Science.gov

Sample records for reduces augmentation index

  1. Analysis of multinomial models with unknown index using data augmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Dorazio, R.M.; Link, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multinomial models with unknown index ('sample size') arise in many practical settings. In practice, Bayesian analysis of such models has proved difficult because the dimension of the parameter space is not fixed, being in some cases a function of the unknown index. We describe a data augmentation approach to the analysis of this class of models that provides for a generic and efficient Bayesian implementation. Under this approach, the data are augmented with all-zero detection histories. The resulting augmented dataset is modeled as a zero-inflated version of the complete-data model where an estimable zero-inflation parameter takes the place of the unknown multinomial index. Interestingly, data augmentation can be justified as being equivalent to imposing a discrete uniform prior on the multinomial index. We provide three examples involving estimating the size of an animal population, estimating the number of diabetes cases in a population using the Rasch model, and the motivating example of estimating the number of species in an animal community with latent probabilities of species occurrence and detection.

  2. Aortic augmentation index in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Mariella; Scandale, Giovanni; Carzaniga, Gianni; Cinquini, Michela; Minola, Marzio; Antoniazzi, Valeria; Dimitrov, Gabriel; Carotta, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Aortic augmentation index (AIx) is used to investigate arterial stiffness. The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) demonstrate a higher AIx and also evaluated several related factors. In 97 patients with PAD, identified by ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI ≤ 0.9), and 97 controls (ABPI ≥ 0.91< 1.4), AIx (%) was determined using tonometry of the radial artery. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in characteristics of age, sex, height, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, and heart rate. AIx was higher in patients with PAD (32 ± 9 vs 28 ± 9; P = .001). In multivariate regression analysis, AIx was independently associated with heart rate (β = -0.40, P = .0005). This study showed that AIx increased in patients with PAD and that heart rate is a determinant of AIx. Further studies are necessary to assess the pathophysiological and clinical importance of AIx in patients with PAD. PMID:25228305

  3. Ethnic differences in arterial wave reflections and normative equations for augmentation index.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Julio A; Kips, Jan G; Roman, Mary J; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Li, Yan; Woodiwiss, Angela J; Norton, Gavin R; Yasmin; Van Bortel, Luc; Wang, Ji-Guang; Cockcroft, John R; Devereux, Richard B; Wilkinson, Ian B; Segers, Patrick; McEniery, Carmel M

    2011-06-01

    Data regarding ethnic differences in wave reflections, which markedly affect the central pressure profile, are very limited. Furthermore, because age, heart rate, and body height are strong determinants of augmentation index, relating single measurements to normative data (in which augmentation index values correspond with average population values of its determinants) is challenging. We studied subject-level data from 10 550 adults enrolled in large population-based studies. In a healthy reference sample (n=3497), we assessed ethnic differences in augmentation index (ratio of second/first systolic peaks) and generated equations for adjusted z scores, allowing for a standardized comparison between individual augmentation index measurements and the normative population mean from subjects of the same age, sex, ethnic population, body height, and heart rate. After adjustment for age, body height, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure, African blacks (women: 154%; men: 138%) and Andean Hispanics (women: 152%; men: 133%) demonstrated higher central (aortic) augmentation index values than British whites (women: 140%; men: 128%), whereas American Indians (women: 133%; men: 122%) demonstrated lower augmentation index (all P<0.0001), without significant differences between Chinese and British whites. Similar results were found for radial augmentation index. Nonlinear ethnic/sex-specific equations for z scores were successfully generated to adjust individual augmentation index values for age, body height, and heart rate. Marked ethnic differences in augmentation index exist, which may contribute to ethnic differences in hypertensive organ damage. Our study provides normative data that can be used to complement the interpretation of individual hemodynamic assessments among men and women of various ethnic populations, after removing the effect of various physiological determinants.

  4. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  5. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-M.; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-15

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is n{sub s} > or approx. 1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to n{sub s}=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  6. Fast reducers, slow augmenters: a psychophysiological analysis of temperament-related differences in reaction time.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtfeger, Andreas; Getzmann, Stephan; Baltissen, Rüdiger

    2004-05-01

    Augmenting-reducing theory describes temperament-related differences in the modulation of stimulation. Reducers are supposed to need more stimulation than augmenters because of a cortical attenuation of incoming stimuli. The study investigated differences between augmenters and reducers (classified by questionnaire) in performance and information processing strategies in a simple reaction time task. Fifty-two subjects (27 augmenters, 25 reducers) took part in a visual reaction time task with go- and catch-trials (30%). Reaction times, commission errors, and psychophysiological indicators of information processing (N1, P300, EMG) were recorded. Reducers were faster and exhibited more commission errors than augmenters. Moreover, reducers exhibited higher N1-amplitudes, faster EMG-onsets and higher EMG-amplitudes than augmenters. An additional pain tolerance test revealed that male reducers were more pain tolerant than the other participants. These results are consistent with the proposition that reducers have a higher need for stimulation than augmenters. Probably, they utilize locomotor activity in order to compensate for their attenuated arousal.

  7. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.

  8. Augmenting data rate performance for higher order modulation in triangular index profile multicore fiber interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Jitendra K.; Priye, Vishnu; Rahman, B. M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A triangular profile multicore fiber (MCF) optical interconnect (OI) is investigated to augment performance that typically degrades at high data rates for higher order modulation in a short reach transmission system. Firstly, probability density functions (PDFs) variation with inter-core crosstalk is calculated for 8-core MCF OI with different index profile in the core and it was observed that the triangular profile MCF OI is the most crosstalk tolerant. Next, symbol error probability (SEP) for higher order quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulated signal due to inter-core crosstalk is analytically obtained and their dependence on typical characteristic parameters are examined. Further, numerical simulations are carried out to compare the error performance of QPSK for step index and triangular index MCF OI by generating eye diagram at 40 Gbps per channel. Finally, it is shown that MCF OI with triangular index profile supporting QPSK has double spectral efficiency with tolerable trade off in SEP as compared with those of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) at high data rates which is scalable up to 5 Tbps.

  9. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  10. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H.; Deveaux, Don D.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (−7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by −5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by −4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  11. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeanie; Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H; Deveaux, Don D; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (-7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by -5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by -4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  12. Central Systolic Augmentation Indexes and Urinary Sodium in a White Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Ping; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Gu, Yu-Mei; Asayama, Kei; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Jin, Yu; Verhamme, Peter; Struijker-Boudier, Harry A.J.; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The association between cardiovascular health and salt intake remains controversial. The objective of our study was to assess the association between arterial stiffness and urinary sodium, both cross-sectionally and prospectively. METHODS In 630 participants (mean age 40.6 years; 51% women), randomly recruited from a Flemish population, we measured sodium and creatinine in 24-hour urine samples at baseline and follow-up (median, 9.7 years) and the carotid and aortic augmentation indexes (AIs) standardized to heart rate at follow-up only. RESULTS From baseline to follow-up, the urinary sodium concentration decreased (117.1 vs. 105.2 mmol/L; P < 0.0001), whereas 24-hour urinary sodium did not change significantly (166.5 vs. 171.5 mmol/L; P = 0.12). In multivariable-adjusted longitudinal analyses, a 40 mmol/L (~1 SD) increase in the urinary sodium concentration was independently and inversely associated with the carotid AI (effect size, −1.38 ± 0.66%; P = 0.04) and aortic AI (−1.54 ± 0.72%; P = 0.02). In cross-sectional analyses of follow-up data, these estimates were −1.26 ± 0.70% (P = 0.07) and −1.52 ± 0.76% (P = 0.04), respectively. In the longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses, the carotid and aortic AIs were unrelated to the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed an inverse association between the central arterial AIs and the urinary sodium concentration. Further research is required to consolidate our findings, to unravel the underlying mechanism, and to establish the role of renal vasodilatation in the maintenance of sodium balance. PMID:23382332

  13. Accurate calculation of control-augmented structural eigenvalue sensitivities using reduced-order models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livne, Eli

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for generating mode shapes for model order reduction in a way that leads to accurate calculation of eigenvalue derivatives and eigenvalues for a class of control augmented structures. The method is based on treating degrees of freedom where control forces act or masses are changed in a manner analogous to that used for boundary degrees of freedom in component mode synthesis. It is especially suited for structures controlled by a small number of actuators and/or tuned by a small number of concentrated masses whose positions are predetermined. A control augmented multispan beam with closely spaced natural frequencies is used for numerical experimentation. A comparison with reduced-order eigenvalue sensitivity calculations based on the normal modes of the structure shows that the method presented produces significant improvements in accuracy.

  14. Risk Stratification of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Using Aortic Augmentation Index

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Marianne; Husmann, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background Central augmentation index (cAIx) is an indicator for vascular stiffness. Obstructive and aneurysmatic vascular disease can affect pulse wave propagation and reflection, causing changes in central aortic pressures. Aim To assess and compare cAIx in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and / or abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods cAIx was assessed by radial applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) in a total of 184 patients at a tertiary referral centre. Patients were grouped as having PAD only, AAA only, or both AAA and PAD. Differences in cAIx measurements between the three patient groups were tested by non-parametric tests and stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis to investigate associations with obstructive or aneurysmatic patterns of vascular disease. Results In the study sample of 184 patients, 130 had PAD only, 20 had AAA only, and 34 patients had both AAA and PAD. Mean cAIx (%) was 30.5 ± 8.2 across all patients. It was significantly higher in females (35.2 ± 6.1, n = 55) than males (28.4 ± 8.2, n = 129), and significantly higher in patients over 80 years of age (34.4 ± 6.9, n = 22) than in those under 80 years (30.0 ± 8.2, n = 162). Intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference in cAIx between the three patient groups (AAA: 27.3 ± 9.5; PAD: 31.4 ± 7.8; AAA & PAD: 28.8 ± 8.5). cAIx was significantly lower in patients with AAA, higher in patients with both AAA and PAD, and highest in patients with PAD only (beta = 0.21, p = 0.006). Conclusion Non-invasive assessment of arterial stiffness in high-risk patients indicates that cAIx differs according to the pattern of vascular disease. Measurements revealed significantly higher cAIx values for patients with obstructive peripheral arterial disease than for patients with aneurysmatic disease. PMID:26452151

  15. Arsenic trioxide and reduced glutathione act synergistically to augment inhibition of thyroid peroxidase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, Dominic L; Ely, Emily A

    2015-05-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the enzyme involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is known to inhibit TPO activity in vitro. This inhibition is believed to occur when As2O3 binds to TPO's free sulfhydryl groups. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is also known to inhibit TPO activity in vitro. This inhibition may occur because GSH acts as a competitive substrate for hydrogen peroxide, or possibly reduce the oxidized form of iodide, requirements for TPO action. On the other hand, one could speculate that GSH reduces arsenic-induced TPO inhibition by interacting directly with arsenic or TPO, consequently limiting arsenic's ability to inhibit TPO activity. Since GSH is known to inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis while at the same time it is also known to be an important antioxidant preventing cellular damage induced by oxidative stress and protecting the thyroid gland from oxidative damage induced by arsenic, we wanted to determine if a combination of As2O3 and reduced GSH would either attenuate or augment the As2O3-induced inhibition on TPO activity. Using an in vitro system, TPO was assayed spectrophotometrically in the presence of As2O3 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ppm), GSH (0.1, 1, 5, and 10 ppm), and As2O3 (0.1 ppm) and GSH (0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 ppm) combinations. Our results show that 0.1, 1.0, and 10 ppm As2O3 inhibit TPO activity. Similarly, 5 and 10 ppm GSH also inhibit TPO activity. When 0.1 ppm As2O3 (i.e., the lowest dose of arsenic able to partially inhibit TPO activity) is combined with 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10 ppm GSH inhibition of in vitro TPO activity is augmented as indicated by complete inhibition of TPO. The mechanism of this augmentation and whether it translates to living systems remains unclear.

  16. A reduced BPS index of E-strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2014-12-01

    We study the BPS spectrum of E-strings in a situation where the global E 8 symmetry is broken down to D 4 ⊕ D 4 by a certain twist. We find that the refined BPS index in this setup serves as a reduced BPS index of E-strings, which gives a novel trigonometric generalization of the Nekrasov partition function for four-dimensional = 2 supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory with N f = 4 massless flavors. We determine the perturbative part of this index and also first few unrefined instanton corrections. By using these results together with the modular anomaly equation, the genus expansion of the free energy can be computed efficiently up to very high order. We also determine the unrefined elliptic genus of four E-strings under the twist.

  17. Augmented Feedback Supports Skill Transfer and Reduces High-Risk Injury Landing Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Stroube, Benjamin W.; DiCesare, Christopher A.; Brent, Jensen L.; Ford, Kevin R.; Heidt, Robert S.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a current need to produce a simple, yet effective method for screening and targeting possible deficiencies related to increased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk. Hypothesis Frontal plane knee angle (FPKA) during a drop vertical jump will decrease upon implementing augmented feedback into a standardized sport training program. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Thirty-seven female participants (mean ± SD: age, 14.7 ±1.5 years; height, 160.9 ± 6.8 cm; weight, 54.5 ± 7.2 kg) were trained over 8 weeks. During each session, each participant received standardized training consisting of strength training, plyometrics, and conditioning. They were also videotaped running on a treadmill at a standardized speed and performing a repeated tuck jump for 10 seconds. Study participants were randomized into 2 groups and received augmented feedback on either their jumping (AF) or sprinting (CTRL) form. Average (mean of 3 trials) and most extreme (trial with greatest knee abduction) FPKA were calculated from 2-dimensional video captured during performance of the drop vertical jump. Results After testing, a main effect of time was noted, with the AF group reducing their FPKA average by 37.9% over the 3 trials while the CTRL group demonstrated a 26.7% reduction average across the 3 trials (P < .05). Conversely, in the most extreme drop vertical jump trial, a significant time-by-group interaction was noted (P < .05). The AF group reduced their most extreme FPKA by 6.9° (pretest, 18.4° ± 12.3°; posttest, 11.4° ± 10.1°) on their right leg and 6.5° (pretest, 16.3° ± 14.5°; posttest, 9.8° ± 10.7°) on their left leg, which represented a 37.7% and 40.1 % reduction in FPKA, respectively. In the CTRL group, no similar changes were noted in the right (pretest, 16.9° ± 14.3°; posttest, 14.0° ± 12.3°) or left leg (pretest, 9.8° ± 11.1°; posttest, 7.2° ± 9.2°) after training. Conclusion Providing athletes with augmented

  18. Reducing the risk of sexual abuse for people who use augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Collier, Barbara; McGhie-Richmond, Donna; Odette, Fran; Pyne, Jake

    2006-03-01

    To date little attention has been focused on the sexual abuse experiences of people who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and on addressing ways to reduce their risk for this type of abuse. This paper describes the results of a 3-year project that aimed to: (a) learn about the sexual abuse experiences of people who use AAC; (b) provide educational forums and resources on topics relating to sexual abuse for adults who use AAC; (c) define implications in risk reduction for various community service workers who support people who use AAC (e.g., attendant service providers, abuse counselors, sexual health educators, police, victim assistance services, legal professionals, and health care professionals); and (d) make recommendations to parents, educators, service providers, and consumer advocacy organizations about their roles in reducing the risk of abuse for youth and adults who use AAC. The findings suggest that the majority of participants in this project have experienced a range of abuses including sexual abuse, lack information about healthy and abusive relationships, have no way of communicating about sexuality and abuse, and lack supports in their personal lives and from within the community-at-large that are necessary to cope with relationship difficulties and specifically problems associated with abuse and justice system services. These findings and implications are shared with the intent of highlighting the need for more research and attention to the issue of abuse prevention for people who use AAC.

  19. Semiochemical lures reduce emigration and enhance pest control services in open-field predator augmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Augmentation biocontrol is a commercially viable pest management tactic in enclosed glasshouse environments, but is far less effective in open-field agriculture where newly released enemies rapidly disperse from release sites. We tested the potential for behavior-modifying semiochemicals to increase...

  20. Metamorphic manipulating mechanism design for MCCB using index reduced iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghua; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Zhen; Lin, Xiaoxia

    2013-03-01

    The present research on moulded case circuit breaker(MCCB) focuses on the enhancement of current-limiting interrupting performance during short circuit, overload, under voltage and phase failure, involving electrics, magnetic, mechanics, thermal, material, friction, arc extinguishing, impact vibration, skin effect, etc. The rigid-flexible coupling of the parts and components of the metamorphic manipulating mechanism in multi-fields leads to the non-rigid, high frequency, high damping, singularity of the Euler-Lagrange equations which represents the multi-body dynamics. The small step iteration which is used for obtaining the instantaneous and short time critical interrupting performance of metamorphic mechanism appears inaccuracy. It is difficult to realize top-down design by existing CAD systems. Therefore, a metamorphic manipulating mechanism design method for MCCB using index reduced iteration(IRI) is put forward. The metamorphic manipulating mechanism of MCCB is decomposed into three mechanisms: main switch connector mechanism, electromagnet-drawbar-jump buckle mechanism, and bimetallic strip-drawbar mechanism, which is respectively described by electro-dynamic force, electromagnet force, and bimetallic strip force. The dummy part(virtual rigid) without moment of inertia and mass is employed as intermediate to join the flexible body and rigid body. The model of rigid-flexible coupling metamorphic mechanism multi-body dynamics is built. The differential algebraic equations(DAEs) of the multibody dynamics model are converted to pure ordinary differential equations(ODEs) by coordinate partition. Order reduced integration with multi-step and variable step-size is preceded based on IRI. The non-linear algebraic equations are solved in each integration step by Newton-Rapson iteration. There is no ill-condition and singularity of Jacobian matrix when step size reduces to zero. The independent prototype design system using ACIS R13, HOOPS V11.0 and Visual C++.NET 2003

  1. Guidance augmentation for reducing uncertainty in vision-based hazard mapping during lunar landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, E. S.; Rock, S. M.

    A new guidance augmentation scheme, which generates information-seeking trajectory adjustments, is shown to produce improvements in hazard mapping during autonomous lunar landing. This approach utilizes previously developed techniques for detecting hazard objects from images and an Extended Kalman Filter recursive estimation framework in order to create an occupancy grid representation of the hazards in the landing area. The guidance augmentation is driven by a model-predictive scheme which uses predictions of map entropy and fuel usage in order to generate information-seeking acceleration commands which are combined with the targeting capability of Modified Apollo Guidance. An overview of the algorithmic steps required to adjust the trajectory and predict mapping performance and fuel costs are presented. Hazard maps generated using the online information-seeking trajectory adjustments show significant improvement over un-adjusted trajectories where the hazard image data collected is only incidental.

  2. Amisulpride augmentation for clozapine-refractory positive symptoms: additional benefit in reducing hypersialorrhea.

    PubMed

    Bogorni, Fabiani; Moreira, Frederico Fernandes; Pimentel, Eduardo Mylius; Grohs, Géder Evandro Motta; Diaz, Alexandre Paim

    2015-01-01

    One-third to half of patients taking clozapine suffer from refractory symptoms despite adequate treatment. Among other adverse effects, clozapine-induced hypersalivation (CIH) occurs in approximately half of all patients. This is a case of a 30-year-old male with refractory schizophrenia; in this patient, the remission of residual positive symptoms, as well as the reduction of CIH, was achieved by treatment with clozapine augmented with amisulpride.

  3. Is the Resorption of Grafted Fat Reduced in Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer for Breast Augmentation?

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Luo, Xuan; Lu, Yi; Fan, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Xiang

    2015-08-01

    Cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL) is a cotransplantation of adipose tissue and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) including adipose-derived stem cells. But although CAL can get satisfactory outcomes in breast augmentation, the resorption of the grafted fat is still unclear. A total of 12 patients received breast augmentation using CAL. All of them completed 6 months of follow-up. In 1 mini-CAL case, 500-mL liposuction fluid was used to harvest the SVF cells. In 11 full-CAL cases, 250-mL aspirated fat was needed apart from 500-mL liposuction fluid. The percentage of adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells was detected using flow cytometry and their multilineage potential ability was assessed with in vitro induction. The volumes of breasts and pectoral muscle were measured, and radiological image change was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging before the operation and 3 and 6 months after the operation. Additionally, the subjective evaluation on the cosmetic outcomes was determined by surgeons and patients. Adipose-derived stem cells in SVF cells accounted for 40.27% and 3.34% in full-CAL cases and mini-CAL cases, respectively. Postoperative atrophy occurred within the first 3 months. At the 6 months postoperatively, breast volume is augmented, ranging from 60.71 to 197 mL, with a mean value of 125.35 (45.49) mL. The ultimate resorption of grafted fat at the 6 months postoperatively is 51.84% (16.74%). Newly formed cysts and nodules were detected in 2 cases. No calcification was found in all magnetic resonance images. Only 1 patient was unsatisfied with the cosmetic outcome. Our preliminary study displayed a satisfactory augmented volume with little complications using CAL for breast augmentation. But the resorption at the 6 months postoperatively [51.84% (16.74%)] showed no significant advantage over non-CAL technique (40%-60% reported), which suggested that SVF cells harvested from 250-mL aspirated fat and 500-mL liposuction fluid were insufficient to average 250

  4. Orthosis reduces breast pain and mechanical forces through natural and augmented breast tissue in women lying prone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast implant displacement or rupture can cause aesthetic problems and serious medical complications. Activities with prone positioning and loading of the anterior chest wall, such as massage, chiropractic or osteopathic therapies may increase the risk of implant failure and can also cause discomfort in women with natural breast tissue. Here we test the effectiveness of a newly developed orthosis on pain, mechanical pressure and displacement of breast tissue in women with cosmetic augmentation, post-mastectomy reconstruction, lactating or natural breast tissue. Methods Thirty-two females volunteers, aged 25–56 years with augmented, reconstructed, natural or lactating breast tissue and cup sizes B-F, participated in this open-label clinical trial. We measured pain perception, peak pressure, maximum force, and breast tissue displacement using different sizes of the orthosis compared to no orthosis. Different densities of the orthosis were also tested in a subgroup of women (n = 7). Pain perception was rated using a validated 11-point visual-analogue scale. Peak pressure and maximum force were assessed using a bilateral set of capacitance-pliance® sensor strips whilst participants were load bearing in a prone position, and breast displacement was measured by magnetic-resonance-imaging. Results The orthosis significantly reduced pain, breast displacement and mechanical pressures in women with natural and augmented breast tissue in prone position. Greater relief of pain and greater reduction in mechanical forces were found with increased size and density of the orthosis. Use of the orthosis improved overall comfort by 64-100%, lowered peak pressure by up to 85% and maximum force by up to 96%. Medio-lateral displacement of breast tissue was reduced by 16%, resulting in a 51% desirable increase of breast tissue height. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the newly developed orthosis significantly reduced pain, mechanical pressure and breast tissue

  5. Relation between augmentation index and adiponectin during one-year metformin treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatosis: effects beyond glucose lowering?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) is the major driving force behind development and progression of atherosclerosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, correction of IR is a relevant therapeutic target. We performed the current trial to evaluate whether 12- month metformin therapy improves vascular stiffness in patients with NAFLD and to assess if this improvement is associated with change in glucose control, insulin resistance or circulating adiponectin. Methods In randomized, placebo controlled study, 63 patients with NAFLD were assigned to one of two groups: Group 1 received daily metformin; Group 2 received placebo. Central aortic augmentation index (AI) was performed using SphygmoCor (version 7.1, AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia) at baseline, at 4-and 12-month treatment period. Metabolic parameters, insulin resistance markers and serum adiponectin levels were determined. Results In placebo group: AI did not improve during the treatment period. Liver function and adiponectin levels did not change during the study. In multiple linear regression analysis, the independent predictors of arterial stiffness improvement were metformin treatment and increase in circulating adiponectin levels. Among metformin treated patients: AI decreased significantly during the study. ALP and ALT decreased during initial 4-month treatment period, however raised to the pretreatment levels after 12 months. Serum adiponectin level tended to increase during treatment period with metformin. Conclusions Metformin treatment was associated with significant decrease in AI during one year treatment in NAFLD patients. These beneficial vascular effects was associated with exposure to metformin per se as well as change in adiponectin levels suggesting that metformin may mediate its vascular effects via glicemic control-independent mechanisms. Trial registry no: NCT01084486 PMID:22676459

  6. Serotonin (5-HT) augmentation reduces provoked aggression associated with primary psychopathy traits.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Jennifer R; Berman, Mitchell E; Guillot, Casey R; Marsic, Angelika; McCloskey, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathy has long been associated with aggressive behavior; however, the neurochemical underpinnings of this relationship are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system abnormalities have been associated with provoked aggression in general. In addition, 5-HT dysregulation has been linked to empathy, a trait that is lacking in individuals who score high on primary psychopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine if 5-HT modulates the relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression. Participants (N = 47) completed a self-report measure of psychopathy and were then administered either 40 mg paroxetine (acutely augmenting 5-HT) or placebo. Aggression was assessed during a competitive reaction-time game in which electric shocks were exchanged with an increasingly provocative fictitious opponent. Results indicated that primary psychopathy (but not secondary psychopathy) was related to aggressive responding to provocation. Moreover, 5-HT augmentation attenuated this effect, supporting the notion that aggressive responding associated with primary psychopathic traits may be due in part to 5-HT dysregulation. PMID:22984854

  7. Metacognition-augmented cognitive remediation training reduces jumping to conclusions and overconfidence but not neurocognitive deficits in psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Steffen; Thoering, Teresa; Kühn, Simone; Willenborg, Bastian; Westermann, Stefan; Nagel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with schizophrenia display neurocognitive deficits (e.g., memory impairment) as well as inflated cognitive biases (e.g., jumping to conclusions). Both cognitive domains are implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder and are known to compromise functional outcome. At present, there is a dearth of effective treatment options. A total of 90 patients with schizophrenia were recruited online (a diagnosis of schizophrenia had been confirmed in a large subgroup during a previous hospital admission). Subsequent to a baseline assessment encompassing psychopathology, self-reported cognition as well as objective memory and reasoning tests, patients were randomized to one of three conditions: standard cognitive remediation (mybraintraining), metacognition-augmented cognition remediation (CR) condition (variant of mybraintraining which encouraged patients to reduce speed of decision-making and attenuate response confidence when participants made high-confidence judgements and hasty incorrect decisions) and a waitlist control group. Patients were retested after 6 weeks and again 3 months after the second assessment. Groups did not differ on psychopathology and neurocognitive parameters at any timepoint. However, at follow-up the metacognitive-augmented CR group displayed a significant reduction on jumping to conclusions and overconfidence. Treatment adherence correlated with a reduction of depression; gains in the training exercises from the standard mybraintraining condition were correlated with improved objective memory performance. The study suggests that metacognition-augmented CR may ameliorate cognitive biases but not neurocognition. The study ties in well with prior research showing that neurocognitive dysfunctions are rather resistant to change; the failure to detect significant improvement of CR or metacognition-augmented CR on psychopathology and neurocognition over time may partly be attributed to a number of methodological limitations of

  8. Metacognition-augmented cognitive remediation training reduces jumping to conclusions and overconfidence but not neurocognitive deficits in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Thoering, Teresa; Kühn, Simone; Willenborg, Bastian; Westermann, Stefan; Nagel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with schizophrenia display neurocognitive deficits (e.g., memory impairment) as well as inflated cognitive biases (e.g., jumping to conclusions). Both cognitive domains are implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder and are known to compromise functional outcome. At present, there is a dearth of effective treatment options. A total of 90 patients with schizophrenia were recruited online (a diagnosis of schizophrenia had been confirmed in a large subgroup during a previous hospital admission). Subsequent to a baseline assessment encompassing psychopathology, self-reported cognition as well as objective memory and reasoning tests, patients were randomized to one of three conditions: standard cognitive remediation (mybraintraining), metacognition-augmented cognition remediation (CR) condition (variant of mybraintraining which encouraged patients to reduce speed of decision-making and attenuate response confidence when participants made high-confidence judgements and hasty incorrect decisions) and a waitlist control group. Patients were retested after 6 weeks and again 3 months after the second assessment. Groups did not differ on psychopathology and neurocognitive parameters at any timepoint. However, at follow-up the metacognitive-augmented CR group displayed a significant reduction on jumping to conclusions and overconfidence. Treatment adherence correlated with a reduction of depression; gains in the training exercises from the standard mybraintraining condition were correlated with improved objective memory performance. The study suggests that metacognition-augmented CR may ameliorate cognitive biases but not neurocognition. The study ties in well with prior research showing that neurocognitive dysfunctions are rather resistant to change; the failure to detect significant improvement of CR or metacognition-augmented CR on psychopathology and neurocognition over time may partly be attributed to a number of methodological limitations of

  9. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation augments cutaneous vasodilatation and reduces mean arterial pressure in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Keen, Jeremy T; Levitt, Erica L; Hodges, Gary J; Wong, Brett J

    2015-03-01

    Nitrate supplementation in the form of beetroot juice has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) where nitrate can be reduced to nitrite and, subsequently, to NO through both nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent and -independent pathways. We tested the hypothesis that nitrate supplementation would augment the NO component of the cutaneous vasodilatation to local skin heating in young, healthy humans. Participants reported to the lab for pre- and post-supplement local heating protocols. Nitrate supplementation consisted of one shot (70 ml) of beetroot juice (0.45 g nitrate; 5mM) for three days. Six participants were equipped with two microdialysis fibers on the ventral forearm and randomly assigned to lactated Ringer's (control) or continuous infusion of 20mM l-NAME (NOS inhibitor). The control site was subsequently perfused with l-NAME once a plateau in skin blood flow was achieved to quantify NOS-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation. Skin blood flow via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured; cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/MAP and normalized to %CVCmax. Beetroot juice reduced MAP (Pre: 90 ± 1 mmHg vs. Post: 83 ± 1 mmHg) and DBP (Pre: 74 ± 2 mmHg vs. Post: 62 ± 3 mmHg) (P<0.05). The plateau phase of the local heating response at control sites was augmented post-beetroot juice (91 ± 5%CVCmax) compared to pre-beetroot juice (79 ± 2%CVCmax) (P<0.05). There was no difference in the %NOS-dependent vasodilatation from pre- to post-beetroot juice. These data suggest that nitrate supplementation via beetroot juice can reduce MAP and DBP as well as augment NOS-independent vasodilatation to local heating in the cutaneous vasculature of healthy humans.

