Source, and Alemtuzumab Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Rebecca A.; Rao, Marepalli B.; Gefen, Aharon; Bellman, Denise; Mehta, Parinda A.; Khandelwal, Pooja; Chandra, Sharat; Jodele, Sonata; Myers, Kasiani C.; Grimley, Michael; Dandoy, Christopher; El-Bietar, Javier; Kumar, Ashish R.; Leemhuis, Tom; Zhang, Kejian; Bleesing, Jack J.; Jordan, Michael B.; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Davies, Stella M.

    2015-01-01

    Alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens are increasingly used for the hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) of pediatric and young adult patients with nonmalignant diseases. Early experience suggests that these regimens are associated with good survival but a high incidence of mixed chimerism, which we have previously shown to be influenced by the alemtuzumab schedule. We hypothesized that the underlying diagnosis and donor graft source would also affect the development of mixed chimerism and that the majority of patients would survive RIC HCT without graft loss. To examine this, we conducted a retrospective study of 206 patients with metabolic diseases, non-Fanconi anemia marrow failure disorders, and primary immune deficiencies who underwent 210 consecutive RIC HCT procedures at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital. Ninety-seven percent of the patients engrafted. Mixed donor and recipient chimerism developed in 46% of patients. Patients with marrow failure had a low risk of mixed chimerism (hazard ratio [HR], .208; 95% confidence interval [CI], .061 to .709; P = .012). The risk of mixed chimerism was high in patients who received a cord blood graft (HR, 3.122; 95% CI, 1.236 to 7.888; P = .016). As expected, patients who received a proximal or higher dose per kilogram of alemtuzumab schedule also experienced higher rates of mixed chimerism (all HR > 2, all P < .05). At the time of last follow-up (median, 654 days; range, 13 to 3337), over 75% of patients had greater than 90% whole blood donor chimerism. A second transplantation was performed in 5% of patients. Three-year survival without retransplantation was 84% (95% CI, 71% to 98%) for patients who underwent transplantation with an HLA-matched sibling donor. Survival without retransplantation was negatively affected by lack of a matched related donor, increasing age, and development of grades III and IV acute graft-versus-host disease. We conclude that alemtuzumab

  11. Statistical Optimality in Multipartite Ranking and Ordinal Regression.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Kazuki; Lee, Yoonkyung

    2015-05-01

    Statistical optimality in multipartite ranking is investigated as an extension of bipartite ranking. We consider the optimality of ranking algorithms through minimization of the theoretical risk which combines pairwise ranking errors of ordinal categories with differential ranking costs. The extension shows that for a certain class of convex loss functions including exponential loss, the optimal ranking function can be represented as a ratio of weighted conditional probability of upper categories to lower categories, where the weights are given by the misranking costs. This result also bridges traditional ranking methods such as proportional odds model in statistics with various ranking algorithms in machine learning. Further, the analysis of multipartite ranking with different costs provides a new perspective on non-smooth list-wise ranking measures such as the discounted cumulative gain and preference learning. We illustrate our findings with simulation study and real data analysis.

  12. Ranking Workplace Competencies: Student and Graduate Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainsbury, Elizabeth; Hodges, Dave; Burchell, Noel; Lay, Mark

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand business students and graduates made similar rankings of the five most important workplace competencies: computer literacy, customer service orientation, teamwork and cooperation, self-confidence, and willingness to learn. Graduates placed greater importance on most of the 24 competencies, resulting in a statistically significant…

  13. Kinesiology Faculty Citations across Academic Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…

  14. Document Ranking Using an Enriched Thesaurus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rada, Roy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study funded by the Commission of the European Community that applied document retrieval algorithms to the "Excerpta Medica" database using the EMTREE thesaurus. Nonhierarchical relations were added to enrich the thesaurus, and document ranking is discussed in terms of the conceptual distance between the documents and the…

  15. Rankings of the States 1996: Addendum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    Certain data from the Bureau of the Census were not available at the time of publication of the National Education Association report "Rankings of the States 1996" because of a change in the Bureau's schedule for issuing that data. This addendum contains the previously unavailable tables of finance data for state and local governments and…

  16. Deep impact: unintended consequences of journal rank

    PubMed Central

    Brembs, Björn; Button, Katherine; Munafò, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Most researchers acknowledge an intrinsic hierarchy in the scholarly journals (“journal rank”) that they submit their work to, and adjust not only their submission but also their reading strategies accordingly. On the other hand, much has been written about the negative effects of institutionalizing journal rank as an impact measure. So far, contributions to the debate concerning the limitations of journal rank as a scientific impact assessment tool have either lacked data, or relied on only a few studies. In this review, we present the most recent and pertinent data on the consequences of our current scholarly communication system with respect to various measures of scientific quality (such as utility/citations, methodological soundness, expert ratings or retractions). These data corroborate previous hypotheses: using journal rank as an assessment tool is bad scientific practice. Moreover, the data lead us to argue that any journal rank (not only the currently-favored Impact Factor) would have this negative impact. Therefore, we suggest that abandoning journals altogether, in favor of a library-based scholarly communication system, will ultimately be necessary. This new system will use modern information technology to vastly improve the filter, sort and discovery functions of the current journal system. PMID:23805088

  17. Ranking Workplace Competencies: Student and Graduate Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainsbury, Elizabeth; Hodges, Dave; Burchell, Noel; Lay, Mark

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand business students and graduates made similar rankings of the five most important workplace competencies: computer literacy, customer service orientation, teamwork and cooperation, self-confidence, and willingness to learn. Graduates placed greater importance on most of the 24 competencies, resulting in a statistically significant…

  18. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  19. Spanish Universities and the "Ranking 2005" Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Miguel, Jesus M.; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Jara D.

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the quality of the Spanish higher education system, focusing mainly on the methodological challenges that the existence of public and private universities represents in the calculation of global higher education rankings. Researchers from the University of Barcelona and the University of Pennsylvania calculated the first…

  20. City Life: Rankings (Livability) versus Perceptions (Satisfaction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between the popular Mercer city ranking (livability) and survey data (satisfactions). Livability aims to capture "objective" quality of life such as infrastructure. Survey items capture "subjective" quality of life such as satisfaction with city. The relationship between objective measures of quality of life and…

  1. Efficiently Ranking Hyphotheses in Machine Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of learning the ranking of a set of alternatives based upon incomplete information (e.g. a limited number of observations). At each decision cycle, the system can output a complete ordering on the hypotheses or decide to gather additional information (e.g. observation) at some cost.

  2. Ranking of Russian Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokholkov, Yuri P.; Chuchalin, Alexander I.; Agranovich, Boris L.; Mogilnitsky, Sergey B.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers some patterns of ranking higher education institutions which are used in the Russian Federation to reveal strengths and weaknesses in meeting the national individual, societal and state-related needs, as well as those of the international academic community concerning relevant information on Russian higher education…

  3. An Application of Sylvester's Rank Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Sidney H.

    2011-01-01

    Using two well known criteria for the diagonalizability of a square matrix plus an extended form of Sylvester's Rank Inequality, the author presents a new condition for the diagonalization of a real matrix from which one can obtain the eigenvectors by simply multiplying some associated matrices without solving a linear system of simultaneous…

  4. Measures of Agreement for Incompletely Ranked Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachan, Ronaldo

    1984-01-01

    Measures of agreement for ordinal-scaled data are suggested that make use of the k categories with the highest ranks. The proposed measures are applied to the Self-Directed Search in order to evaluate its agreement with self-assessment (translation ability) or with the work environment (congruence). (Author)

  5. Kinesiology Faculty Citations across Academic Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Citations to research reports are used as a measure for the influence of a scholar's research line when seeking promotion, grants, and awards. The current study documented the distributions of citations to kinesiology scholars of various academic ranks. Google Scholar Citations was searched for user profiles using five research interest areas…

  6. An Application of Sylvester's Rank Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kung, Sidney H.

    2011-01-01

    Using two well known criteria for the diagonalizability of a square matrix plus an extended form of Sylvester's Rank Inequality, the author presents a new condition for the diagonalization of a real matrix from which one can obtain the eigenvectors by simply multiplying some associated matrices without solving a linear system of simultaneous…

  7. World University Ranking Methodologies: Stability and Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Brian; Parsons, Christine

    2008-01-01

    There has been a steady growth in the number of national university league tables over the last 25 years. By contrast, "World University Rankings" are a more recent development and have received little serious academic scrutiny in peer-reviewed publications. Few researchers have evaluated the sources of data and the statistical…

  8. George Wilbur: Otto Rank and Hanns Sachs.

    PubMed

    Roazen, Paul

    2006-01-01

    George Wilbur, a pioneering Cape Cod psychoanalytic psychiatrist, was a long-standing editor of the journal "American Imago," and an excellent source of information about the Viennese analysts Otto Rank and Hanns Sachs. Wilbur was also knowledgeable about the early reception of psychoanalysis in the Boston community.

  9. Spanish Universities and the "Ranking 2005" Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Miguel, Jesus M.; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Jara D.

    2005-01-01

    This article assesses the quality of the Spanish higher education system, focusing mainly on the methodological challenges that the existence of public and private universities represents in the calculation of global higher education rankings. Researchers from the University of Barcelona and the University of Pennsylvania calculated the first…

  10. Efficiently Ranking Hyphotheses in Machine Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of learning the ranking of a set of alternatives based upon incomplete information (e.g. a limited number of observations). At each decision cycle, the system can output a complete ordering on the hypotheses or decide to gather additional information (e.g. observation) at some cost.

  11. Ranks, Rates, and Numbers--and Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    The United States may be the most rank-crazy country in the world, but the world is catching up. The author cites the Organization for Economic and Cooperating and Development (OECD). When the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) started its international studies--the First International Mathematics Study…

  12. City Life: Rankings (Livability) versus Perceptions (Satisfaction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between the popular Mercer city ranking (livability) and survey data (satisfactions). Livability aims to capture "objective" quality of life such as infrastructure. Survey items capture "subjective" quality of life such as satisfaction with city. The relationship between objective measures of quality of life and…

  13. Sylgard® Mixing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bello, Mollie; Welch, Cynthia F.; Goodwin, Lynne Alese; Keller, Jennie

    2014-08-22

    Sylgard® 184 and Sylgard® 186 silicone elastomers form Dow Corning® are used as potting agents across the Nuclear Weapons Complex. A standardized mixing procedure is required for filled versions of these products. The present study is a follow-up to a mixing study performed by MST-7 which established the best mixing procedure to use when adding filler to either 184 or 186 base resins. The most effective and consistent method of mixing resin and curing agent for three modified silicone elastomer recipes is outlined in this report. For each recipe, sample size, mixing type, and mixing time was varied over 10 separate runs. The results show that the THINKY™ Mixer gives reliable mixing over varying batch sizes and mixing times. Hand Mixing can give improved mixing, as indicated by reduced initial viscosity; however, this method is not consistent.

