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Sample records for reduced serotonin levels

  1. Acute and constitutive increases in central serotonin levels reduce social play behaviour in peri-adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Schiepers, Olga J. G.; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; Cuppen, Edwin; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin is an important modulator of social behaviour. Individual differences in serotonergic signalling are considered to be a marker of personality that is stable throughout lifetime. While a large body of evidence indicates that central serotonin levels are inversely related to aggression and sexual behaviour in adult rats, the relationship between serotonin and social behaviour during peri-adolescence has hardly been explored. Objective To study the effect of acute and constitutive increases in serotonin neurotransmission on social behaviour in peri-adolescent rats. Materials and methods Social behaviour in peri-adolesent rats (28–35 days old) was studied after genetic ablation of the serotonin transporter, causing constitutively increased extra-neuronal serotonin levels, and after acute treatment with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine or the serotonin releasing agent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). A distinction was made between social play behaviour that mainly occurs during peri-adolescence, and non-playful social interactions that are abundant during the entire lifespan of rats. Results In serotonin transporter knockout rats, social play behaviour was markedly reduced, while non-playful aspects of social interaction were unaffected. Acute treatment with fluoxetine or MDMA dose-dependently inhibited social play behaviour. MDMA also suppressed non-playful social interaction but at higher doses than those required to reduce social play. Fluoxetine did not affect non-playful social interaction. Conclusions These data show that both acute and constitutive increases in serotonergic neurotransmission reduce social play behaviour in peri-adolescent rats. Together with our previous findings of reduced aggressive and sexual behaviour in adult serotonin transporter knockout rats, these data support the notion that serotonin modulates social behaviour in a trait-like manner. PMID:17661017

  2. Flavonoids inhibit both rice and sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferases and reduce melatonin levels in plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungjin; Hwang, Ok Jin; Reiter, Russel J; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2018-05-31

    The plant melatonin biosynthetic pathway has been well characterized, but inhibitors of melatonin synthesis have not been well studied. Here, we found that flavonoids potently inhibited plant melatonin synthesis. For example, flavonoids including morin and myricetin significantly inhibited purified, recombinant sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT). Flavonoids also dose-dependently and potently inhibited purified rice SNAT1 and SNAT2. Thus, myricetin (100 μmol/L) reduced rice SNAT1 and SNAT2 activity 7- and 10-fold, respectively, and also strongly inhibited the N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase activity of purified, recombinant rice caffeic acid O-methyltransferase. To explore the in vivo effects, rice leaves were treated with flavonoids and then cadmium. Flavonoid-treated leaves had lower melatonin levels than the untreated control. To explore the direct roles of flavonoids in melatonin biosynthesis, we first functionally characterized a putative rice flavonol synthase (FLS) in vitro and generated flavonoid-rich transgenic rice plants that overexpressed FLS. Such plants produced more flavonoids but less melatonin than the wild-type, which suggests that flavonoids indeed inhibit plant melatonin biosynthesis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  4. Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Agnvall, Beatrix; Katajamaa, Rebecca; Altimiras, Jordi; Jensen, Per

    2015-09-01

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Aging and depression vulnerability interaction results in decreased serotonin innervation associated with reduced BDNF levels in hippocampus of rats bred for learned helplessness.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders B; Santini, Martin A; Knudsen, Gitte M; Henn, Fritz; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara

    2010-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a strong genetic contribution to the risk for depression. Both reduced hippocampal serotonin neurotransmission and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been associated with increased depression vulnerability and are also regulated during aging. Brains from young (5 months old) and old (13 months old) congenital Learned Helplessness rats (cLH), and congenital Non Learned Helplessness rats (cNLH) were immunohistochemically stained for the serotonin transporter and subsequently stereologically quantified for estimating hippocampal serotonin fiber density. Hippocampal BDNF protein levels were measured by ELISA. An exacerbated age-related loss of serotonin fiber density specific for the CA1 area was observed in the cLH animals, whereas reduced hippocampal BDNF levels were seen in young and old cLH when compared with age-matched cNLH controls. These observations indicate that aging should be taken into account when studying the neurobiological factors behind the vulnerability for depression and that understanding the effect of aging on genetically predisposed individuals may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology behind depression, particularly in the elderly.

  6. Urinary serotonin level is associated with serotonin syndrome after moclobemide, sertraline, and citalopram overdose.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran; Stajer, Dusan; Kozelj, Gordana; Osredkar, Josko; Mozina, Martin; Bunc, Matjaz

    2007-01-01

    Altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities are a characteristic triad of serotonin syndrome. No laboratory tests confirm the diagnosis of serotonin syndrome. A 35-year-old woman took moclobemide, sertraline, and citalopram in a suicide attempt. She was conscious with mild tachycardia, hypertension, and tachypnea one hour after ingestion. In the second hour after ingestion diaphoresis, mydriasis, horizontal nystagmus, trismus, hyperreflexia, clonus, and tremor appeared. She became agitated and unresponsive. In the third hour after ingestion she became comatose and hyperthermic. She was anesthetized, paralyzed, intubated, and ventilated for 24 hours. Serum moclobemide, sertraline, and citalopram levels were above therapeutic levels. The serum serotonin level was within normal limits and the urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid:creatinine ratio was below the average daily value. The urinary serotonin:creatinine ratio was increased on arrival (1 mg/g). The urinary serotonin level is increased in serotonin syndrome due to a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors overdose. It is possible that urinary serotonin concentration could be used as a biochemical marker of serotonin syndrome.

  7. Effects of delayed laboratory processing on platelet serotonin levels.

    PubMed

    Sanner, Jennifer E; Frazier, Lorraine; Udtha, Malini

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of established guidelines for measuring platelet serotonin, these guidelines may be difficult to follow in a hospital setting where time to processing may vary from sample to sample. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the time to processing of human blood samples on the stability of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of platelet serotonin levels in human plasma. Human blood samples collected from a convenience sample of eight healthy volunteers were analyzed to determine platelet serotonin levels from plasma collected in ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and stored at 4°C for 3 hr, 5 hr, 8 hr, and 12 hr. Refrigeration storage at 4°C for 3 hr, 5 hr, 8 hr, and 12 hr altered the platelet serotonin measurement when compared to immediate processing. The bias for the samples stored at 4°C for 3 hr was 102.3 (±217.39 ng/10(9) platelets), for 5 hr was 200.1 (±132.76 ng/10(9) platelets), for 8 hr was 146.9 (±221.41 ng/10(9) platelets), and for 12 hr was -67.6 (±349.60 ng/10(9) platelets). Results from this study show that accurate measurement of platelet serotonin levels is dependent on time to processing. Researchers should therefore follow a standardized laboratory guideline for obtaining immediate platelet serotonin levels after blood sample collection.

  8. Plasma serotonin level is a predictor for recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Zhihao; Pang, Li

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of plasma serotonin levels in colorectal cancer (CRC). Preoperative plasma serotonin levels of 150 healthy control (HC) cases, 150 benign colorectal polyp (BCP) cases, and 176 CRC cases were determined using radioimmunoassay assay. Serotonin levels were compared between HC, BCP, and CRC cases, and those in CRC patients were related to 5-year outcome. Plasma serotonin levels were markedly higher in CRC patients than in either HCs or BCP cases. An elevated serotonin level was significantly associated with advanced tumor node metastasis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the level of serotonin had a high predictive value for disease recurrence and mortality. Multivariate analysis revealed that high serotonin level was significantly associated with poor recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Our results suggest that a high peri-operative plasma serotonin level is useful as a prognostic biomarker for CRC recurrence and poor survival. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Neurochemical, behavioral and physiological effects of pharmacologically enhanced serotonin levels in serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Meredith A.; Jensen, Catherine L.; French, Helen T.; Stein, Alison R.; Huang, Su-Jan; Tolliver, Teresa J.; Murphy, Dennis L.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout (−/−) mice have an altered phenotype in adulthood, including high baseline anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, associated with increased baseline extracellular serotonin levels throughout life. Objectives To examine the effects of increases in serotonin following administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) in SERT wildtype (+/+), heterozygous (+/−) and −/− mice. Results 5-HTP increased serotonin in all five brain areas examined, with ~2–5-fold increases in SERT +/+ and +/− mice, and greater 4.5–11.7-fold increases in SERT −/− mice. Behaviorally, 5-HTP induced exaggerated serotonin syndrome behaviors in SERT −/− mice, with similar effects in male and female mice. Studies suggest promiscuous serotonin uptake by the dopamine transporter (DAT) in SERT −/− mice, and here, the DAT blocker GBR 12909 enhanced 5-HTP-induced behaviors in SERT −/− mice. Physiologically, 5-HTP induced exaggerated temperature effects in SERT-deficient mice. The 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635 decreased 5-HTP-induced hypothermia in SERT +/+ and +/− mice, with no effect in SERT −/− mice, whereas the 5-HT7 antagonist SB 269970 decreased this exaggerated response in SERT −/− mice only. WAY 100635 and SB 269970 together completely blocked 5-HTP-induced hypothermia in SERT +/− and −/− mice. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that SERT −/− mice have exaggerated neurochemical, behavioral and physiological responses to further increases in serotonin, and provide the first evidence of intact 5-HT7 receptor function in SERT −/− mice, with interesting interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors. As roles for 5-HT7 receptors in anxiety and depression were recently established, the current findings have implications for understanding the high anxiety and depressive-like phenotype of SERT-deficient mice. PMID:18712364

  10. Lower serotonin level and higher rate of fibromyalgia syndrome with advancing pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Atasever, Melahat; Namlı Kalem, Muberra; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Yüce, Tuncay; Sahin Aker, Seda; Koç, Acar; Genc, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between changes in serotonin levels during pregnancy and fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and the relationships between FS and the physical/psychological state, biochemical and hormonal parameters, which may be related to the musculoskeletal system. This study is a prospective case-control study conducted with 277 pregnant women at the obstetric unit of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, in the period between January and June 2015. FS was determined based on the presence or absence of the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria and all the volunteers were asked to answer the questionnaires as Fibromyalgia Impact Criteria (FIQ), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SS), Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Biochemical and hormonal markers (glucose, TSH, T4, Ca (calcium), P (phosphate), PTH (parathyroid hormone) and serotonin levels) relating to muscle and bone metabolism were measured. In the presence of fibromyalgia, the physical and psychological parameters are negatively affected (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the fibromyalgia and control groups in terms of glucose, Ca (calcium), P (phosphorus), PTH (parathyroid hormone), TSH (thyroid stimulant hormone), fT4 (free T4) levels (p = 0.060, 0.799, 0.074, 0.104, 0.797, 0.929, respectively). A reduction in serotonin levels may contribute to the development of fibromyalgia but this was not statistically significant. The Beck Depression Inventory scale statistically showed that increasing scores also increase the risk of fibromyalgia (p <0.001). Our study has shown that serotonin levels in women with FS are lower than the control group and that serotonin levels reduce as pregnancy progresses. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with FS are higher than the control group. The presence of depression increases the likelihood of developing FS at a statistically significant level. Serotonin impairment also

  11. Effect of treatment at weaning with the serotonin antagonist mianserin on the brain serotonin and cerebrospinal fluid nocistatin level of adult female rats: a case of late imprinting.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Knippel, Barbara; Karabélyos, Cs; Inczefi-Gonda, Agnes; Hantos, Mónika; Tóthfalusi, L; Tekes, Kornélia

    2004-07-09

    Four weeks old (weanling) female rats were treated with the tricyclic antidepressant and histamine/serotonin receptor blocker mianserin for studying its faulty hormonal imprinting effect. Measurements were done four months later. Brain serotonin levels significantly decreased in four regions (hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum and brainstem), without any change in the cortex. Sexual activity of the treated and control rats was similar. Cerebrospinal fluid nocistatin level was one magnitude higher in the treated rats, than in the controls. The density of uterine estrogen receptors was significantly reduced, while binding capacity of glucocorticoid receptors of liver and thymus remained at control level. The results call attention to the possibility of 1. a broad spectrum imprinting at the time of weaning by a receptor level acting non-hormone molecule 2. imprinting of the brain in a non-neonatal period of life and 3. a very durable (lifelong?) effect of the late imprinting with an antidepressant.

  12. Leptin, adiponectin and serotonin levels in lean and obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Sang-Eun; Oh, Jung-Hyun; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Song, Kun-Ho

    2014-05-13

    Serotonin (5-hydroytryptamine or 5HT) is associated with numerous behavioral and psychological factors and is a biochemical marker of mood. 5HT is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy consumption. 5HT controls appetite in the central nerve system (CNS) and stimulates intestinal mobility. There are few studies looking at the role of 5HT and the relationship between peripheral circulating serotonin and obesity. The aim of this study was to find any differences in leptin, adiponectin, and 5HT between lean and obese dogs and to identify correlations among these factors. Leptin, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels were higher in the obese group (all p < 0.01). Adiponectin and 5HT levels were higher in the lean group compared to the obese group (p < 0.01). Leptin (r = 0.628, p < 0.01), TG (r = 0.491, p < 0.01) and cholesterol (r = 0.419, p < 0.01) were positively correlated with body condition score (BCS), and adiponectin (r = -0.446, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.490, p < 0.01) were negatively correlated with BCS. Leptin was negatively correlated with adiponectin (r = -0.294, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.343, p < 0.01). 5HT was negatively correlated with leptin (r = -0.343, p < 0.01), TG (r = -0.268, p < 0.05) and cholesterol (r = -0.357, p < 0.05). 5HT is an important appetite control neurotransmitter, but there are limited studies for 5HT levels related to obesity in dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate peripheral 5HT levels in obese dogs. From this research, we can assume that 5HT may be correlated with canine obesity. Further studies will be needed to further elucidate the role of low serum 5HT levels in canine obesity.

  13. Leptin, adiponectin and serotonin levels in lean and obese dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serotonin (5-hydroytryptamine or 5HT) is associated with numerous behavioral and psychological factors and is a biochemical marker of mood. 5HT is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy consumption. 5HT controls appetite in the central nerve system (CNS) and stimulates intestinal mobility. There are few studies looking at the role of 5HT and the relationship between peripheral circulating serotonin and obesity. The aim of this study was to find any differences in leptin, adiponectin, and 5HT between lean and obese dogs and to identify correlations among these factors. Results Leptin, triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels were higher in the obese group (all p < 0.01). Adiponectin and 5HT levels were higher in the lean group compared to the obese group (p < 0.01). Leptin (r = 0.628, p < 0.01), TG (r = 0.491, p < 0.01) and cholesterol (r = 0.419, p < 0.01) were positively correlated with body condition score (BCS), and adiponectin (r = -0.446, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.490, p < 0.01) were negatively correlated with BCS. Leptin was negatively correlated with adiponectin (r = -0.294, p < 0.01) and 5HT (r = -0.343, p < 0.01). 5HT was negatively correlated with leptin (r = -0.343, p < 0.01), TG (r = -0.268, p < 0.05) and cholesterol (r = -0.357, p < 0.05). Conclusions 5HT is an important appetite control neurotransmitter, but there are limited studies for 5HT levels related to obesity in dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate peripheral 5HT levels in obese dogs. From this research, we can assume that 5HT may be correlated with canine obesity. Further studies will be needed to further elucidate the role of low serum 5HT levels in canine obesity. PMID:24886049

  14. Plasma levels of serotonin, gastrointestinal symptoms,and sleep problems in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Kalejahi, Parinaz; Noorazar, Seyyed Gholamreza

    2016-12-20

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder identified with higher frequency of serotonin abnormalities and gastrointestinal (GI) and sleep problems. This study aimed to evaluate the plasma levels of serotonin, GI symptoms, and sleep problems, and their relationship with autism severity in children with autism. Thirty-five children with autism and 31 healthy subjects were studied. GI problems, sleep disorders, and severity of disorder were assessed. Plasma serotonin was determined using ELISA. There was no significant association between GI problems and autism severity, but a significant positive correlation was seen between different indicators of sleep disorder and severity of autism. Plasma levels of serotonin were significantly higher in autistic children and a significant negative correlation was observed between plasma levels of serotonin and autism severity (r = -0.39, P = 0.02). Elevated plasma serotonin in autistic children and its negative correlation with disease severity may indicate involvement of the neurotransmitter in the neurophysiologic mechanism of autism.

  15. Serotonin Transporter Gene (SLC6A4) Polymorphism and Mucosal Serotonin Levels in Southeastern Iranian Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mojgan; Tahmasebi Abdar, Hossein; Mollaei, Hamid Reza; Hajghani, Hossein; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a digestive system disorder with an unknown etiology. Serotonin has a key role in the secretion and motility of the intestine. Polymorphism in serotonin re-uptake transporter (SERT or SLC6A4) gene may have a functional role in the gut of patients with IBS. The aims of the present study were to investigate the association between SLC6A4 gene polymorphism and IBS and to detect the correlation between rectal serotonin levels and IBS sub-types. METHODS SLC6A4 gene polymorphism in 131 patients with IBS and 211 healthy controls were analysed using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction high-resolution melting (qPCR-HRM) curve technique. Serotonin was measured in rectal biopsies of patients with IBS using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. RESULTS The patients were categorized into three groups: IBS with diarrhoea (IBS-D): 70 patients, IBS with constipation (IBS-C): 18 patients, and IBS with mixed symptoms (IBS-M): 43 patients. The frequency of SLC6A4 s/s and l/s genotypes was significantly higher in IBS-C than IBS-D, IBS-M, and controls (p=0.036). Serotonin levels were similar in IBS sub-types. CONCLUSION SLC6A4 polymorphism is a possible candidate gene associated with the pathogenesis of IBS-C. Although serotonin levels did not differ in rectal biopsies of IBS sub-types, further investigation is recommended. PMID:28316763

  16. Serotonin Augmentation Reduces Response to Attack in Aggressive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Mitchell E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Fanning, Jennifer R.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the theory that central serotonin (5- hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) activity regulates aggression by modulating response to provocation. Eighty men and women (40 with and 40 without a history of aggression) were randomly assigned to receive either 40 mg of paroxetine (to acutely augment serotonergic activity) or a placebo, administered using double-blind procedures. Aggression was assessed during a competitive reaction time game with a fictitious opponent. Shocks were selected by the participant and opponent before each trial, with the loser on each trial receiving the shock set by the other player. Provocation was manipulated by having the opponent select increasingly intense shocks for the participant and eventually an ostensibly severe shock toward the end of the trials. Aggression was measured by the number of severe shocks set by the participant for the opponent. As predicted, aggressive responding after provocation was attenuated by augmentation of serotonin in individuals with a pronounced history of aggression. PMID:19422623

  17. Who's flying the plane: serotonin levels, aggression and free will.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Allan; Douard, John

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the philosophical problem raised by current causal neurochemical models of impulsive violence and aggression: to what extent can we hold violent criminal offenders responsible for their conduct if that conduct is the result of deterministic biochemical processes in the brain. This question is currently receiving a great deal of attention among neuroscientists, legal scholars and philosophers. We examine our current knowledge of neuroscience to assess the possible roles of deterministic factors which induce impulsive aggression, and the extent to which this behavior can be controlled by neural conditioning mechanisms. Neural conditioning mechanisms, we suggest, may underlie what we consider the basis of responsible (though not necessarily moral) behavior: the capacity to give and take reasons. The models we first examine are based in part upon the role played by the neurotransmitter, serotonin, in the regulation of violence and aggression. Collectively, these results would appear to argue in favor of the view that low brain serotonin levels induce impulsive aggression which overrides mechanisms related to rational decision making processes. We next present an account of responsibility as based on the capacity to exercise a certain kind of reason-responsive control over one's conduct. The problem with such accounts of responsibility, however, is that they fail to specify a neurobiological realization of such mechanisms of control. We present a neurobiological, and weakly determinist, framework for understanding how persons can exercise guidance control over their conduct. This framework is based upon classical conditioning of neurons in the prefrontal cortex that allow for a decision making mechanism that provides for prefrontal cortical control of the sites in the brain which express aggressive behavior that include the hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray. The authors support the view that, in many circumstances, neural

  18. Who's flying the plane: Serotonin levels, aggression and free will

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Allan; Douard, John

    2010-01-01

    The present paper addresses the philosophical problem raised by current causal neurochemical models of impulsive violence and aggression: to what extent can we hold violent criminal offenders responsible for their conduct if that conduct is the result of deterministic biochemical processes in the brain. This question is currently receiving a great deal of attention among neuroscientists, legal scholars and philosophers. We examine our current knowledge of neuroscience to assess the possible roles of deterministic factors which induce impulsive aggression, and the extent to which this behavior can be controlled by neural conditioning mechanisms. Neural conditioning mechanisms, we suggest, may underlie what we consider the basis of responsible (though not necessarily moral) behavior: the capacity to give and take reasons. The models we first examine are based in part upon the role played by the neurotransmitter, serotonin, in the regulation of violence and aggression. Collectively, these results would appear to argue in favor of the view that low brain serotonin levels induce impulsive aggression which overrides mechanisms related to rational decision making processes. We next present an account of responsibility as based on the capacity to exercise a certain kind of reason-responsive control over one's conduct. The problem with such accounts of responsibility, however, is that they fail to specify a neurobiological realization of such mechanisms of control. We present a neurobiological, and weakly determinist, framework for understanding how persons can exercise guidance control over their conduct. This framework is based upon classical conditioning of neurons in the prefrontal cortex that allow for a decision making mechanism that provides for prefrontal cortical control of the sites in the brain which express aggressive behavior that include the hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray. The authors support the view that, in many circumstances, neural

  19. Reduced Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter favors antidepressant behaviors and modulates serotonin and dopamine in female mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Pádua-Reis, Marina; Aquino, Nayara S; Oliveira, Vinícius E M; Szawka, Raphael E; Prado, Marco A M; Prado, Vânia F; Pereira, Grace S

    2017-07-14

    Depression is extremely harmful to modern society. Despite its complex spectrum of symptoms, previous studies have mostly focused on the monaminergic system in search of pharmacological targets. However, other neurotransmitter systems have also been linked to the pathophysiology of depression. In this study, we provide evidence for a role of the cholinergic system in depressive-like behavior of female mice. We evaluated mice knockdown for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT KD mice), which have been previously shown to exhibit reduced cholinergic transmission. Animals were subjected to the tail suspension and marble burying tests, classical paradigms to assess depressive-like behaviors and to screen for novel antidepressant drugs. In addition, brain levels of serotonin and dopamine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. We found that female homozygous VAChT KD mice spent less time immobile during tail suspension and buried less marbles, indicating a less depressive phenotype. These differences in behavior were reverted by central, but not peripheral, acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Moreover, female homozygous VAChT KD mice exhibited higher levels of dopamine and serotonin in the striatum, and increased dopamine in the hippocampus. Our study thus shows a connection between depressive-like behaviors and the cholinergic system, and that the latter interacts with the monoaminergic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Its Analogs Act in the Dorsal Raphe and Modulate Central Serotonin to Reduce Appetite and Body Weight.

    PubMed

    Anderberg, Rozita H; Richard, Jennifer E; Eerola, Kim; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Banke, Elin; Hansson, Caroline; Nissbrandt, Hans; Berqquist, Filip; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid; Lamy, Christophe M; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2017-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and serotonin play critical roles in energy balance regulation. Both systems are exploited clinically as antiobesity strategies. Surprisingly, whether they interact in order to regulate energy balance is poorly understood. Here we investigated mechanisms by which GLP-1 and serotonin interact at the level of the central nervous system. Serotonin depletion impaired the ability of exendin-4, a clinically used GLP-1 analog, to reduce body weight in rats, suggesting that serotonin is a critical mediator of the energy balance impact of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation. Serotonin turnover and expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A (5-HT 2A ) and 5-HT 2C serotonin receptors in the hypothalamus were altered by GLP-1R activation. We demonstrate that the 5-HT 2A , but surprisingly not the 5-HT 2C , receptor is critical for weight loss, anorexia, and fat mass reduction induced by central GLP-1R activation. Importantly, central 5-HT 2A receptors are also required for peripherally injected liraglutide to reduce feeding and weight. Dorsal raphe (DR) harbors cell bodies of serotonin-producing neurons that supply serotonin to the hypothalamic nuclei. We show that GLP-1R stimulation in DR is sufficient to induce hypophagia and increase the electrical activity of the DR serotonin neurons. Finally, our results disassociate brain metabolic and emotionality pathways impacted by GLP-1R activation. This study identifies serotonin as a new critical neural substrate for GLP-1 impact on energy homeostasis and expands the current map of brain areas impacted by GLP-1R activation. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. [Endogenous nociceptin level in ischemic stroke: connection to serotonin system].

    PubMed

    Tekes, Kornélia; Hantos, Mónika; Bátor, György; Gyenge, Melinda; Laufer, Rudolf; Folyovich, András

    2006-06-01

    Particular role of the heptadecapeptide nociceptin (orphanin FQ), the endogenous agonist of the NOP receptor, has been widely demonstrated in the regulation of pain sensation and anxiety-related behavior. In our best knowledge this is the first study reporting plasma nociceptin levels in 26 acute stroke and 6 transiens ischemic attack (TIA) patients. We have found significantly elevated plasma nociceptin levels in all the three groups of patients studied (stroke influencing the carotis or the lacunar region and TIA). We suggest that elevated plasma nociceptin level is the consequence of stroke as in the group of patients recovered from previous stroke was found similar the control value. Plasma serotonin level was found non-significantly decreased in patients with stroke influencing the lacunar region and TIA patients. However the plasma 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels were found significantly elevated in patient groups with stroke influencing both the carotis and the lacunar regions. Data may serve as further evidence for the serotonergic dysregulation in stroke.

  2. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A; Levitt, Pat; Gillespie, Catherine Hagan; Anderson, George M; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD, we observed a correlation between a quantitative measure of lower GI symptoms and whole blood serotonin levels. No significant association was seen between functional constipation diagnosis and serotonin levels in the hyperserotonemia range, suggesting that this correlation is not driven by a single subgroup. More specific assessment of gut function, including the microbiome, will be necessary to evaluate the contribution of gut physiology to serotonin levels in ASD.

  3. Brief Report: Whole Blood Serotonin Levels and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Gillespie, Catherine Hagan; Anderson, George M.; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin levels are observed in more than 25% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Co-occurring gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are also common in ASD but have not previously been examined in relationship with hyperserotonemia, despite the synthesis of serotonin in the gut. In 82 children and adolescents with ASD,…

  4. The level of serotonin in the superficial masseter muscle in relation to local pain and allodynia.

    PubMed

    Ernberg, M; Hedenberg-Magnusson, B; Alstergren, P; Kopp, S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if serotonin is present in the human masseter muscle and if so, whether it is involved in the modulation of local muscle pain or allodynia. Thirty-five patients with pain and tenderness of the masseter muscle as well as ten healthy individuals were included in the study. Of the patients, 18 suffered from fibromyalgia and 17 had localized myalgia, e.g. myofascial pain in the temporomandibular system. The participants were examined clinically with special consideration to the masseter muscle and the pressure pain threshold as well as tolerance levels of this muscle were assessed. Intramuscular microdialysis was performed in order to sample serotonin and a venous blood sample was collected for analysis of the serum level of serotonin. Serotonin was present in the masseter muscle and the level was significantly higher in the initial sample than in the sample collected during steady state. The level of serotonin in the masseter muscle in relation to the level of serotonin in the blood serum was calculated. This fraction of serotonin was higher in the patients with fibromyalgia than in healthy individuals and high level of serotonin was associated with pain as well as allodynia of the masseter muscle. In conclusion, the results of this study show that serotonin is present in the human masseter muscle both immediately following puncture and in a subsequent steady state and that it is associated with pain and allodynia. The origin of the serotonin seems partly to be the blood, but our results indicate that peripheral release also occurs.

  5. Effect of chronic D-fenfluramine administration on rat hypothalamic serotonin levels and release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of administering to rats (in doses of 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days) of an anorectic agent, D-fenfluramine, on the serotonin levels in hypothalamic tissue and on the in vitro release of serotonin by hypothalamic slices was investigated in rats which were sacrificed six days after the end of treatment. It was found that D-fenfuramine had no effect on tissue serotonin in doses from 1.25 to 5 mg/kg. However, given at 10 mg/kg level, serotonin led to a 22 percent decrease. The release of serotonin was found to be not affected by D-fenfluramine.

  6. Increased release of brain serotonin reduces vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation in the cat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehnert, Hendrik; Lombardi, Federico; Raeder, Ernst A.; Lorenzo, Antonio V.; Verrier, Richard L.; Lown, Bernard; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of administering the serotonin precursor 5-l-hydroxytryptophan, in conjunction with a monamine oxidase inhibitor phenelzine and a l-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa, on neurochemical changes in the concentrations of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid of the cat were investigated. Results showed that this drug regimen led to increases of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid by 330 and 830 percent, respectively. Concomitantly, the threshold of ventricular fibrillation was found to be elevated by 42 percent and the effective refractory period was prolonged by 7 percent; the efferent sympathetic neural activity was suppressed in the normal heart. The results indicate that the enhancement of central serotoninergic neurotransmission can reduce the susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation mediated through a decline in sympathetic neural traffic to the heart.

  7. Neuroendocrine disruption in the shore crab Carcinus maenas: Effects of serotonin and fluoxetine on chh- and mih-gene expression, glycaemia and ecdysteroid levels.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alexandrine; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Delbecque, Jean-Paul; Olivier, Stéphanie; Poret, Agnès; Foll, Frank Le; Durand, Fabrice; Knigge, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Serotonin, a highly conserved neurotransmitter, controls many biological functions in vertebrates, but also in invertebrates. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, are commonly used in human medication to ease depression by affecting serotonin levels. Their residues and metabolites can be detected in the aquatic environment and its biota. They may also alter serotonin levels in aquatic invertebrates, thereby perturbing physiological functions. To investigate whether such perturbations can indeed be expected, shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) were injected either with serotonin, fluoxetine or a combination of both. Dose-dependent effects of fluoxetine ranging from 250 to 750nM were investigated. Gene expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (chh) as well as moult inhibiting hormone (mih) was assessed by RT-qPCR at 2h and 12h after injection. Glucose and ecdysteroid levels in the haemolymph were monitored in regular intervals until 12h. Serotonin led to a rapid increase of chh and mih expression. On the contrary, fluoxetine only affected chh and mih expression after several hours, but kept expression levels significantly elevated. Correspondingly, serotonin rapidly increased glycaemia, which returned to normal or below normal levels after 12h. Fluoxetine, however, resulted in a persistent low-level increase of glycaemia, notably during the period when negative feedback regulation reduced glycaemia in the serotonin treated animals. Ecdysteroid levels were significantly decreased by serotonin and fluoxetine, with the latter showing less pronounced and less rapid, but longer lasting effects. Impacts of fluoxetine on glycaemia and ecdysteroids were mostly observed at higher doses (500 and 750nM) and affected principally the response dynamics, but not the amplitude of glycaemia and ecdysteroid-levels. These results suggest that psychoactive drugs are able to disrupt neuroendocrine control in decapod crustaceans, as they interfere with the

  8. Effects of exercise on depressive behavior and striatal levels of norepinephrine, serotonin and their metabolites in sleep-deprived mice.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Thiago Medeiros da Costa; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales

    2017-08-14

    Exercise is a promising adjunctive therapy for depressive behavior, sleep/wake abnormalities, cognition and motor dysfunction. Conversely, sleep deprivation impairs mood, cognition and functional performance. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of exercise on anxiety and depressive behavior and striatal levels of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin and its metabolites in mice submitted to 6h of total sleep deprivation (6h-TSD) and 72h of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep deprivation (72h-REMSD). Experimental groups were: (1) mice submitted to 6h-TSD by gentle handling; (2) mice submitted to 72h-REMSD by the flower pot method; (3) exercise (treadmill for 8 weeks); (4) exercise followed by 6h-TSD; (5) exercise followed by 72h-REMSD; (6) control (home cage). Behavioral tests included the Elevated Plus Maze and tail-suspension. NE, serotonin and its metabolites were determined in the striatum using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sleep deprivation increased depressive behavior (time of immobilization in the tail-suspension test) and previous exercise hindered it. Sleep deprivation increased striatal NE and previous exercise reduced it. Exercise only was associated with higher levels of serotonin. Furthermore, exercise reduced serotonin turnover associated with sleep deprivation. In brief, previous exercise prevented depressive behavior and reduced striatal high NE levels and serotonin turnover. The present findings confirm the effects of exercise on behavior and neurochemical alterations associated with sleep deprivation. These findings provide new avenues for understanding the mechanisms of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Induced thermal stress on serotonin levels in the blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, Saravanan; Muhammad Iqbal, Beema Mahin; Vasudevan, Sugumar

    2016-03-01

    The temperature of habitat water has a drastic influence on the behavioral, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of crustaceans. Hyperglycemia is a typical response of many aquatic animals to harmful physical and chemical environmental changes. In crustaceans increased circulating crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) and hyperglycemia are reported to occur following exposure to several environmental stress. The biogenic amine, serotonin has been found to modulate the CHH levels and oxidation of serotonin into its metabolites is catalysed by monoamine oxidase. The blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus is a dominant intertidal species utilized throughout the indo-pacific region and is a particularly important species of Palk bay. It has high nutritional value and delicious taste and hence their requirements of capture and cultivation of this species are constantly increasing. This species experiences varying and increasing temperature levels as it resides in an higher intertidal zone of Thondi coast. The present study examines the effect of thermal stress on the levels of serotonin and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the hemolymph of P. pelagicus and analyzes the effect of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline on serotonin and CHH level after thermal stress. The results showed increased levels of glucose, CHH and serotonin on exposure to 26 °C in control animals. Pargyline injected crabs showed highly significant increase in the levels of CHH and serotonin on every 2 °C increase or decrease in temperature. A greater CHH level of 268.86±2.87 fmol/ml and a greater serotonin level of 177.69±10.10 ng/ml was observed at 24 °C. This could be due to the effect of in maintaining the level of serotonin in the hemolymph and preventing its oxidation, which in turn induces hyperglycemia by releasing CHH into hemolymph. Thus, the study demonstrates the effect of thermal stress on the hemolymph metabolites studied and the role of pargyline in elevating the

  10. Myenteric denervation differentially reduces enteroendocrine serotonin cell population in rats during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Luzmarina; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Pereira, Lucieni Cristina Marques da Silva; Freitas, Priscila de; Gama, Patrícia; Alvares, Eliana Parisi

    2006-05-01

    The enteric nervous and enteroendocrine systems regulate different processes in the small intestine. Ablation of myenteric plexus with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) stimulates epithelial cell proliferation, whereas endocrine serotonin cells may inhibit the process. To evaluate the connection between the systems and the influence of myenteric plexus on serotoninergic cells in rats during postnatal development, the ileal plexus was partially removed with BAC. Rats were treated at 13 or 21 days and sacrificed after 15 days. The cell bodies of myenteric neurons were stained by beta NADH-diaphorase to detect the extension of denervation. The number of enteroendocrine cells in the ileum was estimated in crypts and villi in paraffin sections immunostained for serotonin. The number of neurons was reduced by 27.6 and 45% in rats treated on the 13th and 21st days, respectively. We tried to establish a correlation of denervation and the serotonin population according to the age of treatment. We observed a reduction of immunolabelled cells in the crypts of rats treated at 13 days, whereas this effect was seen in the villi of rats denervated at 21 days. These results suggest that the enteric nervous system might control the enteroendocrine cell population and this complex mechanism could be correlated to changes in cell proliferation.

  11. Pharmacological depletion of serotonin in the basolateral amygdala complex reduces anxiety and disrupts fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip L; Molosh, Andrei; Fitz, Stephanie D; Arendt, Dave; Deehan, Gerald A; Federici, Lauren M; Bernabe, Cristian; Engleman, Eric A; Rodd, Zachary A; Lowry, Christopher A; Shekhar, Anantha

    2015-11-01

    The basolateral and lateral amygdala nuclei complex (BLC) is implicated in a number of emotional responses including conditioned fear and social anxiety. Based on previous studies demonstrating that enhanced serotonin release in the BLC leads to increased anxiety and fear responses, we hypothesized that pharmacologically depleting serotonin in the BLC using 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) injections would lead to diminished anxiety and disrupted fear conditioning. To test this hypothesis, 5,7-DHT(a serotonin-depleting agent) was bilaterally injected into the BLC. Desipramine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was systemically administered to prevent non-selective effects on norepinephrine. After 5days, 5-7-DHT-treated rats showed increases in the duration of social interaction (SI) time, suggestive of reduced anxiety-like behavior. We then used a cue-induced fear conditioning protocol with shock as the unconditioned stimulus and tone as the conditioned stimulus for rats pretreated with bilateral 5,7-DHT, or vehicle, injections into the BLC. Compared to vehicle-treated rats, 5,7-DHT rats had reduced acquisition of fear during conditioning (measured by freezing time during tone), also had reduced fear retrieval/recall on subsequent testing days. Ex vivo analyses revealed that 5,7-DHT reduced local 5-HT concentrations in the BLC by ~40% without altering local norepinephrine or dopamine concentrations. These data provide additional support for 5-HT playing a critical role in modulating anxiety-like behavior and fear-associated memories through its actions within the BLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of chronic d-fenfluramine administration on rat hypothalamic serotonin levels and release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    D-fenfluramine, an anorectic agent in rats and man, was administered daily at doses 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day for 10 days, and sacrificed 6 days later. Hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) levels were unchanged in rats receiving 1.25-5 mg/kg/day of d-fenfluramine but reduced by 22 percent (p less than 0.01) at the highest drug dose (10 mg/kg/day); hypothalamic 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were reduced by 15 percent (p less than 0.05) or 28 percent (p less than 0.01) in rats receiving 5 or 10 mg/kg/day of the drug, respectively. Hypothalamic slices prepared from rats which were previously treated with any of the drug doses spontaneously released endogenous 5-HT at rates that did not differ from those of vehicle-treated rats. 5-HT released with electrical field-stimulation was unaffected by prior d-fenfluramine treatment at doses of 1.25-5 mg/kg/day, and was reduced by 20 percent (p less than 0.05) from slices prepared from rats which received 10 mg/kg/day. 5-HIAA efflux was also attenuated by the highest drug dose. These data indicate that chronic administration to rats of customary anorectic doses of d-fenfluramine (i.e. 0.06-1.25 mg/kg) fail to cause long-lasting reductions in brain 5-HT release.

  13. Reduced post-synaptic serotonin type 1A receptor binding in bipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Allison C.; Bain, Earle E.; Carlson, Paul J.; Neumeister, Alexander; Bonne, Omer; Carson, Richard E.; Eckelman, William; Herscovitch, Peter; Zarate, Carlos A.; Charney, Dennis S.; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) receptor dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, and that alterations in 5-HT1A receptor function play a role in the mechanisms of antidepressant and mood stabilizer treatment. The literature is in disagreement, however, as to whether 5-HT1A receptor binding abnormalities exist in bipolar disorder (BD). We acquired PET images of 5-HT1A receptor binding in 26 unmedicated BD subjects and 37 healthy controls using [18F]FCWAY, a highly selective 5-HT1A receptor radio-ligand. The mean 5-HT1A receptor binding potential (BPP) was significantly lower in BD subjects compared to controls in cortical regions where 5-HT1A receptors are expressed post-synaptically, most prominently in the mesiotemporal cortex. Post-hoc assessments involving other receptor specific binding parameters suggested that this difference particularly affected the females with BD. The mean BPP did not differ between groups in the raphe nucleus, however, where 5-HT1A receptors are predominantly expressed pre-synaptically. Across subjects the BPP in the mesiotemporal cortex was inversely correlated with trough plasma cortisol levels, consistent with preclinical literature indicating that hippocampal 5-HT1A receptor expression is inhibited by glucocorticoid receptor stimulation. These findings suggest that 5-HT1A receptor binding is abnormally reduced in BD, and this abnormality may particularly involve the postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor system of individuals with a tendency toward cortisol hypersecretion. PMID:23434290

  14. Association of Platelet Serotonin Levels in Alzheimer's Disease with Clinical and Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers.

    PubMed

    Tajeddinn, Walid; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Seed Ahmed, Mohammed; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Shahnaz, Tasmin; Milovanovic, Micha; Behbahani, Homira; Höglund, Kina; Winblad, Bengt; Cedazo-Minguez, Angel; Jelic, Vesna; Järemo, Petter; Aarsland, Dag

    2016-05-04

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to measure 5-HT level in platelets in AD and explore its association with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), AD biomarkers (amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau)), and clinical symptoms. 15 patients with AD and 20 patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) were included. 5-HT metabolites were measured, in a specific fraction, using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Significantly lower 5-HT concentrations were observed in AD patients compared to SCI patients both after normalization against total protein (p = 0.008) or platelet count (p = 0.019). SCI patients with lower 5-HT level have higher AD CSF biomarkers, total tau (p = 0.026) and tau/Aβ42 ratio (p = 0.001), compared to those with high 5-HT levels. AD patients have reduced platelet 5-HT levels. In SCI, lower 5-HT content was associated with a higher AD-CSF biomarker burden.

  15. Chronic blockade or constitutive deletion of the serotonin transporter reduces operant responding for food reward.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Amy Cecilia; Hussain, Ali J; Hen, René; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2007-11-01

    The therapeutic effects of chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are well documented, yet the elementary behavioral processes that are affected by such treatment have not been fully investigated. We report here the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment and genetic deletion of the serotonin transporter (SERT) on food reinforced behavior in three paradigms: the progressive ratio operant task, the concurrent choice operant task, and the Pavlovian-to-Instrumental transfer task. We consistently find that chronic pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of SERT result in similar behavioral consequences: reduced operant responding for natural reward. This is in line with previous studies reporting declines in operant responding for drugs and intracranial self-stimulation with fluoxetine treatment, suggesting that the effect of SERT blockade can be generalized to different reward types. Detailed analyses of behavioral parameters indicate that this reduction in operant responding affect both goal-directed and non-goal-directed behaviors without affecting the Pavlovian cue-triggered excessive operant responding. In addition, both pharmacological and genetic manipulations reduce locomotor activity in the open field novel environment. Our data contrast with the effect of dopamine in increasing operant responding for natural reward specifically in goal-directed behaviors and in increasing Pavlovian cue-triggered excessive operant responding. Serotonin and dopamine have been proposed to serve opposing functions in motivational processes. Our data suggest that their interactions do not result in simple opponency. The fact that pharmacological blockade and genetic deletion of SERT have similar behavioral consequences reinforces the utility of the SERT null mice for investigation of the mechanisms underlying chronic SSRIs treatment.

  16. Serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe mediate the anticataplectic action of orexin neurons by reducing amygdala activity.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Emi; Maejima, Takashi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Masseck, Olivia A; Herlitze, Stefan; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mieda, Michihiro

    2017-04-25

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder caused by the loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons and marked by excessive daytime sleepiness and a sudden weakening of muscle tone, or cataplexy, often triggered by strong emotions. In a mouse model for narcolepsy, we previously demonstrated that serotonin neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) mediate the suppression of cataplexy-like episodes (CLEs) by orexin neurons. Using an optogenetic tool, in this paper we show that the acute activation of DRN serotonin neuron terminals in the amygdala, but not in nuclei involved in regulating rapid eye-movement sleep and atonia, suppressed CLEs. Not only did stimulating serotonin nerve terminals reduce amygdala activity, but the chemogenetic inhibition of the amygdala using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs also drastically decreased CLEs, whereas chemogenetic activation increased them. Moreover, the optogenetic inhibition of serotonin nerve terminals in the amygdala blocked the anticataplectic effects of orexin signaling in DRN serotonin neurons. Taken together, the results suggest that DRN serotonin neurons, as a downstream target of orexin neurons, inhibit cataplexy by reducing the activity of amygdala as a center for emotional processing.

  17. Serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe mediate the anticataplectic action of orexin neurons by reducing amygdala activity

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Emi; Maejima, Takashi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Herlitze, Stefan; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Sakurai, Takeshi; Mieda, Michihiro

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder caused by the loss of orexin (hypocretin)-producing neurons and marked by excessive daytime sleepiness and a sudden weakening of muscle tone, or cataplexy, often triggered by strong emotions. In a mouse model for narcolepsy, we previously demonstrated that serotonin neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) mediate the suppression of cataplexy-like episodes (CLEs) by orexin neurons. Using an optogenetic tool, in this paper we show that the acute activation of DRN serotonin neuron terminals in the amygdala, but not in nuclei involved in regulating rapid eye-movement sleep and atonia, suppressed CLEs. Not only did stimulating serotonin nerve terminals reduce amygdala activity, but the chemogenetic inhibition of the amygdala using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs also drastically decreased CLEs, whereas chemogenetic activation increased them. Moreover, the optogenetic inhibition of serotonin nerve terminals in the amygdala blocked the anticataplectic effects of orexin signaling in DRN serotonin neurons. Taken together, the results suggest that DRN serotonin neurons, as a downstream target of orexin neurons, inhibit cataplexy by reducing the activity of amygdala as a center for emotional processing. PMID:28396432

  18. Fluoxetine impairs insulin secretion without modifying extracellular serotonin levels in MIN6 β-cells.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, L R; Cortés, V A; Mizgier, M L; Aranda, E; Mezzano, D; Olmos, P; Galgani, J E; Suazo, J; Santos, J L

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic β-cells synthetize and store Serotonin (5-Hydroxytriptamine, 5HT) which is co-released with insulin. It has been proposed that extracellular 5HT binds to specific cell surface receptors and modulate insulin secretion. On the other hand, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine seems to reduce Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion (GSIS). However, it is unknown whether this effect results from changes in extracellular 5HT concentration owed to the blockade of 5HT transporter (SERT) or from non-5HT dependent actions. The aims of this work were: 1) to quantify extracellular 5HT levels and GSIS in β-cell lines, 2) to determine whether extracellular 5HT levels and GSIS are changed by fluoxetine or 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5HTP, the immediate 5HT biosynthetic precursor), and 3) to quantify the expression of Slc6a4 gene (encoding SERT) in β-cell lines in relation to other genes involved in 5HT system. β-cell lines MIN6 and RINm5f were subjected to GSIS protocols, after treatment with fluoxetine, 5HTP or 5HT. Insulin and 5HT were quantified by ELISA and HPLC, respectively. Relative mRNA expression was quantified by RT-qPCR. MIN6 β-cells secretes 5HT in response to glucose, showing a sharp increase in 5HT release when cells were preloaded with 5HTP. Treatment with 5HT or fluoxetine reduces GSIS. Fluoxetine fails to further increases 5HTP-induced elevation of secreted 5HT. MIN6 β-cells express both isoforms of Tryptophan Hydroxylase (Tph1 and Tph2), and have high expression levels of L-Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), both enzymes involved in 5HT biosynthetic pathway, but do not express the 5HT transporters Slc6a4 or Slc6a3 (the Dopamine-5HT transporter) genes. The inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on β-cell glucose stimulated insulin secretion is not mediated by blockage of 5HT transporter through SERT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Serotonin levels in platelet-poor plasma and whole blood in people with type 2 diabetes with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hara, Katsuko; Hirowatari, Yuji; Shimura, Yuko; Takahashi, Hakuo

    2011-11-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis activates platelets; activated platelets release serotonin, and therefore, evaluation of serotonin levels in blood could be a valuable biomarker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Plasma serotonin levels obtained from patients with DM complicated with chronic kidney disease were measured using HPLC and were compared to serotonin levels of healthy control subjects. Patients with DM were classified into 2 subgroups of mildly (group 1) and moderately/severely (group 2) impaired renal function. Serotonin concentration in platelet-poor plasma for group 1 was significantly higher than that of healthy control subjects (p < 0.01), and was significantly higher than that of patients from group 2 (p < 0.05). The concentration of serotonin in whole blood for group 2 patients was significantly lower than that measured from healthy control subjects (p < 0.01). The ratio of the plasma to whole blood level was significantly elevated in both groups 1 and 2 compared with healthy controls (p < 0.01). Our results indicate that platelets are activated to release serotonin into plasma in diabetic patients with mildly impaired renal function. When renal damage is advanced, platelets are over-activated to release serotonin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human tear serotonin levels correlate with symptoms and signs of dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Chhadva, Priyanka; Lee, Tinthu; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D.; Hackam, Abigail S.; McClellan, Allison L.; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Levitt, Roy C.; Galor, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Serotonin, a neurotransmitter known to be involved in nociceptor sensitization, is present in human tears. The purpose of this study was to correlate tear serotonin levels, as a marker of nociceptor sensitization, to facets of dry eye (DE) including symptoms and signs. Design Cross-sectional study Participants Sixty-two patients with normal eyelid and corneal anatomy were prospectively recruited from a Veterans Administration Ophthalmology Clinic over 11 months. Methods DE symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI]), signs (tear break-up time [TBUT], corneal staining, and Schirmer’s score), and clinical descriptors of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP) (sensitivity to light and/or sensitivity to wind) were assessed. For tear analysis, each patient’s tears were collected after instilling 50µl of sterile saline to the lower cul-de-sac of each eye and using capillary action microcaps to collect the ocular wash. Tear serotonin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Main Outcomes Measured Correlations between tear serotonin concentrations and DE symptoms and signs. Results The mean age of the population was 61±14 years and 84% (n=52) of the patients were male. Serotonin concentrations negatively correlated with Schirmer’s scores (r=−0.28; p=0.02), but did not correlate with other DE parameters, such as OSDI scores, sensitivity to light or wind, TBUT, or staining. According to our hypothesis, we divided patients into groups based on both DE symptoms and aqueous tear production; serotonin concentrations were found to be significantly higher in DE group 1 (OSDI≥6 and Schirmer’s<8) compared to both DE group 2 (OSDI≥6 and Schirmer’s≥8) and controls (OSDI<6 and Schirmer’s≥8). Patients in the DE group 2 more frequently complained of sensitivity to light (64%) and wind (67%) compared to the DE group 1 (40% and 60%, respectively) and controls (8% and 17%, respectively). Conclusion Patients with DE symptoms and aqueous tear

  1. Plasma serotonin in autism.

    PubMed

    Connors, Susan L; Matteson, Karla J; Sega, Gary A; Lozzio, Carmen B; Carroll, Roger C; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2006-09-01

    Serotonin is necessary for normal fetal brain development. Administration of serotonin inhibitors to pregnant rats results in offspring with abnormal behaviors, brain morphology, and serotonin receptor numbers. Low maternal plasma serotonin may contribute to abnormal brain development in autism. In this study, plasma serotonin levels in autism mothers and control mothers of typically developing children were compared, and plasma serotonin levels in children with autism (n = 17) and their family members were measured. Plasma serotonin levels in autism mothers were significantly lower than in mothers of normal children (P = 0.002). Plasma serotonin levels correlated between autism mothers and their children, but differed between autistic children and their fathers (P = 0.028) and siblings (P = 0.063). Low maternal plasma serotonin may be a risk factor for autism through effects on fetal brain development.

  2. Serotonin (5-HT) receptor 5A sequence variants affect human plasma triglyceride levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, E. M.; Baye, T. M.; Eckert, J. V.; Abraham, L. J.; Moses, E. K.; Kissebah, A. H.; Martin, L. J.

    2010-01-01

    Neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) work closely with leptin and insulin to fine-tune the metabolic and neuroendocrine responses to dietary intake. Losing the sensitivity to excess food intake can lead to obesity, diabetes, and a multitude of behavioral disorders. It is largely unclear how different serotonin receptor subtypes respond to and integrate metabolic signals and which genetic variations in these receptor genes lead to individual differences in susceptibility to metabolic disorders. In an obese cohort of families of Northern European descent (n = 2,209), the serotonin type 5A receptor gene, HTR5A, was identified as a prominent factor affecting plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), supported by our data from both genome-wide linkage and targeted association analyses using 28 publicly available and 12 newly discovered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 3 were strongly associated with plasma TG levels (P < 0.00125). Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN) analysis identified a putative causal promoter SNP (rs3734967) with substantial posterior probability (P = 0.59). Functional analysis of rs3734967 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed distinct binding patterns of the two alleles of this SNP with nuclear proteins from glioma cell lines. In conclusion, sequence variants in HTR5A are strongly associated with high plasma levels of TG in a Northern European population, suggesting a novel role of the serotonin receptor system in humans. This suggests a potential brain-specific regulation of plasma TG levels, possibly by alteration of the expression of HTR5A. PMID:20388841

  3. Serotonin blood test

    MedlinePlus

    5-HT level; 5-hydroxytryptamine level; Serotonin test ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) - serum or blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier ...

  4. The tricks of the trait: neural implementation of personality varies with genotype-dependent serotonin levels.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Heinzel, Sebastian; Notebaert, Karolien; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Jakob, Peter M; Windmann, Sabine; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2013-11-01

    Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has developed into one of the most prominent personality theories of the last decades. The RST postulates a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) modulating the reaction to stimuli indicating aversive events. A number of psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosomatic illnesses have been associated with extreme BIS responsiveness. In recent years, neuroimaging studies have implicated the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as an important neural substrate of the BIS. However, the neurogenetic basis of the regulation of this behaviorally and clinically essential system remains unclear. Investigating the effects of two functional genetic polymorphisms (tryptophan hydroxylase-2, G-703T, and serotonin transporter, serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region) in 89 human participants, we find significantly different patterns of associations between BIS scores and amygdala-hippocampus connectivity during loss anticipation for genotype groups regarding both polymorphisms. Specifically, the correlation between amygdala-hippocampus connectivity and Gray's trait anxiety scores is positive in individuals homozygous for the TPH2 G-allele, while carriers of at least one T-allele show a negative association. Likewise, individuals homozygous for the 5-HTTLPR L(A) variant display a positive association while carriers of the S/L(G) allele show a trend towards a negative association. Thus, we show converging evidence of different neural implementation of the BIS depending on genotype-dependent levels of serotonin. We provide evidence suggesting that genotype-dependent serotonin levels and thus putative changes in the efficiency of serotonergic neurotransmission might not only alter brain activation levels directly, but also more fundamentally impact the neural implementation of personality traits. We outline the direct clinical implications arising from this finding and discuss the complex interplay

  5. Serotonin neurones have anti-convulsant effects and reduce seizure-induced mortality

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Gordon F; Murray, Nicholas M; Hajek, Michael A; Richerson, George B

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy. Defects in central control of breathing are important contributors to the pathophysiology of SUDEP, and serotonin (5-HT) system dysfunction may be involved. Here we examined the effect of 5-HT neurone elimination or 5-HT reduction on seizure risk and seizure-induced mortality. Adult Lmx1bf/f/p mice, which lack >99% of 5-HT neurones in the CNS, and littermate controls (Lmx1bf/f) were subjected to acute seizure induction by maximal electroshock (MES) or pilocarpine, variably including electroencephalography, electrocardiography, plethysmography, mechanical ventilation or pharmacological therapy. Lmx1bf/f/p mice had a lower seizure threshold and increased seizure-induced mortality. Breathing ceased during most seizures without recovery, whereas cardiac activity persisted for up to 9 min before terminal arrest. The mortality rate of mice of both genotypes was reduced by mechanical ventilation during the seizure or 5-HT2A receptor agonist pretreatment. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram reduced mortality of Lmx1bf/f but not of Lmx1bf/f/p mice. In C57BL/6N mice, reduction of 5-HT synthesis with para-chlorophenylalanine increased MES-induced seizure severity but not mortality. We conclude that 5-HT neurones raise seizure threshold and decrease seizure-related mortality. Death ensued from respiratory failure, followed by terminal asystole. Given that SUDEP often occurs in association with generalised seizures, some mechanisms causing death in our model might be shared with those leading to SUDEP. This model may help determine the relationship between seizures, 5-HT system dysfunction, breathing and death, which may lead to novel ways to prevent SUDEP. PMID:25107926

  6. An Exploration of the Serotonin System in Antisocial Boys with High Levels of Callous-Unemotional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Moul, Caroline; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Brennan, John; Hawes, David; Dadds, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The serotonin system is thought to play a role in the aetiology of antisocial and aggressive behaviour in both adults and children however previous findings have been inconsistent. Recently, research has suggested that the function of the serotonin system may be specifically altered in a sub-set of antisocial populations – those with psychopathic (callous-unemotional) personality traits. We explored the relationships between callous-unemotional traits and functional polymorphisms of selected serotonin-system genes, and tested the association between callous-unemotional traits and serum serotonin levels independently of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Method Participants were boys with antisocial behaviour problems aged 3–16 years referred to University of New South Wales Child Behaviour Research Clinics. Participants volunteered either a blood or saliva sample from which levels of serum serotonin (N = 66) and/or serotonin-system single nucleotide polymorphisms (N = 157) were assayed. Results Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms from the serotonin 1b receptor gene (HTR1B) and 2a receptor gene (HTR2A) were found to be associated with callous-unemotional traits. Serum serotonin level was a significant predictor of callous-unemotional traits; levels were significantly lower in boys with high callous-unemotional traits than in boys with low callous-unemotional traits. Conclusion Results provide support to the emerging literature that argues for a genetically-driven system-wide alteration in serotonin function in the aetiology of callous-unemotional traits. The findings should be interpreted as preliminary and future research that aims to replicate and further investigate these results is required. PMID:23457595

  7. An exploration of the serotonin system in antisocial boys with high levels of callous-unemotional traits.

    PubMed

    Moul, Caroline; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Brennan, John; Hawes, David; Dadds, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin system is thought to play a role in the aetiology of antisocial and aggressive behaviour in both adults and children however previous findings have been inconsistent. Recently, research has suggested that the function of the serotonin system may be specifically altered in a sub-set of antisocial populations - those with psychopathic (callous-unemotional) personality traits. We explored the relationships between callous-unemotional traits and functional polymorphisms of selected serotonin-system genes, and tested the association between callous-unemotional traits and serum serotonin levels independently of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Participants were boys with antisocial behaviour problems aged 3-16 years referred to University of New South Wales Child Behaviour Research Clinics. Participants volunteered either a blood or saliva sample from which levels of serum serotonin (N = 66) and/or serotonin-system single nucleotide polymorphisms (N = 157) were assayed. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms from the serotonin 1b receptor gene (HTR1B) and 2a receptor gene (HTR2A) were found to be associated with callous-unemotional traits. Serum serotonin level was a significant predictor of callous-unemotional traits; levels were significantly lower in boys with high callous-unemotional traits than in boys with low callous-unemotional traits. Results provide support to the emerging literature that argues for a genetically-driven system-wide alteration in serotonin function in the aetiology of callous-unemotional traits. The findings should be interpreted as preliminary and future research that aims to replicate and further investigate these results is required.

  8. Decreased NT-3 plasma levels and platelet serotonin content in patients with hypochondriasis.

    PubMed

    Brondino, Natascia; Lanati, Niccolò; Barale, Francesco; Martinelli, Valentina; Politi, Pierluigi; Geroldi, Diego; Emanuele, Enzo

    2008-11-01

    Neurotrophins (NT) are a family of closely related proteins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). NTs are deemed to regulate several aspects of neuronal survival, development, and function. Although NTs have been associated to a variety of mental disorders, the potential role of NT alterations in hypochondriasis (HC) has never been investigated. In the present study, plasma concentrations of NTs were evaluated in 23 adult patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for HC and 22 healthy controls. Platelet serotonin (5-HT) content was chosen as a measure of serotonergic function. Hypochondriacal symptoms were assessed using the Whiteley Index of Hypochondriasis (WIH). Plasma NT-3 level (P=.004) and platelet 5-HT (P=.008) were significantly lower in patients with HC compared with controls. Correlation analyses showed that the WIH score was significantly and inversely associated with both NT-3 values (r=-.60, P=.002) and platelet serotonin content (r=-.53, P=.009). We used a multivariate regression model to determine independent predictors of the WIH score. After allowance for potential confounders, plasma NT-3 levels remained the unique independent predictor of the WIH (beta=.003, t=-3.5, P=.003). Decreased NT-3 concentration, alongside with serotonin dysfunction, may represent a biological correlate of HC.

  9. Reduced Serotonin Receptor Subtypes in a Limbic and a Neocortical Region in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Oblak, Adrian; Gibbs, Terrell T.; Blatt, Gene J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined, neurological disorder with symptom onset before the age of three. Abnormalities in social-emotional behaviors are a core deficit in autism and are characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, lack of facial expressions, and the inability to recognize familiar faces. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and fusiform gyrus (FG) are two regions within an extensive limbic-cortical network that contribute to social-emotional behaviors. Evidence indicates that changes in brains of individuals with autism begin prenatally. Serotonin (5HT) is one of the earliest expressed neurotransmitters, and plays an important role in synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal migration. Abnormalities in 5HT systems have been implicated in several psychiatric disorders including autism, as evidenced by immunology, imaging, genetics, pharmacotherapy, and neuropathology. Although information is known regarding peripheral 5HT in autism, there is emerging evidence that 5HT systems in the CNS, including various 5HT receptor subtypes and transporters, are affected in autism. The present study demonstrated significant reductions in 5HT1A receptor binding density in superficial and deep layers of the PCC and FG, and in the density of 5HT2A receptors in superficial layers of the PCC and FG. Significant reduction in the density of serotonin transporters (5-HTT) was also found in the deep layers of the FG, but normal levels were demonstrated in both layers of the PCC and superficial layers of the FG. These studies provide potential substrates for decreased 5-HT modulation/innervation in the autism brain, and implicate two 5-HT receptor subtypes as potential neuromarkers for novel or existing pharmacotherapies. PMID:23894004

  10. Reduced serotonin receptor subtypes in a limbic and a neocortical region in autism.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Adrian; Gibbs, Terrell T; Blatt, Gene J

    2013-12-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined, neurological disorder with symptom onset before the age of 3. Abnormalities in social-emotional behaviors are a core deficit in autism, and are characterized by impaired reciprocal-social interaction, lack of facial expressions, and the inability to recognize familiar faces. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and fusiform gyrus (FG) are two regions within an extensive limbic-cortical network that contribute to social-emotional behaviors. Evidence indicates that changes in brains of individuals with autism begin prenatally. Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the earliest expressed neurotransmitters, and plays an important role in synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal migration. Abnormalities in 5-HT systems have been implicated in several psychiatric disorders, including autism, as evidenced by immunology, imaging, genetics, pharmacotherapy, and neuropathology. Although information is known regarding peripheral 5-HT in autism, there is emerging evidence that 5-HT systems in the central nervous system, including various 5-HT receptor subtypes and transporters, are affected in autism. The present study demonstrated significant reductions in 5-HT1A receptor-binding density in superficial and deep layers of the PCC and FG, and in the density of 5-HT(2A) receptors in superficial layers of the PCC and FG. A significant reduction in the density of serotonin transporters (5-HTT) was also found in the deep layers of the FG, but normal levels were demonstrated in both layers of the PCC and superficial layers of the FG. This study provides potential substrates for decreased 5-HT modulation/innervation in the autism brain, and implicate two 5-HT receptor subtypes as potential neuromarkers for novel or existing pharmacotherapies. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Immune status in infantile autism. Correlation between the immune status, autistic symptoms and levels of serotonin].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, P; Marescot, M R; Moulias, R; Bursztejn, C; Deville Chabrolle, A; Thiollet, M; Lesourd, B; Braconnier, A; Dreux, C; Zarifian, E

    1988-01-01

    In sixteen autistic children high values of IgG and a high level of lymphocyte stimulation with PHA were observed. Principal component analysis showed: 1) a significant correlation between basic lymphocyte mitogenic activity and the clinical symptoms opposition and hyperactivity, 2) a significant correlation between high Ig levels, high PHA stimulation responses and the main autistic symptoms (withdrawal, inaffectivity, hypoactivity, mannerism, stereotypy and negatively echolalia), 3) a significant correlation with serotonin uptake by platelets and high immunological responses. Such correlations are strongly in favor of an immunologic component in autistic disease.