  10. Meta-analysis of the comparative effects of different classes of antihypertensive agents on brachial and central systolic blood pressure, and augmentation index

    PubMed Central

    Manisty, Charlotte H; Hughes, Alun D

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Brachial systolic blood pressure (bSBP) exceeds aortic pressure by a variable amount, and estimated central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) may be a better indicator of cardiovascular risk than bSBP. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of single and multiple antihypertensive agents on bSBP, cSBP and augmentation index (AIx). Methods A random effects meta-analysis was performed on 24 randomized controlled trials of antihypertensives with measurements of bSBP, cSBP and/or AIx. Separate analyses were performed for drug comparisons with or without placebo, and drug combinations. Results In the placebo vs. drug meta-analysis, antihypertensive therapy reduced bSBP more than cSBP and there was no statistically significant evidence of heterogeneity by drug class, although the number of individual studies was small. In placebo-adjusted drug vs. drug comparison, treatment with β-blockers, omapatrilat and thiazide diuretics lowered cSBP significantly less than bSBP (i.e. central to brachial amplification decreased), whereas other monotherapies lowered cSBP and bSBP to similar extents. Sample sizes were too small and effect estimates insufficiently precise to allow firm conclusions to be made regarding comparisons between individual drug classes. Antihypertensive combinations that included β-blockers decreased central to brachial amplification. β-Blockers increased AIx, whereas all other antihypertensive agents reduced AIx to similar extents. CONCLUSIONS A reduction in central to brachial amplification by some classes of antihypertensive drug will result in lesser reductions in cSBP despite achievement of target bSBP. This effect could contribute to differences in outcomes in randomized clinical trials when β-blocker- and/or diuretic-based antihypertensive therapy are compared with other regimens. PMID:22625662

  11. Reducing Lissencephaly-1 levels augments mitochondrial transport and has a protective effect in adult Drosophila neurons

    PubMed Central

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Hoffmann, Patrick C.; Bullock, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defective transport of mitochondria in axons is implicated in the pathogenesis of several age-associated neurodegenerative diseases. However, the regulation and function of axonal mitochondrial motility during normal ageing is poorly understood. Here, we use novel imaging procedures to characterise axonal transport of these organelles in the adult Drosophila wing nerve. During early adult life there is a boost and progressive decline in the proportion of mitochondria that are motile, which is not due to general changes in cargo transport. Experimental inhibition of the mitochondrial transport machinery specifically in adulthood accelerates the appearance of focal protein accumulations in ageing axons, which is suggestive of defects in protein homeostasis. Unexpectedly, lowering levels of Lissencephaly-1 (Lis1), a dynein motor co-factor, augments axonal mitochondrial transport in ageing wing neurons. Lis1 mutations suppress focal protein accumulations in ageing neurons, including those caused by interfering with the mitochondrial transport machinery. Our data provide new insights into the dynamics of mitochondrial motility in adult neurons in vivo, identify Lis1 as a negative regulator of transport of these organelles, and provide evidence of a link between mitochondrial movement and neuronal protein homeostasis. PMID:26598558

  12. Intensity-amplitude relationships in monkey event-related potentials: parallels to human augmenting-reducing responses.

    PubMed

    Pineda, J A; Holmes, T C; Foote, S L

    1991-06-01

    In human, the amplitudes of specific event-related potential (ERP) components can increase or decrease in response to increasing stimulus intensity depending on the location of the recording site. Large increases characterize components presumably generated by modality-specific sites, while smaller increases or even decreases are associated with those originating in associational areas. Comparable data from non-human primates, which would permit invasive studies of the neural substrates underlying these intensity-amplitude differences, are limited. To more fully characterize these relationships, auditory ERPs were recorded from chronically implanted epidural electrodes in 5 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in response to tones (500 Hz, 300 msec duration) of varying intensities (50, 60, 70, 80 dB SPL). Squirrel monkey ERPs recorded at Fz exhibited 3 peaks during the 200 msec post-stimulus interval. These peaks included a positivity (P1), followed by a negativity (N1), and then another positivity (P2). At posterior sites, the frontal P1-N1 configuration was recorded as an N1-P1 complex. At these sites, a small negativity (N2) preceded the last positive peak (P2). Changes in polarity were independent of reference site and posterior N1-P1 peaks exhibited latencies similar to those of the frontal P1-N1 components. Amplitudes at Fz, Cz, and Pz increased substantially with increasing stimulus intensity ('augmenting'). In contrast, only small increases or even decreases in amplitude ('reducing') were evident at T3 and T4. On the other hand, peak latencies decreased with higher stimulus intensities at most sites. The site-specific amplitude responses exhibited considerable temporal stability. In one subject, for example, similar 'augmenting' profiles were recorded at Fz in 8 sessions over a 6-month period. The topography of monkey intensity-amplitude response profiles, their temporal stability, and peak latency shifts resemble observations made in humans. The data show

  13. Lipoxin A4 augments host defense in sepsis and reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence through quorum sensing inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Benedict; Capilato, Joseph; Pham, Michelle P; Walker, Jean; Spur, Bernd; Rodriguez, Ana; Perez, Lark J; Yin, Kingsley

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial infections can quickly turn into sepsis, with its attendant clinical sequelae of inflammation, tissue injury, and organ failure. Paradoxically, sustained inflammation in sepsis may lead to immune suppression, because of which the host is unable to clear the existing infection. Use of agents that suppress the inflammatory response may accelerate host immune suppression, whereas use of traditional antibiotics does not significantly affect inflammation. In this study, we investigated whether lipoxin A4 (LXA4), a specialized, proresolution lipid mediator, could increase neutrophil phagocytic activity as well as reduce bacterial virulence. Using the mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis, the administration of LXA4 (7 μg/kg i.v.) 1 h after surgery increased neutrophil phagocytic ability and Fcγ receptor I (CD64) expression. Ex vivo studies have confirmed that the direct addition of LXA4 to CLP neutrophils increased phagocytic ability but not CD64 expression. LXA4 did not affect neutrophils taken from control mice in which CD64 expression was minimal. Taken together with in vivo data, these results suggest that LXA4 directly augments CD64-mediated neutrophil phagocytic ability but does not directly increase neutrophil CD64 expression. Bacterial communication and virulence is regulated by quorum sensing inducers. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, virulence is induced with release of various virulence factors, by N-3-oxododecanolyl homoserine lactone binding to the quorum sensing receptor, LasR. We show that LXA4 is an inhibitor of LasR in P. aeruginosa and that it decreases the release of pyocyanin exotoxin. These results suggest that LXA4 has the novel dual properties of increasing host defense and decreasing pathogen virulence by inhibiting quorum sensing.-Wu, B., Capilato, J., Pham, M. P., Walker, J., Spur, B., Rodriguez, A., Perez, L. J., Yin, K. Lipoxin A4 augments host defense in sepsis and reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence through

  14. Design and Validation of an Augmented Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Comorbidity Index Comprising Pretransplant Ferritin, Albumin, and Platelet Count for Prediction of Outcomes after Allogeneic Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jennifer E; Storer, Barry E; Armand, Philippe; Raimondi, Roberto; Gibson, Christopher; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Ciceri, Fabio; Oneto, Rosi; Bruno, Benedetto; Martin, Paul J; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Storb, Rainer; Sorror, Mohamed L

    2015-08-01

    Pretransplant values of serum ferritin, albumin, and peripheral blood counts were previously suggested to provide prognostic information about hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes. Whether these "biomarkers" have prognostic value independent of each other and the HCT-comorbidity index (HCT-CI) is unknown. We analyzed data from 3917 allogeneic HCT recipients at multiple sites in the United States and Italy using multivariate models including each biomarker and the HCT-CI. Data from all sites were then randomly divided into a training set (n = 2352) to develop weights for the relevant biomarkers to be added to the HCT-CI scores and a validation set (n = 1407) to validate an augmented HCT-CI compared with the original index. Multivariate analysis with data from one site showed that ferritin, albumin, and platelets-not neutrophils or hemoglobin-were independently associated with increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and decreased overall survival. Findings were validated in data from the other sites. Subsequently, in a training set from all sites, ferritin >2500 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR], 1.69); albumin 3 to 3.5 g/dL (HR, 1.61) and <3.0 g/dL (HR, 2.27); and platelets 50 to <100,000 (HR, 1.28), 20 to <50,000 (HR, 1.29), and <20,000 (HR, 1.55) were statistically significantly associated with NRM. Weights were assigned to these laboratory values following the same equation used to design the original index. In the validation set, the addition of the biomarkers to the original index to develop an augmented HCT-CI resulted in a statistically significant increase in a higher c-statistic estimate for prediction of NRM (P = .0007). Ferritin, albumin, and platelet counts are important prognostic markers that further refine the discriminative power of the HCT-CI for transplant outcomes.

  15. The augmented neutrophil respiratory burst in response to Escherichia coli is reduced in liver cirrhosis during infection.

    PubMed

    Bruns, T; Peter, J; Hagel, S; Herrmann, A; Stallmach, A

    2011-06-01

    Several functional abnormalities in phagocytes from patients with liver cirrhosis contribute to an increased risk of infection. An increased resting respiratory burst has been observed in neutrophils from cirrhotic patients. We investigated whether an infection in cirrhosis affects the respiratory burst capacity of neutrophils and monocytes in response to Escherichia coli. This study included 45 hospitalized patients with liver cirrhosis and clinical signs of infection, 39 patients with liver cirrhosis in the absence of infection and 29 healthy subjects. Respiratory burst, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and immunoglobulin (Ig)G-autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ab-oxLDL) were measured. The fraction of neutrophils spontaneously producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) was elevated in liver cirrhosis (P < 0·01). The neutrophil resting burst increased with Child-Pugh stage (P = 0·02) and correlated with augmented ROS release in response to opsonized E. coli (P < 0·05). Although LBP was increased in patients with cirrhosis (P < 0·01), higher LBP levels correlated with a lower resting burst in neutrophils (r(s)  = -0·395; P < 0·01). In the presence of infection, the resting burst was unaltered. However, neutrophil ROS release in response to E. coli was reduced markedly (P = 0·01), and it decreased as serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration rose (r(s)  = -0·437; P < 0·01), indicating the development of a sepsis-like immune paralysis. A positive correlation between ab-oxLDL and ROS release was observed (P < 0·01). In conclusion, the respiratory burst increases with severity of liver cirrhosis but is restrained by increasing LBP levels. Augmented ROS release in response to E. coli is accompanied by elevated markers of oxidative damage and becomes exhausted in the presence of infection.

  16. A research program to reduce the interior noise in general aviation aircraft, index and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L.; Jackson, K.; Roskam, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report is an index of the published works from NASA Grant NSG 1301, entitled A Research Program to Reduce the Interior Noise in General Aviation Aircraft. Included are a list of all published reports and papers, a compilation of test specimen characteristics, and summaries of each published work.

  17. a Walking Disturbance Index Suggestions for Optimized Path Search for the People with Reduced Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, M.; Bang, Y.; Yu, K.; Kim, J.

    2015-10-01

    Recently, due to the increased penetration of smart devices and the development of geographic information system (GIS) technology, various route guidance services for pedestrians have been developed. However, until now, pedestrian navigation services for the people with reduced mobility (people who experience discomfort in transportation) including wheelchair users, the elderly, and pregnant women have not been provided. In this study, we present a walking disturbance index methodology for searching an optimized path for the people with reduced mobility by defining the factors that affect the walking of the people with reduced mobility and deriving the weights of these factors. In future research, we expect to be able to provide a navigation system that gives an optimized path for the people with reduced mobility using this method.

  18. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro), central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse) and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis), pulse wave velocity (PWV) with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity), nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X), physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170), carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax), and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin). Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical exercise and diet

  19. Characteristics of a long-period fiber grating with reduced cladding for refractive index sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haiyun; Gu, Zhengtian

    2011-10-01

    The sensitivity to surrounding refractive index (SRI) of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) can be effectively improved by decreasing the cladding radius. When the cladding is reduced, a three-layer model is necessary to evaluate the effective refractive index (ERI) of the core mode. A variation of SRI can induce a greater resonant wavelength shift when the core mode is coupled to a higher-order cladding mode. However, as the cladding is reduced further, the highest-order cladding mode would be cut off, i.e. the number of cladding modes that a given fiber structure can support would be less; thus, the higher-order cladding modes that can be used for higher sensitivity are limited. Hence, the implementation of high sensitivity for SRI sensing with cladding-reduced LPFGs is dependent on the proper combination of cladding radius and cladding mode order. Based on the vector coupled-mode theory, the transmission spectrum and sensitivity are numerically analyzed with respect to the cladding radius, which shows that the SRI sensitivity of the HE12 mode with cladding radius a 2 = 20 µm is 32 times as high as that with a 2 = 62.5 µm and the SRI resolution is available to the order of 10-7.

  20. A Novel Moisture Adjusted Vegetation Index (MAVI) to Reduce Background Reflectance and Topographical Effects on LAI Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J. M.; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  1. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  2. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area.

  3. Vegetation index correction to reduce background effects in orchards with high spatial resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beek, Jonathan; Tits, Laurent; Somers, Ben; Deckers, Tom; Janssens, Pieter; Coppin, Pol

    2014-10-01

    High spatial resolution satellite imagery provides an alternative for time consuming and labor intensive in situ measurements of biophysical variables, such as chlorophyll and water content. However, despite the high spatial resolution of current satellite sensors, mixtures of canopies and backgrounds will be present, hampering the estimation of biophysical variables. Traditional correction methodologies use spectral differences between canopies and backgrounds, but fail with spectrally similar canopies and backgrounds. In this study, the lack of a generic solution to reduce background effects is tackled. Through synthetic imagery, the mixture problem was demonstrated with regards to the estimation of biophysical variables. A correction method was proposed, rescaling vegetation indices based on the canopy cover fraction. Furthermore, the proposed method was compared to traditional background correction methodologies (i.e. soil-adjusted vegetation indices and signal unmixing) for different background scenarios. The results of a soil background scenario showed the inability of soil-adjusted vegetation indices to reduce background admixture effects, while signal unmixing and the proposed method removed background influences for chlorophyll (ΔR2 = ~0.3; ΔRMSE = ~1.6 μg/cm2) and water (ΔR2 = ~0.3; ΔRMSE = ~0.5 mg/cm2) related vegetation indices. For the weed background scenario, signal unmixing was unable to remove the background influences for chlorophyll content (ΔR2 = -0.1; ΔRMSE = -0.6 μg/cm 2 ), while the proposed correction method reduced background effects (ΔR2= 0.1; ΔRMSE = 0.4 μg/cm2). Overall, the proposed vegetation index correction method reduced the background influence irrespective of background type, making useful comparison between management blocks possible.

  4. The effect of dietary fibre on reducing the glycaemic index of bread.

    PubMed

    Scazzina, Francesca; Siebenhandl-Ehn, Susanne; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2013-04-14

    As bread is the most relevant source of available carbohydrates in the diet and as lowering dietary glycaemic index (GI) is considered favourable to health, many studies have been carried out in order to decrease the GI of bread. The most relevant strategy that has been applied so far is the addition of fibre-rich flours or pure dietary fibre. However, the effectiveness of dietary fibre in bread in reducing the GI is controversial. The purpose of the present review was to discuss critically the effects obtained by adding different kinds of fibre to bread in order to modulate its glycaemic response. The studies were selected because they analysed in vivo whether or not dietary fibre, naturally present or added during bread making, could improve the glucose response. The reviewed literature suggests that the presence of intact structures not accessible to human amylases, as well as a reduced pH that may delay gastric emptying or create a barrier to starch digestion, seems to be more effective than dietary fibre per se in improving glucose metabolism, irrespective of the type of cereal. Moreover, the incorporation of technologically extracted cereal fibre fractions, the addition of fractions from legumes or of specifically developed viscous or non-viscous fibres also constitute effective strategies. However, when fibres or wholemeal is included in bread making to affect the glycaemic response, the manufacturing protocol needs to reconsider several technological parameters in order to obtain high-quality and consumer-acceptable breads.

  5. An investigation of side-stick-controller/stability and control-augmentation system requirements for helicopter terrain flight under reduced visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, K. H.; Glusman, S. I.; Aiken, E. W.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation of the reduced visibility tasks is effected by providing the pilot with a visually coupled, helmet-mounted display of flight-control symbols superimposed upon terrain-board imagery. Forward-flight, low-speed, and precision-hover control modes are implemented, and a method is developed for the blending of control laws between each control mode. An investigation is made of the variations in the level of integration of primary control functions on a single side-stick controller. For most of the flight tasks investigated, separated controller configurations are preferred to a single, fully integrated side-stick device. Satisfactory handling qualities over all controller configurations are attained only for a precision-hover task conducted with a high level of stability and control augmentation. For most tasks flown with the helmet-mounted display significant degradation in handling qualities occurs relative to the identical tasks flown under visual flight conditions.

  6. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to HIV-infected subjects augments reduced leukotriene synthesis and anticryptococcal activity in neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, M J; Phare, S M; George, S; Peters-Golden, M; Kazanjian, P H

    1998-01-01

    Neutrophil (PMN) dysfunction occurs in HIV infection. Leukotrienes (LT) are mediators derived from the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway that play a role in host defense and are synthesized by PMN. We investigated the synthesis of LT by PMN from HIV-infected subjects. There was a reduction (4.0+/-1.3% of control) in LT synthesis in PMN from HIV-infected compared with normal subjects. This was associated with reduced expression of 5-LO-activating protein (31.2+/-9.6% of normal), but not of 5-LO itself. Since HIV does not directly infect PMN, we considered that these effects were due to reduced release of cytokines, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We examined the effect of G-CSF treatment (300 microgram daily for 5 d) on eight HIV-infected subjects. PMN were studied in vitro before therapy (day 1) and on days 4 and 7. LTB4 synthesis was increased on day 4 of G-CSF treatment, and returned toward day 1 levels on day 7. 5-LO and 5-LO-activating protein expression were increased in parallel. As a functional correlate to this increase in PMN LT synthesis by G-CSF, we examined the effects on killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. Anticryptococcal activity of PMN from HIV-infected subjects was less than that of PMN from normal subjects. G-CSF treatment improved fungistatic activity of PMN. This increase in antifungal activity was attenuated by in vitro treatment with the LT synthesis inhibitor, MK-886. In conclusion, PMN from HIV-infected subjects demonstrate reduced 5-LO metabolism and antifungal activity in vitro, which was reversed by in vivo G-CSF therapy. PMID:9710433

  7. Lip augmentation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick J; Hilger, Peter A

    2004-02-01

    Lip augmentation has become increasingly popular in recent years as a reflection of cultural trends emphasizing youth and beauty. Techniques to enhance the appearance of the lips have evolved with advances in biotechnology. An understanding of lip anatomy and aesthetics forms the basis for successful results. We outline the pertinent anatomy and aesthetics of the preoperative evaluation. A summary of various filler materials available is provided. Augmentation options include both injectable and open surgical techniques. The procedures and materials currently favored by the authors are described in greater detail.

  8. Augmentation cheiloplasty.

    PubMed

    Ho, L C

    1994-06-01

    A technique of augmentation cheiloplasty with prior correction of a thin vermillion is described. Preserving and accentuating the natural contours of the lips is emphasised in vermillion correction and volume expansion with fat cell grafts. Thin vermillion correction, lip volume expansion and the state of fat cell grafts are reviewed.

  9. Implementation of transformed lenses in bed of nails reducing refractive index maximum value and sub-unity regions.

    PubMed

    Prado, Daniel R; Osipov, Andrey V; Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar

    2015-03-15

    Transformation optics with quasi-conformal mapping is applied to design a Generalized Maxwell Fish-eye Lens (GMFEL) which can be used as a power splitter. The flattened focal line obtained as a result of the transformation allows the lens to adapt to planar antenna feeding systems. Moreover, sub-unity refraction index regions are reduced because of the space compression effect of the transformation, reducing the negative impact of removing those regions when implementing the lens. A technique to reduce the maximum value of the refractive index is presented to compensate for its increase because of the transformation. Finally, the lens is implemented with the bed of nails technology, employing a commercial dielectric slab to improve the range of the effective refractive index. The lens was simulated with a 3D full-wave simulator to validate the design, obtaining an original and feasible power splitter based on a dielectric lens.

  10. Advanced gradient-index lens design tools to maximize system performance and reduce SWaP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sawyer D.; Nagar, Jogender; Brocker, Donovan E.; Easum, John A.; Turpin, Jeremiah P.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-05-01

    GRadient-INdex (GRIN) lenses have long been of interest due to their potential for providing levels of performance unachievable with traditional homogeneous lenses. While historically limited by a lack of suitable materials, rapid advancements in manufacturing techniques, including 3D printing, have recently kindled a renewed interest in GRIN optics. Further increasing the desire for GRIN devices has been the advent of Transformation Optics (TO), which provides the mathematical framework for representing the behavior of electromagnetic radiation in a given geometry by "transforming" it to an alternative, usually more desirable, geometry through an appropriate mapping of the constituent material parameters. Using TO, aspherical lenses can be transformed to simpler spherical and flat geometries or even rotationally-asymmetric shapes which result in true 3D GRIN profiles. Meanwhile, there is a critical lack of suitable design tools which can effectively evaluate the optical wave propagation through 3D GRIN profiles produced by TO. Current modeling software packages for optical lens systems also lack advanced multi-objective global optimization capability which allows the user to explicitly view the trade-offs between all design objectives such as focus quality, FOV, ▵nand focal drift due to chromatic aberrations. When coupled with advanced design methodologies such as TO, wavefront matching (WFM), and analytical achromatic GRIN theory, these tools provide a powerful framework for maximizing SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) reduction in GRIN-enabled optical systems. We provide an overview of our advanced GRIN design tools and examples which minimize the presence of mono- and polychromatic aberrations in the context of reducing SWaP.

  11. The augmentation of O-GlcNAcylation reduces glyoxal-induced cell injury by attenuating oxidative stress in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo Dong; Xu, Chong; Feng, Le; Wang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    It has recently been reported that O-linked β-N-acetyl glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (a simple intracellular serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr)-linked monosaccharide) in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) is related to diabetic retinopathy (DR). During O-GlcNAcylation, O-GlcNAc is added to Ser and Thr residues. As the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the characteristics of advanced glycation end product (AGE) injury, and the most important key pathogenic factor of DR, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between O-GlcNAcylation and ROS generation in order to ascertain whether O-GlcNAcylation mitigates cellular injury through the generation of ROS. For this purpose, HRECs were divided into 4 groups as follows: HRECs treated with normal glucose (5 mM), HRECs treated with glyoxal (500 µM), glyoxal-treated HRECs also treated with 200 µM PUGNAc, and glyoxal-treated HRECs infected with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) siRNA. We detected increased O-GlcNAc levels and increased ROS production in the glyoxal-treated HRECs. The cellular redox status was determined by cellular ROS staining and by measuring the expression levels of the antioxidant genes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). While the augmentation of O-GlcNAcylation following treatment with PUGNAc significantly attenuated the production of ROS (p<0.01) and increased the expression levels of SOD and GPX, the reduction of O-GlcNAcylation following infection with OGT siRNA, exacerbated the production of ROS (p<0.01) and decreased the expression of antioxidant genes. The effects of O-GlcNAcylation on the viability of HRECs were significant (p<0.01), particularly in the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated HRECs. Treatment with PUGNAc reduced glyoxal-induced cell apoptosis and transfection with OGT siRNA increased HREC apoptosis; these results were confirmed by flow cytometry and by the assessment of mitochondrial

  12. The augmentation of O-GlcNAcylation reduces glyoxal-induced cell injury by attenuating oxidative stress in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, GUO DONG; XU, CHONG; FENG, LE; WANG, FANG

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been reported that O-linked β-N-acetyl glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification (a simple intracellular serine (Ser)/threonine (Thr)-linked monosaccharide) in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) is related to diabetic retinopathy (DR). During O-GlcNAcylation, O-GlcNAc is added to Ser and Thr residues. As the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the characteristics of advanced glycation end product (AGE) injury, and the most important key pathogenic factor of DR, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between O-GlcNAcylation and ROS generation in order to ascertain whether O-GlcNAcylation mitigates cellular injury through the generation of ROS. For this purpose, HRECs were divided into 4 groups as follows: HRECs treated with normal glucose (5 mM), HRECs treated with glyoxal (500 µM), glyoxal-treated HRECs also treated with 200 µM PUGNAc, and glyoxal-treated HRECs infected with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) siRNA. We detected increased O-GlcNAc levels and increased ROS production in the glyoxal-treated HRECs. The cellular redox status was determined by cellular ROS staining and by measuring the expression levels of the antioxidant genes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). While the augmentation of O-GlcNAcylation following treatment with PUGNAc significantly attenuated the production of ROS (P<0.01) and increased the expression levels of SOD and GPX, the reduction of O-GlcNAcylation following infection with OGT siRNA, exacerbated the production of ROS (P<0.01) and decreased the expression of antioxidant genes. The effects of O-GlcNAcylation on the viability of HRECs were significant (P<0.01), particularly in the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated HRECs. Treatment with PUGNAc reduced glyoxal-induced cell apoptosis and transfection with OGT siRNA increased HREC apoptosis; these results were confirmed by flow cytometry and by the assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential

  13. Improved approximations for control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for control-augmented structural synthesis is presented for structure-control systems which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a noncollocated direct output feedback control system. Truss areas, beam cross sectional dimensions, nonstructural masses and rotary inertias, and controller position and velocity gains are treated simultaneously as design variables. The structural mass and a control-system performance index can be minimized simultaneously, with design constraints placed on static stresses and displacements, dynamic harmonic displacements and forces, structural frequencies, and closed-loop eigenvalues and damping ratios. Intermediate design-variable and response-quantity concepts are used to generate new approximations for displacements and actuator forces under harmonic dynamic loads and for system complex eigenvalues. This improves the overall efficiency of the procedure by reducing the number of complete analyses required for convergence. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method are given.