  14. The carbon balance of reducing wildfire risk and restoring process: an analysis of 10-year post-treatment carbon dynamics in a mixed-conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Morgan L. Wiechmann; Matthew D. Hurteau; Malcolm P. North; George W. Koch; Lucie Jerabkova

    2015-01-01

    Forests sequester carbon from the atmosphere, helping mitigate climate change. In fire-prone forests, burn events result in direct and indirect emissions of carbon. High fire-induced tree mortality can cause a transition from a carbon sink to source, but thinning and prescribed burning can reduce fire severity and carbon loss when wildfire occurs. However, treatment...

  15. ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

  16. ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

  17. To Overcome HITS Rank Similarity Confliction of Web Pages using Weight Calculation and Rank Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Rajender; Kumar, Naresh

    2011-12-01

    Search Engine gives an ordered list of web search results in response to a user query, wherein the important pages are usually displayed at the top with less important ones afterwards. It may be possible that the user may have to look for many screen results to get the required documents. In literatures, many page ranking algorithms has been given to find the page rank of a page. For example PageRank is considered in this work. This algorithm treats all the links equally when distributing rank scores. That's why this algorithm some time gives equal importance to all the pages. But in real this can not be happen because, if two pages have same rank then how we can judge which page is more important then other. So this paper proposes another idea to organize the search results and describe which page is more important when confliction of same rank is produced by the PageRank. So that the user can get more relevant and important results easily and in a short span of time.

  18. VaRank: a simple and powerful tool for ranking genetic variants

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Véronique; Pizot, Cécile; Redin, Claire; Piton, Amélie; Vasli, Nasim; Stoetzel, Corinne; Blavier, André; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background. Most genetic disorders are caused by single nucleotide variations (SNVs) or small insertion/deletions (indels). High throughput sequencing has broadened the catalogue of human variation, including common polymorphisms, rare variations or disease causing mutations. However, identifying one variation among hundreds or thousands of others is still a complex task for biologists, geneticists and clinicians. Results. We have developed VaRank, a command-line tool for the ranking of genetic variants detected by high-throughput sequencing. VaRank scores and prioritizes variants annotated either by Alamut Batch or SnpEff. A barcode allows users to quickly view the presence/absence of variants (with homozygote/heterozygote status) in analyzed samples. VaRank supports the commonly used VCF input format for variants analysis thus allowing it to be easily integrated into NGS bioinformatics analysis pipelines. VaRank has been successfully applied to disease-gene identification as well as to molecular diagnostics setup for several hundred patients. Conclusions. VaRank is implemented in Tcl/Tk, a scripting language which is platform-independent but has been tested only on Unix environment. The source code is available under the GNU GPL, and together with sample data and detailed documentation can be downloaded from http://www.lbgi.fr/VaRank/. PMID:25780760

  19. VaRank: a simple and powerful tool for ranking genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Véronique; Pizot, Cécile; Redin, Claire; Piton, Amélie; Vasli, Nasim; Stoetzel, Corinne; Blavier, André; Laporte, Jocelyn; Muller, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background. Most genetic disorders are caused by single nucleotide variations (SNVs) or small insertion/deletions (indels). High throughput sequencing has broadened the catalogue of human variation, including common polymorphisms, rare variations or disease causing mutations. However, identifying one variation among hundreds or thousands of others is still a complex task for biologists, geneticists and clinicians. Results. We have developed VaRank, a command-line tool for the ranking of genetic variants detected by high-throughput sequencing. VaRank scores and prioritizes variants annotated either by Alamut Batch or SnpEff. A barcode allows users to quickly view the presence/absence of variants (with homozygote/heterozygote status) in analyzed samples. VaRank supports the commonly used VCF input format for variants analysis thus allowing it to be easily integrated into NGS bioinformatics analysis pipelines. VaRank has been successfully applied to disease-gene identification as well as to molecular diagnostics setup for several hundred patients. Conclusions. VaRank is implemented in Tcl/Tk, a scripting language which is platform-independent but has been tested only on Unix environment. The source code is available under the GNU GPL, and together with sample data and detailed documentation can be downloaded from http://www.lbgi.fr/VaRank/.

  20. [Recombinant Escherichia coli strains deficient in mixed acid fermentation pathways and capable of rapid aerobic growth on glucose with a reduced Crabtree effect].

    PubMed

    Morzhakova, A A; Skorokhodova, A Iu; Gulevich, A Iu; Debabov, V G

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed and characterized Escherichia coli strains deficient for mixed acid fermentation pathways, which are capable of rapid aerobic growth on glucose without pronounced bacterial Crabtree effect. The main pathways of production of acetic and lactic acids and ethanol in these strains were inactivated by a deletion of the ackA, pta, poxB, IdhA, and adhEgenes. The phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of glucose transport and phosphorylation was inactivated in the strains by a deletion of the ptsG gene. The possibility of alternative transport and phosphorylation of the carbohydrate substrate was ensured in recombinants by constitutive expression of the galP and glk genes, which encode the low-affinity H+-symporter of D-galactose and glucokinase, respectively. SGMI.0DeltaptsG PtacgalP and SG M1.0DeltaptsG PIglk PtacgalP strains were capable of rapid aerobic growth in a minimal medium containing 2.0 and 10.0 g/l of glucose and secreted only small amounts of acetic acid and trace amounts of pyruvic acid.

  1. Learning to rank diversified results for biomedical information retrieval from multiple features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Different from traditional information retrieval (IR), promoting diversity in IR takes consideration of relationship between documents in order to promote novelty and reduce redundancy thus to provide diversified results to satisfy various user intents. Diversity IR in biomedical domain is especially important as biologists sometimes want diversified results pertinent to their query. Methods A combined learning-to-rank (LTR) framework is learned through a general ranking model (gLTR) and a diversity-biased model. The former is learned from general ranking features by a conventional learning-to-rank approach; the latter is constructed with diversity-indicating features added, which are extracted based on the retrieved passages' topics detected using Wikipedia and ranking order produced by the general learning-to-rank model; final ranking results are given by combination of both models. Results Compared with baselines BM25 and DirKL on 2006 and 2007 collections, the gLTR has 0.2292 (+16.23% and +44.1% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) and 0.1873 (+15.78% and +39.0% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) in terms of aspect level of mean average precision (Aspect MAP). The LTR method outperforms gLTR on 2006 and 2007 collections with 4.7% and 2.4% improvement in terms of Aspect MAP. Conclusions The learning-to-rank method is an efficient way for biomedical information retrieval and the diversity-biased features are beneficial for promoting diversity in ranking results. PMID:25560088

  2. Web Image Search Re-ranking with Click-based Similarity and Typicality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Mei, Tao; Zhang, Yong Dong; Liu, Jie; Satoh, Shin'ichi

    2016-07-20

    In image search re-ranking, besides the well known semantic gap, intent gap, which is the gap between the representation of users' query/demand and the real intent of the users, is becoming a major problem restricting the development of image retrieval. To reduce human effects, in this paper, we use image click-through data, which can be viewed as the "implicit feedback" from users, to help overcome the intention gap, and further improve the image search performance. Generally, the hypothesis visually similar images should be close in a ranking list and the strategy images with higher relevance should be ranked higher than others are widely accepted. To obtain satisfying search results, thus, image similarity and the level of relevance typicality are determinate factors correspondingly. However, when measuring image similarity and typicality, conventional re-ranking approaches only consider visual information and initial ranks of images, while overlooking the influence of click-through data. This paper presents a novel re-ranking approach, named spectral clustering re-ranking with click-based similarity and typicality (SCCST). First, to learn an appropriate similarity measurement, we propose click-based multi-feature similarity learning algorithm (CMSL), which conducts metric learning based on clickbased triplets selection, and integrates multiple features into a unified similarity space via multiple kernel learning. Then based on the learnt click-based image similarity measure, we conduct spectral clustering to group visually and semantically similar images into same clusters, and get the final re-rank list by calculating click-based clusters typicality and withinclusters click-based image typicality in descending order. Our experiments conducted on two real-world query-image datasets with diverse representative queries show that our proposed reranking approach can significantly improve initial search results, and outperform several existing re-ranking approaches.

  3. Experienced stigma and its impacts in psychosis: The role of social rank and external shame.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa; Irons, Chris

    2017-09-01

    Experienced stigma is detrimental to those who experience psychosis and can cause emotional distress and hinder recovery. This study aimed to explore the relationship between experienced stigma with emotional distress and recovery in people with psychosis. It explored the role of external shame and social rank as mediators in these relationships. A cross-sectional design was implemented. Fifty-two service users were administered a battery of questionnaires examining experienced stigma, external shame, social rank, personal recovery, positive symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Correlation and multiple regression analysis were conducted on the data. Where appropriate, mediation analysis was employed to explore social rank and external shame as mediatory variables. Experienced stigma was significantly related to shame (social rank and external shame), positive symptoms, emotional distress (depression and anxiety), and personal recovery. The impact of experienced stigma on depression was mediated by external shame. Social rank was a mediator between experienced stigma and personal recovery only. People with psychosis who have experienced stigma are likely to experience emotional distress and be inhibited in their recovery. This was found to be partly mediated by external shame and low social rank. Clinical approaches to stigma need to target these as potential maintenance factors. Experienced stigma is significantly related to shame (social rank and external shame) emotional distress, and reduced personal recovery. External shame mediated the relationship between experienced stigma and depression in psychosis. Social rank mediated the relationship between experienced stigma and personal recovery. Clinical approaches to stigma should include the assessment of external shame and low social rank. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Comparisons of methods for determining dominance rank in male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogastor)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Best, Louis B.