  12. Serum Levels of Tryptophan, 5-Hydroxytryptophan and Serotonin in Patients Affected with Different Forms of Amenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Comai, S.; Bertazzo, A.; Carretti, N.; Podfigurna-Stopa, A.; Luisi, S.; Costa, C.V.L.

    2010-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) is present in the serum, partly bound to albumine and in the free form. The unbound portion of circulating tryptophan has the property of crossing the hematoencephalic barrier and being converted within the brain into serotonin (5-HT) through the enzymatic processes of hydroxylation and decarboxylation. The serotoninergic system plays an important role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive hormone secretion, and in particular, it may influence GnRH pulsatility, a function essential for reproductive processes. In this study, we analysed serum levels of tryptophan, serotonin and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in women with three different forms of amenorrhea: 16 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 60 patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and 14 patients with hyperprolactinemia. Data were compared with those of a group of 25 healthy women. Serum Trp levels were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower in the anorexic (11.64 ± 0.53 μg/ml, mean ± S.E.) than in the control (12.98 ± 0.37 μg/ml) groups. In addition, in the anorexic group a statistical dispersion of Trp values was shown indicating a bimodal data distribution suggesting the existence of two different subgroups of patients. Regarding 5-HTP, an increase of its serum level was observed in all the groups with amenorrhea with the highest value in hyperprolactinemic patients. On the contrary, no statistical differences in serum 5-HT levels among the four analyzed groups were observed. This study shows that women affected by various forms of amenorrhea present an altered metabolism of tryptophan via serotonin and, in particular, markedly high differences are observed between the two subgroups of anorexic patients. PMID:22084589

  13. Reduced efficacy of fluoxetine following MDMA ("Ecstasy")-induced serotonin loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Sarah; Prendergast, Alison; Harkin, Andrew

    2008-12-12

    Long-term serotonin (5-HT) neuronal loss is currently a major cause of concern associated with recreational use of the substituted amphetamine 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy"). Such loss may be problematic considering that psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety and responses to first line treatments for these disorders are associated with 5-HT. In this study the effects of prior exposure to MDMA on behavioural and central neurochemical changes induced by the serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor and antidepressant fluoxetine were examined in rats. Animals were administered MDMA (10 mg/kg. i.p.) four times daily for two consecutive days. One week later the animals were subjected to treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Fluoxetine treatment groups received either acute (saline injections for 20 days followed by 3 fluoxetine treatments over 24 h) or chronic (once daily fluoxetine for 21 days) drug administration. Prior exposure to MDMA resulted in an attenuation of fluoxetine-induced swimming behaviour in the modified forced swimming test (FST); a behavioural test of antidepressant action. In parallel MDMA treatment resulted in significant regional depletions of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) accompanied by a reduction in cortical [3H] paroxetine binding to nerve terminal 5-HT transporters. MDMA-induced 5-HT loss was enhanced in animals following chronic fluoxetine administration. Elimination of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine from the brain abolished this interaction between MDMA and fluoxetine treatment. Fluoxetine administration reduced both 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT metabolism ratio, which was attenuated in animals pre-treated with MDMA. Overall the results show that MDMA induces long-term 5-HT loss in the rodent brain and consequently diminishes behaviour and reductions in 5-HT metabolism induced by the antidepressant fluoxetine. These results have potential clinical relevance

  14. Serum and ascitic fluid serotonin levels and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid urine excretion in the liver of cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chojnacki, C; Walecka-Kapica, E; Stepien, A; Pawlowicz, M; Wachowska-Kelly, P; Chojnacki, J

    2013-01-01

    The excess and deficit of serotonin can be the cause of somatic and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate serotonin levels in blood and ascitic fluid as well as excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in urine in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The study included 75 alcoholic cirrhotic patients divided into 3 groups (HE1, HE2, HE3), 25 patients each, with grade 1, 2 and 3 of hepatic encephalopathy according to West-Haven classification. The control group (C) included 25 clinically healthy volunteers. Venous blood and ascitic fluid were collected in fasting. On the same day a 24-hour urine collection was performed. Immunoenzymatic method was used to determine the serotonin level in serum and ascitic fluid, and 5-HIAA in urine (IBL-RE-59121, RE-59131). In the control group, mean serum serotonin level (ng/ml) was 155.5 ± 38.1 and in the 3 study groups: HE1 - 175.2 ± 32.4 (NS), HE2 - 137.2 ± 28.6 (NS), HE3 - 108.3 ± 46.3 (p<0.001). Serotonin concentration in ascitic fluid was on the average about 25% of its level in serum. The excretion of 5-HIAA in urine (mg/24h) in all groups, was: C - 5.9 ± 2.1, HE1 - 5.8 ± 1.8 (NS), HE2 - 4.8 ± 1.2(NS), HE3 - 4.3 ± 1.3 (p<0.05). The results of our study indicate that serum and ascitic fluid level of serotonin and urine excretion of 5-HIAA depends on the grade of hepatic encephalopathy. In patients with severe hepatic encephalopathy serotonin concentration in blood is decreased which can affect some clinical manifestation of this disease.

  15. Effect of beta-endorphin imprinting during late pregnancy on the brain serotonin and plasma nocistatin levels of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tekes, K; Gyenge, M; Hantos, M; Csaba, G

    2007-07-01

    Female rats were treated with 10 microg of beta-endorphin on the 19th day of pregnancy. Offspring were studied when five months old. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) content in four brain regions were determined by HPLC-EC and the nocistatin levels of blood plasma using RIA methods. In each brain region studied, the 5-HT levels were highly significantly reduced and that of 5-HIAA in three regions was highly significantly increased. When 5HIAA/5HT ratios, as a measure of serotonin turnover, were calculated, imprinted animals showed extremely high values. Plasma nocistatin level was also significantly elevated. The results call attention to the effect of perinatal endorphin imprinting and its long-term consequences (e.g., setting of aggressiveness, pain tolerance).

  16. Gonadal hormone levels and platelet tryptophan and serotonin concentrations in perimenopausal women with or without depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Moreno, Julia; Heinze, Gerhard; Aguilera-Pérez, Rafael; Pellicer Graham, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    The etiology of depressive symptoms associated with the transition to menopause is still unknown; hormonal changes, serotonergic system or insomnia, could be a trigger to depressive symptomatology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate gonadal hormonal levels, platelet serotonin concentrations and platelet tryptophan concentrations in a group of depressed perimenopausal women and their healthy counterparts. A total of 63 perimenopausal women between 45 and 55 years old were evaluated; of these, 44 were depressed patients, and 19 were perimenopausal women without depression. The instruments that were applied included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Green Climacteric Scale (GCS); gonadal hormone levels and platelet tryptophan and serotonin concentrations were measured in all participants. Differences in hormonal levels and tryptophan and serotonin concentrations were evaluated with respect to specific symptoms, such as insomnia, hot flashes, nervousness, depressed mood and loss of interest. No differences between groups were observed with respect to hormonal levels and tryptophan and serotonin concentrations; mean sleep hours and insomnia were significantly correlated with platelet tryptophan concentrations. In this sample, all symptoms of depression could not be explained by platelet tryptophan and serotonin concentrations and hormonal levels; differences were observed only when we evaluated insomnia and hot flashes.

  17. Protective propensity of bacoside A and bromelain on renal cholinesterases, γ-Aminobutyric acid and serotonin level of Mus musculus intoxicated with dichlorvos.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sonam; Chaudhary, Bharti; Bist, Renu

    2017-01-05

    Current study established a protective action of bacoside A and bromelain against the toxic effects of dichlorvos in kidneys of mice. Experimental design included five groups. The first group was control. Mice of groups II, III and IV were administered doses of dichlorvos, bromelain and bacoside A respectively. In group V, mice were treated with both the antioxidants (bacoside A and bromelain) and dichlorvos. After 21 days of exposure of different doses, levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin were measured in renal tissues. Dichlorvos significantly reduced the kidney AChE (p < 0.001), BChE (p < 0.01) and GABA level (p < 0.01) compared to control. A simultaneous significant elevation in the serotonin level (p < 0.01) was recorded after dichlorvos exposure. Concomitant exposure of bacoside A and bromelain followed by dichlorvos treatment in group V not only restored, but increased the renal cholinesterases and GABA level. Meanwhile, a significant decline in serotonin level (p < 0.001) was revealed, compared to dichlorvos exposed mice. Bacoside A and bromelain occupy a tremendous antioxidant action in the mice kidneys and a combination of the same ameliorates the renal toxicity induced by dichlorvos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Platelet Serotonin Levels in Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Mental Retardation: Diagnostic Group Differences, Within-Group Distribution, and Behavioral Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Erik J.; Anderson, George M.; Kema, Ido P.; De Bildt, Annelies; Van Lang, Natasja D.J.; Den Boer, Johan A.; Minderaa Ruud B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate group differences, the within-group distributions, and the clinical correlates of platelet serotonin (5-HT) levels in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Platelet 5-HT levels were measured in Dutch children and young adults, recruited from 2001 through 2003, with PDD (autism, Asperger's and PDD-not otherwise…

  19. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  20. Low platelet-poor plasma levels of serotonin in adult autistic patients.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Baruch; Golubchik, Pavel; Mozes, Tamar; Vered, Yaffa; Nechmad, Allon; Weizman, Abraham; Strous, Rael D

    2004-01-01

    Hyperserotonemia has been reported in about a third of autistic patients. However, most studies have examined whole blood levels of serotonin (5-HT), the vast majority of which is found in platelets. The aim of this study was to determine 5-HT levels in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) in a group of adult patients with autism. Levels of PPP 5-HT were compared between 10 adult drug-free autistic patients and 12 healthy controls. The Ritvo-Freeman Real-Life Rating Scale and the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) were administered to the autistic group as a measure of symptom severity. Significantly lower PPP 5-HT levels were observed in the autistic group as compared to the controls (p = 0.03). In addition, PPP 5-HT levels were inversely correlated with OAS scores among subjects with autism (r = -0.64, p < 0.05). PPP 5-HT ('free') levels appear to be low in autistic patients and may play a role in the pathophysiology and symptomatology of the disorder.

  1. Effect of occupational EMF exposure from radar at two different frequency bands on plasma melatonin and serotonin levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarika; Mani, Kumar Vyonkesh; Kapoor, Neeru

    2015-05-01

    To delineate the effect of chronic electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from radar on plasma melatonin and serotonin levels in occupationally exposed military personnel. A total of 166 male military personnel participated in the study out of which only 155 joined for blood draw. They were divided into three sets: Control group (n = 68), exposure group I (n = 40) exposed to 8-12 GHz and exposure group II (n = 58) working with radar at 12.5-18 GHz frequency. The three groups were further split into two groups according to their years of service (up to 10 years and > 10 years) in order to investigate the effect of years of exposure from radar. Melatonin and serotonin levels were estimated by enzyme immunoassay in fasting blood samples collected from 06:00-07:00 h. EMF measurements were recorded at different locations using Satimo EME Guard 'Personal Exposure Meter' and Narda 'Broad Band Field Meter'. The group I exposed population registered a minor though not significant decrease in plasma melatonin concentration while the other group II exposed population registered statistically significant decline in melatonin concentration when compared with controls. Highly significant increase in plasma serotonin levels was found in exposure group II when compared to control whereas marginal non-significant rise was also registered in exposure group I in comparison to control. Exposure in terms of length of service up to 10 years did not produce any significant effect in the indoleamine levels in both the exposure groups when they were compared with their respective control groups. Whereas, length of service greater than 10 years was observed to decrease and increase respectively the melatonin and serotonin concentration significantly in exposure group II but not in exposure group I. However, correlation test did not yield any significant association between years of service and melatonin or serotonin levels respectively in both the exposure sets I and II. No significant

  2. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter J.; Amat, Jose; McConnell, Sara O.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Maier, Steven F.; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress). Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN) and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA) levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS) and lateral (DLS) dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress. PMID:26555633

  3. Recovery of motor deficit, cerebellar serotonin and lipid peroxidation levels in the cortex of injured rats.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto; Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Nekrassov-Protasova, Vladimir; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Montes, Sergio; Ayala-Guerrero, Fructuoso

    2010-10-01

    The sensorimotor cortex and the cerebellum are interconnected by the corticopontocerebellar (CPC) pathway and by neuronal groups such as the serotonergic system. Our aims were to determine the levels of cerebellar serotonin (5-HT) and lipid peroxidation (LP) after cortical iron injection and to analyze the motor function produced by the injury. Rats were divided into the following three groups: control, injured and recovering. Motor function was evaluated using the beam-walking test as an assessment of overall locomotor function and the footprint test as an assessment of gait. We also determined the levels of 5-HT and LP two and twenty days post-lesion. We found an increase in cerebellar 5-HT and a concomitant increase in LP in the pons and cerebellum of injured rats, which correlated with their motor deficits. Recovering rats showed normal 5-HT and LP levels. The increase of 5-HT in injured rats could be a result of serotonergic axonal injury after cortical iron injection. The LP and motor deficits could be due to impairments in neuronal connectivity affecting the corticospinal and CPC tracts and dysmetric stride could be indicative of an ataxic gait that involves the cerebellum.

  4. Effect of serotonin on the expression of antigens and DNA levels in Yersinia pestis cells with different plasmid content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueva, Svetlana N.; Korsukov, Vladimir N.; Schukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.

    2004-08-01

    Using flow cytometry (FCM) the influence of exogenous serotonin on culture growth, DNA content and fluorescence intensity of cells binding FITC-labelled plague polyclonal immunoglobulins was studied in Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-), Yersinia pestis KM 216 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst+). The results have been obtained by FCM showed serotonin accelerated Yersinia pestis EV (pFra+, pCad+, pPst+), Yersinia pestis KM218 (pFra-, pCad-, pPst-) culture growth during cultivation in Hottinger broth pH 7.2 at 28°C at concentration of 10-5 M. The presence of 10-5 M serotonin in nutrient broth could modulate DNA content in 37°C growing population of plague microbe independently of their plasmid content. Serotonin have been an impact on the distribution pattern of the cells according to their phenotypical characteristics, which was reflected in the levels of population heterogeneity in the intensity of specific immunofluorescence determined by FMC.

  5. Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Persico, Antonio M

    2014-06-01

    Elevated blood serotonin (5-HT) levels were the first biomarker identified in autism research. Many studies have contrasted blood 5-HT levels in autistic patients and controls, but different measurement protocols, technologies, and biomaterials have been used through the years. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and between-study heterogeneity, while verifying whether and to what extent different methodological approaches influence the strength of this association. Our literature search strategy identified 551 papers, from which 22 studies providing patient and control blood 5-HT values were selected for meta-analysis. Significantly higher 5-HT levels in autistic patients compared to controls were recorded both in whole blood (WB) [O.R.=4.6; (3.1-5.2); P=1.0×10(-12]), and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) [O.R.=2.6 (1.8-3.9); P=2.7×10(-7)]. Predictably, studies measuring 5-HT levels in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) yielded no significant group difference [O.R.=0.54 (0.2-2-0); P=0.36]. Altogether, elevated 5-HT blood levels were recorded in 28.3% in WB and 22.5% in PRP samples of autistic individuals, as reported in 15 and 4 studies, respectively. Studies employing HPLC vs fluorometric assays yield similar cumulative effect sizes, but the former display much lower variability. In summary, despite some limitations mainly due to small study sample sizes, our results significantly reinforce the reliability of elevated 5-HT blood levels as a biomarker in ASD, providing practical indications potentially useful for its inclusion in multi-marker diagnostic panels for clinical use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Light therapy modulates serotonin levels and blood flow in women with headache. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tomaz de Magalhães, Miriam; Núñez, Silvia Cristina; Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Ribeiro, Martha Simões

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we looked at the possible effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on blood flow velocity, and serotonin (5-HT) and cholinesterase levels in patients with chronic headache associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). LLLT has been clinically applied over the past years with positive results in analgesia and without the report of any side effects. The understanding of biological mechanisms of action may improve clinical results and facilitate its indication. Ten patients presenting headache associated with TMD completed the study. An 830-nm infrared diode laser with power of 100 mW, exposure time of 34 s, and energy of 3.4 J was applied on the tender points of masseter and temporal muscle. Blood flow velocity was determined via ultrasound Doppler velocimetry before and after laser irradiation. The whole blood 5-HT and cholinesterase levels were evaluated three days before, immediately, and three days after laser irradiation. Pain score after treatment decreased to a score of 5.8 corresponding to 64% of pain reduction (P < 0.05). LLLT promoted a decrease in the blood flow velocity (P < 0.05). In addition, the 5-HT levels were significantly increased three days after LLLT (P < 0.05). The cholinesterase levels remained unchanged at the analyzed time points (P > 0.05). Our findings indicated that LLLT regulates blood flow in the temporal artery after irradiation and might control 5-HT levels in patients suffering with tension-type headache associated to TMD contributing to pain relief. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  7. Serotonin levels in aqueous humor of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Zanon-Moreno, V; Melo, P; Mendes-Pinto, M M; Alves, C J; Garcia-Medina, J J; Vinuesa-Silva, I; Moreno-Nadal, M A; Pinazo-Duran, M D

    2008-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by a high intraocular pressure (IOP), alterations in optic nerve head, and loss of visual field that could lead to bilateral blindness. Serotonin (5-HT) is a biogenic monoamine that is synthesized from hydroxylation of tryptophan and acts by three ways, dissemination, metabolism, and reuptake in synaptic cleft through specific systems of the membrane. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the 5-HT and 5-HIAA (5-hydroxiindolacetic acid) levels in the aqueous humor of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We performed a case-control study, and the patients recruited were classified into two groups, 1) 30 patients with POAG (GG) and 2) 30 patients with cataracts (CG), who acted as the controls. Aqueous humor samples of each patient were obtained by paracentesis at the beginning of the surgical procedures. 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. There were no statistical differences between age (71.3 +/- 7.2 years in GG, 73.5 +/- 9.0 years in CG; p=0.2581) or gender (sex ratio 0.765 in GG and 0.667 in CG). 5-HT levels were lower in GG, but this difference was not significant (p=0.820). We observed a statistically significant higher level of 5-HIAA in GG (p=0.001). The 5-HT turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) were higher in GG than in CG (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p=0.598). The level of 5-HT was lower in GG patients, and the level of 5-HIAA was higher in GG patients than in CG patients.

  8. Dopamine and serotonin levels following prenatal viral infection in mouse--implications for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christine; Reutiman, Teri J; Folsom, Timothy D; Sohr, Reinhard; Wolf, Rainer J; Juckel, Georg; Fatemi, S Hossein

    2008-10-01

    Prenatal viral infection has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. It has previously been demonstrated that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) and middle-late second trimester (E18) administration of influenza virus. Neurochemical analysis following infection on E18 using this model has revealed significantly altered levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and taurine, but not dopamine. In order to monitor these different patterns of monoamine expression in exposed offspring in more detail and to see if there are changes in the dopamine system at another time point, pregnant C57BL6J mice were infected with a sublethal dose of human influenza virus or sham-infected using vehicle solution on E16. Male offspring of the infected mice were collected at P0, P14, and P56, their brains removed and cerebellum dissected and flash frozen. Dopamine and serotonin levels were then measured using HPLC-ED technique. When compared to controls, there was a significant decrease in serotonin levels in the cerebella of offspring of virally exposed mice at P14. No differences in levels of dopamine were observed in exposed and control mice, although there was a significant decrease in dopamine at P14 and P56 when compared to P0. The present study shows that the serotonergic system is disrupted following prenatal viral infection, potentially modelling disruptions that occur in patients with schizophrenia and autism.

  9. Serotonin augmentation therapy by escitalopram has minimal effects on amyloid-β levels in early-stage Alzheimer's-like disease in mice.

    PubMed

    von Linstow, Christian Ulrich; Waider, Jonas; Grebing, Manuela; Metaxas, Athanasios; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Finsen, Bente

    2017-09-12

    Dysfunction of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system has been implicated in the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of toxic amyloid-β (Aβ) species is a hallmark of AD and an instigator of pathology. Serotonin (5-HT) augmentation therapy by treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with AD has had mixed success in improving cognitive function, whereas SSRI administration to mice with AD-like disease has been shown to reduce Aβ pathology. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an increase in extracellular levels of 5-HT induced by chronic SSRI treatment reduces Aβ pathology and whether 5-HTergic deafferentation of the cerebral cortex could worsen Aβ pathology in the APP swe /PS1 ΔE9 (APP/PS1) mouse model of AD. We administered a therapeutic dose of the SSRI escitalopram (5 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water of 3-month-old APP/PS1 mice to increase levels of 5-HT, and we performed intracerebroventricular injections of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (DHT) to remove 5-HTergic afferents. We validated the effectiveness of these interventions by serotonin transporter autoradiography (neocortex 79.7 ± 7.6%) and by high-performance liquid chromatography for 5-HT (neocortex 64% reduction). After 6 months of escitalopram treatment or housing after DHT-induced lesion, we evaluated brain tissue by mesoscale multiplex analysis and sections by IHC analysis. Amyloid-β-containing plaques had formed in the neocortex and hippocampus of 9-month-old APP/PS1 mice after 6 months of escitalopram treatment and 5-HTergic deafferentation. Unexpectedly, levels of insoluble Aβ42 were unaffected in the neocortex and hippocampus after both types of interventions. Levels of insoluble Aβ40 increased in the neocortex of SSRI-treated mice compared with those treated with vehicle control, but they were unaffected in the hippocampus. 5-HTergic deafferentation was without effect on the levels of

  10. Serotonin (5-HT) augmentation reduces provoked aggression associated with primary psychopathy traits.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Jennifer R; Berman, Mitchell E; Guillot, Casey R; Marsic, Angelika; McCloskey, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathy has long been associated with aggressive behavior; however, the neurochemical underpinnings of this relationship are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system abnormalities have been associated with provoked aggression in general. In addition, 5-HT dysregulation has been linked to empathy, a trait that is lacking in individuals who score high on primary psychopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine if 5-HT modulates the relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression. Participants (N = 47) completed a self-report measure of psychopathy and were then administered either 40 mg paroxetine (acutely augmenting 5-HT) or placebo. Aggression was assessed during a competitive reaction-time game in which electric shocks were exchanged with an increasingly provocative fictitious opponent. Results indicated that primary psychopathy (but not secondary psychopathy) was related to aggressive responding to provocation. Moreover, 5-HT augmentation attenuated this effect, supporting the notion that aggressive responding associated with primary psychopathic traits may be due in part to 5-HT dysregulation.

  11. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish

    PubMed Central

    Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory–motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner. PMID:27844054

  12. Subsecond Sensory Modulation of Serotonin Levels in a Primary Sensory Area and Its Relation to Ongoing Communication Behavior in a Weakly Electric Fish.

    PubMed

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harvey-Girard, Erik; Cheer, Joseph F; Krahe, Rüdiger; Maler, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei of vertebrates project to most regions of the brain and are known to significantly affect sensory processing. The subsecond dynamics of sensory modulation of serotonin levels and its relation to behavior, however, remain unknown. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure serotonin release in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus . These fish use an electric organ to generate a quasi-sinusoidal electric field for communicating with conspecifics. In response to conspecific signals, they frequently produce signal modulations called chirps. We measured changes in serotonin concentration in the hindbrain electrosensory lobe (ELL) with a resolution of 0.1 s concurrently with chirping behavior evoked by mimics of conspecific electric signals. We show that serotonin release can occur phase locked to stimulus onset as well as spontaneously in the ELL region responsible for processing these signals. Intense auditory stimuli, on the other hand, do not modulate serotonin levels in this region, suggesting modality specificity. We found no significant correlation between serotonin release and chirp production on a trial-by-trial basis. However, on average, in the trials where the fish chirped, there was a reduction in serotonin release in response to stimuli mimicking similar-sized same-sex conspecifics. We hypothesize that the serotonergic system is part of an intricate sensory-motor loop: serotonin release in a sensory area is triggered by sensory input, giving rise to motor output, which can in turn affect serotonin release at the timescale of the ongoing sensory experience and in a context-dependent manner.

  13. Serotonin disrupts esophageal mucosal integrity: an investigation using a stratified squamous epithelial model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-11-01

    Serotonin regulates gastrointestinal function, and mast cells are a potential nonneuronal source of serotonin in the esophagus. Tight junction (TJ) proteins in the esophageal epithelium contribute to the barrier function, and the serotonin signaling pathway may contribute to epithelial leakage in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of serotonin on barrier function, TJ proteins, and related signaling pathways. Normal primary human esophageal epithelial cells were cultured with use of an air-liquid interface system. Serotonin was added to the basolateral compartment, and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured. The expression of TJ proteins and serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT 7 ) was assessed by Western blotting. The involvement of 5-HT 7 was assessed with use of an antagonist and an agonist. The underlying cellular signaling pathways were examined with use of specific blockers. Serotonin decreased TEER and reduced the expression of TJ proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin 1, but not claudin 4. A 5-HT 7 antagonist blocked the serotonin-induced decrease in TEER, and a 5-HT 7 agonist decreased TEER. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) reduced the serotonin-induced decrease in TEER. Inhibition of p38 MAPK blocked the decrease of ZO-1 levels, whereas extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibition blocked the decrease in occludin levels. Cell signaling pathway inhibitors had no effect on serotonin-induced alterations in claudin 1 and claudin 4 levels. Serotonin induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK, and a 5-HT 7 antagonist partially blocked serotonin-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK but not that of ERK. Serotonin disrupted esophageal squamous epithelial barrier function by modulating the levels of TJ proteins. Serotonin signaling pathways may mediate the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  14. Low levels of serum serotonin and amino acids identified in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Ren, Caixia; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Juntuo; Liang, Hui; Wang, Yayun; Sun, Yinping; Ma, Bin; Yin, Yuxin

    2018-02-05

    Migraine is a highly disabling primary headache associated with a high socioeconomic burden and a generally high prevalence. The clinical management of migraine remains a challenge. This study was undertaken to identify potential serum biomarkers of migraine. Using Liquid Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), the metabolomic profile of migraine was compared with healthy individuals. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (orthoPLS-DA) showed the metabolomic profile of migraine is distinguishable from controls. Volcano plot analysis identified 10 serum metabolites significantly decreased during migraine. One of these was serotonin, and the other 9 were amino acids. Pathway analysis and enrichment analysis showed tryptophan metabolism (serotonin metabolism), arginine and proline metabolism, and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis are the three most prominently altered pathways in migraine. ROC curve analysis indicated Glycyl-l-proline, N-Methyl-dl-Alanine and l-Methionine are potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for migraine. Our results show Glycyl-l-proline, N-Methyl-dl-Alanine and l-Methionine may be as specific or more specific for migraine than serotonin which is the traditional biomarker of migraine. We propose that therapeutic manipulation of these metabolites or metabolic pathways may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of migraine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain serotonin content regulates the manifestation of tramadol-induced seizures in rats: disparity between tramadol-induced seizure and serotonin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yohei; Funao, Tomoharu; Suehiro, Koichi; Takahashi, Ryota; Mori, Takashi; Nishikawa, Kiyonobu

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol-induced seizures might be pathologically associated with serotonin syndrome. Here, the authors investigated the relationship between serotonin and the seizure-inducing potential of tramadol. Two groups of rats received pretreatment to modulate brain levels of serotonin and one group was treated as a sham control (n = 6 per group). Serotonin modulation groups received either para-chlorophenylalanine or benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan. Serotonin, dopamine, and histamine levels in the posterior hypothalamus were then measured by microdialysis, while simultaneously infusing tramadol until seizure onset. In another experiment, seizure threshold with tramadol was investigated in rats intracerebroventricularly administered with either a serotonin receptor antagonist (methysergide) or saline (n = 6). Pretreatment significantly affected seizure threshold and serotonin fluctuations. The threshold was lowered in para-chlorophenylalanine group and raised in benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan group (The mean ± SEM amount of tramadol needed to induce seizures; sham: 43.1 ± 4.2 mg/kg, para-chlorophenylalanine: 23.2 ± 2.8 mg/kg, benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan: 59.4 ± 16.5 mg/kg). Levels of serotonin at baseline, and their augmentation with tramadol infusion, were less in the para-chlorophenylalanine group and greater in the benserazide + 5-hydroxytryptophan group. Furthermore, seizure thresholds were negatively correlated with serotonin levels (correlation coefficient; 0.71, P < 0.01), while intracerebroventricular methysergide lowered the seizure threshold (P < 0.05 vs. saline). The authors determined that serotonin-reduced rats were predisposed to tramadol-induced seizures, and that serotonin concentrations were negatively associated with seizure thresholds. Moreover, serotonin receptor antagonism precipitated seizure manifestation, indicating that tramadol-induced seizures are distinct from serotonin syndrome.

  16. Depletion of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 reduces brain serotonin and impairs the running-induced neurogenic response.

    PubMed

    Klempin, Friederike; Mosienko, Valentina; Matthes, Susann; Villela, Daniel C; Todiras, Mihail; Penninger, Josef M; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Alenina, Natalia

    2018-04-20

    Physical exercise induces cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus in rodents. Serotonin (5-HT) and angiotensin (Ang) II are important mediators of the pro-mitotic effect of physical activity. Here, we examine precursor cells in the adult brain of mice lacking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, and explore the effect of an acute running stimulus on neurogenesis. ACE2 metabolizes Ang II to Ang-(1-7) and is essential for the intestinal uptake of tryptophan (Trp), the 5-HT precursor. In ACE2-deficient mice, we observed a decrease in brain 5-HT levels and no increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells following exercise. Targeting the Ang II/AT1 axis by blocking the receptor, or experimentally increasing Trp/5-HT levels in the brain of ACE2-deficient mice, did not rescue the running-induced effect. Furthermore, mice lacking the Ang-(1-7) receptor, Mas, presented a normal neurogenic response to exercise. Our results identify ACE2 as a novel factor required for exercise-dependent modulation of adult neurogenesis and essential for 5-HT metabolism.

  17. Evaluation of Postmortem Cerebrospinal Fluid S100B Protein and Serotonin Levels: Comparison of Suicidal Versus Nonsuicidal Deaths in Konya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil Hakan; Unaldi, Mustafa; Demirci, Serafettin

    2016-09-01

    Although suicide is a preventable public health problem, objective assays for suicide risk are limited. In this study, it was aimed to determine levels of S100B protein and serotonin as a marker for risk of suicide. S100B protein and serotonin levels were investigated with ELISA method in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in medicolegal autopsy cases, including those of suicide cases (n = 32) and nonsuicide cases (n = 56). The CSF S100B levels were higher (9.3 ± 2.9 ng/mL vs. 5.4 ± 2.0 ng/mL), and serotonin levels were lower (10.4 ± 4.9 ng/mL vs. 19.0 ± 5.7 ng/mL) in suicide group than nonsuicide group (p < 0.05). There was no correlation between S100B protein and serotonin levels with gender, age groups, postmortem interval, and cause of death. It is concluded that both S100B protein and serotonin in CSF may be useful for determination of suicide risk. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Behavioral tolerance to lysergic acid diethylamide is associated with reduced serotonin-2A receptor signaling in rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Gresch, Paul J; Smith, Randy L; Barrett, Robert J; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2005-09-01

    Tolerance is defined as a decrease in responsiveness to a drug after repeated administration. Tolerance to the behavioral effects of hallucinogens occurs in humans and animals. In this study, we used drug discrimination to establish a behavioral model of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) tolerance and examined whether tolerance to the stimulus properties of LSD is related to altered serotonin receptor signaling. Rats were trained to discriminate 60 microg/kg LSD from saline in a two-lever drug discrimination paradigm. Two groups of animals were assigned to either chronic saline treatment or chronic LSD treatment. For chronic treatment, rats from each group were injected once per day with either 130 microg/kg LSD or saline for 5 days. Rats were tested for their ability to discriminate either saline or 60 microg/kg LSD, 24 h after the last chronic injection. Rats receiving chronic LSD showed a 44% reduction in LSD lever selection, while rats receiving chronic vehicle showed no change in percent choice on the LSD lever. In another group of rats receiving the identical chronic LSD treatment, LSD-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding, an index of G-protein coupling, was measured in the rat brain by autoradiography. After chronic LSD, a significant reduction in LSD-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, chronic LSD produced a significant reduction in 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, which was blocked by MDL 100907, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, but not SB206553, a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, indicating a reduction in 5-HT2A receptor signaling. 125I-LSD binding to 5-HT2A receptors was reduced in cortical regions, demonstrating a reduction in 5-HT2A receptor density. Taken together, these results indicate that adaptive changes in LSD-stimulated serotonin receptor signaling may mediate tolerance

  19. The mixed serotonin receptor agonist psilocybin reduces threat-induced modulation of amygdala connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Schmidt, André; Friston, Karl; Preller, Katrin H.; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of serotonergic neurotransmission by psilocybin has been shown to shift emotional biases away from negative towards positive stimuli. We have recently shown that reduced amygdala activity during threat processing might underlie psilocybin's effect on emotional processing. However, it is still not known whether psilocybin modulates bottom-up or top-down connectivity within the visual-limbic-prefrontal network underlying threat processing. We therefore analyzed our previous fMRI data using dynamic causal modeling and used Bayesian model selection to infer how psilocybin modulated effective connectivity within the visual–limbic–prefrontal network during threat processing. First, both placebo and psilocybin data were best explained by a model in which threat affect modulated bidirectional connections between the primary visual cortex, amygdala, and lateral prefrontal cortex. Second, psilocybin decreased the threat-induced modulation of top-down connectivity from the amygdala to primary visual cortex, speaking to a neural mechanism that might underlie putative shifts towards positive affect states after psilocybin administration. These findings may have important implications for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26909323

  20. The mixed serotonin receptor agonist psilocybin reduces threat-induced modulation of amygdala connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Schmidt, André; Friston, Karl; Preller, Katrin H; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of serotonergic neurotransmission by psilocybin has been shown to shift emotional biases away from negative towards positive stimuli. We have recently shown that reduced amygdala activity during threat processing might underlie psilocybin's effect on emotional processing. However, it is still not known whether psilocybin modulates bottom-up or top-down connectivity within the visual-limbic-prefrontal network underlying threat processing. We therefore analyzed our previous fMRI data using dynamic causal modeling and used Bayesian model selection to infer how psilocybin modulated effective connectivity within the visual-limbic-prefrontal network during threat processing. First, both placebo and psilocybin data were best explained by a model in which threat affect modulated bidirectional connections between the primary visual cortex, amygdala, and lateral prefrontal cortex. Second, psilocybin decreased the threat-induced modulation of top-down connectivity from the amygdala to primary visual cortex, speaking to a neural mechanism that might underlie putative shifts towards positive affect states after psilocybin administration. These findings may have important implications for the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders.

  1. Decreased serotonin level during pregnancy alters morphological and functional characteristics of tonic nociceptive system in juvenile offspring of the rat.

    PubMed

    Butkevich, Irina P; Khozhai, Ludmila I; Mikhailenko, Victor A; Otellin, Vladimir A

    2003-11-13

    Serotonin (5-HT) contributes to the prenatal development of the central nervous system, acting as a morphogen in the young embryo and later as a neurotransmitter. This biologically active agent influences both morphological and biochemical differentiation of raphe neurons, which give rise to the descending serotonergic paths that regulate the processing of acutely evoked nociceptive inputs. The involvement of 5-HT in the prenatal development of tonic nociceptive system has not been studied. In the present study we evaluated the effects of a single injection (400 mg/kg, 2 ml, i.p.) of the 5-HT synthesis inhibitor, para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), given to pregnant rats during the critical period fetal serotonin development. The functional integrity of the tonic nociceptive response was investigated in 25 day old rats using the classic formalin test. Morphological analysis of brain structures involved in formalin-induced pain and 5-HT levels in the heads of 12-day embryos were also evaluated. Embryonic levels of 5-HT were significantly lowered by the treatment. The juvenile rats from pCPA-treated females showed altered brain morphology and cell differentiation in the developing cortex, hippocampus, raphe nuclei, and substantia nigra. In the formalin test, there were significant decreases in the intensity and duration of the second phase of the formalin-induced response, characterizing persistent, tonic pain. The extent of impairments in the brain structures correlated positively with the level of decrease in the behavioral responses. The data demonstrate the involvement of 5-HT in the prenatal development of the tonic nociceptive system. The decreased tonic component of the behavioral response can be explained by lower activity of the descending excitatory serotonergic system originating in the raphe nuclei, resulting in decreased tonic pain processing organized at the level of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

  2. Environmental enrichment reduces innate anxiety with no effect on depression-like behaviour in mice lacking the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jake; Li, Shanshan; Lanfumey, Laurence; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-08-14

    Along with being the main target of many antidepressant medications, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. In line with this, mice with varying 5-HTT genotypes are invaluable tools to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviours as well as the mechanisms mediating potential therapeutics. There is clear evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. In that regard, housing paradigms which seek to enhance cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we examined the effects of environmental enrichment on affective-like behaviours and sensorimotor gating function of 5-HTT knock-out (KO) mice. Using the elevated-plus maze and the light-dark box, we found that environmental enrichment ameliorated the abnormal innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice on both tests. In contrast, environmental enrichment did not rescue the depression-like behaviour displayed by 5-HTT KO mice in the forced-swim test. Finally, measuring pre-pulse inhibition, we found no effect of genotype or treatment on sensorimotor gating. In conclusion, our data suggest that environmental enrichment specifically reduces innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice with no amelioration of the depression-like behaviour. This has implications for the current use of clinical interventions for patients with symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ontogeny of brain and blood serotonin levels in 5-HT receptor knockout mice: potential relevance to the neurobiology of autism.

    PubMed

    Janusonis, Skirmantas; Anderson, George M; Shifrovich, Ilya; Rakic, Pasko

    2006-11-01

    The most consistent neurochemical finding in autism has been elevated group mean levels of blood platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin). The origin and significance of this platelet hyperserotonemia remain poorly understood. The 5-HT(1A) receptor plays important roles in the developing brain and is also expressed in the gut, the main source of platelet 5-HT. Post-natal tissue levels of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and tryptophan were examined in the brain, duodenum and blood of 5-HT(1A) receptor-knockout and wild-type mice. At 3 days after birth, the knockout mice had lower mean brain 5-HT levels and normal mean platelet 5-HT levels. Also, at 3 days after birth, the mean tryptophan levels in the brain, duodenum and blood of the knockout mice were around 30% lower than those of the wild-type mice. By 2 weeks after birth, the mean brain 5-HT levels of the knockout mice normalized, but their mean platelet 5-HT levels became 24% higher than normal. The possible causes of these dynamic shifts were explored by examining correlations between central and peripheral levels of 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan. The results are discussed in relation to the possible role of 5-HT in the ontogeny of autism.

  4. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone and levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in prefrontal cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomie, Arthur; Tirado, Aidaluz D; Yu, Lung; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-08-12

    Pavlovian autoshaping procedures provide for pairings of a small object conditioned stimulus (CS) with a rewarding substance unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in the acquisition of complex sequences of CS-directed skeletal-motor responses or autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs). Autoshaping procedures induce higher post-session levels of corticosterone than in controls receiving CS and US randomly, and the enhanced post-session corticosterone levels have been attributed to the appetitive or arousal-inducing effects of autoshaping procedures. Enhanced corticosterone release can be induced by aversive stimulation or stressful situations, where it is often accompanied by higher levels of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) but not in striatum (ST). Effects of autoshaping procedures on post-session corticosterone levels, NE contents in PFC, and 5-HT contents in PFC and ST were investigated in male Long-Evans rats. Post-session blood samples revealed higher corticosterone levels in the CS-US Paired group (n = 46) than in the CS-US Random control group (n = 21), and brain samples revealed higher levels of PFC NE and 5-HT in CS-US Paired group. Striatal 5-HT levels were unaltered by the autoshaping procedures. Autoshaping procedures provide for appetitive stimulation and induce an arousal-like state, as well as simultaneous stress-like changes in plasma corticosterone and monoamine levels in PFC. Autoshaping, therefore, may be useful for the study of endocrine and central processes associated with appetitive conditions.

  5. Serotonin Test

    MedlinePlus

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  6. Effects of physical exercise on serum levels of serotonin and its metabolite in fibromyalgia: a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Valim, Valéria; Natour, Jamil; Xiao, Yangming; Pereira, Abraão Ferraz Alves; Lopes, Beatriz Baptista da Cunha; Pollak, Daniel Feldman; Zandonade, Eliana; Russell, Irwin Jon

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of aerobic training and stretching on serum levels of serotonin (5HT) and its main metabolite 5-hydroxindolacetic acid (5HIAA). Twenty-two women with FM were randomized into one of two exercise modalities (aerobic walking exercise or stretching exercise) to be accomplished three times a week for 20 weeks. The serum levels of 5HT and 5HIAA were evaluated before and after the exercise program by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with colorimetric detection. Within group analysis (pre-post) showed that serum levels of both 5HT and 5HIAA changed significantly in the aerobic group during the 20-week course of therapy (5HT: P = 0,03; 5HIAA: P = 0,003). In the stretching group, however, no statistically significant change was observed (5HT: P=0,491; 5HIAA: P=0,549). Between group statistical comparisons of laboratory measures disclosed that aerobic training was superior to stretching in that it significantly increased the levels of 5HIAA (F test = 6.61; P = 0.01), but the average difference between groups on the levels of 5HT did not meet significance criteria (F test = 3.42; P = 0.08). Aerobic training increases the 5HIAA and 5HT levels and it could explain why aerobic exercise can improve symptoms in fibromyalgia syndrome patient more than stretching exercise.

  7. Age differences in the impact of forced swimming test on serotonin transporter levels in lateral septum and dorsal raphe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Forced swimming test (FST) is an animal model which evaluates behavioral despair and the effect of antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; the FST modifies the expression of some receptors related to antidepressant response, but it is not known whether serotonin transporter (SERT), their main target, is affected by this test in animals of different ages. Antidepressant response has shown age-dependent variations which could be associated with SERT expression. The aim of the present study was to analyze changes in the SERT immunoreactivity (SERT-IR) in dorsal raphe and lateral septum of male rats from different age groups with or without behavioral despair induced by their exposure to the FST, since these two structures are related to the expression of this behavior. Methods Prepubertal (24 PN), pubertal (40 PN), young adult (3–5 months) and middle-aged (12 months) male rats were assigned to a control group (non-FST) or depressed group (FST, two sessions separated by 24 h). Changes in SERT-IR in dorsal raphe and lateral septum were determined with immunofluorescence. Results Pubertal and middle-aged rats showed higher levels of immobility behavior compared to prepubertal rats on the FST. SERT-IR showed an age-dependent increase followed by a moderate decrease in middle-aged rats in both structures; a decreased in SERT-IR in lateral septum and dorsal raphe of pubertal rats was observed after the FST. Conclusions Age differences were observed in the SERT-IR of structures related to behavioral despair; SERT expression was modified by the FST in lateral septum and dorsal raphe of pubertal rats. PMID:24490994

  8. Season of Sampling and Season of Birth Influence Serotonin Metabolite Levels in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Luykx, Jurjen J.; Bakker, Steven C.; Lentjes, Eef; Boks, Marco P. M.; van Geloven, Nan; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Janson, Esther; Strengman, Eric; de Lepper, Anne M.; Westenberg, Herman; Klopper, Kai E.; Hoorn, Hendrik J.; Gelissen, Harry P. M. M.; Jordan, Julian; Tolenaar, Noortje M.; van Dongen, Eric P. A.; Michel, Bregt; Abramovic, Lucija; Horvath, Steve; Kappen, Teus; Bruins, Peter; Keijzers, Peter; Borgdorff, Paul; Ophoff, Roel A.; Kahn, René S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have revealed seasonal patterns in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine (MA) turnover. In humans, no study had systematically assessed seasonal patterns in CSF MA turnover in a large set of healthy adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Standardized amounts of CSF were prospectively collected from 223 healthy individuals undergoing spinal anesthesia for minor surgical procedures. The metabolites of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA), dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA) and norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MPHG) were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration measurements by sampling and birth dates were modeled using a non-linear quantile cosine function and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS, span = 0.75). The cosine model showed a unimodal season of sampling 5-HIAA zenith in April and a nadir in October (p-value of the amplitude of the cosine = 0.00050), with predicted maximum (PCmax) and minimum (PCmin) concentrations of 173 and 108 nmol/L, respectively, implying a 60% increase from trough to peak. Season of birth showed a unimodal 5-HIAA zenith in May and a nadir in November (p = 0.00339; PCmax = 172 and PCmin = 126). The non-parametric LOESS showed a similar pattern to the cosine in both season of sampling and season of birth models, validating the cosine model. A final model including both sampling and birth months demonstrated that both sampling and birth seasons were independent predictors of 5-HIAA concentrations. Conclusion In subjects without mental illness, 5-HT turnover shows circannual variation by season of sampling as well as season of birth, with peaks in spring and troughs in fall. PMID:22312427

  9. Dietary chlorogenic acid regulates gut microbiota, serum-free amino acids and colonic serotonin levels in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Liu, Wenhui; Li, Qi; Li, Yafei; Yan, Yali; Huang, Fang; Wu, Xin; Zhou, Quancheng; Shu, Xugang; Ruan, Zheng

    2018-08-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) has many biological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and is one of the most abundant phenolic acids available in the human diet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CGA on regulation of the gut microbiota, and on the levels of free amino acids and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin). Ninety-six healthy growing pigs were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: the Ctrl group (control group, standard feed) and the CGA group [standard feed plus 0.05% 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA)] for 60 days. The diversity of the gut microbiota was increased after CGA supplementation. Changes in these microbes were significantly associated with the serum free amino acid levels and colonic 5-HT level. Compared with the Ctrl group, the levels of serum aspartic acid, threonine, alanine, arginine, and colonic 5-HT were significantly increased (p < .05). These data suggest important roles for CGA in regulating the gut microbiota and increasing the serum free amino acid levels.

  10. Effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Immunomodulator on Cytokines Levels: An Alternative Therapy for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Mendieta, Danelia; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Bojalil, Rafael; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric illness that presents as a deficit of serotonergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. MDD patients also experience alterations in cortisol and cytokines levels. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is the first-line antidepressant regimen for MDD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a combination of SSRIs and an immunomodulator—human dialyzable leukocyte extract (hDLE)—on cortisol and cytokines levels. Patients received SSRIs or SSRIs plus hDLE. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, and IFN-γ; anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-13 and IL-10; and 24-h urine cortisol were measured at weeks (W) 0, 5, 20, 36, and 52 of treatment. The reduction in cortisol levels in the SSRI-treated group was 30% until W52, in contrast, the combined treatment induced a 54% decrease at W36. The decline in cortisol in patients who were treated with SSRI plus hDLE correlated with reduction of anti-inflammatory cytokines and increases levels of proinflammatory cytokines at the study conclusion. These results suggest that the immune-stimulating activity of hDLE, in combination with SSRIs, restored the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance and cortisol levels in depressed patients versus those who were given SSRIs alone. PMID:24348675

  11. Effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and immunomodulator on cytokines levels: an alternative therapy for patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, María Eugenia; Mendieta, Danelia; Pérez-Tapia, Mayra; Bojalil, Rafael; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a psychiatric illness that presents as a deficit of serotonergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. MDD patients also experience alterations in cortisol and cytokines levels. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is the first-line antidepressant regimen for MDD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a combination of SSRIs and an immunomodulator-human dialyzable leukocyte extract (hDLE)-on cortisol and cytokines levels. Patients received SSRIs or SSRIs plus hDLE. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 β , IL-2, and IFN- γ ; anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-13 and IL-10; and 24-h urine cortisol were measured at weeks (W) 0, 5, 20, 36, and 52 of treatment. The reduction in cortisol levels in the SSRI-treated group was 30% until W52, in contrast, the combined treatment induced a 54% decrease at W36. The decline in cortisol in patients who were treated with SSRI plus hDLE correlated with reduction of anti-inflammatory cytokines and increases levels of proinflammatory cytokines at the study conclusion. These results suggest that the immune-stimulating activity of hDLE, in combination with SSRIs, restored the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance and cortisol levels in depressed patients versus those who were given SSRIs alone.

  12. Arabidopsis serotonin N-acetyltransferase knockout mutant plants exhibit decreased melatonin and salicylic acid levels resulting in susceptibility to an avirulent pathogen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoung Yool; Byeon, Yeong; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) is the penultimate enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway in plants. We examined the effects of SNAT gene inactivation in two Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant lines. After inoculation with the avirulent pathogen Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato DC3000 harboring the elicitor avrRpt2 (Pst-avrRpt2), melatonin levels in the snat knockout mutant lines were 50% less than in wild-type Arabidopsis Col-0 plants. The snat knockout mutant lines exhibited susceptibility to pathogen infection that coincided with decreased induction of defense genes including PR1, ICS1, and PDF1.2. Because melatonin acts upstream of salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, the reduced melatonin levels in the snat mutant lines led to decreased SA levels compared to wild-type, suggesting that the increased pathogen susceptibility of the snat mutant lines could be attributed to decreased SA levels and subsequent attenuation of defense gene induction. Exogenous melatonin treatment failed to induce defense gene expression in nahG Arabidopsis plants, but restored the induction of defense gene expression in the snat mutant lines. In addition, melatonin caused translocation of NPR1 (nonexpressor of PR1) protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus indicating that melatonin-elicited pathogen resistance in response to avirulent pathogen attack is SA-dependent in Arabidopsis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Relationship Between Plasma Cytokine Levels and Response to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Depression and/or Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Maya; Taler, Michal; Carmel, Miri; Michaelovsky, Elena; Eilat, Tamar; Yablonski, Maya; Orpaz, Naama; Chen, Alon; Apter, Alan; Weizman, Abraham; Fennig, Silvana

    2016-10-01

    In adults there is growing evidence that antidepressant (AD) treatment results in a decline in inflammatory cytokines. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the relationship between response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for anxiety and/or depression and cytokine levels in children and adolescents. Forty-one patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) or anxiety disorders participated in study. Their ages ranged from 9 to 18 (14.12 ± 2.30) years. The patients were treated with fluoxetine for 8 weeks. Plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) before and after fluoxetine treatment. Clinical response was measured with several scales, including the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) Results: The overall response rate was 56%. Antidepressant treatment significantly reduced TNF-α levels (p = 0.037), with no significant changes in the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β. All three proinflammatory cytokines were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in SSRI-refractory than in SSRI-responsive patients. Higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β might predict nonresponse to fluoxetine treatment in children.

  14. Effect of psilocin on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the mesoaccumbens and mesocortical pathway in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Yuichi; Abe, Kenji; Katagiri, Nobuyuki; Kambe, Toshie; Saitoh, Toshiaki; Utsunomiya, Iku; Horiguchi, Yoshie; Taguchi, Kyoji

    2015-01-01

    Psilocin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol) is a hallucinogenic component of the Mexican mushroom Psilocybe mexicana and a skeletal serotonin (5-HT) analogue. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-yl dihydrogen phosphate). In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered psilocin on extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex of the dopaminergic pathway in awake rats using in vivo microdialysis. Intraperitoneal administration of psilocin (5, 10 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Psilocin did not affect the extracellular 5-HT level in the nucleus accumbens. Conversely, systemic administration of psilocin (10 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular 5-HT levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, but dopamine was decreased in this region. However, neither extracellular dopamine nor 5-HT levels in the VTA were altered by administration of psilocin. Behaviorally, psilocin significantly increased the number of head twitches. Thus, psilocin affects the dopaminergic system in the nucleus accumbens. In the serotonergic system, psilocin contribute to a crucial effect in the medial prefrontal cortex. The present data suggest that psilocin increased both the extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the mesoaccumbens and/or mesocortical pathway.

  15. The effect of early trauma exposure on serotonin type 1B receptor expression revealed by reduced selective radioligand binding.

    PubMed

    Murrough, James W; Czermak, Christoph; Henry, Shannan; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Krystal, John H; Neumaier, John F; Huang, Yiyun; Ding, Yu-Shin; Carson, Richard E; Neumeister, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Serotonergic dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and recent animal models suggest that disturbances in serotonin type 1B receptor function, in particular, may contribute to chronic anxiety. However, the specific role of the serotonin type 1B receptor has not been studied in patients with PTSD. To investigate in vivo serotonin type 1B receptor expression in individuals with PTSD, trauma-exposed control participants without PTSD (TC), and healthy (non-trauma-exposed) control participants (HC) using positron emission tomography and the recently developed serotonin type 1B receptor selective radiotracer [(11)C]P943. Cross-sectional positron emission tomography study under resting conditions. Academic and Veterans Affairs medical centers. Ninety-six individuals in 3 study groups: PTSD (n = 49), TC (n = 20), and HC (n = 27). Main Outcome Measure  Regional [(11)C]P943 binding potential (BP(ND)) values in an a priori-defined limbic corticostriatal circuit investigated using multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. A history of severe trauma exposure in the PTSD and TC groups was associated with marked reductions in [(11)C]P943 BP(ND) in the caudate, the amygdala, and the anterior cingulate cortex. Participant age at first trauma exposure was strongly associated with low [(11)C]P943 BP(ND). Developmentally earlier trauma exposure also was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity and major depression comorbidity. These data suggest an enduring effect of trauma history on brain function and the phenotype of PTSD. The association of early age at first trauma and more pronounced neurobiological and behavioral alterations in PTSD suggests a developmental component in the cause of PTSD.

  16. Serotonin receptor 1A promoter polymorphism, rs6295, modulates human anxiety levels via altering parasympathetic nervous activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, J-H; Chang, H-A; Fang, W-H; Ho, P-S; Liu, Y-P; Wan, F-J; Tzeng, N-S; Shyu, J-F; Chang, C-C

    2018-03-01

    The G-allele of the -1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of the serotonin receptor 1A (HTR1A) gene has been implicated in anxiety; however, the underlying neurophysiological processes are still not fully understood. Recent evidence indicates that low parasympathetic (vagal) tone is predictive of anxiety. We thus conducted a structural equation model (SEM) to examine whether the HTR1A rs6295 variant can affect anxiety by altering parasympathetic nervous activity. A sample of 1141 drug-free healthy Han Chinese was recruited for HTR1A genotyping. Autonomic nervous function was assessed by short-term spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Anxiety and stress levels were evaluated by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) respectively. The number of the HTR1A G allele was inversely correlated with high-frequency power (HF), a parasympathetic index of HRV. The HF index was negatively associated with BAI scores. Furthermore, the good-fitting SEM, adjusting for confounding variables (e.g., age and PSS levels), revealed a significant pathway linking rs6295 variant to BAI scores via HF index modulation. These results are the first to show that HTR1A -1019C/G polymorphism influences anxiety levels by modulating parasympathetic tone, providing a neurophysiological insight into the role of HTR1A in human anxiety. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Serotonin and Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.

    2014-01-01

    How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

  18. Ethanol intake and sup 3 H-serotonin uptake I: A study in Fawn-Hooded rats

    SciTech Connect

    Daoust, M.; Compagnon, P.; Legrand, E.

    1991-01-01

    Ethanol intake and synaptosomal {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake were studied in male Fawn-Hooded and Sprague-Dawley rats. Fawn-Hooded rats consumed more alcohol and more water than Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma alcohol levels of Sprague-Dawley rats were not detectable but were about 5 mg/dl in Fawn-Hooded rats. Ethanol intake increased the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex, but not in thalamus. In Fawn-Hooded rats, serotonin uptake (Vmax) was higher than in Sprague-Dawley rats cortex. Ethanol intake reduced the Vmax of serotonin uptake in Fawn-Hooded rats in hippocampus and cortex. In cortex, the carrier affinity for serotonin was increased inmore » alcoholized Fawn-Hooded rats. These results indicate that synaptosomal {sup 3}H-serotonin uptake is affected by ethanol intake. In Fawn-Hooded rats, high ethanol consumption is associated with high serotonin uptake. In rats presenting high serotonin uptake, alcoholization reduces {sup 3}H-serotonin internalization in synaptosomes, indicating a specific sensitivity to alcohol intake of serotonin uptake system.« less

  19. A Bacoside containing Bacopa monnieri extract reduces both morphine hyperactivity plus the elevated striatal dopamine and serotonin turnover.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Khalid; Subhan, Fazal; Sewell, Robert D E

    2012-05-01

    Bacopa monnieri (BM) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a nootropic, anxiolytic, antiepileptic and antidepressant. An n-butanol extract of the plant (nBt-ext BM) was analysed and found to contain Bacoside A (Bacoside A3, Bacopaside II and Bacopasaponin C). The effects of the BM extract were then studied on morphine-induced hyperactivity as well as dopamine and serotonin turnover in the striatum since these parameters have a role in opioid sensitivity and dependence. Mice were pretreated with saline or nBt-ext BM (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, orally), 60 min before morphine administration and locomotor activity was subsequently recorded. Immediately after testing, striatal tissues were analysed for dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT) and their metabolites using HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection. The results indicated that nBt-ext BM significantly (p < 0.001) decreased locomotor activity in both the saline and morphine treated groups. Additionally, nBt-ext BM significantly lowered morphine-induced dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-H1AA) upsurges in the striatum but failed to affect DA, 5-HT and their metabolites in the saline treated group. These findings suggest that nBt-ext BM has an antidopaminergic/serotonergic effect and may have potential beneficial effects in the treatment of morphine dependence. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Tramadol and another atypical opioid meperidine have exaggerated serotonin syndrome behavioral effects, but decreased analgesic effects, in genetically-deficient serotonin transporter (SERT) mice

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Meredith A.; Jensen, Catherine L.; Murphy, Dennis L.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin syndrome is a potential side effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs, including antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). We recently reported a genetic mouse model for the serotonin syndrome, as serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient mice have exaggerated serotonin syndrome behavioral responses to the MAOI tranylcypromine and the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP). As numerous case reports implicate the atypical opioids tramadol and meperidine in the development of the human serotonin syndrome, we examined tramadol and meperidine as possible causative drugs in the rodent model of the serotonin syndrome in SERT wildtype (+/+), heterozygous (+/−) and knockout (−/−) mice. Comparisons were made to SERT mice treated with either vehicle or morphine, an opioid not implicated in the serotonin syndrome in humans. Here we show that tramadol and meperidine, but not morphine, induce serotonin syndrome-like behaviors in mice, and we show that this response is exaggerated in mice lacking one or two copies of SERT. The exaggerated response to tramadol in SERT −/− mice was blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100635. Further, we show that morphine-, meperidine- and tramadol-induced analgesia is markedly decreased in SERT −/− mice. These studies suggest that caution seems warranted in prescribing or not warning patients receiving SSRIs or MAOIs, that dangerous side effects may occur during concurrent use of tramadol and similar agents. These findings suggest that it is conceivable that there might be increased vulnerability in individuals with SERT polymorphisms that may reduce SERT by more than 50%, the level in SERT +/− mice. PMID:19275775

  1. Online Hemodiafiltration Reduces Bisphenol A Levels.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Borja; Bosch, Ricardo J; Fiallos, Ruth A; Sánchez-Heras, Marta; Olea-Herrero, Nuria; López-Aparicio, Pilar; Muñóz-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Alvarsan, Miguel Angel; De Arriba, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    Several uremic toxins have been identified and related to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Bisphenol A (BPA) accumulates in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) in reducing BPA levels. Thirty stable hemodialysis patients were selected to participate in this paired study. During three periods of 3 weeks each, patients were switched from high-flux hemodialysis (HF-HD) to OL-HDF, and back to HF-HD. BPA levels were measured in the last session of each period (pre- and post-dialysis) using ELISA and HPLC. Twenty-two patients (mean age 73 ± 14 years; 86.4% males) were included. Measurements of BPA levels by HPLC and ELISA assays showed a weak but significant correlation (r = 0.218, P = 0.012). BPA levels decreased in the OL-HDF period of hemodialysis, in contrast to the HF-HD period when they remained stable (P = 0.002). In conclusion, OL-HDF reduced BPA levels in dialysis patients. © 2016 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  2. What Gene Mutations Affect Serotonin in Mice?

    PubMed

    Tenpenny, Richard C; Commons, Kathryn G

    2017-05-17

    Although serotonin neurotransmission has been implicated in several neurodevelopmental and psychological disorders, the factors that drive dysfunction of the serotonin system are poorly understood. Current research regarding the serotonin system revolves around its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no database collating genetic mutations that result in serotonin abnormalities. To bridge this gap, we developed a list of genes in mice that, when perturbed, result in altered levels of serotonin either in brain or blood. Due to the intrinsic limitations of search, the current list should be considered a preliminary subset of all relevant cases. Nevertheless, it offered an opportunity to gain insight into what types of genes have the potential to impact serotonin by using gene ontology (GO). This analysis found that genes associated with monoamine metabolism were more often associated with increases in brain serotonin than decreases. Speculatively, this could be because several pathways (and therefore many genes) are responsible for the clearance and metabolism of serotonin whereas only one pathway (and therefore fewer genes) is directly involved in the synthesis of serotonin. Another contributor could be cross talk between monoamine systems such as dopamine. In contrast, genes that were associated with decreases in brain serotonin were more likely linked to a developmental process. Sensitivity of serotonin neurons to developmental perturbations could be due to their complicated neuroanatomy or possibly they may be negatively regulated by dysfunction of their innervation targets. Thus, these observations suggest hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the vulnerability of brain serotonin neurotransmission.

  3. [Effect of sibutramine (meridia) on body composition, peptide YY3-36 and serotonin levels in patients with exogenous constitutional obesity].

    PubMed

    Vlasova, Iu Iu; Ametov, A S

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of gradual weight loss and the positive effect of sibutramine on metabolic parameters and the levels of serotonin and neuropeptide YY3-36 levels in patients with exogenous constitutional obesity (ECO). The study included 36 patients (24 women and 12 men; mean age 37.56 +/- 0.9 years) with a verified diagnosis of ECO. The height, body weight, waist and hip circumference (WC and HC), and body mass index (BMI) were determined. Adipose tissue content was estimated by a bioimpedance method using an adipose mass analyzer. Serum peptide YY3-36 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay and blood serotonin concentrations were estimated by high performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical method. 12-week sibutramine therapy caused a significant reduction in body weight, WC, HC, and BMI (p < 0.05) in all the patients. At the same time they were found to have a considerable body composition change (total body and visceral fat was decreased, total body water increased, and systemic metabolism was lowered). The mean peptide YY3-36 level was significantly decreased. Sibutramine did not affect the serum content of total serotonin in the sera of patients. Sibutramine used in the combined therapy in patients with ECO contributes to an effective and steady-state weight loss. Sibutramine treatment causes a reduction in total neuropeptide YY3-36, systemic metabolism, and adipose tissue at the expense of the visceral depot.