  14. Chin augmentation.

    PubMed

    Choe, K S; Stucki-McCormick, S U

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of facial aesthetic surgery is to restore, enhance, and rejuvenate the aging face to a more youthful appearance, achieving balance and harmony. The mental area must be addressed in order to have a complete synthesis of the face. The concept of augmenting the mental area with implants has evolved so significantly that it now stands by itself as an important procedure. Various autogenous implants for chin augmentation have been in use for over 100 years but have complications. The advent of synthetic materials has given rise to various types of alloplastic implants: Gore-Tex, Medpor, Supramid, Silastic, and Mersilene. No one implant is perfect for every face. This article overviews several alloplastic implants--their advantages, disadvantages, and complications, in addition to the different techniques of preparing and delivering the implants.

  15. Augmenting computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.

  16. Can Atypical Antipsychotic Augmentation Reduce Subsequent Treatment Failure More Effectively Among Depressed Patients with a Higher Degree of Treatment Resistance? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hee Ryung; Woo, Young Sup; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Ahn, Il Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation was demonstrated to be efficacious in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in previous meta-analyses. We investigate whether there are differences in the effect size of atypical antipsychotic augmentation in major depressive disorder according to the degree of treatment resistance. Methods: A comprehensive search of four databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials. The 11 trials, which included 3 341 participants, were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy showed superior efficacy compared to antidepressant monotherapy in TRD in terms of both response and remission rates (response, risk ratio [RR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 1.53; remission, RR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.42 to 1.85). In addition, regarding response rates in the TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation exhibited significantly different effect sizes according to the degree of treatment resistance (TRD 1: RR = 1.24; TRD 2: RR = 1.37; TRD 2–4: RR = 1.58). In non-TRD trials, atypical antipsychotic augmentation failed to show superior efficacy over antidepressant monotherapy in terms of remission rates (RR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.14). Atypical antipsychotic augmentation of antidepressant therapy exhibits greater effect size in patients with a higher degree of treatment resistance. Conclusions: This finding strengthens the rationale for considering atypical antipsychotic augmentation among depressed patients with multiple previous treatment failures in clinical practice. The efficacy of atypical antipsychotic augmentation for non-TRD seems to be different from that for TRD and, thus, further studies of non-TRD populations are needed. PMID:25770098

  17. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  18. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G.; Liu, Qing-song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R.; Grim, Travis W.; Merritt, Christina R.; Wise, Laura E.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Selley, Dana E.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition combined

  19. Reducing the Need for Accurate Stream Flow Forecasting for Water Supply Planning by Augmenting Reservoir Operations with Seawater Desalination and Wastewater Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate stream flow forecasts are critical for reservoir operations for water supply planning. As the world urban population increases, the demand for water in cities is also increasing, making accurate forecasts even more important. However, accurate forecasting of stream flows is difficult owing to short- and long-term weather variations. We propose to reduce this need for accurate stream flow forecasts by augmenting reservoir operations with seawater desalination and wastewater recycling. We develop a robust operating policy for the joint operation of the three sources. With the joint model, we tap into the unlimited reserve of seawater through desalination, and make use of local supplies of wastewater through recycling. However, both seawater desalination and recycling are energy intensive and relatively expensive. Reservoir water on the other hand, is generally cheaper but is limited and variable in its availability, increasing the risk of water shortage during extreme climate events. We operate the joint system by optimizing it using a genetic algorithm to maximize water supply reliability and resilience while minimizing vulnerability subject to a budget constraint and for a given stream flow forecast. To compute the total cost of the system, we take into account the pumping cost of transporting reservoir water to its final destination, and the capital and operating costs of desalinating seawater and recycling wastewater. We produce results for different hydro climatic regions based on artificial stream flows we generate using a simple hydrological model and an autoregressive time series model. The artificial flows are generated from precipitation and temperature data from the Canadian Regional Climate model for present and future scenarios. We observe that the joint operation is able to effectively minimize the negative effects of stream flow forecast uncertainty on system performance at an overall cost that is not significantly greater than the cost of a

  20. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G; Liu, Qing-Song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R; Grim, Travis W; Merritt, Christina R; Wise, Laura E; Abdullah, Rehab A; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition

  1. Alpha and gamma band oscillations index differential processing of acoustically reduced and full forms.

    PubMed

    Drijvers, Linda; Mulder, Kimberley; Ernestus, Mirjam

    2016-02-01

    Reduced forms like yeshay for yesterday often occur in conversations. Previous behavioral research reported a processing advantage for full over reduced forms. The present study investigated whether this processing advantage is reflected in a modulation of alpha (8-12Hz) and gamma (30+Hz) band activity. In three electrophysiological experiments, participants listened to full and reduced forms in isolation (Experiment 1), sentence-final position (Experiment 2), or mid-sentence position (Experiment 3). Alpha power was larger in response to reduced forms than to full forms, but only in Experiments 1 and 2. We interpret these increases in alpha power as reflections of higher auditory cognitive load. In all experiments, gamma power only increased in response to full forms, which we interpret as showing that lexical activation spreads more quickly through the semantic network for full than for reduced forms. These results confirm a processing advantage for full forms, especially in non-medial sentence position. PMID:26878718

  2. Reduced cortical activity during maximal bilateral contractions of the index finger.

    PubMed

    Post, Marijn; van Duinen, Hiske; Steens, Anneke; Renken, Remco; Kuipers, Bart; Maurits, Natasha; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-03-01

    The bilateral deficit refers to the phenomenon in which homologous muscles produce per muscle less force when contracting simultaneously than when contracting individually. The mechanism underlying the bilateral deficit is still unknown, but the most likely cause is a decline in the activation of motor units during bilateral contractions. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the degree of brain activity during unilateral and bilateral maximal contractions in combination with force and EMG measurements. Subjects performed, in a semi-randomized order, maximal isometric contractions (MVC) with the right index finger, the left index finger and with both fingers simultaneously. During the task, brain activation was measured with a 3 T MR scanner, in combination with force and EMG recordings. The most important activated areas in the brain during the contractions were the sensorimotor cortex (precentral and postcentral gyrus), cerebellum, premotor cortex and supplementary motor area. During bilateral contractions, a significant decline in force and EMG values was found and detailed analysis of the brain activation data showed that this decline was accompanied with a significant decline in the activation of the precentral gyrus. This result suggests that the bilateral decline is the resultant of a decline in input to the primary motor area and shows that the main source of the bilateral deficit lies upstream of the primary motor cortex.

  3. High hydrostatic pressure processing reduces the glycemic index of fresh mango puree in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Ramos-Parra, Perla A; Moreno-Sánchez, Diana; Nieblas, Bianca; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza M; Lamadrid-Zertuche, Ana C

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines recommend the daily consumption of fruits; however, healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects receive conflicting messages regarding ingestion of fruits, such as mango, because of its sugar content. We investigated the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing of fresh mango puree (MP) on the glycemic indexes (GIs) and postprandial glycemic responses of 38 healthy Mexican subjects in a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Physicochemical characterization of MP included sugar profiles by HPLC-ELSD, starch, fibers, moisture, viscosity, swelling capacity and solubility properties of alcohol insoluble residue (AIR). The mean GI for HHP-MP was significantly lower (32.7 ± 13.4) than that of unprocessed-MP (42.7 ± 19.5). A significantly higher proportion of subjects showed a low GI following the consumption of HHP-MP compared to unprocessed-MP and none of them showed a high GI for the HHP-MP, compared to a significantly higher proportion for the unprocessed-MP. The viscosity and AIR solubility values of HHP-MP samples were significantly higher, which influenced glucose peaking later (Tmax) at 45 minutes and induced 20% lower AUC values than unprocessed-MP, corresponding to greater retardation indexes. The study findings support data stating that low GI fruits are appropriate for glycemic control and that mango may be included as part of healthy subjects' diets and potentially T2DM subjects' diets. Furthermore, HHP processing of mango may offer additional benefits for glycemic control, as its performance regarding GI, AUC and Tmax was significantly better than that of the unprocessed-MP. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of this commercial non-thermal pasteurization technology on glucose metabolism.

  4. Phytotherapy in reducing glycemic index and testicular oxidative stress resulting from induced diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J S; Silva, A A N; Silva, V A

    2016-07-11

    Oxidative stress plays a main role in the development of diabetes complications. The impairment of gonadal antioxidant potential and endocrine disturbance in diabetic males causes testicular damage and failure in sperm production. Plants have been widely used to control diabetes due their hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential, contributing towards the recovery of testicular function. Current study comprises a review of the literature on the main medicinal plants used in the recovery of testicular oxidative damage in animals with experimental diabetes. Eighteen plant species in the nineteen studies selected from the search strategy were evaluated. Plant extracts were evaluated according to their effects on blood glucose and insulin levels, antioxidant enzymes and oxidant levels, lipid peroxidation, total protein, testosterone levels, gonadosomatic index, diameter of seminiferous tubules, seminiferous epithelium height and integrity, number of germ cells at stage VII and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium, sperm production, motility, viability and morphology. After the analysis of the studies, it was observed that plant species, used alone or in combination, may control testicular oxidative damage triggered by diabetes. The antioxidant potential varies among species, with some plants proving to have a better performance in the recovery of reproduction parameters than others. PMID:27409225

  5. Phytotherapy in reducing glycemic index and testicular oxidative stress resulting from induced diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J S; Silva, A A N; Silva, V A

    2016-07-11

    Oxidative stress plays a main role in the development of diabetes complications. The impairment of gonadal antioxidant potential and endocrine disturbance in diabetic males causes testicular damage and failure in sperm production. Plants have been widely used to control diabetes due their hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential, contributing towards the recovery of testicular function. Current study comprises a review of the literature on the main medicinal plants used in the recovery of testicular oxidative damage in animals with experimental diabetes. Eighteen plant species in the nineteen studies selected from the search strategy were evaluated. Plant extracts were evaluated according to their effects on blood glucose and insulin levels, antioxidant enzymes and oxidant levels, lipid peroxidation, total protein, testosterone levels, gonadosomatic index, diameter of seminiferous tubules, seminiferous epithelium height and integrity, number of germ cells at stage VII and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium, sperm production, motility, viability and morphology. After the analysis of the studies, it was observed that plant species, used alone or in combination, may control testicular oxidative damage triggered by diabetes. The antioxidant potential varies among species, with some plants proving to have a better performance in the recovery of reproduction parameters than others.

  6. A graphic display for the presentation of site-wise odds ratios for score transitions to augment the traditional findings from clinical studies employing dental indexes.

    PubMed

    Proskin, H M; Kleber, C J; Sharma, N C; Nelson, B J

    2001-07-01

    Many of the parameters used in clinical dental research involve the assessment of a condition at each of a number of sites within the mouth. Traditionally, such measurements are averaged over all sites within the mouth (or over all sites of a specified type) for each study participant before statistical analysis. However, a consideration of the original, site-wise scores may provide some additional insights into the performance of therapeutic modalities that might not be made evident through an application of the traditional, means-based approach. A method based on the calculation of site-wise odds ratios of certain types of baseline-to-final examination score transitions was applied to the modified gingival index data from two clinical studies performed to investigate the effect of the daily chewing of a commercially available chewing gum relative to a mint control. A graphical display of these site-specific findings was prepared, which indicated that the chewing gum regimen tended to be associated with a higher frequency of occurrence of favorable score transitions than was the mint control at several measurement sites throughout the mouth. PMID:11913305

  7. A Generalized Cosmological Reduced Void Probability Distribution Function and Levy Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Andrew, K.; Baxley, J.; Smailhodzic, A.; Bolen, B.; Gary, J.; Taylor, L.; Barnaby, D.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the DEEP2 survey and numerical runs of the Gadget II code to analyze the distribution of cosmological voids in the universe similar to the model proposed by Mekjian.1 The general form of the Void Probability Function focuses on a scaling model inspired from percolation theory that gives an analytical form for the distribution function. For large redshifts the early universe was smooth and the probability function has a simple mathematical form that mimics the two point correlation results leading to a Zipf's Law probability distribution indicating an ever decreasing probability of larger and larger voids, we determine the Zipf form of the scaling power law for void frequency. As various large scale galactic structures emerge in a given simulation a number of relatively empty regions are isolated and characterized as voids based upon number counts in the associated volume. The number density of these regions is such that the universe has a large scale "sponge-like” appearance with voids of all scales permeating the field of observation, hinting at the existence of an underlying scaling law. For these data sets we examine the range of critical void probability function parameters that give rise to the best fit to the numerical and observational data. The resulting void probability functions are then used to determine the Levy index and the Fisher critical exponent within the context of a grand canonical ensemble analysis viewed as a percolation effect. We wish to thank the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium for providing the NASA grant funding this research 1. Aram Z. Mekjian , Generalized statistical models of voids and hierarchical structure in cosmology, The Astrophysical Journal, 655: 1-10, 2007, arXiv:0712.1217

  8. Cobalt supplied per os reduces the mammary Delta9-desaturase index of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Taugbøl, O; Karlengen, I J; Bolstad, T; Aastveit, A H; Harstad, O M

    2008-11-01

    Results indicated that the dual marker system of Yb-acetate and Co-EDTA supplied per os reduced the proportion of fatty acids in bovine milk that were products of Delta (9)-desaturase. To verify this effect and identify the responsible marker component, 18 cows (3 cows per treatment) were administered per os a 0.25-L solution of either Co-acetate, Co-EDTA, Co-EDTA + Yb-acetate, EDTA, Yb-acetate, or water twice daily for 5 d. The daily amounts of Co, Yb, and EDTA were, respectively, 3.50, 3.44, and 21.00 g per cow. Milk and blood were sampled and analyzed for content of fatty acids, and blood was sampled and analyzed for Co and cobalamin. Only solutions containing Co had a reducing effect (P < or = 0.01) on fatty acids that were products of Delta(9)-desaturase in milk--cis-9 10:1, cis-9 14:1, cis-9 16:1, cis-9, trans-11 18:2, and cis-9 18:1--with the exception of the solution containing Co-EDTA + Yb-acetate for cis-9 18:1. Of the substrate fatty acids of Delta (9)-desaturase, only 18:0 increased (P < 0.001) in all groups supplied with Co-containing solutions. Thus, Co had a reducing effect (P < or = 0.004) on the Delta (9)-desaturase indices [(product of Delta(9)-desaturase)/(product of Delta(9)-desaturase + substrate of Delta(9)-desaturase)] of milk for cis-9 14:1, cis-9 16:1, cis-9 18:1, and cis-9, trans-11 18:2. There were no differences in Delta(9)-desaturase indices between Co-EDTA and Co-acetate. None of the marker solutions influenced the fatty acid composition of blood plasma, and Co was detected only in the blood samples from cows treated with solutions containing Co. On the basis of these results, we concluded that Co given per os decreased the Delta(9)-desaturase indices of bovine milk.

  9. Rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic: failure of an augmented home help scheme after discharge to reduce the length of stay in hospital.

    PubMed

    Victor, C R; Vetter, N J

    1988-03-01

    An augmented home help service was set up in the Rhondda Valley in South Wales in order to facilitate discharge from hospital of elderly subjects who were kept in hospital because of mainly social problems. Patients were allocated to the new service or the pre-existing services according to their date of birth. The extra social support did not result in a faster discharge from hospital, nor in any improvement in well-being of the intervention group, largely because the small extra amount of service input was inadequate to ameliorate the extreme physical, mental and social problems experienced by the study group.

  10. How to reduce day-to-day variation of leaf area index derived from digital cover photography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. R.; Ryu, Y.; Kimm, H.; Macfarlane, C.; Lang, M.; Sonnentag, O.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is essential for computing canopy level carbon and water fluxes. Nowadays, it is possible to automatically monitor daily LAI using low-cost sensors, such as digital cameras and LED-sensors. Recent studies have shown that RAW camera format images can improve the estimation of gap fractions and LAI compared to JPEG format. However, whether RAW-based methods can effectively reduce day-to-day variation of LAI time series has not been investigated. In this study, we used two methods to compute gap fraction. The first method separates sky and vegetation pixels using a single threshold in the blue band histogram. The second method interpolates the background sky image from pure sky pixels, and computes the transmittance from original and reconstructed images. In order to investigate which method is more accurate in reducing day-to-day variation of LAI, we first conducted a controlled experiment with punched panels which included different hole size and gap fractions on the rooftop. Then, we applied both methods to photos collected daily over a year at deciduous forest and evergreen forest in South Korea.

  11. Performance of a self-augmented railgun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Rodney L.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Goldstein, Shyke A.

    1991-10-01

    The accelerating force of a railgun can be increased by augmenting the self-induced magnetic field created by the armature current. Augmentation fields can be produced by external current coils or, as is done here, by shorting the railgun muzzle, and using the gun rails as the augmentation coil. Experimental results are presented for a 3.6-m railgun operated in this self-augmented mode, and effective inductance gradients are achieved which are as much as 9.3 times that of the unaugmented gun. A circuit model is presented which explains features of the measured shunt current and voltage. It is concluded that self-augmentation is an effective way to reduce ohmic heating in the armature of a railgun.

  12. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction.

  13. Equating of Augmented Subscores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing level of interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic value. Haberman (2008b) suggested reporting an augmented subscore that is a linear combination of a subscore and the total score. Sinharay and Haberman (2008) and Sinharay (2010) showed that augmented subscores often lead to more accurate…

  14. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  15. Malar and submalar augmentation.

    PubMed

    Binder, William J; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2008-02-01

    Over the past four decades, revolutionary improvements in the design and manufacture of facial implants have broadened the application of midface augmentation. The contemporary practice of facial rejuvenation reflects a 20-year culmination of rapid advances made in the understanding and treatment of midface aging. This article highlights the practice of malar and submalar augmentation: when and how it should be used.

  16. Experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation inside double pipe heat exchanger equipped with reduced width twisted tapes inserts using polymeric nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbehian, Mohammad; Maddah, Heydar; Mohammadiun, Hamid; Alizadeh, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we report a further enhancement in heat transfer coefficients of base fluid in combination with structural modifications of tape inserts. Polyvinyl Alcohol and TiO2 with mean diameter of 15 nm were chosen as base fluid and nano-particles, respectively. The experiments are carried out in plain tube with four longitudinal internal fins and reduced width twisted tape (RWTT) inserts of twist ratio varying form 2-5 and width of 12-16. Experiments are undertaken to determine heat transfer coefficients and friction factor of TiO2/PVA nanofluid up to 2.0 % volume concentration at an average temperature of 30 °C. The investigations are undertaken in the Reynolds number range of 800-30,000 for flow in tubes and with tapes of different width length ratios. The experiments was verified with well-known correlations. The average Nusselt number and friction factor in the tube fitted with the full-length twisted tapes at y/w = 3.0, and 5.0, are respectively 50-130, and 30-95 % higher than those in the plain tube; 90-220 and 100-270 % when the working fluid is nanofluid, respectively. For the reduced width twisted tapes, the heat transfer rate is decreased with decreasing tapes width. The average Nusselt numbers in the tube fitted with the RWTT of 16, 14 and 12 are respectively, 210-390, 190-320 and 170-290 % of that in the plain tube. With the similar trend mentioned above, RWTT with higher width length yield higher thermal enhancement factor in comparison with smaller width. The use of RWTT led to the highest thermal performance factor up to 1.75. Maximum thermal performance factor which was obtained belonged to twists with twist ratio of 2 and width of 16 with φ = 0.5 % and Reynolds number range of 800-30,000.

  17. Experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation inside double pipe heat exchanger equipped with reduced width twisted tapes inserts using polymeric nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazbehian, Mohammad; Maddah, Heydar; Mohammadiun, Hamid; Alizadeh, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report a further enhancement in heat transfer coefficients of base fluid in combination with structural modifications of tape inserts. Polyvinyl Alcohol and TiO2 with mean diameter of 15 nm were chosen as base fluid and nano-particles, respectively. The experiments are carried out in plain tube with four longitudinal internal fins and reduced width twisted tape (RWTT) inserts of twist ratio varying form 2-5 and width of 12-16. Experiments are undertaken to determine heat transfer coefficients and friction factor of TiO2/PVA nanofluid up to 2.0 % volume concentration at an average temperature of 30 °C. The investigations are undertaken in the Reynolds number range of 800-30,000 for flow in tubes and with tapes of different width length ratios. The experiments was verified with well-known correlations. The average Nusselt number and friction factor in the tube fitted with the full-length twisted tapes at y/w = 3.0, and 5.0, are respectively 50-130, and 30-95 % higher than those in the plain tube; 90-220 and 100-270 % when the working fluid is nanofluid, respectively. For the reduced width twisted tapes, the heat transfer rate is decreased with decreasing tapes width. The average Nusselt numbers in the tube fitted with the RWTT of 16, 14 and 12 are respectively, 210-390, 190-320 and 170-290 % of that in the plain tube. With the similar trend mentioned above, RWTT with higher width length yield higher thermal enhancement factor in comparison with smaller width. The use of RWTT led to the highest thermal performance factor up to 1.75. Maximum thermal performance factor which was obtained belonged to twists with twist ratio of 2 and width of 16 with φ = 0.5 % and Reynolds number range of 800-30,000.

  18. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  19. Augmented reality: a review.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries. PMID:22559183

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A fundamental obstacle to routine space access is the specific energy limitations associated with chemical fuels. In the case of vertical take-off, the high thrust needed for vertical liftoff and acceleration to orbit translates into power levels in the 10 GW range. Furthermore, useful payload mass fractions are possible only if the exhaust particle energy (i.e., exhaust velocity) is much greater than that available with traditional chemical propulsion. The electronic binding energy released by the best chemical reactions (e.g., LOX/LH2 for example, is less than 2 eV per product molecule (approx. 1.8 eV per H2O molecule), which translates into particle velocities less than 5 km/s. Useful payload fractions, however, will require exhaust velocities exceeding 15 km/s (i.e., particle energies greater than 20 eV). As an added challenge, the envisioned hypothetical RLV (reusable launch vehicle) should accomplish these amazing performance feats while providing relatively low acceleration levels to orbit (2-3g maximum). From such fundamental considerations, it is painfully obvious that planned and current RLV solutions based on chemical fuels alone represent only a temporary solution and can only result in minor gains, at best. What is truly needed is a revolutionary approach that will dramatically reduce the amount of fuel and size of the launch vehicle. This implies the need for new compact high-power energy sources as well as advanced accelerator technologies for increasing engine exhaust velocity. Electromagnetic acceleration techniques are of immense interest since they can be used to circumvent the thermal limits associated with conventional propulsion systems. This paper describes the Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment (MAPX) being undertaken at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). In this experiment, a 1-MW arc heater is being used as a feeder for a 1-MW magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerator. The purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate

  1. RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Demeo, Martha E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: RMS active damping augmentation; potential space station assembly benefits to CSI; LaRC/JSC bridge program; control law design process; draper RMS simulator; MIMO acceleration control laws improve damping; potential load reduction benefit; DRS modified to model distributed accelerations; accelerometer location; Space Shuttle aft cockpit simulator; simulated shuttle video displays; SES test goals and objectives; and SES modifications to support RMS active damping augmentation.

  2. Short-term nutritional counseling reduces body mass index, waist circumference, triceps skinfold and triglycerides in women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is recognized that the growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome is related to dietary and lifestyle changes. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate short-term application of nutritional counseling in women with metabolic syndrome. Methods This follow-up study was conducted from September to November 2008 with thirty three women ≥35 years old screened clinically for nutritional counseling. Dietary intake was reported, and biochemical and body composition measures were taken at baseline and after three months of follow-up. Results Of the 33 women evaluated, 29 patients completed the study. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity was high at 38%, 72.4%, 55.2%, and 75.8%, respectively. At the end of three-months of follow-up, a significant decline in body mass index, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and triglycerides was observed, as was an increase in calcium and vitamin D intake. The multiple regression analysis showed that changes in body mass index, triceps skinfold, waist circumference and triglyceride levels after nutritional intervention were positively associated with changes in anthropometric (loss of body weight) and biochemical (decrease of TG/HDL-c ratio) parameters. Moreover, waist circumference changes were negatively associated with changes in calcium and vitamin D intake. Conclusion Short-term nutritional counseling improved some factors of metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the increases in calcium and vitamin D consumption can be associated with the improvement in markers of metabolic syndrome. PMID:20181143

  3. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  4. Reduced Inhibitory Control Mediates the Relationship Between Cortical Thickness in the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Lavagnino, Luca; Mwangi, Benson; Bauer, Isabelle E; Cao, Bo; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Prossin, Alan; Soares, Jair C

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy eating behaviors often develop in the setting of inadequate inhibitory control, a function broadly ascribed to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regulation of inhibitory control by the PFC and its anatomical components and their contribution to increasing body mass index (BMI) are poorly understood. To study the role of PFC in the regulation of inhibitory control and body weight, we examined measures of cortical thickness in PFC sub-regions, inhibitory control (color-word interference task (CWIT)), and BMI in 91 healthy volunteers. We tested the predictive effect of PFC sub-regional cortical thickness on BMI and mediation by inhibitory control measured with CWIT. Measures of depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI-T) and trauma-related symptoms (TSC-40) were collected; the disinhibition scale of the three-factor eating questionnaire (TFEQ) was used to assess disinhibited eating. We then tested the relationship between BD-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, TFEQ, CWIT, and BMI with correlation analyses. Right superior frontal gyrus cortical thickness significantly predicted BMI (β=-0.91; t=-3.2; p=0.002). Mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of cortical thickness on BMI mediated by inhibitory control (95% CI=-6.1, -0.67). BMI was unrelated to BDI-II, STAI-T, TSC-40, or TFEQ scores. We found an inverse relationship between cortical thickness in the right-superior frontal gyrus and BMI, which was fully mediated by inhibitory control neurocognitive performance. Our results suggest possible targets for neuromodulation in obesity (ie superior frontal gyrus) and a quantifiable mediator of their effects (ie inhibitory control). PMID:26888057

  5. Foods E-KINDEX: a dietary index associated with reduced blood pressure levels among young children: the CYKIDS study.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2009-06-01

    Dietary modification is, in general, the preferred method when attempting reductions in blood pressure (BP) among adults. In children, however, few studies, have examined the relationship between dietary patterns and levels of BP, and the reported results are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between levels of Foods E-KINDEX score and levels of BP in children. Measurements included BP, height, weight, and waist circumference. Diet quality was assessed by the Foods E-KINDEX diet score. The index includes 13 components that assess consumption frequency of 11 major food groups or foods, as well as two cooking techniques (fried and grilled foods). Its score ranges between 0 and 37. A subsample of 622 Cypriot children (mean age=11.7+/-0.83 years) from the CYKIDS national cross-sectional study was used. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to examine the relationship of systolic BP, diastolic BP, and BP with diet quality (as assessed by the Foods E-KINDEX score). The median systolic BP and diastolic BP were 110 mm Hg (interquartile range [IQR]=100 to 120 mm Hg) and 68 mm Hg (IQR=60 to 70 mm Hg) for boys and 110 mm Hg (IQR=100 to 120 mm Hg) and 63 mm Hg (IQR=60 to 70 mm Hg) for girls, respectively. Mean Foods E-KINDEX score was 23.4+/-4.9 in boys and 24.3+/-4.8 in girls (P=0.487). Compared with children with a low diet score, those with at least an average Foods E-KINDEX score were 57% (odds ratio=0.43; 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.98) less likely to have elevated systolic BP levels, regardless of various potential confounders. The Foods E-KINDEX score is independently associated with lower BP among healthy children. This finding might have implications in public health and should be further explored.