    2000-01-01

    Dominance ranks in male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) were determined from 6 measurements that mimicked environmental situations that might be encountered by prairie voles in communal groups, including agonistic interactions resulting from competition for food and water and encounters in burrows. Male and female groups of 6 individuals each were tested against one another in pairwise encounters (i.e., dyads) for 5 of the measurements and together as a group in a 6th measurement. Two types of response variables, aggressive behaviors and possession time of a limiting resource, were collected during trials, and those data were used to determine cardinal ranks and principal component ranks for all animals within each group. Cardinal ranks and principal component ranks seldom yielded similar rankings for each animal across measurements. However, dominance measurements that were conducted in similar environmental contexts, regardless of the response variable recorded, ranked animals similarly. Our results suggest that individual dominance measurements assessed situation- or resource-specific responses. Our study demonstrates problems inherent in determining dominance rankings of individuals within groups, including choosing measurements, response variables, and statistical techniques. Researchers should avoid using a single measurement to represent social dominance until they have first demonstrated that a dominance relationship between 2 individuals has been learned (i.e., subsequent interactions show a reduced response rather than an escalation), that this relationship is relatively constant through time, and that the relationship is not context dependent. Such assessments of dominance status between all dyads then can be used to generate dominance rankings within social groups.

  5. Learning to rank diversified results for biomedical information retrieval from multiple features.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiajin; Huang, Jimmy; Ye, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Different from traditional information retrieval (IR), promoting diversity in IR takes consideration of relationship between documents in order to promote novelty and reduce redundancy thus to provide diversified results to satisfy various user intents. Diversity IR in biomedical domain is especially important as biologists sometimes want diversified results pertinent to their query. A combined learning-to-rank (LTR) framework is learned through a general ranking model (gLTR) and a diversity-biased model. The former is learned from general ranking features by a conventional learning-to-rank approach; the latter is constructed with diversity-indicating features added, which are extracted based on the retrieved passages' topics detected using Wikipedia and ranking order produced by the general learning-to-rank model; final ranking results are given by combination of both models. Compared with baselines BM25 and DirKL on 2006 and 2007 collections, the gLTR has 0.2292 (+16.23% and +44.1% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) and 0.1873 (+15.78% and +39.0% improvement over BM25 and DirKL respectively) in terms of aspect level of mean average precision (Aspect MAP). The LTR method outperforms gLTR on 2006 and 2007 collections with 4.7% and 2.4% improvement in terms of Aspect MAP. The learning-to-rank method is an efficient way for biomedical information retrieval and the diversity-biased features are beneficial for promoting diversity in ranking results.

  6. Transformation impacts of dissolved and solid phase Fe(II) on trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction in an iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) mixed column system: a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yeunook; Kim, Dooil; Cho, Hyun-Hee; Singhal, Naresh; Park, Jae-Woo

    2012-12-01

    In this research, we conducted trichloroethylene (TCE) reduction in a column filled with iron and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) and developed a mathematical model to investigate the critical reactions between active species in iron/IRB/contaminant systems. The formation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) in this system with IRB and zero-valent iron (ZVI, Fe(0)) coated with a ferric iron (Fe(III)) crust significantly affected TCE reduction and IRB respiration in various ways. This study presents a new framework for transformation property and reducing ability of both dissolved (Fe(II)(dissolved)) and solid form ferrous iron (Fe(II)(solid)). Results showed that TCE reduction was strongly depressed by Fe(II)(solid) rather than by other inhibitors (e.g., Fe(III) and lactate), suggesting that Fe(II)(solid) might reduce IRB activation due to attachment to IRB cells. Newly exposed Fe(0) from the released Fe(II)(dissolved) was a strong contributor to TCE reduction compared to Fe(II)(solid). In addition, our research confirmed that less Fe(II)(solid) production strongly supported long-term TCE reduction because it may create an easier TCE approach to Fe(0) or increase IRB growth. Our findings will aid the understanding of the contributions of iron media (e.g., Fe(II)(solid), Fe(II)(dissolved), Fe(III), and Fe(0)) to IRB for decontamination in natural groundwater systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Locally asymptotically rank-based procedures for testing autoregressive moving average dependence

    PubMed Central

    Hallin, Marc; Puri, Madan L.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of testing a given autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model (in which the density of the generating white noise is unspecified) against other ARMA models is considered. A distribution-free asymptotically most powerful test, based on a generalized linear serial rank statistic, is provided against contiguous ARMA alternatives with specified coefficients. In the case in which the ARMA model in the alternative has unspecified coefficients, the asymptotic sufficiency (in the sense of Hájek) of a finite-dimensional vector of rank statistics is established. This asymptotic sufficiency is used to derive an asymptotically maximin most powerful test, based on a generalized quadratic serial rank statistic. The asymptotically maximin optimal test statistic can be interpreted as a rank-based, weighted version of the classical Box-Pierce portmanteau statistic, to which it reduces, in some particular problems, under gaussian assumptions. PMID:16593917

  8. Reliability adjustment: a necessity for trauma center ranking and benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Zain G; Dimick, Justin B; Efron, David T; Haut, Elliott R; Schneider, Eric B; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Schwartz, Diane; Cornwell, Edward E; Haider, Adil H

    2013-07-01

    Currently, trauma center quality benchmarking is based on risk adjusted observed-expected (O/E) mortality ratios. However, failure to account for number of patients has been recently shown to produce unreliable mortality estimates, especially for low-volume centers. This study explores the effect of reliability adjustment (RA), a statistical technique developed to eliminate bias introduced by low volume on risk-adjusted trauma center benchmarking. Analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank 2010 was performed. Patients 16 years or older with blunt or penetrating trauma and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 9 or greater were included. Based on the statistically accepted standards of the Trauma Quality Improvement Program methodology, risk-adjusted mortality rates were generated for each center and used to rank them accordingly. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling was then performed to adjust these rates for reliability using an empiric Bayes approach. The impact of RA was examined by (1) recalculating interfacility variations in adjusted mortality rates and (2) comparing adjusted hospital mortality quintile rankings before and after RA. A total of 557 facilities (with 278,558 patients) were included. RA significantly reduced the variation in risk-adjusted mortality rates between centers from 14-fold (0.7-9.8%) to only 2-fold (4.4-9.6%) after RA. This reduction in variation was most profound for smaller centers. A total of 68 "best" hospitals and 18 "worst" hospitals based on current risk adjustment methods were reclassified after performing RA. "Reliability adjustment" dramatically reduces variations in risk-adjusted mortality arising from statistical noise, especially for lower volume centers. Moreover, the absence of RA had a profound impact on hospital performance assessment, suggesting that nearly one of every six hospitals in National Trauma Data Bank would have been inappropriately placed among the very best or very worst quintile of rankings. RA should be

  9. Pulling Rank: Military Rank Affects Hormone Levels and Fairness in an Allocation Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Siart, Benjamin; Pflüger, Lena S.; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment. The rank groups were (1) warrant officers (high rank, HR) and (2) enlisted men (low rank, LR). One soldier from each rank group participated in every experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, one participant was assigned to start standing guard and the other participant at rest. The participant who started at rest could choose if and when to relieve his fellow soldier and therefore had control over the experiment. In order to trigger perception of unfair behavior, an additional experiment was conducted which was manipulated by the experimenter. In the manipulated version both soldiers started in the standing guard position and were never relieved, believing that their opponent was at rest, not relieving them. Our aim was to test whether unfair behavior causes a physiological reaction. Saliva samples for hormone analysis were collected at regular intervals throughout the experiment. We found that in the un-manipulated setup high-ranking soldiers spent less time standing guard than lower ranking individuals. Rank was a significant predictor for C but not for T levels during the experiment. C levels in the HR group were higher than in the LR group. C levels were also elevated in the manipulated experiment compared to the un-manipulated experiment, especially in LR. We assume that the elevated C levels in HR were caused by HR feeling their status challenged by the situation of having to negotiate with an individual of lower military rank

  10. Pulling Rank: Military Rank Affects Hormone Levels and Fairness in an Allocation Experiment.

    PubMed

    Siart, Benjamin; Pflüger, Lena S; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Status within social hierarchies has great effects on the lives of socially organized mammals. Its effects on human behavior and related physiology, however, is relatively little studied. The present study investigated the impact of military rank on fairness and behavior in relation to salivary cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) levels in male soldiers. For this purpose 180 members of the Austrian Armed Forces belonging to two distinct rank groups participated in two variations of a computer-based guard duty allocation experiment. The rank groups were (1) warrant officers (high rank, HR) and (2) enlisted men (low rank, LR). One soldier from each rank group participated in every experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, one participant was assigned to start standing guard and the other participant at rest. The participant who started at rest could choose if and when to relieve his fellow soldier and therefore had control over the experiment. In order to trigger perception of unfair behavior, an additional experiment was conducted which was manipulated by the experimenter. In the manipulated version both soldiers started in the standing guard position and were never relieved, believing that their opponent was at rest, not relieving them. Our aim was to test whether unfair behavior causes a physiological reaction. Saliva samples for hormone analysis were collected at regular intervals throughout the experiment. We found that in the un-manipulated setup high-ranking soldiers spent less time standing guard than lower ranking individuals. Rank was a significant predictor for C but not for T levels during the experiment. C levels in the HR group were higher than in the LR group. C levels were also elevated in the manipulated experiment compared to the un-manipulated experiment, especially in LR. We assume that the elevated C levels in HR were caused by HR feeling their status challenged by the situation of having to negotiate with an individual of lower military rank

  11. DIAMOND (DIgital Alcohol Management ON Demand): a mixed methods feasibility RCT and embedded process evaluation of a digital health intervention to reduce hazardous and harmful alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Fiona L; Hornby, Jo; Sheringham, Jessica; Linke, Stuart; Ashton, Charlotte; Moore, Kevin; Stevenson, Fiona; Murray, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol is a major risk factor for preventable illness, with huge cost to healthcare economies. There is a role for alcohol-specific digital health interventions (DHI), but there have been few randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing DHI with face-to-face treatment. Such trials are complex and face obstacles in recruitment and retention. Mixed-methods feasibility RCT of an alcohol DHI, testing recruitment, online data-collection and randomisation processes, with an embedded process evaluation. Recruitment ran from October 2014 for 9 months. Participants were adults drinking at hazardous and harmful levels, attending four community drug and alcohol services (CDAS) in London. Participants completed baseline demographic, alcohol-related and other psychological questionnaires online and were randomised to HeLP-Alcohol, a six-module DHI with weekly reminder prompts (phone, email or text message), which mirrors face-to-face treatment, or to face-to-face treatment at CDAS. Alcohol counsellors took part in qualitative interviews at the end of the study. Alcohol counsellors screened 1253 patients. One thousand one hundred eighty-nine did not meet inclusion criteria so were excluded: 579 were dependent drinkers, 548 had health conditions that made them ineligible to take part and 62 were ineligible for other reasons including homelessness. Of the 64 patients who were eligible to take part, 54 declined to participate, with 36 stating a preference for face-to-face treatment, 13 gave no reason, and 5 gave other reasons including not wanting to use a computer. Ten consented but then 3 changed their minds, so we were able to randomise 7 participants to the study (11% of eligible). Five alcohol counsellors agreed to be interviewed for the process evaluation and provided the following feedback: Although most of their colleagues were enthusiastic about the trial, some were not at equipoise in recruiting; potential participants also declared strong preference to intervention arm