  4. Evidence for epistasis between SLC6A4 and ITGB3 in autism etiology and in the determination of platelet serotonin levels.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Ana M; Sousa, Inês; Martins, Madalena; Correia, Catarina; Morgadinho, Teresa; Bento, Celeste; Marques, Carla; Ataíde, Assunção; Miguel, Teresa S; Moore, Jason H; Oliveira, Guiomar; Vicente, Astrid M

    2007-04-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unclear etiology. The consistent finding of platelet hyperserotonemia in a proportion of patients and its heritability within affected families suggest that genes involved in the serotonin system play a role in this disorder. The role in autism etiology of seven candidate genes in the serotonin metabolic and neurotransmission pathways and mapping to autism linkage regions (SLC6A4, HTR1A, HTR1D, HTR2A, HTR5A, TPH1 and ITGB3) was analyzed in a sample of 186 nuclear families. The impact of interactions among these genes in autism was assessed using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction (MDR) method in 186 patients and 181 controls. We further evaluated whether the effect of specific gene variants or gene interactions associated with autism etiology might be mediated by their influence on serotonin levels, using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT) and the restricted partition method (RPM), in a sample of 109 autistic children. We report a significant main effect of the HTR5A gene in autism (P = 0.0088), and a significant three-locus model comprising a synergistic interaction between the ITGB3 and SLC6A4 genes with an additive effect of HTR5A (P < 0.0010). In addition to the previously reported contribution of SLC6A4, we found significant associations of ITGB3 haplotypes with serotonin level distribution (P = 0.0163). The most significant models contributing to serotonin distribution were found for interactions between TPH1 rs4537731 and SLC6A4 haplotypes (P = 0.002) and between HTR1D rs6300 and SLC6A4 haplotypes (P = 0.013). In addition to the significant independent effects, evidence for interaction between SLC6A4 and ITGB3 markers was also found. The overall results implicate SLC6A4 and ITGB3 gene interactions in autism etiology and in serotonin level determination, providing evidence for a common underlying genetic mechanism and a molecular explanation for the association of platelet hyperserotonemia

  5. Reduced effectiveness of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is associated with increased serotonin clearance rate in food restricted rats

    PubMed Central

    France, CP; Li, J-X; Owens, WA; Koek, W; Toney, GM; Daws, LC

    2012-01-01

    Efficacy of antidepressant drugs is often limited. One of the limiting factors may be diet. This study shows that the effect of escitalopram in the forced swimming test is diminished in rats by food restriction that decreased body weight by 8%. The primary target for escitalopram is the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. Using high-speed chronoamperometry to measure 5-HT clearance in vivo in rats fed the same food restricted diet, the rate of 5-HT clearance from extracellular fluid in brain was dramatically increased. Increased 5-HT transporter function under conditions of dietary restriction might contribute to the decreased effect of escitalopram. These results suggest that diet plays an integral role in determining efficacy of antidepressant drugs, and might well generalize to other psychoactive drugs that impinge upon the 5-HT transporter. PMID:19419596

  6. Human Beta Cells Produce and Release Serotonin to Inhibit Glucagon Secretion from Alpha Cells.

    PubMed

    Almaça, Joana; Molina, Judith; Menegaz, Danusa; Pronin, Alexey N; Tamayo, Alejandro; Slepak, Vladlen; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2016-12-20

    In the pancreatic islet, serotonin is an autocrine signal increasing beta cell mass during metabolic challenges such as those associated with pregnancy or high-fat diet. It is still unclear whether serotonin is relevant for regular islet physiology and hormone secretion. Here, we show that human beta cells produce and secrete serotonin when stimulated with increases in glucose concentration. Serotonin secretion from beta cells decreases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in neighboring alpha cells via 5-HT 1F receptors and inhibits glucagon secretion. Without serotonergic input, alpha cells lose their ability to regulate glucagon secretion in response to changes in glucose concentration, suggesting that diminished serotonergic control of alpha cells can cause glucose blindness and the uncontrolled glucagon secretion associated with diabetes. Supporting this model, pharmacological activation of 5-HT 1F receptors reduces glucagon secretion and has hypoglycemic effects in diabetic mice. Thus, modulation of serotonin signaling in the islet represents a drug intervention opportunity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The importance of serum serotonin levels in the measurement of radiation-induced bystander cell death in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Lyng, Fiona M; Desplanques, Maxime; Jella, Kishore Kumar; Garcia, Amaya; McClean, Brendan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of serum serotonin levels in the measurement of bystander cell death. The study was undertaken as part of an intercomparison exercise involving seven European laboratories funded under the European Union Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) Non-Targeted Effects (NOTE) integrated project. Three batches of foetal bovine serum were tested; serum with high and low serotonin content from the intercomparison exercise as well as serum from the home laboratory. Three sets of human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were cultured in DMEM:F12 medium supplemented with serum with high or low serotonin content or serum from the home laboratory and both donor and recipient HaCaT cells were plated. The donor HaCaT cells were irradiated (0.5 Gy) using a cobalt 60 teletherapy unit, the medium was harvested 1 hour post irradiation and transferred to the recipient HaCaT cells. Bystander induced cell death was measured by the clonogenic survival assay and the Alamar blue viability assay. A significant reduction in cell survival, as measured by the clonogenic assay, and in cell viability, as measured by the Alamar blue assay, was observed in the recipient HaCaT cells treated with medium from irradiated cells compared to the cells treated with medium from unirradiated cells. No significant difference was found between the three batches of serum. The data suggest that in our cell system and with our endpoints (clonogenic assay and Alamar blue assay), serum serotonin levels do not play a role in bystander-induced cell death.

  8. Brain serotonin transporter density and aggression in abstinent methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Futatsubashi, Masami; Okada, Hiroyuki; Minabe, Yoshio; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Tsukada, Hideo; Iyo, Masaomi; Mori, Norio

    2006-01-01

    In animals, methamphetamine is known to have a neurotoxic effect on serotonin neurons, which have been implicated in the regulation of mood, anxiety, and aggression. It remains unknown whether methamphetamine damages serotonin neurons in humans. To investigate the status of brain serotonin neurons and their possible relationship with clinical characteristics in currently abstinent methamphetamine abusers. Case-control analysis. A hospital research center. Twelve currently abstinent former methamphetamine abusers (5 women and 7 men) and 12 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects recruited from the community. The brain regional density of the serotonin transporter, a structural component of serotonin neurons, was estimated using positron emission tomography and trans-1,2,3,5,6,10-beta-hexahydro-6-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]pyrrolo-[2,1-a]isoquinoline ([(11)C](+)McN-5652). Estimates were derived from region-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping methods, followed by within-case analysis using the measures of clinical variables. The duration of methamphetamine use, the magnitude of aggression and depressive symptoms, and changes in serotonin transporter density represented by the [(11)C](+)McN-5652 distribution volume. Methamphetamine abusers showed increased levels of aggression compared with controls. Region-of-interest and statistical parametric mapping analyses revealed that the serotonin transporter density in global brain regions (eg, the midbrain, thalamus, caudate, putamen, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum) was significantly lower in methamphetamine abusers than in control subjects, and this reduction was significantly inversely correlated with the duration of methamphetamine use. Furthermore, statistical parametric mapping analyses indicated that the density in the orbitofrontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate areas was closely associated with the magnitude of aggression in methamphetamine abusers. Protracted abuse of methamphetamine may reduce

  9. Effect of Short-term 900 MHz low level electromagnetic radiation exposure on blood serotonin and glutamate levels.

    PubMed

    Eris, A H; Kiziltan, H S; Meral, I; Genc, H; Trabzon, M; Seyithanoglu, H; Yagci, B; Uysal, O

    2015-01-01

    Long term exposure to low level electromagnetic radiation (LLER) by using cellular phones causes serious health problems. Ten male Wistar Albino rats were anesthetized 30 min before the LLER exposure, 0.5 ml blood was taken from the tail vein of rats in order to determine control values. Rats were grouped by three and placed on a plexi-glass flat. A fixed equivalent frequency emitter device was used. A sign to be an electromagnetic field 15.14 V/m (608 mW/m(2)) in strength in the head region with 100 kHz FM modulation at 900 MHz was applied to the animals. After calculating the ideal position for the device, electromagnetic LLER energy was applied for 45 minutes from a distance to be equal with energy transmitted by a mobile phone from a 0.5-1 cm distance to their head regions. After 1.5 hours and before the rats awoke, 0.5 ml of blood was taken from the tail veins in order to determine the treatment values. Plasma 5-HT and glutamate levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using commercial kits. It was found that a single 45 min of LLER exposure increased the blood 5-HT level significantly, but did not change the glutamate level of rats. It was concluded that even a single 45 min of LLER exposure may produce an increase in 5-HT level without changing the blood glutamate level. Increased 5-HT level may lead to a retarded learning and a deficit in spatial memory (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 24).

  10. Serotonin is critical for rewarded olfactory short-term memory in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sitaraman, Divya; LaFerriere, Holly; Birman, Serge; Zars, Troy

    2012-06-01

    The biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin are critical in establishing normal memories. A common view for the amines in insect memory performance has emerged in which dopamine and octopamine are largely responsible for aversive and appetitive memories. Examination of the function of serotonin begins to challenge the notion of one amine type per memory because altering serotonin function also reduces aversive olfactory memory and place memory levels. Could the function of serotonin be restricted to the aversive domain, suggesting a more specific dopamine/serotonin system interaction? The function of the serotonergic system in appetitive olfactory memory was examined. By targeting the tetanus toxin light chain (TNT) and the human inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) to the serotonin neurons with two different GAL4 driver combinations, the serotonergic system was inhibited. Additional use of the GAL80(ts1) system to control expression of transgenes to the adult stage of the life cycle addressed a potential developmental role of serotonin in appetitive memory. Reduction in appetitive olfactory memory performance in flies with these transgenic manipulations, without altering control behaviors, showed that the serotonergic system is also required for normal appetitive memory. Thus, serotonin appears to have a more general role in Drosophila memory, and implies an interaction with both the dopaminergic and octopaminergic systems.

  11. Is Serum Serotonin Involved in the Bone Loss of Young Females with Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed

    Maïmoun, L; Guillaume, S; Lefebvre, P; Philibert, P; Bertet, H; Picot, M-C; Courtet, P; Mariano-Goulart, D; Renard, E; Sultan, C

    2016-03-01

    Recent experimental data suggest that circulating serotonin interacts with bone metabolism, although this is less clear in humans. This study investigated whether serum serotonin interferes with bone metabolism in young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), a clinical model of energy deprivation. Serum serotonin, markers of bone turnover [osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), type I-C telopeptide breakdown products (CTX)], leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its binding protein (IGFBP-3) were assessed. Whole body, spine, hip, and radius areal bone mineral density BMD (aBMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 21 patients with AN and 19 age-matched controls. Serum serotonin, leptin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, OC, PINP, and aBMD at all sites, radius excepted, were significantly reduced in AN whereas CTX and sOB-R were increased compared with controls. Serum serotonin levels were positively correlated with weight, body mass index, whole body fat mass, leptin, and IGF-1, and negatively with CTX for the entire population. Low serum serotonin levels are observed in patients with AN. Although no direct link between low serum serotonin levels and bone mass was identified in these patients, the negative relationship between serotonin and markers of bone resorption found in all population nevertheless suggests the implication of serotonin in bone metabolism. Impact of low serum serotonin on bone in AN warrants further studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Type I Interferon-Mediated Skewing of the Serotonin Synthesis Is Associated with Severe Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Lood, Christian; Tydén, Helena; Gullstrand, Birgitta; Klint, Cecilia; Wenglén, Christina; Nielsen, Christoffer T.; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Jönsen, Andreas; Kahn, Robin; Bengtsson, Anders A.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin, a highly pro-inflammatory molecule released by activated platelets, is formed by tryptophan. Tryptophan is also needed in the production of kynurenine, a process mediated by the type I interferon (IFN)-regulated rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). The aim of this study was to investigate levels of serotonin in patients with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), association to clinical phenotype and possible involvement of IDO in regulation of serotonin synthesis. Serotonin levels were measured in serum and plasma from patients with SLE (n=148) and healthy volunteers (n=79) by liquid chromatography and ELISA, as well as intracellularly in platelets by flow cytometry. We found that SLE patients had decreased serotonin levels in serum (p=0.01) and platelets (p<0.0001) as compared to healthy individuals. SLE patients with ongoing type I IFN activity, as determined by an in-house reporter assay, had decreased serum levels of serotonin (p=0.0008) as well as increased IDO activity (p<0.0001), as determined by the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio measured by liquid chromatography. Furthermore, SLE sera induced IDO expression in WISH cells in a type I IFN-dependent manner (p=0.008). Also platelet activation contributed to reduce overall availability of serotonin levels in platelets and serum (p<0.05). Decreased serum serotonin levels were associated with severe SLE with presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies and nephritis. In all, reduced serum serotonin levels in SLE patients were related to severe disease phenotype, including nephritis, suggesting involvement of important immunopathological processes. Further, our data suggest that type I IFNs, present in SLE sera, are able to up-regulate IDO expression, which may lead to decreased serum serotonin levels. PMID:25897671

  13. Sleep, serotonin, and suicide in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews evidence supporting the hypothesis that suicide rates in Japan could be reduced by elevating serotonin levels via increasing the average duration of sleep. Seven major relevant findings were apparent in the literature: 1) Sleep loss is associated with suicide, but the direction of causality is equivocal. 2) Decreased serotonergic activity may be involved in suicidal behavior. 3) Sleep debt may decrease serotonergic activity. 4) The suicide rate in Japan has remained at a heightened level for the past 12 years. 5) The average sleep duration in Japan has decreased over the past 40 years. 6) The average sleep duration in Japan is among the lowest in the world. 7) The average sleep duration in Japan plateaued in 1995 and has been relatively stable since. From the research reviewed, two major problematic issues were apparent: 1) Most people in Japan receive inadequate sleep. 2) Individuals whose sleep is inadequate are unlikely to be sufficiently physically active to stimulate serotonergic systems to a desirable level. I propose that public health initiatives encouraging a longer duration of sleep may provide a relatively simple way of addressing the disturbing current trend in Japan. The combination of actigraph and brain serotonin level measurement could allow large population-based cohort studies to be designed, to elucidate the causal links between sleep duration, serotonin levels, and suicide rates.

  14. Gastrointestinal bleeding risk of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by level of kidney function: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Masao; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Douglas, Ian J; Smeeth, Liam; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2018-06-04

    To estimate the risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding associated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) by level of kidney function. We conducted a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics. We identified patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m 2 for ≥3 months), and a comparison group of patients without it. Patients with CKD were further classified as stage 3a (eGFR 45-59 mL/min/1.73m 2 ), 3b (30-44 mL/min/1.73m 2 ), and 4/5 (<30 mL/min/1.73m 2 ). We excluded prevalent SSRI users at cohort entry. Exposure was time-dependent SSRI prescription and outcome was first hospitalisation for GI bleeding. We estimated adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and rate difference (aRD) of GI bleeding comparing periods with and without SSRI prescription at each level of kidney function. The aRRs and aRDs were: (i) no CKD (N=202,121) aRR: 1.66 (95%CI 1.37-2.01), aRD: 2.0/1000 person-years (5.5 versus 3.5/1000 person-years in period with and without SSRIs); (ii) CKD stage 3a (N=153,316) aRR: 1.86 (1.62-2.15), aRD: 4.2/1000 person-years (8.3 versus 4.1/1000 person-years); (iii) CKD stage 3b (N=46,482) aRR: 1.61 (1.27-2.04), aRD: 4.8/1000 person-years (9.9 versus 5.1/1000 person-years); and (iv) CKD stage 4/5 (N=11,197) aRR: 1.84 (1.14-2.96), aRD: 7.9/1000 person-years (15.3 versus 7.4/1000 person-years). While there was no evidence of increase in the aRR (p-trend=0.922), there was strong evidence that the aRD increased as kidney function deteriorated (p-trend=0.001). While the relative risk was constant, the excess risk of GI bleeding associated with SSRIs markedly increased among patients with decreased kidney function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Gestational stress and fluoxetine treatment differentially affect plasticity, methylation and serotonin levels in the PFC and hippocampus of rat dams.

    PubMed

    Gemmel, Mary; Rayen, Ine; van Donkelaar, Eva; Loftus, Tiffany; Steinbusch, Harry W; Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2016-07-07

    Women are more likely to develop depression during childbearing years with up to 20% of women suffering from depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Increased prevalence of depression during the perinatal period has resulted in frequent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment; however the effects of such medications on the maternal brain remain limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of the SSRI medication, fluoxetine, on neurobiological differences in the maternal brain. To model aspects of maternal depression, gestational stress was used. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were exposed to either gestational stress and/or fluoxetine (5mg/kg/day) to form the following four groups: 1. Control+Vehicle, 2. Stress+Vehicle, 3. Control+Fluoxetine, and 4. Stress+Fluoxetine. At weaning maternal brains were collected. Main findings show that gestational stress alone increased synaptophysin and serotonin metabolism in the cingulate cortex2 region of the cortex while fluoxetine treatment after stress normalized these effects. In the hippocampus, fluoxetine treatment, regardless of gestational stress exposure, decreased both global measures of methylation in the dentate gyrus, as measured by Dnmt3a immunoreactivity, as well as serotonin metabolism. No further changes in synaptophysin, PSD-95, or Dnmt3a immunoreactivity were seen in the cortical or hippocampal areas investigated. These findings show that gestational stress and SSRI medication affect the neurobiology of the maternal brain in a region-specific manner. This work adds to a much needed area of research aimed at understanding neurobiological changes associated with maternal depression and the role of SSRI treatment in altering these changes in the female brain. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolomics analysis of rice responses to salinity stress revealed elevation of serotonin, and gentisic acid levels in leaves of tolerant varieties.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Poulami; De, Bratati

    2017-07-03

    A GC-MS based analytical approach was undertaken to understand the metabolomic responses of seedlings of 2 salt sensitive (Sujala and MTU 7029) and 2 tolerant varieties (Bhutnath, and Nonabokra) of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) to NaCl induced stress. The 4 varieties responded differently to NaCl treatment with respect to the conserved primary metabolites (sugars, polyols, amino acids, organic acids and certain purine derivatives) of the leaf of rice seedlings. However, there were significant differences in salt induced production of chorismic acid derivatives. Serotonin level was increased in both the salt tolerant varieties in response to NaCl induced stress. In both the salt tolerant varieties, increased production of the signaling molecule gentisic acid in response to NaCl treatment was noticed. Salt tolerant varieties also produced increased level of ferulic acid and vanillic acid. In the salt sensitive varieties, cinnamic acid derivatives, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid (in Sujala) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (in MTU 7029), were elevated in the leaves. So increased production of the 2 signaling molecules serotonin and gentisic acid may be considered as 2 important biomarker compounds produced in tolerant varieties contributing toward NaCl tolerance.

  17. Valerenic Acid Protects Against Physical and Psychological Stress by Reducing the Turnover of Serotonin and Norepinephrine in Mouse Hippocampus-Amygdala Region

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In a previous study, we demonstrated that a Valeriana officinalis extract could attenuate increases in serum corticosterone levels in a mouse model of physical and psychological stress. In addition, our results showed that the extract could modulate serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) turnover in the hippocampus and amygdala region. In this study, we intended to investigate the effects of valerenic acid (VA), the main component of V. officinalis extract, on corticosterone levels in serum in normal mice and monoamine turnover in hippocampus-amygdala homogenates in a mouse model of physical and psychological stress. To determine the minimum dose of VA for antianxiety effect, eight-week-old ICR mice were orally administered VA (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg/0.3 mL) once daily for 3 weeks to probe for immobility time and serum corticosterone levels. At a VA dose of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, animals showed a decrease in the duration of immobility time and serum corticosterone levels. To confirm the antianxiety effect of VA, eight-week-old ICR mice received VA at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, orally, once daily for 3 weeks, before being subjected to physical or psychological stress for 3 days, in a specially designed communication box, followed by estimation of levels of monoamines and their metabolites in the hippocampus-amygdala region. In conclusion, VA administration at 0.5 mg/kg can mitigate the physical and psychological stress response by decreasing the turnover of 5-HT to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and NE to 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol sulfate in the hippocampus and amygdala. PMID:26177123

  18. The roles of sex and serotonin transporter levels in age- and stress-related emotionality in mice.

    PubMed

    Joeyen-Waldorf, Jennifer; Edgar, Nicole; Sibille, Etienne

    2009-08-25

    Mood disorders are influenced by genetic make-up and differentially affect men and women. The s/l promoter polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene moderates both trait emotion and the vulnerability to develop depressive states in humans. Similarly, male mice lacking SERT (Knockout/KO) display an elevated emotionality phenotype. We now report that the SERT-KO phenotype is maintained throughout late-adulthood, and that female KO mice develop a larger emotionality phenotype with increasing age. Thus, to test the hypothesis that these findings reflected a putative sexual dimorphism in SERT-mediated modulation of emotionality, we submitted adult male and female wild-type, heterozygous (HZ) and KO mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and assessed behavioral changes. In males, the elevated SERT-KO emotion-related behavior converged with other groups after UCMS. Conversely, female SERT-KO displayed a normal non-stressed baseline, but highest UCMS-induced emotionality. SERT-HZ displayed variable and intermediate phenotypes in both experiments. Thus, consistent results across different biological modalities (age, stress) revealed a high contribution of SERT genotype for baseline "trait" emotionality in males, and low contribution for females. In contrast, age-correlated and stress-induced behavioral changes resulted in a high SERT genotype-mediated behavioral variance in females, but low in males. This suggests that high emotionality states associated with low SERT were differentially achieved in males (high baseline/trait) compared to females (increased vulnerability to develop high emotionality). This sex-by-SERT double dissociation provides a framework to investigate molecular substrates of emotionality regulation in concert with serotonin function and may contribute to the sexually dimorphic features of mood disorders.

  19. Serotonin Reuptake Transporter Deficiency Modulates the Acute Thermoregulatory and Locomotor Activity Response to 3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and Attenuates Depletions in Serotonin Levels in SERT-KO Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lizarraga, Lucina E.; Phan, Andy V.; Cholanians, Aram B.; Herndon, Joseph M.; Lau, Serrine S.; Monks, Terrence J.

    2014-01-01

    3,4-(±)-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a ring-substituted amphetamine derivative with potent psychostimulant properties. The neuropharmacological effects of MDMA are biphasic in nature, initially causing synaptic monoamine release, primarily of serotonin (5-HT), inducing thermogenesis and hyperactivity (5-HT syndrome). The long-term effects of MDMA manifest as a prolonged depletion in 5-HT, and structural damage to 5-HT nerve terminals. MDMA toxicity is in part mediated by an ability to inhibit the presynaptic 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT). Using a SERT-knockout (SERT-KO) rat model, we determined the impact of SERT deficiency on thermoregulation, locomotor activity, and neurotoxicity in SERT-KO or Wistar-based wild-type (WT) rats exposed to MDMA. WT and SERT-KO animals exhibited the highest thermogenic responses to MDMA (four times 10 mg/kg, sc at 12 h intervals) during the diurnal (first and third) doses according to peak body temperature and area under the curve (∑°C × h) analysis. Although no differences in peak body temperature were observed between MDMA-treated WT and SERT-KO animals, ∑°C × h following the first MDMA dose was reduced in SERT-KO rats. Exposure to a single dose of MDMA stimulated horizontal velocity in both WT and SERT-KO rats, however, this effect was delayed and attenuated in the KO animals. Finally, SERT-KO rats were insensitive to MDMA-induced long-term (7 days) depletions in 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, in both cortex and striatum. In conclusion, SERT deficiency modulated MDMA-mediated thermogenesis, hyperactivity and neurotoxicity in KO rats. The data confirm that the SERT is essential for the manifestation of the acute and long-term toxicities of MDMA. PMID:24595820

  20. Reduced Responses of Submucous Neurons from Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients to a Cocktail Containing Histamine, Serotonin, TNFα, and Tryptase (IBS-Cocktail)

    PubMed Central

    Ostertag, Daniela; Buhner, Sabine; Michel, Klaus; Pehl, Christian; Kurjak, Manfred; Götzberger, Manuela; Schulte-Frohlinde, Ewert; Frieling, Thomas; Enck, Paul; Phillip, Josef; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Malfunctions of enteric neurons are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aim was to investigate whether neuronal activity in biopsies from IBS patients is altered in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Methods: Activity of human submucous neurons in response to electrical nerve stimulation and local application of nicotine or a mixture of histamine, serotonin, tryptase, and TNF-α (IBS-cocktail) was recorded in biopsies from 17 HC and 35 IBS patients with the calcium-sensitive-dye Fluo-4 AM. The concentrations of the mediators resembeled those found in biopsy supernatants or blood. Neuronal activity in guinea-pig submucous neurons was studied with the voltage-sensitive-dye di-8-ANEPPS. Results: Activity in submucous ganglia in response to nicotine or electrical nerve stimulation was not different between HC and IBS patients (P = 0.097 or P = 0.448). However, the neuronal response after application of the IBS-cocktail was significantly decreased (P = 0.039) independent of whether diarrhea (n = 12), constipation (n = 5) or bloating (n = 5) was the predominant symptom. In agreement with this we found that responses of submucous ganglia conditioned by overnight incubation with IBS mucosal biopsy supernatant to spritz application of this supernatant was significantly reduced (P = 0.019) when compared to incubation with HC supernatant. Conclusion: We demonstrated for the first time reduced neuronal responses in mucosal IBS biopsies to an IBS mediator cocktail. While excitability to classical stimuli of enteric neurons was comparable to HC, the activation by the IBS-cocktail was decreased. This was very likely due to desensitization to mediators constantly released by mucosal and immune cells in the gut wall of IBS patients. PMID:26733780

  1. Reduced Responses of Submucous Neurons from Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients to a Cocktail Containing Histamine, Serotonin, TNFα, and Tryptase (IBS-Cocktail).

    PubMed

    Ostertag, Daniela; Buhner, Sabine; Michel, Klaus; Pehl, Christian; Kurjak, Manfred; Götzberger, Manuela; Schulte-Frohlinde, Ewert; Frieling, Thomas; Enck, Paul; Phillip, Josef; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Malfunctions of enteric neurons are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aim was to investigate whether neuronal activity in biopsies from IBS patients is altered in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Activity of human submucous neurons in response to electrical nerve stimulation and local application of nicotine or a mixture of histamine, serotonin, tryptase, and TNF-α (IBS-cocktail) was recorded in biopsies from 17 HC and 35 IBS patients with the calcium-sensitive-dye Fluo-4 AM. The concentrations of the mediators resembeled those found in biopsy supernatants or blood. Neuronal activity in guinea-pig submucous neurons was studied with the voltage-sensitive-dye di-8-ANEPPS. Activity in submucous ganglia in response to nicotine or electrical nerve stimulation was not different between HC and IBS patients (P = 0.097 or P = 0.448). However, the neuronal response after application of the IBS-cocktail was significantly decreased (P = 0.039) independent of whether diarrhea (n = 12), constipation (n = 5) or bloating (n = 5) was the predominant symptom. In agreement with this we found that responses of submucous ganglia conditioned by overnight incubation with IBS mucosal biopsy supernatant to spritz application of this supernatant was significantly reduced (P = 0.019) when compared to incubation with HC supernatant. We demonstrated for the first time reduced neuronal responses in mucosal IBS biopsies to an IBS mediator cocktail. While excitability to classical stimuli of enteric neurons was comparable to HC, the activation by the IBS-cocktail was decreased. This was very likely due to desensitization to mediators constantly released by mucosal and immune cells in the gut wall of IBS patients.

  2. Optogenetic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons enhances patience for future rewards.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kayoko W; Miyazaki, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Takahashi, Aki; Tabuchi, Sawako; Doya, Kenji

    2014-09-08

    Serotonin is a neuromodulator that is involved extensively in behavioral, affective, and cognitive functions in the brain. Previous recording studies of the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) revealed that the activation of putative serotonin neurons correlates with the levels of behavioral arousal [1], rhythmic motor outputs [2], salient sensory stimuli [3-6], reward, and conditioned cues [5-8]. The classic theory on serotonin states that it opposes dopamine and inhibits behaviors when aversive events are predicted [9-14]. However, the therapeutic effects of serotonin signal-enhancing medications have been difficult to reconcile with this theory [15, 16]. In contrast, a more recent theory states that serotonin facilitates long-term optimal behaviors and suppresses impulsive behaviors [17-21]. To test these theories, we developed optogenetic mice that selectively express channelrhodopsin in serotonin neurons and tested how the activation of serotonergic neurons in the DRN affects animal behavior during a delayed reward task. The activation of serotonin neurons reduced the premature cessation of waiting for conditioned cues and food rewards. In reward omission trials, serotonin neuron stimulation prolonged the time animals spent waiting. This effect was observed specifically when the animal was engaged in deciding whether to keep waiting and was not due to motor inhibition. Control experiments showed that the prolonged waiting times observed with optogenetic stimulation were not due to behavioral inhibition or the reinforcing effects of serotonergic activation. These results show, for the first time, that the timed activation of serotonin neurons during waiting promotes animals' patience to wait for a delayed reward. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina; Macoveanu, Julian; Paulson, Olaf B; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify distributed brain responses identified two brain networks with modulations of activity related to face emotion and serotonin level. The first network included the left amygdala, bilateral striatum, and fusiform gyri. During the Control session this network responded only to fearful faces; increasing serotonin decreased this response to fear, whereas reducing serotonin enhanced the response of this network to angry faces. The second network involved bilateral amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and these regions also showed increased activity to fear during the Control session. Both drug challenges enhanced the neural response of this set of regions to angry faces, relative to Control, and CIT also enhanced activity for neutral faces. The net effect of these changes in both networks was to abolish the selective response to fearful expressions. These results suggest that a normal level of serotonin is critical for maintaining a differentiated brain response to threatening face emotions. Lower serotonin leads to a broadening of a normally fear-specific response to anger, and higher levels reduce the differentiated brain response to aversive face emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Symptoms of depression and anxiety in anorexia nervosa: links with plasma tryptophan and serotonin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Claire; Hassler, Christine; Mattar, Lama; Launay, Jean-Marie; Callebert, Jacques; Steiger, Howard; Melchior, Jean-Claude; Falissard, Bruno; Berthoz, Sylvie; Mourier-Soleillant, Virginie; Lang, François; Delorme, Marc; Pommereau, Xavier; Gerardin, Priscille; Bioulac, Stephanie; Bouvard, Manuel; Godart, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Depressive, anxiety and obsessive symptoms frequently co-occur with anorexia nervosa (AN). The relationship between these clinical manifestations and the biological changes caused by starvation is not well understood. It has been hypothesised that reduced availability of tryptophan (TRP) could reduce serotonin activity and thus trigger these comorbid symptoms. The aim of this study, during re-feeding in individuals with AN, was to analyse covariations across measures of nutritional status, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and peripheral serotonin markers. Depressive and anxiety symptoms, nutritional status and serotonin markers--whole blood serotonin content, plasma TRP and the ratio between TRP and large neutral amino acids--were assessed for 42 AN participants at admission to inpatient treatment and after re-feeding. Biological measures were compared to those obtained in 42 non-eating disordered subjects. For those with AN, psychological, nutritional and biological parameters improved significantly during hospitalisation. Levels of serotonin markers were significantly lower in the AN group compared to the control group, at admission and at discharge. Increase in the TRP/LNAA ratio was correlated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. In addition, there was a positive correlation between serotonin levels and symptoms of both anxiety and depression at discharge. We speculate that enhanced TRP availability during re-feeding, as a result of the increase in the TRP/LNAA ratio, could restore serotonin neurotransmission and lead to a decrease in depressive symptoms. The association between serotonin and anxiety and depressive symptoms would be consistent with numerous observations indicating abnormal functioning of the serotoninergic system in AN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular fMRI of Serotonin Transport.

    PubMed

    Hai, Aviad; Cai, Lili X; Lee, Taekwan; Lelyveld, Victor S; Jasanoff, Alan

    2016-11-23

    Reuptake of neurotransmitters from the brain interstitium shapes chemical signaling processes and is disrupted in several pathologies. Serotonin reuptake in particular is important for mood regulation and is inhibited by first-line drugs for treatment of depression. Here we introduce a molecular-level fMRI technique for micron-scale mapping of serotonin transport in live animals. Intracranial injection of an MRI-detectable serotonin sensor complexed with serotonin, together with serial imaging and compartmental analysis, permits neurotransmitter transport to be quantified as serotonin dissociates from the probe. Application of this strategy to much of the striatum and surrounding areas reveals widespread nonsaturating serotonin removal with maximal rates in the lateral septum. The serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine selectively suppresses serotonin removal in septal subregions, whereas both fluoxetine and a dopamine transporter blocker depress reuptake in striatum. These results highlight promiscuous pharmacological influences on the serotonergic system and demonstrate the utility of molecular fMRI for characterization of neurochemical dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  7. A serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) polymorphism is associated with reduced risk of irritable bowel syndrome in American and Asian population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Areeshi, Mohammed Y; Haque, Shafiul; Panda, Aditya K; Mandal, Raju K

    2013-01-01

    Association studies of serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4 I/S polymorphism and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have shown inconsistent and contradictory results among different populations. In the present study, meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between SLC6A4 I/S polymorphism and IBS susceptibility. Systemic assessment was performed for the published studies based on the association of SLC6A4 I/S polymorphism and IBS risk from PubMed (Medline), EMBASE search. A meta-analysis was done to appraise the said association. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for allele contrast, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant and recessive genetic model. A total of twelve studies comprising 2068 IBS cases and 2076 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant results were obtained for S allele carrier (S vs. I: p=0.488; OR=1.073, 95% CI=0.879 to 1.311) Co-dominant (SS vs. II; p=0.587; OR=1.112, 95% CI=0.758 to 1.631), (IS vs. II; p=0.361; OR=0.878, 95% CI=0.665 to 1.160). Similarly, dominant (SS+IS vs. II: p=0.853; OR=0.974, 95% CI=0.736 to 1.288) and recessive (SS vs. II+IS: p=0.267; OR=1.172, 95% CI=0.886 to 1.522) genetic models did not demonstrate risk. In the subgroup population based analysis, reduced risks were found in American (IS vs. II: p=0.009; OR=0.685, 95% CI=0.516 to 0.908) and Asian (SS+IS vs. II; p=0.001; OR=0.116, 95% CI=0.068 to 0.197) population. However, no risk was observed in European population. This investigation clearly demonstrates that SLC6A4 (Ins/Del) polymorphism is associated with reduced risk of IBS in American and Asian population. However, future well-designed studies with stratified case control and biological characterization will be needed to validate this finding.

  8. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rhonda P; Ames, Bruce N

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin regulates a wide variety of brain functions and behaviors. Here, we synthesize previous findings that serotonin regulates executive function, sensory gating, and social behavior and that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior all share in common defects in these functions. It has remained unclear why supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D improve cognitive function and behavior in these brain disorders. Here, we propose mechanisms by which serotonin synthesis, release, and function in the brain are modulated by vitamin D and the 2 marine omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Brain serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase 2, which is transcriptionally activated by vitamin D hormone. Inadequate levels of vitamin D (∼70% of the population) and omega-3 fatty acids are common, suggesting that brain serotonin synthesis is not optimal. We propose mechanisms by which EPA increases serotonin release from presynaptic neurons by reducing E2 series prostaglandins and DHA influences serotonin receptor action by increasing cell membrane fluidity in postsynaptic neurons. We propose a model whereby insufficient levels of vitamin D, EPA, or DHA, in combination with genetic factors and at key periods during development, would lead to dysfunctional serotonin activation and function and may be one underlying mechanism that contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. This model suggests that optimizing vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake may help prevent and modulate the severity of brain dysfunction. © FASEB.

  9. Serotonin uptake inhibitors: uses in clinical therapy and in laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W

    1995-01-01

    Fluoxetine, zimelidine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, indalpine and citalopram are the selective inhibitors of serotonin uptake that have been most widely studied. Some of these compounds are or have been used clinically in the treatment of mental depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and bulimia, and therapeutic benefit has been claimed in additional diseases as well. By blocking the membrane uptake carrier which transports serotonin from the extracellular space to inside the serotonin nerve terminals, these compounds increase extracellular concentrations of serotonin and amplify signals sent by serotonin neurons. Because serotonin neurons are widespread in the central nervous system, the functional consequences of blocking serotonin uptake are diverse, but are generally subtle. Animals treated with serotonin uptake inhibitors look normal in gross appearance, but effects such as reduced aggressive behavior, decreased food intake and altered food selection, analgesia, anticonvulsant activity, endocrine changes and neurochemical changes have been demonstrated and characterized. Serotonin uptake inhibitors have helped in revealing some dynamics of serotonin neurons; for example, when uptake is inhibited and extracellular serotonin concentration increases, presynaptic as well as postsynaptic receptors for serotonin are activated to a greater degree. A consequence of increased activation of autoreceptors on serotonin cell bodies and nerve terminals is a reduction in firing of serotonin neurons and a decrease in serotonin synthesis and release. The result is a limit on the degree to which extracellular serotonin and serotonergic neurotransmission are increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Serotonin shapes risky decision making in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Long, Arwen B; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Platt, Michael L

    2009-12-01

    Some people love taking risks, while others avoid gambles at all costs. The neural mechanisms underlying individual variation in preference for risky or certain outcomes, however, remain poorly understood. Although behavioral pathologies associated with compulsive gambling, addiction and other psychiatric disorders implicate deficient serotonin signaling in pathological decision making, there is little experimental evidence demonstrating a link between serotonin and risky decision making, in part due to the lack of a good animal model. We used dietary rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) to acutely lower brain serotonin in three macaques performing a simple gambling task for fluid rewards. To confirm the efficacy of RTD experiments, we measured total plasma tryptophan using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Reducing brain serotonin synthesis decreased preference for the safe option in a gambling task. Moreover, lowering brain serotonin function significantly decreased the premium required for monkeys to switch their preference to the risky option, suggesting that diminished serotonin signaling enhances the relative subjective value of the risky option. These results implicate serotonin in risk-sensitive decision making and, further, suggest pharmacological therapies for treating pathological risk preferences in disorders such as problem gambling and addiction.

  11. Lower urinary tract symptoms are associated with low levels of serum serotonin, high levels of adiponectin and fasting glucose, and benign prostatic enlargement.

    PubMed

    Haghsheno, Mohammad-Ali; Mellström, Dan; Peeker, Ralph; Hammarsten, Jan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Sundh, Valter; Karlsson, Magnus; Ohlsson, Claes; Damber, Jan-Erik

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence are associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The association between LUTS and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) was also investigated. A cross-sectional, representative risk factor analysis of LUTS, as measured by the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and urinary incontinence was conducted. Among 950 representative individuals, aged 69-81 years, the association between clinical, anthropometric, endocrine, metabolic and inflammatory factors on the one hand, as both major and minor aspects of MetS, and LUTS and urinary incontinence, on the other hand, was analysed. The prostate gland volume was measured in a subgroup of 155 randomly selected individuals and the association between LUTS and BPE was estimated. No significant association was found between LUTS or urinary incontinence and the major aspects of the MetS. However, in a multivariate analysis, serum serotonin showed an independent negative correlation with LUTS and with urinary incontinence while fasting serum glucose and serum adiponectin showed a positive correlation with LUTS. Furthermore, in a subgroup of 155 individuals, the prostate gland volume correlated positively with LUTS. The study did not show an association between LUTS or urinary incontinence and the major components of the MetS. However, serum serotonin showed an independent negative correlation with LUTS and with urinary incontinence while fasting serum glucose and serum adiponectin showed a positive correlation with LUTS. The data confirm the general knowledge that BPE may be one of the causative factors of LUTS.

  12. Reconciling the role of serotonin in behavioral inhibition and aversion: acute tryptophan depletion abolishes punishment-induced inhibition in humans

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Molly J.; Clark, Luke; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2009-01-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin has been implicated in a large number of affective and executive functions, but its precise contribution to motivation remains unclear. One influential hypothesis has implicated serotonin in aversive processing; another has proposed a more general role for serotonin in behavioral inhibition. Since behavioral inhibition is a pre-potent reaction to aversive outcomes, it has been a challenge to reconcile these two accounts. Here, we show that serotonin is critical for punishment-induced inhibition, but not overall motor response inhibition or reporting aversive outcomes. We used acute tryptophan depletion to temporarily lower brain serotonin in healthy human volunteers as they completed a novel task designed to obtain separate measures of motor response inhibition, punishment-induced inhibition, and sensitivity to aversive outcomes. Following a placebo treatment, participants were slower to respond under punishment conditions, compared to reward conditions. Tryptophan depletion abolished this punishment-induced inhibition, without affecting overall motor response inhibition or the ability to adjust response bias in line with punishment contingencies. The magnitude of reduction in punishment-induced inhibition depended on the degree to which tryptophan depletion reduced plasma tryptophan levels. These findings extend and clarify previous research on the role of serotonin in aversive processing and behavioral inhibition, and fit with current theorizing on serotonin's involvement in predicting aversive outcomes. PMID:19776285

  13. [Levels and molecular heterogeneity of serotonin transporter protein in platelets of patients with different mental diseases: a comparative analysis with the use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Brusov, O S; Faktor, M I; Zlobina, G P; Bologov, P V; Kaleda, V G; Oleĭchik, I V; Korenev, A N; Piatnitskiĭ, A N; Dupin, A M; Katasonov, A B; Morozova, M A; Beniashvili, A G; Lozier, R Kh; Pavlova, E V; Segal, O L; Massino, Iu S; Dmitriev, A D

    2001-01-01

    Polyclonal (PAb) and monoclonal (MAb) antibodies to CT2-epitope of the C-terminal fragment of serotonin transporter (SERT) protein were used to study the levels and molecular heterogeneity of platelet SERT in healthy donors and patients with affective (AD) and somatoform (SD) disorders, schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and schizophrenia. SERT was found to exist as high molecular wight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) forms separated after electrophoresis. The levels of HMW and LMW forms of SERT were significantly, decreased in mentally ill patients as compared to healthy individuals. Unlike PAb, horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated MAbs were more sensitive and specific to SERT and could detect the LMW form of SERT as a duplet protein form with MW about 40 and 43 kDa. The MAb to CT2 C-terminal fragment of SERT conjugated with HRP is considered to be a new valuable tool for further investigation of SERT expression, properties, and posttranslation modification in the controls and in patients with different psychopathology.

  14. A novel role for antizyme inhibitor 2 as a regulator of serotonin and histamine biosynthesis and content in mouse mast cells.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Andrade, Carlos; Lambertos, Ana; Urdiales, José L; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Peñafiel, Rafael; Fajardo, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    Antizymes and antizyme inhibitors are key regulatory proteins of polyamine levels by affecting ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine uptake. Our previous studies indicated a metabolic interplay among polyamines, histamine and serotonin in mast cells, and demonstrated that polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules, being important for histamine storage and serotonin levels. Recently, the novel antizyme inhibitor-2 (AZIN2) was proposed as a local regulator of polyamine biosynthesis in association with mast cell serotonin-containing granules. To gain insight into the role of AZIN2 in the biosynthesis and storage of serotonin and histamine, we have generated bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) from both wild-type and transgenic Azin2 hypomorphic mice, and have analyzed polyamines, serotonin and histamine contents, and some elements of their metabolisms. Azin2 hypomorphic BMMCs did not show major mast cell phenotypic alterations as judged by morphology and specific mast cell proteases. However, compared to wild-type controls, these cells showed reduced spermidine and spermine levels, and diminished growth rate. Serotonin levels were also reduced, whereas histamine levels tended to increase. Accordingly, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1; the key enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis) mRNA expression and protein levels were reduced, whereas histidine decarboxylase (the enzyme responsible for histamine biosynthesis) enzymatic activity was increased. Furthermore, microphtalmia-associated transcription factor, an element involved in the regulation of Tph1 expression, was reduced. Taken together, our results show, for the first time, an element of polyamine metabolism -AZIN2-, so far described as exclusively devoted to the control of polyamine concentrations, involved in regulating the biosynthesis and content of other amines like serotonin and histamine.

  15. Oxytocin and Serotonin Brain Mechanisms in the Nonhuman Primate.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Arthur; Richard, Nathalie; Jazayeri, Mina; Beuriat, Pierre-Aurélien; Fieux, Sylvain; Zimmer, Luc; Duhamel, Jean-René; Sirigu, Angela

    2017-07-12

    Oxytocin (OT) is increasingly studied for its therapeutic potential in psychiatric disorders, which are associated with the deregulation of several neurotransmission systems. Studies in rodents demonstrated that the interaction between OT and serotonin (5-HT) is critical for several aspects of social behavior. Using PET scan in humans, we have recently found that 5-HT 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) function is modified after intranasal oxytocin intake. However, the underlying mechanism between OT and 5-HT remains unclear. To understand this interaction, we tested 3 male macaque monkeys using both [ 11 C]DASB and [ 18 F]MPPF, two PET radiotracers, marking the serotonin transporter and the 5-HT 1A R, respectively. Oxytocin (1 IU in 20 μl of ACSF) or placebo was injected into the brain lateral ventricle 45 min before scans. Additionally, we performed postmortem autoradiography. Compared with placebo, OT significantly reduced [ 11 C]DASB binding potential in right amygdala, insula, and hippocampus, whereas [ 18 F]MPPF binding potential increased in right amygdala and insula. Autoradiography revealed that [ 11 C]DASB was sensitive to physiological levels of 5-HT modification, and that OT does not act directly on the 5-HT 1A R. Our results show that oxytocin administration in nonhuman primates influences serotoninergic neurotransmission via at least two ways: (1) by provoking a release of serotonin in key limbic regions; and (2) by increasing the availability of 5-HT 1A R receptors in the same limbic areas. Because these two molecules are important for social behavior, our study sheds light on the specific nature of their interaction, therefore helping to develop new mechanisms-based therapies for psychiatric disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Social behavior is largely controlled by brain neuromodulators, such as oxytocin and serotonin. While these are currently targeted in the context of psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, a new promising pharmaceutical

  16. Using stand-level optimization to reduce crown fire hazard

    Treesearch

    David H. Graetz; John Sessions; Steven L. Garman

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability to generate prescriptions for a wide variety of stands when the goal is to reduce crown fire potential. Forest managers charged with reducing crown fire potential while providing for commodity and ecological production have been hampered by the complexity of possible management options. A program called Stand-Level Optimization with...

  17. The relation between cerebral serotonin levels and conditioned behaviour in the rat following the administration of LSD-25 and UML.

    PubMed

    Torre, M; Torre, E; Bogetto, F

    1975-01-01

    Successive daily injections of LSD-25 and UML (1-methyl-d-lysergic acid butanolamide) caused progressive depression of brain 5-HT levels in the rat. On the fourth day, the decrease was significant with respect to the highly significant fall observed after a single administration, whereas it had been shown earlier that conditioned behaviour is no longer affected by LSD-25 after 3 days and that simultaneous administration of a single dose of LSD-25 and UML is equally ineffective in this respect. Its depression of 5-HT levels, however, has now been shown to be equal to that of LSD-25 alone at doses that influence conditioned behaviour. The findings indicate that changes in such behaviour are not dependent on brain 5-HT levels and that no link exists between such levels and the psychotomimetic effect of LSD-25 in man.

  18. Serotonin neuron abnormalities in the BTBR mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yue-Ping; Commons, Kathryn G

    2017-01-01

    The inbred mouse strain BTBR T + Itpr3 tf /J (BTBR) is studied as a model of idiopathic autism because they are less social and more resistant to change than other strains. Forebrain serotonin receptors and the response to serotonin drugs are altered in BTBR mice, yet it remains unknown if serotonin neurons themselves are abnormal. In this study, we found that serotonin tissue content and the density of serotonin axons is reduced in the hippocampus of BTBR mice in comparison to C57BL/6J (C57) mice. This was accompanied by possible compensatory changes in serotonin neurons that were most pronounced in regions known to provide innervation to the hippocampus: the caudal dorsal raphe (B6) and the median raphe. These changes included increased numbers of serotonin neurons and hyperactivation of Fos expression. Metrics of serotonin neurons in the rostral 2/3 of the dorsal raphe and serotonin content of the prefrontal cortex were less impacted. Thus, serotonin neurons exhibit region-dependent abnormalities in the BTBR mouse that may contribute to their altered behavioral profile. Autism Res 2017, 10: 66-77. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Serotonin Neuron Abnormalities in the BTBR Mouse Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue-Ping; Commons, Kathryn G.

    2017-01-01

    The inbred mouse strain BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) i studied as a model of idiopathic autism because they are less social and more resistant to change than other strains. Forebrain serotonin receptors and the response to serotonin drugs are altered in BTBR mice, yet it remains unknown if serotonin neurons themselves are abnormal. In this study, we found that serotonin tissue content and the density of serotonin axons is reduced in the hippocampus of BTBR mice in comparison to C57BL/6J (C57) mice. This was accompanied by possible compensatory changes in serotonin neurons that were most pronounced in regions known to provide innervation to the hippocampus: the caudal dorsal raphe (B6) and the median raphe. These changes included increased numbers of serotonin neurons and hyperactivation of Fos expression. Metrics of serotonin neurons in the rostral 2/3 of the dorsal raphe and serotonin content of the prefrontal cortex were less impacted. Thus, serotonin neurons exhibit region-dependent abnormalities in the BTBR mouse that may contribute to their altered behavioral profile. PMID:27478061

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WHOLE BLOOD SEROTONIN AND REPETITIVE BEHAVIORS IN AUTISM

    PubMed Central

    Kolevzon, Alexander; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Kryzak, Lauren; Chaplin, William; Watner, Dryden; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J.; Cook, Edwin H.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between whole blood serotonin level and behavioral symptoms in 78 subjects with autism. No significant associations were found between serotonin level and the primary behavioral outcome measures. However, a significant inverse relationship between serotonin level and self-injury was demonstrated. PMID:20044143

  1. Triptans, serotonin agonists, and serotonin syndrome (serotonin toxicity): a review.

    PubMed

    Gillman, P Ken

    2010-02-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have suggested that fatal serotonin syndrome (SS) is possible with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and triptans: this warning affects millions of patients as these drugs are frequently given simultaneously. SS is a complex topic about which there is much misinformation. The misconception that 5-HT1A receptors can cause serious SS is still widely perpetuated, despite quality evidence that it is activation of the 5-HT2A receptor that is required for serious SS. This review considers SS involving serotonin agonists: ergotamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, bromocriptine, and buspirone, as well as triptans, and reviews the experimental foundation underpinning the latest understanding of SS. It is concluded that there is neither significant clinical evidence, nor theoretical reason, to entertain speculation about serious SS from triptans and SSRIs. The misunderstandings about SS exhibited by the FDA, and shared by the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (in relation to methylene blue), are an important issue with wide ramifications.

  2. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodríguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; García-Alcocer, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

  3. Serum BDNF levels in relation to illness severity, suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity in patients with major depressive disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Um, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sollip

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are correlated with the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). The question of whether there is a difference in BDNF levels between depressive patients according to their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity was also addressed. A sample of 51 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder following diagnosis using axis I of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - text revision comprised the study subjects. The patients were stratified into two subgroups based on their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and their LDAEP values. The LDAEP was evaluated by measuring the auditory event-related potentials, and serum BDNF was measured using blood sampling before beginning medication with serotonergic agents. There was no difference in serum BDNF levels between the two patient subgroups. The subgroup with moderate-to-severe depression (n = 16) was reanalyzed after stratifying it into two subgroups according to LDAEP and BDNF values (dichotomized at the medians into low and high). The high-LDAEP subgroup had higher serum BDNF levels and total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale score than the low-LDAEP subgroup (p = 0.03 and 0.036, respectively). Serum BDNF levels were positively correlated with LDAEP and total Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) score (r = 0.56, p = 0.025, and r = 0.59, p = 0.016, respectively). The high-BDNF subgroup had a higher LDAEP and total BHS score than the low-BDNF subgroup (p = 0.046 and p = 0.011, respectively). This is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the BDNF level and LDAEP in Asian depressive patients. Intriguingly, the high-BDNF subgroup (divided according to illness severity) exhibited a more severe psychopathology on some psychometric rating scales, a finding that

  4. Dietary Precursors of Serotonin and Newborn State Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogman, Michael W.; Zeisel, Steven

    Although previous research with adult humans and nonhumans has suggested a relationship between sleep behavior and brain serotonin levels, no studies have been made of the relationship of normal children's or infants' sleep patterns to serotonin levels, tryptophan metabolism, or diet. This study investigates the relationship between dietary…

  5. Locomotor stimulation produced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is correlated with dialysate levels of serotonin and dopamine in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Michael H.; Clark, Robert D.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetmine (MDMA, or Ecstasy) is an illicit drug that evokes transporter-mediated release of monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Here we monitored the effects of MDMA on neurochemistry and motor activity in rats, as a means to evaluate relationships between 5-HT, DA, and behavior. Male rats undergoing in vivo microdialysis were housed in chambers equipped with photobeams for measurement of ambulation (i.e., forward locomotion) and stereotypy (i.e., head weaving and forepaw treading). Microdialysis probes were placed into the n. accumbens, striatum or prefrontal cortex in separate groups of rats. Dialysate samples were assayed for 5-HT and DA by microbore HPLC-ECD. Rats received two i.v. injections of MDMA, 1 mg/kg followed by 3 mg/kg 60 min later; neurochemical and locomotor parameters were measured concurrently. MDMA produced dose-related elevations in extracellular 5-HT and DA in all regions, with the magnitude of 5-HT release always exceeding that of DA release. MDMA-induced ambulation was positively correlated with dialysate DA levels in all regions (P<0.05-0.0001) and with dialysate 5-HT in striatum and cortex (P<0.001-0.0001). Stereotypy was strongly correlated with dialysate 5-HT in all areas (P<0.001-0.0001) and with dialysate DA in accumbens and striatum (P<0.001-0.0001). These data support previous work and suggest the complex spectrum of behaviors produced by MDMA involves 5-HT and DA in a region- and modality-specific manner. PMID:18403002

  6. Genetic variants of MAOB affect serotonin level and specific behavioral attributes to increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) susceptibility in males.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Barnali; Verma, Deepak; Karmakar, Arijit; Jaiswal, Preeti; Sanyal, Aritrika; Paul, Debarshi; Sinha, Swagata; Singh, Asem Surindro; Guhathakurta, Subhrangshu; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Panda, Chinmoy Kumar; Ghosh, Saurabh; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Mukhophadhyay, Kanchan; Rajamma, Usha

    2016-11-03

    Serotonergic system participates in various developmental processes and modulation of behaviour. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by a range of behavioral symptoms scaling from mild to severe. Abnormal 5-HT synthesis and signalling, platelet hyperserotonemia and amelioration of repetitive behaviours by SSRI are some of the key findings, which reinforced the hypothesis that serotonergic genes might act as ASD susceptible genes. Therefore, genes encoding monoamine oxidases A/B (MAOA/MAOB) received special attention as these genes are located on the X-chromosome and the gene products are responsible for 5-HT degradation. In the present study, we conducted population-based association analysis of eight markers of MAOB with ASD in a study cohort of 203 cases and 236 controls form India and examined its effect on platelet 5-HT content and behaviour. Gender-specific changes were observed for the contrasting LD between pair of markers among cases and controls. Case-control analysis demonstrated over-distribution of major C allele of rs2283728 and rs2283727 in male and female ASD cases respectively. Haplotypic distribution and interaction among markers showed more robust effect in male cases. Interestingly, male ASD cases displayed higher platelet 5-HT content in comparison to the respective controls. Quantitative trait analysis revealed significant correlation of genetic variants and haplotypes of MAOB markers, rs1799836 and rs6324 with increased platelet 5-HT level and CARS scores for specific behavioral symptoms respectively in males. This study suggests that MAOB increases ASD risk in males, possibly through its sex-specific regulatory effect on 5-HT metabolism and behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Brief Report: Normal Intestinal Permeability at Elevated Platelet Serotonin Levels in a Subgroup of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Curacao (The Netherlands Antilles)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Muskiet, Fred D.; Boutier, A. Inge; Kema, Ido P.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between platelet (PLT) serotonin (5-HT) and intestinal permeability in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Differential sugar absorption and PLT 5-HT were determined in 23 children with PDD. PLT 5-HT (2.0-7.1 nmol/10[to the ninth power] PLT) was elevated in 4/23 patients. None exhibited…

  8. Brain Histamine Is Crucial for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors‘ Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects

    PubMed Central

    Munari, Leonardo; Provensi, Gustavo; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Galeotti, Nicoletta; Cassano, Tommaso; Benetti, Fernando; Corradetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Backgound: The neurobiological changes underlying depression resistant to treatments remain poorly understood, and failure to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may result from abnormalities of neurotransmitter systems that excite serotonergic neurons, such as histamine. Methods: Using behavioral (tail suspension test) and neurochemical (in vivo microdialysis, Western-blot analysis) approaches, here we report that antidepressant responses to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (citalopram or paroxetine) are abolished in mice unable to synthesize histamine due to either targeted disruption of histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC-/-) or injection of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine, a suicide inhibitor of this enzyme. Results: In the tail suspension test, all classes of antidepressants tested reduced the immobility time of controls. Systemic reboxetine or imipramine reduced the immobility time of histamine-deprived mice as well, whereas selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors did not even though their serotonergic system is functional. In in vivo microdialysis experiments, citalopram significantly increased histamine extraneuronal levels in the cortex of freely moving mice, and methysergide, a serotonin 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonist, abolished this effect, thus suggesting the involvement of endogenous serotonin. CREB phosphorylation, which is implicated in the molecular mechanisms of antidepressant treatment, was abolished in histamine-deficient mice treated with citalopram. The CREB pathway is not impaired in HDC-/- mice, as administration of 8-bromoadenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate increased CREB phosphorylation, and in the tail suspension test it significantly reduced the time spent immobile by mice of both genotypes. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors selectively require the integrity of the brain histamine system to exert their preclinical responses. PMID:25899065

  9. Effects of sugar rich diet on brain serotonin, hyperphagia and anxiety in animal model of both genders.

    PubMed

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Shireen, Erum; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2016-05-01

    Lower levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) in the brain elicit sugar craving, while ingestion of sugar rich diet improves mood and alleviates anxiety. Gender differences occur not only in brain serotonin metabolism but also in a serotonin mediated functional responses. The present study was therefore designed to investigate gender related differences on the effects of long term consumption of sugar rich diet on the metabolism of serotonin in the hypothalamus and whole brain which may be relevant with the hyperphagic and anxiety reducing effects of sugar rich diet. Male and female rats were fed freely on a sugar rich diet for five weeks. Hyperphagic effects were monitored by measuring total food intake and body weights changes during the intervention. Anxiolytic effects of sugar rich diet was monitored in light-dark transition test. The results show that ingestion of sugar rich diet decreased serotonin metabolism more in female than male rats. Anxiolytic effects were elicited only in male rats. Hyperphagia was comparable in both male and female rats. Finings would help in understanding the role of sugar rich diet-induced greater decreases of serotonin in sweet craving in women during stress.

  10. Mice with reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression show decreased choline acetyltransferase activity, but regular brain monoamine levels and unaltered emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Chourbaji, Sabine; Hellweg, Rainer; Brandis, Dorothee; Zörner, Björn; Zacher, Christiane; Lang, Undine E; Henn, Fritz A; Hörtnagl, Heide; Gass, Peter

    2004-02-05

    The "neurotrophin hypothesis" of depression predicts that depressive disorders in humans coincide with a decreased activity and/or expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. Therefore, we investigated whether mice with a reduced BDNF expression due to heterozygous gene disruption demonstrate depression-like neurochemical changes or behavioral symptoms. BNDF protein levels of adult BDNF(+/-) mice were reduced to about 60% in several brain areas investigated, including the hippocampus, frontal cortex, striatum, and hypothalamus. The content of monoamines (serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) as well as of serotonin and dopamine degradation products was unchanged in these brain regions. By contrast, choline acetyltransferase activity was significantly reduced by 19% in the hippocampus of BDNF(+/-) mice, indicating that the cholinergic system of the basal forebrain is critically dependent on sufficient endogenous BDNF levels in adulthood. Moreover, BDNF(+/-) mice exhibited normal corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) serum levels under baseline conditions and following immobilization stress. In a panel of behavioral tests investigating locomotor activity, exploration, anxiety, fear-associated learning, and behavioral despair, BDNF(+/-) mice were indistinguishable from wild-type littermates. Thus, a chronic reduction of BDNF protein content in adult mice is not sufficient to induce neurochemical or behavioral alterations that are reminiscent of depressive symptoms in humans.

  11. Impact of Maternal Serotonin Transporter Genotype on Placental Serotonin, Fetal Forebrain Serotonin, and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Christopher L; Anacker, Allison MJ; Rogers, Tiffany D; Goeden, Nick; Keller, Elizabeth H; Forsberg, C Gunnar; Kerr, Travis M; Wender, Carly LA; Anderson, George M; Stanwood, Gregg D; Blakely, Randy D; Bonnin, Alexandre; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Biomarker, neuroimaging, and genetic findings implicate the serotonin transporter (SERT) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, we found that adult male mice expressing the autism-associated SERT Ala56 variant have altered central serotonin (5-HT) system function, as well as elevated peripheral blood 5-HT levels. Early in gestation, before midbrain 5-HT projections have reached the cortex, peripheral sources supply 5-HT to the forebrain, suggesting that altered maternal or placenta 5-HT system function could impact the developing embryo. We therefore used different combinations of maternal and embryo SERT Ala56 genotypes to examine effects on blood, placenta and embryo serotonin levels and neurodevelopment at embryonic day E14.5, when peripheral sources of 5-HT predominate, and E18.5, when midbrain 5-HT projections have reached the forebrain. Maternal SERT Ala56 genotype was associated with decreased placenta and embryonic forebrain 5-HT levels at E14.5. Low 5-HT in the placenta persisted, but forebrain levels normalized by E18.5. Maternal SERT Ala56 genotype effects on forebrain 5-HT levels were accompanied by a broadening of 5-HT-sensitive thalamocortical axon projections. In contrast, no effect of embryo genotype was seen in concepti from heterozygous dams. Blood 5-HT levels were dynamic across pregnancy and were increased in SERT Ala56 dams at E14.5. Placenta RNA sequencing data at E14.5 indicated substantial impact of maternal SERT Ala56 genotype, with alterations in immune and metabolic-related pathways. Collectively, these findings indicate that maternal SERT function impacts offspring placental 5-HT levels, forebrain 5-HT levels, and neurodevelopment. PMID:27550733

  12. Serotonin and female psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Hall, Elise; Steiner, Meir

    2013-01-01

    There are sex differences in the prevalence and presentation of many psychiatric disorders. Various trends in symptomatology have emerged that are thought to be linked to periods of hormonal fluctuations such as with menses, pregnancy or menopause. With data from animal and human studies, it has become clear that there is an important interplay between the serotonergic system and gonadal hormones. The majority of the research to date has focused on the influence that estrogen has within the CNS and, in particular, how it leads to an overall increase in serotonin synthesis and availability. In reviewing this female-specific topic we hope to raise awareness to sex/gender differences in psychopathology, help identify at-risk populations and consider development of new treatment options. Future research will also need to consider the influence that progesterone and oxytocin may have on sex-specific psychopathology as well as incorporate neuroimaging and consider the influence of hormones on the serotonergic system at a genetic level.