  6. Post-Exercise Phosphocreatine Recovery, an Index of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, is Reduced in Diabetic Patients With Lower Extremity Complications

    PubMed Central

    Tecilazich, Francesco; Dinh, Thanh; Lyons, Thomas E.; Guest, Julie; Villafuerte, Rose; Sampanis, Christos; Gnardellis, Charalambos; Zuo, Chun; Veves, Aristidis

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify differences in the post-exercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery, an index of mitochondrial function, in diabetic patients with and without lower extremity complications. Research Methods and Design We enrolled healthy control subjects and three groups of T2DM patients: patients without complications, with peripheral neuropathy and both peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease. We employed Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic (MRS) measurements to perform continuous measurements of phosphorous metabolites (PCr and Pi) during a 3-minute graded exercise at the level of the posterior calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles). Micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements were also performed. Results The resting Pi/PCr ratio and PCr at baseline and the maximum reached during exercise was similar in all groups. The post-exercise time required for recovery of Pi/PCr ratio and PCr levels to resting levels, an assessment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, was significantly higher in the diabetic patients with neuropathy and those with both neuropathy and PAD (p <0.01 for both measurements). These two groups had also higher levels of TNFα, (p<0.01) and G-CSF (p <0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that only G-CSF, OPG and TNFα were significant contributing factors in the variation of the Pi/PCr ratio recovery time. No associations were observed between micro- and macrovascular reactivity measurements and Pi/Pcr ration or Pcr recovery time. Conclusions Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is impaired only in T2DM patients with neuropathy whether PAD is present or not and is associated with the increased proinflammatory state that was observed in these groups. PMID:23465172

  7. Soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ranella J; Cohen, Joel L

    2006-09-01

    Recent additions to the soft tissue augmentation armamentarium have greatly increased the dermatologic surgeon's choices in optimizing facial contouring and the treatment of acne scars. In this article, we review the science of fillers and look at the future of dermal fillers.

  8. Augmented Reality Binoculars.

    PubMed

    Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes. PMID:26357208

  9. Augmentative & Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2007-01-01

    There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…

  10. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  11. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  12. Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report August 1988-September 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-12-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  13. Augmenting GRATEFUL MED with the UMLS Metathesaurus: an initial evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Jachna, J S; Powsner, S M; Miller, P L

    1993-01-01

    Clinicians in patient care settings must be able to locate relevant recent medical literature quickly. Computer literacy is increasing, but many clinicians remain ill at ease with search strategies for online bibliographic databases. As part of an ongoing project to simplify the translation of clinical questions into effective searches, a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus tool was designed. The authors compared bibliographic searches by relatively inexperienced users employing only GRATEFUL MED to searches done using GRATEFUL MED augmented with this tool. The users were clinicians examining questions related to a test set of clinical cases. Their problems and successes were monitored; the results suggest that the addition of a thesaurus helps resolve some problems in citation retrieval that trouble the novice user. By helping the user understand indexing terms in context and by reducing typing errors, a thesaurus can help provide an intelligent solution to lexical mismatches in bibliographic retrieval. PMID:8428185

  14. The Effect of Augmented Feedback on Foot Pronation During Barre Exercise in Dance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Priscilla M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the use of augmented auditory feedback to reduce foot pronation during barre exercise in dance. The results suggest that augmented feedback can effectively accelerate the correction of foot pronation in dance. (MT)

  15. The measurement of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol in neonatal hair as an index of placental transfer of maternal haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, T; Yamada, K; Matsuno, H; Nakashima, M

    1991-03-01

    Hair samples were collected at time of delivery from three neonates and their schizophrenic mothers, who had been taking haloperidol (HP) during the perinatal period to control worsening psychotic symptoms. Maternal hair was cut into 1-cm lengths, and concentrations of HP and its major metabolite, reduced haloperidol (RHP), were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Neonatal hair was cut into halves, and the concentrations of HP and RHP in each half were measured. The distribution of both HP and RHP along the maternal hair paralleled the dosage of HP when hair growth was assumed to be 1 cm per month. In the upper half of hair from each of two neonates neither HP nor RHP was detected. Only HP was detected in the lower half from one, and a small peak of HP in the chromatogram was observed in the other, though under the detection limit. In the third neonate both HP and RHP were detected from both halves of hair, but the concentration of HP was larger in the lower half than in the upper. These findings suggest the possibility of monitoring the transfer of maternal HP through placenta by measuring HP and RHP concentrations in neonatal hair.

  16. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  17. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  18. Simple Implant Augmentation Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh H; Bartlett, Erica L; Kania, Katarzyna; Bae, Sang Mo

    2015-11-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty among Asian patients is often performed to improve the height of the nasal dorsum. As the use of autogenous tissues poses certain limitations, alloplastic materials are a viable alternative with a long history of use in Asia. The superiority of one implant prosthesis over another for augmentation rhinoplasty is a matter of debate, with each material representing varying strengths and weaknesses, indications for use, and precautions to consider in nasal implant placement. An implant prosthesis should be used on a case-by-case basis. Augmentation rhinoplasty requires the consideration of specific anatomical preoperative factors, including the external nose, nasal length, nasofrontal angle, humps, and facial proportions. It is equally important to consider several operative guidelines to appropriately shape implants to minimize the occurrence of adverse effects and postoperative complications. The most common postoperative complications include infection, nasal height change, movement of implant prosthesis, and silicone implant protrusion. In addition, the surgeon should consider the current standards of Asian beauty aesthetics to better understand the patient's desired outcome. PMID:26648804

  19. Mutually Augmented Cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael

    In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.

  20. Decreasing the load? Is a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review in older people an effective intervention to reduce a patient's Drug Burden Index? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Helene G; Wouters, Hans; van Hulten, Rolf; Pras, Niesko; Taxis, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Older people often use medications with anticholinergic or sedative side effects which increase the risk of falling and worsen cognitive impairment. The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a measure of the burden of anticholinergic and sedative medications. Medication reviews are typically done by a pharmacist in collaboration with a general practitioner to optimise the medication use and reduce these adverse drug events. We will evaluate whether a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review (3MR) is an effective intervention to reduce a patient's DBI. Methods A randomised controlled trial including 160 patients from 15 community pharmacies will be conducted. Per pharmacy, 1 pharmacist will perform a structured 3MR in close collaboration with the general practitioner, including the objective to reduce the DBI. Analysis Primary outcome—the difference in proportion of patients having a decrease in DBI≥0.5 in the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Secondary outcomes—anticholinergic and sedative side effects, falls, cognitive function, activities of daily living, quality of life, hospital admission, and mortality. Ethics and dissemination The burden of patients will be kept at a minimum. The 3MR can be considered as usual care by the pharmacist and general practitioner. Medical specialists will be consulted, if necessary. The intervention is specifically aimed at older community-dwelling patients in an attempt to optimise prescribing, in particular, to reduce medication with anticholinergic and sedative properties. Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be distributed through information channels targeting professionals. Trial registration number NCT02317666; Pre-results. PMID:26700279

  1. Breaking the Curse of Cardinality on Bitmap Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Wu, Kesheng; Stockinger, Kurt; Shoshani, Arie

    2008-04-04

    Bitmap indexes are known to be efficient for ad-hoc range queries that are common in data warehousing and scientific applications. However, they suffer from the curse of cardinality, that is, their efficiency deteriorates as attribute cardinalities increase. A number of strategies have been proposed, but none of them addresses the problem adequately. In this paper, we propose a novel binned bitmap index that greatly reduces the cost to answer queries, and therefore breaks the curse of cardinality. The key idea is to augment the binned index with an Order-preserving Bin-based Clustering (OrBiC) structure. This data structure significantly reduces the I/O operations needed to resolve records that cannot be resolved with the bitmaps. To further improve the proposed index structure, we also present a strategy to create single-valued bins for frequent values. This strategy reduces index sizes and improves query processing speed. Overall, the binned indexes with OrBiC great improves the query processing speed, and are 3 - 25 times faster than the best available indexes for high-cardinality data.

  2. Which Type of Sedentary Behavior Intervention is More Effective at Reducing Body Mass Index in Children? A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yue; Liao, Jingjing; Durand, Casey P.; Dunton, Genevieve F

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is emerging as an independent risk factor for pediatric obesity. Some evidence suggests that limiting sedentary behavior alone could be effective in reducing body mass index (BMI) in children. However, whether adding physical activity and diet-focused components to sedentary behavior reduction interventions could lead to an additive effect is unclear. This meta-analysis aims to assess the overall effect size of sedentary behavior interventions on BMI reduction, and to compare whether interventions that have multiple components (sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet) have a higher mean effect size than interventions with single (sedentary behavior) component. Included studies (N=25) were randomized controlled trails of children (<18 years) with intervention components aimed to reduce sedentary behavior and measured BMI at pre- and post-intervention. Effect size was calculated as the mean difference in BMI change between children in an intervention and a control group. Results indicated that sedentary behavior interventions had a significant effect on BMI reduction. The pooled effect sizes of multi-components interventions (g=−.060~−.089) did not differ from the single-component interventions (g=−.154), and neither of them had a significant effect size on its own. Future pediatric obesity interventions may consider focusing on developing strategies to decrease multiple screen-related sedentary behaviors. PMID:24588966

  3. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  4. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions. PMID:26780802

  5. Pilot-optimal augmentation synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.

  6. Augmented reality system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  7. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-09-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  9. NAESA Augmentation Pilot Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, John J.

    1998-01-01

    This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.

  10. Augmented kinematic feedback system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andert, Ed P., Jr.; Archipley-Smith, Donna K.

    1994-07-01

    This paper discusses a real-time augmented kinematic feedback system which can be used as a diagnosis tool for individuals with motor disabilities. The system captures and analyzes movement via color targets attached to an individual and then feeds back information about movement kinematics. This target tracking approach has a high potential for achieving a real- time kinematic assessment capability. The approach recognizes distinct moving colored targets using video data. Multiple colored targets are attached to an individual at strategic locations and then target movement is tracked using a video data acquisition system. The ability to track and assess movement in real-time allows researchers and practitioners to better study and potentially treat various motor disabilities. Recent research has suggested that kinematic feedback can enhance motor recovery of disabled individuals. This approach addresses the need for a real-time measure of human movement and discusses using kinematic feedback to enhance disability recovery.

  11. Augmented Virtual Reality Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tully-Hanson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.

  12. Augmented reality in surgical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samset, E.; Schmalstieg, D.; Vander Sloten, J.; Freudenthal, A.; Declerck, J.; Casciaro, S.; Rideng, Ø.; Gersak, B.

    2008-02-01

    Minimally invasive therapy (MIT) is one of the most important trends in modern medicine. It includes a wide range of therapies in videoscopic surgery and interventional radiology and is performed through small incisions. It reduces hospital stay-time by allowing faster recovery and offers substantially improved cost-effectiveness for the hospital and the society. However, the introduction of MIT has also led to new problems. The manipulation of structures within the body through small incisions reduces dexterity and tactile feedback. It requires a different approach than conventional surgical procedures, since eye-hand co-ordination is not based on direct vision, but more predominantly on image guidance via endoscopes or radiological imaging modalities. ARIS*ER is a multidisciplinary consortium developing a new generation of decision support tools for MIT by augmenting visual and sensorial feedback. We will present tools based on novel concepts in visualization, robotics and haptics providing tailored solutions for a range of clinical applications. Examples from radio-frequency ablation of liver-tumors, laparoscopic liver surgery and minimally invasive cardiac surgery will be presented. Demonstrators were developed with the aim to provide a seamless workflow for the clinical user conducting image-guided therapy.

  13. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe₂O₃/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Delun; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qingxiang

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS-fFe2O3-ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0×10(-6)M to 1.0×10(-4)M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5×10(-7)M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines.

  14. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…

  15. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  16. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two-dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  17. Structural consequences of railgun augmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W. . Applied Mechanics Div. III)

    1989-01-01

    An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.

  18. Detonation wave augmentation of gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study that examined the effects of using detonation waves to augment the performance of gas turbines are reported. The central ideas were to reduce compressor requirements and to maintain high performance in jet engines. Gasdynamic equations were used to model the flows associated with shock waves generated by the detonation of fuel in detonator tubes. Shock wave attenuation to the level of Mach waves was found possible, thus eliminating interference with the compressor and the necessity of valves and seals. A preliminary parametric study of the performance of a compressor working at a 4:1 ratio in a conceptual design of a detonation wave augmented jet engine in subsonic flight indicated a clear superiority over conventional designs in terms of fuel efficiency and thrust.

  19. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  20. Augmented Reality Comes to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.

  1. Postauricular fascia in augmentation rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Aldo Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Ten rhinoplasty operations performed using postauricular fascia for the purpose of augmenting the radix and dorsum of the nose were analyzed retrospectively. All the operations were performed over a 1-year period, between 2005 and 2006. The fascia of the postauricular area has been used as a source of pliable soft-tissue grafts in primary and revision rhinoplasty. It may be easily accessed using a single sulcus incision that also enables harvesting of ear cartilage grafts. Deficiency in the radix is an overlooked abnormality seen in many patients undergoing primary as well as revision rhinoplasty after aggressive hump removal. Recent trends in rhinoplasty have been to avoid the overly reduced nasal skeleton and to create a more balanced nasal surgery result. This article presents the use of the postauricular fascia as a radix graft that has been found to be simple to carry out, reliable, and long lasting. In addition, the fascia graft is useful in the camouflage of various nasal deformities in the dorsum and sidewalls. The average patient follow-up for the study was 24 months.

  2. Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method.

    PubMed

    Apak, Resat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Karademir, Saliha Esin

    2004-12-29

    The chemical diversity of antioxidants makes it difficult to separate and quantify antioxidants from the vegetable matrix. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a method that can measure the total antioxidant activity level directly from vegetable extracts. The current literature clearly states that there is no "total antioxidant" as a nutritional index available for food labeling because of the lack of standard quantitation methods. Thus, this work reports the development of a simple, widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine [Cu(II)-Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. Because the copper(II) (or cupric) ion reducing ability of polyphenols is measured, the method is named by our research group "cupric reducing antioxidant capacity" abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. This method should be advantageous over the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method because the redox chemistry of copper(II)-as opposed to that of ferric ion-involves faster kinetics. The method comprises mixing of the antioxidant solution (directly or after acid hydrolysis) with a copper(II) chloride solution, a neocuproine alcoholic solution, and an ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7 and subsequent measurement of the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Because the color development is fast for compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds were assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min [after Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition] so as to force the oxidation reaction to reach completion. The flavonoid glycosides were hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycons by refluxing in 1.2 M HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power toward Cu(II)-Nc. Certain compounds also needed incubation after acid hydrolysis to fully exhibit their reducing capability. The CUPRAC antioxidant

  3. Soft tissue augmentation using Restylane.

    PubMed

    Biesman, Brian

    2004-05-01

    Soft tissue augmentation plays an important role in facial rejuvenation. To accomplish this goal, numerous materials have been used. Hyaluronic acids represent the latest family of products to become available in the United States. This article provides an introduction to the proper use of Restylane, the first hyaluronic acid product to be approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for soft tissue augmentation.

  4. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... a change in the shape of your breast, hardening of breast tissue, or some pain. Emotional risks ... starting 5 days after surgery. Massaging helps reduce hardening of the capsule that surrounds the implant. Ask ...

  5. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  6. Bayesian Alternation during Tactile Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Goeke, Caspar M.; Planera, Serena; Finger, Holger; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well-described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study, we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC) task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition), rotation only (native condition), and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition). Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants' responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND). Then, we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67) than the Bayesian integration model (χred2 = 4.34). Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all (WTA) model (χred2 = 1.64), which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However, the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2 = 1.09) utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  7. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  8. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    PubMed

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  9. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  10. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Çetinel, Bülent; Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  11. Augmentation cystoplasty in neurogenic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312

  12. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  13. FastQuery: A Parallel Indexing System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,

    2011-07-29

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the- art index and query technologies such as FastBit can significantly improve accesses to these datasets by augmenting the user data with indexes and other secondary information. However, a challenge is that the indexes assume the relational data model but the scientific data generally follows the array data model. To match the two data models, we design a generic mapping mechanism and implement an efficient input and output interface for reading and writing the data and their corresponding indexes. To take advantage of the emerging many-core architectures, we also develop a parallel strategy for indexing using threading technology. This approach complements our on-going MPI-based parallelization efforts. We demonstrate the flexibility of our software by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using data from a particle accelerator model and a global climate model. We also conducted a detailed performance study using these scientific datasets. The results show that FastQuery speeds up the query time by a factor of 2.5x to 50x, and it reduces the indexing time by a factor of 16 on 24 cores.

  14. Augmentation-related brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  15. Augmentation-related brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self

  16. Augmentation-related brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self.

  17. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  18. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.

    1986-11-01

    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance.

  19. Abnormally high body mass index and tobacco use are associated with poor sperm quality as revealed by reduced sperm binding to hyaluronan-coated slides.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Carole C; Clifford, Alicia L; Jilbert, Patricia M; Henry, Michael A; Gentry, William L

    2010-01-01

    Responses on a lifestyle questionnaire were correlated with results from traditional semen analysis and a newer functional sperm assay, namely, the ability of sperm to bind to a hyaluronan-coated slide. Increased percent normal morphology and motile sperm concentration were positively correlated with increased HA-binding score, whereas tobacco use (either current or previous history) and abnormally high body mass index were associated with lower binding scores.

  20. Cheese can reduce indexes that estimate fatty acid desaturation. Results from the Oslo Health Study and from experiments with human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne T; Lunde, Marianne S H

    2012-02-01

    Previously, cheese intake was shown to be inversely related to serum triglycerides, raising the possibility that cheese might inhibit triglyceride synthesis, which is governed by fatty acid desaturases. Therefore, analyses were done to study whether cheese intake was associated with indexes that reflect fatty acid desaturation in 121 healthy ethnic Norwegians aged 40-45 years, a subsample from the Oslo Health Study (N = 18 777). Experiments with human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were done to clarify whether cheese might have a causal effect on desaturases. Fatty acid distribution in lipids of human sera and HepG2 cells was determined by gas chromatography. Δ9-Desaturase was estimated by the (16:1,n-7)/(16:0) and (18:1,n-9)/(18:0) ratios, abbreviated ds9_1 and ds9_2, and Δ5-desaturase (ds5) by the (20:4,n-6)/(18:2,n-6) ratio. Correlation, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression models were used to study associations. Oslo Health Study: Subjects with cheese intake >4-6 times per week had 33% lower ds9_1 and 16% lower ds5 than subjects with intake ≤ 4-6 times per week. The cheese intake vs. ds5 association prevailed when adjusting for sex, time since last meal, fatty fish, vegetables, fruit-berries, fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity, length of education, and smoking. HepG2 cells: An ethanol extract of Jarlsberg cheese lowered the desaturase indexes. Inhibition of ds9_1 increased with increasing amount cheese extract added. Thus, cheese may contain inhibitors of desaturases, thereby providing an explanation for the previously reported negative association between cheese intake and triglycerides.

  1. Developing a Predation Index and Evaluating Ways to Reduce Salmonid Losses to Predation in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Progress Report August 1988-September 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1989-12-01

    We are reporting progress on the predator-prey study for the period August 28, 1988 to September 1, 1989. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of an index for assessment of predation in various reservoirs throughout the Columbia River basin, to describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of smolts and physical and biological variables; to examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonesis); and to develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries. Literature searches on predator abundance indexing and factors regulating fish population dynamics have been conducted; selected references have been summarized, and compiled in a key-word bibliography format. The feasibility of various types of predator abundance indices is being assessed; existing data relevant to mark-recapture, catch per unit effort (CPUE), physical and chemical variables, and reservoir morphology have been compiled, reviewed, and summarized. In cases where sufficient data exist, preliminary implementation of predator abundance indices has been demonstrated. Field sampling in John Day Reservoir was conducted during May to August, 1989 -- to continue time series data bases on northern squawfish CPUE and growth, and to evaluate the possibility of year class strength determinations of northern squawfish and walleyes using restricted sampling. Development of plans has begun for fishery implementation and evaluation. 184 refs., 33 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. Augmented assessment as a means to augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming. PMID:16404012

  3. Augmented Reality in Education--Cases, Places and Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Howe, Cathie; McCredie, Nerida; Robinson, Austin; Grover, David

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality is poised to profoundly transform Education as we know it. The capacity to overlay rich media onto the real world for viewing through web-enabled devices such as phones and tablet devices means that information can be made available to students at the exact time and place of need. This has the potential to reduce cognitive…

  4. Benefit assessment of solar-augmented natural gas systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. S.; French, R. L.; Sohn, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Report details how solar-energy-augmented system can reduce natural gas consumption by 40% to 70%. Applications discussed include: domestic hot water system, solar-assisted gas heat pumps, direct heating from storage tank. Industrial uses, solar-assisted appliances, and economic factors are discussed.

  5. Detecting Syntactic Ambiguity: Three Augmented Transition Network Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, L. Russell, Jr.

    When a grammar is expressed in augmented transition network (ATN) form, the problem of detecting syntactic ambuguity reduces to finding all possible paths through the ATNs. Each successfully terminating path through the ATN generates an acceptable parsing of the input string. Two ATN forms, minimal-node and pseudo-tree, are described along with…

  6. Custom Titanium Ridge Augmentation Matrix (CTRAM): A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Connors, Christopher A; Liacouras, Peter C; Grant, Gerald T

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a custom titanium ridge augmentation matrix (CTRAM). Using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), a custom titanium space-maintaining device was developed. Alveolar ridges were virtually augmented, a matrix was virtually designed, and the CTRAM was additively manufactured with titanium (Ti6Al4V). Two cases are presented that resulted in sufficient increased horizontal bone volume with successful dental implant placement. The CTRAM design allows for preoperative planning for increasing alveolar ridge dimensions to support dental implants, reduces surgical time, and prevents the need for a second surgical site to gain sufficient alveolar ridge bone volume for dental implant therapy. PMID:27560675

  7. A Novel Augmented Reality Navigation System for Endoscopic Sinus and Skull Base Surgery: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Yang, Jian; Chu, Yakui; Wu, Wenbo; Xue, Jin; Liang, Ping; Chen, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To verify the reliability and clinical feasibility of a self-developed navigation system based on an augmented reality technique for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. Materials and Methods In this study we performed a head phantom and cadaver experiment to determine the display effect and accuracy of our navigational system. We compared cadaver head-based simulated operations, the target registration error, operation time, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores of our navigation system to conventional navigation systems. Results The navigation system developed in this study has a novel display mode capable of fusing endoscopic images to three-dimensional (3-D) virtual images. In the cadaver head experiment, the target registration error was 1.28 ± 0.45 mm, which met the accepted standards of a navigation system used for nasal endoscopic surgery. Compared with conventional navigation systems, the new system was more effective in terms of operation time and the mental workload of surgeons, which is especially important for less experienced surgeons. Conclusion The self-developed augmented reality navigation system for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery appears to have advantages that outweigh those of conventional navigation systems. We conclude that this navigational system will provide rhinologists with more intuitive and more detailed imaging information, thus reducing the judgment time and mental workload of surgeons when performing complex sinus and skull base surgeries. Ultimately, this new navigational system has potential to increase the quality of surgeries. In addition, the augmented reality navigational system could be of interest to junior doctors being trained in endoscopic techniques because it could speed up their learning. However, it should be noted that the navigation system serves as an adjunct to a surgeon’s skills and knowledge, not as a substitute. PMID:26757365

  8. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring; Volume II of II, Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1991-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) initiated the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project in 1986. This project was a five year interagency project involving fish rearing agencies in the Columbia Basin. Participating agencies included: Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). This is the final data report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring project. Data collected and sampling results for 1990 and 1991 are presented within this report. An evaluation of this project can be found in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Volume 1, Completion Report.'' May, 1991. Pathogen detection methods remained the same from methods described in Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, Annual Report 1989,'' May, 1990. From January 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991 fish health monitoring sampling was conducted. In 1990 21 returning adult stocks were sampled. Juvenile pre-release exams were completed on 20 yearling releases, and 13 sub-yearling releases in 1990. In 1991 17 yearling releases and 11 sub-yearling releases were examined. Midterm sampling was completed on 19 stocks in 1990. Organosomatic analysis was performed at release on index station stocks; Cowlitz spring and fall chinook, Lewis river early coho and Lyons Ferry fall chinook.

  9. Complications of soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Ranella J; Stier, Meghan

    2008-09-01

    The wide variety of dermal fillers presently available has revolutionized treatment options for patients seeking a refreshed appearance. Soft tissue fillers include both bovine and human collagens, the hyaluronans, calcium hydroxyapatite, poly-L-lactic acid, and synthetic polymers. However, soft tissue augmentation is never risk-free, and as these procedures have increased in prevalence, complications have been more frequently reported. This article describes a range of complications resulting from dermal filler injections, reviews key case studies, and discusses possible treatment options for adverse effects. While biodegradable fillers offer the least risk for the patient, location, allergic reactions, granulomas, necrosis, and infection are all serious complications that must be considered before performing soft tissue augmentation with any approved dermal filler.

  10. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-01-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value. PMID:27165120

  11. Effective Augmentation of Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi

    2016-05-01

    Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value.

  12. Augmented reality building operations tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  13. HDF Augmentation: Interoperability in the Last Mile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plutchak, J.; Folk, M. J.; Habermann, T.; Knox, L.

    2014-12-01

    Science data files are generally written to serve well-defined purposes for a small science teams. In many cases, the organization of the data and the metadata are designed for custom tools developed and maintained by and for the team. Using these data outside of this context many times involves restructuring, re-documenting, or reformatting the data. This expensive and time-consuming process usually prevents data reuse and thus decreases the total life-cycle value of the data considerably. If the data are unique or critically important to solving a particular problem, they can be modified into a more generally usable form or metadata can be added in order to enable reuse. This augmentation process can be done to enhance data for the intended purpose or for a new purpose, to make the data available to new tools and applications, to make the data more conventional or standard, or to simplify preservation of the data. The HDF Group has addressed augmentation needs in many ways: by adding extra information, by renaming objects or moving them around in the file, by reducing complexity of the organization, and sometimes by hiding data objects that are not understood by specific applications. In some cases these approaches require re-writing the data into new files and in some cases it can be done externally, without affecting the original file. We will describe and compare several examples of each approach.

  14. A Determinate Model of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, N.; Krothapalli, A.; van Dommelen, L.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the compressible flow through a constant-area jet-engine ejector in which a primary jet mixes with ambient fluid from a uniform free stream is pursued. The problem is reduced to a determinate mathematical one by prescribing the ratios of stagnation properties between the primary and secondary flows. For some selections of properties and parameters more than one solution is possible and the meaning of these solutions is discussed by means of asymptotic expansions. Our results further show that while under stationary conditions the thrust-augmentation ratio assumes a value of 2 in the large area-ratio limit, for a free-stream Mach number greater than 0.6 very little thrust augmentation is left. Due to the assumptions made, the analysis provides idealized values for the thrust-augmentation ratio and the mass flux entrainment factor.

  15. Mobility and low contrast trip hazard avoidance using augmented depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Chris; Walker, Janine G.; Lieby, Paulette; Scott, Adele; Barnes, Nick

    2015-02-01

    Objective. We evaluated a novel visual representation for current and near-term prosthetic vision. Augmented depth emphasizes ground obstacles and floor-wall boundaries in a depth-based visual representation. This is achieved by artificially increasing contrast between obstacles and the ground surface via a novel ground plane extraction algorithm specifically designed to preserve low-contrast ground-surface boundaries. Approach. The effectiveness of augmented depth was examined in human mobility trials compared against standard intensity-based (Intensity), depth-based (Depth) and random (Random) visual representations. Eight participants with normal vision used simulated prosthetic vision with 20 phosphenes and eight perceivable brightness levels to traverse a course with randomly placed small and low-contrast obstacles on the ground. Main results. The number of collisions was significantly reduced using augmented depth, compared with intensity, depth and random representations (48%, 44% and 72% less collisions, respectively). Significance. These results indicate that augmented depth may enable safe mobility in the presence of low-contrast obstacles with current and near-term implants. This is the first demonstration that an augmentation of the scene ensuring key objects are visible may provide better outcomes for prosthetic vision.

  16. TDRSS Augmentation System for Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  17. Augment railgun and sequential discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    Proprietary R&D efforts toward the creation of tactical weapon systems-applicable railguns are presented. Attention is given to measures taken for projectile velocity maximization and sequential-discharge operation, and to an augmenting railgun which has demonstrated a 66-percent efficiency improvement over the two-rail baseline railgun system. This device is characterized by strong interaction between capacitor bank submodules during sequential discharge.