  12. Retailer-Led Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Price Increase Reduces Purchases in a Hospital Convenience Store in Melbourne, Australia: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blake, Miranda R; Peeters, Anna; Lancsar, Emily; Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Corben, Kirstan; Stevenson, Christopher E; Palermo, Claire; Backholer, Kathryn

    2017-09-01

    Limited evidence has been gathered on the real-world impact of sugar-sweetened beverage price changes on purchasing behavior over time or in community-retail settings. Our aim was to determine changes in beverage purchases, business outcomes, and customer and retailer satisfaction associated with a retailer-led sugar-sweetened beverage price increase in a convenience store. We hypothesized that purchases of less-healthy beverages would decrease compared to predicted sales. A convergent parallel mixed methods design complemented sales data (122 weeks pre-intervention, 17 weeks during intervention) with stakeholder interviews and customer surveys. Electronic beverage sales data were collected from a convenience store in Melbourne, Australia (August through November 2015). Convenience store staff completed semi-structured interviews (n=4) and adult customers exiting the store completed surveys (n=352). Beverages were classified using a state government framework. Prices of "red" beverages (eg, nondiet soft drinks, energy drinks) increased by 20%. Prices of "amber" (eg, diet soft drinks, small pure fruit juices) and "green" beverages (eg, water) were unchanged. Changes in beverage volume, item sales, and revenue during the intervention were compared with predicted sales. Sales data were analyzed using time series segmented regression while controlling for pre-intervention trends, autocorrelation in sales data, and seasonal fluctuations. Beverage volume sales of red (-27.6%; 95% CI -32.2 to -23.0) and amber (-26.7%; 95% CI -39.3 to -16.0) decreased, and volume of green beverages increased (+26.9%; 95% CI +14.1 to +39.7) in the 17th intervention week compared with predicted sales. Store manager and staff considered the intervention business-neutral, despite a small reduction in beverage revenue. Fifteen percent of customers noticed the price difference and 61% supported the intervention. A 20% sugar-sweetened beverage price increase was associated with a reduction

  13. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM.

  14. Speaker-sensitive emotion recognition via ranking: Studies on acted and spontaneous speech(☆)

    PubMed

    Cao, Houwei; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a ranking approach for emotion recognition which naturally incorporates information about the general expressivity of speakers. We demonstrate that our approach leads to substantial gains in accuracy compared to conventional approaches. We train ranking SVMs for individual emotions, treating the data from each speaker as a separate query, and combine the predictions from all rankers to perform multi-class prediction. The ranking method provides two natural benefits. It captures speaker specific information even in speaker-independent training/testing conditions. It also incorporates the intuition that each utterance can express a mix of possible emotion and that considering the degree to which each emotion is expressed can be productively exploited to identify the dominant emotion. We compare the performance of the rankers and their combination to standard SVM classification approaches on two publicly available datasets of acted emotional speech, Berlin and LDC, as well as on spontaneous emotional data from the FAU Aibo dataset. On acted data, ranking approaches exhibit significantly better performance compared to SVM classification both in distinguishing a specific emotion from all others and in multi-class prediction. On the spontaneous data, which contains mostly neutral utterances with a relatively small portion of less intense emotional utterances, ranking-based classifiers again achieve much higher precision in identifying emotional utterances than conventional SVM classifiers. In addition, we discuss the complementarity of conventional SVM and ranking-based classifiers. On all three datasets we find dramatically higher accuracy for the test items on whose prediction the two methods agree compared to the accuracy of individual methods. Furthermore on the spontaneous data the ranking and standard classification are complementary and we obtain marked improvement when we combine the two classifiers by late-stage fusion.

  15. Speaker-sensitive emotion recognition via ranking: Studies on acted and spontaneous speech☆

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Houwei; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a ranking approach for emotion recognition which naturally incorporates information about the general expressivity of speakers. We demonstrate that our approach leads to substantial gains in accuracy compared to conventional approaches. We train ranking SVMs for individual emotions, treating the data from each speaker as a separate query, and combine the predictions from all rankers to perform multi-class prediction. The ranking method provides two natural benefits. It captures speaker specific information even in speaker-independent training/testing conditions. It also incorporates the intuition that each utterance can express a mix of possible emotion and that considering the degree to which each emotion is expressed can be productively exploited to identify the dominant emotion. We compare the performance of the rankers and their combination to standard SVM classification approaches on two publicly available datasets of acted emotional speech, Berlin and LDC, as well as on spontaneous emotional data from the FAU Aibo dataset. On acted data, ranking approaches exhibit significantly better performance compared to SVM classification both in distinguishing a specific emotion from all others and in multi-class prediction. On the spontaneous data, which contains mostly neutral utterances with a relatively small portion of less intense emotional utterances, ranking-based classifiers again achieve much higher precision in identifying emotional utterances than conventional SVM classifiers. In addition, we discuss the complementarity of conventional SVM and ranking-based classifiers. On all three datasets we find dramatically higher accuracy for the test items on whose prediction the two methods agree compared to the accuracy of individual methods. Furthermore on the spontaneous data the ranking and standard classification are complementary and we obtain marked improvement when we combine the two classifiers by late-stage fusion. PMID:25422534

  16. Single-shell tank constituent rankings for use in preparing waste characterization plans

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.; Wilbur, J.S.; Strenge, D.L.; Freshley, M.D.

    1991-06-01

    Waste characterization efforts for underground single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing chemical and radioactive mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site are currently under way. As a component of this effort, an analysis was conducted to give a preliminary ranking of possible constituents in the SST waste and provide data for establishing detection limit requirements for the SST characterization effort. These SST constituent rankings were based on a relative comparison using potential human health impacts modeled using a hypothetical exposure scenario. This modeling effort used preliminary estimates of the SST inventories, simplified estimates of constituent release rates and environmental transport, a hypothetical usage location, and a standard Hanford exposure scenario. The results of this evaluation are SST constitutents for each of six groups of SSTs ranked according to their relative potential for impacts. The relative rankings for different recharge rates at the tank farms were nearly equivalent. Sensitivity tests demonstrated that the rankings are influenced by changes in recharge and transport parameters. 45 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Skin Injuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons) Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Juliann G.; Ledney, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + γ-photons) radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival. PMID:24175013

  18. Skin injuries reduce survival and modulate corticosterone, C-reactive protein, complement component 3, IgM, and prostaglandin E 2 after whole-body reactor-produced mixed field (n + γ-photons) irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Juliann G; Ledney, G David

    2013-01-01

    Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + γ-photons) radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival.

  19. A linear functional strategy for regularized ranking.

    PubMed

    Kriukova, Galyna; Panasiuk, Oleksandra; Pereverzyev, Sergei V; Tkachenko, Pavlo

    2016-01-01

    Regularization schemes are frequently used for performing ranking tasks. This topic has been intensively studied in recent years. However, to be effective a regularization scheme should be equipped with a suitable strategy for choosing a regularization parameter. In the present study we discuss an approach, which is based on the idea of a linear combination of regularized rankers corresponding to different values of the regularization parameter. The coefficients of the linear combination are estimated by means of the so-called linear functional strategy. We provide a theoretical justification of the proposed approach and illustrate them by numerical experiments. Some of them are related with ranking the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia of diabetes patients.

  20. On higher rank coisotropic A-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Manfred

    2012-02-01

    This article is devoted to a world sheet analysis of A-type D-branes in N=(2,2) supersymmetric non-linear sigma models. In addition to the familiar Lagrangian submanifolds with flat connection we reproduce the rank one A-branes of Kapustin and Orlov, which are supported on coisotropic submanifolds. The main focus is however on gauge fields of higher rank and on tachyon profiles on brane-antibrane pairs. This will lead to the notion of a complex of coisotropic A-branes. A particular role is played by the noncommutative geometry on the brane world volume. It ensures that brane-antibrane pairs localize again on coisotropic submanifolds.

  1. Social Bookmarking Induced Active Page Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tsubasa; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Keita

    Social bookmarking services have recently made it possible for us to register and share our own bookmarks on the web and are attracting attention. The services let us get structured data: (URL, Username, Timestamp, Tag Set). And these data represent user interest in web pages. The number of bookmarks is a barometer of web page value. Some web pages have many bookmarks, but most of those bookmarks may have been posted far in the past. Therefore, even if a web page has many bookmarks, their value is not guaranteed. If most of the bookmarks are very old, the page may be obsolete. In this paper, by focusing on the timestamp sequence of social bookmarkings on web pages, we model their activation levels representing current values. Further, we improve our previously proposed ranking method for web search by introducing the activation level concept. Finally, through experiments, we show effectiveness of the proposed ranking method.

  2. Ranking inter-relationships between clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Feng; Phoebe Chen, Yi-Ping

    2011-12-01

    The evaluation of the relationships between clusters is important to identify vital unknown information in many real-life applications, such as in the fields of crime detection, evolution trees, metallurgical industry and biology engraftment. This article proposes a method called 'mode pattern + mutual information' to rank the inter-relationship between clusters. The idea of the mode pattern is used to find outstanding objects from each cluster, and the mutual information criterion measures the close proximity of a pair of clusters. Our approach is different from the conventional algorithms of classifying and clustering, because our focus is not to classify objects into different clusters, but instead, we aim to rank the inter-relationship between clusters when the clusters are given. We conducted experiments on a wide range of real-life datasets, including image data and cancer diagnosis data. The experimental results show that our algorithm is effective and promising.