  13. Serotonin Control of Thermotaxis Memory Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans. PMID:24223727

  14. Molecular imaging of serotonin degeneration in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gwenn S; Barrett, Frederick S; Joo, Jin Hui; Nassery, Najlla; Savonenko, Alena; Sodums, Devin J; Marano, Christopher M; Munro, Cynthia A; Brandt, Jason; Kraut, Michael A; Zhou, Yun; Wong, Dean F; Workman, Clifford I

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei). Twenty-eight participants with mild cognitive impairment (age 66.6±6.9, 16 males) and 28 healthy, cognitively normal, demographically matched controls (age 66.2±7.1, 15 males) underwent magnetic resonance imaging for measurement of grey matter volumes and high-resolution positron emission tomography with well-established radiotracers for the serotonin transporter and regional cerebral blood flow. Beta-amyloid imaging was performed to evaluate, in combination with the neuropsychological testing, the likelihood of subsequent cognitive decline in the participants with mild cognitive impairment. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) the serotonin transporter would be lower in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic regions, 2) in mild cognitive impairment relative to controls, the serotonin transporter would be lower to a greater extent and observed in a more widespread pattern than lower grey matter volumes or lower regional cerebral blood flow and 3) lower cortical and limbic serotonin transporters would be correlated with greater deficits in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial memory in mild cognitive impairment, not in controls. Reduced serotonin transporter availability was observed in mild cognitive impairment compared to controls in cortical and limbic

  15. Physiologically Relevant Changes in Serotonin Resolved by Fast Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Online microdialysis is a sampling and detection method that enables continuous interrogation of extracellular molecules in freely moving subjects under behaviorally relevant conditions. A majority of recent publications using brain microdialysis in rodents report sample collection times of 20–30 min. These long sampling times are due, in part, to limitations in the detection sensitivity of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By optimizing separation and detection conditions, we decreased the retention time of serotonin to 2.5 min and the detection threshold to 0.8 fmol. Sampling times were consequently reduced from 20 to 3 min per sample for online detection of serotonin (and dopamine) in brain dialysates using a commercial HPLC system. We developed a strategy to collect and to analyze dialysate samples continuously from two animals in tandem using the same instrument. Improvements in temporal resolution enabled elucidation of rapid changes in extracellular serotonin levels associated with mild stress and circadian rhythms. These dynamics would be difficult or impossible to differentiate using conventional microdialysis sampling rates. PMID:23614776

  16. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Schieffer, Kathleen M; Bruffy, Shannon M; Rauscher, Richard; Koltun, Walter A; Yochum, Gregory S; Gallagher, Carla J

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn's disease (CD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649) from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU) and a validation cohort (n = 1,996) from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU). Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124). Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels) to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09-3.63]) and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01-12.75]). Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients.

  17. Reduced total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Schieffer, Kathleen M.; Bruffy, Shannon M.; Rauscher, Richard; Koltun, Walter A.; Gallagher, Carla J.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results in increased oxidative stress that damages the colonic microenvironment. Low levels of serum bilirubin, an endogenous antioxidant, have been associated with increased risk for Crohn’s disease (CD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether total serum bilirubin levels are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). We identified a retrospective case-control population (n = 6,649) from a single tertiary care center, Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSU) and a validation cohort (n = 1,996) from Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center (VCU). Cases were age- and sex-matched to controls (PSU: CD n = 254, UC n = 187; VCU: CD n = 233, UC n = 124). Total serum bilirubin levels were obtained from de-identified medical records and segregated into quartiles. Logistic regression analysis was performed on each quartile of total serum bilirubin compared to the last quartile (highest bilirubin levels) to determine the association of total serum bilirubin with UC. Similar to CD patients, UC patients demonstrated reduced levels of total serum bilirubin compared to controls at PSU and VCU. The lowest quartile of total serum bilirubin was independently associated with UC for the PSU (OR: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.09–3.63]) and VCU cohorts (OR: 6.07 [95% CI: 3.01–12.75]). Lower levels of the antioxidant bilirubin may reduce the capability of UC patients to remove reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in intestinal injury. Therapeutics that reduce oxidative stress may be beneficial for these patients. PMID:28594959

  18. Reducing Indoor Noise Levels Using People's Perception on Greenery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediastika, Christina E.; Binarti, Floriberta

    2013-12-01

    Employees working in cubicles of open-plan offices in Indonesia were studied in regard to their perception on the ability of indoor greenery to reduce noise levels. Sansevieria trifasciata and Scindapsus sp were used. Each was placed in the cubicle and noise levels were measured without plants, with Sansevieria, and with Scindapsus in place. The meters showed very insignificant difference. However, responses to surveys indicated a perception of lower noise in the presence of greenery. This seemed to be supported by prior knowledge and preconception and may be useful in creating a "quieter" indoor environment.

  19. Sleep and rhythm consequences of a genetically induced loss of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Decaix, Caroline; Moussa, Fathi; Clot, Fabienne; Boniol, Camille; Touitou, Yvan; Levy, Richard; Vidailhet, Marie; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-03-01

    A genetic deficiency in sepiapterin reductase leads to a combined deficit of serotonin and dopamine. The motor phenotype is characterized by a dopa-responsive fluctuating generalized dystonia-parkinsonism. The non-motor symptoms are poorly recognized. In particular, the effects of brain serotonin deficiency on sleep have not been thoroughly studied. We examine the sleep, sleep-wake rhythms, CSF neurotransmitters, and melatonin profile in a patient with sepiapterin reductase deficiency. The patient was a 28-year-old man with fluctuating generalized dystonia-parkinsonism caused by sepiapterin reductase deficiency. A sleep interview, wrist actigraphy, sleep log over 14 days, 48-h continuous sleep and core temperature monitoring, and measurement of CSF neurotransmitters and circadian serum melatonin and cortisol levels before and after treatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan (the precursor of serotonin) and levodopa were performed. Before treatment, the patient had mild hypersomnia with long sleep time (704 min), ultradian sleep-wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 11.8 +/- 5.3 h), organic hyperphagia, attentionlexecutive dysfunction, and no depression. The serotonin metabolism in the CSF was reduced, and the serum melatonin profile was flat, while cortisol and core temperature profiles were normal. Supplementation with 5-hydroxytryptophan, but not with levodopa, normalized serotonin metabolism in the CSF, reduced sleep time to 540 min, normalized the eating disorder and the melatonin profile, restored a circadian sleep-wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 24 +/- 1.7 h, P < 0.0001), and improved cognition. In this unique genetic paradigm, the melatonin deficiency (caused by a lack of its substrate, serotonin) may cause the ultradian sleep-wake rhythm.

  20. Does the Incredible Years reduce child externalizing problems through improved parenting? The role of child negative affectivity and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype.

    PubMed

    Weeland, Joyce; Chhangur, Rabia R; Jaffee, Sara R; Van Der Giessen, Danielle; Matthys, Walter; Orobio De Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2018-02-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the Observational Randomized Controlled Trial of Childhood Differential Susceptibility (ORCHIDS study), we tested whether observed parental affect and observed and reported parenting behavior are mechanisms of change underlying the effects of the behavioral parent training program the Incredible Years (IY). Furthermore, we tested whether some children are more susceptible to these change mechanisms because of their temperamental negative affectivity and/or serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype. Participants were 387 Dutch children between 4 and 8 years of age (M age = 6.31, SD = 1.33; 55.3% boys) and their parents. Results showed that although IY was successful in improving parenting behavior and increasing parental positive affect, these effects did not explain the significant decreases in child externalizing problems. We therefore found no evidence for changes in parenting behavior or parental affect being the putative mechanisms of IY effectiveness. Furthermore, intervention effects on child externalizing behavior were not moderated by child negative affectivity or 5-HTTLPR genotype. However, child 5-HTTLPR genotype did moderate intervention effects on negative parenting behavior. This suggests that in research on behavioral parent training programs, "what works for which parents" might also be an important question.

  1. Depressive mood ratings are reduced by MDMA in female polydrug ecstasy users homozygous for the l-allele of the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, K P C; de la Torre, R; Farre, M; Xicota, L; de Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G

    2018-01-18

    MDMA exerts its main effects via the serotonergic system and the serotonin transporter. The gene coding for this transporter determines the expression rate of the transporter. Previously it was shown that healthy individuals with the short allelic variant ('s-group') of the 5-HTTLPR-polymorphism displayed more anxiety and negative mood, and had a lower transcriptional efficiency compared to individuals who are homozygous for the l-allele ('l-group'). The present study aimed to investigate the role of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in MDMA-induced mood effects. Four placebo-controlled, within-subject studies were pooled, including in total 63 polydrug ecstasy users (N s-group  = 48; N l-group  = 15) receiving MDMA 75 mg and placebo on two test days, separated by minimally 7 days. Mood was assessed by means of the Profile of Mood States. Findings showed that MDMA induced -independent of sex- a positive mood state, and as a side effect also increased two negative affect states, anxiety and confusion. Anxiety ratings were higher in the l-group and independent of treatment or sex. Depression ratings were lowered by MDMA in the female l-group. Findings indicate that the MDMA-induced reduction in self-rated depressive feelings is sex- and genotype-dependent, with females homozygous for the l-allele showing this beneficial effect.

  2. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous reactions when combined with certain medications or herbal supplements. Serotonin syndrome. Rarely, an antidepressant can cause high ... antidepressants, certain pain or headache medications, and the herbal supplement St. John's wort. Signs and symptoms of serotonin ...

  3. Association of Serotonin Concentration to Behavior and IQ in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Samuel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The IQ and behavior patterns on the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) of 25 boys were compared to blood concentrations of platelet rich plasma (PRP) serotonin. Although no correlations were found between serotonin levels and IQ or ABC scales, four individual ABC items did correlate with serotonin concentrations. (Author/DB)

  4. Heparanase level and procoagulant activity are reduced in severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Matan, Moshe; King, Daniel; Peled, Eli; Ackerman, Shanny; Bar-Lavi, Yaron; Brenner, Benjamin; Nadir, Yona

    2018-02-01

    During severe sepsis, levels and activity of all coagulation proteins are reduced. Heparanase is implicated in angiogenesis and tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that heparanase also affected the hemostatic system. It forms a complex and increases the activity of the blood coagulation initiator tissue factor. To evaluate heparanase levels and procoagulant activity as predictors of sepsis severity. Twenty-one patients with non-trauma, non-surgical sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit and 35 controls were recruited. Plasma samples were drawn from the study participants on days 1 and 7 following admission. Heparanase levels and procoagulant activity on day 1 were significantly reduced in patients compared to controls (P < .0001, P < .0001, respectively). Day 1 heparanase procoagulant activity ≥350 ng/mL yielded a negative predictive value for severe sepsis of 89%. Additionally, heparanase procoagulant activity on day 7 correlated with the change in the APACHE score between days 1 and 7 (r = .66, P = .007). Heparanase procoagulant activity decreases during sepsis and returns to normal levels as soon as the patient recovers. Hence, it can be potentially used to predict the risk of severe sepsis. These findings need to be further explored in large-scale studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The immunomodulatory tellurium compound ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O,O') tellurate reduces anxiety-like behavior and corticosterone levels of submissive mice.

    PubMed

    Gross, Moshe; Stanciu, Emanuel; Kenigsbuch-Sredni, Dvora; Sredni, Benjamin; Pinhasov, Albert

    2017-09-01

    Ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O,O') tellurate (AS101) is a synthetic organotellurium compound with potent immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties shown to inhibit the function of integrin αvβ3, a presynaptic cell-surface-adhesion receptor. As partial deletion of αvβ3 downregulated reuptake of serotonin by the serotonin transporter, we hypothesized that AS101 may influence pathways regulating anxiety. AS101 was tested in the modulation of anxiety-like behavior using the selectively bred Submissive (Sub) mouse strain that develop anxiety-like behavior in response to an i.p. injection. Mice were treated daily with AS101 (i.p., 125 or 200 μg/kg) or vehicle for 3 weeks, after which their anxiety-like behavior was measured in the elevated plus maze. Animals were then culled for the measurement of serum corticosterone levels by ELISA and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by RT-PCR. Chronic administration of AS101 significantly reduced anxiety-like behavior of Sub mice in the elevated plus maze, according to both time spent and entries to open arms, relative to vehicle-treated controls. AS101 also markedly reduced serum corticosterone levels of the treated mice and increased their hippocampal BDNF expression. Anxiolytic-like effects of AS101 may be attributed to the modulation of the regulatory influence integrin of αvβ3 upon the serotonin transporter, suggesting a multifaceted mechanism by which AS101 buffers the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to injection stress, enabling recovery of hippocampal BDNF expression and anxiety-like behavior in Sub mice. Further studies should advance the potential of AS101 in the context of anxiety-related disorders.

  6. Low stimulus environments: reducing noise levels in continuing care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; Shah, Amar; Joyce, Margaret; Holt, Genevieve; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Marange, Rosca; Shakes, Joy; Solomon-Ayeh, Kwesi

    2016-01-01

    In the low stimulus environment project, we aimed to reduce the levels of intrusive background noise on an older adult mental health ward, combining a very straightforward measure on decibel levels with a downstream measure of reduced distress and agitation as expressed in incidents of violence. This project on reducing background noise levels on older adult wards stemmed from work the team had done on reducing levels of violence and aggression. We approached the problem using quality improvement methods. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust and in our efforts we were supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training and support provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the trust's own Quality Improvement team. Prior to the project we were running a weekly multi-disciplinary quality improvement group on the ward. We established from this a sub-group to address the specific problem of noise levels and invited carers of people with dementia on our ward to the group. The project was led by nursing staff. We used a noise meter app readily downloadable from the internet to monitor background noise levels on the ward and establish a baseline measure. As a group we used a driver diagram to identify an overall aim and a clear understanding of the major factors that would drive improvements. We also used a staff and carer survey to identify further areas to work on. Change ideas that came from staff and carers included the use of the noise meter to track and report back on noise levels, the use of posters to remind staff about noise levels, the introduction of a visual indication of current noise levels (the Yacker Tracker), the addition of relaxing background music, and adaptations to furniture and environment. We tested many of these over the course of nine months in 2015, using the iterative learning gained from multiple PDSA cycles. The specific aim was a decrease from above 60dB to

  7. The capsaicin analog nonivamide decreases total energy intake from a standardized breakfast and enhances plasma serotonin levels in moderately overweight men after administered in an oral glucose tolerance test: a randomized, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Hochkogler, Christina M; Rohm, Barbara; Hojdar, Karin; Pignitter, Marc; Widder, Sabine; Ley, Jakob P; Krammer, Gerhard E; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-06-01

    Since bolus administration of capsaicin has been shown to reduce appetite and ad libitum energy intake, this study elucidated the satiating effect of the less pungent capsaicin analog, nonivamide, on subjective feelings of hunger, ad libitum food intake, and satiating hormones in moderately overweight male subjects. Following a randomized, crossover design, 24 male subjects (BMI 27.5 ± 1.53 kg/m(2) ) received either 75 g glucose in 300 mL water (control treatment, CT) or the same glucose solution supplemented with 0.15 mg nonivamide (nonivamide treatment, NT). Ratings of hunger were assessed before and 2 h after each intervention by means of visual analog scales. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes from a standardized breakfast 2 h postintervention were calculated. Plasma glucose, insulin, peptide YY (3-36), glucagon-like peptide 1, and serotonin were quantified in blood samples drawn before and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each intervention. NT reduced subjective feelings of hunger and ad libitum energy and carbohydrate intakes from a standardized breakfast compared to CT. Plasma analysis revealed higher mean plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and serotonin concentrations after NT versus CT. Addition of 0.15 mg nonivamide to a glucose solution reduced ad libitum energy intake from a standardized breakfast in moderately overweight men. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Rooming-in Reduces Salivary Cortisol Level of Newborn

    PubMed Central

    De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Riccitelli, Marina; Giordano, Maurizio; Sordino, Desiree; Longini, Mariangela

    2018-01-01

    Background Rooming-in practice improves breastfeeding and reduces newborn stress reactivity. When this modality is not available, partial rooming-in after birth can be considered. Salivary cortisol levels (SCLs) are considered reliable biomarkers to indicate stress. Objective To test the hypothesis that rooming-in duration impacts neonatal stress response in hospitalized newborns. Design/methods Forty term newborns, enrolled in the Neonatology and Obstetrics Nursing, C.G. Ruesch, Naples, Italy, were divided, according to the mother's choice, into the study (SG; n = 20) and control (CG; n = 20) groups if they received full (24 hs) or partial (14 hs) rooming-in care, respectively. Saliva samples were collected from all babies between 7:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. of the 3rd day of life by using oral swab. Salivary cortisol levels were measured using an enzyme immunoassay kit (Salimetrics LLC, PA, USA). Results A statistically significant difference in the SCLs between SG and CG was found (median: 258 ng/dl versus 488.5 ng/dl; p = 0.048). Conclusions Data support the practice of full rooming-in care compared with partial rooming-in. The rooming-in duration clearly reduces SCLs and likely neonatal stress. These lower SCLs may have long-term positive effects reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, and cognitive and behavioural changes. PMID:29706798

  9. Lack of serotonin1B receptor expression leads to age-related motor dysfunction, early onset of brain molecular aging and reduced longevity.

    PubMed

    Sibille, E; Su, J; Leman, S; Le Guisquet, A M; Ibarguen-Vargas, Y; Joeyen-Waldorf, J; Glorioso, C; Tseng, G C; Pezzone, M; Hen, R; Belzung, C

    2007-11-01

    Normal aging of the brain differs from pathological conditions and is associated with increased risk for psychiatric and neurological disorders. In addition to its role in the etiology and treatment of mood disorders, altered serotonin (5-HT) signaling is considered a contributing factor to aging; however, no causative role has been identified in aging. We hypothesized that a deregulation of the 5-HT system would reveal its contribution to age-related processes and investigated behavioral and molecular changes throughout adult life in mice lacking the regulatory presynaptic 5-HT(1B) receptor (5-HT(1B)R), a candidate gene for 5-HT-mediated age-related functions. We show that the lack of 5-HT(1B)R (Htr1b(KO) mice) induced an early age-related motor decline and resulted in decreased longevity. Analysis of life-long transcriptome changes revealed an early and global shift of the gene expression signature of aging in the brain of Htr1b(KO) mice. Moreover, molecular changes reached an apparent maximum effect at 18-months in Htr1b(KO) mice, corresponding to the onset of early death in that group. A comparative analysis with our previous characterization of aging in the human brain revealed a phylogenetic conservation of age-effect from mice to humans, and confirmed the early onset of molecular aging in Htr1b(KO) mice. Potential mechanisms appear independent of known central mechanisms (Bdnf, inflammation), but may include interactions with previously identified age-related systems (IGF-1, sirtuins). In summary, our findings suggest that the onset of age-related events can be influenced by altered 5-HT function, thus identifying 5-HT as a modulator of brain aging, and suggesting age-related consequences to chronic manipulation of 5-HT.

  10. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  11. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05).

  12. Plasma Shh levels reduced in pancreatic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Daignault, Stephanie; Tessier, Art; Kelsey, Gail; Travnikar, Lisa A.; Cantu, Esperanza F.; Lee, Jamie; Plonka, Caitlyn M.; Simeone, Diane M.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Normally, sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the pancreas during fetal development and transiently after tissue injury. Although pancreatic cancers express Shh, it is not known if the protein is secreted into the blood and whether its plasma levels change with pancreatic transformation. The goal of this study was to develop an ELISA to detect human Shh in blood, and determine the levels in subjects with and without pancreatic cancer. Methods A human Shh ELISA assay was developed, and plasma Shh levels were measured in blood samples from normal volunteers and subjects with pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. The biological activity of plasma Shh was tested using NIH-3T3 cells. Results The average levels of Shh in human blood were lower in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer patients than in normal individuals. Hematopoietic cells did not express Shh suggesting that Shh is secreted into the bloodstream. Plasma fractions enriched for Shh did not induce Gli-1 mRNA suggesting that the protein was not biologically active. Conclusions Shh is secreted from tissues and organs into the circulation but its activity is blocked by plasma proteins. Reduced plasma levels were found in pancreatic cancer patients, but alone were not sufficient to predict pancreatic cancer. PMID:22513293

  13. Plasma Shh levels reduced in pancreatic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Daignault, Stephanie; Tessier, Art; Kelsey, Gail; Travnikar, Lisa A; Cantu, Esperanza F; Lee, Jamie; Plonka, Caitlyn M; Simeone, Diane M; Anderson, Michelle A; Merchant, Juanita L

    2012-10-01

    Normally, sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the pancreas during fetal development and transiently after tissue injury. Although pancreatic cancers express Shh, it is not known if the protein is secreted into the blood and whether its plasma levels change with pancreatic transformation. The goal of this study was to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect human Shh in blood and determine its levels in subjects with and without pancreatic cancer. A human Shh enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed, and plasma Shh levels were measured in blood samples from healthy subjects and patients with pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. The biological activity of plasma Shh was tested using NIH-3T3 cells. The mean levels of Shh in human blood were lower in patients with pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer than in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cells did not express Shh, suggesting that Shh is secreted into the bloodstream. Plasma fractions enriched with Shh did not induce Gli-1 messenger RNA, suggesting that the protein was not biologically active. Shh is secreted from tissues and organs into the circulation, but its activity is blocked by plasma proteins. Reduced plasma levels were found in pancreatic cancer patients, but alone were not sufficient to predict pancreatic cancer.

  14. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D is inversely correlated with foetal serotonin.

    PubMed

    Murthi, Padma; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Lappas, Martha; Singh, Harmeet; Mockler, Joanne; Rahman, Rahana; Lim, Rebecca; Leaw, Bryan; Doery, James; Wallace, Euan M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2017-03-01

    Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to impaired neurocognitive development in childhood. The mechanism by which vitamin D affects childhood neurocognition is unclear but may be via interactions with serotonin, a neurotransmitter involved in foetal brain development. In this study, we aimed to explore associations between maternal and foetal vitamin D concentrations, and foetal serotonin concentrations at term. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D, nmol/l) and serotonin (5-HT, nmol/l) concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood from mother-infant pairs (n = 64). Association between maternal 25(OH)D, cord 25(OH)D and cord serotonin was explored using linear regression, before and after adjusting for maternal serotonin levels. We also assessed the effects of siRNA knockdown of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and administration of 10 nm 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 on serotonin secretion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. We observed an inverse relationship between both maternal and cord 25(OH)D concentrations with cord serotonin concentrations. The treatment of HUVECs with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 in vitro decreased the release of serotonin (193·9 ±14·8 nmol/l vs 458·9 ± 317·5 nmol/l, control, P < 0·05). Conversely, inactivation of VDR increased serotonin release in cultured HUVECs. These observations provide the first evidence of an inverse relationship between maternal 25(OH)D and foetal serotonin concentrations. We propose that maternal vitamin D deficiency increases foetal serotonin concentrations and thereby contributes to longer-term neurocognitive impairment in infants and children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Character of changes of the level of serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein and of cytochrome P-450 in tissues of the eastern alburnoid Alburnoides bipunctatus eichwaldi from rivers of Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Mustafayev, M J; Mekhtiev, A A

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with study by the method of solid-phase indirect immunoenzyme analysis of levels of the novel serotonin-modulated anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) that is directly correlated with serotonin level as well as of biomarker cytochrome P-450 in the liver, gills, and brain of the eastern alburnoid (Alburnoides bipunctatus eichwaldi) caught in the rivers Khudat, Akstafachai, Kura, and Araks flowing at the territory of Azerbaijan. There was revealed a marked downregulation of cytochrome P-450 and SMAP in the liver and gills of the fish caught in the Akstafachai River relatively to values in the fish from the Khudat River not contaminated with pollutants. In the liver and gills in the fish from the Kura and Araks rivers, a significant differently directed changes of the cytochrome P-450 and SMAP levels were observed: downregulations of the cytochrome P-450 versus an upregulation of SMAP. In the brain of the fish from the River Akstafachai there was observed some downregulation of cytochrome P-450, whereas in fish from the Kura and Araks rivers--a significant upregulation of the SMAP level. The obtained results are analyzed from standpoint of processes of adaptation and disadaptation of aquatic organisms to impact of pollutants.

  16. Circulating microparticle levels are reduced in patients with ARDS.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Ciara M; Woods, Justin; Clune, Jennifer K; Grove, Brandon S; Wickersham, Nancy E; McNeil, J Brennan; Shemancik, Gregory; Ware, Lorraine B; Bastarache, Julie A

    2017-05-25

    It is unclear how to identify which patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) will develop this condition during critical illness. Elevated microparticle (MP) concentrations in the airspace during ARDS are associated with activation of coagulation and in vitro studies have demonstrated that MPs contribute to acute lung injury, but the significance of MPs in the circulation during ARDS has not been well studied. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of circulating MPs could prospectively identify critically ill patients who will develop ARDS and that elevated circulating MPs are associated with poor clinical outcomes. A total of 280 patients with platelet-poor plasma samples from the prospective Validating Acute Lung Injury biomarkers for Diagnosis (VALID) cohort study were selected for this analysis. Demographics and clinical data were obtained by chart review. MP concentrations in plasma were measured at study enrollment on intensive care unit (ICU) day 2 and on ICU day 4 by MP capture assay. Activation of coagulation was measured by plasma recalcification (clot) times. ARDS developed in 90 of 280 patients (32%) in the study. Elevated plasma MP concentrations were associated with reduced risk of developing ARDS (odds ratio (OR) 0.70 per 10 μM increase in MP concentration, 95% CI 0.50-0.98, p = 0.042), but had no significant effect on hospital mortality. MP concentration was greatest in patients with sepsis, pneumonia, or aspiration as compared with those with trauma or receiving multiple blood transfusions. MP levels did not significantly change over time. The inverse association of MP levels with ARDS development was most striking in patients with sepsis. After controlling for age, presence of sepsis, and severity of illness, higher MP concentrations were independently associated with a reduced risk of developing ARDS (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.98, p = 0.038). MP concentration was associated

  17. Increased brain serotonin turnover in panic disorder patients in the absence of a panic attack: reduction by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Esler, Murray; Lambert, Elisabeth; Alvarenga, Marlies; Socratous, Florentia; Richards, Jeff; Barton, David; Pier, Ciaran; Brenchley, Celia; Dawood, Tye; Hastings, Jacqueline; Guo, Ling; Haikerwal, Deepak; Kaye, David; Jennings, Garry; Kalff, Victor; Kelly, Michael; Wiesner, Glen; Lambert, Gavin

    2007-08-01

    Since the brain neurotransmitter changes characterising panic disorder remain uncertain, we quantified brain noradrenaline and serotonin turnover in patients with panic disorder, in the absence of a panic attack. Thirty-four untreated patients with panic disorder and 24 matched healthy volunteers were studied. A novel method utilising internal jugular venous sampling, with thermodilution measurement of jugular blood flow, was used to directly quantify brain monoamine turnover, by measuring the overflow of noradrenaline and serotonin metabolites from the brain. Radiographic depiction of brain venous sinuses allowed differential venous sampling from cortical and subcortical regions. The relation of brain serotonin turnover to serotonin transporter genotype and panic disorder severity were evaluated, and the influence of an SSRI drug, citalopram, on serotonin turnover investigated. Brain noradrenaline turnover in panic disorder patients was similar to that in healthy subjects. In contrast, brain serotonin turnover, estimated from jugular venous overflow of the metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, was increased approximately 4-fold in subcortical brain regions and in the cerebral cortex (P < 0.01). Serotonin turnover was highest in patients with the most severe disease, was unrelated to serotonin transporter genotype, and was reduced by citalopram (P < 0.01). Normal brain noradrenaline turnover in panic disorder patients argues against primary importance of the locus coeruleus in this condition. The marked increase in serotonin turnover, in the absence of a panic attack, possibly represents an important underlying neurotransmitter substrate for the disorder, although this point remains uncertain. Support for this interpretation comes from the direct relationship which existed between serotonin turnover and illness severity, and the finding that SSRI administration reduced serotonin turnover. Serotonin transporter genotyping suggested that increased whole brain

  18. Serotonin modulates insect hemocyte phagocytosis via two different serotonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yi-xiang; Huang, Jia; Li, Meng-qi; Wu, Ya-su; Xia, Ren-ying; Ye, Gong-yin

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates both neural and immune responses in vertebrates, but its role in insect immunity remains uncertain. We report that hemocytes in the caterpillar, Pieris rapae are able to synthesize 5-HT following activation by lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of a serotonin-generating enzyme with either pharmacological blockade or RNAi knock-down impaired hemocyte phagocytosis. Biochemical and functional experiments showed that naive hemocytes primarily express 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors. The blockade of 5-HT1B significantly reduced phagocytic ability; however, the blockade of 5-HT2B increased hemocyte phagocytosis. The 5-HT1B-null Drosophila melanogaster mutants showed higher mortality than controls when infected with bacteria, due to their decreased phagocytotic ability. Flies expressing 5-HT1B or 5-HT2B RNAi in hemocytes also showed similar sensitivity to infection. Combined, these data demonstrate that 5-HT mediates hemocyte phagocytosis through 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors and serotonergic signaling performs critical modulatory functions in immune systems of animals separated by 500 million years of evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12241.001 PMID:26974346

  19. Electrochemical quantification of serotonin in the live embryonic zebrafish intestine

    PubMed Central

    Njagi, John; Ball, Michael; Best, Marc; Wallace, Kenneth N.; Andreescu, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    We monitored real-time in vivo levels of serotonin release in the digestive system of intact zebrafish embryos during early development (5 dpf) using differential pulse voltammetry with implanted carbon fiber microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes dispersed in nafion. A detection limit of 1 nM, a linear range between 5 to 200 nM and a sensitivity of 83.65 nA·μM−1 were recorded. The microelectrodes were implanted at various locations in the intestine of zebrafish embryos. Serotonin levels of up to 29.9(±1.13) nM were measured in vivo in normal physiological conditions. Measurements were performed in intact live embryos without additional perturbation beyond electrode insertion. The sensor was able to quantify pharmacological alterations in serotonin release and provide the longitudinal distribution of this neurotransmitter along the intestine with high spatial resolution. In the presence of fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), concentrations of 54.1(±1.05) nM were recorded while in the presence of p-chloro-phenylalanine (PCPA), a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, the serotonin levels decreased to 7.2(±0.45) nM. The variation of serotonin levels was correlated with immunohistochemical analysis. We have demonstrated the first use of electrochemical microsensors for in vivo monitoring of intestinal serotonin levels in intact zebrafish embryos. PMID:20148518

  20. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants’ happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers’ attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels. PMID:28683075

  1. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  2. Serotonin 1B Receptor Gene (HTR1B) Methylation as a Risk Factor for Callous-Unemotional Traits in Antisocial Boys.

    PubMed

    Moul, Caroline; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Brennan, John; Hawes, David J; Dadds, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin system is thought to play a role in the aetiology of callous-unemotional (CU) traits in children. Previous research identified a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) from the promoter region of the serotonin 1B receptor gene as being associated with CU traits in boys with antisocial behaviour problems. This research tested the hypothesis that CU traits are associated with reduced methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin 1B receptor gene due to the influence of methylation on gene expression. Participants (N = 117) were boys with antisocial behaviour problems aged 3-16 years referred to University of New South Wales Child Behaviour Research Clinics. Participants volunteered a saliva sample from which the genotype of a SNP from the promoter region of the serotonin 1B receptor gene and the methylation levels of 30 CpG sites from 3 CpG regions surrounding the location of this polymorphism were assayed. Lower levels of serotonin 1B receptor gene methylation were associated with higher levels of CU traits. This relationship, however, was found to be moderated by genotype and carried exclusively by two CpG sites for which levels of methylation were negatively associated with overall methylation levels in this region of the gene. Results provide support to the emerging literature that argues for a genetically-driven system-wide alteration in serotonin function in the aetiology of CU traits. Furthermore, the results suggest that there may be two pathways to CU traits that involve methylation of the serotonin 1B receptor gene; one that is driven by a genotypic risk and another that is associated with risk for generally increased levels of methylation. Future research that aims to replicate and further investigate these results is required.

  3. Platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Georgette L.; Demers, Melanie; Herr, Nadine; Carbo, Carla; Brill, Alexander; Cifuni, Stephen M.; Mauler, Maximilian; Cicko, Sanja; Bader, Michael; Idzko, Marco; Bode, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The majority of peripheral serotonin is stored in platelets, which secrete it on activation. Serotonin releases Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) and we asked whether absence of platelet serotonin affects neutrophil recruitment in inflammatory responses. Tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)1–deficient mice, lacking non-neuronal serotonin, showed mild leukocytosis compared with wild-type (WT), primarily driven by an elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, 50% fewer leukocytes rolled on unstimulated mesenteric venous endothelium of Tph1−/− mice. The velocity of rolling leukocytes was higher in Tph1−/− mice, indicating fewer selectin-mediated interactions with endothelium. Stimulation of endothelium with histamine, a secretagogue of WPBs, or injection of serotonin normalized the rolling in Tph1−/− mice. Diminished rolling in Tph1−/− mice resulted in reduced firm adhesion of leukocytes after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Blocking platelet serotonin uptake with fluoxetine in WT mice reduced serum serotonin by > 80% and similarly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Four hours after inflammatory stimulation, neutrophil extravasation into lung, peritoneum, and skin wounds was reduced in Tph1−/− mice, whereas in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis was independent of serotonin. Survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock was improved in Tph1−/− mice. In conclusion, platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils in acute inflammation, supporting an important role for platelet serotonin in innate immunity. PMID:23243271

  4. Relationships of Whole Blood Serotonin and Plasma Norepinephrine within Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Bennett L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study of 47 families of autistic probands found that whole blood serotonin was positively correlated between autistic children and their mothers, fathers, and siblings, but plasma norepinephrine levels were not. (Author/JDD)

  5. Sexual side effects of serotonergic antidepressants: mediated by inhibition of serotonin on central dopamine release?

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Chan, Johnny S W; Olivier, Berend; Veening, Jan G; Millan, Mark J; Waldinger, Marcel D; Oosting, Ronald S

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction adversely affects the quality of life of antidepressant users and reduces compliance with treatment. Animal models provide an instructive approach for examining potential sexual side effects of novel drugs. This review discusses the stability and reproducibility of our standardized test procedure that assesses the acute, subchronic and chronic effects of psychoactive compounds in a 30 minute mating test. In addition, we present an overview of the effects of several different (putative) antidepressants on male rat sexual behavior, as tested in our standardized test procedure. By comparing the effects of these mechanistically distinct antidepressants (paroxetine, venlafaxine, bupropion, buspirone, DOV 216,303 and S32006), this review discusses the putative mechanism underlying sexual side effects of antidepressants and their normalization. This review shows that sexual behavior is mainly inhibited by antidepressants that increase serotonin neurotransmission via blockade of serotonin transporters, while those that mainly increase the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline are devoid of sexual side effects. Those sexual disturbances cannot be normalized by simultaneously increasing noradrenaline neurotransmission, but are normalized by increasing both noradrenaline and dopamine neurotransmission. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be mediated by their inhibitory effects on dopamine signaling in sex brain circuits. Clinical development of novel antidepressants should therefore focus on compounds that simultaneously increase both serotonin and dopamine signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Feedback on Measured Dust Concentrations Reduces Exposure Levels Among Farmers.

    PubMed

    Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Andersen, Nils Testrup; Omland, Øyvind; Kromhout, Hans; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2016-08-01

    The high burden of exposure to organic dust among livestock farmers warrants the establishment of effective preventive and exposure control strategies for these workers. The number of intervention studies exploring the effectiveness of exposure reduction strategies through the use of objective measurements has been limited. To examine whether dust exposure can be reduced by providing feedback to the farmers concerning measurements of the exposure to dust in their farm. The personal dust levels of farmers in 54 pig and 26 dairy cattle farms were evaluated in two measurement series performed approximately 6 months apart. Detailed information on work tasks and farm characteristics during the measurements were registered. Participating farms were randomized a priori to a control (n = 40) and an intervention group (n = 40). Shortly after the first visit, owners of intervention farms only received a letter with information on the measured dust concentrations in the farm together with some general advises on exposure reduction strategies (e.g. use of respirators during certain tasks). Relationships between measured dust concentrations and intervention status were quantified by means of linear mixed effect analysis with farm and worker id as random effects. Season, type of farming, and work tasks were treated as fixed effects. Changes in exposure over time were explored primarily at a farm level in models combined, as well as separate for pig and cattle farmers. After adjustment for fixed effects, an overall reduction of 23% in personal dust exposures was estimated as a result of the intervention (P = 0.02). Exposure reductions attributable to the intervention were similar across pig and cattle farmers, but statistically significant only for pig farmers. Intervention effects among pig farmers did not depend on the individuals' information status; but among cattle farmers a significant 48% reduction in exposure was found only among individuals that reported to have been

  7. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. Materials and Methods We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a−/−-NP). Results During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a−/−-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Conclusion Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. PMID:29436197

  8. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shanyu; Park, Hyewon; Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Moon Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(-/-)-NP). During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(-/-)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  9. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    PubMed

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  10. Serotonin effects on sleep and emotional disorders in adolescent migraine.

    PubMed

    Pakalnis, Ann; Splaingard, Mark; Splaingard, Deborah; Kring, Donna; Colvin, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    To determine frequency of emotional disorders and sleep disturbances in adolescent migraineurs with episodic and chronic headaches. To determine the relationship of whole blood serotonin, caffeine consumption, and frequency of sleep and mood disorders. The neurotransmitter serotonin has been implicated to play a role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep and in modulating mood. A putative role in migraine pathophysiology is also known. Adolescents from 13 to 17 years of age were identified from our headache clinic with episodic or chronic migraine (according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-Second Edition criteria) and healthy controls enrolled. Psychological rating scales were completed, including Adolescent Symptom Inventory (4th Edition) and Child Depression Inventory. Sleep questionnaires (Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire) were completed by the teenager's parents/guardian. Whole blood serotonin levels were drawn and analyzed and caffeine consumption obtained by history. A total of 18 controls (8 girls) and 15 patients each with episodic migraines (9 girls) and chronic migraine (10 girls) were studied. Patients with headache had significantly more sleep problems than controls. Patients with chronic migraines had increased daytime sleepiness and dysthymia compared with teenagers with episodic migraines. Serotonin levels were not significantly different, and no association was noted between serotonin levels and sleep abnormalities or emotional rating scales. Increased caffeine intake was related to sleep and depressive complaints. Sleep and emotional disorders were common in adolescents with migraine. Sleep disorders and dysthymia were more prevalent with increased headache frequency. No correlation was noted with whole blood serotonin levels.

  11. Serotonin blockade delays learning performance in a cooperative fish.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta C; Paula, José R; Bshary, Redouan

    2016-09-01

    Animals use learning and memorizing to gather information that will help them to make ecologically relevant decisions. Neuro-modulatory adjustments enable them to make associations between stimuli and appropriate behavior. A key candidate for the modulation of cooperative behavior is serotonin. Previous research has shown that modulation of the serotonergic system spontaneously affects the behavior of the cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus during interactions with so-called 'client' reef fish. Here, we asked whether shifts in serotonin function affect the cleaners' associative learning abilities when faced with the task to distinguish two artificial clients that differ in their value as a food source. We found that the administration of serotonin 1A receptor antagonist significantly slowed learning speed in comparison with saline treated fish. As reduced serotonergic signaling typically enhances fear, we discuss the possibility that serotonin may affect how cleaners appraise, acquire information and respond to client-derived stimuli via manipulation of the perception of danger.

  12. Serotonin as a Biomarker: Stress Resilience among Battlefield Airmen Trainees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-21

    Report 3 . DATES COVERED (From – To) January 2015 – May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Serotonin as a Biomarker: Stress Resilience among Battlefield...failed (33.3%), and 3 (14.3%) self-initiated elimination. Discriminant analysis showed that subjects with increased serotonin levels were more likely to... 3 Table 2. p-Values for t-Tests for Differences between Graduates and Failures and p-values for F

  13. Efficacy of bupropion and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of major depressive disorder with high levels of anxiety (anxious depression): a pooled analysis of 10 studies.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, George I; Stahl, Stephen M; Krishen, Alok; Seifert, Cheryl A; Tucker, Vivian L; Goodale, Elizabeth P; Fava, Maurizio

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this work was to compare the efficacy of the norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder with high levels of anxiety (anxious depression). Ten double-blind, randomized studies from 1991 through 2006 were combined (N = 2122). Anxious depression was defined as a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17) anxiety-somatization factor score >or= 7. Among patients with anxious depression (N = 1275), response rates were greater following SSRI than bupropion treatment according to the HAM-D-17 (65.4% vs. 59.4%, p = .03) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (61.5% vs. 54.5%, p = .03). There was also a greater reduction in HAM-D-17 mean +/- SD scores (-14.1 +/- 7.6 vs. -13.2 +/- 7.9, p = .03) and a trend toward statistical significance for a greater reduction in HAM-A mean +/- SD scores (-10.5 +/- 7.4 vs. -9.6 +/- 7.6, p = .05) in favor of SSRI treatment among patients with anxious depression. There was no statistically significant difference in efficacy between bupropion and the SSRIs among patients with moderate/low levels of anxiety. There appears to be a modest advantage for the SSRIs compared to bupropion in the treatment of anxious depression (6% difference in response rates). Using the number-needed-to-treat (NNT) statistic as 1 indicator of clinical significance, nearly 17 patients would need to be treated with an SSRI than with bupropion in order to obtain 1 additional responder. This difference falls well above the limit of NNT = 10, which was suggested by the United Kingdom's National Institute of Clinical Excellence. Nevertheless, the present work is of theoretical interest because it provides preliminary evidence suggesting a central role for serotonin in the regulation of symptoms of negative affect such as anxiety.

  14. Lung damage and pulmonary uptake of serotonin in intact dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, C.A.; Christensen, C.W.; Rickaby, D.A.

    1985-06-01

    The authors examined the influence of glass bead embolization and oleic acid, dextran, and imipramine infusion on the pulmonary uptake of trace doses of (/sup 3/H)serotonin and the extravascular volume accessible to (/sup 14/C)antipyrine in anesthetized dogs. Embolization and imipramine decreased serotonin uptake by 53 and 61%, respectively, but no change was observed with oleic acid or dextran infusion. The extravascular volume accessible to the antipyrine was reduced by 77% after embolization and increased by 177 and approximately 44% after oleic acid and dextran infusion, respectively. The results suggest that when the perfused endothelial surface is sufficiently reduced, as withmore » embolization, the uptake of trace doses of serotonin will be depressed. In addition, decreases in serotonin uptake in response to imipramine in this study and in response to certain endothelial toxins in other studies suggest that serotonin uptake can reveal certain kinds of changes in endothelial function. However, the lack of a response to oleic acid-induced damage in the present study suggests that serotonin uptake is not sensitive to all forms of endothelial damage.« less

  15. Plasma and serum serotonin concentrations and surface-bound platelet serotonin expression in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Signe E; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Reimann, Maria J; Eriksen, Nynne B; Petersen, Stine F; Marschner, Clara B; Tarnow, Inge; Oyama, Mark A; Olsen, Lisbeth H

    2015-06-01

    To investigate serum and plasma serotonin concentrations, percentage of serotonin-positive platelets, level of surface-bound platelet serotonin expression (mean fluorescence intensity [MFI]), and platelet activation (CD62 expression) in platelet-rich plasma from Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Healthy dogs (n = 15) and dogs with mild MMVD (18), moderate-severe MMVD (19), or severe MMVD with congestive heart failure (CHF; 10). Blood samples were collected from each dog. Serum and plasma serotonin concentrations were measured with an ELISA, and surface-bound platelet serotonin expression and platelet activation were determined by flow cytometry. Dogs with mild MMVD had higher median serum (746 ng/mL) and plasma (33.3 ng/mL) serotonin concentrations, compared with MMVD-affected dogs with CHF (388 ng/mL and 9.9 ng/mL, respectively), but no other group differences were found. Among disease groups, no differences in surface-bound serotonin expression or platelet activation were found. Thrombocytopenic dogs had lower serum serotonin concentration (482 ng/mL) than nonthrombocytopenic dogs (731 ng/mL). In 26 dogs, a flow cytometry scatterplot subpopulation (FSSP) of platelets was identified; dogs with an FSSP had a higher percentage of serotonin-positive platelets (11.0%), higher level of surface-bound serotonin expression (MFI, 32,068), and higher platelet activation (MFI, 2,363) than did dogs without an FSSP (5.7%, 1,230, and 1,165, respectively). An FSSP was present in 93.8% of thrombocytopenic dogs and in 29.5% of nonthrombocytopenic dogs. A substantive influence of circulating serotonin on MMVD stages prior to CHF development in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels was not supported by the study findings. An FSSP of highly activated platelets with pronounced serotonin binding was strongly associated with thrombocytopenia but not MMVD.

  16. The serotonin transporter plays an important role in male sexual behavior: a study in serotonin transporter knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Chan, Johnny S W; Snoeren, Eelke M S; Cuppen, Edwin; Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald S

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter for sexual behaviors. Heterozygous (+/-) serotonin transporter (SERT) rats and SERT knockout rats (-/-) have serotonergic disturbances with significant elevations of basal extracellular 5-HT levels. To investigate the putative role of the SERT in male sexual behavior. After extensive sexual training, the effects of the 5-HT(1A/7) receptor agonist ± 8-OH-DPAT, the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100 635 and a combination of both on sexual behaviors of SERT(-/-) and SERT(+/-) knockout and wildtype (SERT(+/+) ) male Wistar rats were examined. Male rat sexual behaviors of mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations. SERT(-/-) had lower basal ejaculation frequencies than SERT(+/-) and SERT(+/+) animals. ± 8-OH-DPAT enhanced sexual performance in all three genotypes to the same extent. WAY100635 dose-dependently inhibited sexual behavior in all three genotypes with significant dose to genotype interactions. WAY100635 exerted the strongest effects in SERT(-/-) animals. The combination of a dose range of ± 8-OH-DPAT and a selected dose of WAY100635 revealed only partial antagonism by ± 8-OH-DPAT of the sexual inhibitory effects of WAY100635. Absence of the serotonin transporter reduces basal ejaculatory performance in male rats. Pharmacological experiments suggest that separate pools of 5-HT(1A) receptors regulate different aspects of sexual performance in male rats. 5-HT(7) receptors may play a minor role in the partial recovery of sexual behavior after combination of ± 8-OH-DPAT and WAY100635. The SERT(-/-) rat may be a model for chronic SSRI treatment, delayed ejaculation, anorgasmia, and/or low libido. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. LLMapReduce: Multi-Level Map-Reduce for High Performance Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-23

    LLMapReduce works with several schedulers such as SLURM, Grid Engine and LSF. Keywords—LLMapReduce; map-reduce; performance; scheduler; Grid Engine ...SLURM; LSF I. INTRODUCTION Large scale computing is currently dominated by four ecosystems: supercomputing, database, enterprise , and big data [1...interconnects [6]), High performance math libraries (e.g., BLAS [7, 8], LAPACK [9], ScaLAPACK [10]) designed to exploit special processing hardware, High

  18. Reduced ING1 levels in breast cancer promotes metastasis.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Satbir; Singla, Arvind K; Chen, Jie; Tran, Uyen; Yang, Yang; Salazar, Carolina; Magliocco, Anthony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Jirik, Frank; Riabowol, Karl

    2014-06-30

    INhibitor of Growth 1 (ING1) expression is repressed in breast carcinomas, but its role in breast cancer development and metastasis is unknown. ING1 levels were quantified in >500 patient samples using automated quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and data were analysed for correlations to patient outcome. Effects of altering ING levels were examined in microarrays and metastasis assays in vitro, and in a mouse metastasis model in vivo. ING1 levels were lower in tumors compared to adjacent normal breast tissue and correlated with tumor size (p=0.019) and distant recurrence (p=0.001) in ER- or Her2+ patients. In these patients ING1 predicted disease-specific and distant metastasis-free survival. Transcriptome analysis showed that the pathway most affected by ING1 was breast cancer (p = 0.0008). Decreasing levels of ING1 increased, and increasing levels decreased, migration and invasion of MDA-MB231 cells in vitro. ING1 overexpression also blocked cancer cell metastasis in vivo and eliminated tumor-induced mortality in mouse models. Our data show that ING1 protein levels are downregulated in breast cancer and for the first time, we show that altering their levels regulates metastasis in vitro and in vivo, which indicates that ING1 may have a therapeutic role for inhibiting metastasis of breast cancer.

  19. Plasma serotonin in patients with chronic tension headaches.

    PubMed

    Anthony, M; Lance, J W

    1989-02-01

    Previous reports have suggested that platelet level of serotonin in chronic tension headache (CTH) is lower than in normal control subjects, and that there is continuous activation of platelets both in migraine and in CTH. In this study we compared platelet serotonin concentration in 95 patients with CTH, 166 patients with migraine and 35 normal control subjects. Mean platelet serotonin (ng/10(9) platelets) was 310 for the CTH group, 384 during migraine headache, 474 for normal control subjects and 514 in headache-free migrainous patients. There was significant statistical difference of values between CTH patients and those of normal control subjects as well as headache-free migrainous patients, but not of those of migrainous patients during headache. It is suggested that CTH is a low serotonin syndrome, representing one end of the spectrum of idiopathic headache, the other end being represented by migraine.

  20. Acetylglyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC; platelet-activating factor)-induced stimulation of rabbit platelets: correlation between phosphatidic acid level, 45Ca2+ uptake, and (3H)serotonin secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.D.; Hanahan, D.J.

    1984-08-01

    When 32P-labeled rabbits platelet were incubated with 5 X 10(-10) M 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine (AGEPC), either in the presence or absence (0.1 mM EGTA) of added Ca2+, there was a three- to five-fold increase in the (32P)phosphatidic acid (PA) pool within 15 to 20 s. This event was followed by a gradual decrease in the (32P)PA level to near basal level in 5 min. AGEPC effected this change in (32P)PA in a characteristic dose- and time-dependent manner. Polar head group analogs of AGEPC, such as AGEDME and AGEMME, also effected an increase in PA labeling at levels comparable to those previously reportedmore » for their activity toward rabbit platelets. Other analogs, i.e., lysoGEPC and the enantiomer, sn-1-AGEPC, which are inactive toward rabbit platelets, also showed no effect on the level of (32P)PA. The finding that the PA level in rabbit platelets could be manipulated by the addition of AGEPC, without any added Ca2+, provided an excellent model system for establishing a correlation between the uptake of Ca2+, serotonin release, and PA level. Thus, PA must be regarded as a sensitive indicator of a reaction mechanism important to the platelet response to AGEPC, and could be the focal point in promoting calcium uptake during the stimulation process.« less

  1. Use of Foam to Reduce Gun Blast Noise Levels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    conclusively demonstrated that aqueous foam can effect significant (greater than 10 dB) reductions in gun muzzle blast peak sound pressure level...can yield large reductions in airblast noise level. In these experiments, the explosive charge was engulfed in aqueous foam such as that used in fire...within the foam was closely controlled. Coniguration "C" was also quite similar exc, -" !iat ab .. _ 1 gallon of aqueous foam , contained in a 1-mil

  2. Serotonin induces ecdysteroidogenesis and methyl farnesoate synthesis in the mud crab, Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Girish, B P; Swetha, C H; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2017-09-02

    In the current study, we have examined the role of serotonin in regulating the levels of methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids in the giant mud crab Scylla serrata and validated that serotonin indeed is a reproductive hormone. Administration of serotonin elevated circulatory levels of methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroids in crabs. Since methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroid act through retinoid X receptor (RXR) and ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) respectively and these receptors are involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans, we have determined the mRNA levels of RXR and EcR in hepatopancreas and ovary after serotonin administration. The expression levels of both RXR and EcR increased significantly in the hepatopancreas and ovary of serotonin injected crabs when compared to the controls. In vitro organ culture studies revealed that incubation of Y-orgas and mandibular organ explants in the presence of serotonin resulted in a significant increase in the secretion of ecdysteroids by Y-organs, but without alterations in MF synthesis in mandibular organs. From the above studies it is evident that serotonin stimulates Y organs resulting in increased ecdysteroidogenesis. Though the circulatory levels methyl farnesoate elevated after serotonin administration, organ culture studies revealed serotonin mediated methyl farnesaote synthesis is indirect probably by inhibiting release of mandibular organ inhibiting hormone from eyestalks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The serotonin system in autism spectrum disorder: from biomarker to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Christopher L.; Anacker, Allison M.J.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Elevated whole blood serotonin, or hyperserotonemia, was the first biomarker identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is present in more than 25% of affected children. The serotonin system is a logical candidate for involvement in ASD due to its pleiotropic role across multiple brain systems both dynamically and across development. Tantalizing clues connect this peripheral biomarker with changes in brain and behavior in ASD, but the contribution of the serotonin system to ASD pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. Studies of whole blood serotonin levels in ASD and in a large founder population indicate greater heritability than for the disorder itself and suggest an association with recurrence risk. Emerging data from both neuroimaging and postmortem samples also indicate changes in the brain serotonin system in ASD. Genetic linkage and association studies of both whole blood serotonin levels and of ASD risk point to the chromosomal region containing the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene in males but not in females. In ASD families with evidence of linkage to this region, multiple rare SERT amino acid variants lead to a convergent increase in serotonin uptake in cell models. A knock-in mouse model of one of these variants, SERT Gly56Ala, recapitulates the hyperserotonemia biomarker and shows increased brain serotonin clearance, increased serotonin receptor sensitivity, and altered social, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Data from other rodent models also suggest an important role for the serotonin system in social behavior, in cognitive flexibility, and in sensory development. Recent work indicates that reciprocal interactions between serotonin and other systems, such as oxytocin, may be particularly important for social behavior. Collectively, these data point to the serotonin system as a prime candidate for treatment development in a subgroup of children defined by a robust, heritable biomarker. PMID:26577932

  4. Dissociating speech perception and comprehension at reduced levels of awareness

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew H.; Coleman, Martin R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Rodd, Jennifer M.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Matta, Basil F.; Owen, Adrian M.; Menon, David K.

    2007-01-01

    We used functional MRI and the anesthetic agent propofol to assess the relationship among neural responses to speech, successful comprehension, and conscious awareness. Volunteers were scanned while listening to sentences containing ambiguous words, matched sentences without ambiguous words, and signal-correlated noise (SCN). During three scanning sessions, participants were nonsedated (awake), lightly sedated (a slowed response to conversation), and deeply sedated (no conversational response, rousable by loud command). Bilateral temporal-lobe responses for sentences compared with signal-correlated noise were observed at all three levels of sedation, although prefrontal and premotor responses to speech were absent at the deepest level of sedation. Additional inferior frontal and posterior temporal responses to ambiguous sentences provide a neural correlate of semantic processes critical for comprehending sentences containing ambiguous words. However, this additional response was absent during light sedation, suggesting a marked impairment of sentence comprehension. A significant decline in postscan recognition memory for sentences also suggests that sedation impaired encoding of sentences into memory, with left inferior frontal and temporal lobe responses during light sedation predicting subsequent recognition memory. These findings suggest a graded degradation of cognitive function in response to sedation such that “higher-level” semantic and mnemonic processes can be impaired at relatively low levels of sedation, whereas perceptual processing of speech remains resilient even during deep sedation. These results have important implications for understanding the relationship between speech comprehension and awareness in the healthy brain in patients receiving sedation and in patients with disorders of consciousness. PMID:17938125

  5. Phase-delay in the light-dark cycle impairs clock gene expression and levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, and their metabolites in the mouse hippocampus and amygdala.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Shunpei; Tahara, Yu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ishigooka, Jun; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-11-01

    A number of animal studies have implicated circadian clock genes in the regulation of mood, anxiety, and reward. However, the effect of misalignment of the environmental light-dark and internal circadian clock on the monoamine system is not fully understood. In the present study, we examined whether an abnormal light-dark schedule would affect behavior-, circadian clock-, and monoamine-related gene expressions, along with monoamine contents in the amygdala and hippocampus of mice. Mice were subjected to an 8-hour phase delay in the light-dark cycle (Shift) every two days for four weeks, and locomotor activity was continuously measured. We examined the circadian expression of clock genes (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) and genes of the NE/5HT uptake transporters (Net and Sert). In addition, the levels of NE/5HT and their metabolites MHPG/5HIAA were analyzed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Locomotor activity showed a free-running phenotype with a longer period (>24 hours) and showed misalignment between the light-dark and inactive-active cycles. The amplitude of the day-night fluctuation of Bmal1 expression was reduced in the amygdala and hippocampus of light-dark-shifted mice. Net gene expression in the Shift group showed different profiles compared with the Control group. In addition, NE and 5HT levels in the amygdala of the Shift group increased during the active period. The present results suggest that misalignment of the internal and external clocks by continuous shifting of the light-dark cycle affects the circadian clocks and monoamine metabolism in the amygdala and hippocampus of mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serotonin induces peripheral antinociception via the opioidergic system.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Danielle Aguiar; Petrocchi, Júlia Alvarenga; Navarro, Larissa Caldeira; Souza, Tâmara Cristina; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama; Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima

    2018-01-01

    Studies conducted since 1969 have shown that the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord contributes to opioid analgesia. In the present study, the participation of the opioidergic system in antinociceptive effect serotonin at the peripheral level was examined. The paw pressure test was used with mice (Swiss, males from 35 g) which had increased pain sensitivity by intraplantar injection of PGE 2 (2 μg). Serotonin (250 ng), administered locally to the right paw of animals, produces antinociception in this model. The selective antagonists for mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors, clocinnamox clocinnamox (40 μg), naltrindole (60 μg) and nor-binaltorfimina (200 μg), respectively, inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by serotonin. Additionally, bestatin (400 μg), an inhibitor of enkephalinases that degrade peptides opioids, enhanced the antinociceptive effect induced by serotonin (low dose of 62.5 ng). These results suggest that serotonin possibly induce peripheral antinociception through the release of endogenous opioid peptides, possible from immune cells or keratinocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover in inflammation-induced anorexia.

    PubMed

    Dwarkasing, J T; Witkamp, R F; Boekschoten, M V; Ter Laak, M C; Heins, M S; van Norren, K

    2016-05-20

    Anorexia can occur as a serious complication of disease. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a major role, along with a hypothalamic dysregulation characterized by locally elevated serotonin levels. The present study was undertaken to further explore the connections between peripheral inflammation, anorexia and hypothalamic serotonin metabolism and signaling pathways. First, we investigated the response of two hypothalamic neuronal cell lines to TNFα, IL-6 and LPS. Next, we studied transcriptomic changes and serotonergic activity in the hypothalamus of mice after intraperitoneal injection with TNFα, IL-6 or a combination of TNFα and IL-6. In vitro, we showed that hypothalamic neurons responded to inflammatory mediators by releasing cytokines. This inflammatory response was associated with an increased serotonin release. Mice injected with TNFα and IL-6 showed decreased food intake, associated with altered expression of inflammation-related genes in the hypothalamus. In addition, hypothalamic serotonin turnover showed to be elevated in treated mice. Overall, our results underline that peripheral inflammation reaches the hypothalamus where it affects hypothalamic serotoninergic metabolism. These hypothalamic changes in serotonin pathways are associated with decreased food intake, providing evidence for a role of serotonin in inflammation-induced anorexia.

  8. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were comparedmore » in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.« less

  9. Serotonin produces monoamine oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in human heart valves.

    PubMed

    Peña-Silva, Ricardo A; Miller, Jordan D; Chu, Yi; Heistad, Donald D

    2009-10-01

    Heart valve disease and pulmonary hypertension, in patients with carcinoid tumors and people who used the fenfluramine-phentermine combination for weight control, have been associated with high levels of serotonin in blood. The mechanism by which serotonin induces valvular changes is not well understood. We recently reported that increased oxidative stress is associated with valvular changes in aortic valve stenosis in humans and mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin induces oxidative stress in human heart valves, and examined mechanisms by which serotonin may increase reactive oxygen species. Superoxide (O2*.-) was measured in heart valves from explanted human hearts that were not used for transplantation. (O2*.-) levels (lucigenin-enhanced chemoluminescence) were increased in homogenates of cardiac valves and blood vessels after incubation with serotonin. A nonspecific inhibitor of flavin-oxidases (diphenyliodonium), or inhibitors of monoamine oxidase [MAO (tranylcypromine and clorgyline)], prevented the serotonin-induced increase in (O2*.-). Dopamine, another MAO substrate that is increased in patients with carcinoid syndrome, also increased (O2*.-) levels in heart valves, and this effect was attenuated by clorgyline. Apocynin [an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase] did not prevent increases in (O2*.-) during serotonin treatment. Addition of serotonin to recombinant human MAO-A generated (O2*.-), and this effect was prevented by an MAO inhibitor. In conclusion, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby MAO-A can contribute to increased oxidative stress in human heart valves and pulmonary artery exposed to serotonin and dopamine.

  10. Asthma Medication and the Role of Serotonin in the Development of Cognitive and Psychological Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.

    2005-01-01

    This literature review will focus on the discussion of asthma and how it affects the sufferer. The role of serotonin and its physiological working at a neural level will follow, as well as the effects of corticosteroids on the brain and how low serotonin levels are linked to depression and corticosteroid use.