  18. Measuring patient outcomes in breast augmentation: introducing the BREAST-Q Augmentation module.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Andrea L; Reavey, Patrick L; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie; McCarthy, Colleen; Cano, Stefan J

    2009-01-01

    The Breast-Q Augmentation module is a new and unique questionnaire for measuring patient-reported outcomes following breast augmentation. It has undergone a rigorous development and validation process and is currently the only questionnaire for breast augmentation that meets international and federal standards for questionnaire development. The Breast-Q Augmentation module covers a comprehensive set of concerns of breast augmentation patients, including satisfaction with breasts and impact on quality of life. With its excellent psychometric properties, the Breast-Q Augmentation module can provide clinicians and researchers with a wealth of essential data to improve the field of breast augmentation from the perspectives of both surgeons and patients.

  19. Body Mass Index Is Associated with Impaired Semen Characteristics and Reduced Levels of Anti-Müllerian Hormone across a Wide Weight Range

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jorunn M.; Herning, Hilde; Aschim, Elin L.; Hjelmesæth, Jøran; Mala, Tom; Hanevik, Hans Ivar; Bungum, Mona; Haugen, Trine B; Witczak, Oliwia

    2015-01-01

    There is still controversy as to how body mass index (BMI) affects male reproduction. We investigated how BMI is associated with semen quality and reproductive hormones in 166 men, including 38 severely obese men. Standard semen analysis and sperm DNA integrity analysis were performed, and blood samples were analysed for reproductive hormones. Adjusted for age and time of abstinence, BMI was negatively associated with sperm concentration (B = -0.088, P = 0.009), total sperm count (B = -0.223, P = 0.001), progressive sperm motility (B = -0.675, P = 0.007), normal sperm morphology (B = -0.078, P = 0.001), and percentage of vital spermatozoa (B = -0.006, P = 0.027). A negative relationship was observed between BMI and total testosterone (B = -0.378, P < 0.001), sex hormone binding globulin (B = -0.572, P < 0.001), inhibin B (B = -3.120, P < 0.001) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) (B = -0.009, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that high BMI is negatively associated with semen characteristics and serum levels of AMH. PMID:26067627

  20. Reduced bacterial colony count of anaerobic bacteria is associated with a worsening in lung clearance index and inflammation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Katherine; Bradley, Judy M; Johnston, Elinor; McGrath, Stephanie; McIlreavey, Leanne; Rowan, Stephen; Reid, Alastair; Bradbury, Ian; Einarsson, Gisli; Elborn, J Stuart; Tunney, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria have been identified in abundance in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. The impact their presence and abundance has on lung function and inflammation is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the colony count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lung clearance index (LCI), spirometry and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in patients with CF. Sputum and blood were collected from CF patients at a single cross-sectional visit when clinically stable. Community composition and bacterial colony counts were analysed using extended aerobic and anaerobic culture. Patients completed spirometry and a multiple breath washout (MBW) test to obtain LCI. An inverse correlation between colony count of aerobic bacteria (n = 41, r = -0.35; p = 0.02), anaerobic bacteria (n = 41, r = -0.44, p = 0.004) and LCI was observed. There was an inverse correlation between colony count of anaerobic bacteria and CRP (n = 25, r = -0.44, p = 0.03) only. The results of this study demonstrate that a lower colony count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria correlated with a worse LCI. A lower colony count of anaerobic bacteria also correlated with higher CRP levels. These results indicate that lower abundance of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria may reflect microbiota disruption and disease progression in the CF lung.

  1. Nucleus accumbens response to food cues predicts subsequent snack consumption in women and increased body mass index in those with reduced self-control.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Natalia S; Hinton, Elanor C; Parkinson, John A; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2012-10-15

    Individuals have difficulty controlling their food consumption, which is due in part to the ubiquity of tempting food cues in the environment. Individual differences in the propensity to attribute incentive (motivational) salience to and act on these cues may explain why some individuals eat more than others. Using fMRI in healthy women, we found that food cue related activity in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain region for food motivation and reward, was related to subsequent snack food consumption. However, both nucleus accumbens activation and snack food consumption were unrelated to self-reported hunger, or explicit wanting and liking for the snack. In contrast, food cue reactivity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was associated with subjective hunger/appetite, but not with consumption. Whilst the food cue reactivity in the nucleus accumbens that predicted snack consumption was not directly related to body mass index (BMI), it was associated with increased BMI in individuals reporting low self-control. Our findings reveal a neural substrate underpinning automatic environmental influences on consumption in humans and demonstrate how self-control interacts with this response to predict BMI. Our data provide support for theoretical models that advocate a 'dual hit' of increased incentive salience attribution to food cues and poor self-control in determining vulnerability to overeating and overweight. PMID:22776461

  2. Transaxillary endoscopic silicone gel breast augmentation.

    PubMed

    Strock, Louis L

    2010-09-01

    Following the return of silicone gel breast implants to the US market in 2006, augmentation with these implants has become increasingly popular. Surgeons have an array of refined techniques from which to choose when performing these procedures, many of which offer the advantage of reduced or less-obvious postoperative scarring. For obvious reasons, many patients are requesting placement of the implants through incisions that are removed from the breast area (and thereby hidden). The challenge of these approaches is to provide a level of technical control that matches what is afforded with the traditional inframammary approach. The addition of endoscopic assistance has provided a level of tissue visualization and technical control not previously possible with the transaxillary approach, with results that rival those of an inframammary procedure. In this article, the author presents his current operative technique, which has allowed for the routine placement of silicone gel breast implants through a transaxillary incision using endoscopic assistance.

  3. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  4. Augmented Fish Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1989-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. This project provides a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its second year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1988. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1988 to December 31, 1988 and will compare sampling results from 1987 and 1988. The analysis will be divided in two sections: adult analysis and juvenile analysis. The adult analysis will include results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on index stocks. Additionally, highlights from monthly monitoring exams will identify any significant and unusual findings from the routine exams completed in 1988. 6 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality.

  6. Augmented reality in medical education?

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality. PMID:24464832

  7. PRP Augmentation for ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Andriolo, Luca; Di Matteo, Berardo; Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Venieri, Giulia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Current research is investigating new methods to enhance tissue healing to speed up recovery time and decrease the risk of failure in Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Biological augmentation is one of the most exploited strategies, in particular the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). Aim of the present paper is to systematically review all the preclinical and clinical papers dealing with the application of PRP as a biological enhancer during ACL reconstructive surgery. Thirty-two studies were included in the present review. The analysis of the preclinical evidence revealed that PRP was able to improve the healing potential of the tendinous graft both in terms of histological and biomechanical performance. Looking at the available clinical evidence, results were not univocal. PRP administration proved to be a safe procedure and there were some evidences that it could favor the donor site healing in case of ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon graft and positively contribute to graft maturation over time, whereas the majority of the papers did not show beneficial effects in terms of bony tunnels/graft area integration. Furthermore, PRP augmentation did not provide superior functional results at short term evaluation. PMID:26064903

  8. H2OTSTUF: Appropriate Operating Regimes for Magnetohydrodynamic Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    A trade study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmented propulsion reveals a unique operating regime at lower thrust levels. Substantial mass savings are realized over conventional chemical, solar, and electrical propulsion concepts when MHD augmentation is used to obtain optimal I(sub sp). However, trip times for the most conservative estimates of power plant specific impulse and accelerator efficiency may be prohibitively long. Quasi-one-dimensional calculations show that a solar or nuclear thermal system augmented by MHD can provide competitive performance while utilizing a diverse range of propellants including water, which is available from the Space Shuttle, the Moon, asteroids, and various moons and planets within our solar system. The use of in-situ propellants will reduce costs of space operations as well as enable human exploration of our Solar System. The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of the mission trade study: (1) There exists a maximum thrust or mass flow rate above which MHD augmentation increases the initial mass in low earth orbit (LEO); (2) Mass saving of over 50% can be realized for unique combination of solar/MHD systems; (3) Trip times for systems utilizing current power supply technology may be prohibitively long. Theoretical predictions of MHD performance for in space propulsion systems show that improved efficiencies can reduce trip times to acceptable levels; (4) Long trip times indicative of low thrust systems can be shortened by an increase in the MHD accelerator efficiency or a decrease in the specific mass of the power supply and power processing unit; and (5) As for all propulsion concepts, missions with larger (Delta)v's benefit more from the increased specific impulse resulting from MHD augmentation. Using a quasi-one-dimensional analysis, the required operating conditions for a MHD accelerator to reach acceptable efficiencies are outlined. This analysis shows that substantial non-equilibrium ionization is

  9. Bioremediation: When is augmentation needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, J.V.; Tsao, Y.M.; Bleam, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Each contaminated site exhibits different characteristics and requires a site-specific remediation plan. The decontamination of a hazardous materials site is a complex procedure involving systematic, step-by-step problem solving. Assessing the conditions necessary to optimize the efficiency of microbial systems in degrading environmental pollutants and the economics required is essential in selecting and implementing cost-effective biotreatment. This assessment requires a good understanding of the microorganisms themselves. A firm grasp of the conditions under which the appropriate mixed culture system can be established and maintained to achieve the desired biodegradation tasks is necessary. The final component, and perhaps the most critical, is the translation of the scientific data into cost-effective full-scale cleanup processes. Augmentation with proven contaminant-degrading microorganisms leads to a higher degree of confidence in remediation success, and for certain sites has been shown to save time and money over alternative approaches.

  10. LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.

    1980-01-01

    The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.

  11. Sensory Augmentation for the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Kärcher, Silke M.; Fenzlaff, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniela; Nagel, Saskia K.; König, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Common navigational aids used by blind travelers during large-scale navigation divert attention away from important cues of the immediate environment (i.e., approaching vehicles). Sensory augmentation devices, relying on principles similar to those at work in sensory substitution, can potentially bypass the bottleneck of attention through sub-cognitive implementation of a set of rules coupling motor actions with sensory stimulation. We provide a late blind subject with a vibrotactile belt that continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. The present experimental approach demonstrates the positive potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of handicapped people. PMID:22403535

  12. Augmented proper orthogonal decompositional for problems with moving discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, T.; Fontenot, R.; Cizmas, P.; O'Brien, T.; Breault, R.

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed to augment the proper orthogonaldecomposition basis functionswith discontinuitymodes to better capture moving discontinuities in reduced-order models. Moving discontinuities can be shocks in unsteady gas flows or bubbles in multiphase flow. The method is shown to work for a simple test problem using the first-order wave equation. A method for detecting discontinuities numerically is developed using mathematical morphology. This method is shown to properly identify the edges of bubbles in multiphase flow.

  13. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  14. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  15. Status report of RMS active damping augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Mike; Demeo, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    A status report of Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation is presented. Topics covered include: active damping augmentation; benefits of RMS ADA; simulated payload definition; sensor and actuator definition; ADA control law design; Shuttle Engineering Simulator (SES) real-time simulation; and astronaut evaluation.

  16. From Augmentation Media to Meme Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Yuzuru

    Computers as meta media are now evolving from augmentation media vehicles to meme media vehicles. While an augmentation media system provides a seamlessly integrated environment of various tools and documents, meme media system provides further functions to edit and distribute tools and documents. Documents and tools on meme media can easily…

  17. Enhancing Education through Mobile Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author has discussed about the Mobile Augmented Reality and enhancing education through it. The aim of the present study was to give some general information about mobile augmented reality which helps to boost education. Purpose of the current study reveals the mobile networks which are used in the institution campus as well…

  18. Embedding Augmentative Communication within Early Childhood Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia; Banajee, Meher; Stricklin, Sarintha Buras

    2000-01-01

    This article first describes various augmentative communication systems including sign language, picture symbols, and voice output communication devices. It then explains ways to embed augmentative communication within four types of early childhood classroom activities: (1) special or planned activities, (2) meal time, (3) circle time, and (4)…

  19. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  20. Nonsteady-Flow Thrust Augmenting Ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foa, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Ejector augmenters in which the transfer of mechanical energy from the primary to the secondary flow takes place through the work of interface pressure forces are investigated. Nonsteady flow processes are analyzed from the standpoint of energy transfer efficiency and a comparison of a rotary jet augmenter to an ejector is presented.

  1. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  2. Irradiated homologous costal cartilage for augmentation rhinoplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Lefkovits, G. )

    1990-10-01

    Although the ideal reconstructive material for augmentation rhinoplasty continues to challenge plastic surgeons, there exists no report in the literature that confines the use of irradiated homologous costal cartilage, first reported by Dingman and Grabb in 1961, to dorsal nasal augmentation. The purpose of this paper is to present a retrospective analysis of the author's experience using irradiated homologous costal cartilage in augmentation rhinoplasty. Twenty-seven dorsal nasal augmentations were performed in 24 patients between 16 and 49 years of age with a follow-up ranging from 1 to 27 months. Good-to-excellent results were achieved in 83.3% (20 of 24). Poor results requiring revision were found in 16.7% (4 of 24). Complication rates included 7.4% infection (2 of 27) and 14.8% warping (4 of 27). The resorption rate was zero. These results compare favorably with other forms of nasal augmentation. Advantages and disadvantages of irradiated homologous costal cartilage are discussed.

  3. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETL’s Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  4. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 10; Air Augmented Rocket Afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhangi, Shahram; Trent, Donnie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A study was directed towards assessing viability and effectiveness of an air augmented ejector/rocket. Successful thrust augmentation could potentially reduce a multi-stage vehicle to a single stage-to-orbit vehicle (SSTO) and, thereby, eliminate the associated ground support facility infrastructure and ground processing required by the eliminated stage. The results of this preliminary study indicate that an air augmented ejector/rocket propulsion system is viable. However, uncertainties resulting from simplified approach and assumptions must be resolved by further investigations.

  5. Torsional augmentation for the treatment of lateropulsion and torticollis in partial ocular tilt reaction

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Michael C.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We describe a new surgical treatment for lateropulsion and torticollis arising from an ocular tilt reaction. Methods Visual sensory parameters and postural abnormalities were retrospectively reviewed in a patient with a partial ocular tilt reaction who was treated with horizontal transposition of the vertical rectus muscles to surgically augment preexisting binocular torsion. Results Torsional augmentation eliminated the sensation of lateropulsion and produced almost complete resolution of her torticollis and associated body tilt. Conclusions Binocular torsional augmentation can be used to reduce both lateropulsion and torticollis in the setting of an ocular tilt reaction. PMID:22525169

  6. Impact of the augmentation time ratio on direct measurement of central aortic pressure in the presence of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Nishizaki, Yuji; Yamazoe, Masahiro; Komatsu, Ikki; Asano, Taku; Mitsuhashi, Hirotsugu; Nishi, Yutaro; Niwa, Koichiro; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    The augmentation index measured by using the central artery pressure is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, no study has examined the role of the time duration of the central artery pressure on CAD. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between the central blood pressure time duration and the presence of CAD. All patients without a history of revascularization or prior myocardial infarction who underwent an elective coronary angiography at one of the two hospitals from January to September 2013 were analyzed. CAD was defined as a significant stenosis in one of the main coronary branches. The augmentation time ratio was defined as the ratio of the reflection to peak systolic time T2T1 duration divided by the peak systolic time to aortic notch T3T2 duration. We analyzed the relationship between the central pressure waveform (not only augmentation pressure) and the presence of CAD. A total of 146 (57.3%) out of 255 patients had a significant CAD. T2T1 duration was longer in the CAD group than the no CAD group, and the T3T2 duration was shorter in the CAD group than the no CAD group. The augmentation time ratio (T2T1/T3T2) was significantly larger in the CAD group than in the no CAD group. The augmentation index and augmentation pressure were lower in the no CAD group, but this difference was not statistically significant. The augmentation time ratio was an independent factor related to no CAD, especially in patients with a high augmentation index (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.63). The augmentation time ratio was an independent factor related to the presence of CAD.

  7. Role of physical countermaneuvers in the management of orthostatic hypotension: efficacy and biofeedback augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvette, C. M.; McPhee, B. R.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Low, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of various physical countermaneuvers in reducing orthostatic hypotension and its associated symptoms and to assess the efficacy of biofeedback training in enhancing the effectiveness of physical countermaneuvers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In nine study subjects with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, four training sessions on physical countermaneuvers were performed after tilt-up, three with visual feedback on the effect of physical countermaneuvers on blood pressure and other cardiovascular variables. Blood pressure change and orthostatic symptoms during tilt-up were determined, as were the changes in total peripheral resistance, stroke index, and heart rate. RESULTS: The five female and four male patients had a mean age of 53 years and a mean duration of symptoms of 4.2 years. On an orthostatic symptom scale of 0 to 10, these patients had a mean symptom score of 7.3. The increment in systolic blood pressure was better for some maneuvers (such as leg crossing and a combination) than others (such as neck flexion and abdominal contraction). Three patterns of responses to biofeedback were found. Simple maneuvers such as squatting did not improve with training; visual feedback was needed for maneuvers such as thigh contraction, and performance declined without biofeedback; the third pattern, seen in maneuvers such as leg crossing, showed continued improvement with training, even without biofeedback. A survey at 3 to 4 months after training revealed continued use of physical maneuvers (3.8 +/- 3.1 per day), increased standing time with each episode of presyncopal symptoms (8.3 +/- 5.8 minutes), and continued global symptomatic improvement. Total peripheral resistance, but not heart rate or stroke index, showed significant regression with blood pressure improvement. CONCLUSION: Physical countermaneuvers are efficacious in reducing orthostatic hypotension, can be augmented by use of biofeedback, and may significantly improve the

  8. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  9. Augmented reality: past, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inzerillo, Laura

    2013-03-01

    A great opportunity has permitted to carry out a cultural, historical, architectural and social research with great impact factor on the international cultural interest. We are talking about the realization of a museum whose the main theme is the visit and the discovery of a monument of great prestige: the monumental building the "Steri" in Palermo. The museum is divided into sub themes including the one above all, that has aroused the international interest so much that it has been presented the instance to include the museum in the cultural heritage of UNESCO. It is the realization of a museum path that regards the cells of the Inquisition, which are located just inside of some buildings of the monumental building. The project, as a whole, is faced, in a total view, between the various competences implicated: historic, chemic, architectonic, topographic, drawing, representation, virtual communication, informatics. The birth of the museum will be a sum of the results of all these disciplines involved. Methodology, implementation, fruition, virtual museum, goals, 2D graphic restitution, effects on the cultural heritage and landscape environmental, augmented reality, Surveying 2D and 3D, hi-touch screen, Photogrammetric survey, Photographic survey, representation, drawing 3D and more than this has been dealt with this research.

  10. Aging augments IL-17 T-cell alloimmune responses.

    PubMed

    Tesar, B M; Du, W; Shirali, A C; Walker, W E; Shen, H; Goldstein, D R

    2009-01-01

    As increasing numbers of elderly patients require solid organ transplantation, the need to better understand how aging modifies alloimmune responses increases. Here, we examined whether aged mice exhibit augmented, donor-specific memory responses prior to transplantation. We found that elevated donor-specific IL-17, but not IFN-gamma, responses were observed in aged mice compared to young mice prior to transplantation. Further characterization of the heightened IL-17 alloimmune response with aging demonstrated that memory CD4(+) T cells were required. Reduced IL-2 alloimmune responses with age contributed to the elevated IL-17 phenotype in vitro, and treatment with an anti-IL-17 antibody delayed the onset of acute allograft rejection. In conclusion, aging leads to augmented, donor-specific IL-17 immune responses that are important for the timing of acute allograft rejection in aged recipients. IL-17 targeting therapies may be useful for averting transplant rejection responses in older transplant recipients.

  11. Augmented reality-assisted skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Cabrilo, I; Sarrafzadeh, A; Bijlenga, P; Landis, B N; Schaller, K

    2014-12-01

    Neuronavigation is widely considered as a valuable tool during skull base surgery. Advances in neuronavigation technology, with the integration of augmented reality, present advantages over traditional point-based neuronavigation. However, this development has not yet made its way into routine surgical practice, possibly due to a lack of acquaintance with these systems. In this report, we illustrate the usefulness and easy application of augmented reality-based neuronavigation through a case example of a patient with a clivus chordoma. We also demonstrate how augmented reality can help throughout all phases of a skull base procedure, from the verification of neuronavigation accuracy to intraoperative image-guidance.

  12. Human responses to augmented virtual scaffolding models.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter; Dotson, Brian; Ammons, Douglas; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Chiou, Sharon

    2005-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of adding real planks, in virtual scaffolding models of elevation, on human performance in a surround-screen virtual reality (SSVR) system. Twenty-four construction workers and 24 inexperienced controls performed walking tasks on real and virtual planks at three virtual heights (0, 6 m, 12 m) and two scaffolding-platform-width conditions (30, 60 cm). Gait patterns, walking instability measurements and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. The results showed differences in human responses to real vs. virtual planks in walking patterns, instability score and heart-rate inter-beat intervals; it appeared that adding real planks in the SSVR virtual scaffolding model enhanced the quality of SSVR as a human - environment interface research tool. In addition, there were significant differences in performance between construction workers and the control group. The inexperienced participants were more unstable as compared to construction workers. Both groups increased their stride length with repetitions of the task, indicating a possibly confidence- or habit-related learning effect. The practical implications of this study are in the adoption of augmented virtual models of elevated construction environments for injury prevention research, and the development of programme for balance-control training to reduce the risk of falls at elevation before workers enter a construction job. PMID:16253942

  13. Augmentation of the IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Chi-Chao

    1996-01-01

    The IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas and the first addendum were published by Wu et al. in printed and machine readable versions. This atlas and addendum contain UV spectra of 315 stars with spectral types ranging from O3 to M5 and many spectral type-luminosity class combinations. There were three criteria for selecting these stars: (1) they were not spectroscopic binaries or variables with significant changes in magnitude or color, (2) they must have well-determined spectral types (many are MK standards), and (3) the stars should not be heavily reddened. Further augmentation of the atlas is desirable to provide a more complete coverage of the spectral type-luminosity class combinations and more than one star per combination. The extra spectral type-luminosity class combinations reduce the need for interpolation. The extra stars within a given combination guard against variability and peculiarity, and allow for a finite range of temperature, metallicity and gravity. The previous atlas and addendum presented data that were obtained through the eleventh episode under IUE programs with C.-C. Wu and D. Burstein as principal investigators. In this second addendum, we present the spectra obtained by Wu's programs during the twelfth through seventeenth episodes: SALCW, SAMCW, SANCW, SAOCW, SAPCW and SAQCW. During the period between July 1989 and September 1994, Wu observed 183 stars under these programs. Most of these observations are high quality trails or pseudo-trails (multiple exposures in the large aperture).

  14. Human responses to augmented virtual scaffolding models.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Simeonov, Peter; Dotson, Brian; Ammons, Douglas; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Chiou, Sharon

    2005-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of adding real planks, in virtual scaffolding models of elevation, on human performance in a surround-screen virtual reality (SSVR) system. Twenty-four construction workers and 24 inexperienced controls performed walking tasks on real and virtual planks at three virtual heights (0, 6 m, 12 m) and two scaffolding-platform-width conditions (30, 60 cm). Gait patterns, walking instability measurements and cardiovascular reactivity were assessed. The results showed differences in human responses to real vs. virtual planks in walking patterns, instability score and heart-rate inter-beat intervals; it appeared that adding real planks in the SSVR virtual scaffolding model enhanced the quality of SSVR as a human - environment interface research tool. In addition, there were significant differences in performance between construction workers and the control group. The inexperienced participants were more unstable as compared to construction workers. Both groups increased their stride length with repetitions of the task, indicating a possibly confidence- or habit-related learning effect. The practical implications of this study are in the adoption of augmented virtual models of elevated construction environments for injury prevention research, and the development of programme for balance-control training to reduce the risk of falls at elevation before workers enter a construction job.

  15. Thrust Augmentation with Mixer/Ejector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, Walter M., Jr.; Reynolds, Gary; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Older commercial aircraft often exceed FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sideline noise regulations. The major problem is the jet noise associated with the high exhaust velocities of the low bypass ratio engines on such aircraft. Mixer/ejector exhaust systems can provide a simple means of reducing the jet noise on these aircraft by mixing cool ambient air with the high velocity engine gases before they are exhausted to ambient. This paper presents new information on thrust performance predictions, and thrust augmentation capabilities of mixer/ejectors. Results are presented from the recent development program of the patented Alternating Lobe Mixer Ejector Concept (ALMEC) suppressor system for the Gulfstream GII, GIIB and GIII aircraft. Mixer/ejector performance procedures are presented which include classical control volume analyses, compound compressible flow theory, lobed nozzle loss correlations and state of the art computational fluid dynamic predictions. The mixer/ejector thrust predictions are compared to subscale wind tunnel test model data and actual aircraft flight test measurements. The results demonstrate that a properly designed mixer/ejector noise suppressor can increase effective engine bypass ratio and generate large thrust gains at takeoff conditions with little or no thrust loss at cruise conditions. The cruise performance obtained for such noise suppressor systems is shown to be a strong function of installation effects on the aircraft.

  16. Thermal Augmentation of Vancomycin Against Staphylococcal Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Rachael A; Sharma, Prannda; Pavlovsky, Leonid; Stewart, Elizabeth J; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G

    2015-08-01

    Given the increasing evidence of safe application of elevated temperature in other clinical contexts, we consider the potential for supplemental hyperthermia to augment the effects of vancomycin against staphylococci, a major source of postoperative and posttraumatic sepsis. Laboratory reference strains and libraries of clinical blood isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, both as planktonic cells and as established biofilms, were assessed for thermosensitivity and increased susceptibility to vancomycin in the setting of thermal treatment. In addition to viability measures, patterns of stress gene expression were assessed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and structural changes were measured using quantitative transmission electron microscopy. Laboratory strains of both species had reduced growth and biofilm viability at 45°C, a temperature commonly used in other domains such as adjuvant treatments of malignancy. Blood isolates of S. epidermidis were consistent in this regard as well, but significant between-isolate variability in thermosensitivity was seen in blood isolates of S. aureus. Expression profiling and ultrastructural measurements confirmed that elevated temperature was a substantial stressor with or without vancomycin treatment. Our findings suggest that temperature elevations shown to be tolerated in humans in other settings hold the potential to be used as an adjuvant to antibiotic therapy against staphylococcal biofilms. PMID:25784524

  17. The effect of the augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine on EEG indices of visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-03-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention but the exact role remains unclear. In visuospatial attention, bias refers to neuronal signals that modulate the sensitivity of sensory cortex, while disengagement refers to the decoupling of attention making reorienting possible. In the current study we investigated the effect of facilitating cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine (Nicorette Freshmint 2mg, polacrilex chewing gum) on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of bias and disengagement. Sixteen non-smoking participants performed in a Visual Spatial Cueing (VSC) task while EEG was recorded. A randomized, single-blind, crossover design was implemented. Based on the scarce literature, it was expected that nicotine would specifically augment disengagement related processing, especially manifest as an increase of the modulation of the Late Positive Deflection (LPD) by validity of cueing. No effect was expected on bias related components (cue-locked: EDAN, LDAP; target-locked: P1 and N1 modulations). Results show weak indications for a reduction of the reaction time validity effect by nicotine, but only for half of the sample in which the validity effect on the pretest was largest. Nicotine reduced the result of bias as indexed by a reduced P1 modulation by validity, especially in subjects with strong peripheral responses to nicotine. Nicotine did not affect ERP manifestations of the directing of bias (EDAN, LDAP) or disengagement (LPD).

  18. The effect of the augmentation of cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine on EEG indices of visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-03-01

    The cholinergic system has been implicated in visuospatial attention but the exact role remains unclear. In visuospatial attention, bias refers to neuronal signals that modulate the sensitivity of sensory cortex, while disengagement refers to the decoupling of attention making reorienting possible. In the current study we investigated the effect of facilitating cholinergic neurotransmission by nicotine (Nicorette Freshmint 2mg, polacrilex chewing gum) on behavioral and electrophysiological indices of bias and disengagement. Sixteen non-smoking participants performed in a Visual Spatial Cueing (VSC) task while EEG was recorded. A randomized, single-blind, crossover design was implemented. Based on the scarce literature, it was expected that nicotine would specifically augment disengagement related processing, especially manifest as an increase of the modulation of the Late Positive Deflection (LPD) by validity of cueing. No effect was expected on bias related components (cue-locked: EDAN, LDAP; target-locked: P1 and N1 modulations). Results show weak indications for a reduction of the reaction time validity effect by nicotine, but only for half of the sample in which the validity effect on the pretest was largest. Nicotine reduced the result of bias as indexed by a reduced P1 modulation by validity, especially in subjects with strong peripheral responses to nicotine. Nicotine did not affect ERP manifestations of the directing of bias (EDAN, LDAP) or disengagement (LPD). PMID:24316088

  19. Developments in Indexing Picture Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of electronic image processing focuses on the need for indexing to ensure adequate retrieval. Highlights include icons, i.e., reduced pictorial surrogates; file staging; indexing languages, including examples of thesauri; and pictorial languages, including a HyperCard system. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  20. Improvement of trout streams in Wisconsin by augmenting low flows with ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novitzki, R.P.