  3. A ranking-theoretic approach to conditionals.

    PubMed

    Spohn, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    Conditionals somehow express conditional beliefs. However, conditional belief is a bi-propositional attitude that is generally not truth-evaluable, in contrast to unconditional belief. Therefore, this article opts for an expressivistic semantics for conditionals, grounds this semantics in the arguably most adequate account of conditional belief, that is, ranking theory, and dismisses probability theory for that purpose, because probabilities cannot represent belief. Various expressive options are then explained in terms of ranking theory, with the intention to set out a general interpretive scheme that is able to account for the most variegated usage of conditionals. The Ramsey test is only the first option. Relevance is another, familiar, but little understood item, which comes in several versions. This article adds a further family of expressive options, which is able to subsume also counterfactuals and causal conditionals, and indicates at the end how this family allows for partial recovery of truth conditions for conditionals.

  4. Probabilistic Low-Rank Multitask Learning.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yu; Shao, Ming; Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2017-01-04

    In this paper, we consider the problem of learning multiple related tasks simultaneously with the goal of improving the generalization performance of individual tasks. The key challenge is to effectively exploit the shared information across multiple tasks as well as preserve the discriminative information for each individual task. To address this, we propose a novel probabilistic model for multitask learning (MTL) that can automatically balance between low-rank and sparsity constraints. The former assumes a low-rank structure of the underlying predictive hypothesis space to explicitly capture the relationship of different tasks and the latter learns the incoherent sparse patterns private to each task. We derive and perform inference via variational Bayesian methods. Experimental results on both regression and classification tasks on real-world applications demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in dealing with the MTL problems.

  5. Anaerobic bioprocessing of low-rank coals

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.; Han, O.

    1992-04-15

    The overall goal of this project is to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low-rank coals and to assess the properties of the modified coal towards coal liquefaction. The main objectives for this quarter were: (1) continuation of microbial consortia development and maintenance, (2) crude enzyme study using best decarboxylating organisms, (3) decarboxylation of lignite, demineralized Wyodak coal and model polymers, and (4) characterization of biotreated coals.

  6. A theory of measuring, electing, and ranking

    PubMed Central

    Balinski, Michel; Laraki, Rida

    2007-01-01

    The impossibility theorems that abound in the theory of social choice show that there can be no satisfactory method for electing and ranking in the context of the traditional, 700-year-old model. A more realistic model, whose antecedents may be traced to Laplace and Galton, leads to a new theory that avoids all impossibilities with a simple and eminently practical method, “the majority judgement.” It has already been tested. PMID:17496140

  7. Sewage effluent clean-up reduces phosphorus but not phytoplankton in lowland chalk stream (River Kennet, UK) impacted by water mixing from adjacent canal.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Martin, Ellie; Neal, Margaret; Hallett, John; Wickham, Heather D; Harman, Sarah A; Armstrong, Linda K; Bowes, Mike J; Wade, Andrew J; Keay, David

    2010-10-15

    Information is provided on phosphorus in the River Kennet and the adjacent Kennet and Avon Canal in southern England to assess their interactions and the changes following phosphorus reductions in sewage treatment work (STW) effluent inputs. A step reduction in soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration within the effluent (5 to 13 fold) was observed from several STWs discharging to the river in the mid-2000s. This translated to over halving of SRP concentrations within the lower Kennet. Lower Kennet SRP concentrations change from being highest under base-flow to highest under storm-flow conditions. This represented a major shift from direct effluent inputs to a within-catchment source dominated system characteristic of the upper part to the catchment. Average SRP concentrations in the lower Kennet reduced over time towards the target for good water quality. Critically, there was no corresponding reduction in chlorophyll-a concentration, the waters remaining eutrophic when set against standards for lakes. Following the up gradient input of the main water and SRP source (Wilton Water), SRP concentrations in the canal reduced down gradient to below detection limits at times near its junction with the Kennet downstream. However, chlorophyll concentrations in the canal were in an order of magnitude higher than in the river. This probably resulted from long water residence times and higher temperatures promoting progressive algal and suspended sediment generations that consumed SRP. The canal acted as a point source for sediment, algae and total phosphorus to the river especially during the summer months when boat traffic disturbed the canal's bottom sediments and the locks were being regularly opened. The short-term dynamics of this transfer was complex. For the canal and the supply source at Wilton Water, conditions remained hypertrophic when set against standards for lakes even when SRP concentrations were extremely low.

  8. Medical School Ranking and Student Research Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Havnaer, Annika G; Greenberg, Paul B

    2016-10-04

    This study aimed to characterize the current state of student research opportunities in a sample of US medical schools ranked in three different tiers. The authors examined the websites for five US medical schools in each of the first, second, and third tiers per National Institutes of Health funding and U.S. News & World Report rankings. Available research opportunities were identified and categorized. There were 26 schools in the first (n=6), second (n=10), and third (n=10) tiers. From the first, second, and third tiers, 4/6 (67%), 1/10 (10%) and none, respectively, required a research experience (p=0.003); 6/6 (100%), 4/10 (40%) and 1/10 (10%), respectively, offered internally funded one-year research (p=0.002); and 5/6 (83%), 4/10 (40%) and 2/10 (20%), respectively, offered student research days (p=0.045). Higher ranked schools provided more opportunities for student research by providing internally funded one-year research, requiring research, and offering student research days. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  9. [2013 research ranking of Spanish public universities].

    PubMed

    Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Quevedo-Blasco, Raúl; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of research production and productivity is becoming increasingly necessary for universities. Having reliable and clear data is extremely useful in order to uncover strengths and weaknesses. The objective of this article is to update the research ranking of Spanish public universities with the 2013 data. Assessment was carried out based on articles in journals indexed in the JCR, research periods, R+D projects, doctoral theses, FPU grants, doctoral studies awarded with a citation of excellence, and patents, providing a rating, both for each individual indicator and globally, in production and productivity. The same methodology as previous editions was followed. In the global ranking, the universities with a higher production are Barcelona, Complutense of Madrid, and Granada. In productivity, the first positions are held by the universities Pompeu Fabra, Pablo de Olavide, and the Autonomous University of Barcelona. Differences can be found between the universities in production and productivity, while there are also certain similarities with regard to the position of Spanish universities in international rankings.

  10. Feature fusion using ranking for object tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candemir, Sema; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Bunyak, Filiz; Seetharaman, Guna

    2012-06-01

    Aerial wide-area monitoring and tracking using multi-camera arrays poses unique challenges compared to stan- dard full motion video analysis due to low frame rate sampling, accurate registration due to platform motion, low resolution targets, limited image contrast, static and dynamic parallax occlusions.1{3 We have developed a low frame rate tracking system that fuses a rich set of intensity, texture and shape features, which enables adaptation of the tracker to dynamic environment changes and target appearance variabilities. However, improper fusion and overweighting of low quality features can adversely aect target localization and reduce tracking performance. Moreover, the large computational cost associated with extracting a large number of image-based feature sets will in uence tradeos for real-time and on-board tracking. This paper presents a framework for dynamic online ranking-based feature evaluation and fusion in aerial wide-area tracking. We describe a set of ecient descriptors suitable for small sized targets in aerial video based on intensity, texture, and shape feature representations or views. Feature ranking is then used as a selection procedure where target-background discrimination power for each (raw) feature view is scored using a two-class variance ratio approach. A subset of the k-best discriminative features are selected for further processing and fusion. The target match probability or likelihood maps for each of the k features are estimated by comparing target descriptors within a search region using a sliding win- dow approach. The resulting k likelihood maps are fused for target localization using the normalized variance ratio weights. We quantitatively measure the performance of the proposed system using ground-truth tracks within the framework of our tracking evaluation test-bed that incorporates various performance metrics. The proposed feature ranking and fusion approach increases localization accuracy by reducing multimodal eects

  11. Code Mixing in a Young Bilingual Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Raquel; Brice, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous speech samples of a bilingual Spanish-English speaking child were collected during a period of 17 months (ages 6-8). Data revealed percentages and rank ordering of syntactic elements switched in the longitudinal language samples obtained. Specific recommendations for using code mixing in therapy for speech-language pathologists are…

  12. Comparison of Mixing Calculations for Reacting and Non-Reacting Flows in a Cylindrical Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oechsle, V. L.; Mongia, H. C.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    A production 3-D elliptic flow code has been used to calculate non-reacting and reacting flow fields in an experimental mixing section relevant to a rich burn/quick mix/lean burn (RQL) combustion system. A number of test cases have been run to assess the effects of the variation in the number of orifices, mass flow ratio, and rich-zone equivalence ratio on the flow field and mixing rates. The calculated normalized temperature profiles for the non-reacting flow field agree qualitatively well with the normalized conserved variable isopleths for the reacting flow field indicating that non-reacting mixing experiments are appropriate for screening and ranking potential rapid mixing concepts. For a given set of jet momentum-flux ratio, mass flow ratio, and density ratio (J, MR, and DR), the reacting flow calculations show a reduced level of mixing compared to the non-reacting cases. In addition, the rich-zone equivalence ratio has noticeable effect on the mixing flow characteristics for reacting flows.

  13. Ranking welding intensity in pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quane, S. L.; Russell, J. K.

    2003-04-01

    Pyroclastic deposits emplaced at high temperatures and having sufficient thickness become welded. The welding process involves sintering, compaction and flattening of hot glassy pyroclastic material and is attended by systematic changes in physical properties. Historically, the terms nonwelded, incipiently welded, partially welded with pumice, partially welded with fiamme, moderately welded and densely welded have been used as field descriptors for welding intensity (e.g., Smith &Bailey, 1966; Smith, 1979; Ross &Smith, 1980; Streck &Grunder, 1995). While using these descriptive words is often effective for delineating variations of welding intensity within a single deposit, their qualitative character does not provide for consistency between field areas or workers, and inhibits accurate comparison between deposits. Hence, there is a need for a universal classification of welding intensity in pyroclastic deposits. Here we develop an objective ranking system. The system recognizes 8 ranks (I to VIII) based on measurements of physical properties and petrographic characteristics. The physical property measurements include both lab and field observations: density, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength, fiamme elongation, and foliation/fabric. The values are normalized in order to make the system universal. The rank divisions are adaptations of a rock mass-rating scheme based on rock strength (Hoek &Brown, 1980) and previous divisions of welding degree based on physical properties (e.g., density: Ragan &Sheridan, 1972, Streck &Grunder, 1995; fiamme elongation: Peterson, 1979). Each rank comprises a range of normalized values for each of the physical properties and a corresponding set of petrographic characteristics. Our new ranking system provides a consistent, objective means by which each sample or section of welded tuff can be evaluated, thus providing a much needed uniformity in nomenclature for degree of welding. References: Hoek, E. &Brown, E

  14. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

  15. Simultaneous degradation of waste phosphogypsum and liquid manure from industrial pig farm by a mixed community of sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rzeczycka, Marzenna; Miernik, Antoni; Markiewicz, Zdzislaw

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of pig manure as a source of nutrients for the dissimilatory reduction of sulfates present in phosphogypsum was investigated. In both types of media used (synthetic medium and raw pig manure) increased utilization of sulfates with growing COD/SO4(2-)ratio in the medium was observed. The percent of sulfate reduction obtained in synthetic medium was from 18 to 99%, whereas the value for cultures set up in raw liquid manure was from 12% (at COD/SO4(2-) of 0.3) up to as high as 98% (at COD/SO4(2-) equal 3.80). Even with almost complete reduction of sulfates the percent of COD reduction did not exceed 55%. Based on the results obtained it was concluded that the effectiveness of removal of sulfates and organic matter by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) depends to a considerable degree on the proportion between organic matter and sulfates in the purified wastewaters. The optimal COD/SO4(2-)ratio for the removal oforganic matter was between 0.6 and 1.2 whereas the optimal ratio for the removal of sulfates was between 2.4 and 4.8.