  11. Myocardial serotonin exchange: negligible uptake by capillary endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, T.C.; Chan, I.S.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1988-03-01

    The extraction of serotonin from the blood during transorgan passage through the heart was studied using Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Outflow dilution curves of /sup 131/I- or /sup 125/I-labeled albumin, (/sup 14/C)sucrose, and (3H)serotonin injected simultaneously into the inflow were fitted with an axially distributed blood-tissue exchange model to examine the extraction process. The model fits of the albumin and sucrose outflow dilution curves were used to define flow heterogeneity, intravascular dispersion, capillary permeability, and the volume of the interstitial space, which reduced the degrees of freedom in fitting the model to the serotonin curves. Serotonin extractions, measured against albumin, duringmore » single transcapillary passage, ranged from 24 to 64%. The ratio of the capillary permeability-surface area products for serotonin and sucrose, based on the maximum instantaneous extraction, was 1.37 +/- 0.2 (n = 18), very close to the predicted value of 1.39, the ratio of free diffusion coefficients calculated from the molecular weights. This result shows that the observed uptake of serotonin can be accounted for solely on the basis of diffusion between endothelial cells into the interstitial space. Thus it appears that the permeability of the luminal surface of the endothelial cell is negligible in comparison to diffusion through the clefts between endothelial cells. In 18 sets of dilution curves, with and without receptor and transport blockers or competitors (ketanserin, desipramine, imipramine, serotonin), the extractions and estimates of the capillary permeability-surface area product were not reduced, nor were the volumes of distribution. The apparent absence of transporters and receptors in rabbit myocardial capillary endothelium contrasts with their known abundance in the pulmonary vasculature.« less

  12. [The effect of mineral water on serotonin and insulin production (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Polushina, N D

    1998-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (DRG kits) and orthotoluidine test were conducted to measure blood serotonin, insulin and glucose in 70 intact Wistar rat males before and after a course of drinking mineral water Essentuki 17 (MW). After the MW drinking course, a single dose of mineral water increases basal levels of serotonin and insulin, sensitivity of endocrine cells to MW. Serotonin and insulin rose maximally on minute 5 after the drink while in contrast to minute 15 and 30 before initiation of the MW drinking course. A direct correlation was found between blood concentrations of serotonin and insulin.

  13. Platelet Serotonin, A Possible Marker for Familial Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piven, Joseph; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Platelet serotonin (5HT) levels of 5 autistic subjects (ages 16-37) who had siblings with either autism or pervasive developmental disorder were significantly higher than levels of 23 autistic subjects without affected siblings. Autistic subjects without affected siblings had 5HT levels significantly higher than 10 normal controls. Sex, age, and…

  14. Characterization and regulation of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin uptake and release in rodent spinal

    SciTech Connect

    Stauderman, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    The uptake and release of (/sup 3/H)-serotonin were investigated in rat spinal cord synaptosomes. In the uptake experiments, sodium-dependent and sodium-independent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation processes were found. Sodium-dependent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation was: linear with sodium concentrations up to 180 mM; decreased by disruption of membrane integrity or ionic gradients; associated with purified synaptosomal fractions; and reduced after description of descending serotonergic neurons in the spinal cord. Of the uptake inhibitors tested, the most potent was fluoxetine (IC/sub 50/ 75 nM), followed by desipramine (IC/sub 50/ 430 nM) and nomifensine (IC/sub 50/ 950 nM). The sodium-independent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin accumulation process wasmore » insensitive to most treatments and probably represents nonspecific membrane binding. Thus, only sodium-dependent (/sup 3/H)-serotonin uptake represents the uptake process of serotonergic nerve terminals in rat spinal cord homogenates. In the release experiments, K/sup +/-induced release of previously accumulated (/sup 3/H)-serotonin was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent, and originated from serotonergic synaptosomes. Exogenous serotonin and 5-methyoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine inhibited (/sup 3/H)-serotonin release in a concentration-dependent way. Of the antagonists tested, only methiothepin effectively blocked the effect of serotonin. These data support the existence of presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors on serotonergic nerve terminals in the rat spinal cord that act to inhibit a voltage and Ca/sup 2 +/-sensitive process linked to serotonin release. Alteration of spinai cord serotonergic function may therefore be possible by drugs acting on presynaptic serotonin autoreceptors in the spinal cord.« less

  15. Gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 effective against serotonin syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Boban Blagaic, Alenka; Blagaic, Vladimir; Mirt, Mirela; Jelovac, Nikola; Dodig, Goran; Rucman, Rudolf; Petek, Marijan; Turkovic, Branko; Anic, Tomislav; Dubovecak, Miroslav; Staresinic, Mario; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2005-04-11

    Serotonin syndrome commonly follows irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibition and subsequent serotonin (5-HT) substrate (in rats with fore paw treading, hind limbs abduction, wet dog shake, hypothermia followed by hyperthermia). A stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 with very safe profile (inflammatory bowel disease clinical phase II, PL-10, PLD-116, PL-14736, Pliva) reduced the duration of immobility to a greater extent than imipramine, and, given peripherally, has region specific influence on brain 5-HT synthesis (alpha-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan autoradiographic measurements) in rats, different from any other serotonergic drug. Thereby, we investigate this peptide (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg/kg i.p.) in (i) full serotonin syndrome in rat combining pargyline (irreversible MAO-inhibition; 75 mg/kg i.p.) and subsequent L-tryptophan (5-HT precursor; 100 mg/kg i.p.; BPC 157 as a co-treatment), or (ii, iii) using pargyline or L-tryptophan given separately, as a serotonin-substrate with (ii) pargyline (BPC 157 as a 15-min posttreatment) or as a potential serotonin syndrome inductor with (iii) L-tryptophan (BPC 157 as a 15 min-pretreatment). In all experiments, gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 contrasts with serotonin-syndrome either (i) presentation (i.e., particularly counteracted) or (ii) initiation (i.e., neither a serotonin substrate (counteraction of pargyline), nor an inductor for serotonin syndrome (no influence on L-tryptophan challenge)). Indicatively, severe serotonin syndrome in pargyline + L-tryptophan rats is considerably inhibited even by lower pentadecapeptide BPC 157 doses regimens (particularly disturbances such as hyperthermia and wet dog shake thought to be related to stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors), while the highest pentadecapeptide dose counteracts mild disturbances present in pargyline rats (mild hypothermia, feeble hind limbs abduction). Thereby, in severe serotonin syndrome, gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (alone, no behavioral or

  16. Tributyltin impaired reproductive success in female zebrafish through disrupting oogenesis, reproductive behaviors and serotonin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei-Yang; Li, Ying-Wen; Chen, Qi-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Hao

    2018-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an organotin acting as aromatase (Cyp19a1) inhibitor, has been found to disrupt gametogenesis and reproductive behaviors in several fish species. However, few studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the impaired gametogenesis and reproduction have been reported. In this study, female adults of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were continuously exposed to two nominal concentrations of TBT (100 and 500 ng/L, actual concentrations: 90.8 ± 1.3 ng/L and 470.3 ± 2.7 ng/L, respectively) for 28 days. After exposures, TBT decreased the total egg number, reduced the hatchability and elevated the mortality of the larvae. Decreased gonadosomatic index (GSI) and altered percentages of follicles in different developmental stages (increased early-stage follicles and reduced mid/late-stage follicles) were also observed in the ovary of TBT-treated fish. TBT also lowered the plasma level of 17β-estradiol and suppressed the expressions of cyp19a1a in the ovary. In treated fish, up-regulated expressions of aldhla2, sycp3 and dmc1 were present in the ovary, indicating an enhanced level of meiosis. The mRNA level of vtg1 was dramatically suppressed in the liver of TBT-treated fish, suggesting an insufficient synthesis of Vtg protein, consistent with the decreased percentage of mid/late-stage follicles in the ovaries. Moreover, TBT significantly suppressed the reproductive behaviors of the female fish (duration of both sexes simultaneously in spawning area, the frequency of meeting and the visit in spawning area) and down-regulated the mRNA levels of genes involved in the regulation of reproductive behaviors (cyp19a1b, gnrh-3 and kiss 2) in the brain. In addition, TBT significantly suppressed the expressions of serotonin-related genes, such as tph2 (encoding serotonin synthase), pet1 (marker of serotonin neuron) and kiss 1 (the modulator of serotonin synthesis), suggesting that TBT might disrupt the non-reproductive behaviors of zebrafish. The present

  17. Brain serotonin and pituitary-adrenal functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Berger, P.; Barchas, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    It had been concluded by Scapagnini et al. (1971) that brain serotonin (5-HT) was involved in the regulation of the diurnal rhythm of the pituitary-adrenal system but not in the stress response. A study was conducted to investigate these findings further by evaluating the effects of altering brain 5-HT levels on the daily fluctuation of plasma corticosterone and on the response of the pituitary-adrenal system to a stressful or noxious stimulus in the rat. In a number of experiments brain 5-HT synthesis was inhibited with parachlorophenylalanine. In other tests it was tried to raise the level of brain 5-HT with precursors.

  18. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    PubMed

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients. Detailed insight into the serotonergic mechanisms underlying decision making is needed to strengthen the first and weaken the latter. Although much remains to be done to achieve this, accumulating studies begin to deliver a coherent view. Thus, high central 5-HT levels are generally associated with improved reversal learning, improved attentional set shifting, decreased delay discounting, and increased response inhibition, but a failure to use outcome representations. Based on 5-HT's evolutionary role, I hypothesize that 5-HT integrates expected, or changes in, relevant sensory and emotional internal/external information, leading to vigilance behaviour affecting various decision making processes. 5-HT receptor subtypes play distinctive roles in decision making. 5-HT(2A) agonists and 5-HT2c antagonists decrease compulsivity, whereas 5-HT(2A) antagonists and 5-HT(2C) agonists decrease impulsivity. 5-HT(6) antagonists univocally affect decision making processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anorectic activities of serotonin uptake inhibitors: correlation with their potencies at inhibiting serotonin uptake in vivo and /sup 3/H-mazindol binding in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, I.; Taranger, M.A.; Claustre, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of anorectic action of several serotonin uptake inhibitors was investigated by comparing their anorectic potencies with several biochemical and pharmacological properties and in reference to the novel compound SL 81.0385. The anorectic effect of the potent serotonin uptake inhibitor SL 81.0385 was potentiated by pretreatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan and blocked by the serotonin receptor antagonist metergoline. A good correlation was obtained between the ED/sub 50/ values of anorectic action and the ED/sub 50/ values of serotonin uptake inhibition in vivo (but not in vitro) for several specific serotonin uptake inhibitors. Most of the drugs tested displaced (/sup 3/H)-mazindol frommore » its binding to the anorectic recognition site in the hypothalamus, except the pro-drug zimelidine which was inactive. Excluding zimelidine, a good correlation was obtained between the affinities of these drugs for (/sup 3/H)-mazindol binding and their anorectic action indicating that their anorectic activity may be associated with an effect mediated through this site. Taken together these results suggest that the anorectic action of serotonin uptake inhibitors is directly associated to their ability to inhibit serotonin uptake and thus increasing the synaptic levels of serotonin. The interactions of these drugs with the anorectic recognition site labelled with (/sup 3/H)-mazindol is discussed in connection with the serotonergic regulation of carbohydrate intake.« less

  20. MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots exposure causes neurotoxic effects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine at the genetic level, or by increasing ROS, or both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Zhan, Qinglin; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-12-01

    As quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in biomedical applications, the number of studies focusing on their biological properties is increasing. While several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs towards neural cells, the in vivo toxic effects on the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects and the underlying mechanisms of water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that exposure to MPA-capped CdTe QDs induced behavioral defects, including alterations to body bending, head thrashing, pharyngeal pumping and defecation intervals, as well as impaired learning and memory behavior plasticity, based on chemotaxis or thermotaxis, in a dose-, time- and size-dependent manner. Further investigations suggested that MPA-capped CdTe QDs exposure inhibited the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine in C. elegans at the genetic level within 24 h, while opposite results were observed after 72 h. Additionally, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in the CdTe QD-treated worms, which confirmed the common nanotoxicity mechanism of oxidative stress damage, and might overcome the increased gene expression of neurotransmitter transporters and receptors in C. elegans induced by long-term QD exposure, resulting in more severe behavioral impairments.

  1. Analysis of Serotonin Molecules on Silver Nanocolloids—A Raman Computational and Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Ciubuc, John D.; Sundin, Emma M.; Qiu, Chao; Bennet, Kevin E.

    2017-01-01

    Combined theoretical and experimental analysis of serotonin by quantum chemical density functional calculations and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, respectively, is presented in this work to better understand phenomena related to this neurotransmitter’s detection and monitoring at very low concentrations specific to physiological levels. In addition to the successful ultrasensitive analyte detection on silver nanoparticles for concentrations as low as 10−11 molar, the relatively good agreement between the simulated and experimentally determined results indicates the presence of all serotonin molecular forms, such as neutral, ionic, and those oxidized through redox reactions. Obvious structural molecular deformations such as bending of lateral amino chains are observed for both ionic and oxidized forms. Not only does this combined approach reveal more probable adsorption of serotonin into the silver surface through hydroxyl/oxygen sites than through NH/nitrogen sites, but also that it does so predominantly in its neutral (reduced) form, somewhat less so in its ionic forms, and much less in its oxidized forms. If the development of opto-voltammetric biosensors and their effective implementation is envisioned for the future, this study provides some needed scientific background for comprehending changes in the vibrational signatures of this important neurotransmitter. PMID:28640186

  2. Influence of serotonin and melatonin on some parameters of gastrointestinal activity.

    PubMed

    Bubenik, G A; Dhanvantari, S

    1989-01-01

    In vitro melatonin (M) reduced the tone of gut muscles and counteracted the tonic effect of serotonin (5-HT). In vivo 0.1 to 4 mg of 5-HT (contained in beeswax implants) decreased the food transit time (FTT) in a dose-dependent manner, but higher doses (5 and 6 mg) increased the FTT. Melatonin injected intraperitoneally into mice bearing 5-HT implants (2 mg per animal) blocked partly the serotonin effect and increased FTT by 50%; however, no dose-dependent effect was observed when doses between 0.01 and 1 mg were used. Surprisingly, M injected into intact mice decreased FTT to levels comparable to those observed in 5-HT implanted, M-treated mice. Again, this significant decrease was not dose-dependent between 0.02 and 1 mg. Although in vitro the maximal inhibition of serotonin-induced spasm was achieved when the M:5-HT ratio was 50-100:1, in vivo the effective ratio was about 1:1. This may indicate that part of M action on the gut movement is mediated by extraintestinal mechanisms. A hypothetical, counterbalancing system of M and 5-HT regulation of gut activity (similar to adrenaline-acetylcholine system) is proposed.

  3. Serotonin neurotransmission in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-09-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) show extreme dieting weight loss, hyperactivity, depression/anxiety, self-control, and behavioral impulsivity. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is involved in almost all the behavioral changes observed in AN patients. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute toward the pathogenesis of AN. It is a frequent disorder among adolescent girls and young women and starts as an attempt to lose weight to look beautiful and attractive. Failure to see the turning point when fasting becomes unreasonable leads to malnutrition and AN. Tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin and an essential amino acid, is only available in the diet. It is therefore likely that excessive diet restriction and malnutrition decrease brain serotonin stores because the precursor is less available to the rate-limiting enzyme of 5-HT biosynthesis, which normally exists unsaturated with its substrate. Evidence shows that diet restriction-induced exaggerated feedback control over 5-HT synthesis and the smaller availability of tryptophan decreases serotonin neurotransmission at postsynaptic sites, leading to hyperactivity, depression, and behavioral impulsivity. A compensatory upregulation of postsynaptic 5-HT-1A receptors and hypophagic serotonin receptors may be involved in anxiety and suppression of appetite. It is suggested that tryptophan supplementation may improve pharmacotherapy in AN.

  4. Boosting serotonin in the brain: is it time to revamp the treatment of depression?

    PubMed

    Torrente, Mariana P; Gelenberg, Alan J; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-05-01

    Abnormalities in serotonin systems are presumably linked to various psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. Medications intended for these disorders aim to either block the reuptake or the degradation of this neurotransmitter. In an alternative approach, efforts have been made to enhance serotonin levels through dietary manipulation of precursor levels with modest clinical success. In the last 30 years, there has been little improvement in the pharmaceutical management of depression, and now is the time to revisit therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this disease. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin. A recently discovered isoform, TPH2, is responsible for serotonin biosynthesis in the brain. Learning how to activate this enzyme (and its polymorphic versions) may lead to a new, more selective generation of antidepressants, able to regulate the levels of serotonin in the brain with fewer side effects.

  5. Effects of AT1 receptor antagonism on kainate-induced seizures and concomitant changes in hippocampal extracellular noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Loyens, Ellen; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-05-01

    In the management of epilepsy, AT1 receptor antagonists have been suggested as an additional treatment strategy. A hyperactive brain angiotensin (Ang) II system and upregulated AT1 receptors are implicated in the cerebrovascular alterations in a genetic form of hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension could also, in turn, be a risk factor for a seizure threshold decrease and development of epileptogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the effects of the selective AT1 receptor antagonist ZD7155 on kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) development and accompanying changes in the hippocampal extracellular (EC) neurotransmitter levels of noradrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their parent strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, since monoamines are well-known neurotransmitters involved in mechanisms of both epilepsy and hypertension. Status epilepticus was evoked in freely moving rats by a repetitive intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of KA in subconvulsant doses. In the treatment group, ZD7155 (5mg/kg i.p.) was coadministered with the first KA injection. Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibited higher susceptibility to SE than WKY rats, but the AT1 receptor antagonist did not alter the development of SE in SHRs or in WKY rats. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated significant KA-induced increases of the hippocampal NAD and DA levels in SHRs and of NAD, 5-HT, and DA in WKY rats. Although SHRs developed more severe seizures while receiving a lower dose of KA compared to WKY rats, AT1 receptor antagonism completely prevented all KA-induced increases of hippocampal monoamine levels in both rat strains without affecting seizure development per se. These results suggest a lack of direct relationship between KA-induced seizure susceptibility and adaptive changes of hippocampal NAD, 5-HT, and DA levels in the effects of ZD7155 in WKY rats and SHRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serotonin inhibits low-threshold spike interneurons in the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Cains, Sarah; Blomeley, Craig P; Bracci, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Low-threshold spike interneurons (LTSIs) are important elements of the striatal architecture and the only known source of nitric oxide in this nucleus, but their rarity has so far prevented systematic studies. Here, we used transgenic mice in which green fluorescent protein is expressed under control of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) promoter and striatal NPY-expressing LTSIs can be easily identified, to investigate the effects of serotonin on these neurons. In sharp contrast with its excitatory action on other striatal interneurons, serotonin (30 μm) strongly inhibited LTSIs, reducing or abolishing their spontaneous firing activity and causing membrane hyperpolarisations. These hyperpolarisations persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin, were mimicked by 5-HT2C receptor agonists and reversed by 5-HT2C antagonists. Voltage-clamp slow-ramp experiments showed that serotonin caused a strong increase in an outward current activated by depolarisations that was blocked by the specific M current blocker XE 991. In current-clamp experiments, XE 991 per se caused membrane depolarisations in LTSIs and subsequent application of serotonin (in the presence of XE 991) failed to affect these neurons. We concluded that serotonin strongly inhibits striatal LTSIs acting through postsynaptic 5-HT2C receptors and increasing an M type current. PMID:22495583

  7. Serotonin involvement in pituitary-adrenal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Kellar, K. J.; Kent, D.; Gonzales, C.; Berger, P. A.; Barchas, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments clarifying the effects of serotonin (5-HT) in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system are surveyed. Lesion experiments which seek to determine functional maps of serotonergic input to areas involved in regulation are reported. Investigations of the effects of 5-HT levels on the plasma ACTH response to stress and the diurnal variation in basal plasma corticosterone are summarized, and the question of whether serotonergic transmission is involved in the regulation of all aspects of pituitary-adrenal function is considered with attention to the stimulatory and inhibitory action of 5-HT.

  8. Severe Serotonin Depletion after Conditional Deletion of the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 Gene in Serotonin Neurons: Neural and Behavioral Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Narboux-Nême, Nicolas; Sagné, Corinne; Doly, Stephane; Diaz, Silvina L; Martin, Cédric B P; Angenard, Gaelle; Martres, Marie-Pascale; Giros, Bruno; Hamon, Michel; Lanfumey, Laurence; Gaspar, Patricia; Mongeau, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    The vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 gene (VMAT2) has a crucial role in the storage and synaptic release of all monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT). To evaluate the specific role of VMAT2 in 5-HT neurons, we produced a conditional ablation of VMAT2 under control of the serotonin transporter (slc6a4) promoter. VMAT2sert−cre mice showed a major (−95%) depletion of 5-HT levels in the brain with no major alterations in other monoamines. Raphe neurons contained no 5-HT immunoreactivity in VMAT2sert−cre mice but developed normal innervations, as assessed by both tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and 5-HT transporter labeling. Increased 5-HT1A autoreceptor coupling to G protein, as assessed with agonist-stimulated [35S]GTP-γ-S binding, was observed in the raphe area, indicating an adaptive change to reduced 5-HT transmission. Behavioral evaluation in adult VMAT2sert−cre mice showed an increase in escape-like reactions in response to tail suspension and anxiolytic-like response in the novelty-suppressed feeding test. In an aversive ultrasound-induced defense paradigm, VMAT2sert−cre mice displayed a major increase in escape-like behaviors. Wild-type-like defense phenotype could be rescued by replenishing intracellular 5-HT stores with chronic pargyline (a monoamine oxidase inhibitor) treatment. Pargyline also allowed some form of 5-HT release, although in reduced amounts, in synaptosomes from VMAT2sert−cre mouse brain. These findings are coherent with the notion that 5-HT has an important role in anxiety, and provide new insights into the role of endogenous 5-HT in defense behaviors. PMID:21814181

  9. A Theoretical Study of the Conformational Landscape of Serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Mourik, Van Tonja; Emson, Laura E.

    2002-10-25

    The conformational landscape of neutral serotonin has been investigated by several theoretical methods. The potential energy surface was scanned by systematically varying the three dihedral angles that determine the conformation of the alkyl side chain. In addition, the two possible conformations of the phenol hydroxyl group (anti and syn with respect to the indole NH) were considered. The OH-anti stationary points located with SCF/6-31G* have been re-optimized with B3LYP/6-31+G*, which resulted in twelve true minima. Eleven of these have a corresponding OH-syn conformer that is 1-4 kJ/mol higher in energy. IR vibrational spectra of all twenty-three serotonin conformers, computed atmore » the B3LYP/6-31+G* level f theory, are presented. The initial scan of the serotonin potential energy surface has been repeated with several computationally cheaper methods, to assess their reliability for locating the correct serotonin conformers. It is found that the semi-empirical methods AM1 and PM3 do no t yield sufficiently accurate results, due to their inability to account for subtle intramolecular interactions within the serotonin molecule. On the other hand, SCF in combination with the 3-21G* basis set is ascertained to be a good alternative to SCF/6-31G* for performing the initial scan of the potential energy surface of flexible molecules.« less

  10. Serotonin rebalances cortical tuning and behavior linked to autism symptoms in 15q11-13 CNV mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Nobuhiro; Nagano, Masatoshi; Saitow, Fumihito; Watanabe, Yasuhito; Kawamura, Yoshinobu; Kawamoto, Akiko; Tamada, Kota; Mizuma, Hiroshi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Monai, Hiromu; Hirase, Hajime; Nakatani, Jin; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sato, Yuka; Okabe, Shigeo; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kano, Masanobu; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Suzuki, Hidenori; Takumi, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is a critical modulator of cortical function, and its metabolism is defective in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) brain. How serotonin metabolism regulates cortical physiology and contributes to the pathological and behavioral symptoms of ASD remains unknown. We show that normal serotonin levels are essential for the maintenance of neocortical excitation/inhibition balance, correct sensory stimulus tuning, and social behavior. Conversely, low serotonin levels in 15q dup mice (a model for ASD with the human 15q11-13 duplication) result in impairment of the same phenotypes. Restoration of normal serotonin levels in 15q dup mice revealed the reversibility of a subset of ASD-related symptoms in the adult. These findings suggest that serotonin may have therapeutic potential for discrete ASD symptoms. PMID:28691086

  11. FOXO1 orchestrates the bone-suppressing function of gut-derived serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Kode, Aruna; Mosialou, Ioanna; Silva, Barbara C.; Rached, Marie-Therese; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Ji; Townes, Tim M.; Hen, Rene; DePinho, Ronald A.; Guo, X. Edward; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is a critical regulator of bone mass, fulfilling different functions depending on its site of synthesis. Brain-derived serotonin promotes osteoblast proliferation, whereas duodenal-derived serotonin suppresses it. To understand the molecular mechanisms of duodenal-derived serotonin action on osteoblasts, we explored its transcriptional mediation in mice. We found that the transcription factor FOXO1 is a crucial determinant of the effects of duodenum-derived serotonin on bone formation We identified two key FOXO1 complexes in osteoblasts, one with the transcription factor cAMP-responsive element–binding protein 1 (CREB) and another with activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Under normal levels of circulating serotonin, the proliferative activity of FOXO1 was promoted by a balance between its interaction with CREB and ATF4. However, high circulating serotonin levels prevented the association of FOXO1 with CREB, resulting in suppressed osteoblast proliferation. These observations identify FOXO1 as the molecular node of an intricate transcriptional machinery that confers the signal of duodenal-derived serotonin to inhibit bone formation. PMID:22945629

  12. Protective manifestation of bacoside A and bromelain in terms of cholinesterases, gamma-amino butyric acid, serotonin level and stress proteins in the brain of dichlorvos-intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Bharti; Bist, Renu

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of bacoside A and bromelain against dichlorvos-incited toxicity. Healthy 6-8-week old, male Swiss mice were administered subacute doses of dichlorvos (40 mg/kg bw), bacoside A (5 mg/kg bw) and bromelain (70 mg/kg bw). AChE, BChE, GABA, serotonin and total protein content and their expressions were used for determination of toxic action of dichlorvos. Protective effects of bacoside A and bromelain were evaluated on the same parameters. Exposure to dichlorvos leads to significant decline in activities of AChE (p < 0.01, p < 0.001), BChE (p < 0.05) and GABA (p < 0.01) and total protein levels (p < 0.01). Antioxidant treatment significantly increased the activities of AChE (p < 0.01, p < 0.001), BChE (p < 0.05), GABA (p < 0.01) and total protein level (p < 0.05) compared to those in dichlorvos-treated mice. Overexpression of Hsp 70 protein and underexpression of phosphorylase a and b, catalase SOD and GPx were observed after dichlorvos exposure which suggests the oxidative stress. The results indicate that dichlorvos-induced neuronal damage which results in the generation of molecular expression of proteins is in agreement with the biochemical data ameliorated by bacoside A and bromelain.

  13. A study of blood serotonin and serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism in Egyptian autistic children.

    PubMed

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Gebril, Ola H; Khalil, Rehab O

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with onset during early childhood. Most studies have reported an elevation in platelet serotonin in persons with autism. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) transporter in the brain uptakes 5-HT from extracellular spaces. It is also present in platelets, where it takes up 5-HT from plasma. Polymorphisms in serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) were frequently studied in many neuropsychiatric disorders. We have measured the plasma 5-HT levels in 20 autistic male children and 20 control male children by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, the SLC6A4 promoter region (5-HTTLPR) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism was studied, using whole genomic DNA. Plasma serotonin was significantly low in autistic children compared to control (P = 0.001), although correlation to severity of autism was not significant. The frequency of short (S) allele in autism cases was 10% and in the control group it was absent. Our study demonstrated an increased prevalence of 5-HTTLPR S allele in autism subjects. Significantly decreased plasma serotonin was detected in autism subjects, with no significant relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and plasma 5-HT being evident.

  14. A study of blood serotonin and serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism in Egyptian autistic children

    PubMed Central

    Meguid, Nagwa A.; Gebril, Ola H.; Khalil, Rehab O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex, heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder with onset during early childhood. Most studies have reported an elevation in platelet serotonin in persons with autism. The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) transporter in the brain uptakes 5-HT from extracellular spaces. It is also present in platelets, where it takes up 5-HT from plasma. Polymorphisms in serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) were frequently studied in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Materials and Methods: We have measured the plasma 5-HT levels in 20 autistic male children and 20 control male children by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, the SLC6A4 promoter region (5-HTTLPR) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism was studied, using whole genomic DNA. Results: Plasma serotonin was significantly low in autistic children compared to control (P = 0.001), although correlation to severity of autism was not significant. The frequency of short (S) allele in autism cases was 10% and in the control group it was absent. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated an increased prevalence of 5-HTTLPR S allele in autism subjects. Significantly decreased plasma serotonin was detected in autism subjects, with no significant relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and plasma 5-HT being evident. PMID:26015920

  15. Oscillatory serotonin function in depression.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Ronald M; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-11-01

    Oscillations in brain activities with periods of minutes to hours may be critical for normal mood behaviors. Ultradian (faster than circadian) rhythms of mood behaviors and associated central nervous system activities are altered in depression. Recent data suggest that ultradian rhythms in serotonin (5HT) function also change in depression. In two separate studies, 5HT metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured every 10 min for 24 h before and after chronic antidepressant treatment. Antidepressant treatments were associated with enhanced ultradian amplitudes of CSF metabolite levels. Another study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure amplitudes of dorsal raphé activation cycles following sham or active dietary depletions of the 5HT precursor (tryptophan). During depletion, amplitudes of dorsal raphé activation cycles increased with rapid 6 s periods (about 0.18 Hz) while functional connectivity weakened between dorsal raphé and thalamus at slower periods of 20 s (0.05 Hz). A third approach studied MDMA (ecstasy, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) users because of their chronically diminished 5HT function compared with non-MDMA polysubstance users (Karageorgiou et al., 2009). Compared with a non-MDMA using cohort, MDMA users showed diminished fMRI intra-regional coherence in motor regions along with altered functional connectivity, again suggesting effects of altered 5HT oscillatory function. These data support a hypothesis that qualities of ultradian oscillations in 5HT function may critically influence moods and behaviors. Dysfunctional 5HT rhythms in depression may be a common endpoint and biomarker for depression, linking dysfunction of slow brain network oscillators to 5HT mechanisms affected by commonly available treatments. 5HT oscillatory dysfunction may define illness subtypes and predict responses to serotonergic agents. Further studies of 5HT oscillations in depression are indicated. Copyright

  16. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  17. Serotonin, carbohydrates, and atypical depression.

    PubMed

    Møller, S E

    1992-01-01

    At least three categories of atypical depression have been described. The hysteroid dysphoria is characterized by repeated episodes of depressed mood in response to feeling rejected, and a craving for sweets and chocolate. Two other issues are characterized by a cyclical occurrence of changes of mood and appetite, i.e., the late luteal phase dysphoric disorder (DSM-III-R, appendix), or "the premenstrual syndrome" (PMS), and the major depression with seasonal pattern (DSM-III-R), or seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The reactive mood changes are frequently accompanied by features as hypersomnia, lethargy and increased appetite, particularly with a preference for carbohydrates. Central serotonin pathways participate in the regulation of mood and behavioural impulsivity, and modulate eating patterns qualitatively and quantitatively. Depressives with PMS og SAD benefit, in general, from treatments with serotonin potentiating drugs, suggesting that brain serotonin plays a role in the pathophysiology. Ingestion of carbohydrates increases the plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids in man and animal, and the serotonin synthesis in the rat brain. Based on these findings it has been suggested that the excessive carbohydrate intake by patients with PMS and SAD reflects a self-medication that temporarily relieves the vegetative symptoms via an increased central serotonergic activity.

  18. Implications of genetic research on the role of the serotonin in depression: emphasis on the serotonin type 1A receptor and the serotonin transporter.

    PubMed

    Neumeister, Alexander; Young, Theresa; Stastny, Juergen

    2004-08-01

    Serotonin systems appear to play a key role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Consequently, ongoing research determines whether serotonin related genes account for the very robust differential behavioral and neural mechanisms that discriminate patients with depression from healthy controls. Serotonin type 1(A) receptors and the serotonin transporters are reduced in depression, and recent genetic research in animals and humans has implicated both in depression. Preclinical studies have utilized a variety of animal models that have been used to explain pathophysiological mechanisms in humans, although it is not clear at all whether these models constitute relevant models for depression in humans. However, data from preclinical studies can generate hypotheses that are tested in humans by combining genetic data with behavioral and physiological challenge paradigms and neuroimaging. These studies will enhance our understanding about combined influences from multiple interacting genes, as well as from environmental factors on brain circuits and their function, and about how these mechanisms may contribute to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Plasma Serotonin in Heart Failure: Possible Marker and Potential Treatment Target.

    PubMed

    Selim, Ahmed M; Sarswat, Nitasha; Kelesidis, Iosif; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chandra, Ramesh; Zolty, Ronald

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between heart failure (HF) and the serotonergic system has been established in animal studies. However, data on human plasma serotonin level in HF and its significance over the course of the disease is lacking. Serotonin levels were measured in 173 patients (108 males, 65 females), 116 were stable HF and 40 were acute decompensated HF patients. The normal control group included 17 healthy volunteers with no known medical or psychiatric conditions. Patients receiving medications affecting serotonin receptors and those with pulmonary hypertension were excluded. All patients, except for those in the decompensated group, were on stable doses of HF medications. Plasma serotonin levels were significantly elevated in decompensated HF patients compared with stable patients (P=0.002). Higher plasma serotonin levels were associated with worse HF symptoms (NYHA class) and the presence of systolic dysfunction, and was borderline associated with low peak oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (P=0.055). These results were independent of age, gender, race, hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, weight, coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation and medication use. Serotonin is a marker for decompensation in patients with chronic heart failure. Higher serotonin levels were associated with worse HF symptoms and systolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estrous cycle modulation of extracellular serotonin in mediobasal hypothalamus: role of the serotonin transporter and terminal autoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Maswood, S; Truitt, W; Hotema, M; Caldarola-Pastuszka, M; Uphouse, L

    1999-06-12

    In vivo microdialysis was used to examine extracellular serotonin (5-HT) in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of male and female Fischer (CDF-344) rats. Females from the stages of diestrus, proestrus, and estrus were used. Additionally, ovariectomized rats, primed subcutaneously (s.c.) with estradiol benzoate or estradiol benzoate plus progesterone were examined. Extracellular 5-HT in the MBH varied with stage of the estrous cycle and with the light/dark cycle. Proestrous females had the highest microdialysate concentrations of 5-HT during the light portion of the light/dark cycle and lowest concentrations during the dark portion of the cycle. Diestrous females had the highest levels during the dark portion of the cycle, while males and estrous females showed little change between light and dark portions of the cycle. In ovariectomized rats, there was no effect of 2.5 microg or 25 microg estradiol benzoate (s.c.) on extracellular 5-HT; but the addition of 500 microg progesterone, 48 h after estrogen priming, reduced microdialysate 5-HT near the threshold for detection. In intact females and in males, reverse perfusion with 3 microM fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or 2 microM methiothepin, a 5-HT receptor antagonist, increased microdialysate concentrations of 5-HT. Estrous females and males showed nearly a 4-fold increase in microdialysate 5-HT in response to fluoxetine while smaller responses were seen in diestrous and proestrous rats. In contrast, proestrous rats showed the largest response to methiothepin. Estrous females showed a delayed response to methiothepin, but there was no methiothepin-induced increase in extracellular 5-HT in males. These findings are discussed in reference to the suggestion that extracellular 5-HT in the MBH is regulated in a manner that is gender and estrous cycle dependent. The 5-HT terminal autoreceptor may exert a greater role in proestrous females; the serotonin transporter appears to play a more active

  1. Resistance of rice to insect pests mediated by suppression of serotonin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-Ping; Luo, Ting; Fu, Hao-Wei; Wang, Long; Tan, Yuan-Yuan; Huang, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qing; Ye, Gong-Yin; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Lou, Yong-Gen; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2018-05-07

    Rice is one of the world's most important foods, but its production suffers from insect pests, causing losses of billions of dollars, and extensive use of environmentally damaging pesticides for their control 1,2 . However, the molecular mechanisms of insect resistance remain elusive. Although a few resistance genes for planthopper have been cloned, no rice germplasm is resistant to stem borers. Here, we report that biosynthesis of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in mammals 3 , is induced by insect infestation in rice, and its suppression confers resistance to planthoppers and stem borers, the two most destructive pests of rice 2 . Serotonin and salicylic acid derive from chorismate 4 . In rice, the cytochrome P450 gene CYP71A1 encodes tryptamine 5-hydroxylase, which catalyses conversion of tryptamine to serotonin 5 . In susceptible wild-type rice, planthopper feeding induces biosynthesis of serotonin and salicylic acid, whereas in mutants with an inactivated CYP71A1 gene, no serotonin is produced, salicylic acid levels are higher and plants are more insect resistant. The addition of serotonin to the resistant rice mutant and other brown planthopper-resistant genotypes results in a loss of insect resistance. Similarly, serotonin supplementation in artificial diet enhances the performance of both insects. These insights demonstrate that regulation of serotonin biosynthesis plays an important role in defence, and may prove valuable for breeding insect-resistant cultivars of rice and other cereal crops.

  2. Ligand Induced Conformational Changes of the Human Serotonin Transporter Revealed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Grouleff, Julie; Schiøtt, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The competitive inhibitor cocaine and the non-competitive inhibitor ibogaine induce different conformational states of the human serotonin transporter. It has been shown from accessibility experiments that cocaine mainly induces an outward-facing conformation, while the non-competitive inhibitor ibogaine, and its active metabolite noribogaine, have been proposed to induce an inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter similar to what has been observed for the endogenous substrate, serotonin. The ligand induced conformational changes within the human serotonin transporter caused by these three different types of ligands, substrate, non-competitive and competitive inhibitors, are studied from multiple atomistic molecular dynamics simulations initiated from a homology model of the human serotonin transporter. The results reveal that diverse conformations of the human serotonin transporter are captured from the molecular dynamics simulations depending on the type of the ligand bound. The inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter is reached with noribogaine bound, and this state resembles a previously identified inward-facing conformation of the human serotonin transporter obtained from molecular dynamics simulation with bound substrate, but also a recently published inward-facing conformation of a bacterial homolog, the leucine transporter from Aquifex Aoelicus. The differences observed in ligand induced behavior are found to originate from different interaction patterns between the ligands and the protein. Such atomic-level understanding of how an inhibitor can dictate the conformational response of a transporter by ligand binding may be of great importance for future drug design. PMID:23776432

  3. Brief Report: Platelet-Poor Plasma Serotonin in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, George M.; Hertzig, Margaret E.; McBride, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Possible explanations for the well-replicated platelet hyperserotonemia of autism include an alteration in the platelet's handling of serotonin (5-hydroxyserotonin, 5-HT) or an increased exposure of the platelet to 5-HT. Measurement of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) levels of 5-HT appears to provide the best available index of in vivo exposure of the…

  4. Effects of T'ai Chi on Serotonin, Nicotine Dependency, Depression, and Anger in Hospitalized Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chung-Uk; Kim, Nam-Cho

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of t'ai chi on blood serotonin levels, nicotine dependence, depression, and anger in hospitalized alcohol-dependent patients. This study followed an experimental and nonequivalent control group in a non-synchronized design. It was performed in a hospital located in Young Ju city, Korea, from April to August 2013. Thirty-eight patients who were hospitalized with alcohol dependence were included. They were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group, with 19 patients in each group. Patients in the experimental group practiced the 24-posture yang style t'ai chi for 50 min three times per week for 8 weeks as part of the routine hospital rehabilitation program, and those in the control group followed only the routine hospital rehabilitation program. The effect of treatment was measured using blood serotonin levels and a questionnaire on nicotine dependence, depression, and anger. Both measurements were performed before and after 8 weeks of intervention. Data were analyzed using the t-test, chi-square test, and paired t-tests. The experimental group showed a significantly increased blood serotonin level (p = 0.001) and significantly reduced nicotine dependence, depression, and anger (p = 0.001) than the control group did after 8 weeks of treatment. T'ai chi was shown to be an effective nursing intervention in hospitalized alcohol-dependent patients.

  5. Comparison of the neurobiological effects of attribution retraining group therapy with those of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C.; Zhang, N.; Zhang, Y.L.; Zhang, J.; Yang, H.; Timothy, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of attribution retraining group therapy (ARGT) with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Subjects were sequentially recruited and randomized into two groups, one receiving ARGT (n = 63) and the other SSRIs (n = 66) for 8 weeks. Fifty-four ARGT outpatients with MDD (n = 19), GAD (n = 19), and OCD (n = 16) and 55 SSRI outpatients with MDD (n = 19), GAD (n = 19), and OCD (n = 17) completed the study. All subjects were assessed using the Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. The 10-item Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was employed only for OCD subjects. Plasma levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were also measured at baseline and 8 weeks after completion of treatment. Symptom scores were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in both the ARGT and SSRI groups at the end of treatment. However, MDD, GAD and OCD patients in the ARGT group had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentrations compared to baseline (P < 0.05), whereas MDD and OCD patients receiving SSRIs showed significantly increased plasma levels of serotonin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that ARGT may modulate plasma cortisol levels and affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as opposed to SSRIs, which may up-regulate plasma serotonin levels via a different pathway to produce an overall improvement in the clinical condition of the patients. PMID:23558857

  6. Origins of serotonin innervation of forebrain structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellar, K. J.; Brown, P. A.; Madrid, J.; Bernstein, M.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Mehler, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The tryptophan hydroxylase activity and high-affinity uptake of (3H) serotonin ((3H)5-HT) were measured in five discrete brain regions of rats following lesions of the dorsal or median raphe nuclei. Dorsal raphe lesions reduced enzyme and uptake activity in the striatum only. Median raphe lesions reduced activities in the hippocampus, septal area, frontal cortex, and, to a lesser extent, in the hypothalamus. These data are consistent with the suggestion that the dorsal and median raphe nuclei are the origins of two separate ascending serotonergic systems - one innervating striatal structures and the other mesolimbic structures, predominantly. In addition, the data suggest that measurements of high-affinity uptake of (3H)5-HT may be a more reliable index of innervation than either 5-HT content or tryptophan hydroxylase activity.

  7. Glucocorticoids Inhibit Basal and Hormone-Induced Serotonin Synthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasni Ebou, Moina; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Launay, Jean-Marie; Callebert, Jacques; Tronche, François; Ferré, Pascal; Gautier, Jean-François; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Bréant, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major complication of chronic Glucocorticoids (GCs) treatment. GCs induce insulin resistance and also inhibit insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Yet, a full understanding of this negative regulation remains to be deciphered. In the present study, we investigated whether GCs could inhibit serotonin synthesis in beta cell since this neurotransmitter has been shown to be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. To this aim, serotonin synthesis was evaluated in vitro after treatment with GCs of either islets from CD1 mice or MIN6 cells, a beta-cell line. We also explored the effect of GCs on the stimulation of serotonin synthesis by several hormones such as prolactin and GLP 1. We finally studied this regulation in islet in two in vivo models: mice treated with GCs and with liraglutide, a GLP1 analog, and mice deleted for the glucocorticoid receptor in the pancreas. We showed in isolated islets and MIN6 cells that GCs decreased expression and activity of the two key enzymes of serotonin synthesis, Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and 2 (Tph2), leading to reduced serotonin contents. GCs also blocked the induction of serotonin synthesis by prolactin or by a previously unknown serotonin activator, the GLP-1 analog exendin-4. In vivo, activation of the Glucagon-like-Peptide-1 receptor with liraglutide during 4 weeks increased islet serotonin contents and GCs treatment prevented this increase. Finally, islets from mice deleted for the GR in the pancreas displayed an increased expression of Tph1 and Tph2 and a strong increased serotonin content per islet. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an original inhibition of serotonin synthesis by GCs, both in basal condition and after stimulation by prolactin or activators of the GLP-1 receptor. This regulation may contribute to the deleterious effects of GCs on beta cells. PMID:26901633

  8. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…

  9. The influence of serotonin on the mitotic rate in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1978-01-01

    1. The mitotic rate in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the descending colon and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomata of the descending colon of rat was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Intraperitoneal injection of a small dose (10 microgram/kg) of serotonin resulted in an increase in the tumour cell mitotic rate. 3. Blockade of serotonin receptors by 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide and depletion of tissue serotonin levels following injection of DL-6-fluorotryptophan both result in a decrease in the tumour cell mitotic rate. 4. Treatment with serotonin, 2-bromolysergic acid diethylamide and DL-6-fluorotryptophan were all without effect on the colonic crypt cell mitotic rate.

  10. Linezolid-induced serotonin syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal; Karnik, Niteen D; Deshpande, Rushikesh; Patil, Meenakshi Amit

    2013-01-01

    A young drug abuser was admitted to our intensive care unit for organophosphorus poisoning. He required mechanical ventilation and was started empirically on linezolid for suspected nosocomial infection. The patient developed high-grade fever with altered sensorium and clonus. Serotonin syndrome was suspected and the patient was started on cyproheptadine. He recovered within 3 days of withdrawing linezolide and administering cyproheptadine. PMID:23513014

  11. Elevated brain serotonin turnover in patients with depression: effect of genotype and therapy.

    PubMed

    Barton, David A; Esler, Murray D; Dawood, Tye; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Haikerwal, Deepak; Brenchley, Celia; Socratous, Florentia; Hastings, Jacqueline; Guo, Ling; Wiesner, Glen; Kaye, David M; Bayles, Richard; Schlaich, Markus P; Lambert, Gavin W

    2008-01-01

    The biological basis for the development of major depressive disorder (MDD) remains incompletely understood. To quantify brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) turnover in patients with MDD. Patients with depression were studied both untreated and during administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in an unblinded study of sequential design. Healthy volunteers were examined on only 1 occasion. Direct internal jugular venous blood sampling was used to directly quantify brain serotonin turnover. The effect of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype on brain serotonin turnover was evaluated and the influence of SSRI therapy on serotonin turnover was investigated. Participants were recruited from the general community following media advertisement. Experimental procedures were performed in the research catheterization laboratory of a major training hospital and medical research institute. Studies were performed in 21 patients fulfilling the DSM-IV and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnostic criteria for MDD and in 40 healthy volunteers. Treatment for patients consisted of SSRI administration for approximately 12 weeks. Brain serotonin turnover before and after SSRI therapy. Brain serotonin turnover was significantly elevated in unmedicated patients with MDD compared with healthy subjects (mean [SD] internal jugular venoarterial 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid plasma concentration difference, 4.4 [4.3] vs 1.6 [2.4] nmol/L, respectively; P = .003). Analysis of the influence of the 5-HTT genotype in MDD indicated that carriage of the s allele compared with the l allele was associated with greater than a 2-fold increase in brain serotonin turnover (mean [SD] internal jugular venoarterial 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid plasma concentration difference, 6.5 [4.7] vs 2.7 [2.9] nmol/L, respectively; P = .04). Following SSRI therapy, brain serotonin turnover was substantially reduced (mean [SD] internal jugular venoarterial

  12. Regulation of Bone Metabolism by Serotonin.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Brigitte; Lian, Jane B; Mawe, Gary M

    2017-01-01

    The processes of bone growth and turnover are tightly regulated by the actions of various signaling molecules, including hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Imbalances in these processes can lead to skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis or high bone mass disease. It is becoming increasingly clear that serotonin can act through a number of mechanisms, and at different locations in the body, to influence the balance between bone formation and resorption. Its actions on bone metabolism can vary, based on its site of synthesis (central or peripheral) as well as the cells and subtypes of receptors that are activated. Within the central nervous system, serotonergic neurons act via the hypothalamus to suppress sympathetic input to the bone. Since sympathetic input inhibits bone formation, brain serotonin has a net positive effect on bone growth. Gut-derived serotonin is thought to inhibit bone growth by attenuating osteoblast proliferation via activation of receptors on pre-osteoblasts. There is also evidence that serotonin can be synthesized within the bone and act to modulate bone metabolism. Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes all have the machinery to synthesize serotonin, and they also express the serotonin-reuptake transporter (SERT). Understanding the roles of serotonin in the tightly balanced system of bone modeling and remodeling is a clinically relevant goal. This knowledge can clarify bone-related side effects of drugs that affect serotonin signaling, including serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and receptor agonists and antagonists, and it can potentially lead to therapeutic approaches for alleviating bone pathologies.

  13. Traumatic injury induces changes in the expression of the serotonin 1A receptor in the spinal cord of lampreys.

    PubMed

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Fernández-López, Blanca; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2014-02-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals, the loss of serotonin coming from the brainstem reduces the excitability of motor neurons and leads to a compensatory overexpression of serotonin receptors. Despite the key role of the serotonin receptor 1a in the control of locomotion, little attention has been put in the study of this receptor after SCI. In contrast to mammals, lampreys recover locomotion after a complete SCI, so, studies in this specie could help to understand events that lead to recovery of function. Here, we showed that in lampreys there is an acute increase in the expression of the serotonin 1A receptor transcript (5-ht1a) after SCI and a few weeks later expression levels go back to normal rostrally and caudally to the lesion. Overexpression of the 5-ht1a in rostral levels after SCI has not been reported in mammals, suggesting that this could be part of the plastic events that lead to the recovery of function in lampreys. The analysis of changes in 5-ht1a expression by zones (periventricular region and horizontally extended grey matter) showed that they followed the same pattern of changes detected in the spinal cord as a whole, with the exception of the caudal periventricular layer, where no significant differences were observed between control and experimental animals at any time post lesion. This suggests that different molecular signals act on the periventricular cells of the rostral and caudal regions to injury site and thus affecting their response to the injury in terms of expression of the 5-ht1a.

  14. Hypolocomotion, anxiety and serotonin syndrome-like behavior contribute to the complex phenotype of serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, A V; Fox, M A; Gallagher, P S; Murphy, D L

    2007-06-01

    Although mice with a targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been studied extensively using various tests, their complex behavioral phenotype is not yet fully understood. Here we assess in detail the behavior of adult female SERT wild type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout (-/-) mice on an isogenic C57BL/6J background subjected to a battery of behavioral paradigms. Overall, there were no differences in the ability to find food or a novel object, nest-building, self-grooming and its sequencing, and horizontal rod balancing, indicating unimpaired sensory functions, motor co-ordination and behavioral sequencing. In contrast, there were striking reductions in exploration and activity in novelty-based tests (novel object, sticky label and open field tests), accompanied by pronounced thigmotaxis, suggesting that combined hypolocomotion and anxiety (rather than purely anxiety) influence the SERT -/- behavioral phenotype. Social interaction behaviors were also markedly reduced. In addition, SERT -/- mice tended to move close to the ground, frequently displayed spontaneous Straub tail, tics, tremor and backward gait - a phenotype generally consistent with 'serotonin syndrome'-like behavior. In line with replicated evidence of much enhanced serotonin availability in SERT -/- mice, this serotonin syndrome-like state may represent a third factor contributing to their behavioral profile. An understanding of the emerging complexity of SERT -/- mouse behavior is crucial for a detailed dissection of their phenotype and for developing further neurobehavioral models using these mice.

  15. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  16. Acute serotonin depletion releases motivated inhibition of response vigour.

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Swart, Jennifer C; Schmidt, Kristin; Fekkes, Durk; Geurts, Dirk E M; Cools, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin has long been implicated in the motivational control of behaviour. Recent theories propose that the role of serotonin can be understood in terms of an interaction between a motivational and a behavioural activation axis. Experimental support for these ideas, however, has been mixed. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of serotonin (5HT) in behavioural vigour as a function of incentive motivation. We employed dietary acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower the 5HT precursor tryptophan during the performance of a speeded visual discrimination task. Feedback valence and feedback probability were manipulated independently and cued prior to target onset. On feedback trials, fast correct responses led to either reward or avoidance of punishment, while slow or incorrect responses led to reward omission or punishment. We show that behavioural responding is inhibited under high incentive motivation (i.e. high-feedback probability) at baseline 5HT levels and that lowering these leads to behavioural disinhibition, while leaving accuracy unaffected. Surprisingly, there were no differential effects of motivational valence, with 5HT depletion releasing behavioural inhibition under both appetitive and aversive motivation. Our findings extend current theories on the role of 5HT in behavioural inhibition by showing that reductions in serotonin lead to increased behavioural vigour only if there is a motivational drive to inhibit behaviour at baseline.

  17. Varying Success of Relaying To Reduce Vibrio parahaemolyticus Levels in Oysters ( Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael A; Yu, Jong W; Howell, Thomas L; Jones, Stephen H

    2018-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne human infections in the United States, and many of these illnesses are associated with consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish vary temporally and spatially with environmental conditions in and around production areas. The objective of this study was to study the potential for reducing levels of V. parahaemolyticus in live oysters by relaying them during higher-risk warm weather to a site with elevated salinity and consistently low V. parahaemolyticus levels. The effectiveness of relaying was assessed by analyzing oyster samples collected on days 0, 2, 7, 10, and 14 for V. parahaemolyticus levels using a three-tube most-probable-number enrichment method in conjunction with genetic marker-based quantitative PCR. The salinity at the relay site was always higher than the salinity at the harvest site, with the difference between the two sites ranging from 3.4 to 19.1 ppt (average, 12 ppt) during 2011 to 2014. Oysters relayed during June, July, and August in 2011 and 2012 showed consistently reduced V. parahaemolyticus levels after 14 days, whereas relaying was less successful and V. parahaemolyticus populations changed to include trh-positive strains during 2013. When effective, relay required at least 10 days to reduce V. parahaemolyticus levels. A sample of oysters collected in August 2012, which was temperature abused to increase initial V. parahaemolyticus levels, showed a 4.5-log decrease in V. parahaemolyticus levels after 14 days of relay. These results suggest that relaying oysters to reduce V. parahaemolyticus levels holds promise, but that both microbial community and environmental conditions at relay sites can affect relay success. Further investigation to discover key factors that affect V. parahaemolyticus levels in relayed oysters may aid in developing a consistent approach for reducing V. parahaemolyticus in oysters to eliminate the risk of illness for

  18. β-cell serotonin production is associated with female sex, old age, and diabetes-free condition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong Gi; Moon, Joon Ho; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Juok; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Lee, Junguee; Kang, Shinae; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hail

    2017-11-25

    Serotonin is known to be present in pancreatic β-cells and to play several physiological roles, including insulin secretion, β-cell proliferation, and paracrine inhibition of α-cells. However, the serotonin production of different cell lines and islets has not been compared based on age, sex, and diabetes related conditions. Here, we directly compared the serotonin concentrations in βTC and MIN6 cell lines, as well as in islets from mice using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average serotonin concentration was 5-10 ng/mg protein in the islets of male and non-pregnant female mice. The serotonin level was higher in females than males at 8 weeks, although there was no difference at 1 year. Furthermore, we observed serotonin by immunofluorescence staining in the pancreatic tissues of mice and human. Serotonin was detected by immunofluorescence staining in a portion of β-cells from islets of old female mice, but not of male or young female mice. A similar pattern was observed in human pancreas as well. In humans, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with a diabetes-free condition. Thus, serotonin production in β-cells was associated with old age, female sex, and diabetes-free condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyamines in serotonin and carrageenan paw edemata - possible mechanism to increase vascular permeability inhibitory protein level which is regulated by glucocorticoids and superoxide radical.

    PubMed

    Oyanagui, Y

    1984-02-01

    Serotonin paw edema of mice and carrageenan paw edema of rats were inhibited by subcutaneously or orally administered certain polyamines. They must be given at least 2 h before serotonin challenge to get inhibitions which were blocked by the concomitant injections of cycloheximide. Thirty percent inhibitory dose (ID30) of polyamines (s.c.) 3 h before serotonin (s.c.) were: spermidine (8 mg/kg), spermine 28 mg/kg) and putrescine (55 mg/kg). Agmatine, cadaverine, ornithine, citrulline, lysine and arginine were not inhibitory even at 200 mg/kg. Three inhibitory polyamines were effective by oral administration but were not inhibitory by local administration into the paws. Intravenous injections of spermidine also required 2 h of lag period for inhibitions. Serotonin edema was inhibited by dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 5 mg/kg) in lag period requiring manner (s.c. and i.v.). High dose of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors indomethacin and diclofenac sodium, lipo-oxygenase inhibitor BW755C (30 mg/kg s.c., respectively) and phospholipase A2 inhibitor quinacrine (100 mg/kg s.c.) failed to inhibit serotonin edema, suggesting that arachidonate metabolites are not participating in this model. ID30 of polyamines which were administered (s.c. and oral) to rats 3 h before carrageenan and determined at 3 h by paw weight were: spermidine (28 and 100 mg/kg), spermine (18 and 90 mg/kg) and putrescine (both greater than 200 mg/kg). Adrenalectomized rats responded to polyamines just as normal rats. Local vascular permeability, irritancy and acute toxicity were also tested in mice. Polyamines were proved to be glucocorticoid-type anti-inflammatory drugs. Polyamines may be mediators of glucocorticoids for the synthesis of the postulated vascular permeability inhibitory protein (called as 'vasoregulin' for convenience). Anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoid is recently explained by its capacity to induce phospholipase A2 inhibitory protein

  20. Placenta-derived hypo-serotonin situations in the developing forebrain cause autism.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kohji

    2013-04-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that is characterized by the behavioral traits of impaired social cognition and communication, and repetitive and/or obsessive behavior and interests. Although there are many theories and speculations about the pathogenetic causes of autism, the disruption of the serotonergic system is one of the most consistent and well-replicated findings. Recently, it has been reported that placenta-derived serotonin is the main source in embryonic day (E) 10-15 mouse forebrain, after that period, the serotonergic fibers start to supply serotonin into the forebrain. E 10-15 is the very important developing period, when cortical neurogenesis, migration and initial axon targeting are processed. Since all these events have been considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of autism and they are highly controlled by serotonin signals, the paucity of placenta-derived serotonin should have potential importance when the pathogenesis of autism is considered. I, thus, postulate a hypothesis that placenta-derived hypo-serotonin situations in the developing forebrain cause autism. The hypothesis is as follows. Various factors, such as inflammation, dysfunction of the placenta, together with genetic predispositions cause a decrease of placenta-derived serotonin levels. The decrease of placenta-derived serotonin levels leads to hypo-serotonergic situations in the forebrain of the fetus. The paucity of serotonin in the forebrain leads to mis-wiring in important regions which are responsible for the theory of mind. The paucity of serotonin in the forebrain also causes over-growth of serotonergic fibers. These disturbances result in network deficiency and aberration of the serotonergic system, leading to the autistic phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, S M; Clarke, G; Borre, Y E; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-01-15

    The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin functions as a key neurotransmitter at both terminals of this network. Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the gut microbiome in regulating normal functioning of this axis. In particular, it is becoming clear that the microbial influence on tryptophan metabolism and the serotonergic system may be an important node in such regulation. There is also substantial overlap between behaviours influenced by the gut microbiota and those which rely on intact serotonergic neurotransmission. The developing serotonergic system may be vulnerable to differential microbial colonisation patterns prior to the emergence of a stable adult-like gut microbiota. At the other extreme of life, the decreased diversity and stability of the gut microbiota may dictate serotonin-related health problems in the elderly. The mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk require further elaboration but may be related to the ability of the gut microbiota to control host tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway, thereby simultaneously reducing the fraction available for serotonin synthesis and increasing the production of neuroactive metabolites. The enzymes of this pathway are immune and stress-responsive, both systems which buttress the brain-gut axis. In addition, there are neural processes in the gastrointestinal tract which can be influenced by local alterations in serotonin concentrations with subsequent relay of signals along the scaffolding of the brain-gut axis to influence CNS neurotransmission. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota might be a viable treatment strategy for serotonin-related brain-gut axis disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased serotonin axons (immunoreactive to 5-HT transporter) in postmortem brains from young autism donors.

    PubMed

    Azmitia, Efrain C; Singh, Jorawer S; Whitaker-Azmitia, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Imaging studies of serotonin transporter binding or tryptophan retention in autistic patients suggest that the brain serotonin system is decreased. However, treatment with drugs which increase serotonin (5-HT) levels, specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly produce a worsening of the symptoms. In this study we examined 5-HT axons that were immunoreactive to a serotonin transporter (5-HTT) antibody in a number of postmortem brains from autistic patients and controls with no known diagnosis who ranged in age from 2 to 29 years. Fine, highly branched, and thick straight fibers were found in forebrain pathways (e.g. medial forebrain bundle, stria terminalis and ansa lenticularis). Many immunoreactive varicose fine fibers were seen in target areas (e.g. globus pallidus, amygdala and temporal cortex). Morphometric analysis of the stained axons at all ages studied indicated that the number of serotonin axons was increased in both pathways and terminal regions in cortex from autism donors. Our findings provide morphological evidence to warrant caution when using serotonin enhancing drugs (e.g. SSRIs and receptor agonist) to treat autistic children. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Serotonin modulates a depression-like state in Drosophila responsive to lithium treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Ariane-Saskia; Hermanns, Tim; Poeck, Burkhard; Strauss, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects millions of patients; however, the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Rodent models have been developed using chronic mild stress or unavoidable punishment (learned helplessness) to induce features of depression, like general inactivity and anhedonia. Here we report a three-day vibration-stress protocol for Drosophila that reduces voluntary behavioural activity. As in many MDD patients, lithium-chloride treatment can suppress this depression-like state in flies. The behavioural changes correlate with reduced serotonin (5-HT) release at the mushroom body (MB) and can be relieved by feeding the antidepressant 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan or sucrose, which results in elevated 5-HT levels in the brain. This relief is mediated by 5-HT-1A receptors in the α-/β-lobes of the MB, whereas 5-HT-1B receptors in the γ-lobes control behavioural inactivity. The central role of serotonin in modulating stress responses in flies and mammals indicates evolutionary conserved pathways that can provide targets for treatment and strategies to induce resilience. PMID:28585544

  4. On the possible quantum role of serotonin in consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tonello, Lucio; Cocchi, Massimo; Gabrielli, Fabio; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2015-09-01

    Cell membrane's fatty acids (FAs) have been carefully investigated in neurons and platelets in order to study a possible connection to psychopathologies. An important link between the FA distribution and membrane dynamics appears to emerge with the cytoskeleton dynamics. Microtubules (MTs) in particular have been implicated in some recent quantum consciousness models and analyses. The recently proposed quantum model of Craddock et al. (2014) states that MTs possess structural and functional characteristics that are consistent with collective quantum coherent excitations in the aromatic groups of their tryptophan residues. These excitations are consistent with a clocking mechanism on a sub-nanosecond scale. This mechanism and analogous phenomena in light-harvesting complexes in plants and bacteria, are induced by photons and have been touted as evidence of quantum processes in biology. A possible source of intra-cellular photons could be membrane lipid peroxidation processes, so the FA profile could then be linked to the bio-photon emission. The model presented here suggests new ways to understand the role serotonin plays in relation to FAs. In plants, tryptophan conversion of light to exciton energy can participate in the directional orientation of leaves toward sunlight. Since serotonin is structurally similar to tryptophan, in the human brain, neurons could use tryptophan to capture photons and also use serotonin to initiate movement toward the source of light. Hence, we postulate two possible new roles for serotonin: (1) as an antioxidant, in order to counter-balance the oxidative effect of FAs, and (2) to participate in quantum interactions with MTs, in the same way as anesthetics and psychoactive compounds have been recently shown to act. In this latter case, the FA profile could provide an indirect measure of serotonin levels.

  5. Serotonin and the Brain's Rich Club-Association Between Molecular Genetic Variation on the TPH2 Gene and the Structural Connectome.