    1973-01-01

    Approximately 2 cubic feet per second of ground water were introduced into the Little Plover River in 1968 when natural streamflow ranged from 3 to 4 cubic feet per second. These augmentation flows were retained undiminished through the 2-mile reach of stream monitored. Maximum stream temperatures were reduced as much as 5?F (3?C) at the augmentation site during the test period, although changes became insignificant more than 1 mile downstream. Maximum temperatures might be reduced as much as 10?F (6?C) during critical periods, based on estimates using a stream temperature model developed as part of the study. During critical periods significant temperature improvement may extend 2 miles or more downstream. Changes in minimum DO (dissolved oxygen) levels were slight, primarily because of the high natural DO levels occurring during the test period. Criteria for considering other streams for flow augmentation are developed on the basis of the observed hydrologic responses in the Little Plover River. Augmentation flows of nearly 2? cubic feet per second of ground water were introduced into the headwater reach of Black Earth Creek from the end of June through mid-October 1969. Streamflow ranged from 1 to 2 cubic feet per second at the augmentation site, and the average flow at the gaging station at Black Earth, approximately 8 miles downstream, ranged from 25 to 50 cubic feet per second. Augmentation flows were retained through the 8-mile reach of stream. Temperature of the augmentation flow as it entered the stream ranged from 60? to 70?F (about 16? to 21?C) during the test period, and minimum stream temperatures were raised 5?F (3?C) or more at the augmentation site, with changes extending from 2 to 3 miles downstream. Augmentation during critical periods could maintain stream temperatures between 40? and 70?F (4? and 21?C) through most of the study reach. DO levels were increased by as much as 2 milligrams per liter or more below the augmentation site, although the

  1. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  2. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  3. Augmented Reality Simulations on Handheld Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Kurt; Klopfer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in handheld computing, particularly its portability, social interactivity, context sensitivity, connectivity, and individuality, open new opportunities for immersive learning environments. This article articulates the pedagogical potential of augmented reality simulations in environmental engineering education by immersing students in…

  4. Improving Robotic Operator Performance Using Augmented Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles K.; Pace, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) is a two-armed robot that functions as an extension to the end effector of the Space Station Robotics Manipulator System (SSRMS), currently in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Crew training for the SPDM is accomplished using a robotic hardware simulator, which performs most of SPDM functions under normal static Earth gravitational forces. Both the simulator and SPDM are controlled from a standard robotic workstation using a laptop for the user interface and three monitors for camera views. Most operations anticipated for the SPDM involve the manipulation, insertion, and removal of any of several types of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU), modules which control various ISS functions. Alignment tolerances for insertion of the ORU into its receptacle are 0.25 inch and 0.5 degree from nominal values. The pre-insertion alignment task must be performed within these tolerances by using available video camera views of the intrinsic features of the ORU and receptacle, without special registration markings. Since optimum camera views may not be available, and dynamic orbital lighting conditions may limit periods of viewing, a successful ORU insertion operation may require an extended period of time. This study explored the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist SPDM operations. Geometric graphical symbols were overlaid on one of the workstation monitors to afford cues to assist the operator in attaining adequate pre-insertion ORU alignment. Twelve skilled subjects performed eight ORU insertion tasks using the simulator with and without the AR symbols in a repeated measures experimental design. Results indicated that using the AR symbols reduced pre-insertion alignment error for all subjects and reduced the time to complete pre-insertion alignment for most subjects.

  5. Dermal fillers for facial soft tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Dastoor, Sarosh F; Misch, Carl E; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, patients are demanding not only enhancement to their dental (micro) esthetics, but also their overall facial (macro) esthetics. Soft tissue augmentation via dermal filling agents may be used to correct facial defects such as wrinkles caused by age, gravity, and trauma; thin lips; asymmetrical facial appearances; buccal fold depressions; and others. This article will review the pathogenesis of facial wrinkles, history, techniques, materials, complications, and clinical controversies regarding dermal fillers for soft tissue augmentation.

  6. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...

  7. The HART I augmented electric gun facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fikse, D.A.; Ciesar, J.A.; Wehrli, H.A.; Rimersma, H.; Docherty, E.F.; Pipich, C.W. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an augmented electric gun system that has been commissioned. This system, called HART I (Hypervelocity Augmented Railgun Test), is built around a double augmented rail arrangement with a 1.27-cm square bore. It is powered by the SUVAC II 5.6-MJ distributed capacitor power supply. This arrangement allows operation in a simple, series augmented, or transaugmented gun system configuration. The objective of this facility is to perform materials research augmentation studies, and armature development in the 10-km/s regime. Armature masses of 2 to 4 g will be accelerated in a 4-m long barrel. Baseline bore materials will begin with conventional G9/GlidCop systems and then move into pyrolytic boron nitride/refractory materials. Hybrids, plasma, and ablation stabilized armature systems are planned. The gun system is instrumented with plasma and rail B-dot probes for inbore velocity measurements. In addition, breech and muzzle voltages, currents, and external velocities are measured. The HART I system is currently performing hypervelocity experiments to verify the augmentation models.

  8. Hydroxyapatite composite resin cement augmentation of pedicle screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Alexander W L; Gillies, R Mark; Svehla, Martin J; Saito, Masanobu; Walsh, William R

    2003-01-01

    Pedicle screw stability is poor in osteopenic vertebrae attributable, in part, to low screw-bone interface strength. The current authors examined cement augmentation using a low curing temperature hydroxyapatite and bis-phenol-A glycidol methacrylate-based composite resin. This cement may stiffen the screw-bone interface and reduce the harmful effects associated with polymethylmethacrylate regarding temperature and toxic monomer. Thirty-five lumbar vertebrae from human cadavers were instrumented with pedicle screws, with one pedicle previously injected with cement and the other as the control. Caudocephalad toggling of +/- 1 mm for 1600 cycles was applied to the pedicle screws, and the resulting forces supported by the implant-bone interface were captured by a load cell. A curve was constructed from the peak caudal load for each cycle and three mechanical measures parameterized this curve: (1) initial load; (2) rate of load decay during the first 400 cycles; and (3) final load. The initial load increased by 16% as a result of cement augmentation, the final load increased by 65%, and the rate of load decay decreased by 59%. Cement augmentation of pedicle screws increased the stiffness and stability of the screw-bone interface. PMID:12579026

  9. The tree BVOC index.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760

  10. Nanostructures: a platform for brain repair and augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Vidu, Ruxandra; Rahman, Masoud; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Enachescu, Marius; Poteca, Teodor D.; Opris, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale structures have been at the core of research efforts dealing with integration of nanotechnology into novel electronic devices for the last decade. Because the size of nanomaterials is of the same order of magnitude as biomolecules, these materials are valuable tools for nanoscale manipulation in a broad range of neurobiological systems. For instance, the unique electrical and optical properties of nanowires, nanotubes, and nanocables with vertical orientation, assembled in nanoscale arrays, have been used in many device applications such as sensors that hold the potential to augment brain functions. However, the challenge in creating nanowires/nanotubes or nanocables array-based sensors lies in making individual electrical connections fitting both the features of the brain and of the nanostructures. This review discusses two of the most important applications of nanostructures in neuroscience. First, the current approaches to create nanowires and nanocable structures are reviewed to critically evaluate their potential for developing unique nanostructure based sensors to improve recording and device performance to reduce noise and the detrimental effect of the interface on the tissue. Second, the implementation of nanomaterials in neurobiological and medical applications will be considered from the brain augmentation perspective. Novel applications for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis, stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and autism will be considered. Because the blood brain barrier (BBB) has a defensive mechanism in preventing nanomaterials arrival to the brain, various strategies to help them to pass through the BBB will be discussed. Finally, the implementation of nanomaterials in neurobiological applications is addressed from the brain repair/augmentation perspective. These nanostructures at the interface between nanotechnology and neuroscience will play a pivotal role not only in

  11. Design and testing of a 0. 60 caliber, augmented railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.L.; Kitzmiller, J.R.; Ingram, M.W. . Center for Electromechanics)

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) is currently in the manufacturing phase of a 29-month program to build and test a laboratory based small caliber electromagnetic (EM) launcher and compulsator power supply. The goal of the EM launcher is to deliver a three shot projectile salvo at 10 Hz. The muzzle energy of each 32-g projectile is 64 kJ, which yields an exit velocity of 2,000 m/s. A full-scale, 0.60 caliber, 1.6 m prototype railgun has been built and is currently being tested at CEM-UT. This augmented railgun incorporates a low mass, high inductance gradient (1.25 {mu}H/m) design. High strength stainless-steel laminations support the primary and augmenting rail package in a compact and inherently stiff design. Rail erosion is minimized by the use of molybdenum for the primary rails. Copper is used for the end turns and augmenting conductors to ensure reliable bolted connections and to reduce the overall gun resistance. The laminations are insulated using epoxy adhesive and held in compression using an overwrapped composite preload tube. The entire gun weighs less than 100 kg and will be mounted to a recoil mechanism when fired from the compulsator power supply. This paper presents the design for the 0.60 caliber augmented, laminated, solid-armature railgun. Included is the discussion of the magnetic pressure distribution and heating on the molybdenum and copper conductors, and gun stiffness as predicted by finite-element analysis. The inductance gradient is calculated and correlated to experimental results. The materials selection, fabrication details, and insulation methods are also discussed. Finally, gun performance is presented through experimental data collected from testing solid armature projectiles.

  12. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  13. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  14. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Jan; Köller, Manfred; Godry, Holger; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22-64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders) were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4-15) months. With a mean healing index (HI) of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23). No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing.

  15. Augmented Reality for the Improvement of Remote Laboratories: An Augmented Remote Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andujar, J. M.; Mejias, A.; Marquez, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) provides huge opportunities for online teaching in science and engineering, as these disciplines place emphasis on practical training and unsuited to completely nonclassroom training. This paper proposes a new concept in virtual and remote laboratories: the augmented remote laboratory (ARL). ARL is being tested in the first…

  16. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  17. Frontopolar activity and connectivity support dynamic conscious augmentation of creative state.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Cohen, Michael S; Raab, Hillary A; Yedibalian, Christopher G; Gray, Jeremy R

    2015-03-01

    No ability is more valued in the modern innovation-fueled economy than thinking creatively on demand, and the "thinking cap" capacity to augment state creativity (i.e., to try and succeed at thinking more creatively) is of broad importance for education and a rich mental life. Although brain-based creativity research has focused on static individual differences in trait creativity, less is known about changes in creative state within an individual. How does the brain augment state creativity when creative thinking is required? Can augmented creative state be consciously engaged and disengaged dynamically across time? Using a novel "thin slice" creativity paradigm in 55 fMRI participants performing verb-generation, we successfully cued large, conscious, short-duration increases in state creativity, indexed quantitatively by a measure of semantic distance derived via latent semantic analysis. A region of left frontopolar cortex, previously associated with creative integration of semantic information, exhibited increased activity and functional connectivity to anterior cingulate gyrus and right frontopolar cortex during cued augmentation of state creativity. Individual differences in the extent of increased activity in this region predicted individual differences in the extent to which participants were able to successfully augment state creative performance after accounting for trait creativity and intelligence.

  18. Frontopolar activity and connectivity support dynamic conscious augmentation of creative state.

    PubMed

    Green, Adam E; Cohen, Michael S; Raab, Hillary A; Yedibalian, Christopher G; Gray, Jeremy R

    2015-03-01

    No ability is more valued in the modern innovation-fueled economy than thinking creatively on demand, and the "thinking cap" capacity to augment state creativity (i.e., to try and succeed at thinking more creatively) is of broad importance for education and a rich mental life. Although brain-based creativity research has focused on static individual differences in trait creativity, less is known about changes in creative state within an individual. How does the brain augment state creativity when creative thinking is required? Can augmented creative state be consciously engaged and disengaged dynamically across time? Using a novel "thin slice" creativity paradigm in 55 fMRI participants performing verb-generation, we successfully cued large, conscious, short-duration increases in state creativity, indexed quantitatively by a measure of semantic distance derived via latent semantic analysis. A region of left frontopolar cortex, previously associated with creative integration of semantic information, exhibited increased activity and functional connectivity to anterior cingulate gyrus and right frontopolar cortex during cued augmentation of state creativity. Individual differences in the extent of increased activity in this region predicted individual differences in the extent to which participants were able to successfully augment state creative performance after accounting for trait creativity and intelligence. PMID:25394198

  19. The transareolar incision for breast augmentation revisited.

    PubMed

    Kompatscher, Peter; Schuler, Christine; Beer, Gertrude M

    2004-01-01

    Of the various possible incisions for breast augmentation, the transareolar access has gained only limited popularity. The potential side effects of this incision are said to be altered nipple sensation, impaired lactation, an increased rate of infections with capsular fibrosis, well visible scar formation with hypopigmentation, and the need for an additional access in case a breast ptosis correction should prove necessary at a later date. The purpose of this retrospective study was to judge advantages and limitations of transareolar breast augmentation, and to verify whether the reluctant attitude toward this surgical approach is justified. A sample of 18 patients with a transareolar, retropectoral breast augmentation was selected for a retrospective evaluation. The suitability of the technique in general was examined together with early postoperative complications, sensory changes, and late complications on the basis of an evaluation system for cosmetic surgical results. The study showed that only women with an areolar diameter of 3.5 cm or more without pronounced breast ptosis were suitable for the transareolar access. No early infections were noted. The rate of capsular fibrosis was 11%. Two years after breast augmentation, 16 women (89%) judged their breast sensation to be normal, but objective assessment showed that mean pressure and vibration sensation were moderately compromised in all parts of the breast. The scars were of good quality, with very little hypopigmentation. With appropriate patient selection, respecting the advantages and limitations, the transareolar incision has its definite place among the different incisions for breast augmentation. PMID:15164231

  20. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  1. Orthobiologics in the augmentation of osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Watson, J Tracy; Nicolaou, Daemeon A

    2015-02-01

    Many orthobiologic adjuvants are available and widely utilized for general skeletal restoration. Their use for the specific task of osteoporotic fracture augmentation is less well recognized. Common conductive materials are reviewed for their value in this patient population including the large group of allograft adjuvants categorically known as the demineralized bone matrices (DBMs). Another large group of alloplastic materials is also examined-the calcium phosphate and sulfate ceramics. Both of these materials, when used for the proper indications, demonstrate efficacy for these patients. The inductive properties of bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and platelet concentrates show no clear advantages for this group of patients. Systemic agents including bisphosphonates, receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL) inhibitors, and parathyroid hormone augmentation all demonstrate positive effects with this fracture cohort. Newer modalities, such as trace ion bioceramic augmentation, are also reviewed for their positive effects on osteoporotic fracture healing. PMID:25431160

  2. Augmented repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Zell, R A; Santoro, V M

    2000-06-01

    Twenty-five patients who had an acute Achilles tendon rupture were managed with an augmented repair using the gastrocnemius-soleus fascia. All patients healed their repair and there were no re-ruptures. There was one infection. Augmented repair allowed early functional recovery as evidenced by full ankle motion by four to eight weeks, full unassisted weight bearing by three weeks, cessation of braces by four weeks, and return to work by one to six weeks post-operatively. Augmentation adds a sufficient amount of collagen to allow early range of motion and weight bearing without re-rupture. Disadvantages included a long incision, soft tissue prominence, one infection, and sural nerve injury.

  3. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter; Wagner, Niels; Asal, Korhan; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Thomsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss may result from excessive release of glutamate, nitrogen oxide and reactive oxygen species. The effects of these factors on the inner ear may potentially be prevented or reduced by erythropoietin (EPO), as indicated by previously demonstrated neuro-protective effects of EPO upon damage to the central nervous system and the retina. This paper reports three separate trials, conducted to investigate the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss is prevented or reduced by erythropoietin. The trials employed three different modes of drug application, different administration time windows and different rodent species. In trial 1, guinea pigs were exposed to 110dB SPL, 4-20kHz wide band noise (WBN) for 8h. EPO was administered to the round window membrane 24h after noise exposure, either sustained by pump for a week or by single dose middle ear instillation. In trial 2, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8h. EPO was administered by single dose middle ear instillation 1 or 14h after noise exposure. In trial 3, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8 or 3x8h. EPO was injected intraperitoneally 1h before noise exposure. Oto-acoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses (at 16kHz) were recorded before and after noise exposure in all trials. The noise exposure induced a hearing loss in all animals. In trial 1, no recovery and no improvement of hearing occurred in any treatment group. In trial 2 and 3, a partial hearing recovery was seen. However, the hearing loss of the EPO treated animals was significantly worse than controls in trial 2. In trial 3, the hearing of the EPO treated animals exposed for 3x8h was significantly worse than controls. Thus, surprisingly, the results from 2 of the 3 present trials indicate that erythropoietin may in fact augment noise-induced hearing loss. This is contradictory to the beneficial effect of EPO reported by the vast majority of studies on stressed neural tissues. EPO administration

  4. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter; Wagner, Niels; Asal, Korhan; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Thomsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss may result from excessive release of glutamate, nitrogen oxide and reactive oxygen species. The effects of these factors on the inner ear may potentially be prevented or reduced by erythropoietin (EPO), as indicated by previously demonstrated neuro-protective effects of EPO upon damage to the central nervous system and the retina. This paper reports three separate trials, conducted to investigate the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss is prevented or reduced by erythropoietin. The trials employed three different modes of drug application, different administration time windows and different rodent species. In trial 1, guinea pigs were exposed to 110dB SPL, 4-20kHz wide band noise (WBN) for 8h. EPO was administered to the round window membrane 24h after noise exposure, either sustained by pump for a week or by single dose middle ear instillation. In trial 2, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8h. EPO was administered by single dose middle ear instillation 1 or 14h after noise exposure. In trial 3, rats were exposed to 105dB SPL, 4-20kHz WBN for 8 or 3x8h. EPO was injected intraperitoneally 1h before noise exposure. Oto-acoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses (at 16kHz) were recorded before and after noise exposure in all trials. The noise exposure induced a hearing loss in all animals. In trial 1, no recovery and no improvement of hearing occurred in any treatment group. In trial 2 and 3, a partial hearing recovery was seen. However, the hearing loss of the EPO treated animals was significantly worse than controls in trial 2. In trial 3, the hearing of the EPO treated animals exposed for 3x8h was significantly worse than controls. Thus, surprisingly, the results from 2 of the 3 present trials indicate that erythropoietin may in fact augment noise-induced hearing loss. This is contradictory to the beneficial effect of EPO reported by the vast majority of studies on stressed neural tissues. EPO administration

  5. Flap-augmented shrouds for aerogenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seginer, A.

    1976-01-01

    Axisymmetrical shrouds for windmills are augmented by ring-shaped 'flaps' and their performance is studied experimentally. The concept of the shroud as an annular 'wing' is justified, leading to the conclusion that high-lift techniques should be used in shroud design, and that high-lift devices, such as flaps, would increase the power output of the windmill. It is shown experimentally that the ideal power output of a flap-augmented shrouded turbine can be more than 4 times the power of unshrouded turbines of the same diameter.

  6. Minimal inframammary incision for breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Nabil; Tawilé, Caroline; Brousseau, Valérie J

    2008-01-01

    The inframammary approach in breast augmentation, still the most popular technique among plastic surgeons, has always been hampered by the undesirable appearance of its scar. The present paper describes a modified approach to inframammary augmentation with saline-filled prostheses. This approach uses a very short incision, thus resulting in a much less noticeable scar. The surgical technique is easy to learn, simple to execute, does not necessitate any special equipment and gives consistent results. Decreasing the scar length to an absolute minimum ensures higher patient and surgeon satisfaction. PMID:19554159

  7. Polar Lunar Regions: Exploiting Natural and Augmented Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney; Brannon, David P.; Underwood, Lauren; Russell, Kristen J.

    2007-01-01

    In polar regions of the Moon, some areas within craters are permanently shadowed from solar illumination and can reach temperatures of 100 K or less. These regions could serve as cold traps, capturing ice and other volatile compounds. These potential ice stores have many applications for lunar exploration. Within double-shaded craters, even colder regions exist, with temperatures never exceeding 50 K in many cases. Observed temperatures suggest that these regions could enable equivalent liquid nitrogen cryogenic functions. These permanently shaded polar craters also offer unprecedented high-vacuum cryogenic environments, which in their current state could support cryogenic applications. Besides ice stores, the unique conditions at the lunar poles harbor an environment that provides an opportunity to reduce the power, weight, and total mass that needs to be carried from the Earth to the Moon for lunar exploration and research. Reducing the heat flux of geothermal, black body radiation can have significant impacts on the achievable temperature. With a few manmade augmentations, permanently shaded craters located near the lunar poles achieve temperatures even lower than those that naturally exist. Our analysis reveals that lightweight thermal shielding within shaded craters could create an environment several Kelvin above absolute zero. The temperature ranges of both naturally shaded and thermally augmented craters could enable the long-term storage of most gases, low-temperature superconductors for large magnetic fields, devices and advanced high-speed computing instruments. Augmenting thermal conditions in these craters could then be used as a basis for the development of an advanced thermal management architecture that would support a wide variety of cryogenically based applications. Lunar exploration and habitation capabilities would significantly benefit if permanently shaded craters, augmented with thermal shielding, were used to facilitate the operation of near

  8. Partial sleep in the context of augmentation of brain function

    PubMed Central

    Pigarev, Ivan N.; Pigareva, Marina L.

    2014-01-01

    Inability to solve complex problems or errors in decision making is often attributed to poor brain processing, and raises the issue of brain augmentation. Investigation of neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex in the sleep-wake cycle offers insights into the mechanisms underlying the reduction in mental abilities for complex problem solving. Some cortical areas may transit into a sleep state while an organism is still awake. Such local sleep would reduce behavioral ability in the tasks for which the sleeping areas are crucial. The studies of this phenomenon have indicated that local sleep develops in high order cortical areas. This is why complex problem solving is mostly affected by local sleep, and prevention of local sleep might be a potential way of augmentation of brain function. For this approach to brain augmentation not to entail negative consequences for the organism, it is necessary to understand the functional role of sleep. Our studies have given an unexpected answer to this question. It was shown that cortical areas that process signals from extero- and proprioreceptors during wakefulness, switch to the processing of interoceptive information during sleep. It became clear that during sleep all “computational power” of the brain is directed to the restoration of the vital functions of internal organs. These results explain the logic behind the initiation of total and local sleep. Indeed, a mismatch between the current parameters of any visceral system and the genetically determined normal range would provide the feeling of tiredness, or sleep pressure. If an environmental situation allows falling asleep, the organism would transit to a normal total sleep in all cortical areas. However, if it is impossible to go to sleep immediately, partial sleep may develop in some cortical areas in the still behaviorally awake organism. This local sleep may reduce both the “intellectual power” and the restorative function of sleep for visceral organs. PMID

  9. Intraoperative monitoring of torsion to prevent vertical deviations during augmented vertical rectus transposition surgery

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jonathan M.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Total transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscle laterally, with augmentation sutures, may be complicated by induction of an undesirable vertical deviation. Induced vertical misalignment may be associated with changes in torsion. We have developed a simple method to monitor intraoperative torsion that may reduce the incidence of vertical deviations. Methods We reviewed consecutive cases of total abducens palsy or esotropic Duane syndrome treated with augmented lateral transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles, where the 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock intraoperative positions were initially marked with a dot at the limbus using a surgical pen. The location of the marks was monitored during tying of the augmentation sutures; changes in torsion were monitored intraoperatively. Results Records of 9 cases of augmented vertical rectus transposition were reviewed. Based on intraoperative assessment of torsion by observing the position of the preplaced limbal dots, the inferior rectus augmentation suture was tied less tightly than the superior rectus suture, leaving a gap of 1–3 mm between the inferior and lateral rectus muscles in 8 of 9 cases. The augmentation suture was totally removed in 1 case. Following these intraoperative adjustments, there was no induced intraoperative torsion, whereas further tightening of the inferior suture induced extorsion. Six weeks postoperatively, 8 of 9 patients did not experience a symptomatic vertical deviation. Conclusions When performing augmented transposition procedures, intraoperative monitoring of torsion may reduce the incidence of inadvertent vertical deviations and torsion. This technique may also be useful in other cases where correction or avoidance of torsion is needed. PMID:22525168

  10. Human-in-the-loop evaluation of RMS Active Damping Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demeo, Martha E.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Scott, Michael A.; Lepanto, Janet A.; Bains, Elizabeth M.; Jensen, Mary C.

    1993-01-01

    Active Damping Augmentation is the insertion of Controls-Structures Integration Technology to benefit the on-orbit performance of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. The goal is to reduce the vibration decay time of the Remote Manipulator System following normal payload maneuvers and operations. Simulation of Active Damping Augmentation was conducted in the realtime human-in-the-loop Systems Engineering Simulator at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The objective of this study was to obtain a qualitative measure of operational performance improvement from astronaut operators and to obtain supporting quantitative performance data. Sensing of vibratory motions was simulated using a three-axis accelerometer mounted at the end of the lower boom of the Remote Manipulator System. The sensed motions were used in a feedback control law to generate commands to the joint servo mechanisms which reduced the unwanted oscillations. Active damping of the Remote Manipulator System with an attached 3990 lb. payload was successfully demonstrated. Six astronaut operators examined the performance of an Active Damping Augmentation control law following single-joint and coordinated six-joint translational and rotational maneuvers. Active Damping Augmentation disturbance rejection of Orbiter thruster firings was also evaluated. Significant reductions in the dynamic response of the 3990 lb. payload were observed. Astronaut operators recommended investigation of Active Damping Augmentation benefits to heavier payloads where oscillations are a bigger problem (e.g. Space Station Freedom assembly operators).

  11. Intelligent Augmented Reality Training for Motherboard Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerfield, Giles; Mitrovic, Antonija; Billinghurst, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the combination of Augmented Reality (AR) with Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to assist with training for manual assembly tasks. Our approach combines AR graphics with adaptive guidance from the ITS to provide a more effective learning experience. We have developed a modular software framework for intelligent AR training…

  12. An Asynchronous Augmentation to Traditional Course Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Marvin L.; Wolverton, Mimi

    Asynchronous augmentation facilitates distributed learning, which relies heavily on technology and self-learning. This paper reports the results of delivering a real estate principles course using an asynchronous course delivery format. It highlights one of many ways to enhance learning using technology, and it provides information concerning how…

  13. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper.

  14. CARE: Creating Augmented Reality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Farzana

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how Augmented Reality using mobile phones can enhance teaching and learning in education. It specifically examines its application in two cases, where it is identified that the agility of mobile devices and the ability to overlay context specific resources offers opportunities to enhance learning that would not otherwise exist.…

  15. Get Real: Augmented Reality for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca; DeBay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Kids love augmented reality (AR) simulations because they are like real-life video games. AR simulations allow students to learn content while collaborating face to face and interacting with a multimedia-enhanced version of the world around them. Although the technology may seem advanced, AR software makes it easy to develop content-based…

  16. Location-Based Learning through Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Te-Lien; Chanlin, Lih-Juan

    2014-01-01

    A context-aware and mixed-reality exploring tool cannot only effectively provide an information-rich environment to users, but also allows them to quickly utilize useful resources and enhance environment awareness. This study integrates Augmented Reality (AR) technology into smartphones to create a stimulating learning experience at a university…

  17. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  18. A Universal Logging Format for Augmentative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Gregory W.; Moulton, Bryan J.; Rinkus, Gerard; Higginbotham, D. Jeffery

    This report discusses how technical and technological advances in alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) have outstripped the ability to assess their impact on actual communication and argues that this is due in part to the lack of a consistent and reliable method to measure long-term communicative efficacy. The report proposes a…

  19. Introduction to augmented and virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudell, Thomas P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper introduces the field of augmented reality as a prolog to the body of papers in the remainder of this session. I describe the use of head-mounted display technologies to improve the efficiency and quality of human workers in their performance of engineering design, manufacturing, construction, testing, and maintenance activities. This technology is used to `augment' the visual field of the wearer with information necessary in the performance of the current task. The enabling technology is head-up (see-through) display head sets (HUDsets) combined with head position sensing, real world registration systems, and database access software. A primary difference between virtual reality (VR) and `augmented reality' (AR) is in the complexity of the perceived graphical objects. In AR systems, only simple wire frames, template outlines, designators, and text is displayed. An immediate result of this difference is that augmented reality systems can be driven by standard and inexpensive microprocessors. Many research issues must be addressed before this technology can be widely used, including tracking and registration, human 3D perception and reasoning, and human task performance issues.