  16. RANKL/RANK control Brca1 mutation-driven mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sigl, Verena; Owusu-Boaitey, Kwadwo; Joshi, Purna A; Kavirayani, Anoop; Wirnsberger, Gerald; Novatchkova, Maria; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Schramek, Daniel; Edokobi, Nnamdi; Hersl, Jerome; Sampson, Aishia; Odai-Afotey, Ashley; Lazaro, Conxi; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Pujana, Miguel A; CIMBA, for; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Cruickshank, Jennifer; Berman, Hal; Sarao, Renu; Ticevic, Melita; Uribesalgo, Iris; Tortola, Luigi; Rao, Shuan; Tan, Yen; Pfeiler, Georg; Lee, Eva YHP; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Kenner, Lukas; Popper, Helmuth; Singer, Christian; Khokha, Rama; Jones, Laundette P; Penninger, Josef M

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer, affecting approximately one in eight women during their life-time. Besides environmental triggers and hormones, inherited mutations in the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) or BRCA2 genes markedly increase the risk for the development of breast cancer. Here, using two different mouse models, we show that genetic inactivation of the key osteoclast differentiation factor RANK in the mammary epithelium markedly delayed onset, reduced incidence, and attenuated progression of Brca1;p53 mutation-driven mammary cancer. Long-term pharmacological inhibition of the RANK ligand RANKL in mice abolished the occurrence of Brca1 mutation-driven pre-neoplastic lesions. Mechanistically, genetic inactivation of Rank or RANKL/RANK blockade impaired proliferation and expansion of both murine Brca1;p53 mutant mammary stem cells and mammary progenitors from human BRCA1 mutation carriers. In addition, genome variations within the RANK locus were significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women with BRCA1 mutations. Thus, RANKL/RANK control progenitor cell expansion and tumorigenesis in inherited breast cancer. These results present a viable strategy for the possible prevention of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutant patients. PMID:27241552

  17. Understanding and reducing the prescription of hypnotics and sedatives at the interface of hospital care and general practice: a protocol for a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Stephanie; Weiß, Vivien; Straube, Kati; Nau, Roland; Grimmsmann, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hypnotics and sedatives, especially benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, are frequently prescribed for longer periods than recommended—in spite of potential risks for patients. Any intervention to improve this situation has to take into account the interplay between different actors, interests and needs. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop—together with the professionals involved—ideas for reducing the use of hypnotics and sedatives and then to implement and evaluate adequate interventions in the hospital and at the primary and secondary care interface. Methods and analysis The study will take place in a regional hospital in northern Germany and in some general practices in this region. We will collect data from doctors, nurses, patients and a major social health insurer to define the problem from multiple perspectives. These data will be explored and discussed with relevant stakeholders to develop interventions. The interventions will be implemented and, in a final step, evaluated. Both quantitative and qualitative data, including surveys, interviews, chart reviews and secondary analysis of social health insurance data, will be collected to obtain a full understanding of the frequency and the reasons for using hypnotics and sedatives. Ethics and dissemination Approval has been granted from the ethics review committee of the University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany. Results will be disseminated to researchers, clinicians and policy makers in peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications. One or more dissemination events will be held locally during continuous professional development events for local professionals, including (but not confined to) the study participants. PMID:27496238

  18. Understanding and reducing the prescription of hypnotics and sedatives at the interface of hospital care and general practice: a protocol for a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Stephanie; Weiß, Vivien; Straube, Kati; Nau, Roland; Grimmsmann, Thomas; Himmel, Wolfgang; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2016-08-05

    Hypnotics and sedatives, especially benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, are frequently prescribed for longer periods than recommended-in spite of potential risks for patients. Any intervention to improve this situation has to take into account the interplay between different actors, interests and needs. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop-together with the professionals involved-ideas for reducing the use of hypnotics and sedatives and then to implement and evaluate adequate interventions in the hospital and at the primary and secondary care interface. The study will take place in a regional hospital in northern Germany and in some general practices in this region. We will collect data from doctors, nurses, patients and a major social health insurer to define the problem from multiple perspectives. These data will be explored and discussed with relevant stakeholders to develop interventions. The interventions will be implemented and, in a final step, evaluated. Both quantitative and qualitative data, including surveys, interviews, chart reviews and secondary analysis of social health insurance data, will be collected to obtain a full understanding of the frequency and the reasons for using hypnotics and sedatives. Approval has been granted from the ethics review committee of the University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany. Results will be disseminated to researchers, clinicians and policy makers in peer-reviewed journal articles and conference publications. One or more dissemination events will be held locally during continuous professional development events for local professionals, including (but not confined to) the study participants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. MIXED FORMULATION OF CONVENTIONAL AND PEGYLATED MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE-CONTAINING LIPOSOMES REDUCES INFLAMMATORY PROCESS AND PARASITE BURDEN IN L. infantum INFECTED BALB/c MICE.

    PubMed

    Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Fortes de Brito, Rory Cristiane; Cardoso, Jamille Mirelle de Oliveira; Mathias, Fernando Augusto Siqueira; Aguiar Soares, Rodrigo Dian Oliveira; Carneiro, Claudia Martins; de Abreu Vieira, Paula Melo; Ramos, Guilherme Santos; Frézard, Frédéric Jean Georges; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2017-08-21

    Pentavalent antimonial has been the first choice treatment for visceral leishmaniasis, however, it has several side effects that leads to low adherence to treatment. Liposome-encapsulated meglumine antimoniate (MA) arises as an important strategy for chemotherapy enhancement. Herein was evaluated the immunopathological changes using the mixture of conventional and pegylated liposomes with MA. The mice were infected with L. infantum and a single dose treatment regimen. Comparison was made with groups treated with saline, empty liposomes, free MA, and liposomal formulation of MA. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that animals treated with Lipo MA, showed a significant decrease in the inflammatory process and absence of granulomas. The in vitro stimulation of splenocytes showed a significant increase of IFN-γ-produced by CD8(+) T-cells and a decrease of IL-10-produced by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in the Lipo MA. Furthermore, Lipo MA group showed an increase in the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells subsets. According to the parasite load evaluation using qPCR, Lipo MA group showed no L. infantum DNA in spleen (0.0%) and 41.4% in liver. Additionally, we detected a low positive correlation between parasitism and histopathology findings (inflammatory process and granuloma formation). Thus, our results confirmed that the Lipo MA is a promising antileishmanial formulation able to reduce the inflammatory response and induce a type 1 immune response, accompanied by a significant reduction of the parasite burden into hepatic and splenic compartment in treated animals. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Gene Ranking of RNA-Seq Data via Discriminant Non-Negative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhilong; Zhang, Xiang; Guan, Naiyang; Bo, Xiaochen; Barnes, Michael R; Luo, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    RNA-sequencing is rapidly becoming the method of choice for studying the full complexity of transcriptomes, however with increasing dimensionality, accurate gene ranking is becoming increasingly challenging. This paper proposes an accurate and sensitive gene ranking method that implements discriminant non-negative matrix factorization (DNMF) for RNA-seq data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to explore the utility of DNMF for gene ranking. When incorporating Fisher's discriminant criteria and setting the reduced dimension as two, DNMF learns two factors to approximate the original gene expression data, abstracting the up-regulated or down-regulated metagene by using the sample label information. The first factor denotes all the genes' weights of two metagenes as the additive combination of all genes, while the second learned factor represents the expression values of two metagenes. In the gene ranking stage, all the genes are ranked as a descending sequence according to the differential values of the metagene weights. Leveraging the nature of NMF and Fisher's criterion, DNMF can robustly boost the gene ranking performance. The Area Under the Curve analysis of differential expression analysis on two benchmarking tests of four RNA-seq data sets with similar phenotypes showed that our proposed DNMF-based gene ranking method outperforms other widely used methods. Moreover, the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis also showed DNMF outweighs others. DNMF is also computationally efficient, substantially outperforming all other benchmarked methods. Consequently, we suggest DNMF is an effective method for the analysis of differential gene expression and gene ranking for RNA-seq data.

  1. Sexual arousal by higher- and lower-ranking partner: manifestation of a mating strategy?

    PubMed

    Jozifkova, Eva; Konvicka, Martin

    2009-12-01

    High hierarchical status is associated with increased reproduction success in mammals. However the subordinate males are not totally eliminated from reproduction due to mate choice and alternative male strategies. Thus; the sexual arousal by higher-ranking or lower-ranking partner in humans may represent a proximate mechanism for realizing a reproductive strategy. To evaluate possible connection between mating strategy and sexual arousal by lower-ranking and higher-ranking partner. Markers of possible reproductive success (the number and gender of relatives and self-reported attractiveness) were evaluated by questionnaire-based study on students (110 men and 195 women, aged 19 to 29, mean age 22.5 +/- 2.10SD). The correlation between markers of reproductive success and the sexual arousal by lower- and higher-ranking partner. Arousal by lower-ranking partner correlated positively with proportion of males in relatives (Spearman's r, males: 0.219*; females: 0.161*) and with self-reported attractiveness (males: r = 0.223*); arousal by higher-ranking partner correlated positively with self-attractiveness (females: r = 0.191*). We found markers of reproductive success despite of reduced number of offspring in nowadays population. The sexual arousal by lower- and/or higher-ranking partner appears to be a manifestation of a successful reproductive strategy, e.g. behavior connected to natural human behavior. Moreover, the sexual arousal by overemphasized hierarchy (e.g. dominant-slave play) considered to be a part of sadomasochistic sex (or so called BDSM) may represent an over emphasised manifestation of this reproductive strategy. *P < 0.05.