    PubMed

    Markett, Sebastian; de Reus, Marcel A; Reuter, Martin; Montag, Christian; Weber, Bernd; Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; van den Heuvel, Martijn P

    2017-03-01

    The rich club comprises a densely mutually connected set of hub regions in the brain, thought to serve as a processing and integration core. We assessed the impact of normal variation of the tryptophane hydroxylase 2 gene's promotor region (TPH2 rs4570625) on structural connectivity of the rich club pathways by means of a candidate gene association design. Tryptophane hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin and is known to inhibit, in addition to its role as a trans-synaptic messenger, axonal and dendritic growth. The TPH2 T-variant has been associated with reduced mRNA expression and reduced serotonin levels, which may particularly influence the development of macroscale anatomical connectivity. Here, we show larger mean connectivity in the rich club in carriers of the T-variant, suggesting potential effects of upregulation of neural connectivity growth in this central core system. In addition, by edge-removal statistics, we show that the TPH2-associated higher levels of rich club connectivity are of importance for the functioning of the total structural network. The observed association is speculated to result from an effect of serotonin levels on brain development, potentially leading to stronger structural connectivity in heavily interconnected hubs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor Antagonists Pizotifen and Cyproheptadine Inhibit Serotonin-Enhanced Platelet Function

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Olivia A.; Karim, Zubair A.; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V. P.; Khasawneh, Fadi T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  7. Serotonin: Modulator of a Drive to Withdraw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tops, Mattie; Russo, Sascha; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Tucker, Don M.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin is a fundamental neuromodulator in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, with a suspected role in many human mental disorders. Yet, because of the complexity of serotonergic function, researchers have been unable to agree on a general theory. One function suggested for serotonin systems is the avoidance of threat. We propose…

  8. Perinatal MAO Inhibition Produces Long-Lasting Impairment of Serotonin Function in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Fillion, Myriam; Mejia, Jose; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M

    2018-06-11

    In addition to transmitter functions, many neuroamines have trophic or ontogenetic regulatory effects important to both normal and disordered brain development. In previous work (Mejia et al., 2002), we showed that pharmacologically inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity during murine gestation increases the prevalence of behaviors thought to reflect impulsivity and aggression. The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which this treatment influences dopamine and serotonin innervation of murine cortical and subcortical areas, as measured by regional density of dopamine (DAT) and serotonin transporters (SERT). We measured DAT and SERT densities at 3 developmental times (PND 14, 35 and 90) following inhibition of MAO A, or MAO B or both throughout murine gestation and early post-natal development. DAT binding was unaltered within the nigrostriatal pathway, but concurrent inhibition of MAO-A and MAO-B significantly and specifically reduced SERT binding by 10⁻25% in both the frontal cortex and raphe nuclei. Low levels of SERT binding persisted (PND 35, 90) after the termination (PND 21) of exposure to MAO inhibitors and was most marked in brain structures germane to the previously described behavioral changes. The relatively modest level of enzyme inhibition (25⁻40%) required to produce these effects mandates care in the use of any compound which might inhibit MAO activity during gestation.

  9. The effects of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in serotonin neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjun; Chen, Ligong; Paul, Jodi; Yang, Sufen; Li, Fuzeng; Sampson, Karen; Woodgett, Jim R; Beaulieu, Jean Martin; Gamble, Karen L; Li, Xiaohua

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a constitutively active protein kinase in brain. Increasing evidence has shown that GSK3 acts as a modulator in the serotonin neurotransmission system, including direct interaction with serotonin 1B (5-HT1B) receptors in a highly selective manner and prominent modulating effect on 5-HT1B receptor activity. In this study, we utilized the serotonin neuron-selective GSK3β knockout (snGSK3β-KO) mice to test if GSK3β in serotonin neurons selectively modulates 5-HT1B autoreceptor activity and function. The snGSK3β-KO mice were generated by crossbreeding GSK3β-floxed mice and ePet1-Cre mice. These mice had normal growth and physiological characteristics, similar numbers of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TpH2)-expressing serotonin neurons, and the same brain serotonin content as in littermate wild type mice. However, the expression of GSK3β in snGSK3β-KO mice was diminished in TpH2-expressing serotonin neurons. Compared to littermate wild type mice, snGSK3β-KO mice had a reduced response to the 5-HT1B receptor agonist anpirtoline in the regulation of serotonergic neuron firing, cAMP production, and serotonin release, whereas these animals displayed a normal response to the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT. The effect of anpirtoline on the horizontal, center, and vertical activities in the open field test was differentially affected by GSK3β depletion in serotonin neurons, wherein vertical activity, but not horizontal activity, was significantly altered in snGSK3β-KO mice. In addition, there was an enhanced anti-immobility response to anpirtoline in the tail suspension test in snGSK3β-KO mice. Therefore, results of this study demonstrated a serotonin neuron-targeting function of GSK3β by regulating 5-HT1B autoreceptors, which impacts serotonergic neuron firing, serotonin release, and serotonin-regulated behaviors.

  10. Long-term consumption of fish oil-enriched diet impairs serotonin hypophagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Regina L H; Andrade, Iracema S; Telles, Mônica M; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Casarini, Dulce E; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2010-10-01

    Hypothalamic serotonin inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. High-fat feeding is obesogenic, but the role of polyunsaturated fats is not well understood. This study examined the influence of different high-PUFA diets on serotonin-induced hypophagia, hypothalamic serotonin turnover, and hypothalamic protein levels of serotonin transporter (ST), and SR-1B and SR-2C receptors. Male Wistar rats received for 9 weeks from weaning a diet high in either soy oil or fish oil or low fat (control diet). Throughout 9 weeks, daily intake of fat diets decreased such that energy intake was similar to that of the control diet. However, the fish group developed heavier retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots. After 12 h of either 200 or 300 μg intracerebroventricular serotonin, food intake was significantly inhibited in control group (21-25%) and soy group (37-39%) but not in the fish group. Serotonin turnover was significantly lower in the fish group than in both the control group (-13%) and the soy group (-18%). SR-2C levels of fish group were lower than those of control group (50%, P = 0.02) and soy group (37%, P = 0.09). ST levels tended to decrease in the fish group in comparison to the control group (16%, P = 0.339) and the soy group (21%, P = 0.161). Thus, unlike the soy-oil diet, the fish-oil diet decreased hypothalamic serotonin turnover and SR-2C levels and abolished serotonin-induced hypophagia. Fish-diet rats were potentially hypophagic, suggesting that, at least up to this point in its course, the serotonergic impairment was either compensated by other factors or not of a sufficient extent to affect feeding. That fat pad weight increased in the absence of hyperphagia indicates that energy expenditure was affected by the serotonergic hypofunction.

  11. Response inhibition and serotonin in autism: a functional MRI study using acute tryptophan depletion

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Christine; Hallahan, Brian; Deeley, Quinton; Craig, Michael; Murphy, Clodagh; Johnston, Patrick; Spain, Debbie; Gillan, Nicola; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Brammer, Michael; Giampietro, Vincent; Lamar, Melissa; Page, Lisa; Toal, Fiona; Schmitz, Nicole; Cleare, Anthony; Robertson, Dene; Rubia, Katya; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the restricted, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours typically found in autism are underpinned by deficits of inhibitory control. The biological basis of this is unknown but may include differences in the modulatory role of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, which are implicated in the condition. However, this has never been tested directly. We therefore assessed the modifying role of serotonin on inhibitory brain function during a Go/No-Go task in 14 adults with autism and normal intelligence and 14 control subjects that did not differ in gender, age and intelligence. We undertook a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of acute tryptophan depletion using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Following sham, adults with autism relative to controls had reduced activation in key inhibitory regions of inferior frontal cortex and thalamus, but increased activation of caudate and cerebellum. However, brain activation was modulated in opposite ways by depletion in each group. Within autistic individuals depletion upregulated fronto-thalamic activations and downregulated striato-cerebellar activations toward control sham levels, completely ‘normalizing’ the fronto-cerebellar dysfunctions. The opposite pattern occurred in controls. Moreover, the severity of autism was related to the degree of differential modulation by depletion within frontal, striatal and thalamic regions. Our findings demonstrate that individuals with autism have abnormal inhibitory networks, and that serotonin has a differential, opposite, effect on them in adults with and without autism. Together these factors may partially explain the severity of autistic behaviours and/or provide a novel (tractable) treatment target. PMID:25070512

  12. Response inhibition and serotonin in autism: a functional MRI study using acute tryptophan depletion.

    PubMed

    Daly, Eileen; Ecker, Christine; Hallahan, Brian; Deeley, Quinton; Craig, Michael; Murphy, Clodagh; Johnston, Patrick; Spain, Debbie; Gillan, Nicola; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Brammer, Michael; Giampietro, Vincent; Lamar, Melissa; Page, Lisa; Toal, Fiona; Schmitz, Nicole; Cleare, Anthony; Robertson, Dene; Rubia, Katya; Murphy, Declan G M

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that the restricted, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours typically found in autism are underpinned by deficits of inhibitory control. The biological basis of this is unknown but may include differences in the modulatory role of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, which are implicated in the condition. However, this has never been tested directly. We therefore assessed the modifying role of serotonin on inhibitory brain function during a Go/No-Go task in 14 adults with autism and normal intelligence and 14 control subjects that did not differ in gender, age and intelligence. We undertook a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of acute tryptophan depletion using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Following sham, adults with autism relative to controls had reduced activation in key inhibitory regions of inferior frontal cortex and thalamus, but increased activation of caudate and cerebellum. However, brain activation was modulated in opposite ways by depletion in each group. Within autistic individuals depletion upregulated fronto-thalamic activations and downregulated striato-cerebellar activations toward control sham levels, completely 'normalizing' the fronto-cerebellar dysfunctions. The opposite pattern occurred in controls. Moreover, the severity of autism was related to the degree of differential modulation by depletion within frontal, striatal and thalamic regions. Our findings demonstrate that individuals with autism have abnormal inhibitory networks, and that serotonin has a differential, opposite, effect on them in adults with and without autism. Together these factors may partially explain the severity of autistic behaviours and/or provide a novel (tractable) treatment target. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  13. Serotonin research: contributions to understanding psychoses.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-09-01

    The history of serotonin research is closely related to the study of hallucinogenic drugs that function as agonists at serotonin-2A receptors. The fundamental idea that psychotic states seen in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia might be attributable, in part, to abnormalities in serotonergic systems began with the almost simultaneous discovery of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin and serotonin. Sixty years of study have confirmed early speculations regarding the important relationship between serotonin and both drug-induced and disorder-based psychotic states. Now, modern biochemical, pharmacological, behavioral, neuroimaging, genetic and molecular biological sciences are converging to understand how serotonergic systems interact with other monoaminergic and glutamatergic systems to modulate states of consciousness and contribute to psychotic disorders such as the group of schizophrenias. This review summarizes experimental assessments of the serotonergic hallucinogen model psychosis in relation to the serotonin hypothesis of schizophrenia.

  14. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  15. Reduced GNG2 expression levels in mouse malignant melanomas and human melanoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Hiro; Funasaka, Yoko; Suzuki, Tamio; Kato, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G protein is composed of a Gα-subunit and a Gβγ-dimer. Previous studies have revealed that Gβγ-dimers including the Gγ2 subunit (Gng2/GNG2) are associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and angiogenesis. At present, however, there is no information on the expression level of Gng2/GNG2 alone in any kind of tumor. In this study, we performed DNA microarray analysis in a benign melanocytic tumor and a malignant melanoma from RET-transgenic mice (RET-mice). Gng2 transcript expression levels in a malignant melanoma were less than 1/10 of the level in a benign tumor. The difference in Gng2 transcript expression levels between benign tumors and malignant melanomas was greatest among all of the G protein γ subunits examined in this study. Moreover, protein expression levels of Gng2 were decreased in malignant melanomas compared with those in benign melanocytic tumors in RET-mice. Analysis of human malignant melanomas also showed reduced GNG2 protein expression levels in five human malignant melanoma cell lines compared with the expression levels in normal human epithelial melanocytes (NHEM). Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that Gng2/GNG2 expression levels are reduced in malignant melanoma, suggesting that GNG2 could be a novel biomarker for malignant melanoma. PMID:22679562

  16. Reduced Heme Levels Underlie the Exponential Growth Defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Mezoian, Taylor; Hunt, Taylor M.; Keane, Meaghan L.; Leonard, Jessica N.; Scola, Shelby E.; Beer, Emma N.; Perdue, Sarah; Pellock, Brett J.

    2014-01-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA) function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step. PMID:25356668

  17. Snack intake is reduced using an implicit, high-level construal cue.

    PubMed

    Price, Menna; Higgs, Suzanne; Lee, Michelle

    2016-08-01

    Priming a high level construal has been shown to enhance self-control and reduce preference for indulgent food. Subtle visual cues have been shown to enhance the effects of a priming procedure. The current study therefore examined the combined impact of construal level and a visual cue reminder on the consumption of energy-dense snacks. A student and community-based adult sample with a wide age and body mass index (BMI) range (N = 176) were randomly assigned to a high or low construal condition in which a novel symbol was embedded. Afterward participants completed a taste test of ad libitum snack foods in the presence or absence of the symbol. The high (vs. the low) construal level prime successfully generated more abstract responses (p < .0001) and reduced intake when the cue-reminder was present (p = .02) but not when it was absent (p = .40). Priming high construal level thinking reduces consumption of high energy dense snacks in the presence of a visual cue-reminder. This may be a practical technique for reducing overeating and has the potential to be extended to other unhealthy behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Offshore suspension relaying to reduce levels of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed

    Motes, M L; DePaola, A

    1996-10-01

    Oysters naturally contaminated with 10(3) to 10(4) most probable numbers (MPN) of Vibrio vulnificus per g were relayed to offshore waters (salinity, 30 to 34 ppt), where they were suspended in racks at a depth of 7.6 m. V. vulnificus counts in oysters were reduced to < 10 MPN/g within 7 to 17 days in five of the six studies. At the end of the studies (17 to 49 days), V. vulnificus levels were reduced further and ranged from a mean of 0.23 to 2.6 MPN/g. Oyster mortalities during relaying were < 6%. The reduction of V. vulnificus in relayed oysters is associated with exposure to high-salinity environments essentially devoid of V. vulnificus. Offshore suspension relaying may be a method that industry can employ to reduce V. vulnificus levels in raw Gulf Coast oysters.

  19. Serotonin mediated immunoregulation and neural functions: Complicity in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Preeti; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Rajamma, Usha

    2015-08-01

    Serotonergic system has long been implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), since platelet hyperserotonemia is consistently observed in a subset of autistic patients, who respond well to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Apart from being a neurotransmitter, serotonin functions as a neurotrophic factor directing brain development and as an immunoregulator modulating immune responses. Serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates serotonin level in lymphoid tissues to ensure its proper functioning in innate and adaptive responses. Immunological molecules such as cytokines in turn regulate the transcription and activity of SERT. Dysregulation of serotonergic system could trigger signalling cascades that affect normal neural-immune interactions culminating in neurodevelopmental and neural connectivity defects precipitating behavioural abnormalities, or the disease phenotypes. Therefore, we suggest that a better understanding of the cross talk between serotonergic genes, immune systems and serotonergic neurotransmission will open wider avenues to develop pharmacological leads for addressing the core ASD behavioural deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-Level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals.

    PubMed

    Day, Sophia E; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G; Konty, Kevin J

    2016-03-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Using the New York City (NYC) 2009 YRBS, we created school-level poverty quartiles to append to individual YRBS records by ranking schools by %FRPM. We compared this with 2 other school-level poverty measures using students' home and school neighborhood-level poverty and measured the association of these 3 school-level proxies with individual's household income. Last, we evaluated health outcomes by race/ethnicity and poverty to demonstrate the importance of accounting for poverty. The school-level measure that used %FRPM had the strongest association with household income. When the school-level individual poverty proxy was included in illustrative analyses using YRBS data, patterns by poverty within race/ethnicity emerged that were not seen when looking at race/ethnicity alone. Using a poverty measure to analyze school-based data will provide a better understanding of the impact of SES on health outcomes. Based on our evaluation, when individual-level information is not available, we propose using school-level %FRPM, which are publicly available throughout the United States. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  1. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C; Roberts, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Background Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. Results We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Conclusion Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth. PMID:17572910

  2. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C; Roberts, Keith

    2007-06-17

    Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth.

  3. Maintaining reduced noise levels in a resource-constrained neonatal intensive care unit by operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, A; Denzil, S B; Linda, R; Josephine, P K; Nagapoornima, M; Suman Rao, P N; Swarna Rekha, A

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of operant conditioning in sustaining reduced noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Quasi-experimental study on quality of care. Level III NICU of a teaching hospital in south India. 26 staff employed in the NICU. (7 Doctors, 13 Nursing staff and 6 Nursing assistants). Operant conditioning of staff activity for 6 months. This method involves positive and negative reinforcement to condition the staff to modify noise generating activities. Comparing noise levels in decibel: A weighted [dB (A)] before conditioning with levels at 18 and 24 months after conditioning. Decibel: A weighted accounts for noise that is audible to human ears. Operant conditioning for 6 months sustains the reduced noise levels to within 62 dB in ventilator room 95% CI: 60.4 - 62.2 and isolation room (95% CI: 55.8 - 61.5). In the preterm room, noise can be maintained within 52 dB (95% CI: 50.8 - 52.6). This effect is statistically significant in all the rooms at 18 months (P = 0.001). At 24 months post conditioning there is a significant rebound of noise levels by 8.6, 6.7 and 9.9 dB in the ventilator, isolation and preterm room, respectively (P =0.001). Operant conditioning for 6 months was effective in sustaining reduced noise levels. At 18 months post conditioning, the noise levels were maintained within 62 dB (A), 60 dB (A) and 52 dB (A) in the ventilator, isolation and pre-term room, respectively. Conditioning needs to be repeated at 12 months in the ventilator room and at 18 months in the other rooms.

  4. Massage Therapy for Reducing Stress Hormones and Enhancing Immune Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    massage therapy (n=20), a relaxation therapy (n=20) or a control group (n=20). Women in the massage and relaxation therapies will receive 3 sessions a...women reveal for the massage therapy group 1) reduced anxiety, 2) improved mood, 3) increased serotonin and dopamine levels and 4) increased Natural

  5. Increased homocysteine levels impair reference memory and reduce cortical levels of acetylcholine in a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Dam, Kevin; Füchtemeier, Martina; Farr, Tracy D; Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Foddis, Marco; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Malysheva, Olga; Caudill, Marie A; Jadavji, Nafisa M

    2017-03-15

    Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion. Male and female Mthfr +/+ and Mthfr +/- mice were placed on either control (CD) or folic acid deficient (FADD) diets after which all animals underwent microcoil implantation around each common carotid artery or a sham procedure. Post-operatively animals were tested on the Morris water maze (MWM), y-maze, and rotarod. Animals had no motor impairments on the rotarod, y-maze, and could learn the location of the platform on the MWM. However, on day 8 of testing of MWM testing during the probe trial, Mthfr +/- FADD microcoil mice spent significantly less time in the target quadrant when compared to Mthfr +/- CD sham mice, suggesting impaired reference memory. All FADD mice had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine. MRI analysis revealed arterial remodeling was present in Mthfr +/- microcoil mice not Mthfr +/+ mice. Acetylcholine and related metabolites were reduced in cortical tissue because of microcoil implantation and elevated levels of homocysteine. Deficiencies in folate metabolism resulting in increased Hcy levels yield a metabolic profile that increases susceptibility to neurodegeneration in a mouse model of VCI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels reduce cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed

    Dean, Bonnie B; Borenstein, Jeff E; Henning, James M; Knight, Kevin; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2004-06-01

    The cardiovascular risk reduction observed in many trials of lipid-lowering agents is greater than expected on the basis of observed low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level reductions. Our objective was to explore the degree to which high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level changes explain cardiovascular risk reduction. A systematic review identified trials of lipid-lowering agents reporting changes in HDL-C and LDL-C levels and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). The observed relative risk reduction (RRR) in CHD morbidity and mortality rates was calculated. The expected RRR, given the treatment effect on total cholesterol level, was calculated for each trial with logistic regression coefficients from observational studies. The difference between observed and expected RRR was plotted against the change in HDL-C level, and a least-squares regression line was calculated. Fifty-one trials were identified. Nineteen statin trials addressed the association of HDL-C with CHD. Limited numbers of trials of other therapies precluded additional analyses. Among statin trials, therapy reduced total cholesterol levels as much as 32% and LDL-C levels as much as 45%. HDL-C level increases were <10%. Treatment effect on HDL-C levels was not a significant linear predictor of the difference in observed and expected CHD mortality rates, although we observed a trend in this direction (P =.08). Similarly, HDL-C effect was not a significant linear predictor of the difference between observed and expected RRRs for CHD morbidity (P =.20). Although a linear trend toward greater risk reduction was observed with greater effects on HDL-C, differences were not statistically significant. The narrow range of HDL-C level increases in the statin trials likely reduced our ability to detect a beneficial HDL-C effect, if present.

  7. Serotonin System Implication in l-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia: From Animal Models to Clinical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Manolo; Tronci, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In the recent years, the serotonin system has emerged as a key player in the induction of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. In fact, serotonin neurons possess the enzymatic machinery able to convert exogenous l-DOPA to dopamine (DA), and mediate its vesicular storage and release. However, serotonin neurons lack a feedback control mechanism able to regulate synaptic DA levels. While in a situation of partial DA depletion spared DA terminals can buffer DA released from serotonin neurons, the progression of DA neuron degeneration impairs this protective mechanism, causing swings in synaptic DA levels and pulsatile stimulation of post-synaptic DA receptors. In line with this view, removal of serotonin neurons by selective toxin, or pharmacological silencing of their activity, produced complete suppression of LID in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. In this article, we will revise the experimental evidence pointing to the important role of serotonin neurons in dyskinesia, and we will discuss the clinical implications. PMID:24904522

  8. Anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate reduces hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Jonas; Kindlundh, Anna M S; Nyberg, Fred; Bergström, Lena; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2003-10-03

    Supratherapeutical doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have dramatic effects on metabolism in humans, and also inhibit feeding and reduce the rate of body weight gain in rats. In order to test the hypothesis that the AAS metabolic syndrome is accompanied by alterations in the central melanocortin system, we evaluated body weight, food intake and hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AgRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels following administration of different doses of the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate. In order to distinguish changes induced by the steroid treatment per se from those resulting from the reduced food intake and growth rate, we also compared the effect of nandrolone decanoate on AgRP and POMC mRNA expression with both normally fed, and food restricted control groups. We here report that administration of nandrolone specifically reduces arcuate nucleus POMC mRNA levels while not affecting the expression level of AgRP. The effect on POMC expression was not observed in the food restricted controls, excluding the possibility that the observed effect was a mere response to the reduced food intake and body weight. These results raise the possibility that some of the metabolic and behavioural consequences of AAS abuse may be the result of alterations in the melanocortin system.

  9. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  10. Sarizotan, a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist and dopamine receptor ligand. 1. Neurochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Bartoszyk, G D; Van Amsterdam, C; Greiner, H E; Rautenberg, W; Russ, H; Seyfried, C A

    2004-02-01

    Sarizotan exhibited high affinities only to serotonin 5-HT1A receptors and dopamine DA D4>D3>D2 receptors with the profile of a 5-HT1A agonist and DA antagonist demonstrated by the inhibition of cAMP-stimulation and guinea pig ileum contraction, decreased accumulation of the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan and increased levels of 5-HT metabolites, increased accumulation of DA precursor dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and the reduced levels of DA metabolites in intact rats. However, sarizotan at higher doses decreased DA precursor accumulation in reserpinized rats and induced contralateral rotational behavior in unilaterally substantia nigra lesioned rats, indicating some intrinsic dopaminergic activity; at D2 receptors sarizotan may act as a partial agonist, depending on the dopaminergic impulse flow. Sarizotan represents a new approach for the treatment of extrapyramidal motor complications such as l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.

  11. Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan S.; Ward, Jennye; Hammond, David; Watson, Clifford H.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI) of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure. PMID:25411724

  12. Oxidative stress reduces levels of dysbindin-1A via its PEST domain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Mei-Yi Alicia; Lo, Yew-Long; Talbot, Konrad; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species has been proposed as an etiological factor in schizophrenia. The present study tests the hypothesis that oxidative stress can affect levels of dysbindin-1A, encoded by Dtnbp1, a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, via its PEST domain. In vitro studies on SH-SY5Y cells indicate that oxidative stress triggers proteasomal degradation of dysbindin-1A, and that this requires interactions with its PEST domain, which may be a TRIM32 target. We specifically found (a) that oxidative stress induced in SH-SY5Y cells by 500 µM hydrogen peroxide reduced levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but did not reduce levels of that protein lacking its PEST domain and (b) that levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but not dysbindin-1 lacking its PEST domain, were higher in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oxidative stress thus emerges as the first known cellular factor regulating dysbindin-1 isoforms with PEST domains. These findings are consistent with the previously noted fact that phosphorylation of PEST domains often marks proteins for proteasomal degradation, and raises the possibility that treatments reducing oxidative stress in the brain, especially during development, may lower schizophrenia risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeting Oxidative Stress, Cytokines and Serotonin Interactions Via Indoleamine 2, 3 Dioxygenase by Coenzyme Q10: Role in Suppressing Depressive Like Behavior in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abuelezz, Sally A; Hendawy, Nevien; Magdy, Yosra

    2017-06-01

    Depression is a major health problem in which oxidative stress and inflammation are inextricably connected in its pathophysiology. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an important anti-oxidant compound with anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective properties. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that CoQ10 by its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials can alleviate depressive- like behavior by restoring the balance of the tryptophan catabolites kynurenine/serotonin toward the serotonin pathway by down-regulation of hippocampal indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1). Depressive-like behavior was induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) protocol including food or water deprivation, cage tilting, reversed light cycle etc. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups; Control, CUMS, CUMS and CoQ10 (50,100 and 200 mg/kg/day i.p. respectively) groups. CoQ10 effects on different behavioral and biochemical tests were analyzed. CoQ10 showed significant antidepressant efficacy, as evidenced by significantly decreased stress induced changes to forced swimming challenge and open field test, as well as attenuating raised corticosterone level and adrenal glands weight. The anti-oxidant effect of CoQ10 was exhibited by its ability to significantly reduce hippocampal elevated malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal levels and elevate the reduced glutathione and catalase levels. CoQ10 significantly reduced different pro-inflammatory cytokines levels including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. It suppressed hippocampal IDO-1 and subsequent production of kynurenine and enhanced the hippocampal contents of tryptophan and serotonin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CoQ10 was able to attenuate the elevated microglial CD68 and elevate the astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein compared to CUMS group. CoQ10 exhibited antidepressant-like effects on rats exposed to CUMS. This could be attributed to its ability to reduce

  14. Azilsartan is associated with increased circulating angiotensin-(1-7) levels and reduced renovascular 20-HETE levels.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mairéad A; Kang, YounJung; Chander, Praveen N; Stier, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    Activation of angiotensin (ANG) II type 1 receptors (AT1R) promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, and renal dysfunction. In this study, we addressed the ability of azilsartan (AZL), a new AT1R antagonist, to modulate levels of plasma ANG-(1-7) and renal epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with ANG II (125 ng/min) or vehicle (VEH). AZL (3 mg/kg/day) or VEH was administered starting 1 day prior to ANG II or VEH infusion. On day 10, plasma was obtained for measurement of ANG-(1-7) and kidneys for isolation of microvessels for EET and 20-HETE determination and histological evaluation. Mean 24-hour blood pressure (BP) was not different between VEH and AZL treatment groups, whereas the BP elevation with ANG II infusion (121 ± 5 mm Hg) was completely normalized with AZL cotreatment (86 ± 3 mm Hg). The ANG II-induced renal damage was attenuated and cardiac hypertrophy prevented with AZL cotreatment. Plasma ANG-(1-7) levels (pg/ml) were increased with AZL treatment (219 ± 22) and AZL + ANG II infusion (264 ± 93) compared to VEH controls (74.62 ± 8). AZL treatment increased the ratio of EETs to their dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET) metabolites and reduced 20-HETE levels. Treatment with AZL completely antagonized the elevation of BP induced by ANG II, prevented cardiac hypertrophy, attenuated renal damage, and increased ANG-(1-7) and EET/DHET ratio while diminishing 20-HETE levels. Increased ANG-(1-7) and EETs levels may emerge as novel therapeutic mechanisms contributing to the antihypertensive and antihypertrophic actions of AZL treatment and their relative role compared to AT1R blockade may depend on the etiology of the hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A serum and platelet-rich plasma serotonin assay using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for monitoring of neuroendocrine tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Korse, Catharina M; Buning-Kager, Johanna C G M; Linders, Theodora C; Heijboer, Annemieke C; van den Broek, Daan; Tesselaar, Margot E T; van Tellingen, Olaf; van Rossum, Huub H

    2017-06-01

    Serotonin is used for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). We describe the analytical and clinical validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based serotonin assay for serum and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). An LC-MS/MS based method for serum and PRP serotonin was validated by determination of assay imprecision, carry-over, linearity, interference, recovery, sample stability and a matrix/method comparison of serum and PRP serotonin was made with whole blood serotonin. Furthermore, upper limits of normal were determined and serotonin concentrations of healthy individuals, 14 NET patients without evidence of disease and 51 NET patients with evidence of disease were compared. For serum and PRP fractions, total assay imprecision was <5%. All correlation coefficients were 0.98 and the serum and platelet-rich serotonin upper limit of normal were 5.5nmol/10 9 platelet and 5.1nmol/10 9 platelet, respectively. NET patients with confirmed evidence of disease had significantly higher serum and PRP serotonin levels when compared to NET patients without evidence of disease and healthy volunteers. LC-MS/MS based serum and PRP serotonin assays were developed with suitable analytical characteristics. Furthermore, serum and PRP serotonin was found to be useful for monitoring NET patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma Levels of Soluble Interleukin 1 Receptor Accessory Protein Are Reduced in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Chantal; Kulkarni, Hemant; Cummings, Nik; Diego, Vincent P.; Carless, Melanie A.; Shields, Katherine A.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Dyer, Thomas D.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Almasy, Laura; Zimmet, Paul; Moses, Eric K.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John; Jowett, Jeremy B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adipokines actuate chronic, low-grade inflammation through a complex network of immune markers, but the current understanding of these networks is incomplete. The soluble isoform of the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (sIL1RAP) occupies an important position in the inflammatory pathways involved in obesity. The pathogenetic and clinical influences of sIL1RAP are unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to elucidate whether plasma levels of sIL1RAP are reduced in obesity, using affluent clinical, biochemical, and genetic data from two diverse cohorts. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was conducted in two cohorts: the San Antonio Family Heart Study (n = 1397 individuals from 42 families) and South Asians living in Mauritius, n = 230). Main Outcome Measures: Plasma sIL1RAP levels were measured using an ELISA. The genetic basis of sIL1RAP levels were investigated using both a large-scale gene expression profiling study and a genome-wide association study. Results: A significant decrease in plasma sIL1RAP levels were observed in obese subjects, even after adjustment for age and sex. The sIL1RAP levels demonstrated a strong inverse association with obesity measures in both populations. All associations were more significant in females. Plasma sIL1RAP levels were significantly heritable, correlated with IL1RAP transcript levels (NM_134470), showed evidence for shared genetic influences with obesity measures and were significantly associated with the rs2885373 single-nucleotide polymorphism (P = 6.7 × 10−23) within the IL1RAP gene. Conclusions: Plasma sIL1RAP levels are reduced in obesity and can potentially act as biomarkers of obesity. Mechanistic studies are required to understand the exact contribution of sIL1RAP to the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:24915116

  17. Plasma levels of soluble interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein are reduced in obesity.

    PubMed

    Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Attard, Chantal; Kulkarni, Hemant; Cummings, Nik; Diego, Vincent P; Carless, Melanie A; Shields, Katherine A; Johnson, Matthew P; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Dyer, Thomas D; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Almasy, Laura; Zimmet, Paul; Moses, Eric K; Göring, Harald H H; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Jowett, Jeremy B M

    2014-09-01

    Adipokines actuate chronic, low-grade inflammation through a complex network of immune markers, but the current understanding of these networks is incomplete. The soluble isoform of the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (sIL1RAP) occupies an important position in the inflammatory pathways involved in obesity. The pathogenetic and clinical influences of sIL1RAP are unknown. The objective of the study was to elucidate whether plasma levels of sIL1RAP are reduced in obesity, using affluent clinical, biochemical, and genetic data from two diverse cohorts. The study was conducted in two cohorts: the San Antonio Family Heart Study (n = 1397 individuals from 42 families) and South Asians living in Mauritius, n = 230). Plasma sIL1RAP levels were measured using an ELISA. The genetic basis of sIL1RAP levels were investigated using both a large-scale gene expression profiling study and a genome-wide association study. A significant decrease in plasma sIL1RAP levels were observed in obese subjects, even after adjustment for age and sex. The sIL1RAP levels demonstrated a strong inverse association with obesity measures in both populations. All associations were more significant in females. Plasma sIL1RAP levels were significantly heritable, correlated with IL1RAP transcript levels (NM_134470), showed evidence for shared genetic influences with obesity measures and were significantly associated with the rs2885373 single-nucleotide polymorphism (P = 6.7 × 10(-23)) within the IL1RAP gene. Plasma sIL1RAP levels are reduced in obesity and can potentially act as biomarkers of obesity. Mechanistic studies are required to understand the exact contribution of sIL1RAP to the pathogenesis of obesity.

  18. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  19. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-05-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

  20. Reduced expression levels of PTEN are associated with decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yang; Zhang, Yanjun; Nan, Kejun; Liang, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The clinical resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has been linked to EGFR T790M resistance mutations or MET amplifications. Additional mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI drug resistance remain unclear. The present study demonstrated that icotinib significantly inhibited the proliferation and increased the apoptosis rate of HCC827 cells; the cellular mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were also significantly downregulated. To investigate the effect of PTEN expression levels on the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib, PTEN expression was silenced using a PTEN-specific small interfering RNA. The current study identified that the downregulation of PTEN expression levels may promote cellular proliferation in addition to decreasing the apoptosis of HCC827 cells, and may reduce the sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. These results suggested that reduced PTEN expression levels were associated with the decreased sensitivity of HCC827 cells to icotinib. Furthermore, PTEN expression levels may be a useful marker for predicting icotinib resistance and elucidating the resistance mechanisms underlying EGFR-mutated NSCLC. PMID:28521430

  1. Modulation of GDP-fucose level for generating proteins with reduced rate of fucosylation (WO2010141855).

    PubMed

    Taupin, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The application (WO2010141855) is in the field of glycobiology, and involves the control of the rate of fucosylation of proteins by exogenous factors. It aims at controlling the rate of protein fucosylation with inhibitors (drugs or nucleic acid antagonists) of enzymes involved in the synthesis of GDP-fucose. Mammalian cell lines were cultured in the presence of inhibitors, for example, siRNA. The rates of GDP-fucose in cells and during protein fucosylation were characterized. The level of protein fucosylation decreases rapidly in response to a decrease in GDP-fucose level. The relationship between the rate of fucosylation of proteins and the level of GDP-fucose in a cell is non-linear. Reduction in the rate of protein fucosylation can be achieved with a minimal reduction of the level of GDP-fucose in cells. The paradigm may be used to synthesize proteins and antibodies, with a reduced rate of fucosylation. The application claims that the use of drugs or nucleic acid antagonists that inhibit the enzymes involved in GDP-fucose biosynthesis optimizes the level of GDP-fucose present in cells, and reduces the rate of fucosylation of glycoproteins.

  2. Membrane of Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoplates with Angstrom-Level Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeongho; Li, Kunzhou; Yoon, Hong Sik; Yoon, Jeyong; Mok, Yeongbong; Lee, Yan; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Membranes with atomic level pores or constrictions are valuable for separation and catalysis. We report a graphene-based membrane with an interlayer spacing of 3.7 angstrom (Å). When graphene oxide nanoplates are functionalized and then reduced, the laminated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates or functionalized rGO membrane is little affected by an intercalated fluid, and the interlayer spacing of 3.7 Å increases only to 4.4 Å in wetted state, in contrast to the graphene oxide (GO) membrane whose interlayer spacing increases from 9 Å to 13 Å in wetted state. When applied to ion separation, this membrane reduced the permeation rate of small ions such as K+ and Na+ by three orders of magnitude compared to the GO membrane. PMID:27306853

  3. Senescence-Induced Serotonin Biosynthesis and Its Role in Delaying Senescence in Rice Leaves1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kiyoon; Kim, Young-Soon; Park, Sangkyu; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin, which is well known as a pineal hormone in mammals, plays a key role in conditions such as mood, eating disorders, and alcoholism. In plants, although serotonin has been suggested to be involved in several physiological roles, including flowering, morphogenesis, and adaptation to environmental changes, its regulation and functional roles are as yet not characterized at the molecular level. In this study, we found that serotonin is greatly accumulated in rice (Oryza sativa) leaves undergoing senescence induced by either nutrient deprivation or detachment, and its synthesis is closely coupled with transcriptional and enzymatic induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes as well as tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC). Transgenic rice plants that overexpressed TDC accumulated higher levels of serotonin than the wild type and showed delayed senescence of rice leaves. However, transgenic rice plants, in which expression of TDC was suppressed through an RNA interference (RNAi) system, produced less serotonin and senesced faster than the wild type, suggesting that serotonin is involved in attenuating leaf senescence. The senescence-retarding activity of serotonin is associated with its high antioxidant activity compared to either tryptophan or chlorogenic acid. Results of TDC overexpression and TDC RNAi plants suggest that TDC plays a rate-limiting role for serotonin accumulation, but the synthesis of serotonin depends on an absolute amount of tryptophan accumulation by the coordinate induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic genes. In addition, immunolocalization analysis revealed that serotonin was abundant in the vascular parenchyma cells, including companion cells and xylem-parenchyma cells, suggestive of its involvement in maintaining the cellular integrity of these cells for facilitating efficient nutrient recycling from senescing leaves to sink tissues during senescence. PMID:19439571

  4. Peripheral Serotonin 1B Receptor Transcription Predicts the Effect of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Risky Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Paul; Mancinelli, Federico; Lockwood, Patricia L; Matarin, Mar; Dolan, Raymond J; Wood, Nick W; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    The effects of acute tryptophan depletion on human decision-making suggest that serotonin modulates the processing of rewards and punishments. However, few studies have assessed which of the many types of serotonin receptors are responsible. Using a within-subject, double-blind, sham-controlled design in 26 subjects, we examined whether individual differences in serotonin system gene transcription, measured in peripheral blood, predicted the effect of acute tryptophan depletion on decision-making. Participants performed a task in which they chose between successive pairs of fixed, lower-stakes (control) and variable, higher-stakes (experimental) gambles, each involving wins or losses. In 21 participants, mRNA from 9 serotonin system genes was measured in whole blood prior to acute tryptophan depletion: 5-HT1B, 5-HT1F, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT3A, 5-HT3E, 5-HT7 (serotonin receptors), 5-HTT (the serotonin transporter), and tryptophan hydroxylase 1. Acute tryptophan depletion did not significantly influence participants' sensitivity to probability, wins, or losses, although there was a trend for a lower tendency to choose experimental gambles overall following depletion. Significant positive correlations, which survived correction for multiple comparisons, were detected between baseline 5-HT1B mRNA levels and acute tryptophan depletion-induced increases in both the overall tendency to choose the experimental gamble and sensitivity to wins. No significant relationship was observed with any other peripheral serotonin system markers. Computational analyses of decision-making data provided results consistent with these findings. These results suggest that the 5-HT1B receptor may modulate the effects of acute tryptophan depletion on risky decision-making. Peripheral levels of serotonin markers may predict response to treatments that act upon the serotonin system, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  5. Blunted epidermal L-tryptophan metabolism in vitiligo affects immune response and ROS scavenging by Fenton chemistry, part 1: Epidermal H2O2/ONOO(-)-mediated stress abrogates tryptophan hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase activities, leading to low serotonin and melatonin levels.

    PubMed

    Schallreuter, Karin U; Salem, Mohamed A E L; Gibbons, Nick C J; Martinez, Aurora; Slominski, Radomir; Lüdemann, Jürgen; Rokos, Hartmut

    2012-06-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by a progressive loss of inherited skin color. The cause of the disease is still unknown. To date, there is accumulating in vivo and in vitro evidence for massive oxidative stress via hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in the skin of affected individuals. Autoimmune etiology is the favored theory. Since depletion of the essential amino acid L-tryptophan (Trp) affects immune response mechanisms, we here looked at epidermal Trp metabolism via tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) with its downstream cascade, including serotonin and melatonin. Our in situ immunofluorescence and Western blot data reveal significantly lower TPH1 expression in patients with vitiligo. Expression is also low in melanocytes and keratinocytes under in vitro conditions. Although in vivo Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy proves the presence of 5-hydroxytryptophan, epidermal TPH activity is completely absent. Regulation of TPH via microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and L-type calcium channels is severely affected. Moreover, dopa decarboxylase (DDC) expression is significantly lower, in association with decreased serotonin and melatonin levels. Computer simulation supports H(2)O(2)/ONOO(-)-mediated oxidation/nitration of TPH1 and DDC, affecting, in turn, enzyme functionality. Taken together, our data point to depletion of epidermal Trp by Fenton chemistry and exclude melatonin as a relevant contributor to epidermal redox balance and immune response in vitiligo.

  6. Cortical serotonin-S2 receptor binding in Lewy body dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A V; Ferrier, I N; Morris, C M; Jabeen, S; Sahgal, A; McKeith, I G; Edwardson, J A; Perry, R H; Perry, E K

    1991-11-01

    The binding of the selective 5-HT2 antagonist [3H]ketanserin has been investigated in the temporal cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (SDAT), Parkinson's disease (PD), senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT) and neuropathologically normal subjects (control). 5-HT2 binding was reduced in SDAT, PD with dementia and SDLT. SDAT showed a 5-HT2 receptor deficit across most of the cortical layers. A significant decrease in 5-HT2 binding in the deep cortical layers was found in those SDLT cases without hallucinations. SDLT cases with hallucinations only showed a deficit in one upper layer. There was a significant difference in cortical layers III and V between SDLT without hallucinations and SDLT with hallucinations. The results confirm an abnormality of serotonin binding in various forms of dementia and suggest that preservation of 5-HT2 receptor in the temporal cortex may differentiate hallucinating from non-hallucinating cases of SDLT.

  7. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  8. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces oxidative stress in primary cortical neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Nagata, Kazuya; Tedford, Clark E; McCarthy, Thomas; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) involves absorption of photons being in the mitochondria of cells leading to improvement in electron transport, increased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and greater ATP production. Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by LLLT in normal cells that are beneficial. We exposed primary cultured murine cortical neurons to oxidative stressors: hydrogen peroxide, cobalt chloride and rotenone in the presence or absence of LLLT (3 J/cm², CW, 810 nm wavelength laser, 20 mW/cm²). Cell viability was determined by Prestoblue™ assay. ROS in mitochondria was detected using Mito-sox, while ROS in cytoplasm was detected with CellRox™. MMP was measured with tetramethylrhodamine. In normal neurons LLLT elevated MMP and increased ROS. In oxidatively-stressed cells LLLT increased MMP but reduced high ROS levels and protected cultured cortical neurons from death. Although LLLT increases ROS in normal neurons, it reduces ROS in oxidatively-stressed neurons. In both cases MMP is increased. These data may explain how LLLT can reduce clinical oxidative stress in various lesions while increasing ROS in cells in vitro. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Hydrogen gas alleviates oxygen toxicity by reducing hydroxyl radical levels in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junchao; Yu, Qiuhong; Liu, Yaling; Zhang, Ruiyun; Xue, Lianbi

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy through breathing oxygen at the pressure of above 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA) is useful for varieties of clinical conditions, especially hypoxic-ischemic diseases. Because of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), breathing oxygen gas at high pressures can cause oxygen toxicity in the central nervous system, leading to multiple neurological dysfunction, which limits the use of HBO therapy. Studies have shown that Hydrogen gas (H2) can diminish oxidative stress and effectively reduce active ROS associated with diseases. However, the effect of H2 on ROS generated from HBO therapy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 on ROS during HBO therapy using PC12 cells. PC12 cells cultured in medium were exposed to oxygen gas or mixed oxygen gas and H2 at 1 ATA or 5 ATA. Cells viability and oxidation products and ROS were determined. The data showed that H2 promoted the cell viability and inhibited the damage in the cell and mitochondria membrane, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation, and selectively decreased the levels of •OH but not disturbing the levels of O2•-, H2O2, or NO• in PC12 cells during HBO therapy. These results indicated that H2 effectively reduced •OH, protected cells against oxygen toxicity resulting from HBO therapy, and had no effect on other ROS. Our data supported that H2 could be potentially used as an antioxidant during HBO therapy. PMID:28362819

  10. Hydrogen gas alleviates oxygen toxicity by reducing hydroxyl radical levels in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junchao; Yu, Qiuhong; Liu, Yaling; Zhang, Ruiyun; Xue, Lianbi

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy through breathing oxygen at the pressure of above 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA) is useful for varieties of clinical conditions, especially hypoxic-ischemic diseases. Because of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), breathing oxygen gas at high pressures can cause oxygen toxicity in the central nervous system, leading to multiple neurological dysfunction, which limits the use of HBO therapy. Studies have shown that Hydrogen gas (H2) can diminish oxidative stress and effectively reduce active ROS associated with diseases. However, the effect of H2 on ROS generated from HBO therapy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 on ROS during HBO therapy using PC12 cells. PC12 cells cultured in medium were exposed to oxygen gas or mixed oxygen gas and H2 at 1 ATA or 5 ATA. Cells viability and oxidation products and ROS were determined. The data showed that H2 promoted the cell viability and inhibited the damage in the cell and mitochondria membrane, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation, and selectively decreased the levels of •OH but not disturbing the levels of O2•-, H2O2, or NO• in PC12 cells during HBO therapy. These results indicated that H2 effectively reduced •OH, protected cells against oxygen toxicity resulting from HBO therapy, and had no effect on other ROS. Our data supported that H2 could be potentially used as an antioxidant during HBO therapy.

  11. Role of serotonin in the regulation of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Erikci, Acelya; Ucar, Gulberk; Yabanoglu-Ciftci, Samiye

    2016-08-01

    In various renal injuries, tissue damage occurs and platelet activation is observed. Recent studies suggest that some factors, such as serotonin, are released into microenvironment upon platelet activation following renal injury. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether platelets and platelet-released serotonin are involved in the functional regulation of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs). PTECs were obtained by primary cell culture and treated with platelet lysate (PL) (2 × 10(6)/mL, 4 × 10(6)/mL, 8 × 10(6)/mL) or serotonin (1 μM or 5 μM) for 12 or 24 h. Phenotypic transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into myofibroblasts were demonstrated under light microscope and confirmed by the determination of α-smooth muscle actin gene expression. Serotonin and PL were shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation of PTECs. After stimulation of PTECs with serotonin or PL, matrix metalloproteinase-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and collagen-α1 gene expressions, which were reported to be elevated in renal injury, were determined by real-time PCR and found to be upregulated. Expressions of some inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in both protein and gene levels. Recently there is no published report on the effect of serotonin on renal PTECs. Results obtained in this study have lightened the role of serotonin and platelet-mediated effects of serotonin on fibrotic and inflammatory processes in PTECs.

  12. Serotonin-containing neurons in basal insects: In search of ground patterns among tetraconata.

    PubMed

    Stemme, Torben; Stern, Michael; Bicker, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    The ventral nerve cord of Tetraconata contains a comparably low number of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons, facilitating individual identification of cells and their characteristic neurite morphology. This offers the rather unique possibility of establishing homologies at the single cell level. Because phylogenetic relationships within Tetraconata are still discussed controversially, comparisons of individually identifiable neurons can help to unravel these issues. Serotonin immunoreactivity has been investigated in numerous tetraconate taxa, leading to reconstructions of hypothetical ground patterns for major lineages. However, detailed descriptions of basal insects are still missing, but are crucial for meaningful evolutionary considerations. We investigated the morphology of individually identifiable serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord of Zygentoma (Thermobia domestica, Lepisma saccharina, Atelura formicaria) and Archaeognatha (Machilis germanica, Dilta hibernica). To improve immunocytochemical resolution, we also performed preincubation experiments with 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan and serotonin. Additionally, we checked for immunolabeling of tryptophan hydroxylase, an enzyme associated with the synthesis of serotonin. Besides the generally identified groups of anterolateral, medial, and posterolateral neurons within each ganglion of the ventral nerve cord, we identified several other immunoreactive cells, which seem to have no correspondence in other tetraconates. Furthermore, we show that not all immunoreactive neurons produce serotonin, but have the capability for serotonin uptake. Comparisons with the patterns of serotonin-containing neurons in major tetraconate taxa suggest a close phylogenetic relationship of Remipedia, Cephalocarida, and Hexapoda, supporting the Miracrustacea hypothesis. J. Comp. Neurol., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:79-115, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  13. Treatment with liraglutide may improve markers of CVD reflected by reduced levels of apoB

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrechtsen, L.; Lundgren, J.; Wewer Albrechtsen, N. J.; Mahendran, Y.; Iepsen, E. W.; Finocchietto, P.; Jonsson, A. E.; Madsbad, S.; Holst, J. J.; Vestergaard, H.; Hansen, T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Dislipidaemia and increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in individuals with obesity are risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and weight maintenance with and without liraglutide treatment on plasma lipid profiles and apoB. Methods Fifty‐eight individuals with obesity (body mass index 34.5 ± 3.0 kg/m2 [mean ± SD]) were included in this study. After 8 weeks on a very low‐calorie diet (800 kcal/day), participants were randomized to weight maintenance with meal replacements with or without liraglutide (1.2 mg daily) for 1 year. Plasma samples from before and after weight loss and after 1 year of weight maintenance were subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance‐based lipidomics analysis. Results After an 8‐week low‐calorie diet, study participants lost 12.0 ± 2.9 kg (mean ± SD) of their body weight, which was reflected in their lipid profiles (80 out of 124 lipids changed significantly), including reduced levels of apoB, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein and very low‐density lipoprotein subclasses. After 1 year of maintained weight loss, the majority of the lipids had returned to pre‐weight loss levels even though weight loss was successfully maintained in both groups. Interestingly, apoB levels remained low in the liraglutide treated group (apoB change: 0.03 ± 0.02 mmol/L, p = 0.4) in contrast to an increase in the control group (apoB change: 0.06 ± 0.07 mmol/L, p = 0.02). Conclusion An 8‐week low‐calorie diet, in individuals with obesity, reduced plasma levels of lipids and the atherogenic marker apoB. After 1 year of weight maintenance, only study participants treated with liraglutide maintained reduced levels of apoB, despite similar body weight maintenance. Treatment with liraglutide may therefore reduce apoB levels and thus reflect lower

  14. Treatment with liraglutide may improve markers of CVD reflected by reduced levels of apoB.

    PubMed

    Engelbrechtsen, L; Lundgren, J; Wewer Albrechtsen, N J; Mahendran, Y; Iepsen, E W; Finocchietto, P; Jonsson, A E; Madsbad, S; Holst, J J; Vestergaard, H; Hansen, T; Torekov, S S

    2017-12-01

    Dislipidaemia and increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in individuals with obesity are risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and weight maintenance with and without liraglutide treatment on plasma lipid profiles and apoB. Fifty-eight individuals with obesity (body mass index 34.5 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 [mean ± SD]) were included in this study. After 8 weeks on a very low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day), participants were randomized to weight maintenance with meal replacements with or without liraglutide (1.2 mg daily) for 1 year. Plasma samples from before and after weight loss and after 1 year of weight maintenance were subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance-based lipidomics analysis. After an 8-week low-calorie diet, study participants lost 12.0 ± 2.9 kg (mean ± SD) of their body weight, which was reflected in their lipid profiles (80 out of 124 lipids changed significantly), including reduced levels of apoB, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein subclasses. After 1 year of maintained weight loss, the majority of the lipids had returned to pre-weight loss levels even though weight loss was successfully maintained in both groups. Interestingly, apoB levels remained low in the liraglutide treated group (apoB change: 0.03 ± 0.02 mmol/L, p = 0.4) in contrast to an increase in the control group (apoB change: 0.06 ± 0.07 mmol/L, p = 0.02). An 8-week low-calorie diet, in individuals with obesity, reduced plasma levels of lipids and the atherogenic marker apoB. After 1 year of weight maintenance, only study participants treated with liraglutide maintained reduced levels of apoB, despite similar body weight maintenance. Treatment with liraglutide may therefore reduce apoB levels and thus reflect lower CVD risk. Including apoB measurements in clinical practice when

  15. Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (Snris) for fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Patrick; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Klose, Petra; Walitt, Brian; Häuser, Winfried

    2018-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a clinically defined chronic condition of unknown etiology characterized by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep disturbances, cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. People with fibromyalgia often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Drug therapy, for example, with serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), focuses on reducing key symptoms and improving quality of life. This review updates and extends the 2013 version of this systematic review. Objectives To assess the efficacy, tolerability and safety of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) compared with placebo or other active drug(s) in the treatment of fibromyalgia in adults. Search methods For this update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, the US National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for published and ongoing trials and examined the reference lists of reviewed articles, to 8 August 2017. Selection criteria We selected randomized, controlled trials of any formulation of SNRIs against placebo or any other active treatment of fibromyalgia in adults. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently extracted data, examined study quality, and assessed risk of bias. For efficacy, we calculated the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) for pain relief of 50% or greater and of 30% or greater, patient's global impression to be much or very much improved, dropout rates due to lack of efficacy, and the standardized mean differences (SMD) for fatigue, sleep problems, health-related quality of life, mean pain intensity, depression, anxiety, disability, sexual function, cognitive disturbances and tenderness. For tolerability we calculated number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) for withdrawals due to adverse events and for nausea, insomnia and somnolence as specific adverse events

  16. Tomato juice supplementation in young women reduces inflammatory adipokine levels independently of body fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Fen; Chang, Ya-Yuan; Huang, Hui-Chi; Wu, Yi-Chen; Yang, Mei-Due; Chao, Pei-Min

    2015-05-01

    Lycopene is a carotene and phytochemical known to protect against metabolic diseases. It is found in red fruits and vegetables, predominantly tomatoes. This study aimed to show the supplementation effect of tomato juice on indices associated with metabolic health and adipokine profiles in generally healthy people. A total of 30 young females (20- to 30-years-old) with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 20 were recruited, of whom 25 completed the entire study. The subjects continued with their normal diet and exercise schedule, but were given 280 mL of tomato juice (containing 32.5 mg of lycopene) daily for 2 mo. Metabolic indices, including anthropometric data and serum levels of glucose, lipids, adipokines, lycopene, and antioxidants, were compared pre- and postintervention. Tomato juice supplementation significantly reduced body weight, body fat, waist circumference, BMI, and serum levels of cholesterol, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and thiobarbituric reactive substances, while significantly increasing serum levels of adiponectin, triglyceride, and lycopene. When subjects were stratified by body fat change, i.e., reduction or non-reduction (including increase or no change), the tomato juice-induced reduction in waist circumference, serum cholesterol, and MCP-1 levels and increase in adiponectin and lycopene levels were seen in both subgroups. The changes in waist circumference, cholesterol, MCP-1, and adiponectin levels remained significant after adjusting for each covariable individually, with the exception of lycopene. These results show that daily tomato juice supplementation reduces waist circumference, as well as serum cholesterol and inflammatory adipokine levels in young healthy women and that these effects are unrelated to body fat changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on neural activity related to risky decisions and monetary rewards in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Haahr, Mette E; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2014-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs targeting the dysfunctional serotonin (5-HT) system, yet little is known about the functional effects of prolonged serotonin reuptake inhibition in healthy individuals. Here we used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate how a three-week fluoxetine intervention influences neural activity related to risk taking and reward processing. Employing a double-blinded parallel-group design, 29 healthy young males were randomly assigned to receive 3 weeks of a daily dose of 40 mg fluoxetine or placebo. Participants underwent task-related fMRI prior to and after the three-week intervention while performing a card gambling task. The task required participants to choose between two decks of cards. Choices were associated with different risk levels and potential reward magnitudes. Relative to placebo, the SSRI intervention did not alter individual risk-choice preferences, but modified neural activity during decision-making and reward processing: During the choice phase, SSRI reduced the neural response to increasing risk in lateral orbitofrontal cortex, a key structure for value-based decision-making. During the outcome phase, a midbrain region showed an independent decrease in the responsiveness to rewarding outcomes. This midbrain cluster included the raphe nuclei from which serotonergic modulatory projections originate to both cortical and subcortical regions. The findings corroborate the involvement of the normally functioning 5HT-system in decision-making under risk and processing of monetary rewards. The data suggest that prolonged SSRI treatment might reduce emotional engagement by reducing the impact of risk during decision-making or the impact of reward during outcome evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Metabolism of serotonin in autism in children].

    PubMed

    Bursztejn, C; Ferrari, P; Dreux, C; Braconnier, A; Lancrenon, S

    1988-01-01

    In this controlled study of 22 autistic children and 22 normal controls matched for age and sex, the frequency of hyperserotonemia in infantile autism was confirmed. Platelet serotonin was elevated in patients. Comparative to controls, serotonin was also high in urine of autistic patients, while, on the contrary there was no difference for the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA. No difference was observed either for serotonin uptake and efflux or for MAO activity, in isolated platelets. The elevation of plasma free tryptophan - significant only with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test - suggests that 5-HT biosynthesis might be enhanced. In the group of patient reported in this study, disorders of serotonin metabolism are associated with disturbances of platelet catecholamines, and also with elevated immunoglobulins and enhanced cellular immunity reactions.

  19. Atorvastatin Reduces Plasma Levels of Chemokine (CXCL10) in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grip, Olof; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2009-01-01

    Background In Crohn's disease high tissue expression and serum levels of chemokines and their receptors are known to correlate with disease activity. Because statins can reduce chemokine expression in patients with coronary diseases, we wanted to test whether this can be achieved in patients with Crohn's disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated plasma levels of chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL26, CXCL8, CXCL10) and endothelial cytokines (sP-selectin, sE-selectin, sICAM-3, thrombomodulin) in ten Crohn's disease patients before and after thirteen weeks' daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin. Of the 13 substances investigated, only CXCL10 was found to be significantly reduced (by 34%, p = 0.026) in all of the treated patients. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.82, p<0.01). Conclusions/Significance CXCL10 is a ligand for the CXCR3 receptor, the activation of which results in the recruitment of T lymphocytes and the perpetuation of mucosal inflammation. Hence the reduction of plasma CXCL10 levels by atorvastatin may represent a candidate for an approach to the treatment of Crohns disease in the future. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00454545 PMID:19421322

  20. Reduced Hepatic Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Level in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Garrett; Muturi, Harrison T; Rezaei, Khadijeh; Al-Share, Qusai Y; DeAngelis, Anthony M; Bowman, Thomas A; Ghadieh, Hilda E; Ghanem, Simona S; Zhang, Deqiang; Garofalo, Robert S; Yin, Lei; Najjar, Sonia M

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of insulin clearance is being increasingly recognized as a critical step in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Null deletion or liver-specific inactivation of Ceacam1 in mice causes a defect in insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, and visceral obesity. Immunohistological analysis revealed reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obese subjects with fatty liver disease. Thus, we aimed to determine whether this occurs at the hepatocyte level in response to systemic extrahepatic factors and whether this holds across species. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrate that CEACAM1 mRNA and protein levels are reduced in liver tissues of obese individuals compared to their lean age-matched counterparts. Furthermore, Western analysis reveals a comparable reduction of CEACAM1 protein in primary hepatocytes derived from the same obese subjects. Similar to humans, Ceacam1 mRNA level, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis, is significantly reduced in the livers of obese Zucker ( fa/fa , ZDF) and Koletsky ( f/f ) rats relative to their age-matched lean counterparts. These studies demonstrate that the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obesity occurs at the level of hepatocytes and identify the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 as a common denominator of obesity across multiple species.

  1. Population-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Fred; Tyner, Elizabeth; Lorenc, Theo; Petticrew, Mark; Lock, Karen

    2013-10-01

    To analyse available review-level evidence on the effectiveness of population-level interventions in non-clinical settings to reduce alcohol consumption or related health or social harm. Health, social policy and specialist review databases between 2002 and 2012 were searched for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of population-level alcohol interventions on consumption or alcohol-related health or social outcomes. Data were extracted on review research aim, inclusion criteria, outcome indicators, results, conclusions and limitations. Reviews were quality-assessed using AMSTAR criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted overall and by policy area. Fifty-two reviews were included from ten policy areas. There is good evidence for policies and interventions to limit alcohol sale availability, to reduce drink-driving, to increase alcohol price or taxation. There is mixed evidence for family- and community-level interventions, school-based interventions, and interventions in the alcohol server setting and the mass media. There is weak evidence for workplace interventions and for interventions targeting illicit alcohol sales. There is evidence of the ineffectiveness of interventions in higher education settings. There is a pattern of support from the evidence base for regulatory or statutory enforcement interventions over local non-regulatory approaches targeting specific population groups. © 2013.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea and obesity are associated with reduced GPR 120 plasma levels in children.

    PubMed

    Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Peris, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common health problem, particularly in obese children, in whom a vicious cycle of obesity and OSA interdependencies promotes increased food intake. G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR 120) is a long-chain free fatty acid (FFA) receptor that plays an important role in energy homeostasis, and protects against insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that GPR 120 levels would be reduced in children with OSA, particularly among obese children. Cross-sectional prospectively recruited cohort. Academic pediatric sleep program. Two hundred twenty-six children (mean age: 7.0 ± 2.1 y) underwent overnight polysomnographic evaluation and a fasting blood draw the morning after the sleep study. In addition to lipid profile, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) assays, monocyte GPR 120 expression, and plasma GPR 120 levels were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Obese children and those with OSA had significantly lower GPR 120 monocyte expression and plasma GPR 120 levels. Furthermore, when both obesity and OSA were present, GPR 120 levels were lowest. Linear associations emerged between GPR 120 plasma levels and body mass index (BMI) z score, as well as with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) nadir, and respiratory arousal index (RAI), with RAI remaining statistically significant when controlling for age, ethnicity, sex, and BMI z score (P < 0.001). Similarly, HOMA-IR was significantly associated with GPR 120 levels, but neither low density lipoprotein nor high density lipoprotein cholesterol or hsCRP levels exhibited significant correlations. G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR 120) levels are reduced in pediatric OSA and obesity (particularly when both are present) and may play a role in modulating the degree of insulin resistance. The short- and long

  3. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced rotor speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Lemasurier, Philip; Smith, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will present far-field measured noise levels relative to tests conducted with a model S-76A helicopter. The project was designed to provide supplemental experimental flight data which may be used to further study reduced helicopter rotor speeds (and thus, advancing blade-tip Mach number) effects on far-field acoustic levels. The aircraft was flown in straight and level flight while operating with both the rotor speed and flight speed as test variables. The rotor speed was varied over the range of 107 percent of the main-rotor speed (NR) to 90 percent NR and with the forward flight speed varied over the range of 155 to 35 knots indicated air speed. These conditions produced a wide range of advancing blade-tip Mach numbers to which the noise data are related.