  20. Antidepressant augmentation with anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-01

    Antidepressant augmentation strategies are commonly employed to treat depressed patients who do not respond to antidepressant monotherapy. Neuroinflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in depression, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been found effective in animal models of depression both in monotherapy and when used to augment antidepressant drugs. However, results with NSAIDs have been mixed in human observational studies, with both better and worse depression outcomes reported. Four small (pooled N = 160) randomized controlled trials suggest that celecoxib (200-400 mg/d) augmentation of antidepressant medication improves 4-6 week outcomes in major depressive disorder. There are no data, however, to support the use of celecoxib or other NSAIDs in antidepressant-resistant depression. There are also concerns about adverse events associated with NSAID treatment, and about pharmacodynamic drug interactions between these drugs and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A reasonable conclusion for the present is that NSAID augmentation of antidepressants is, at best, a tentative approach in nonrefractory major depression.

  1. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  2. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene augmentation of the lower face.

    PubMed

    Sherris, D A; Larrabee, W F

    1996-05-01

    Most options for rejuvenation of the lower face use soft-tissue fillers that augment the appropriate sites. Each of these options has associated risks and benefits. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved the use of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE) as a soft-tissue filler in the face. From January 1991 through December 1993, the authors used E-PTFE soft-tissue patches for lower facial augmentation in 41 patients at 115 implant sites. Postsurgical follow-up has ranged from 2.5 to 4.5 years; during this time, complications have occurred in 4 patients. One implant had to be removed because of a seroma (1 patient), 4 implants required further secondary augmentation (2 patients), and 1 implant required revision because of malposition (1 patient). There have been no cases of implant infection, extrusion, long-term inflammation, or capsule formation. In this article, the authors review the technical aspects of E-PTFE use and discuss issues relating to the long-term efficacy of this new option for soft-tissue augmentation. The technique is also compared with other options for rejuvenation of the lower face. PMID:8628100

  3. Audiologic changes after pinna augmentation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kavit; Hone, Robert; Kanegaonkar, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    No studies to date have objectively assessed whether pinna morphology affects sound intensity detected within the external auditory canal (EAC). Commonly performed procedures on the EAC are carried out for acquired and congenital pathology, together with correction of ear deformities. Our aim was to use an experimental model to identify whether a relationship exists between pinna shape and its subsequent effect on the hearing subject. An anatomically accurate and life-size model made of rubber composite was used for this study. Serial sections (small wedge, defect open; small wedge, defect closed; large wedge, defect open; large wedge, defect closed [equivalent to a protruding ear]; and pinnectomy) were undertaken, and the sound intensity changes assessed at the junction between the EAC and middle ear (tympanic membrane position) using an AURICAL Plus (Otometrics; Taastrup, Denmark) sound processor. A statistically significant loss was demonstrated for wedge-excised models, which was greatest at 180° azimuth. This loss was significantly reduced when the wedge defects were closed. A statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in the protruding ("bat") ear model compared with the normal ear at 0° azimuth. In this model, gain in sound intensity is adversely affected by pinna wedge resection. Because this change may be increased in those with protruding ears, this factor is important to consider for all cosmetic and noncosmetic operations to the pinna, and it supports the notion that the pinna is not a simple funnel.

  4. Audiologic changes after pinna augmentation.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kavit; Hone, Robert; Kanegaonkar, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    No studies to date have objectively assessed whether pinna morphology affects sound intensity detected within the external auditory canal (EAC). Commonly performed procedures on the EAC are carried out for acquired and congenital pathology, together with correction of ear deformities. Our aim was to use an experimental model to identify whether a relationship exists between pinna shape and its subsequent effect on the hearing subject. An anatomically accurate and life-size model made of rubber composite was used for this study. Serial sections (small wedge, defect open; small wedge, defect closed; large wedge, defect open; large wedge, defect closed [equivalent to a protruding ear]; and pinnectomy) were undertaken, and the sound intensity changes assessed at the junction between the EAC and middle ear (tympanic membrane position) using an AURICAL Plus (Otometrics; Taastrup, Denmark) sound processor. A statistically significant loss was demonstrated for wedge-excised models, which was greatest at 180° azimuth. This loss was significantly reduced when the wedge defects were closed. A statistically significant improvement was demonstrated in the protruding ("bat") ear model compared with the normal ear at 0° azimuth. In this model, gain in sound intensity is adversely affected by pinna wedge resection. Because this change may be increased in those with protruding ears, this factor is important to consider for all cosmetic and noncosmetic operations to the pinna, and it supports the notion that the pinna is not a simple funnel. PMID:27551847

  5. Pulmonary blood volume indexed to lung volume is reduced in newly diagnosed systemic sclerosis compared to normals – a prospective clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance study addressing pulmonary vascular changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary involvement, manifested as pulmonary arterial hypertension or pulmonary fibrosis, is the most common cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We aimed to explore the feasibility of detecting early pulmonary involvement in SSc using recently developed non-invasive quantitative measures of pulmonary physiology using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods Twenty-seven SSc patients (9 men, 57 ± 13 years) and 10 healthy controls (3 men, 54 ± 9 years) underwent CMR to determine the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) and the PBV variation (PBVV) throughout the cardiac cycle. Patients underwent Doppler echocardiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and pulmonary function testing by spirometry. Comparisons were performed using the unpaired t-test and linear regression analysis was performed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r). Results Compared to healthy controls, the PBV indexed to lung volume (PBVI) was lower in patients (16 ± 4 vs 20 ± 5%, p < 0.05). There was no difference in PBV (466 ± 87 vs 471 ± 122 mL, p = 0.91) or PBVV/stroke volume (45 ± 10 vs 40 ± 6%, p = 0.09). There were no significant correlations between PBVI and pulmonary artery pressure estimated by Doppler (p = 0.08) the lung’s diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (p = 0.09), vital capacity (p = 0.45), or pulmonary fibrosis by HRCT (p = 0.74). Conclusions This study is the first to measure the PBV in humans using CMR. Compared to healthy controls, newly diagnosed SSc patients have a reduced amount of blood in the pulmonary vasculature (PBVI) but unchanged pulmonary vascular distensibility (PBVV/stroke volume). PBVI is unrelated to DLCO, pulmonary artery pressure, vital capacity, and the presence of pulmonary fibrosis. PBVI may be a novel parameter reflecting vascular lung involvement in early-stage SSc, and these findings may be consistent with pathophysiological changes of

  6. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  7. A Multimedia, Augmented Reality Interactive System for the Application of a Guided School Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ko-Chun; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Chu, Sheng-Kai; Su, Ming-Wei; Chen, Chia-Yen; Chen, Chi-Fa

    The paper describes an implementation of a multimedia, augmented reality system used for a guided school tour. The aim of this work is to improve the level of interactions between a viewer and the system by means of augmented reality. In the implemented system, hand motions are captured via computer vision based approaches and analyzed to extract representative actions which are used to interact with the system. In this manner, tactile peripheral hardware such as keyboard and mouse can be eliminated. In addition, the proposed system also aims to reduce hardware related costs and avoid health risks associated with contaminations by contact in public areas.

  8. Regenerate augmentation with bone marrow concentrate after traumatic bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Gessmann, Jan; Köller, Manfred; Godry, Holger; Schildhauer, Thomas Armin; Seybold, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis after post-traumatic segmental bone loss of the tibia is a complex and time-consuming procedure that is often complicated due to prolonged consolidation or complete insufficiency of the regenerate. The aim of this feasibility study was to investigate the potential of bone marrow aspiration concentrate (BMAC) for percutaneous regenerate augmentation to accelerate bony consolidation of the regenerate. Eight patients (age 22–64) with an average posttraumatic bone defect of 82.4 mm and concomitant risk factors (nicotine abuse, soft-tissue defects, obesity and/or circulatory disorders) were treated with a modified Ilizarov external frame using an intramedullary cable transportation system. At the end of the distraction phase, each patient was treated with a percutaneously injection of autologous BMAC into the centre of the regenerate. The concentration factor was analysed using flow cytometry. The mean follow up after frame removal was 10 (4–15) months. With a mean healing index (HI) of 36.9 d/cm, bony consolidation of the regenerate was achieved in all eight cases. The mean concentration factor of the bone marrow aspirate was 4.6 (SD 1.23). No further operations concerning the regenerate were needed and no adverse effects were observed with the BMAC procedure. This procedure can be used for augmentation of the regenerate in cases of segmental bone transport. Further studies with a larger number of patients and control groups are needed to evaluate a possible higher success rate and accelerating effects on regenerate healing. PMID:22577502

  9. An Augmented Reality based 3D Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ryo; Kishimoto, Katsumi

    This paper presents a 3D catalog system that uses Augmented Reality technology. The use of Web-based catalog systems that present products in 3D form is increasing in various fields, along with the rapid and widespread adoption of Electronic Commerce. However, 3D shapes could previously only be seen in a virtual space, and it was difficult to understand how the products would actually look in the real world. To solve this, we propose a method that combines the virtual and real worlds simply and intuitively. The method applies Augmented Reality technology, and the system developed based on the method enables users to evaluate 3D virtual products in a real environment.

  10. Augmenting Probabilistic Risk Assesment with Malevolent Initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder

    2011-11-01

    As commonly practiced, the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in nuclear power plants only considers accident initiators such as natural hazards, equipment failures, and human error. Malevolent initiators are ignored in PRA, but are considered the domain of physical security, which uses vulnerability assessment based on an officially specified threat (design basis threat). This paper explores the implications of augmenting and extending existing PRA models by considering new and modified scenarios resulting from malevolent initiators. Teaming the augmented PRA models with conventional vulnerability assessments can cost-effectively enhance security of a nuclear power plant. This methodology is useful for operating plants, as well as in the design of new plants. For the methodology, we have proposed an approach that builds on and extends the practice of PRA for nuclear power plants for security-related issues. Rather than only considering 'random' failures, we demonstrated a framework that is able to represent and model malevolent initiating events and associated plant impacts.

  11. Vertebral Augmentation: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Nabhane, Linda; Issa El Khoury, Fouad; Kreichati, Gaby; El Rachkidi, Rami

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVF) are an increasing public health problem. Cement augmentation (vertebroplasty of kyphoplasty) helps stabilize painful OVF refractory to medical treatment. This stabilization is thought to improve pain and functional outcome. Vertebroplasty consists of injecting cement into a fractured vertebra using a percutaneous transpedicular approach. Balloon kyphoplasty uses an inflatable balloon prior to injecting the cement. Although kyphoplasty is associated with significant improvement of local kyphosis and less cement leakage, this does not result in long-term clinical and functional improvement. Moreover, vertebroplasty is favored by some due to the high cost of kyphoplasty. The injection of cement increases the stiffness of the fracture vertebrae. This can lead, in theory, to adjacent OVF. However, many studies found no increase of subsequent fracture when comparing medical treatment to cement augmentation. Kyphoplasty can have a protective effect due to restoration of sagittal balance. PMID:27114782

  12. [Augmentation enterocystoplasty. Apropos of 15 cases].

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, S; Elmrini, M; Bennani, S; Aboutaieb, R

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed the efficacy of augmentation enterocystoplasty about 15 cases, based on technical modalities and intestinal loop used. There were 10 tuberculosis bladders, 2 bilharzial bladders, 2 interstitial cystitis and one neurogenic bladder. We used for bladder augmentation the sigmoid (7 cases), ileum (6 cases) and coeco-ileum (2 cases). Ureteroileoplasty is associated in three cases for large tuberculous ureteral stenosis, and reimplantation of ureter in the neobladder is realised in seven cases. The results with detubularized ileum were excellent. We observed in one patient persistence of dilatation of upper urinary tract after use of detubularized sigmoid. The results with use of ileocoecum are poor. We observed good results by using detubularized ileum, so we prefer this intestinal loop than the others. There was no significative difference between different detubularisation technics. Reimplantation of ureter inneobladder is indicated when there is terminal ureteral lesions. PMID:8554290

  13. Projectile oscillations in augmented rail guns

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, M.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Homan, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    The projectile in an inductive store-powered rail gun, augmented by an external magnetic field, will oscillate under certain conditions. This behavior is easily understood when there is no resistance in the circuit comprising the storage coil, rails and armature. In this case, the flux in the complete circuit is conserved. However, as the projectile moves down the rails, more flux from the augmenting field is picked up. This must be accompanied by a decrease in current in the system to conserve the total flux. At a certain distance down the rails, the current must reverse to conserve the flux, and thus the force on the projectile reverses. This mechanism leads to oscillation of the projectile. An analytic solution is given for the case in which the resistance is zero.

  14. Abdomen and spinal cord segmentation with augmented active shape models.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhoubing; Conrad, Benjamin N; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Smith, Seth A; Poulose, Benjamin K; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-07-01

    Active shape models (ASMs) have been widely used for extracting human anatomies in medical images given their capability for shape regularization of topology preservation. However, sensitivity to model initialization and local correspondence search often undermines their performances, especially around highly variable contexts in computed-tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. In this study, we propose an augmented ASM (AASM) by integrating the multiatlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques into the traditional ASM framework. Using AASM, landmark updates are optimized globally via a region-based LS evolution applied on the probability map generated from MALF. This augmentation effectively extends the searching range of correspondent landmarks while reducing sensitivity to the image contexts and improves the segmentation robustness. We propose the AASM framework as a two-dimensional segmentation technique targeting structures with one axis of regularity. We apply AASM approach to abdomen CT and spinal cord (SC) MR segmentation challenges. On 20 CT scans, the AASM segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous/visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. On 28 3T MR scans, AASM yields better performances than other state-of-the-art approaches in segmenting white/gray matter in SC. PMID:27610400

  15. Augmented heavy lift assist devices for enhanced safety performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luecke, Greg R.; Tan, Kok-Leong; Simpson, Gary

    1998-12-01

    Heavy lift assist devices are an important part of manufacturing facilities that involve large, heavy or bulky material. Many devices are available that provide lift but not motive force augmentation. In these devices, the physical strength of the operator is used to move and position the work piece. Due to large work piece inertial characteristics, inertial contributions from the lift device itself, and misuse of the assist manipulator, injuries may still occur. In this research, an approach is presented that provides reduced-authority actuation to the motive joints of the lift device that allows for augmentation of the human motion forces, provides a means of correcting injurious ergonomic interactions, and allows for high rate energy dissipation for payload trajectory control and emergency situations. The approach is to provide low torque input controlled by operator hand motions. These hand motions move the payload under a centralized trajectory generation scheme that uses modulated braking commands to impose motion constraints, such as object avoidance, resonance attenuation and ergonomic trajectory enhancement. The system is implemented in an virtual reality robot simulator that allows for the investigation of dynamic characteristics prior to the prototype stage.

  16. Pilots Rate Augmented Generalized Predictive Control for Reconfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soloway, Don; Haley, Pam

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the results from the research being conducted in reconfigurable fight controls at NASA Ames. A study was conducted with three NASA Dryden test pilots to evaluate two approaches of reconfiguring an aircraft's control system when failures occur in the control surfaces and engine. NASA Ames is investigating both a Neural Generalized Predictive Control scheme and a Neural Network based Dynamic Inverse controller. This paper highlights the Predictive Control scheme where a simple augmentation to reduce zero steady-state error led to the neural network predictor model becoming redundant for the task. Instead of using a neural network predictor model, a nominal single point linear model was used and then augmented with an error corrector. This paper shows that the Generalized Predictive Controller and the Dynamic Inverse Neural Network controller perform equally well at reconfiguration, but with less rate requirements from the actuators. Also presented are the pilot ratings for each controller for various failure scenarios and two samples of the required control actuation during reconfiguration. Finally, the paper concludes by stepping through the Generalized Predictive Control's reconfiguration process for an elevator failure.

  17. Development and flight evaluation of an augmented stability active controls concept with a small tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Parasite drag reduction evaluation is composed of wind tunnel tests with a standard L-1011 tail and two reduced area tail configurations. Trim drag reduction is evaluated by rebalancing the airplane for relaxed static stability. This is accomplished by pumping water to tanks in the forward and aft of the airplane to acheive desired center of gravity location. Also, the L-1011 is modified to incorporate term and advanced augmented systems. By using advanced wings and aircraft relaxed static stability significant fuel savings can be realized. An airplane's dynamic stability becomes more sensitive for decreased tail size, relaxed static stability, and advanced wing configurations. Active control pitch augmentation will be used to acheive the required handling qualities. Flight tests will be performed to evaluate the pitch augmentation systems. The effect of elevator downrig on stabilizer/elevator hinge moments will be measured. For control system analysis, the normal acceleration feedback and pitch rate feedback are analyzed.

  18. Erosive Augmentation of Solid Propellant Burning Rate: Motor Size Scaling Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Cohen, Norman S.

    1990-01-01

    Two different independent variable forms, a difference form and a ratio form, were investigated for correlating the normalized magnitude of the measured erosive burning rate augmentation above the threshold in terms of the amount that the driving parameter (mass flux or Reynolds number) exceeds the threshold value for erosive augmentation at the test condition. The latter was calculated from the previously determined threshold correlation. Either variable form provided a correlation for each of the two motor size data bases individually. However, the data showed a motor size effect, supporting the general observation that the magnitude of erosive burning rate augmentation is reduced for larger rocket motors. For both independent variable forms, the required motor size scaling was attained by including the motor port radius raised to a power in the independent parameter. A boundary layer theory analysis confirmed the experimental finding, but showed that the magnitude of the scale effect is itself dependent upon scale, tending to diminish with increasing motor size.

  19. Methodology, Methods, and Metrics for Testing and Evaluating Augmented Cognition Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2008-09-15

    The augmented cognition research community seeks cognitive neuroscience-based solutions to improve warfighter performance by applying and managing mitigation strategies to reduce workload and improve the throughput and quality of decisions. The focus of augmented cognition mitigation research is to define, demonstrate, and exploit neuroscience and behavioral measures that support inferences about the warfighter’s cognitive state that prescribe the nature and timing of mitigation. A research challenge is to develop valid evaluation methodologies, metrics and measures to assess the impact of augmented cognition mitigations. Two considerations are external validity, which is the extent to which the results apply to operational contexts; and internal validity, which reflects the reliability of performance measures and the conclusions based on analysis of results. The scientific rigor of the research methodology employed in conducting empirical investigations largely affects the validity of the findings. External validity requirements also compel us to demonstrate operational significance of mitigations. Thus it is important to demonstrate effectiveness of mitigations under specific conditions. This chapter reviews some cognitive science and methodological considerations in designing augmented cognition research studies and associated human performance metrics and analysis methods to assess the impact of augmented cognition mitigations.

  20. The Delay Fill Technique: A Safer Approach to Combination Augmentation Mastopexy

    PubMed Central

    Patronella, Christopher K.; Mentz, Henry A.; Johnson-Alviza, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Combining breast augmentation with mastopexy is a challenging procedure that has a relatively high revision rate in the literature. Some surgeons prefer a two-stage procedure to avoid the potential for skin flap or nipple–areolar complex necrosis that can occur with a one-stage procedure. The authors compared 101 patients who had subpectoral breast augmentation with immediate implant fill and mastopexy with 203 patients who had subpectoral breast augmentation with delayed (10–14 days) implant fill and mastopexy. They found the revision rate for immediate implant fill was 24%; in the delayed implant fill group, the revision rate was 10.3%. Patients had soft tissue-related complications in 16% of the immediate fill group and in 2% of the delayed fill group. Delaying implant fill in combined breast augmentation mastopexy significantly reduces the risk of soft tissue-related complications and revision procedures; the delay flap phenomenon is responsible for fewer wound-healing complications when implant fill is delayed during a combined augmentation mastopexy procedure. PMID:26528084

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and 5-HT₃ serotonin receptor antagonists as innovative antipsychotic augmentation treatments for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-07-01

    Antipsychotic treatment is the mainstay in the management of schizophrenia. However, despite optimum use of antipsychotic drugs, many schizophrenia patients continue to exhibit residual positive, negative, cognitive, and other symptoms. Various antipsychotic augmentation strategies have been studied using non-antipsychotic augmenting agents; 2 innovative classes of drugs examined have been nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and 5-HT₃ serotonin receptor antagonists. Meta-analysis of the NSAID studies in schizophrenia patients with positive symptoms (8 randomized controlled trials [RCTs], pooled N = 774) shows that NSAID augmentation is associated with a significant decrease in positive symptom ratings (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.19), with no significant change in negative or total symptom ratings. Meta-analysis of the 5-HT₃ antagonist studies in stable schizophrenia patients (6 RCTs, pooled N = 311) shows that 5-HT₃ antagonist augmentation is associated with significant reduction in negative symptom (SMD = 1.10), general psychopathology (SMD = 0.70), and total symptom (SMD = 1.03) ratings without reduction in positive symptom ratings. Neither NSAID nor 5-HT₃ antagonist augmentation increases the dropout rate. Whereas the benefits with NSAID augmentation are, perhaps, too small to be clinically meaningful, antipsychotic augmentation with 5-HT₃ antagonists may be a possible strategy to reduce persistent negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Both fields of inquiry require further investigation.

  2. TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.

  3. The ligament augmentation device: an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Maffulli, N

    1999-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common ligament injury in the knee, and a significant number of patients may develop progressive instability and disability despite aggressive rehabilitation. Various materials have been used for its reconstruction. These include autografts, allografts, prosthetic ligaments, and synthetic augmentation of the biological tissue. The concept of ligament augmentation device (LAD) arose from the observation that biological grafts undergo a phase of degeneration and loss of strength before being incorporated. The LAD is meant to protect the biological graft during this vulnerable phase. However, it provokes an inflammatory reaction in the knee, and has been found to delay maturation of autogenous graft in humans. In experimental situations, the LAD has been found to share loads in a composite graft. It has also been found to be substantially stronger than the biological graft. However, in clinical situations no significant advantages have been observed with the use of LAD to augment patellar tendon or hamstring reconstruction of the chronic ACL-deficient knee or in the acute setting to augment repair of the torn ACL. There are very few reports of the use of LAD in reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament, and again these do not suggest any advantage in its use. Insertion of the LAD implies the introduction of a foreign material into the knee, has been associated with complications such as reactive synovitis and effusions, and may also be associated with an increased risk of infection. At present, there is no evidence that its routine use should be advocated in uncomplicated reconstructions of the ACL using biological grafts.

  4. Primary Breast Augmentation with Fat Grafting.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sydney R; Saboeiro, Alesia P

    2015-07-01

    The controversy over fat grafting to the breasts has now been settled. In 2009, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force stated that "Fat grafting may be considered for breast augmentation and correction of defects associated with medical conditions and previous breast surgeries; however, results are dependent on technique and surgeon expertise." This article discusses the history, indications, planning, complications, and present technique of fat grafting to the breast using the Coleman technique.

  5. Augmented reality visualization for thoracoscopic spine surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Frank; Vogt, Sebastian; Khamene, Ali; Heining, Sandro; Euler, Ekkehard; Schneberger, Marc; Zuerl, Konrad; Mutschler, Wolf

    2006-03-01

    We are developing an augmented reality (AR) image guidance system in which information derived from medical images is overlaid onto a video view of the patient. The centerpiece of the system is a head-mounted display custom fitted with two miniature color video cameras that capture the stereo view of the scene. Medical graphics is overlaid onto the video view and appears firmly anchored in the scene, without perceivable time lag or jitter. We have been testing the system for different clinical applications. In this paper we discuss minimally invasive thoracoscopic spine surgery as a promising new orthopedic application. In the standard approach, the thoracoscope - a rigid endoscope - provides visual feedback for the minimally invasive procedure of removing a damaged disc and fusing the two neighboring vertebrae. The navigation challenges are twofold. From a global perspective, the correct vertebrae on the spine have to be located with the inserted instruments. From a local perspective, the actual spine procedure has to be performed precisely. Visual feedback from the thoracoscope provides only limited support for both of these tasks. In the augmented reality approach, we give the surgeon additional anatomical context for the navigation. Before the surgery, we derive a model of the patient's anatomy from a CT scan, and during surgery we track the location of the surgical instruments in relation to patient and model. With this information, we can help the surgeon in both the global and local navigation, providing a global map and 3D information beyond the local 2D view of the thoracoscope. Augmented reality visualization is a particularly intuitive method of displaying this information to the surgeon. To adapt our augmented reality system to this application, we had to add an external optical tracking system, which works now in combination with our head-mounted tracking camera. The surgeon's feedback to the initial phantom experiments is very positive.

  6. The ligament augmentation device: an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K; Maffulli, N

    1999-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is the most common ligament injury in the knee, and a significant number of patients may develop progressive instability and disability despite aggressive rehabilitation. Various materials have been used for its reconstruction. These include autografts, allografts, prosthetic ligaments, and synthetic augmentation of the biological tissue. The concept of ligament augmentation device (LAD) arose from the observation that biological grafts undergo a phase of degeneration and loss of strength before being incorporated. The LAD is meant to protect the biological graft during this vulnerable phase. However, it provokes an inflammatory reaction in the knee, and has been found to delay maturation of autogenous graft in humans. In experimental situations, the LAD has been found to share loads in a composite graft. It has also been found to be substantially stronger than the biological graft. However, in clinical situations no significant advantages have been observed with the use of LAD to augment patellar tendon or hamstring reconstruction of the chronic ACL-deficient knee or in the acute setting to augment repair of the torn ACL. There are very few reports of the use of LAD in reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament, and again these do not suggest any advantage in its use. Insertion of the LAD implies the introduction of a foreign material into the knee, has been associated with complications such as reactive synovitis and effusions, and may also be associated with an increased risk of infection. At present, there is no evidence that its routine use should be advocated in uncomplicated reconstructions of the ACL using biological grafts. PMID:10355719

  7. Augmentation mammaplasty using implants: a review.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Susumu

    2012-09-01

    One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed. PMID:23094237

  8. Augmentation Mammaplasty Using Implants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    One of the techniques for augmentation mammaplasty is the procedure using implants. Even though this technique has been used for many years, there are still several controversial issues to be discussed and overcome for patient safety. In this review article, capsular contracture, leak or rupture of the implants, possible systemic disease, relation with breast cancer, and recent problems with Poly Implant Prothese implants are described and discussed. PMID:23094237

  9. Percutaneous Vertebral Body Augmentation: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    There are many medical conditions like osteoporosis, tumor, or osteonecrosis that weaken the structural strength of the vertebral body and prone it to fracture. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation that is usually applied by polymethylmethacrylate is a relatively safe, effective, and long lasting procedure commonly performed in these situations. In this paper, we updated a review of biomechanics, indications, contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and overall prognosis of these minimally invasive spinal procedures. PMID:25379561

  10. A laboratory investigation to assess the influence of cement augmentation of screw and plate fixation in a simulation of distal femoral fracture of osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic bone.