  2. The utilization of Indonesia`s low rank coal: Its potential, challenges and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Panaka, P.

    1997-07-01

    It has known that there are around 36 billion tons of coal resources potential in Indonesia, however over 21 billion tons (58.7%) is classified as low-rank (lignite) coal. Due to their properties, these coals are not economical to be transported for a long distance and are therefore unexportable. That`s why these low-rank coals still under-utilized at present. As the utilization of low-rank coals is expected to grow in importance as the domestic`s demand for energy increases in the near future, efforts should also be directed to find the possible upgrading technology for low-rank coals by reducing the total moisture of it, once the possible upgrading technology has been adopted, then those coal can be converted into coal water mixture, coal liquefaction, gasification, briquetting, etc., even for mine mouth power-plant. The challenges facing low-rank coals are: low conversion efficiency resulting from the high moisture content and relatively low in calorific values, the risk of spontaneous combustion, ash deposit formation and higher CO{sub 2} emission To response to these challenges, the adoption of new and advanced technologies for the utilization of low-rank coals from the third countries is therefore required. Combined cycle technologies such as CFBC, PFBC and IGCC, etc. combined with coal up-grading technology are applicable to low-rank coals and are expected to become a major future power plant for Indonesia. The main question for low-rank coals is whether these plants can be competitive when the extra costs involved in up-grading (drying) the coal are taken into account.

  3. Gene Ranking of RNA-Seq Data via Discriminant Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhilong; Zhang, Xiang; Guan, Naiyang; Bo, Xiaochen; Barnes, Michael R.; Luo, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    RNA-sequencing is rapidly becoming the method of choice for studying the full complexity of transcriptomes, however with increasing dimensionality, accurate gene ranking is becoming increasingly challenging. This paper proposes an accurate and sensitive gene ranking method that implements discriminant non-negative matrix factorization (DNMF) for RNA-seq data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to explore the utility of DNMF for gene ranking. When incorporating Fisher’s discriminant criteria and setting the reduced dimension as two, DNMF learns two factors to approximate the original gene expression data, abstracting the up-regulated or down-regulated metagene by using the sample label information. The first factor denotes all the genes’ weights of two metagenes as the additive combination of all genes, while the second learned factor represents the expression values of two metagenes. In the gene ranking stage, all the genes are ranked as a descending sequence according to the differential values of the metagene weights. Leveraging the nature of NMF and Fisher’s criterion, DNMF can robustly boost the gene ranking performance. The Area Under the Curve analysis of differential expression analysis on two benchmarking tests of four RNA-seq data sets with similar phenotypes showed that our proposed DNMF-based gene ranking method outperforms other widely used methods. Moreover, the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis also showed DNMF outweighs others. DNMF is also computationally efficient, substantially outperforming all other benchmarked methods. Consequently, we suggest DNMF is an effective method for the analysis of differential gene expression and gene ranking for RNA-seq data. PMID:26348772

  4. Global Low-Rank Image Restoration With Gaussian Mixture Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sibo; Jiao, Licheng; Liu, Fang; Wang, Shuang

    2017-06-27

    Low-rank restoration has recently attracted a lot of attention in the research of computer vision. Empirical studies show that exploring the low-rank property of the patch groups can lead to superior restoration performance, however, there is limited achievement on the global low-rank restoration because the rank minimization at image level is too strong for the natural images which seldom match the low-rank condition. In this paper, we describe a flexible global low-rank restoration model which introduces the local statistical properties into the rank minimization. The proposed model can effectively recover the latent global low-rank structure via nuclear norm, as well as the fine details via Gaussian mixture model. An alternating scheme is developed to estimate the Gaussian parameters and the restored image, and it shows excellent convergence and stability. Besides, experiments on image and video sequence datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed method in image inpainting problems.

  5. Rings whose p-ranks do not exceed 1

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, O. S.; Tsarev, A. V. E-mail: an-tsarev@yandex.ru

    2014-04-30

    We consider associative torsion-free rings of finite rank whose p-ranks do not exceed 1. For these rings, certain analogues of Wedderburn's theorem on finite-dimensional algebras are found. Bibliography: 11 titles. (paper)

  6. Sum of ranking differences to rank stationary phases used in packed column supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    West, Caroline; Khalikova, Maria A; Lesellier, Eric; Héberger, Károly

    2015-08-28

    The identification of a suitable stationary phase in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a major source of difficulty for those with little experience in this technique. Several protocols have been suggested for column classification in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and SFC. However, none of the proposed classification schemes received general acceptance. A fair way to compare columns was proposed with the sum of ranking differences (SRD). In this project, we used the retention data obtained for 86 test compounds with varied polarity and structure, analyzed on 71 different stationary phases encompassing the full range in polarity of commercial packed columns currently available to the SFC chromatographer, with a single set of mobile phase and operating conditions (carbon dioxide-methanol mobile phase, 25°C, 150bar outlet pressure, 3ml/min). First, a reference column was selected and the 70 remaining columns were ranked based on this reference column and the retention data obtained on the 86 analytes. As these analytes previously served for the calculation of linear solvation energy relationships (LSER) on the 71 columns, SRD ranks were compared to LSER methodology. Finally, an external comparison based on the analysis of 10 other analytes (UV filters) related the observed selectivity to SRD ranking. Comparison of elution orders of the UV filters to the SRD rankings is highly supportive of the adequacy of SRD methodology to select similar and dissimilar columns.

  7. A Comparison of the Power of Wilcoxon's Rank-Sum Statistic to that of Student's t Statistic under Various Nonnormal Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, R. Clifford; Higgins, James J.

    1980-01-01

    Monte Carlo techniques were used to compare the power of Wilcoxon's rank-sum test to the power of the two independent means t test for situations in which samples were drawn from (1) uniform, (2) Laplace, (3) half-normal, (4) exponential, (5) mixed-normal, and (6) mixed-uniform distributions. (Author/JKS)

  8. Visualizing Rank Time Series of Wikipedia Top-Viewed Pages.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing; Hou, Yumeng; Chen, Yingjie Victor; Qian, Zhenyu Cheryl; Ebert, David S; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Visual clutter is a common challenge when visualizing large rank time series data. WikiTopReader, a reader of Wikipedia page rank, lets users explore connections among top-viewed pages by connecting page-rank behaviors with page-link relations. Such a combination enhances the unweighted Wikipedia page-link network and focuses attention on the page of interest. A set of user evaluations shows that the system effectively represents evolving ranking patterns and page-wise correlation.

  9. Comments on the rank product method for analyzing replicated experiments.

    PubMed

    Koziol, James A

    2010-03-05

    Breitling et al. introduced a statistical technique, the rank product method, for detecting differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments. The technique has achieved widespread acceptance and is now used more broadly, in such diverse fields as RNAi analysis, proteomics, and machine learning. In this note, we relate the rank product method to linear rank statistics and provide an alternative derivation of distribution theory attending the rank product method.

  10. Ranking Quality in Higher Education: Guiding or Misleading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergseth, Brita; Petocz, Peter; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    The study examines two different models of measuring, assessing and ranking quality in higher education. Do different systems of quality assessment lead to equivalent conclusions about the quality of education? This comparative study is based on the rankings of 24 Swedish higher education institutions. Two ranking actors have independently…

  11. Academic Ranking of World Universities by Broad Subject Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Nian Cai

    2007-01-01

    Upon numerous requests to provide ranking of world universities by broad subject fields/schools/colleges and by subject fields/programs/departments, the authors present the ranking methodologies and problems that arose from the research by the Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University on the Academic Ranking of World…

  12. Ranking Scholarly Publishers in Political Science: An Alternative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garand, James C.; Giles, Micheal W.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has documented how political scientists evaluate and rank scholarly journals, but the evaluation and ranking of scholarly book publishers has drawn less attention. In this article, we use data from a survey of 603 American political scientists to generate a ranking of scholarly publishers in political science. We used open-ended…

  13. Ranking Scholarly Publishers in Political Science: An Alternative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garand, James C.; Giles, Micheal W.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has documented how political scientists evaluate and rank scholarly journals, but the evaluation and ranking of scholarly book publishers has drawn less attention. In this article, we use data from a survey of 603 American political scientists to generate a ranking of scholarly publishers in political science. We used open-ended…

  14. University Rankings 2.0: New Frontiers in Institutional Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The number of university rankings systems in use around the world has increased dramatically over the last decade. As they have spread, they have mutated; no longer are ranking systems simply clones of the original ranking systems such as "US News" and "World Report". A number of different types of "mutation" have occurred, so that there are now…

  15. 14 CFR § 1214.1105 - Final ranking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Final ranking. § 1214.1105 Section § 1214.1105 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1105 Final ranking. Final rankings will be based on a...

  16. 25 CFR 1001.3 - Priority ranking for negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Priority ranking for negotiations. 1001.3 Section 1001.3... PROGRAM § 1001.3 Priority ranking for negotiations. In addition to the eligibility criteria identified above, a tribe or consortium of tribes seeking priority ranking for negotiations must submit a...

  17. 25 CFR 1001.3 - Priority ranking for negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Priority ranking for negotiations. 1001.3 Section 1001.3... PROGRAM § 1001.3 Priority ranking for negotiations. In addition to the eligibility criteria identified above, a tribe or consortium of tribes seeking priority ranking for negotiations must submit a...

  18. 25 CFR 1001.3 - Priority ranking for negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Priority ranking for negotiations. 1001.3 Section 1001.3... PROGRAM § 1001.3 Priority ranking for negotiations. In addition to the eligibility criteria identified above, a tribe or consortium of tribes seeking priority ranking for negotiations must submit a...

  19. 25 CFR 1001.3 - Priority ranking for negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Priority ranking for negotiations. 1001.3 Section 1001.3... PROGRAM § 1001.3 Priority ranking for negotiations. In addition to the eligibility criteria identified above, a tribe or consortium of tribes seeking priority ranking for negotiations must submit a...