  4. Sulforaphane Restores Cellular Glutathione Levels and Reduces Chronic Periodontitis Neutrophil Hyperactivity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Irundika H. K.; Chapple, Ian L. C.; Milward, Mike; Grant, Melissa M.; Hill, Eric; Brown, James; Griffiths, Helen R.

    2013-01-01

    The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 . - by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients’ neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC), and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 . - production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis. PMID:23826097

  5. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dias, Irundika H K; Chapple, Ian L C; Milward, Mike; Grant, Melissa M; Hill, Eric; Brown, James; Griffiths, Helen R

    2013-01-01

    The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. -) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC), and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. -) production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  6. The serum vaspin levels are reduced in Japanese chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Junko; Wada, Jun; Teshigawara, Sanae; Hida, Kazuyuki; Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Takatori, Yuji; Kojo, Shoichirou; Akagi, Shigeru; Nakao, Kazushi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; McDonald, John F; Makino, Hirofumi

    2012-12-03

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine proteinase inhibitor (vaspin) is an adipokine identified in genetically obese rats that correlates with insulin resistance and obesity in humans. Recently, we found that 7% of the Japanese population with the minor allele sequence (A) of rs77060950 exhibit higher levels of serum vaspin. We therefore evaluated the serum vaspin levels in Japanese chronic hemodialysis patients. Healthy Japanese control volunteers (control; n = 95, 49.9 ± 6.91 years) and Japanese patients undergoing hemodialysis therapy (HD; n = 138, 51.4 ± 10.5 years) were enrolled in this study, and serum samples were subjected to the human vaspin RIA system. The measurement of the serum vaspin levels demonstrated that a fraction of control subjects (n = 5) and HD patients (n = 11) exhibited much higher levels (> 10 ng/ml; Vaspin High group), while the rest of the population exhibited lower levels (< 3 ng/ml; Vaspin Low group). By comparing the patients in the Vaspin Low group, the serum vaspin levels were found to be significantly higher in the control subjects (0.87 ± 0.24 ng/ml) than in the HD patients (0.32 ± 0.15 ng/ml) (p < 0.0001). In the stepwise regression analyses, the serum creatinine and triglyceride levels were found to be independently and significantly associated with the vaspin concentrations in all subjects. The creatinine levels are negatively correlated with the serum vaspin levels and were significantly reduced in the Japanese HD patients in the Vaspin Low group.

  7. Maintain levels of nicotine but reduce other smoke constituents: a formula for ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.C.; Young, J.C.; Rickert, W.S.

    Twenty-two volunteers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes with ''high'' nicotine yields (0.8 to 1.2 mg) per day participated in an 8-week study designed to test the hypothesis that smoking cigarettes with a constant level of nicotine but reduced deliveries of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide leads to a decrease in smoke absorption. All subjects smoked their usual high-nicotine brand for the first 3 weeks (P1), and the absorption of smoke constituents was determined from levels of thiocyanate and cotinine in saliva and serum, levels of carbon monoxide in expired air, and levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. Duringmore » the final 5 weeks (P2), the treatment group (16 subjects) switched to the ''light'' version of their usual brands (similar yields of nicotine but with reduced yields of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide); the control group (6 subjects) smoked their usual brands for the duration of the study. Average levels of cotinine for the subjects who switched during P2 were not significantly different from those of the control group as was expected. Slight reductions were noted in average expired-air carbon monoxide levels, blood carboxyhemoglobin, and saliva thiocyanate, but these reductions were smaller than anticipated based on brand characteristics. The results suggest that the ratio of smoke constituents is different when individuals, rather than machines, smoke cigarettes. Yields determined under subject-defined conditions are necessary in order to properly evaluate the role of nicotine in the design of ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes.« less

  8. Very low protein diet reduces indoxyl sulfate levels in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Marzocco, Stefania; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Di Micco, Lucia; Torraca, Serena; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Tartaglia, Domenico; Autore, Giuseppina; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2013-01-01

    High levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and increased mortality in CKD patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether a very low protein diet (VLPD; 0.3 g/kg bw/day), with a consequent low phosphorus intake, would reduce IS serum levels compared to a low protein diet (LPD; 0.6 g/kg bw/day) in CKD patients not yet on dialysis. This is a post hoc analysis of a preceding cross-over study aimed to analyze FGF23 during VLPD. Here we performed a prospective randomized controlled crossover study in which 32 patients were randomized to receive either a VLPD (0.3 g/kg bw/day) supplemented with ketoanalogues during the first week and an LPD during the second week (group A, n = 16), or an LPD during the first week and a VLPD during the second week (group B, n = 16 patients). IS serum levels were measured at baseline and at the end of each study period. We compared them to 24 hemodialysis patients (HD) and 14 healthy subjects (control). IS serum concentration was significantly higher in the HD (43.4 ± 12.3 µM) and CKD (11.1 ± 6.6 µM) groups compared to the control group (2.9 ± 1.1 µM; p < 0.001). IS levels also correlated with creatinine values in CKD patients (R(2) = 0.42; p < 0.0001). After only 1 week of a VLPD, even preceded by an LPD, CKD patients showed a significant reduction of IS serum levels (37%). VLPD supplemented with ketoanalogues reduced IS serum levels in CKD patients not yet on dialysis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Reduced Levels of Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid Are Associated with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Chinedu J.; Saville, William J. A.; Reed, Stephen M.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J.; Stich, Roger W.

    2002-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a disease of horses that is primarily associated with infection with the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona. Infection with this parasite alone is not sufficient to induce the disease, and the mechanism of neuropathogenesis associated with EPM has not been reported. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a neurotransmitter, a vasodilator, and an immune effector and is produced in response to several parasitic protozoa. The purpose of this work was to determine if the concentration of NO metabolites (NOx−) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is correlated with the development of EPM. CSF NOx− levels were measured before and after transport-stressed, acclimated, or dexamethasone-treated horses (n = 3 per group) were experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. CSF NOx− levels were also compared between horses that were diagnosed with EPM after natural infection with S. neurona and horses that did not have clinical signs of disease or that showed no evidence of infection with the parasite (n = 105). Among the experimentally infected animals, the mean CSF NOx− levels of the transport-stressed group, which had the most severe clinical signs, was reduced after infection, while these values were found to increase after infection in the remaining groups that had less severe signs of EPM. Under natural conditions, horses with EPM (n = 65) had a lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than clinically normal horses with antibodies (Abs) against S. neurona (n = 15) in CSF, and horses that developed ataxia (n = 81) had a significantly lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than horses that did not have neurologic signs (n = 24). In conclusion, lower CSF NOx− levels were associated with clinical EPM, suggesting that measurement of CSF NOx− levels could improve the accuracy of diagnostic tests that are based upon detection of S. neurona-specific Abs in CSF alone and that reduced NO levels could be causatively related to the development

  10. Oral midazolam reduces cortisol levels during local anaesthesia in children: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Heloisa Sousa; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Paiva, Saul Martins; Costa, Paulo Sérgio Sucasas; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether midazolam sedation can reduce salivary cortisol levels and consequently influence children's behaviour during dental treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of midazolam sedation on salivary cortisol and its correlation with children's behaviour during restorative dental treatment. Eighteen healthy children, aged two to five years, were randomly assigned to two dental treatment appointments, both with physical restraint: oral midazolam 1 mg/kg (MS) and placebo (PS). An observer assessed the children's behaviour (videos) using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS). The children's saliva was collected just after waking up, on arrival at the dental school, 25 minutes after local anaesthesia, and 25 minutes after the end of the procedure. Salivary cortisol levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The data were analysed by bivariate tests and multivariate analysis of variance (5% level). Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the MS group than in the PS group at the time of anaesthesia (p = 0.004), but did not vary during the appointment within sedation (p = 0.319) or placebo (p = 0.080) groups. Children's behaviour was negative most of the time and did not differ between MS and PS; however, the behaviour (OSUBRS) did not correlate with salivary cortisol levels. Oral midazolam is able to control salivary cortisol levels during dental treatment of pre-schoolers, which might not lead to better clinical behaviour.

  11. Addition of Garlic Extract in Ration to Reduce Cholesterol Level of Broiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, M. M. D.; Pantaya, D.; Agus, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the effect of garlic extract (GE) in reducing cholesterol level of broiler chicken by analyzing cholesterol level of broiler chicken blood. Two hundred one day broiler age were used in this study for 35 days. The chickens were randomly divided into four treatments, each treatment consist of five replications and each repetition consist of ten chickens. This research is used completely randomized design, such as: T0: 0% EBP, T1: 2%, T2: 4% and T3: 6%. Furthermore, at age 35 days each chicken was taken blood to be analyzed cholesterol levels, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calculated the ratio of LDL and HDL levels. The data obtained were analyzed using software from Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0). The results of significant analysis continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Addition of GE from the 2% level decreases (P <0.05) of LDL and total cholesterol, and increases HDL and HDL-LDL ratio. The conclusions is obtained garlic extract plays an important role in lowering cholesterol levels of broiler meat.

  12. Mice lacking the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor as an animal model of resistance to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvina Laura; Narboux-Nême, Nicolas; Boutourlinsky, Katia; Doly, Stéphane; Maroteaux, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Depressive disorders are among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric dysfunctions worldwide, with high rates of resistance to antidepressant treatment. Genetic factors clearly contribute to the manifestation of depression as well as to the response to antidepressants. Transgenic mouse models appear as seminal tools to disentangle this complex disorder. Here, we analyzed new key aspects of the phenotype of knock-out mice for the gene encoding the serotonin 2B receptor (Htr(2B)(-/-)), including basal phenotype, ability to develop a depressive-like phenotype upon chronic isolation, and effect of chronic exposure to fluoxetine on chronically stressed Htr(2B)(-/-) mice. We find, here, that Htr(2B)(-/-) mice display an antidepressant-like phenotype, which includes reduced latency to feed in the novelty suppressed feeding test, basal increase in hippocampal BDNF levels, no change in TrkB and p75 protein levels, and an increased preference for sucrose consumption compared to wild type (Htr(2B)(+/+)) mice. Nevertheless, we show that these mice can develop depressive-like behaviors when socially isolated during four weeks. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been previously shown to be ineffective in non-stressed Htr(2B)(-/-) mice. We evaluated, here, the effects of the SSRI fluoxetine in chronically stressed Htr(2B)(-/-) mice and similarly no behavioral or plastic effect was induced by this antidepressant. All together, these results highlight the suitability to study resistance to SSRI antidepressants of this mouse model displaying panoply of conditions among which behavioral, neurotrophic and plastic causative factors can be analyzed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulmonary serotonin and histamine in experimental asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, I.M.; Day, R.; Lemaire, S.

    1986-03-01

    Adult male Wistar rats were treated once with tracheal instillation of 5 mg Crysotile B asbestos fibers in 0.5 ml saline under ketamine/xylaxine anesthesia. Control rats (n = 37) received 0.5 ml saline. Test and control rats were killed at 7 and 14 d., and 1, 3 and 6 mo. post instillation. Serotonin (5-HT) was quantitated in lung tissue homogenate from all rats using HPLC and electrochemical detection. Among rats killed at 1, 3 and 6 mo., lung tissue histamine-o-phthaldialdehyde complex was quantitated using reverse phase HPLC coupled to a fluorometric detector. Furthermore, 5-HT was quantitated in the cytoplasm ofmore » grouped (NEB) and individual (NEC) neuroendocrine cells and in mast cells using formaldehyde-vapor-induced fluorescence and microspectrofluorometry, and mast cell numbers were determined. Test rats had higher pulmonary 5-HT and histamine levels than controls at 1, 3 and 6 mo. Test rats also had higher cellular 5-HT compared to controls in NEB's at 1 mo., but not in NECs, and tended to have higher 5-HT-levels in mast cells at 6 mo. Mast cell numbers were higher among tests at 1 and 3 mo. The authors results suggest that NEBs may contribute to the early asbestos induced rise in 5-HT, and that the major source of 5-HT and histamine is from the increased numbers of mast cells.« less

  14. Serotonin 6 receptor controls Alzheimer's disease and depression.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Sanghyeon; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-09-29

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression in late life are one of the most severe health problems in the world disorders. Serotonin 6 receptor (5-HT6R) has caused much interest for potential roles in AD and depression. However, a causative role of perturbed 5-HT6R function between two diseases was poorly defined. In the present study, we found that a 5-HT6R antagonist, SB271036 rescued memory impairment by attenuating the generation of Aβ via the inhibition of γ-secretase activity and the inactivation of astrocytes and microglia in the AD mouse model. It was found that the reduction of serotonin level was significantly recovered by SB271036, which was mediated by an indirect regulation of serotonergic neurons via GABA. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine significantly improved cognitive impairment and behavioral changes. In human brain of depression patients, we then identified the potential genes, amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2 (APBA2), well known AD modulators by integrating datasets from neuropathology, microarray, and RNA seq. studies with correlation analysis tools. And also, it was demonstrated in mouse models and patients of AD. These data indicate functional network of 5-HT6R between AD and depression.

  15. Fatal serotonin toxicity caused by moclobemide and fluoxetine overdose.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ling; Deng, Jou-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Both moclobemide and fluoxetine are used in the treatment of depression, and have been shown to produce fewer side effects than conventional tricyclic antidepressants. A combination of moclobemide and fluoxetine has been used in refractory depression, however there is potential for severe serotonin toxicity. We describe a lethal case of serotonin toxicity in a 36 year-old woman after she ingested multiple drugs, including moclobemide 4500 mg, fluoxetine 200 mg, propranolol 300 mg and several benzodiazepines. The clinical features included coma, mydriasis, hyperthermia, tremor, hyperreflexia, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure and respiratory insufficiency. Eventually, the patient died of disseminated intravascular coagulation and circulatory collapse at 22.5 h postingestion. Toxicological analysis of the patient's blood confirmed high levels of moclobemide 150 μg/mL (therapeutic 1-3 μg/mL), fluoxetine 3750 ng/mL (therapeutic 47-469 ng/mL) and several benzodiazepines. In conclusion, a combination of moclobemide and fluoxetine should be avoided in depressed patients with high suicidal tendencies. Moreover, early recognition and aggressive intervention are the mainstays in the management of potentially life-threatening serotonin toxicity.

  16. Revisiting the Serotonin Hypothesis: Implications for Major Depressive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fakhoury, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heritable neuropsychiatric disease associated with severe changes at cellular and molecular levels. Its diagnosis mainly relies on the characterization of a wide range of symptoms including changes in mood and behavior. Despite the availability of antidepressant drugs, 10 to 30 % of patients fail to respond after a single or multiple treatments, and the recurrence of depression among responsive patients is very high. Evidence from the past decades suggests that the brain neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is incriminated in MDD, and that a dysfunction of 5-HT receptors may play a role in the genesis of this disease. The 5-HT membrane transporter protein (SERT), which helps regulate the serotonergic transmission, is also implicated in MDD and is one of the main targets of antidepressant therapy. Although a number of behavioral tests and animal models have been developed to study depression, little is known about the neurobiological bases of MDD. Understanding the role of the serotonergic pathway will significantly help improve our knowledge of the pathophysiology of depression and may open up avenues for the development of new antidepressant drugs. The overarching goal of this review is to present recent findings from studies examining the serotonergic pathway in MDD, with a focus on SERT and the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A), serotonin 1B (5-HT1B), and serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors. This paper also describes some of the main molecules involved in the internalization of 5-HT receptors and illustrates the changes in 5-HT neurotransmission in knockout mice and animal model of depression.

  17. Reducing substance abuse during pregnancy. Discriminating among levels of response in a prenatal setting.

    PubMed

    Corse, S J; Smith, M

    1998-01-01

    Providers in prenatal care settings are well-positioned to help pregnant women with substance abuse problems take the first steps toward recovery. This study reports the results of the ANGELS Program, a program of enhanced prenatal care designed to reduce substance use among pregnant women. In a suburban office serving a broad range of pregnant women, certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) and on-site addictions counselors addressed substance abuse during prenatal care. This paper describes a cohort of 77 pregnant women who were identified as abusers of alcohol and/or other drugs at the start of pregnancy. According to a level of change rating assigned by the CNM at delivery, 51% of women were able to be largely abstinent during their pregnancy, 35% had reduced their use somewhat, and 14% had shown no change in use. Discriminant analysis techniques were used to learn what characteristics differentiated women in these three level of change groups. Baseline variables that differentiated the groups included severity of cocaine and cannabis use, psychosocial stressors, and initiation of prenatal care. Significant process variables included number of prenatal visits and contact with the addictions counselors. Clinical vignettes illustrate the differences among women in the three level of change groups. Implications of the results are discussed.

  18. Low levels of copper reduce the reproductive success of a mobile invertebrate predator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka-Man; Johnston, Emma L

    2007-09-01

    Marine organisms that occur in urbanised bays can be exposed to low-level chronic pollution that results in sublethal changes to behavior or reproduction. The effects of low levels of copper on the reproductive success of a mobile invertebrate were assessed. Free living flatworms are common predators of bivalves and barnacles. Flatworms (Stylochus pygmaeus) were exposed to low levels of copper ranging from 0 to 25 microg L(-1) in the presence and absence of their barnacle prey (Balanus variegatus). Flatworms laid fewer egg batches when exposed to copper and the hatching success of the eggs was also reduced. Exposure to 25 microg L(-1) copper for 10 d reduced the reproductive success of flatworms by up to 80%. Results were consistent regardless of the presence or absence of prey (barnacles). Barnacles were only moderately affected by copper but exhibited major avoidance behavior (feeding inhibition) in the presence of flatworm predators. This is the first ecotoxicological study on marine flatworms. Experiments are required to quantify the effects of flatworm predator populations on sessile invertebrate community structure in the field.

  19. Mutations in monoamine oxidase (MAO) genes in mice lead to hypersensitivity to serotonin-enhancing drugs: implications for drug side effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Fox, M A; Panessiti, M G; Moya, P R; Tolliver, T J; Chen, K; Shih, J C; Murphy, D L

    2013-12-01

    A possible side effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs is the serotonin syndrome, which can be lethal. Here we examined possible hypersensitivity to two such drugs, the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) and the atypical opioid tramadol, in mice lacking the genes for both monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB. MAOA/B-knockout (KO) mice displayed baseline serotonin syndrome behaviors, and these behavioral responses were highly exaggerated following 5-HTP or tramadol versus baseline and wild-type (WT) littermates. Compared with MAOA/B-WT mice, baseline tissue serotonin levels were increased ∼2.6-3.9-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. Following 5-HTP, serotonin levels were further increased ∼4.5-6.2-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. These exaggerated responses are in line with the exaggerated responses following serotonin-enhancing drugs that we previously observed in mice lacking the serotonin transporter (SERT). These findings provide a second genetic mouse model suggestive of possible human vulnerability to the serotonin syndrome in individuals with lesser-expressing MAO or SERT polymorphisms that confer serotonergic system changes.

  20. Increase in expression of brain serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase a genes induced by repeated experience of social defeats in male mice.

    PubMed

    Filipenko, M L; Beilina, A G; Alekseyenko, O V; Dolgov, V V; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2002-04-01

    Serotonin transporter and monoamine oxidase (MAO) A are involved in the inactivation of serotonin. The former is responsible for serotonin re-uptake from the synapse, whereas the latter catalyzes serotonin deamination in presynaptic terminals. Expression of serotonin transporter and MAO A genes was investigated in raphe nuclei of midbrain of CBA/Lac male mice with repeated experience of social victories or defeats in 10 daily aggressive confrontations. The amount of cDNA of these genes was evaluated using multiplex RT-PCR. Two independent experiments revealed that the defeated mice were characterized by significantly higher levels of serotonin transporter and MAO A mRNAs than the control and aggressive animals. Increased expression of MAO A and serotonin transporter genes is suggested to reflect the accelerated serotonin degradation in response to activation of the serotonergic system functioning induced by social stress. Significant positive correlation between MAO A and serotonin transporter mRNA levels suggests common pathways of regulation of transcriptional activity of these genes.

  1. Mutations in monoamine oxidase (MAO) genes in mice lead to hypersensitivity to serotonin-enhancing drugs: implications for drug side effects in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fox, MA; Panessiti, MG; Moya, PR; Tolliver, TJ; Chen, K; Shih, JC; Murphy, DL

    2012-01-01

    A possible side effect of serotonin-enhancing drugs is the serotonin syndrome, which can be lethal. Here we examined possible hypersensitivity to two such drugs, the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) and the atypical opioid tramadol, in mice lacking the genes for both monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB. MAOA/B-knockout (KO) mice displayed baseline serotonin syndrome behaviors, and these behavioral responses were highly exaggerated following 5-HTP or tramadol versus baseline and wild-type (WT) littermates. Compared with MAOA/B-WT mice, baseline tissue serotonin levels were increased ~2.6–3.9-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. Following 5-HTP, serotonin levels were further increased ~4.5–6.2-fold in MAOA/B-KO mice. These exaggerated responses are in line with the exaggerated responses following serotonin-enhancing drugs that we previously observed in mice lacking the serotonin transporter (SERT). These findings provide a second genetic mouse model suggestive of possible human vulnerability to the serotonin syndrome in individuals with lesser-expressing MAO or SERT polymorphisms that confer serotonergic system changes. PMID:22964922

  2. Serotonin syndrome: a complex but easily avoidable condition.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Yael; Smallwood, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction caused by excessive serotonergic agonism in central and peripheral nervous system serotonergic receptors (Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1112-1120). Symptoms are characterized by a triad of neuron-excitatory features, which include (a) neuromuscular hyperactivity -- tremor, clonus, myoclonus, hyperreflexia and, in advanced stages, pyramidal rigidity; (b) autonomic hyperactivity -- diaphoresis, fever, tachycardia and tachypnea; (c) altered mental status -- agitation, excitement and, in advanced stages, confusion (Gillman PK. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, opioid analgesics and serotonin toxicity. Br J Anaesth 2005;95:434-441). It arises when pharmacological agents increase serotonin neurotransmission at postsynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A and 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors through increased serotonin synthesis, decreased serotonin metabolism, increased serotonin release, inhibition of serotonin reuptake or direct agonism of the serotonin receptors (Houlihan D. Serotonin syndrome resulting from coadministration of tramodol, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:411-413). The etiology is often the result of therapeutic drug use, intentional overdosing of serotonergic agents or complex interactions between drugs that directly or indirectly modulate the serotonin system (Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1112-1120). Due to the increasing availability of agents with serotonergic activity, physicians need to more aware of serotonin syndrome. The following case highlights the complex nature in which serotonin syndrome can arise, as well as the proper recognition and treatment of a potentially life-threatening yet easily avoidable condition.

  3. Use of a scald additive to reduce levels of Salmonella typhimurium during poultry processing.

    PubMed

    McKee, S R; Townsend, J C; Bilgili, S F

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a scald additive, RP scald, to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) levels on inoculated poultry carcasses. The RP scald (contains sodium hydroxide) in a 1% solution has a pH of 11.0, which may reduce bacteria levels on carcasses. In this study, 600 broilers (Ross 708 straight run, 6 wk of age) with 300 broilers in each of 2 experimental trials were divided into 4 scald treatments (inoculated with ST) and 2 noninoculated groups. The treatment groups included 4 scald treatments (n = 50 per experimental group per trial): soft scald (SS; 50 degrees C for 90 s), soft scald with 1.0% added RP scald (SSRP), hard scald (56.6 degrees C for 45 s; HS), and hard scald with 1.0% added RP scald. The noninoculated groups (n = 50 per group per trial) are represented by SS0 and HS0. After defeathering, carcass rinses were collected for ST detection. Results indicated that inoculated broilers from hard scald with 1.0% added RP scald had the lowest Salmonella recovery, whereas carcasses from the SS treatment with no RP additive had the highest ST recovery. In trial 1, the SSRP was more effective in reducing ST than HS alone; however, this trend was not consistent. In trial 2, HS alone was more effective in ST reduction than SSRP. Within each scald temperature, the addition of RP scald increased ST reduction; therefore, RP scald may be effective in reducing ST on broiler carcasses in poultry scalder applications, particularly when hard scald temperatures are used.

  4. Reducing surgical levels by paraspinal mapping and diffusion tensor imaging techniques in lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Biao; Wan, Qi; Xu, Qi-Feng; Chen, Yi; Bai, Bo

    2016-04-25

    Correlating symptoms and physical examination findings with surgical levels based on common imaging results is not reliable. In patients who have no concordance between radiological and clinical symptoms, the surgical levels determined by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurogenic examination (NE) may lead to a more extensive surgery and significant complications. We aimed to confirm that whether the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and paraspinal mapping (PM) techniques can further prevent the occurrence of false positives with conventional MRI, distinguish which are clinically relevant from levels of cauda equina and/or nerve root lesions based on MRI, and determine and reduce the decompression levels of lumbar spinal stenosis than MRI + NE, while ensuring or improving surgical outcomes. We compared the data between patients who underwent MRI + (PM or DTI) and patients who underwent conventional MRI + NE to determine levels of decompression for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Outcome measures were assessed at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. One hundred fourteen patients (59 in the control group, 54 in the experimental group) underwent decompression. The levels of decompression determined by MRI + (PM or DTI) in the experimental group were significantly less than that determined by MRI + NE in the control group (p = 0.000). The surgical time, blood loss, and surgical transfusion were significantly less in the experimental group (p = 0.001, p = 0.011, p = 0.001, respectively). There were no differences in improvement of the visual analog scale back and leg pain (VAS-BP, VAS-LP) scores and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after operation between the experimental and control groups. MRI + (PM or DTI) showed clear benefits in determining decompression levels of lumbar spinal stenosis than MRI + NE. In patients with lumbar spinal

  5. Reduced N-acetylaspartate levels in the frontal cortex of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) users: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Liesbeth; Majoie, Charles B L M; Flick, Herman; den Heeten, Gerard J

    2002-02-01

    The perceived safety of the recreational drug methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), or Ecstasy, conflicts with animal evidence indicating that MDMA damages cortical serotonin (5-HT) neurons at doses similar to those used by humans. Few data are available about the effects of MDMA on the human brain. This study was designed to evaluate MDMA-related alterations in metabolite ratios with single-voxel proton ((1)H) MR spectroscopy. Fifteen male MDMA users (mean lifetime exposure, 723 tablets; mean time since last tablet, 12.0 weeks) and 12 age-matched control subjects underwent single-voxel (1)H MR spectroscopy. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), NAA/Choline (Cho), and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were measured in midfrontal gray matter, midoccipital gray matter, and right parietal white matter. Data were analyzed with linear model-based multivariate analysis of variance. NAA/Cr (P =.04) and NAA/Cho (P =.03) ratios, markers associated with neuronal loss or dysfunction, were reduced in the frontal cortex of MDMA users. Neither NAA/Cr (P =.72) nor NAA/Cho (P =.12) ratios were different between both groups in occipital gray matter and parietal white matter (P =.18). Extent of previous MDMA use and frontal cortical NAA/Cr (rho = -.50, P =.012) or NAA/Cho (rho = -.550, P <.01) ratios were significantly associated. Reduced NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios at (1)H MR spectroscopy provide evidence for neuronal abnormality in the frontal cortex of MDMA users; these are correlated with the degree of MDMA exposure. These data suggest that MDMA may be a neurotoxin in humans, as it is in animals.

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce insulin and very low density lipoprotein levels in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Crespo, N; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different dietary fatty acid profiles on plasma levels of insulin, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), cholesterol, and glucose. Diets with four types of fat (tallow, olive, sunflower, and linseed oils) at an inclusion level of 10% and a basal diet without additional fat were administered to female broiler chickens. Serum insulin, cholesterol, and plasma VLDL were affected by the different treatments; however, glucose concentrations were similar among treatments. In the fasted state, broilers fed diets with sunflower or linseed oil presented lower levels of insulin and cholesterol with respect to those fed tallow or olive oil (P < 0.05). VLDL in the fasted state was reduced in broilers fed sunflower and linseed oils (P < 0.05) with respect to those fed tallow, olive oil, or the basal diet. Plasma levels of VLDL were only significantly correlated with abdominal fat in birds fed the basal diet, in the fed and in the fasted state, and in those fed linseed oil in the fed state (P < 0.05). Results of this experiment suggest that higher insulin levels in broilers fed diets rich in saturated fatty acids could be related to higher fat deposition. Fat deposition in birds fed high fat diets was not correlated with circulating VLDL, which suggested direct dietary fat deposition, except for birds fed linseed oil diets. Although birds fed linseed oil diets presented lower levels of VLDL than those fed tallow, olive oil, or the basal diet, the higher correlation with abdominal fat suggests that in these birds, fat deposition is more dependent on hepatic VLDL secretion, despite the high dietary fat level.

  7. Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbasava2@illinois.edu; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Hernandez-Ochoa, Isabel, E-mail: mihernandez@cinvestav.mx

    2011-06-15

    The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E{sub 2}) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24 h for 96 h. In addition,more » sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E{sub 2} metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E{sub 2}, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P{sub 4}) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels. - Highlights: > MXC inhibits steroidogenesis > MXC inhibits steroidogenic enzymes > MXC induces metabolic enzymes« less

  8. Totally confined explosive welding. [apparatus to reduce noise level and protect personnel during explosive bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The shape of the enclosure, the placement of the explosive, and the manner in which the enclosure is placed upon the material to be welded determine the force of the explosion transmitted to the proposed bond area. The explosion is totally confined within the enclosure thus reducing the noise level and preventing debris from being strewn about to contaminate the weld area or create personnel hazards.

  9. Phosphorus speciation by coupled HPLC-ICPMS: low level determination of reduced phosphorus in natural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Zachary; Pasek, Matthew; Sampson, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus is a geologically important minor element in the Earth's crust commonly found as relatively insoluble apatite. This constraint causes phosphorus to be a key limiting nutrient in biologic processes. Despite this, phosphorus plays a direct role in the formation of DNA, RNA and other cellular materials. Recent works suggest that since reduced phosphorus is considerably more soluble than oxidized phosphorus that it was integrally involved in the development of life on the early Earth and may continue to play a role in biologic productivity to this day. This work examines a new method for quantification and identification of reduced phosphorus as well as applications to the speciation of organo-phosphates separated by coupled HPLC - ICP-MS. We show that reduced phosphorus species (P1+, P3+ and P5+) are cleanly separated in the HPLC and coupled with the ICPMS reaction cell, using oxygen as a reaction gas to effectively convert elemental P to P-O. Analysis at M/Z= 47 producing lower background and flatter baseline chromatography than analyses performed at M/Z = 31. Results suggest very low detection limits (0.05 μM) for P species analyzed as P-O. Additionally we show that this technique has potential to speciate at least 5 other forms of phosphorus compounds. We verified the efficacy of method on numerous materials including leached Archean rocks, suburban retention pond waters, blood and urine samples and most samples show small but detectible levels of reduced phosphorus and or organo-phaospates. This finding in nearly all substances analyzed supports the assumption that the redox processing of phosphorus has played a significant role throughout the history of the Earth and it's presence in the present environment is nearly ubiquitous with the reduced oxidation state phosphorus compounds, phosphite and hypophosphite, potentially acting as significant constituents in the anaerobic environment.

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, water use, and grain arsenic levels in rice systems.

    PubMed

    Linquist, Bruce A; Anders, Merle M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria Arlene A; Chaney, Rufus L; Nalley, L Lanier; da Rosa, Eliete F F; van Kessel, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is faced with the challenge of providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. Rice (Oryza sativa), the staple crop for the largest number of people on earth, is grown under flooded soil conditions and uses more water and has higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than most crops. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that alternate wetting and drying (AWD--flooding the soil and then allowing to dry down before being reflooded) water management practices will maintain grain yields and concurrently reduce water use, greenhouse gas emissions and arsenic (As) levels in rice. Various treatments ranging in frequency and duration of AWD practices were evaluated at three locations over 2 years. Relative to the flooded control treatment and depending on the AWD treatment, yields were reduced by <1-13%; water-use efficiency was improved by 18-63%, global warming potential (GWP of CH4 and N2 O emissions) reduced by 45-90%, and grain As concentrations reduced by up to 64%. In general, as the severity of AWD increased by allowing the soil to dry out more between flood events, yields declined while the other benefits increased. The reduction in GWP was mostly attributed to a reduction in CH4 emissions as changes in N2 O emissions were minimal among treatments. When AWD was practiced early in the growing season followed by flooding for remainder of season, similar yields as the flooded control were obtained but reduced water use (18%), GWP (45%) and yield-scaled GWP (45%); although grain As concentrations were similar or higher. This highlights that multiple environmental benefits can be realized without sacrificing yield but there may be trade-offs to consider. Importantly, adoption of these practices will require that they are economically attractive and can be adapted to field scales. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Rising sea levels will reduce extreme temperature variations in tide-dominated reef habitats

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Temperatures within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal temperature extremes within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal temperature extremes. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest temperature extremes globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce temperature extremes within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming. PMID:27540589

  12. Rising sea levels will reduce extreme temperature variations in tide-dominated reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Ryan Joseph; Pivan, Xavier; Falter, James; Symonds, Graham; Gruber, Renee

    2016-08-01

    Temperatures within shallow reefs often differ substantially from those in the surrounding ocean; therefore, predicting future patterns of thermal stresses and bleaching at the scale of reefs depends on accurately predicting reef heat budgets. We present a new framework for quantifying how tidal and solar heating cycles interact with reef morphology to control diurnal temperature extremes within shallow, tidally forced reefs. Using data from northwestern Australia, we construct a heat budget model to investigate how frequency differences between the dominant lunar semidiurnal tide and diurnal solar cycle drive ~15-day modulations in diurnal temperature extremes. The model is extended to show how reefs with tidal amplitudes comparable to their depth, relative to mean sea level, tend to experience the largest temperature extremes globally. As a consequence, we reveal how even a modest sea level rise can substantially reduce temperature extremes within tide-dominated reefs, thereby partially offsetting the local effects of future ocean warming.

  13. High-fat diet transition reduces brain DHA levels associated with altered brain plasticity and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sandeep; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess how the shift from a healthy diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids to a diet rich in saturated fatty acid affects the substrates for brain plasticity and function, we used pregnant rats fed with omega-3 supplemented diet from their 2nd day of gestation period as well as their male pups for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the animals were randomly assigned to either a group fed on the same diet or a group fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fats for 3 weeks. We found that the HFD increased vulnerability for anxiety-like behavior, and that these modifications harmonized with changes in the anxiety-related NPY1 receptor and the reduced levels of BDNF, and its signalling receptor pTrkB, as well as the CREB protein. Brain DHA contents were significantly associated with the levels of anxiety-like behavior in these rats. PMID:22666534

  14. Randomized Trial to Reduce Air Particle Levels in Homes of Smokers and Children.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Suzanne C; Bellettiere, John; Nguyen, Benjamin; Liles, Sandy; Klepeis, Neil E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Berardi, Vincent; Obayashi, Saori; Bradley, Savannah; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter in the home from sources such as smoking, cooking, and cleaning may put residents, especially children, at risk for detrimental health effects. A randomized clinical trial was conducted from 2011 to 2016 to determine whether real-time feedback in the home plus brief coaching of parents or guardians could reduce fine particle levels in homes with smokers and children. A randomized trial with two groups-intervention and control. A total of 298 participants from predominantly low-income households with an adult smoker and a child aged <14 years. Participants were recruited during 2012-2015 from multiple sources in San Diego, mainly Women, Infants and Children Program sites. The multicomponent intervention consisted of continuous lights and brief sound alerts based on fine particle levels in real time and four brief coaching sessions using particle level graphs and motivational interviewing techniques. Motivational interviewing coaching focused on particle reduction to protect children and other occupants from elevated particle levels, especially from tobacco-related sources. In-home air particle levels were measured by laser particle counters continuously in both study groups. The two outcomes were daily mean particle counts and percentage time with high particle concentrations (>15,000 particles/0.01 ft 3 ). Linear mixed models were used to analyze the differential change in the outcomes over time by group, during 2016-2017. Intervention homes had significantly larger reductions than controls in daily geometric mean particle concentrations (18.8% reduction vs 6.5% reduction, p<0.001). Intervention homes' average percentage time with high particle concentrations decreased 45.1% compared with a 4.2% increase among controls (difference between groups p<0.001). Real-time feedback for air particle levels and brief coaching can reduce fine particle levels in homes with smokers and young children. Results set the stage for refining

  15. Switching brain serotonin with oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Mottolese, Raphaelle; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Le Bars, Didier; Sirigu, Angela

    2014-06-10

    Serotonin (5-HT) and oxytocin (OXT) are two neuromodulators involved in human affect and sociality and in disorders like depression and autism. We asked whether these chemical messengers interact in the regulation of emotion-based behavior by administering OXT or placebo to 24 healthy subjects and mapping cerebral 5-HT system by using 2'-methoxyphenyl-(N-2'-pyridinyl)-p-[(18)F]fluoro-benzamidoethylpiperazine ([(18)F]MPPF), an antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors. OXT increased [(18)F]MPPF nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the core area of 5-HT synthesis, and in the amygdala/hippocampal complex, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex. Importantly, the amygdala appears central in the regulation of 5-HT by OXT: [(18)F]MPPF BPND changes in the DRN correlated with changes in right amygdala, which were in turn correlated with changes in hippocampus, insula, subgenual, and orbitofrontal cortex, a circuit implicated in the control of stress, mood, and social behaviors. OXT administration is known to inhibit amygdala activity and results in a decrease of anxiety, whereas high amygdala activity and 5-HT dysregulation have been associated with increased anxiety. The present study reveals a previously unidentified form of interaction between these two systems in the human brain, i.e., the role of OXT in the inhibitory regulation of 5-HT signaling, which could lead to novel therapeutic strategies for mental disorders.

  16. Reduced fasting plasma levels of diazepam-binding inhibitor in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Conti, Elisa; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Bomba, Monica; Uccellini, Orlando; Rossi, Maria Sara; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Neri, Francesca; Ferrarese, Carlo; Nacinovich, Renata

    2013-09-01

    Altered expression and/or function, both peripherally and centrally, of various neuropeptides is involved in the neurophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) is an interesting peptide for understanding this crosstalk. The aim of this work was to assess fasting plasma levels of DBI and leptin in patients with AN. Twenty-four AN adolescents were recruited together with 10 age-comparable healthy controls. Neuropeptide determinations were performed on plasma samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients with AN were further characterized for the presence of a depressive state or anxiety by using, respectively, the Children's Depression Inventory or the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y. Levels of both plasma DBI and leptin were reduced in patients with AN (∼40 and ∼70%, respectively). DBI levels displayed a tendency to increase in the presence of a depressive state, although not with anxiety, whereas leptin levels correlated exclusively with body mass index. These data further extend our knowledge of neuropeptide dysfunction in AN, and plasma DBI may represent a marker for this disease, in particular considering its correlation with comorbid mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Podojil, G.; McCollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-11-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept of enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbit is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  18. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, K. K.; Podojil, G.; Mccollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept for enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbits is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  19. Leveling coatings for reducing the atomic oxygen defect density in protected graphite fiber epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Podojil, G.; Mccollum, T.; Anzic, J.

    1992-01-01

    Pinholes or other defect sites in a protective oxide coating provide pathways for atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit to reach underlying material. One concept of enhancing the lifetime of materials in low Earth orbit is to apply a leveling coating to the material prior to applying any reflective and protective coatings. Using a surface tension leveling coating concept, a low viscosity epoxy was applied to the surface of several composite coupons. A protective layer of 1000 A of SiO2 was deposited on top of the leveling coating, and the coupons were exposed to an atomic oxygen environment in a plasma asher. Pinhole populations per unit area were estimated by counting the number of undercut sites observed by scanning electron microscopy. Defect density values of 180,000 defects/sq cm were reduced to about 1000 defects/sq cm as a result of the applied leveling coating. These improvements occur at a mass penalty of about 2.5 mg/sq cm.

  20. Toward Serotonin Fluorescent False Neurotransmitters: Development of Fluorescent Dual Serotonin and Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Substrates for Visualizing Serotonin Neurons.

    PubMed

    Henke, Adam; Kovalyova, Yekaterina; Dunn, Matthew; Dreier, Dominik; Gubernator, Niko G; Dincheva, Iva; Hwu, Christopher; Šebej, Peter; Ansorge, Mark S; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor

    2018-05-16

    Ongoing efforts in our laboratories focus on design of optical reporters known as fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFNs) that enable the visualization of uptake into, packaging within, and release from individual monoaminergic neurons and presynaptic sites in the brain. Here, we introduce the molecular probe FFN246 as an expansion of the FFN platform to the serotonergic system. Combining the acridone fluorophore with the ethylamine recognition element of serotonin, we identified FFN54 and FFN246 as substrates for both the serotonin transporter and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). A systematic structure-activity study revealed the basic structural chemotype of aminoalkyl acridones required for serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and enabled lowering the background labeling of these probes while maintaining SERT activity, which proved essential for obtaining sufficient signal in the brain tissue (FFN246). We demonstrate the utility of FFN246 for direct examination of SERT activity and SERT inhibitors in 96-well cell culture assays, as well as specific labeling of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus in the living tissue of acute mouse brain slices. While we found only minor FFN246 accumulation in serotonergic axons in murine brain tissue, FFN246 effectively traces serotonin uptake and packaging in the soma of serotonergic neurons with improved photophysical properties and loading parameters compared to known serotonin-based fluorescent tracers.

  1. Reduced interhemispheric interaction in non-autistic individuals with normal but high levels of autism traits.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Natalie; Lindell, Annukka K

    2013-11-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show superior performance for tasks requiring detail-focused processing. Atypical neural connectivity and reduced interhemispheric communication are posited to underlie this cognitive advantage. Given recent conceptualization of autism as a continuum, we sought to investigate whether people with normal but high levels of autism like traits (AQ) also exhibit reduced hemispheric interaction. Sixty right-handed participants completed the AQ questionnaire (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, & Clubley, 2001) and a lateralised letter matching task that assessed unilateral and bilateral performance in response to simple (physical) and complex (identity) matches. Whereas people with low self-rated AQ scores showed a bilateral advantage for the more complex task, indicating normal interhemispheric interaction, people in the high AQ group failed to show a bilateral gain for the computationally demanding stimuli. This finding of disrupted interhemispheric interaction converges with a dimensional conceptualisation of ASD, suggesting that the structural anomalies of ASD extend to non-autistic individuals with high levels of autism traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Signatures of DNA Methylation across Insects Suggest Reduced DNA Methylation Levels in Holometabola

    PubMed Central

    Provataris, Panagiotis; Meusemann, Karen; Niehuis, Oliver; Grath, Sonja; Misof, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Abstract It has been experimentally shown that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of gene expression and the silencing of transposable element activity in eukaryotes. The variable levels of DNA methylation among different insect species indicate an evolutionarily flexible role of DNA methylation in insects, which due to a lack of comparative data is not yet well-substantiated. Here, we use computational methods to trace signatures of DNA methylation across insects by analyzing transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from all currently recognized insect orders. We conclude that: 1) a functional methylation system relying exclusively on DNA methyltransferase 1 is widespread across insects. 2) DNA methylation has potentially been lost or extremely reduced in species belonging to springtails (Collembola), flies and relatives (Diptera), and twisted-winged parasites (Strepsiptera). 3) Holometabolous insects display signs of reduced DNA methylation levels in protein-coding sequences compared with hemimetabolous insects. 4) Evolutionarily conserved insect genes associated with housekeeping functions tend to display signs of heavier DNA methylation in comparison to the genomic/transcriptomic background. With this comparative study, we provide the much needed basis for experimental and detailed comparative analyses required to gain a deeper understanding on the evolution and function of DNA methylation in insects. PMID:29697817

  3. Ultraviolet-ozone treatment reduces levels of disease-associated prion protein and prion infectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Gilbert, P.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by novel infectious agents referred to as prions. Prions appear to be composed primarily, if not exclusively, of a misfolded isoform of the cellular prion protein. TSE infectivity is remarkably stable and can resist many aggressive decontamination procedures, increasing human, livestock and wildlife exposure to TSEs. Findings. We tested the hypothesis that UV-ozone treatment reduces levels of the pathogenic prion protein and inactivates the infectious agent. We found that UV-ozone treatment decreased the carbon and prion protein content in infected brain homogenate to levels undetectable by dry-ashing carbon analysis or immunoblotting, respectively. After 8 weeks of ashing, UV-ozone treatment reduced the infectious titer of treated material by a factor of at least 105. A small amount of infectivity, however, persisted despite UV-ozone treatment. When bound to either montmorillonite clay or quartz surfaces, PrPTSE was still susceptible to degradation by UV-ozone. Conclusion. Our findings strongly suggest that UV-ozone treatment can degrade pathogenic prion protein and inactivate prions, even when the agent is associated with surfaces. Using larger UV-ozone doses or combining UV-ozone treatment with other decontaminant methods may allow the sterilization of TSE-contaminated materials. ?? 2009 Aiken et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. Increased SHP-1 Protein Expression by High Glucose Levels Reduces Nephrin Phosphorylation in Podocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Denhez, Benoit; Lizotte, Farah; Guimond, Marie-Odile; Jones, Nina; Takano, Tomoko; Geraldes, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Nephrin, a critical podocyte membrane component that is reduced in diabetic nephropathy, has been shown to activate phosphotyrosine signaling pathways in human podocytes. Nephrin signaling is important to reduce cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli. We have shown previously that high glucose level exposure and diabetes increased the expression of SHP-1, causing podocyte apoptosis. SHP-1 possesses two Src homology 2 domains that serve as docking elements to dephosphorylate tyrosine residues of target proteins. However, it remains unknown whether SHP-1 interacts with nephrin and whether its elevated expression affects the nephrin phosphorylation state in diabetes. Here we show that human podocytes exposed to high glucose levels exhibited elevated expression of SHP-1, which was associated with nephrin. Coexpression of nephrin-CD16 and SHP-1 reduced nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. A single tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation revealed that rat nephrin Tyr1127 and Tyr1152 are required to allow SHP-1 interaction with nephrin. Overexpression of dominant negative SHP-1 in human podocytes prevented high glucose-induced reduction of nephrin phosphorylation. In vivo, immunoblot analysis demonstrated that nephrin expression and phosphorylation were decreased in glomeruli of type 1 diabetic Akita mice (Ins2+/C96Y) compared with control littermate mice (Ins2+/+), and this was associated with elevated SHP-1 and cleaved caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analysis indicated increased colocalization of SHP-1 with nephrin in diabetic mice compared with control littermates. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that high glucose exposure increases SHP-1 interaction with nephrin, causing decreased nephrin phosphorylation, which may, in turn, contribute to diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25404734

  5. Anxiety, Stress, and Fear Response in Mice With Reduced Endocannabinoid Levels.

    PubMed

    Jenniches, Imke; Ternes, Svenja; Albayram, Onder; Otte, David M; Bach, Karsten; Bindila, Laura; Michel, Kerstin; Lutz, Beat; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Zimmer, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    Disruption of the endocannabinoid system through pharmacological or genetic invalidation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors has been linked to depression in humans and depression-like behaviors in mice. The two main endogenous cannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), are produced on demand from phospholipids. The pathways and enzymes involved in endocannabinoid biosynthesis thus play a major role in regulating the activity of this system. This study investigates the role of the main 2-AG producing enzyme diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGL-α). We generated and used knockout mice lacking DAGL-α (Dagla(-/-)) to assess the behavioral consequences of reduced endocannabinoid levels in the brain. We performed different behavior tests to determine anxiety- and depression-related behavioral changes in Dagla(-/-) mice. We also analyzed expression of genes related to the endocannabinoid system via real-time polymerase chain reaction and used the mitotic marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine to analyze adult neurogenesis. Dagla(-/-) animals show an 80% reduction of brain 2-AG levels but also a reduction in cortical and amygdalar anandamide. The behavioral changes induced by Dagla deletion include a reduced exploration of the central area of the open field, a maternal neglect behavior, a fear extinction deficit, increased behavioral despair, increased anxiety-related behaviors in the light/dark box, and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. Some of these behavioral changes resemble those observed in animals lacking the CB1 receptor. Our findings demonstrate that the deletion of Dagla adversely affects the emotional state of animals and results in enhanced anxiety, stress, and fear responses. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Frequent Hemodialysis Schedules Are Associated with Reduced Levels of Dialysis-induced Cardiac Injury (Myocardial Stunning)

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Helen J.; Virk, Bhupinder; Schiller, Brigitte; Moran, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Recurrent hemodialysis (HD)-induced ischemic cardiac injury (myocardial stunning) is common and associated with high ultrafiltration (UF) requirements, intradialytic hypotension, long-term loss of systolic function, increased likelihood of cardiovascular events, and death. More frequent HD regimens are associated with lower UF requirements and improved hemodynamic tolerability, improved cardiovascular outcomes, and reduced mortality compared with conventional thrice-weekly HD. This study investigated the hypothesis that modification of UF volume and rate with more frequent HD therapies would abrogate dialysis-induced myocardial stunning. Design, settings, participants, & measurements A cross-sectional study of 46 patients established on hemodialysis >3 months compared four groups receiving the current range of quotidian therapies: conventional thrice-weekly HD (CHD3); more-frequent HD five to six times/week in a center (CSD) and at home (HSD); and home nocturnal HD (HN). Serial echocardiography quantitatively assessed regional systolic function to identify intradialytic left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMAs). Cardiac troponin T (cTnT), N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and inflammatory markers were quantified. Results More frequent HD regimens were associated with lower UF volumes and rates compared with CHD3. Intradialytic fall in systolic BP was reduced in CSD and HSD groups and abolished in HN group. Mean RWMAs per patient reduced with increasing dialysis intensity (CHD3 > CSD > HSD > HN). Home-based groups demonstrated lower high-sensitivity C-reative protein levels, with trends to lower cTnT and NT-proBNP levels in the more frequent groups. Conclusions Frequent HD regimes are associated with less dialysis-induced myocardial stunning compared with conventional HD. This may contribute to improved outcomes associated with frequent HD therapies. PMID:21597028

  7. A heuristic re-mapping algorithm reducing inter-level communication in SAMR applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Steensland, Johan; Ray, Jaideep

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims at decreasing execution time for large-scale structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) applications by proposing a new heuristic re-mapping algorithm and experimentally showing its effectiveness in reducing inter-level communication. Tests were done for five different SAMR applications. The overall goal is to engineer a dynamically adaptive meta-partitioner capable of selecting and configuring the most appropriate partitioning strategy at run-time based on current system and application state. Such a metapartitioner can significantly reduce execution times for general SAMR applications. Computer simulations of physical phenomena are becoming increasingly popular as they constitute an important complement to real-life testing. In manymore » cases, such simulations are based on solving partial differential equations by numerical methods. Adaptive methods are crucial to efficiently utilize computer resources such as memory and CPU. But even with adaption, the simulations are computationally demanding and yield huge data sets. Thus parallelization and the efficient partitioning of data become issues of utmost importance. Adaption causes the workload to change dynamically, calling for dynamic (re-) partitioning to maintain efficient resource utilization. The proposed heuristic algorithm reduced inter-level communication substantially. Since the complexity of the proposed algorithm is low, this decrease comes at a relatively low cost. As a consequence, we draw the conclusion that the proposed re-mapping algorithm would be useful to lower overall execution times for many large SAMR applications. Due to its usefulness and its parameterization, the proposed algorithm would constitute a natural and important component of the meta-partitioner.« less

  8. The Effect of Gastric Bypass on the Pharmacokinetics of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Giselle G.; Helsel, Joseph C.; Perel, James M.; Kozak, Gina M.; McShea, Mary C.; Hughes, Carolyn; Confer, Andrea L.; Sit, Dorothy K.; McCloskey, Carol A.; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Morbidly obese patients frequently present with mood and anxiety disorders, which are often treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). Having observed that patients treated with SRIs frequently relapse after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass surgery, the authors sought to assess whether SRI bioavailability is reduced postoperatively. Method Twelve gastric bypass candidates treated with an SRI for primary mood or anxiety disorders were studied prospectively. Timed blood samples for SRI plasma levels were drawn for pharmacokinetic studies before surgery and 1, 6, and 12 months afterward. Maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, and area under the concentration/time curve (AUC) were determined. Results In eight of the 12 patients, AUC values 1 month after surgery dropped to an average of 54% (SD=18) of preoperative levels (range=36%–80%); in six of these patients, AUC values returned to baseline levels (or greater) by 6 months. Four patients had an exacerbation of depressive symptoms, which resolved by 12 months in three of them. Three of the four patients had a reduced AUC level at 1 month and either gained weight or failed to lose weight between 6 and 12 months. Normalization of the AUC was associated with improvement in symptom scores. Conclusions Patients taking SRIs in this study were at risk for reduced drug bioavailability 1 month after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. The authors recommend close psychiatric monitoring after surgery. PMID:22407114

  9. Freud-2/CC2D1B mediates dual repression of the serotonin-1A receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Hadjighassem, Mahmoud R; Galaraga, Kimberly; Albert, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor functions as a pre-synaptic autoreceptor in serotonin neurons that regulates their activity, and is also widely expressed on non-serotonergic neurons as a post-synaptic heteroreceptor to mediate serotonin action. The 5-HT1A receptor gene is strongly repressed by a dual repressor element (DRE), which is recognized by two proteins: Freud-1/CC2D1A and another unknown protein. Here we identify mouse Freud-2/CC2D1B as the second repressor of the 5-HT1A-DRE. Freud-2 shares 50% amino acid identity with Freud-1, and contains conserved structural domains. Mouse Freud-2 bound specifically to the rat 5-HT1A-DRE adjacent to, and partially overlapping, the Freud-1 binding site. By supershift assay using nuclear extracts from L6 myoblasts, Freud-2-DRE complexes were distinguished from Freud-1-DRE complexes. Freud-2 mRNA and protein were detected throughout mouse brain and peripheral tissues. Freud-2 repressed 5-HT1A promoter-reporter constructs in a DRE-dependent manner in non-neuronal (L6) or 5-HT1A-expressing neuronal (NG108-15, RN46A) cell models. In NG108-15 cells, knockdown of Freud-2 using a specific short-interfering RNA reduced endogenous Freud-2 protein levels and decreased Freud-2 bound to the 5-HT1A-DRE as detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, but increased 5-HT1A promoter activity and 5-HT1A protein levels. Taken together, these data show that Freud-2 is the second component that, with Freud-1, mediates dual repression of the 5-HT1A receptor gene at the DRE. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  11. Macrocyclic peptides decrease c-Myc protein levels and reduce prostate cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Hanold, Laura E; Thayele Purayil, Hamsa; Gisemba, Solomon A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V

    2017-08-03

    The oncoprotein c-Myc is often overexpressed in cancer cells, and the stability of this protein has major significance in deciding the fate of a cell. Thus, targeting c-Myc levels is an attractive approach for developing therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, we report the anti-cancer activity of the macrocyclic peptides [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-D-Trp]) and the natural product CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-Trp]). [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 reduced c-Myc protein levels in prostate cancer cells and decreased cell proliferation with IC 50 values ranging from 2.0 to 16 µM in multiple PC cell lines. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 induced early and late apoptosis in PC-3 cells following 48 hours treatment, and growth arrest in the G2 cell cycle phase following both 24 and 48 hours treatment. Down regulation of c-Myc in PC-3 cells resulted in loss of sensitivity to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment, while overexpression of c-Myc in HEK-293 cells imparted sensitivity of these cells to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment. This macrocyclic tetrapeptide also regulated PP2A by reducing the levels of its phosphorylated form which regulates the stability of cellular c-Myc protein. Thus [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 represents a new lead compound for the potential development of an effective treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. Serotonin and histamine mediate gastroprotective effect of fluoxetine against experimentally-induced ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Salem Sokar, Samia; Elsayed Elsayad, Mageda; Sabri Ali, Hend

    2016-09-01

    Research in the treatment of gastric ulcer has involved the investigation of new alternatives, such as anti-depressant drugs. The present study was designed to investigate the gastroprotective effects of fluoxetine against indomethacin and alcohol induced gastric ulcers in rats and the potential mechanisms of that effect. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) was administered IP for 14 days. For comparative purposes, other rats were treated with ranitidine (30 mg/kg). Thereafter, after 24 h of fasting, INDO (100 mg/kg) or absolute alcohol (5 ml/kg) was administered to all rats (saline was administered to naïve controls) and rats in each group were sacrificed 5 h (for INDO rats) or 1 h (for alcohol rats) later. Macroscopic examination revealed that both fluoxetine and ranitidine decreased ulcer scores in variable ratios, which was supported by microscopic histopathological examination. Biochemical analysis of fluoxetine- or ranitidine-pre-treated host tissues demonstrated reductions in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels and concomitant increases in gastric pH, nitric oxide (NO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents. Fluoxetine, more than ranitidine, also resulted in serotonin and histamine levels nearest to control values. Moreover, immuno-histochemical analysis showed that fluoxetine markedly enhanced expression of cyclo-oxygenases COX-1 and COX-2 in both models; in comparison, ranitidine did not affect COX-1 expression in either ulcer model but caused moderate increases in COX-2 expression in INDO-induced hosts and high expression in alcohol-induced hosts. The results here indicated fluoxetine exhibited better gastroprotective effects than ranitidine and this could be due to anti-secretory, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-histaminic effects of the drug, as well as a stabilization of gastric serotonin levels.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy at several reduced radiation dose levels for CT imaging in the diagnosis of appendicitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Khatonabadi, Maryam; Kim, Hyun; Jude, Matilda; Zaragoza, Edward; Lee, Margaret; Patel, Maitraya; Poon, Cheryce; Douek, Michael; Andrews-Tang, Denise; Doepke, Laura; McNitt-Gray, Shawn; Cagnon, Chris; DeMarco, John; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: While several studies have investigated the tradeoffs between radiation dose and image quality (noise) in CT imaging, the purpose of this study was to take this analysis a step further by investigating the tradeoffs between patient radiation dose (including organ dose) and diagnostic accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis using CT. Methods: This study was IRB approved and utilized data from 20 patients who underwent clinical CT exams for indications of appendicitis. Medical record review established true diagnosis of appendicitis, with 10 positives and 10 negatives. A validated software tool used raw projection data from each scan to create simulated images at lower dose levels (70%, 50%, 30%, 20% of original). An observer study was performed with 6 radiologists reviewing each case at each dose level in random order over several sessions. Readers assessed image quality and provided confidence in their diagnosis of appendicitis, each on a 5 point scale. Liver doses at each case and each dose level were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation based methods. Results: Overall diagnostic accuracy varies across dose levels: 92%, 93%, 91%, 90% and 90% across the 100%, 70%, 50%, 30% and 20% dose levels respectively. And it is 93%, 95%, 88%, 90% and 90% across the 13.5-22mGy, 9.6-13.5mGy, 6.4-9.6mGy, 4-6.4mGy, and 2-4mGy liver dose ranges respectively. Only 4 out of 600 observations were rated "unacceptable" for image quality. Conclusion: The results from this pilot study indicate that the diagnostic accuracy does not change dramatically even at significantly reduced radiation dose.

  14. [Pulsatilla decoction inhibits vulvovaginal Candida albicans proliferation and reduces inflammatory cytokine levels in vulvovaginal candidiasis mice].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dan; Zhang, Mengxiang; Shi, Gaoxiang; Xu, Zhiqing; Wu, Daqiang; Shao, Jing; Wang, Tianming; Wang, Changzhong

    2016-02-01

    To explore the possible regulatory effect of Pulsatilla decoction on Th17 cells and inflammatory cytokines of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) mice. Seventy-two female Kunming mice were randomly assigned into six groups: a blank control group, a VVC model group, a fluconazole group and three Pulsatilla decoction groups (dose levels: 22.5, 15.0 and 7.5 g/kg, respectively). The VVC mouse models were established by vaginal inoculation with Candida albicans (C. albicans) in female mice in pseudoestrus state caused by estradiol injection. After 7-day treatment on VVC mice, the vaginal C. albicans burden was assessed using dilution spread plate method; the vaginal C. albicans morphology was observed by Gram staining method; the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, IL-21 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in sera were detected by ELISA. The content of the transcription factor retinoid related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) in vaginal tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The VVC mouse models were successfully developed. After treatment, the vaginal C. albicans burden of the fluconazole group and 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group dropped significantly compared with that of the VVC model group. Gram staining showed that the VVC mice had lots of C. albicans hyphae in vaginal discharge, that 7.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group remained the mycelia-phase C. albicans, and that 15.0 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group had the majority of yeast-phase C. albicans and a few of mycelia-phase, while no hyphae and only very few of yeast-phase C. albicans were observed in 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction group and fluconazole group. After 7-day treatment, compared with the model group, the levels of IL-6, IL- 17, IL-21 and TNF-α in the sera of the fluconazole group, 15.0 and 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction groups were reduced significantly and the levels of RORγt in the vaginal tissues of the fluconazole group, 15.0 and 22.5 g/kg Pulsatilla decoction groups also decreased

  15. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces inflammatory infiltrate and enhances skeletal muscle repair: Histomorphometric parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva-Oliveira, E. L.; Lima, N. C.; Silva, P. H.; Sousa, N. T. A.; Barbosa, F. S.; Orsini, M.; Silva, J. G.

    2012-09-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as an effective therapeutics in inflammatory processes modulation and tissue repairing. However, there is a lack of studies that analyze the anti-inflammatory effects of the infrared lasers in muscular skeletal injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy 904 nm in the repair process of skeletal muscle tissue. Swiss mice were submitted to cryoinjury and divided in test (LLLT-treated) and control groups. Histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to assess general morphology and inflammatory influx, and Picrossirus to quantify collagen fibers deposition. Our results showed significant reduction in inflammatory infiltrated in irradiated mice after 4 days of treatment compared to control ( p = 0.01). After 8 days, the irradiated group showed high levels at regenerating myofibers with significant statistically differences in relation at control group ( p < 0.01). Collagen deposition was significantly increased in the final stages of regeneration at test group, when compared with control group ( p = 0.05). Our data suggests that LLLT reduces the inflammatory response in the initial stages of injury and accelerates the process of muscular tissue repair.