  20. 25 CFR 1001.3 - Priority ranking for negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Priority ranking for negotiations. 1001.3 Section 1001.3... PROGRAM § 1001.3 Priority ranking for negotiations. In addition to the eligibility criteria identified above, a tribe or consortium of tribes seeking priority ranking for negotiations must submit a...

  1. On Graph Isomorphism and the PageRank Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    53 33. PageRank: An Algorithm for Ordering Vertices [PBM+98] .......................................63 34. Paw Graph [Wes01...64 35. Applying the PageRank Perturbation to the Paw Graph, α...0.85 ............................64 36. Paw Graph’s PageRank Vector, α = 0.85

  2. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  3. Rankings in Institutional Strategies and Processes: Impact or Illusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen; Loukkola, Tia; Zhang, Thérèse

    2014-01-01

    The "Rankings in Institutional Strategies and Processes" (RISP) project is the first pan-European study of the impact and influence of rankings on European higher education institutions. The project has sought to build understanding of how rankings impact and influence the development of institutional strategies and processes and its…

  4. Academic Ranking--From Its Genesis to Its International Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Rosilene C.; Lima, Manolita C.

    2015-01-01

    Given the visibility and popularity of rankings that encompass the measurement of quality of post-graduate courses, for instance, the MBA (Master of Business Administration) or graduate studies program (MSc and PhD) as do global academic rankings--Academic Ranking of World Universities-ARWU, Times Higher/Thomson Reuters World University Ranking…

  5. Control by Numbers: New Managerialism and Ranking in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of rankings as an instrument of new managerialism. It shows how rankings are reconstituting the purpose of universities, the role of academics and the definition of what it is to be a student. The paper opens by examining the forces that have facilitated the emergence of the ranking industry and the ideologies…

  6. Ranking Quality in Higher Education: Guiding or Misleading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergseth, Brita; Petocz, Peter; Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    The study examines two different models of measuring, assessing and ranking quality in higher education. Do different systems of quality assessment lead to equivalent conclusions about the quality of education? This comparative study is based on the rankings of 24 Swedish higher education institutions. Two ranking actors have independently…

  7. Rankings in Institutional Strategies and Processes: Impact or Illusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen; Loukkola, Tia; Zhang, Thérèse

    2014-01-01

    The "Rankings in Institutional Strategies and Processes" (RISP) project is the first pan-European study of the impact and influence of rankings on European higher education institutions. The project has sought to build understanding of how rankings impact and influence the development of institutional strategies and processes and its…

  8. Control by Numbers: New Managerialism and Ranking in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of rankings as an instrument of new managerialism. It shows how rankings are reconstituting the purpose of universities, the role of academics and the definition of what it is to be a student. The paper opens by examining the forces that have facilitated the emergence of the ranking industry and the ideologies…

  9. Academic Ranking of World Universities by Broad Subject Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, Nian Cai

    2007-01-01

    Upon numerous requests to provide ranking of world universities by broad subject fields/schools/colleges and by subject fields/programs/departments, the authors present the ranking methodologies and problems that arose from the research by the Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University on the Academic Ranking of World…

  10. Higher Education Ranking and Leagues Tables: Lessons Learned from Benchmarking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Roland

    2007-01-01

    The paper intends to contribute to the debate on ranking and league tables by adopting a critical approach to ranking methodologies from the point of view of a university benchmarking exercise. The absence of a strict benchmarking exercise in the ranking process has been, in the opinion of the author, one of the major problems encountered in the…

  11. World University Rankings: Ambiguous Signals. Go8 Backgrounder 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The current main world university rankings broadly group the leading research universities of nations. Australia's Go8 universities are generally within the top 250 ranked universities, with several institutions in the top 50-100 on some measures. This recognition is commendable, however imperfect the individual rankings may be. Use is made of…

  12. Higher Education Ranking and Leagues Tables: Lessons Learned from Benchmarking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Roland

    2007-01-01

    The paper intends to contribute to the debate on ranking and league tables by adopting a critical approach to ranking methodologies from the point of view of a university benchmarking exercise. The absence of a strict benchmarking exercise in the ranking process has been, in the opinion of the author, one of the major problems encountered in the…

  13. Expected value based ranking of intuitionistic fuzzy variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Tanuj; Bajaj, Rakesh Kumar; Kaushik, Rajeev

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper, we introduce the idea of intuitionistic fuzzy variables by means of credibility theory. The mean value of intuitionistic fuzzy variables is obtained with the help of credibility distribution. Then, we develop a more comprehensive ranking method based on mean value of intuitionistic fuzzy variable. Also, we analyze the consistency of the propose ranking method with existing ranking methods.

  14. The Importance of Rank Position. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1241

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Richard; Weinhardt, Felix

    2013-01-01

    We find an individual's rank within their reference group has effects on later objective outcomes. To evaluate the impact of local rank, we use a large administrative dataset tracking over two million students in England from primary through to secondary school. Academic rank within primary school has sizable, robust and significant effects on…

  15. Low rank approximation in G0W0 calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, MeiYue; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; ...

    2016-06-04

    The single particle energies obtained in a Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculation are generally known to be poor approximations to electron excitation energies that are measured in tr ansport, tunneling and spectroscopic experiments such as photo-emission spectroscopy. The correction to these energies can be obtained from the poles of a single particle Green’s function derived from a many-body perturbation theory. From a computational perspective, the accuracy and efficiency of such an approach depends on how a self energy term that properly accounts for dynamic screening of electrons is approximated. The G0W0 approximation is a widely used technique in whichmore » the self energy is expressed as the convolution of a noninteracting Green’s function (G0) and a screened Coulomb interaction (W0) in the frequency domain. The computational cost associated with such a convolution is high due to the high complexity of evaluating W 0 at multiple frequencies. In this paper, we discuss how the cost of G0W0 calculation can be reduced by constructing a low rank approximation to the frequency dependent part of W 0 . In particular, we examine the effect of such a low rank approximation on the accuracy of the G0W0 approximation. We also discuss how the numerical convolution of G0 and W0 can be evaluated efficiently and accurately by using a contour deformation technique with an appropriate choice of the contour.« less

  16. Mixed quantum/classical calculations of total and differential elastic and rotationally inelastic scattering cross sections for light and heavy reduced masses in a broad range of collision energies

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2014-01-28

    The mixed quantum/classical theory (MQCT) for rotationally inelastic scattering developed recently [A. Semenov and D. Babikov, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174108 (2013)] is benchmarked against the full quantum calculations for two molecular systems: He + H{sub 2} and Na + N{sub 2}. This allows testing new method in the cases of light and reasonably heavy reduced masses, for small and large rotational quanta, in a broad range of collision energies and rotational excitations. The resultant collision cross sections vary through ten-orders of magnitude range of values. Both inelastic and elastic channels are considered, as well as differential (over scattering angle) cross sections. In many cases results of the mixed quantum/classical method are hard to distinguish from the full quantum results. In less favorable cases (light masses, larger quanta, and small collision energies) some deviations are observed but, even in the worst cases, they are within 25% or so. The method is computationally cheap and particularly accurate at higher energies, heavier masses, and larger densities of states. At these conditions MQCT represents a useful alternative to the standard full-quantum scattering theory.

  17. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues.

    PubMed

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N; Becerril, Baltazar

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology.

  18. Simple approach for ranking structure determining residues

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Vidal-Limón, Abraham; Villalba-Velázquez, Miryam I.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Uversky, Vladimir N.

    2016-01-01

    Mutating residues has been a common task in order to study structural properties of the protein of interest. Here, we propose and validate a simple method that allows the identification of structural determinants; i.e., residues essential for preservation of the stability of global structure, regardless of the protein topology. This method evaluates all of the residues in a 3D structure of a given globular protein by ranking them according to their connectivity and movement restrictions without topology constraints. Our results matched up with sequence-based predictors that look up for intrinsically disordered segments, suggesting that protein disorder can also be described with the proposed methodology. PMID:27366642

  19. Mixing and compaction temperatures for Superpave mixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Yetkin

    included during viscosity measurements. The use of practical shear rates results in reasonable mixing and compaction temperatures for hot mix asphalt design and construction with modified asphalt binders. It was found that application of the shear rate concept, rather than the traditional approach used for unmodified binders, can reduce the mixing and compaction temperatures from between roughly 10 and 30°C, depending on the type and the amount of modifier.

  20. The Kurtzke EDSS rank stability increases 4 years after the onset of multiple sclerosis: results from the MSBase Registry.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Stella; Spelman, Timothy; Trojano, Maria; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Grand'maison, Francois; Duquette, Pierre; Girard, Marc; Grammond, Pierre; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Hupperts, Raymond; Boz, Cavit; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Giuliani, Giorgio; Rio, Maria Edite; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; van Pesch, Vincent; Iuliano, Gerardo; Fiol, Marcela; Verheul, Freek; Barnett, Michael; Slee, Mark; Herbert, Joseph; Kister, Ilya; Vella, Norbert; Moore, Fraser; Petkovska-Boskova, Tatjana; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Jokubaitis, Vilija; McDonnell, Gavin; Hawkins, Stanley; Kee, Frank; Gray, Orla; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2012-03-01

    The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is widely used to rate multiple sclerosis (MS) disability, but lack of disease duration information limits utility in assessing severity. EDSS ranking at specific disease durations was used to devise the MS Severity Score, which is gaining popularity for predicting outcomes. As this requires validation in longitudinal cohorts, we aimed to assess the utility of EDSS ranking as a predictor of 5-year outcome in the MSBase Registry. Rank stability of EDSS over time was examined in the MSBase Registry, a large multicentre MS cohort. Scores were ranked for 5-year intervals, and correlation of rank across intervals was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation. EDSS progression outcomes at 10 years were disaggregated by 5-year EDSS scores. Correlation coefficients for EDSS rank over 5-year intervals increased with MS duration: years 1-6=0.55, years 4-9=0.74, years 7-12=0.80 and years 10-15=0.83. EDSS progression risk at 10 years after onset was highly dependent on EDSS at 5 years; one-point progression risk was greater for EDSS score of >2 than ≤2. Two-point progression was uncommon for EDSS score of <2 and more common at EDSS score of 4. EDSS rank stability increases with disease duration, probably due to reduced relapses and less random variation in later disease. After 4 years duration, EDSS rank was highly predictive of EDSS rank 5 years later. Risk of progression by 10 years was highly dependent on EDSS score at 5 years duration. We confirm the utility of EDSS ranking to predict 5-year outcome in individuals 4 years after disease onset.