  16. Lacosamide reduces HDAC levels in the brain and improves memory: Potential for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bang, Shraddha R; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Jagdale, Priti G; Adkar, Prafulla P; Waghmare, Arun B; Ambavade, Prashant D

    2015-07-01

    Lacosamide, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of epilepsy. Some HDAC inhibitors have been proven effective for the treatment of memory disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of lacosamide on memory and brain HDAC levels. The effect on memory was evaluated in animals with scopolamine-induced amnesia using the elevated plus maze, object recognition test, and radial arm maze. The levels of acetylcholinesterase and HDAC in the cerebral cortex were evaluated. Lacosamide at doses of 10 and 30mg/kg significantly reduced the transfer latency in the elevated plus maze. Lacosamide at a dose of 30mg/kg significantly increased the time spent with a familiar object in the object recognition test at the 24h interval and decreased the time spent in the baited arm. Moreover, at this dose, the number of errors in the radial arm maze at 3 and 24h intervals was minimized and a reduction in the level of HDAC1, but not acetylcholinesterase, was observed in the cerebral cortex. These effects of lacosamide are equivalent to those of piracetam at a dose of 300mg/kg. These results suggest that lacosamide at a 30mg/kg dose improves disrupted memory, possibly by inhibiting HDAC, and could be used to treat amnesic symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Activity of etv5a and etv5b genes in the hypothalamus of fasted zebrafish is influenced by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Mechaly, Alejandro S; Richardson, Ebony; Rinkwitz, Silke

    2017-05-15

    Serotonin has been implicated in the inhibition of food intake in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms through which serotonin acts has yet to be elucidated. Recently, ETV5 (ets variant gene 5) has been associated with obesity and food intake control mechanisms in mammals. We have analyzed a putative physiological function of the two etv5 paralogous genes (etv5a and etv5b) in neuronal food intake control in adult zebrafish that have been exposed to different nutritional conditions. A feeding assay was established and fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), was applied. Gene expression changes in the hypothalamus were determined using real-time PCR. Fasting induced an up-regulation of etv5a and etv5b in the hypothalamus, whereas increased serotonin levels in the fasted fish counteracted the increase in expression. To investigate potential mechanisms the expression of further food intake control genes was determined. The results show that an increase of serotonin in fasting fish causes a reduction in the activity of genes stimulating food intake. This is in line with a previously demonstrated anorexigenic function of serotonin. Our results suggest that obesity-associated ETV5 has a food intake stimulating function and that this function is modulated through serotonin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serotonin receptor, SERT mRNA and correlations with symptoms in males with alcohol dependence and suicide.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P M; Cruz, D A; Olukotun, D Y; Delgado, P L

    2012-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that abnormalities in components of the serotonin (5HT) system in the prefrontal cortex are associated with suicide in alcohol-dependent subjects. Second, we assessed the relationship of lifetime impulsivity and mood symptoms with prefrontal cortex 5-HT measures. Tissue was obtained from Brodmann's areas (BA) 9 and 24 in postmortem samples of individuals who were alcohol dependent with suicide (n = 5), alcohol dependent without suicide (n = 9) and normal controls (n = 5). Serotonin receptor (5HT) and serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) mRNA were measured. Interviews with next of kin estimated lifetime impulsivity and mood symptoms in the last week of life. Serotonin receptor 1A (5HT1A) mRNA in BA 9 was elevated in the alcohol dependence without suicide group compared with controls. In the alcohol dependence with suicide group, anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased BA 24 SERT mRNA and depressive symptoms with BA 9 5HT1A mRNA expression. In the alcohol dependent only group impulsivity is correlated with increased BA 9, and BA 24 serotonin receptor 2A mRNA. Our data suggest region-specific change, rather than global serotonin blunting is involved in alcohol dependence and suicide. It also suggests that symptoms are differentially influenced by prefrontal cortex serotonin receptor mRNA levels. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Estradiol Valerate and Remifemin ameliorate ovariectomy-induced decrease in a serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangxia; Jin, Biao; Wang, Ke; Chen, Xing; Sun, Yu; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2016-11-01

    Perimenopausal syndromes begin as ovarian function ceases and the most common symptoms are hot flushes. Data indicate that the projections of serotonin to hypothalamus may be involved in the mechanism of hot flushes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of the serotonin dorsal raphe-preoptic hypothalamus pathway for hot flushes in an animal model of menopause. We determined the changes in serotonin expression in the dorsal raphe (DR) and preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) in ovariectomized rats. We also explored the therapeutical effects of estradiol valerate and Remifemin in this model. Eighty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated (SHAM) group, ovariectomy (OVX) group with vehicle, ovariectomy with estradiol valerate treatment (OVX+E) group and ovariectomy with Remifemin (OVX+ICR) group. Serotonin expression was evaluated in the DR and POAH using immunofluorescence and quantified in the DR using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Apoptosis was analyzed in the DR by TUNEL assay. The number of serotonin immunoreactive neurons and the level of serotonin expression in the DR decreased significantly following OVX compared to the SHAM group. No TUNEL-positive cells were detected in the DR in any group. In addition, following OVX, the number of serotonin-positive fibers decreased significantly in the ventromedial preoptic nucleus (VMPO), especially in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO). Treatment with either estradiol or Remifemin for 4 weeks countered the OVX-induced decreases in serotonin levels in both the DR and the hypothalamus, with levels in the treated rats similar to those in the SHAM group. A fluorescently labeled retrograde tracer was injected into the VLPO at the 4-week time point. A significantly lower percentage of serotonin with CTB double-labeled neurons in CTB-labeled neurons was demonstrated after ovariectomy, and both estradiol and Remifemin countered this OVX

  20. [Specific aspects of thrombocyte system of serotonin in patients with different manifestations of schizoaffective psychosis].

    PubMed

    Brusov, O S; Dikaia, V I; Zlobina, G P; Faktor, M I; Pavlova, O A; Bologov, P V; Korenev, A N

    2000-01-01

    45 women with different manifestations of schizoaffective psychosis (SAP) were examined. The diagnosis corresponded to ICD-10 (F25). According to the classification elaborated in Mental Health Research Centre of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, groups of patients were identified with different variants of the psychoses course: a nuclear SAP type; a borderline SAP variation with phasic-recurrent course; SAP with progredient variation (schizoaffective variation of schizophrenia). The patients were examined both during the attack and remission. A rate of serotonine uptake (Vmax) in blood platelets, a specific imipramine binding (Bmax) and the level of serotonin in blood platelets were evaluated. It was found that dynamics of both Vmax and the level of serotonin in different SAP types were different, that was related to clinical and biological SAP heterogeneity. A tendency to decreasing of serotonin system functional activity was found in progredient SAP variations, especially during the remission, which was of low quality in these cases. On the contrary, in the borderline variations the indices of the decreased function of serotonin system corresponded well to those of acute psychosis. In nuclear type--a type with the most favourable course of psychosis--any significant changes weren't revealed as compared with the normal parameters.

  1. Elevated Blood Lead Levels Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Malaria in Beninese Infants.

    PubMed

    Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Mireku, Michael Osei; Ayotte, Pierre; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood lead levels (BLL) and malaria carry an important burden of disease in West Africa. Both diseases might cause anemia and they might entail long-term consequences for the development and the health status of the child. Albeit the significant impact of malaria on lead levels described in Nigeria, no evaluation of the effect of elevated BLL on malaria risk has been investigated so far. Between 2010 and 2012, blood lead levels of 203 Beninese infants from Allada, a semi-rural area 50km North from Cotonou, were assessed at 12 months of age. To assess lead levels, blood samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry. In parallel, clinical, microbiological and hematological data were collected. More precisely, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, CRP, vitamin B12, folate levels, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were assessed and stool samples were also analyzed. At 12 months, the mean BLL of infants was 7.41 μg/dL (CI: 65.2; 83), and 128 infants (63%) had elevated blood lead levels, defined by the CDC as BLL>5 μg/dL. Lead poisoning, defined as BLL>10 μg/dL, was found in 39 infants (19%). Twenty-five infants (12.5%) had a positive blood smear at 12 months and 144 infants were anemic (71%, hemoglobin<110 g/L). Elevated blood lead levels were significantly associated with reduced risk of a positive blood smear (AOR = 0.38, P-value = 0.048) and P. falciparum parasite density (beta-estimate = -1.42, P-value = 0.03) in logistic and negative binomial regression multivariate models, respectively, adjusted on clinical and environmental indicators. Our study shows for the first time that BLL are negatively associated with malarial risk considering other risk factors. Malaria is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in infants under 5 years worldwide, and lead poisoning is the 6th most important contributor to the global burden of diseases measured in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the Institute of Health Metrics. In conclusion, due to the

  2. MDMA administration decreases serotonin but not N-acetylaspartate in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A.; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Michaels, Mark S.; Hyde, Elisabeth M.; Kuhn, Donald M.; Galloway, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    In animals, repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reduces markers of serotonergic activity and studies show similar serotonergic deficits in human MDMA users. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 11.7 Tesla, we measured the metabolic neurochemical profile in intact, discrete tissue punches taken from prefrontal cortex, anterior striatum, and hippocampus of rats administered MDMA (5 mg/kg IP, 4× q 2 h) or saline and euthanized 7 days after the last injection. Monoamine content was measured with HPLC in contralateral punches from striatum and hippocampus to compare the MDMA-induced loss of 5HT innervation with constituents in the 1H-MRS profile. When assessed 7 days after the last MDMA injection, levels of hippocampal and striatal serotonin (5HT) were significantly reduced, consistent with published animal studies. N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were significantly increased in prefrontal cortex and not affected in anterior striatum or hippocampus; myo-inositol (INS) levels were increased in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus but not anterior striatum. Glutamate levels were increased in prefrontal cortex and decreased in hippocampus, while GABA levels were decreased only in hippocampus. The data suggest that NAA may not reliably reflect MDMA-induced 5HT neurotoxicity. However, the collective pattern of changes in 5HT, INS, glutamate and GABA is consistent with persistent hippocampal neuroadaptations caused by MDMA. PMID:20800616

  3. MDMA administration decreases serotonin but not N-acetylaspartate in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Michaels, Mark S; Hyde, Elisabeth M; Kuhn, Donald M; Galloway, Matthew P

    2010-12-01

    In animals, repeated administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) reduces markers of serotonergic activity and studies show similar serotonergic deficits in human MDMA users. Using proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 11.7Tesla, we measured the metabolic neurochemical profile in intact, discrete tissue punches taken from prefrontal cortex, anterior striatum, and hippocampus of rats administered MDMA (5mg/kg IP, 4× q 2h) or saline and euthanized 7 days after the last injection. Monoamine content was measured with HPLC in contralateral punches from striatum and hippocampus to compare the MDMA-induced loss of 5HT innervation with constituents in the (1)H-MRS profile. When assessed 7 days after the last MDMA injection, levels of hippocampal and striatal serotonin (5HT) were significantly reduced, consistent with published animal studies. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) levels were significantly increased in prefrontal cortex and not affected in anterior striatum or hippocampus; myo-inositol (INS) levels were increased in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus but not anterior striatum. Glutamate levels were increased in prefrontal cortex and decreased in hippocampus, while GABA levels were decreased only in hippocampus. The data suggest that NAA may not reliably reflect MDMA-induced 5HT neurotoxicity. However, the collective pattern of changes in 5HT, INS, glutamate and GABA is consistent with persistent hippocampal neuroadaptations caused by MDMA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Revisiting the Serotonin-Aggression Relation in Humans: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Aaron A.; Bègue, Laurent; Bell, Rob; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory

    2013-01-01

    The inverse relation between serotonin and human aggression is often portrayed as “reliable,” “strong,” and “well-established” despite decades of conflicting reports and widely recognized methodological limitations. In this systematic review and meta-analysis we evaluate the evidence for and against the serotonin deficiency hypothesis of human aggression across four methods of assessing serotonin: (a) cerebrospinal fluid levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (CSF 5-HIAA), (b) acute tryptophan depletion, (c) pharmacological challenge, and (d) endocrine challenge. Results across 175 independent samples and over 6,500 total participants were heterogeneous, but, in aggregate, revealed a small, inverse correlation between central serotonin functioning and aggression, anger, and hostility, r = −.12. Pharmacological challenge studies had the largest mean weighted effect size, r = −.21, and CSF 5-HIAA studies had the smallest, r = −.06, p = .21. Potential methodological and demographic moderators largely failed to account for variability in study outcomes. Notable exceptions included year of publication (effect sizes tended to diminish with time) and self-versus other-reported aggression (other-reported aggression was positively correlated to serotonin functioning). We discuss four possible explanations for the pattern of findings: unreliable measures, ambient correlational noise, an unidentified higher-order interaction, and a selective serotonergic effect. Finally, we provide four recommendations for bringing much needed clarity to this important area of research: acknowledge contradictory findings and avoid selective reporting practices; focus on improving the reliability and validity of serotonin and aggression measures; test for interactions involving personality and/or environmental moderators; and revise the serotonin deficiency hypothesis to account for serotonin’s functional complexity. PMID:23379963

  5. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of themore » thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin.« less

  6. Postmenopausal vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun Jung

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the serum ferritin status between the postmenopausal vegetarians and non-vegetarians and to identify the relation of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in postmenopausal women. The two study groups consisted of postmenopausal vegetarians (n=59) who maintained a vegetarian diet for over 20 years and age-matched non-vegetarian controls (n=48). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes, serum metabolic syndrome-related parameters, and serum ferritin level between the two groups were compared. The vegetarians exhibited significantly lower weight (p<0.01), body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), percentage of body fat (p<0.001), waist circumference (p<0.01), SBP (p<0.001), DBP (p<0.001), and fasting glucose (p<0.05). According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for MetS applying Korean guidelines for waist circumference, the prevalence of MetS was lower in vegetarians (33.9 %) than in non-vegetarians (47.9 %). Vegetarians had significantly lower serum level of ferritin (p<0.01) than non-vegetarians. In the correlation analysis, serum ferritin was positively related to fasting glucose (r=0.264, p<0.01), triglycerides (r=0.232, p<0.05), and the NCEP score (r=0.214, p<0.05) and negatively related to high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r=-0.225, p<0.05) after adjusting for BMI, lifestyle, and dietary factors (animal protein, animal fat, and dietary fiber intake). In conclusion, postmenopausal vegetarians had lower MetS presence and a lower serum ferritin level compared to non-vegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians' low serum ferritin level may reduce the risk of MetS in postmenopausal women.

  7. In utero exposure to venlafaxine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, increases cardiac anomalies and alters placental and heart serotonin signaling in the rat.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Laetitia; Huang, Chunwei; Ernest, Sheila R; Berard, Anick; Vaillancourt, Cathy; Hales, Barbara F

    2016-12-01

    Human studies are inconsistent with respect to an association between treatment with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRIs) and an increase in the incidence of congenital heart defects. Here we tested the hypothesis that in utero exposure to venlafaxine, a highly prescribed SNRI, increases the incidence of fetal heart defects and alters placental and fetal heart serotonin signaling in the rat. Timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged daily with venlafaxine hydrochloride (0, 3, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg/day) from gestation day 8 to 20. On gestation day 21, fetuses were examined for external and internal malformations; placentas and fetal hearts were collected for the analysis of gene expression. Venlafaxine had no effect on the number of live fetuses, fetal body weights, or external morphology in the absence of maternal toxicity. However, venlafaxine significantly increased the placental index (fetal body/placental weight ratio) and the incidence of fetal cardiac anomalies. Venlafaxine exposure decreased placental expression of the serotonin transporter (SERT/Slc6a4) at the transcript and protein levels. In contrast, venlafaxine increased SERT expression in the hearts of female, but not male, fetuses. Expression of the serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT 2B /Htr2b) and of fibroblast growth factor 8 was induced in fetal hearts. In utero venlafaxine exposure altered the placental index and induced fetal cardiac anomalies in rats. We propose that the increased incidence of cardiac anomalies is mediated through alterations in serotonin signaling in the placenta and fetal heart. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:1044-1055, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Higher levels of spontaneous breathing reduce lung injury in experimental moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nadja C; Güldner, Andreas; Beda, Alessandro; Rentzsch, Ines; Uhlig, Christopher; Dittrich, Susanne; Spieth, Peter M; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Kasper, Michael; Koch, Thea; Richter, Torsten; Rocco, Patricia R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of different levels of spontaneous breathing during biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation on lung function and injury in an experimental model of moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multiple-arm randomized experimental study. University hospital research facility. Thirty-six juvenile pigs. Pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage. Biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation was conducted using the airway pressure release ventilation mode with an inspiratory/expiratory ratio of 1:1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four levels of spontaneous breath in total minute ventilation (n = 9 per group, 6 hr each): 1) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, 0%; 2) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 0-30%; 3) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 30-60%, and 4) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 60%. The inspiratory effort measured by the esophageal pressure time product increased proportionally to the amount of spontaneous breath and was accompanied by improvements in oxygenation and respiratory system elastance. Compared with biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation of 0%, biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation more than 60% resulted in lowest venous admixture, as well as peak and mean airway and transpulmonary pressures, redistributed ventilation to dependent lung regions, reduced the cumulative diffuse alveolar damage score across lungs (median [interquartile range], 11 [3-40] vs 18 [2-69]; p < 0.05), and decreased the level of tumor necrosis factor-α in ventral lung tissue (median [interquartile range], 17.7 pg/mg [8.4-19.8] vs 34.5 pg/mg [29.9-42.7]; p < 0

  9. Reducing the cost of using collocation to compute vibrational energy levels: Results for CH2NH.

    PubMed

    Avila, Gustavo; Carrington, Tucker

    2017-08-14

    In this paper, we improve the collocation method for computing vibrational spectra that was presented in the work of Avila and Carrington, Jr. [J. Chem. Phys. 143, 214108 (2015)]. Known quadrature and collocation methods using a Smolyak grid require storing intermediate vectors with more elements than points on the Smolyak grid. This is due to the fact that grid labels are constrained among themselves and basis labels are constrained among themselves. We show that by using the so-called hierarchical basis functions, one can significantly reduce the memory required. In this paper, the intermediate vectors have only as many elements as the Smolyak grid. The ideas are tested by computing energy levels of CH 2 NH.

  10. Ebola Virus Disease Is Characterized by Poor Activation and Reduced Levels of Circulating CD16+ Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rottstegge, Monika; Wozniak, David M; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Thorenz, Anja; Weller, Romy; Kerber, Romy; Idoyaga, Juliana; Magassouba, N'Faly; Gabriel, Martin; Günther, Stephan; Oestereich, Lisa; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-10-15

    A number of previous studies have identified antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as key targets of Ebola virus (EBOV), but the role of APCs in human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is not known. We have evaluated the phenotype and kinetics of monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in peripheral blood of patients for whom EVD was diagnosed by the European Mobile Laboratory in Guinea. Acute EVD was characterized by reduced levels of circulating nonclassical CD16 + monocytes with a poor activation profile. In survivors, CD16 + monocytes were activated during recovery, coincident with viral clearance, suggesting an important role of this cell subset in EVD pathophysiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A new system to reduce formaldehyde levels improves safety conditions during gross veterinary anatomy learning.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Víctor; Llombart, Cristina; Carretero, Ana; Navarro, Marc; Ysern, Pere; Calero, Sebastián; Fígols, Enric; Ruberte, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Dissection is a very useful method of learning veterinary anatomy. However, formaldehyde, which is widely used to preserve cadavers, is an irritant, and it has recently been classified as a carcinogen. In 1997, the Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo [National Institute of Workplace Security and Hygiene] found that the levels of formaldehyde in our dissection room were above the threshold limit values. Unfortunately, no optimal substitute for formaldehyde is currently available. Therefore, we designed a new ventilation system that combines slow propulsion of fresh air from above the dissection table and rapid aspiration of polluted air from the perimeter. Formaldehyde measurements performed in 2004, after the introduction of this new system into our dissection laboratory, showed a dramatic reduction (about tenfold, or 0.03 ppm). A suitable propelling/aspirating air system successfully reduces the concentration of formaldehyde in the dissection room, significantly improving safety conditions for students, instructors, and technical staff during gross anatomy learning.

  12. The evolution of violence in men: the function of central cholesterol and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Bernard; Machatschke, Ivo H

    2009-04-30

    Numerous studies point to central serotonin as an important modulator of maladaptive behaviors. In men, for instance, low concentrations of this neurotransmitter are related to hostile aggression. A key player in serotonin metabolism seems to be central cholesterol. It plays a fundamental role in maintaining the soundness of neuron membranes, especially in the exocytosis transport of serotonin vesicles into the synaptic cleft. In this review, we attempt an evolutionary approach to the neurobiological basis of human male violence. Hominid evolution was shaped by periods of starvation but also by energy demands of an increasingly complex brain. A lack of food resources reduces uptake of glucose and results in a decreased energy-supply for autonomous brain cholesterol synthesis. Consequently, concentrations of neuromembrane cholesterol decrease, which lead to a failure of the presynaptic re-uptake mechanism of serotonin and ultimately to low central serotonin. We propose that starvation might have affected the larger male brains earlier than those of females. Furthermore, this neurophysiological process diminished the threshold for hostile aggression, which in effect represented a prerequisite for being a successful hunter or scavenger. In a Darwinian sense, the odds to acquire reliable energetic resources made those males to attractive spouses in terms of paternal care and mate support. To underpin these mechanisms, a hypothetical four-stage model of synaptic membrane destabilization effected by a prolonged shortage of high-energy, cholesterol-containing food is illustrated.

  13. Norepinephrine-deficient mice lack responses to antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, John F.; O'Leary, Olivia F.; Jin, Sung-Ha; Friedland, Julie C.; Ouyang, Ming; Hirsch, Bradford R.; Page, Michelle E.; Dalvi, Ashutosh; Thomas, Steven A.; Lucki, Irwin

    2004-01-01

    Mice unable to synthesize norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine due to targeted disruption of the dopamine β-hydroxylase gene, Dbh, were used to critically test roles for NE in mediating acute behavioral changes elicited by different classes of antidepressants. To this end, we used the tail suspension test, one of the most widely used paradigms for assessing antidepressant activity and depression-related behaviors in normal and genetically modified mice. Dbh–/– mice failed to respond to the behavioral effects of various antidepressants, including the NE reuptake inhibitors desipramine and reboxetine, the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline, and the atypical antidepressant bupropion, even though they did not differ in baseline immobility from Dbh+/– mice, which have normal levels of NE. Surprisingly, the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine were also absent or severely attenuated in the Dbh–/– mice. In contrast, citalopram (the most selective SSRI) was equally effective at reducing immobility in mice with and without NE. Restoration of NE by using l-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine reinstated the behavioral effects of both desipramine and paroxetine in Dbh–/– mice, thus demonstrating that the reduced sensitivity to antidepressants is related to NE function, as opposed to developmental abnormalities resulting from chronic NE deficiency. Microdialysis studies demonstrated that the ability of fluoxetine to increase hippocampal serotonin was blocked in Dbh–/– mice, whereas citalopram's effect was only partially attenuated. These data show that NE plays an important role in mediating acute behavioral and neurochemical actions of many antidepressants, including most SSRIs. PMID:15148402

  14. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J.; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages - GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1 - had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5–15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment. PMID:26349678

  15. Neurotensin increases mortality and mast cells reduce neurotensin levels in a mouse model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Piliponsky, Adrian M; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Metz, Martin; Rios, Eon J; Dobner, Paul R; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Zacharias, Sherma; Mohanasundaram, Uma M; Faix, James D; Abrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Pearl, Ronald G; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J

    2008-04-01

    Sepsis is a complex, incompletely understood and often fatal disorder, typically accompanied by hypotension, that is considered to represent a dysregulated host response to infection. Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino-acid peptide that, among its multiple effects, induces hypotension. We find that intraperitoneal and plasma concentrations of NT are increased in mice after severe cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of sepsis, and that mice treated with a pharmacological antagonist of NT, or NT-deficient mice, show reduced mortality during severe CLP. In mice, mast cells can degrade NT and reduce NT-induced hypotension and CLP-associated mortality, and optimal expression of these effects requires mast cell expression of neurotensin receptor 1 and neurolysin. These findings show that NT contributes to sepsis-related mortality in mice during severe CLP and that mast cells can lower NT concentrations, and suggest that mast cell-dependent reduction in NT levels contributes to the ability of mast cells to enhance survival after CLP.

  16. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-09

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages--GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1--had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5-15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment.

  17. Neurotensin increases mortality and mast cells reduce neurotensin levels in a mouse model of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Metz, Martin; Rios, Eon J.; Dobner, Paul R.; Wada, Etsuko; Wada, Keiji; Zacharias, Sherma; Mohanasundaram, Uma; Faix, James D.; Abrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Pearl, Ronald; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis is a complex, incompletely understood and often fatal disorder,1 typically accompanied by hypotension,2 that is considered to represent a dysregulated host response to infection.3,4,5 Neurotensin (NT) is a 13-amino-acid peptide that, among its multiple effects, induces hypotension.6 We find that intraperitoneal and plasma concentrations of NT are increased in mice after severe caecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of sepsis, and that mice treated with a pharmacological antagonist of NT, or NT-deficient mice, exhibit reduced mortality during severe CLP. In mice, mast cells can degrade NT and reduce NT-induced hypotension and CLP-associated mortality, and optimal expression of these effects requires mast cell expression of neurotensin receptor 1 and neurolysin. These findings show that NT contributes to sepsis-related mortality in mice during severe CLP and that mast cells can lower NT concentrations, and suggest that mast cell-dependent reduction in NT levels contributes to the ability of mast cells to enhance survival after CLP. PMID:18376408

  18. Low level laser therapy reduces acute lung inflammation without impairing lung function.

    PubMed

    Cury, Vivian; de Lima, Thais Martins; Prado, Carla Maximo; Pinheiro, Nathalia; Ariga, Suely K K; Barbeiro, Denise F; Moretti, Ana I; Souza, Heraldo P

    2016-12-01

    Acute lung injury is a condition characterized by exacerbate inflammatory reaction in distal airways and lung dysfunction. Here we investigate the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) by low level laser therapy (LLLT), an effective therapy used for the treatment of patients with inflammatory disorders or traumatic injuries, due to its ability to reduce inflammation and promote tissue regeneration. However, studies in internal viscera remains unclear. C57BL/6 mice were treated with intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg) or phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Six hours after instillation, two groups were irradiated with laser at 660 nm and radiant exposure of 10 J/cm 2 . Intratracheal LPS inoculation induced a marked increase in the number of inflammatory cells in perivascular and alveolar spaces. There was also an increase in the expression and secretion of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6,) and chemokine (MCP-1). The LLLT application induced a significant decrease in both inflammatory cells influx and inflammatory mediators secretion. These effects did not affect lung mechanical properties, since no change was observed in tissue resistance or elastance. In conclusion LLLT is able to reduce inflammatory reaction in lungs exposed to LPS without affecting the pulmonary function and recovery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. An obesity drug sibutramine reduces brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in severely obese patients.

    PubMed

    Taner Ertugrul, D; Yavuz, B; Okhan Akin, K; Arif Yalcin, A; Ata, N; Kucukazman, M; Algul, B; Dal, K; Sinan Deveci, O; Tutal, E

    2010-03-01

    Sibutramine is a selective inhibitor of the reuptake of monoamines. Plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) appear to be inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) in subjects with and without heart failure for reasons that remain unexplained. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of sibutramine treatment on BNP levels in severely obese patients. Fifty-two severely obese female patients with BMI > 40 kg/m(2) were included to this study. The women were recommended to follow a weight-reducing daily diet of 25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight. During the treatment period, all patients were to receive 15 mg of sibutramine once a day. Blood chemistry tests were performed before the onset of the medication and after 12 weeks of treatment. None of the subjects was withdrawn from the study because of the adverse effects of sibutramine. Body weight (108.8 +/- 13.3 kg vs. 101.7 +/- 15.6 kg, p < 0.001), BMI (44.6 +/- 4.6 kg/m(2) vs. 41.8 +/- 5.7 kg/m(2), p < 0.001) and BNP [8.6 (0.5-49.5) ng/l vs. 3.1 (0.2-28.6) ng/l, p = 0.018] levels were significantly decreased after 12 weeks of sibutramine treatment. Total cholesterol (5.19 +/- 0.90 mmol/l vs. 4.82 +/- 1.05 mmol/l respectively; p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (3.26 +/- 0.86 mmol/l vs. 2.99 +/- 0.40 mmol/l respectively; p = 0.008), levels were significantly decreased; however, there was no significant alteration in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. This study has shown a decrease in BNP levels which may lead to improvement in cardiac outcome after sibutramine treatment. Further randomised studies are needed to be conducted to clarify the relationship between sibutramine and BNP.

  20. Leveraging blood serotonin as an endophenotype to identify de novo and rare variants involved in autism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Davis, Lea K; Guter, Stephen; Wei, Qiang; Jacob, Suma; Potter, Melissa H; Cox, Nancy J; Cook, Edwin H; Sutcliffe, James S; Li, Bingshan

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, but underlying molecular mechanisms are still unresolved due to extreme locus heterogeneity. Leveraging meaningful endophenotypes or biomarkers may be an effective strategy to reduce heterogeneity to identify novel ASD genes. Numerous lines of evidence suggest a link between hyperserotonemia, i.e., elevated serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) in whole blood, and ASD. However, the genetic determinants of blood 5-HT level and their relationship to ASD are largely unknown. In this study, pursuing the hypothesis that de novo variants (DNVs) and rare risk alleles acting in a recessive mode may play an important role in predisposition of hyperserotonemia in people with ASD, we carried out whole exome sequencing (WES) in 116 ASD parent-proband trios with most (107) probands having 5-HT measurements. Combined with published ASD DNVs, we identified USP15 as having recurrent de novo loss of function mutations and discovered evidence supporting two other known genes with recurrent DNVs ( FOXP1 and KDM5B ). Genes harboring functional DNVs significantly overlap with functional/disease gene sets known to be involved in ASD etiology, including FMRP targets and synaptic formation and transcriptional regulation genes. We grouped the probands into High-5HT and Normal-5HT groups based on normalized serotonin levels, and used network-based gene set enrichment analysis (NGSEA) to identify novel hyperserotonemia-related ASD genes based on LoF and missense DNVs. We found enrichment in the High-5HT group for a gene network module (DAWN-1) previously implicated in ASD, and this points to the TGF-β pathway and cell junction processes. Through analysis of rare recessively acting variants (RAVs), we also found that rare compound heterozygotes (CHs) in the High-5HT group were enriched for loci in an ASD-associated gene set. Finally, we carried out rare variant group-wise transmission

  1. Radiation-induced changes in the profile of spinal cord serotonin, prostaglandin synthesis, and vascular permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Siegal, T.; Pfeffer, M.R.

    To investigate the profile of biochemical and physiological changes induced in the rat spinal cord by radiation, over a period of 8 months. The thoraco-lumbar spinal cords of Fisher rats were irradiated to a dose of 15 Gy. The rats were then followed and killed at various times afterward. Serotonin (5-HT) and its major metabolite 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were assayed as well as prostaglandin synthesis. Microvessel permeability was assessed by quantitative evaluation of Evans blue dye extravasation. None of the rats developed neurologic dysfunction, and histologic examination revealed only occasional gliosis in the ventral white matter at 240 days aftermore » irradiation. Serotonin levels were unchanged at 2, 14, and 56 days after radiation but increased at 120 and 240 days in the irradiated cord segments when compared to both the nonirradiated thoracic and cervical segments (p < 0.01) and age-matched controls (p < 0.03). The calculated utilization ratio of serotonin (5-HIAA/5-HT) remained unchanged. Immediately after radiation (at 3 and 24 h) an abrupt but brief increase in the synthesis of prostaglandin-E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), thromboxane (TXB{sub 2}), and prostacyclin [6 keto-PGF1{alpha} (6KPGF)] was noted, which returned to normal at 3 days. This was followed after 7 and 14 days by a significant fall off in synthesis of all three prostaglandins. Thereafter, at 28, 56, 120, and 240 days, escalated production of thromboxane followed, white prostacyclin synthesis remained markedly reduced (-88% of control level at 240 days). Up to 7 days after radiation the calculated TXB{sub 2}/6KPGF ratio remained balanced, regardless of the observed abrupt early fluctuations in their rate of synthesis. Later, between 7 and 240 days after radiation, a significant imbalance was present which became more pronounced over time. In the first 24 h after radiation, a 104% increase in microvessel permeability was observed which returned to normal by 3 days. 57 refs., 3

  2. Serotonin delays habituation of leech swim response to touch.

    PubMed

    Alkatout, Bilal A; Marvin, Nicole M; Crisp, Kevin M

    2007-08-22

    Serotonin, acting through a cAMP-signaling pathway, delayed habituation to criterion of the leech's swim response to touch. This delay was reversed by crushing the connective between serotonin-exposed and serotonin-naive ganglia, and correlated with an increase in spontaneous impulse activity in this connective. We suggest that increased activity in intersegmental interneurons may play a role in maintaining swim responsiveness when concentrations of serotonin are elevated.

  3. Nrf2 reduces levels of phosphorylated tau protein by inducing autophagy adaptor protein NDP52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Chulman; Gundemir, Soner; Pritchard, Susanne; Jin, Youngnam N.; Rahman, Irfan; Johnson, Gail V. W.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor in the defence against oxidative stress. Here we provide evidence that activation of the Nrf2 pathway reduces the levels of phosphorylated tau by induction of an autophagy adaptor protein NDP52 (also known as CALCOCO2) in neurons. The expression of NDP52, which we show has three antioxidant response elements (AREs) in its promoter region, is strongly induced by Nrf2, and its overexpression facilitates clearance of phosphorylated tau in the presence of an autophagy stimulator. In Nrf2-knockout mice, phosphorylated and sarkosyl-insoluble tau accumulates in the brains concurrent with decreased levels of NDP52. Moreover, NDP52 associates with phosphorylated tau from brain cortical samples of Alzheimer disease cases, and the amount of phosphorylated tau in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions is inversely proportional to that of NDP52. These results suggest that NDP52 plays a key role in autophagy-mediated degradation of phosphorylated tau in vivo.

  4. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  5. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse.

  6. COPE Method Implementation Program to Reduce Communication Apprehension Level in Full Day Yunior High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, A. R.

    2017-02-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of COPE method to reduce communication apprehension level of students in Early Adolescence who become Full Day Junior High School students. Full Day Junior High School students, especially in Surabaya coastal area, have more demands to develop the communication aspects such as group discussions and presentations and extracurricular activities. Higher demands to develop such aspects of communication may cause them to experience communication apprehension. The subject was Full Day School students totaling 31 students. The design of the research was experimental design. The experimental method used was a non-randomized pretest posttest control group design and purposive sampling was also used. COPE method is a process that consists of four main stages where people are trying to deal with and control of stressful situations as a result of the problem being faced by conducting cognitive and behavioral changes. Four main stages COPE method is Calming the nervous system, Originating an imaginative plan, Persisting in the face of obstacles and failure, and Evaluating and adjusting the plan. Results of quantitative analysis based on U-Mann Whitney Test shows significant effect on the COPE Method to decrease anxiety levels of communication (0.000 <0.005).

  7. HPV 5 and 8 E6 Expression Reduces ATM Protein Levels and Attenuates LINE-1 Retrotransposition

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Nicholas A.; Gasior, Stephen L.; Faber, Zachary J.; Howie, Heather L.; Deininger, Prescott L.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of the E6 protein from certain members of the HPV genus β (β HPV 5 and 8 E6) can disrupt p53 signaling by diminishing the steady state levels of two p53 modifying enzymes, ATR and p300. Here, we show that β-HPV 5 and 8 E6 are also capable of reducing the steady state levels of another p53 modifying enzyme, ATM, and as a result restrict LINE-1 retrotransposition. Furthermore, we show that the reduction of both ATM and LINE-1 retrotransposition is dependent upon the ability of β-HPV 8 E6 to bind and degrade p300. We use inhibitors and dominant negative mutants to confirm that ATM is needed for efficient LINE-1 retrotransposition. Furthermore, neither sensitivity to LINE-1 expression nor LINE-1 induced DSB formation is altered in an ATM deficient background. Together, these data illustrate the broad impact some β-HPVs have on DNA damage signaling by promoting p300 degradation. PMID:23706308

  8. Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Lauri; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Hietala, Jarmo

    2014-05-01

    All functions of the human brain are consequences of altered activity of specific neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. Although the knowledge of "system level" connectivity in the brain is increasing rapidly, we lack "molecular level" information on brain networks and connectivity patterns. We introduce novel voxel-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods for studying internal neurotransmitter network structure and intercorrelations of different neurotransmitter systems in the human brain. We chose serotonin transporter and μ-opioid receptor for this analysis because of their functional interaction at the cellular level and similar regional distribution in the brain. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two consecutive PET scans using [(11)C]MADAM, a serotonin transporter tracer, and [(11)C]carfentanil, a μ-opioid receptor tracer. First, voxel-by-voxel "intracorrelations" (hub and seed analyses) were used to study the internal structure of opioid and serotonin systems. Second, voxel-level opioid-serotonin intercorrelations (between neurotransmitters) were computed. Regional μ-opioid receptor binding potentials were uniformly correlated throughout the brain. However, our analyses revealed nonuniformity in the serotonin transporter intracorrelations and identified a highly connected local network (midbrain-striatum-thalamus-amygdala). Regionally specific intercorrelations between the opioid and serotonin tracers were found in anteromedial thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parietal cortex, i.e., in areas relevant for several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders. This methodology enables in vivo mapping of connectivity patterns within and between neurotransmitter systems. Quantification of functional neurotransmitter balances may be a useful approach in etiological studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in drug development as a biomarker-based rationale for targeted

  9. Intrinsic neuromodulation in the Tritonia swim CPG: serotonin mediates both neuromodulation and neurotransmission by the dorsal swim interneurons.

    PubMed

    Katz, P S; Frost, W N

    1995-12-01

    reduces both the slow EPSP and the modulation evoked by the DSIs, but has mixed effects on the fast EPSP. Methysergide also blocks the ability of exogenous serotonin to enhance the C2-DFN EPSP, demonstrating that it antagonizes the serotonin receptors responsible for this modulation. 5. Taken together with previous work, these results indicate that serotonin is likely to be responsible for all three actions of the DSIs that were examined: the fast and slow DSI-DFN EPSPs and the neuromodulation of the C2-DFN synapse. These results also indicate that the conventional and neuromodulatory effects of the DSIs may be pharmacologically separable. In future work it may be possible to determine the functional role of each in the swim circuit.

  10. Serotonin Dysfunction, Aggressive Behavior, and Mental Illness: Exploring the Link Using a Dimensional Approach.

    PubMed

    Manchia, Mirko; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Valtorta, Flavia; Comai, Stefano

    2017-05-17

    Aggressive individuals have higher rates of mental illness compared to non-aggressive individuals. Multiple factors, including psychosocial, genetic, and neurobiological determinants modulate the liability to both aggressive behavior and mental illness. Concerning the latter factors, multiple lines of evidence have shown a dysfunction in the serotonin (5-HT) system occurring in aggressive and in mentally ill individuals. In particular, reduced 5-HT activity has been associated with depression as well as with aggressive behavior, especially with impulsive aggression. Consistently, psychopharmacological interventions aimed at boosting the 5-HT system (e.g., with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in a high percentage of patients with either or both pathological conditions. Current knowledge does not yet allow to clearly disentangle whether 5-HT dysfunction, most often a 5-HT deficiency, is the cause or the consequence of the aggressive/violent behavior, of the underlying mental disease/s, or the expression of the comorbidity. Future studies are thus needed to clarify the association between changes in 5-HT levels, altered activity of 5-HT receptors and their intracellular signaling cascades, and modifications of 5-HT genes, and in particular the neurobiological link between the altered 5-HT machinery and aggressive behavior in the context or in the absence of mental illness. In this Review, we employ a dimensional approach to discuss the trivariate relationship among the 5-HT system, aggressive behavior, and mental illness, focusing our attention on 5-HT levels, 5-HT receptors, metabolic enzymes, and their genes. Emphasis is given to controversial findings, still unanswered questions, and future perspectives.

  11. Serotonin Receptor 6 Mediates Defective Brain Development in Monoamine Oxidase A-deficient Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi Chiu; Man, Gene Chi Wai; Chu, Ching Yan; Borchert, Astrid; Ugun-Klusek, Aslihan; Billett, E. Ellen; Kühn, Hartmut; Ufer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO-A and MAO-B) are enzymes of the outer mitochondrial membrane that metabolize biogenic amines. In the adult central nervous system, MAOs have important functions for neurotransmitter homeostasis. Expression of MAO isoforms has been detected in the developing embryo. However, suppression of MAO-B does not induce developmental alterations. In contrast, targeted inhibition and knockdown of MAO-A expression (E7.5–E10.5) caused structural abnormalities in the brain. Here we explored the molecular mechanisms underlying defective brain development induced by MAO-A knockdown during in vitro embryogenesis. The developmental alterations were paralleled by diminished apoptotic activity in the affected neuronal structures. Moreover, dysfunctional MAO-A expression led to elevated levels of embryonic serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)), and we found that knockdown of serotonin receptor-6 (5-Htr6) expression or pharmacologic inhibition of 5-Htr6 activity rescued the MAO-A knockdown phenotype and restored apoptotic activity in the developing brain. Our data suggest that excessive 5-Htr6 activation reduces activation of caspase-3 and -9 of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and enhances expression of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Moreover, we found that elevated 5-HT levels in MAO-A knockdown embryos coincided with an enhanced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and a reduction of proliferating cell numbers. In summary, our findings suggest that excessive 5-HT in MAO-A-deficient mouse embryos triggers cellular signaling cascades via 5-Htr6, which suppresses developmental apoptosis in the brain and thus induces developmental retardations. PMID:24497636

  12. 17β-Estradiol augments antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram in ovariectomized rats: Neuroprotective and serotonin reuptake transporter modulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Weam W; Safar, Marwa M; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Agha, Azza M

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence or recurrence of depression is seriously increased in women during the transition to and after menopause. The chronic hypo-estrogenic state of menopause may reduce the response to antidepressants; however the influence of estrogen therapy on their efficacy is still controversial. This study aimed at investigating the effects of combining escitalopram with 17β-estradiol on depression and cognitive impairment induced by ovariectomy, an experimental model of human menopause. Young adult female Wistar rats were subjected to either sham operation or ovariectomy. Ovariectomized animals were treated chronically with escitalopram (10mg/kg/day, i.p) alone or with four doses of 17β-estradiol (40μg/kg, s.c) given prior to the behavioral tests. Co-administration of 17β-estradiol improved escitalopram-induced antidepressant effect in forced swimming test verified as more prominent decrease in the immobility time without opposing its memory enhancing effect in Morris water maze. 17β-estradiol augmented the modulatory effects of escitalopram on the hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serotonin reuptake transporter as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha without altering its effects on the gene expressions of serotonin receptor 1A, estrogen receptors alpha and beta, or acetylcholinestearase content. This combined therapy afforded synergistic protective effects on the brain histopathological architecture, particularly, the hippocampus. The antidepressant effect of 17β-estradiol was abolished by pretreatment with estrogen receptor antagonist, tamoxifen (10mg/kg, p.o). In conclusion, 17β-estradiol-induced antidepressant effect was confined to intracellular estrogen receptors activation. Moreover, 17β-estradiol enhanced escitalopram's efficiency in ameliorating menopausal-like depression, via exerting synergistic neuroprotective and serotonin reuptake transporter modulatory effects, without impeding escitalopram-mediated cognitive

  13. Automated concept-level information extraction to reduce the need for custom software and rules development.

    PubMed

    D'Avolio, Leonard W; Nguyen, Thien M; Goryachev, Sergey; Fiore, Louis D

    2011-01-01

    Despite at least 40 years of promising empirical performance, very few clinical natural language processing (NLP) or information extraction systems currently contribute to medical science or care. The authors address this gap by reducing the need for custom software and rules development with a graphical user interface-driven, highly generalizable approach to concept-level retrieval. A 'learn by example' approach combines features derived from open-source NLP pipelines with open-source machine learning classifiers to automatically and iteratively evaluate top-performing configurations. The Fourth i2b2/VA Shared Task Challenge's concept extraction task provided the data sets and metrics used to evaluate performance. Top F-measure scores for each of the tasks were medical problems (0.83), treatments (0.82), and tests (0.83). Recall lagged precision in all experiments. Precision was near or above 0.90 in all tasks. Discussion With no customization for the tasks and less than 5 min of end-user time to configure and launch each experiment, the average F-measure was 0.83, one point behind the mean F-measure of the 22 entrants in the competition. Strong precision scores indicate the potential of applying the approach for more specific clinical information extraction tasks. There was not one best configuration, supporting an iterative approach to model creation. Acceptable levels of performance can be achieved using fully automated and generalizable approaches to concept-level information extraction. The described implementation and related documentation is available for download.

  14. Reduced levels of TNF alpha in hypercholesterolemic individuals after treatment with pravastatin for 8 weeks.

    PubMed

    Solheim, S; Seljeflot, I; Arnesen, H; Eritsland, J; Eikvar, L

    2001-08-01

    cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) expressed on the endothelial surface play a key role in the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis, and increased expression of CAMs has been shown in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The expression of CAMs is mediated by several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of pravastatin 40 mg per day on selected soluble CAMs; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, P-selectin and some circulating markers of inflammation; C-reactive protein (CRP) and the cytokines TNF alpha and IL-6. 40 non-diabetic men, age below 70 years, with serum total cholesterol 6--10 mmol/l combined with HDL-cholesterol < or =1.2 mmol/l were included. The study was randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, cross over designed with 8 weeks intervention periods. Fasting blood samples were drawn after 8 and 16 weeks. significant reduction of total cholesterol was achieved after treatment with pravastatin (7.8 on placebo vs. 5.7 mmol/l on pravastatin). TNF alpha was significantly reduced after treatment with pravastatin (1.33 on placebo vs. 1.10 pg/ml on pravastatin, P=0.032), whereas no differences in the levels of the measured sCAMs, CRP and IL-6 were found. Subgroup analysis among smokers versus non-smokers showed a significant reduction in the level of TNF alpha only among the smokers. hypercholesterolemic individuals treated with pravastatin 40 mg per day for 8 weeks showed a statistically significant reduction in the levels of TNF alpha as compared with placebo.

  15. Cannabis use in early psychosis is associated with reduced glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rigucci, Silvia; Xin, Lijing; Klauser, Paul; Baumann, Philipp S; Alameda, Luis; Cleusix, Martine; Jenni, Raoul; Ferrari, Carina; Pompili, Maurizio; Gruetter, Rolf; Do, Kim Q; Conus, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cannabis may disrupt glutamate (Glu) signaling depressing Glu tone in frequent users. Current evidence have also consistently reported lower Glu-levels in various brain regions, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of chronic schizophrenia patients, while findings in early psychosis (EP) are not conclusive. Since cannabis may alter Glu synaptic plasticity and its use is a known risk factor for psychosis, studies focusing on Glu signaling in EP with or without a concomitant cannabis-usage seem crucial. We investigate the effect of cannabis use on prefrontal Glu-levels in EP users vs. both EP non-users and healthy controls (HC). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure [Glu mPFC ] of 35 EP subjects (18 of whom were cannabis users) and 33 HC. For correlative analysis, neuropsychological performances were scored by the MATRICS-consensus cognitive battery. [Glu mPFC ] was lower in EP users comparing to both HC and EP non-users (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively), while no differences were observed between EP non-users and HC. A greater [Glu mPFC ]-decline with age was observed in EP users (r = -.46; p = 0.04), but not in EP non-users or HC. Among neuropsychological outcomes, working memory was the only domain that differentiates patients depending on their cannabis use, with users having poorer performances. Cannabis use is associated with reduced prefrontal [Glu mPFC ] and with a stronger Glu-levels decline with age. Glutamatergic abnormalities might influence the cognitive impairment observed in users and have some relevance for the progression of the disease.

  16. Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD.

    PubMed

    Funamoto, Masafumi; Sunagawa, Yoichi; Katanasaka, Yasufumi; Miyazaki, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Kakeya, Hideaki; Yamakage, Hajime; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Komiyama, Maki; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Morimoto, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    COPD is mainly caused by tobacco smoking and is associated with a high frequency of coronary artery disease. There is growing recognition that the inflammation in COPD is not only confined to the lungs but also involves the systemic circulation and can impact nonpulmonary organs, including blood vessels. α1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein (AT-LDL) complex is an oxidatively modified LDL that accelerates atherosclerosis. Curcumin, one of the best-investigated natural products, is a powerful antioxidant. However, the effects of curcumin on AT-LDL remain unknown. We hypothesized that Theracurmin(®), a highly absorptive curcumin with improved bioavailability using a drug delivery system, ameliorates the inflammatory status in subjects with mild COPD. This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Subjects with stages I-II COPD according to the Japanese Respiratory Society criteria were randomly assigned to receive 90 mg Theracurmin(®) or placebo twice a day for 24 weeks, and changes in inflammatory parameters were evaluated. There were no differences between the Theracurmin(®) and placebo groups in terms of age, male/female ratio, or body mass index in 39 evaluable subjects. The percent changes in blood pressure and hemoglobin A1c and LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels after treatment were similar for the two groups. However, the percent change in the AT-LDL level was significantly (P=0.020) lower in the Theracurmin(®) group compared with the placebo group. Theracurmin(®) reduced levels of atherosclerotic AT-LDL, which may lead to the prevention of future cardiovascular events in mild COPD subjects.

  17. Highly charged swelling mica reduces free and extractable Cu levels in Cu-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Jason W; Neaman, Alexander; Ravella, Ramesh; Komarneni, Sridhar; Martínez, Carmen Enid

    2008-12-15

    Smelting of copper (Cu) results in the atmospheric deposition of Cu onto surrounding soils. Excess concentrations of Cu in soils can be absorbed by soil biota to toxic levels or leached into the groundwater, threatening the entire ecosystem. A means to restrict Cu mobility and uptake by plants is to remove it from the aqueous phase by applying an adsorptive material. A synthetic clay (highly charged swelling mica) was tested for its ability to decrease the levels of free and 0.1 M KNO3-extractable Cu in 15 surface soils from three different Cu mining areas in central Chile. The soils contained excessive total Cu levels (112-2790 mg Cu (kg soil)(-1)), while extractable Cu ranged from 0.3 to 22.9 mg Cu L(-1). The mica was applied to each soil at rates of 0.1%, 1%, and 2% (w/w). A 2% sodium-montmorillonite treatment and the nonamended soil served as controls. The order of treatment efficacy in reducing extractable Cu and free Cu2+ for low pH soils ( 1% mica > 2% montmorillonite > 0.1% mica. At 120 days, the 2% mica treatment maintained reductions of up to 93% in the free Cu2+ activity and up to 75% in the extractable Cu concentration upon acidification to the original soil pH value. In addition, Cu retention in mica-treated soils was more resistant to acidification than in lime-treated soils. This mica has promise for the remediation of acidic soils with metal contamination at the surface.

  18. Serotonin-Labeled CdSe Nanocrystals: Applications for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippeny, Tadd; Adkins, Erika; Adams, Scott; Thomlinson, Ian; Schroeter, Sally; Defelice, Louis; Blakely, Randy; Rosenthal, Sandra

    2000-03-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter which has been linked to the regulation of critical behaviors including sleep, appetite, and mood. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a 12-transmembrane domain protein responsible for clearance of serotonin from extracellular spaces following release. In order to assess the potential for use of ligand-conjugated nanocrystals to target cell surface receptors, ion channels, and transporters we have measured the ability of serotonin-labeled CdSe nanocrystals (SNACs) to block the uptake of tritiated serotonin by the human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT and dSERT). Estimated Ki values, the SNAC concentration at which half of the serotonin transport activity is blocked, were determined by nonlinear regression to be Ki (hSERT ) = 74uM and Ki (dSERT ) = 29uM. These values and our inability to detect free serotonin indicate that SNACs selectively interact with the serotonin recognition site of the transporter. We have also exposed the SNACs to cells containing ionotropic serotonin receptors and have measured the electrical response of the cell using a two microelectrode voltage clamp. We find that serotonin receptors do respond to the SNACs and we measure currents similar to the free serotonin response. These results indicate that ligand-conjugated nanocrystals can be used to label both receptor and transporter proteins. Initial fluorescence labeling experiments will be discussed.

  19. Screening and characterization of lactic acid bacterial strains that produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xuefang; Xu, Qingxian; Zheng, Yi; Qian, Lei; Lin, Bin

    To screen for and characterize lactic acid bacteria strains with the ability to produce fermented milk and reduce cholesterol levels. The strains were isolated from traditional fermented milk in China. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of cholesterol-reduction were used to identify and verify strains of interest. Characteristics were analyzed using spectrophotometry and plate counting assays. The isolate HLX37 consistently produced fermented milk with strong cholesterol-reducing properties was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (accession number: KR105940) and was thus selected for further study. The cholesterol reduction by strain HLX37 was 45.84%. The isolates were acid-tolerant at pH 2.5 and bile-tolerant at 0.5% (w/v) in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5) for 2h and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 8.0) for 3h. The auto-aggregation rate increased to 87.74% after 24h, while the co-aggregation with Escherichia coli DH5 was 27.76%. Strain HLX37 was intrinsically resistant to antibiotics such as penicillin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin and amikacin. Compared with rats in the model hyperlipidemia group, the total cholesterol content in the serum and the liver as well as the atherogenic index of rats in the viable fermented milk group significantly decreased by 23.33%, 32.37% and 40.23%, respectively. Fewer fat vacuoles and other lesions in liver tissue were present in both the inactivated and viable fermented milk groups compared to the model group. These studies indicate that strain HLX37 of L. plantarum demonstrates probiotic potential, potential for use as a candidate for commercial use for promoting health. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher levels of knowledge reduce health care costs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Federica; Martinato, Matteo; Girardin, Giulia; Gregori, Dario

    2015-03-01

    The potentially high costs of care associated with inflammatory bowel disease are recognized. A knowledge-based self-management approach seems to reduce health care costs, improve disease control, and reduce indirect costs. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between patient knowledge and health care costs. Patients diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis, or indeterminate colitis, in 2010 to 2011 were included. Direct costs were investigated for each patient, including costs of blood tests, procedures, medications, hospitalization, and visits. Specific prices were reported according to the hospital billing database for 2010. For medical and surgical hospital admissions, DRG 19 prices were reported. A validated questionnaire (CCKNOW) was used to assess disease-related knowledge. Ninety-one patients (38 men), mean age 47 years (range, 33-63 yr) were studied (14 indeterminate colitis, 33 CD, and 44 ulcerative colitis). Median cost for patients is higher in CD (&OV0556;4099.02). The mean overall CCKNOW score was 8.00 (8.50 for indeterminate colitis, 7.50 for CD, and 7.50 for ulcerative colitis). An increase of 5 points on the CCKNOW corresponds to a cost decrease of &OV0556;1099.53 in the first year of disease. Higher levels of knowledge were shown to be associated with significantly lower health care costs. The data suggest that better information could lead to better choices and improved outcomes; thus, patient information and education is a key priority for managing patients with inflammatory bowel disease, perhaps planning structured and formal patient education programs in the future.

  1. Protocol: a multi-level intervention program to reduce stress in 9-1-1 telecommunicators.

    PubMed

    Meischke, Hendrika; Lilly, Michelle; Beaton, Randal; Calhoun, Rebecca; Tu, Ann; Stangenes, Scott; Painter, Ian; Revere, Debra; Baseman, Janet

    2018-05-02

    Nationwide, emergency response systems depend on 9-1-1 telecommunicators to prioritize, triage, and dispatch assistance to those in distress. 9-1-1 call center telecommunicators (TCs) are challenged by acute and chronic workplace stressors: tense interactions with citizen callers in crisis; overtime; shift-work; ever-changing technologies; and negative work culture, including co-worker conflict. This workforce is also subject to routine exposures to secondary traumatization while handling calls involving emergency situations and while making time urgent, high stake decisions over the phone. Our study aims to test the effectiveness of a multi-part intervention to reduce stress in 9-1-1 TCs through an online mindfulness training and a toolkit containing workplace stressor reduction resources. The study employs a randomized controlled trial design with three data collection points. The multi-part intervention includes an individual-level online mindfulness training and a call center-level organizational stress reduction toolkit. 160 TCs will be recruited from 9-1-1 call centers, complete a baseline survey at enrollment, and are randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. Intervention group participants will start a 7-week online mindfulness training developed in-house and tailored to 9-1-1 TCs and their call center environment; control participants will be "waitlisted" and start the training after the study period ends. Following the intervention group's completion of the mindfulness training, all participants complete a second survey. Next, the online toolkit with call-center wide stress reduction resources is made available to managers of all participating call centers. After 3 months, a third survey will be completed by all participants. The primary outcome is 9-1-1 TCs' self-reported symptoms of stress at three time points as measured by the C-SOSI (Calgary Symptoms of Stress Inventory). Secondary outcomes will include: perceptions of social work

  2. Reduced levels of Cacna1c attenuate mesolimbic dopamine system function.

    PubMed

    Terrillion, C E; Dao, D T; Cachope, R; Lobo, M K; Puche, A C; Cheer, J F; Gould, T D

    2017-06-01

    Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which codes for the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Ca v 1.2, is associated with clinical diagnoses of bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia. Dysregulation of the mesolimbic-dopamine (ML-DA) system is linked to these syndromes and LTCCs are required for normal DAergic neurotransmission between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). It is unclear, however, how variations in CACNA1C genotype, and potential subsequent changes in expression levels in these regions, modify risk. Using constitutive and conditional knockout mice, and treatment with the LTCC antagonist nimodipine, we examined the role of Cacna1c in DA-mediated behaviors elicited by psychomotor stimulants. Using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, DA release and reuptake in the NAc were measured. We find that subsecond DA release in Cacna1c haploinsufficient mice lacks normal sensitivity to inhibition of the DA transporter (DAT). Constitutive haploinsufficiency of Cacna1c led to attenuation of hyperlocomotion following acute administration of stimulants specific to DAT, and locomotor sensitization of these mice to the DAT antagonist GBR12909 did not reach the same level as wild-type mice. The maintenance of sensitization to GBR12909 was attenuated by administration of nimodipine. Sensitization to GBR12909 was attenuated in mice with reduced Cacna1c selectively in the VTA but not in the NAc. Our findings show that Cacna1c is crucial for normal behavioral responses to DA stimulants and that its activity in the VTA is required for behavioral sensitization. Cacna1c likely exerts these effects through modifications to presynaptic ML-DA system function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  3. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for fibromyalgia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Walitt, Brian; Urrútia, Gerard; Nishishinya, María Betina; Cantrell, Sarah E; Häuser, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition with a biopsychosocial aetiology. Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep problems, cognitive dysfunction, and fatigue. Patients often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Since there is no specific treatment that alters the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia, drug therapy focuses on pain reduction and improvement of other aversive symptoms. Objectives The objective was to assess the benefits and harms of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2014), EMBASE (1946 to June 2014), and the reference lists of reviewed articles. Selection criteria We selected all randomized, double-blind trials of SSRIs used for the treatment of fibromyalgia symptoms in adult participants. We considered the following SSRIs in this review: citalopram, fluoxetine, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Data collection and analysis Three authors extracted the data of all included studies and assessed the risks of bias of the studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. Main results The quality of evidence was very low for each outcome. We downgraded the quality of evidence to very low due to concerns about risk of bias and studies with few participants. We included seven placebo-controlled studies, two with citalopram, three with fluoxetine and two with paroxetine, with a median study duration of eight weeks (4 to 16 weeks) and 383 participants, who were pooled together. All studies had one or more sources of potential major bias. There was a small (10%) difference in patients who reported a 30% pain reduction between SSRIs (56/172 (32.6%)) and placebo (39/171 (22.8%)) risk difference (RD) 0.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.20; number needed to treat for an additional

  4. Characterization of the effects of serotonin on the release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Nurse, B.; Russell, V.A.; Taljaard, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of serotonin agonists on the depolarization (K+)-induced, calcium-dependent, release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine (DA) from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices was investigated. Serotonin enhanced basal /sup 3/H overflow and reduced K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA from nucleus accumbens slices. The effect of serotonin on basal /sup 3/H overflow was not altered by the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, or the serotonin re-uptake blocker, chlorimipramine, but was reversed by the DA re-uptake carrier inhibitors nomifensine and benztropine. With the effect on basal overflow blocked, serotonin did not modulate K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens or striatum. The serotoninmore » agonists, quipazine (in the presence of nomifensine) and 5-methoxytryptamine, did not significantly affect K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens. This study does not support suggestions that serotonin receptors inhibit the depolarization-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens or striatum of the rat brain. The present results do not preclude the possibility that serotonin may affect the mesolimbic reward system at a site which is post-synaptic to dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens.« less

  5. High serum serotonin in sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Robin L; Frelinger, Andrew L; Giles, Emma K; Goldstein, Richard D; Tran, Hoa; Kozakewich, Harry P; Haas, Elisabeth A; Gerrits, Anja J; Mena, Othon J; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Paterson, David S; Berry, Gerard T; Adeli, Khosrow; Kinney, Hannah C; Michelson, Alan D

    2017-07-18

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), the leading cause of postneonatal infant mortality, likely comprises heterogeneous disorders with the common phenotype of sudden death without explanation upon postmortem investigation. Previously, we reported that ∼40% of SIDS deaths are associated with abnormalities in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in regions of the brainstem critical in homeostatic regulation. Here we tested the hypothesis that SIDS is associated with an alteration in serum 5-HT levels. Serum 5-HT, adjusted for postconceptional age, was significantly elevated (95%) in SIDS infants ( n = 61) compared with autopsied controls ( n = 15) [SIDS, 177.2 ± 15.1 (mean ± SE) ng/mL versus controls, 91.1 ± 30.6 ng/mL] ( P = 0.014), as determined by ELISA. This increase was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Thirty-one percent (19/61) of SIDS cases had 5-HT levels greater than 2 SDs above the mean of the controls, thus defining a subset of SIDS cases with elevated 5-HT. There was no association between genotypes of the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism and serum 5-HT level. This study demonstrates that SIDS is associated with peripheral abnormalities in the 5-HT pathway. High serum 5-HT may serve as a potential forensic biomarker in autopsied infants with SIDS with serotonergic defects.

  6. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P.; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Durant, John L.; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2016-01-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning. PMID:27413416

  7. Expectations contribute to reduced pain levels during prayer in highly religious participants.

    PubMed

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Vase, Lene; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Terkelsen, Astrid Juhl; Hansen, John; Geertz, Armin W; Roepstorff, Andreas; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2013-08-01

    Although the use of prayer as a religious coping strategy is widespread and often claimed to have positive effects on physical disorders including pain, it has never been tested in a controlled experimental setting whether prayer has a pain relieving effect. Religious beliefs and practices are complex phenomena and the use of prayer may be mediated by general psychological factors known to be related to the pain experience, such as expectations, desire for pain relief, and anxiety. Twenty religious and twenty non-religious healthy volunteers were exposed to painful electrical stimulation during internal prayer to God, a secular contrast condition, and a pain-only control condition. Subjects rated expected pain intensity levels, desire for pain relief, and anxiety before each trial and pain intensity and pain unpleasantness immediately after on mechanical visual analogue scales. Autonomic and cardiovascular measures provided continuous non-invasive objective means for assessing th