    PubMed

    Wähnert, D; Lange, J H; Schulze, M; Gehweiler, D; Kösters, C; Raschke, M J

    2013-10-01

    The augmentation of fixation with bone cement is increasingly being used in the treatment of severe osteoporotic fractures. We investigated the influence of bone quality on the mechanics of augmentation of plate fixation in a distal femoral fracture model (AO 33 A3 type). Eight osteoporotic and eight non-osteoporotic femoral models were randomly assigned to either an augmented or a non-augmented group. Fixation was performed using a locking compression plate. In the augmented group additionally 1 ml of bone cement was injected into the screw hole before insertion of the screw. Biomechanical testing was performed in axial sinusoidal loading. Augmentation significantly reduced the cut-out distance in the osteoporotic models by about 67% (non-augmented mean 0.30 mm (sd 0.08) vs augmented 0.13 mm (sd 0.06); p = 0.017). There was no statistical reduction in this distance following augmentation in the non-osteoporotic models (non-augmented mean 0.15 mm (sd 0.02) vs augmented 0.15 mm (sd 0.07); p = 0.915). In the osteoporotic models, augmentation significantly increased stability (p = 0.017). PMID:24078541

  11. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-01-11

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  12. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-07-26

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  13. Augmented classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2004-02-03

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  14. Augmented amputations of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Mohler, D G; Kessler, J I; Earp, B E

    2000-02-01

    Ten patients who had amputations of a lower extremity for high-grade sarcomas underwent bone augmentation with either allograft or autograft between 1988 and 1996. There were eight transfemoral amputations and two transtibial amputations. The transferred segments consisted of one proximal tibia and six distal tibia autografts, two allografts, one autograft talar dome and first metatarsal, and one with a patellar cap of a supracondylar amputation. The average length of followup was 54 months. There were no nonunions of any of the grafts. There were three wound problems requiring additional operations. One autograft resorbed, and one autograft had a late infection. There was one local recurrence. Augmentation to provide length resulted in a 42% increase in bone length in those performed purely for length. All patients were able to use standard prostheses. Functional outcome was appropriate to the amputation level. Half of the patients avoided more proximal levels of amputation because of the ability to augment the osteotomy. The use of nonvascularized structural autografts or allografts is a simple procedure that can produce a superior residual limb in patients undergoing amputation. Its use should be considered in patients for whom traditional amputation techniques will result in poor function, difficulty in fitting a prosthesis, or greater than necessary anatomic loss. PMID:10693566

  15. Service connectivity architecture for mobile augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Tuukka; Pyssysalo, Tino; Roening, Juha

    2001-06-01

    Mobile augmented reality can be utilized in a number of different services, and it provides a lot of added value compared to the interfaces used in mobile multimedia today. Intelligent service connectivity architecture is needed for the emerging commercial mobile augmented reality services, to guarantee mobility and interoperability on a global scale. Some of the key responsibilities of this architecture are to find suitable service providers, to manage the connection with and utilization of such providers, and to allow smooth switching between them whenever the user moves out of the service area of the service provider she is currently connected to. We have studied the potential support technologies for such architectures and propose a way to create an intelligent service connectivity architecture based on current and upcoming wireless networks, an Internet backbone, and mechanisms to manage service connectivity in the upper layers of the protocol stack. In this paper, we explain the key issues of service connectivity, describe the properties of our architecture, and analyze the functionality of an example system. Based on these, we consider our proposition a good solution to the quest for global interoperability in mobile augmented reality services.

  16. Adaptive information design for outdoor augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Neuhöfer, Jan A; Govaers, Felix; El Mokni, Hichem; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Augmented Reality focuses on the enrichment of the user's natural field of view by consistent integration of text, symbols and interactive three-dimensional objects in real time. Placing virtual objects directly into the user's view in a natural context empowers highly dynamic applications. On the other hand, this necessitates deliberate choice of information design and density, in particular for deployment in hazardous environments like military combat scenarios. As the amount of information needed is not foreseeable and strongly depends on the individual mission, an appropriate system must offer adequate adaptation capabilities. The paper presents a prototypical, vehicle-mountable Augmented Reality vision system, designed for enhancing situation awareness in stressful urban warfare scenarios. Tracking, as one of the most crucial challenges for outdoor Augmented Reality, is accomplished by means of a Differential-GPS approach while the type of display to attach can be modified, ranging from ocular displays to standard LCD mini-screens. The overall concept also includes envisioning of own troops (blue forces), for which a multi-sensor tracking approach has been chosen. As a main feature, the system allows switching between different information categories, focusing on friendly, hostile, unidentified or neutral data. Results of an empirical study on the superiority of an in-view navigation cue approach conclude the paper.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmentation of Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeineh, Christopher; Cole, Lord; Karagozian, Ann

    2010-11-01

    Pulse detonation engines (PDEs) are the focus of increasing attention due to their potentially superior performance over constant pressure engines. Yet due to its unsteady chamber pressure, the PDE system will either be over- or under-expanded for the majority of the cycle, with energy being used without maximum gain. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmentation offers the opportunity to extract energy and apply it to a separate stream where the net thrust will be increased. With MHD augmentation, such as in the Pulse Detonation Rocket-Induced MHD Ejector (PDRIME) concept, energy could be extracted from the high speed portion of the system, e.g., through a generator in the nozzle, and then applied directly to another flow or portion of the flow as a body force. The present high resolution numerical simulations explore the flow evolution and potential performance of such propulsion systems. An additional magnetic piston applying energy in the PDE chamber can also act in concert with the PDRIME for separate thrust augmentation. Results show that MHD can indeed influence the flow and pressure fields in a beneficial way in these configurations, with potential performance gains under a variety of flight and operating conditions. There are some challenges associated with achieving these gains, however, suggesting further optimization is required.

  18. Adult Partner-Augmented Communication Input to Youth with Mental Retardation Using the System for Augmenting Language (SAL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Rose A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the frequency and nature of augmented input that adult partners provided to 13 youth with moderate to severe mental retardation as they began to use the System for Augmenting Language. Analyses revealed differences in the frequency and in the manner and style with which home and school partners provided augmented input.…

  19. Single stage and thrust augmented reusable launch vehicle stability and performance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanck, Pamela A.; Steadman, Kimberly B.

    1998-01-01

    The requirement for routine, reliable, inexpensive launch service drives the interest in the development of a fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV). In theory, single-stage vehicle operations would resemble aircraft operations where high initial development costs are offset by relatively low recurring costs. However, the large size of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle and the advanced engine and structural technology requirements could overshadow advantages gained through streamlined operations. This analysis explores the feasibility of using thrust augmentation on a fully reusable core vehicle in order to lessen the disadvantages of a fully single-stage vehicle. Advanced technology systems and two 86,000 kg solid strapon motors are incorporated into a vehicle designed to deliver an Atlas-class payload. This study shows that thrust augmentation significantly decreases vehicle size, decreases development risk and improves longitudinal stability characteristics. The thrust augmentation reduces vehicle insertion mass by 40% and reduces the vehicle's sensitivity to the increases in dry mass growth often experienced during development, thus reducing development risk. Thrust augmentation also moves the center of gravity location forward, thus improving longitudinal stability characteristics and maximizing the vehicle's reentry cross range capability.

  20. [Journal selection and indexing for Index Medicus and Chinese periodicals indexed in Index Medicus].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan; Bai, Yu-Jin; Yin, Hui-Xia

    2005-01-01

    Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed published by U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the most important and commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system in the world. According to the"List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus (2004)", 4,098 journals are indexed for Index Medicus, including 70 journals from mainland China and Hong Kong and 9 journals from Taiwan. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine established in May, 2003 is indexed in Index Medicus in 2004. This article outlines the critical elements of journal selection for Index Medicus/MEDLINE and the journal selection process for indexing at NLM, and introduces some measures for the Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine being indexed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

  1. Adult partner-augmented communication input to youth with mental retardation using the System for Augmenting Language (SAL).

    PubMed

    Sevcik, R A; Romski, M A; Watkins, R V; Deffebach, K P

    1995-08-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the frequency and nature of augmented input that adult partners provided to 13 youth with mental retardation as they began to use the System for Augmenting Language (SAL). Analyses of youth-partner interactions revealed differences in the frequency with which home and school partners provided augmented input and in the manner and style of home and school partners' augmented input, particularly in directiveness and position of lexigram symbols within Utterances. Overall, partners naturally provided augmented input in a manner likely to promote youth's learning of the SAL. PMID:7474982

  2. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    Proposed is a measure of indexing consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on…

  3. Comparative Index Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Abdur

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that compared indexing terms suggested by authors of articles in "The American Journal of the Medical Science" and indexing terms assigned to the same articles in MEDLARS. Case studies are used to examine the differences between author and indexer indexing. (CLB)

  4. Quaker Resources Online Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke-Harrigan, Heidi

    The Quaker Resources Online Index is a World Wide Web-based index, including author, title, subject, and meeting indexes, that provides access to Quaker materials available on the Web. Given the current failings and shortcomings of search engines and automated key word searches, this index brings together information from a variety of sources and…

  5. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  6. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  7. Improving training for sensory augmentation using the science of expertise.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Craig; Stafford, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Sensory substitution and augmentation devices (SSADs) allow users to perceive information about their environment that is usually beyond their sensory capabilities. Despite an extensive history, SSADs are arguably not used to their fullest, both as assistive technology for people with sensory impairment or as research tools in the psychology and neuroscience of sensory perception. Studies of the non-use of other assistive technologies suggest one factor is the balance of benefits gained against the costs incurred. We argue that improving the learning experience would improve this balance, suggest three ways in which it can be improved by leveraging existing cognitive science findings on expertise and skill development, and acknowledge limitations and relevant concerns. We encourage the systematic evaluation of learning programs, and suggest that a more effective learning process for SSADs could reduce the barrier to uptake and allow users to reach higher levels of overall capacity. PMID:27264831

  8. Efficient Verification of Holograms Using Mobile Augmented Reality.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Andreas Daniel; Arth, Clemens; Grubert, Jens; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    Paper documents such as passports, visas and banknotes are frequently checked by inspection of security elements. In particular, optically variable devices such as holograms are important, but difficult to inspect. Augmented Reality can provide all relevant information on standard mobile devices. However, hologram verification on mobiles still takes long and provides lower accuracy than inspection by human individuals using appropriate reference information. We aim to address these drawbacks by automatic matching combined with a special parametrization of an efficient goal-oriented user interface which supports constrained navigation. We first evaluate a series of similarity measures for matching hologram patches to provide a sound basis for automatic decisions. Then a re-parametrized user interface is proposed based on observations of typical user behavior during document capture. These measures help to reduce capture time to approximately 15 s with better decisions regarding the evaluated samples than what can be achieved by untrained users. PMID:26561461

  9. Whispering gallery mode resonators augmented with engraved diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Aveline, David C; Baumgartel, Lukas M; Lin, Guoping; Yu, Nan

    2013-02-01

    We report the demonstration of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators augmented with diffraction gratings. We apply focused ion beam (FIB) methods to precisely engrave a surface grating directly into the perimeter of a crystalline disc. The grating provides a simple and highly directional free-space coupling mechanism with superior stability to evanescent coupling techniques. These integrated gratings can also provide control of the resonance spectrum, significantly reducing the mode density. Our FIB fabrication process does not introduce significant loss; Q≃3×10(7) has been demonstrated. The wavelength dependence of the diffraction angle was found to be in excellent agreement with grating theory. The versatility of spectral control and far-field grating coupling will have significant impact in WGM resonator applications in lasers, sensors, and optoelectronics.

  10. CMG-Augmented Control of a Hovering VTOL Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) can be used for stability augmentation to a thrust vectoring system for a generic Vertical Take-Off and Landing platform. The response characteristics of the platform which uses only thrust vectoring and a second configuration which includes a single-gimbal CMG array are simulated and compared for hovering flight while subject to severe air turbulence. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of a CMG array in its ability to significantly reduce the agility requirement on the thrust vectoring system. Albeit simplifying physical assumptions on a generic CMG configuration, the numerical results also suggest that reasonably sized CMGs will likely be sufficient for a small hovering vehicle.

  11. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  12. Resorbable polymer fibers for ligament augmentation.

    PubMed

    Dürselen, L; Dauner, M; Hierlemann, H; Planck, H; Claes, L E; Ignatius, A

    2001-01-01

    Resorbable augmentation devices for cruciate ligament surgery have been developed to temporarily protect healing tendon grafts or sutured ligaments against high tensile loads during the postoperative healing period. Materials available at present [e.g., polydioxanone (PDS)] show a half-life tensile strength of only 4-6 weeks, whereas the process of revitalization and recovering of the transplanted tendon graft can take up to 12 months. Therefore, a device that provides gradually decreasing mechanical properties with a half-time strength of at least 6 months would be desirable. In order to obtain a suitable material, we investigated the degradation kinetics of a variety of different resorbable fibers made of poly(L-lactide) and poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide). The fiber materials differed in processing and treatment parameters like thermal posttreatment, irradiation, and fiber diameter. The fibers were degraded in vitro and were tested for mechanical properties and molecular weight at various time points up to 72 weeks. The half-time strength of the materials ranged between 5 and 64 weeks, depending on their treatment parameters. In contrast, the stiffness did not decrease adequately. However, an augmentation stiffness that does not change much versus time could not provide a gradual increase in graft load, which is important to stimulate the orientation of the collagenous tissue. Therefore, design of an augmentation construct braided out of more than one quickly degrading fiber materials is suggested. After the breakdown of the faster-degrading fiber components the stiffness would automatically decrease by the diminution of the load-carrying fiber volume. PMID:11745519

  13. B-52 stability augmentation system reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowling, T. C.; Key, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    The B-52 SAS (Stability Augmentation System) was developed and retrofitted to nearly 300 aircraft. It actively controls B-52 structural bending, provides improved yaw and pitch damping through sensors and electronic control channels, and puts complete reliance on hydraulic control power for rudder and elevators. The system has experienced over 300,000 flight hours and has exhibited service reliability comparable to the results of the reliability test program. Development experience points out numerous lessons with potential application in the mechanization and development of advanced technology control systems of high reliability.

  14. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L.; Corbett, Jacob T.; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N.; Pizza, Francis X.

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast–myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube–myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle. - Highlights: • We examined mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 facilitates events of in vitro myogenesis. • Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured myoblasts did not influence their ability to proliferate or differentiate. • Skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augmented myoblast fusion, myotube alignment, myotube–myotube fusion, and myotube size. • ICAM-1 augmented myogenic processes through

  15. Evaluation following functional loading of titanium fixtures placed in ridges augmented by deproteinized bone mineral. A human case study.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, L J; Skoglund, A; Hising, P; Lang, N P; Attström, R

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to clinically evaluate the periimplant tissues of titanium fixtures, placed in regions augmented using deproteinized bone mineral, after initial functional loading. The original material included 18 individuals (mean age 71+/-9 years) treated using a graft material, Bio-Oss (6 Patients), or Bio-Oss+autogenous bone mixture (12 patients) for alveolar ridge augmentation. 6 titanium fixtures were placed at the time of ridge augmentation. 46 fixtures were placed at a second surgical stage, median 9.5 months after augmentation. Augmentation included crest width (26 fixtures), crest height and width (12 fixtures) and sinus floor lift (14 fixtures) procedures. In addition, 16 fixtures were placed in regions of adequate bone volume. Reconstructions were placed and patients were recalled on a yearly basis. After 4-6.5 years of functional loading, the reconstructions were removed and assessments of fixture stability and periimplant mucosal conditions were made. At this time, 3 patients (13 fixtures) were lost to follow-up (1 deceased, 1 declined to participate, and 1 too ill to attend). In the remaining 15 patients, 7 fixtures were lost due to osseo-disintegration, 2 in one patient in the mandible, and 5 in a second patient in the maxilla. Both individuals were smokers. The remaining 32 fixtures were clinically stable. Periimplant mucosa was healthy with a mean modified sulcular bleeding index of 0.1+/-0.2 and a mean probing depth of 1.5+/-1.1 mm. Radiographic evaluation showed alveolar bone levels at or above the level of the first fixture thread. There were no perifixtural radiolucencies. The survival rate, which coincided with success rate, for fixtures placed in conjunction with ridge augmentation using deproteinized bone mineral was 100% for non-smokers and 43% for smokers after 4-6.5 years of functional loading. No fixture loss occurred in non-augmented areas.

  16. High light intensity augments mercury toxicity in cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjana; Dubey, Gunjan; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Kumar, Sushil; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2012-11-01

    The present study is aimed at investigating the role of growth irradiance in determining the extent of mercury (Hg) toxicity on various physiological parameters viz. growth, pigment contents, photosynthesis, respiration, (14)CO(2) fixation, photosynthetic electron transport, photorespiration and enzyme activity of cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. A general decline was observed in all these parameters with increasing concentration of Hg except for carotenoids content and respiratory activity which exhibited significant enhancement. This effect was more pronounced in high light (130 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) exposed cells as compared to normal (70 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) and low (10 μmol photon m(-2) s(-1)) light exposed cells. Among the photosynthetic electron transport activities, whole chain was found to be more sensitive than photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). (14)CO(2) fixation was more affected as compared to O(2) evolution when exposed to Hg and different light intensities. Photorespiratory activity, which is an index of protecting organisms from light-induced damage, also showed a similar declining trend. Enzyme assay revealed that among the carboxylating enzymes, activity of RUBISCO was more severely inhibited than PEPCase. Thus, these results suggest that Hg itself was toxic at all tested concentrations and high light intensity augmented its toxicity in N. muscorum inhibiting the growth, pigment contents and photosynthetic activity of the organism.

  17. Lean stability augmentation study. [on gas turbine combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical conceptual design study and an experimental test program were conducted to investigate techniques and develop technology for improving the lean combustion limits of premixing, prevaporizing combustors applicable to gas turbine engine main burners. The use of hot gas pilots, catalyzed flameholder elements, and heat recirculation to augment lean stability limits was considered in the conceptual design study. Tests of flameholders embodying selected concepts were conducted at a pressure of 10 arm and over a range of entrance temperatures simulating conditions to be encountered during stratospheric cruise. The tests were performed using an axisymmetric flametube test rig having a nominal diameter of 10.2 cm. A total of sixteen test configurations were examined in which lean blowout limits, pollutant emission characteristics, and combustor performance were evaluated. The use of a piloted perforated plate flameholder employing a pilot fuel flow rate equivalent to 4 percent of the total fuel flow at a simulated cruise condition resulted in a lean blowout equivalence ratio of less than 0.25 with a design point (T sub zero = 600k, Phi = 0.6) NOx emission index of less than 1.0 g/kg.

  18. Augmenting Your Own Reality: Student Authoring of Science-Based Augmented Reality Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent…

  19. D-cycloserine augmentation in behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jing; Du, Yanqiu; Han, Jiyang; Liu, Guo; Wang, Xumei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the overall effect of D-cycloserine (DCS) augmentation on exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods Clinical studies on the effect of DCS augmentation on ERP therapy for OCD compared to placebo were included for meta analysis. The primary outcome was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan, version 5.2) to calculate the odds ratio and the mean difference, with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results A total of six studies was included in the current meta-analyses, and their data were extracted. Among them, four were for analyses of DCS and Y-BOCS at midtreatment, six for analysis at posttreatment, and four at 3-month follow-up. Besides, three of the six eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis of the DCS and Clinical Global Impression–Severity Scale at posttreatment, and three in the meta-analysis of DCS and proportions of treatment responders and of subjects attaining clinical remission status criteria at posttreatment. Our meta-analyses do not reveal a significant effect of DCS augmentation in ERP therapy for OCD patients, except when measured at midtreatment. Compared to the placebo group, DCS augmentation did show a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS; when measured at posttreatment and in the subpopulation of DCS taken before some of the ERP sessions, DCS augmentation showed a trend toward significantly lower/decreased Y-BOCS. Conclusion Our result suggested that with the careful optimization of DCS-augmented ERP therapy by fine-tuning timing and dosing of DCS administration and number and frequency of ERP sessions, DCS may enhance the efficacy of ERP therapy in reducing the symptomatic severity of OCD patients, especially at early stage of the treatment; therefore, DCS augmentation could possibly reduce treatment

  20. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  1. Virtually-augmented interfaces for tactical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Haas, M W

    1995-05-01

    The term Fusion Interface is defined as a class of interface which integrally incorporates both virtual and non-virtual concepts and devices across the visual, auditory and haptic sensory modalities. A fusion interface is a multi-sensory virtually-augmented synthetic environment. A new facility has been developed within the Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory dedicated to exploratory development of fusion-interface concepts. One of the virtual concepts to be investigated in the Fusion Interfaces for Tactical Environments facility (FITE) is the application of EEG and other physiological measures for virtual control of functions within the flight environment. FITE is a specialized flight simulator which allows efficient concept development through the use of rapid prototyping followed by direct experience of new fusion concepts. The FITE facility also supports evaluation of fusion concepts by operational fighter pilots in a high fidelity simulated air combat environment. The facility was utilized by a multi-disciplinary team composed of operational pilots, human-factors engineers, electronics engineers, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists to prototype and evaluate the first multi-sensory, virtually-augmented cockpit. The cockpit employed LCD-based head-down displays, a helmet-mounted display, three-dimensionally localized audio displays, and a haptic display. This paper will endeavor to describe the FITE facility architecture, some of the characteristics of the FITE virtual display and control devices, and the potential application of EEG and other physiological measures within the FITE facility.

  2. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  3. Preconditioning stimuli that augment chromaffin cell secretion.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Laura; García-Eguiagaray, Josefina; García, Antonio G; Gandía, Luis

    2009-04-01

    We have investigated here whether a preconditioned stimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors augmented the catecholamine release responses elicited by supramaximal 3-s pulses of 100 muM acetylcholine (100ACh) or 100 mM K(+) (100K(+)) applied to fast-perifused bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Threshold concentrations of nicotine (1-3 muM) that caused only a tiny secretion did, however, augment the responses elicited by 100ACh or 100K(+) by 2- to 3.5-fold. This effect was suppressed by mecamylamine and by Ca(2+) deprivation, was developed with a half-time (t(1/2)) of 1 min, and was reversible. The nicotine effect was mimicked by threshold concentrations of ACh, choline, epibatidine, and oxotremorine-M but not by methacholine. Threshold concentrations of K(+) caused lesser potentiation of secretion compared with that of threshold nicotine. The data are compatible with an hypothesis implying 1) that continuous low-frequency sympathetic discharge places chromaffin cells at the adrenal gland in a permanent "hypersensitive" state; and 2) this allows an explosive secretion of catecholamines by high-frequency sympathetic discharge during stress.

  4. Soft tissue augmentation with ArteFill.

    PubMed

    Hilinski, John M; Cohen, Steven R

    2009-05-01

    ArteFill is a novel, third-generation polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) injectable filler with unique properties. When compared with predecessor materials, ArteFill demonstrates improved biocompatibility as a result of more uniform PMMA microsphere size and shape. This translates into less adverse events after placement. ArteFill can provide a permanent volume enhancement by stimulation of fibroblasts that encapsulate nonabsorbable microspheres with collagen deposition. Currently, ArteFill is FDA approved for permanent augmentation of moderately deep nasolabial folds. It is also commonly used off-label for augmentation of other skin creases and regional areas of volume deficiency, such as the tear trough-malar and marionette line-prejowl sulcus regions. The key to success with ArteFill is a conservative approach with avoidance of overcorrection. Proper technique includes deep dermal to subcutaneous placement with full correction achieved gradually over several treatments. Complications are mostly limited to nodule formation, which is easily managed in most cases with conservative intervention.

  5. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery. PMID:18264850

  6. Prospects for Optogenetic Augmentation of Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Sarah; Schultz, Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to optically control neural activity opens up possibilities for the restoration of normal function following neurological disorders. The temporal precision, spatial resolution, and neuronal specificity that optogenetics offers is unequalled by other available methods, so will it be suitable for not only restoring but also extending brain function? As the first demonstrations of optically “implanted” novel memories emerge, we examine the suitability of optogenetics as a technique for extending neural function. While optogenetics is an effective tool for altering neural activity, the largest impediment for optogenetics in neural augmentation is our systems level understanding of brain function. Furthermore, a number of clinical limitations currently remain as substantial hurdles for the applications proposed. While neurotechnologies for treating brain disorders and interfacing with prosthetics have advanced rapidly in the past few years, partially addressing some of these critical problems, optogenetics is not yet suitable for use in humans. Instead we conclude that for the immediate future, optogenetics is the neurological equivalent of the 3D printer: its flexibility providing an ideal tool for testing and prototyping solutions for treating brain disorders and augmenting brain function. PMID:26635547

  7. Breast Augmentation With Autologous Fat Injection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fa-Cheng; Chen, Bing; Cheng, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Autologous fat transplantation has attracted great interest in breast augmentation for cosmetic purpose. In the present study, we reported our experience in fat grafting in breast in 105 cases, and some detailed procedure concerning efficacy and safety of grafting was evaluated. Methods Fat was harvested using 20-mL syringe attached to a 3-hole blunt cannula in a diameter not beyond 3 mm. After washing with cool normal saline to remove blood, the fat was managed with open method using cotton towel as a platform for concentration fat tissue and separating them from fluids, oil, and debris. A 14-gauge, 1-hole blunt cannula was used to place the fat through 3-mm incision on inframammary fold. The fat was infiltrated into the breast from deep to superficial subcutaneous plane. Results Between July 2002 and August 2010, 105 patients have undergone this procedure. The age distribution of the patients ranged from 18 to 45 years, with a mean of 31.3 years. Grafted fat volume has ranged from 120 to 250 mL (average, 205 mL) per breast per session. All women had a significant improvement in their breast size and shape postoperatively, and the breasts were soft and natural in appearance. Conclusions Liposuction and autologous fat transplantation is a suitable approach for augmentation mammaplasty. PMID:25003461

  8. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Kingery, Joseph E.

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  9. Interoperability of satellite-based augmentation systems for aircraft navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Donghai

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is pioneering a transformation of the national airspace system from its present ground based navigation and landing systems to a satellite based system using the Global Positioning System (GPS). To meet the critical safety-of-life aviation positioning requirements, a Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS), the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), is being implemented to support navigation for all phases of flight, including Category I precision approach. The system is designed to be used as a primary means of navigation, capable of meeting the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and therefore must satisfy the accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability requirements. In recent years there has been international acceptance of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), spurring widespread growth in the independent development of SBASs. Besides the FAA's WAAS, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service System (EGNOS) and the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau's MTSAT-Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) are also being actively developed. Although all of these SBASs can operate as stand-alone, regional systems, there is increasing interest in linking these SBASs together to reduce costs while improving service coverage. This research investigated the coverage and availability improvements due to cooperative efforts among regional SBAS networks. The primary goal was to identify the optimal interoperation strategies in terms of performance, complexity and practicality. The core algorithms associated with the most promising concepts were developed and demonstrated. Experimental verification of the most promising concepts was conducted using data collected from a joint international test between the National Satellite Test Bed (NSTB) and the EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB). This research clearly shows that a simple switch between SBASs made by the airborne equipment is the most effective choice for achieving the

  10. A preliminary look at control augmented dynamic response of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.; Jewell, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The augmentation of structural characteristics, mass, damping, and stiffness through the use of control theory in lieu of structural redesign or augmentation was reported. The standard single-degree-of-freedom system was followed by a treatment of the same system using control augmentation. The system was extended to elastic structures using single and multisensor approaches and concludes with a brief discussion of potential application to large orbiting space structures.

  11. Refractive index of air. 2. Group index.

    PubMed

    Ciddor, P E; Hill, R J

    1999-03-20

    In a previous paper [Appl. Opt. 35, 1566 (1996)] one of us presented new equations for evaluation of the phase refractive index of air over a range of wavelengths and atmospheric parameters. That paper also gave an incorrect, although sufficiently accurate, procedure for calculating the group refractive index. Here we describe the results of a more rigorous derivation of the group index that takes proper account of the Lorentz-Lorenz formula, and we demonstrate that deviations from the Lorentz-Lorenz formula are insignificant to within a foreseeable precision of dispersion measurements for atmospheric conditions. We also derive and evaluate a simplification of the resultant equation that is useful for exploratory calculations. We clarify the limits of validity of the standard equation for the group refractive index and correct some minor errors in the previous paper.

  12. Improving Keyword Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsgaard, John N.; Evans, John Edward

    1981-01-01

    Examines some of the most frequently cited criticisms of keyword indexing, including (1) the absence of general subject headings, (2) limited entry points, and (3) irrelevant indexing. Six references are cited. (FM)

  13. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  14. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  15. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  16. An improved system for hydroturbine index testing

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, P.J.; Hansen, D.B.; March, P.A

    1995-12-31

    An improved system has been developed that reduces the time and labor involved for index testing of hydroturbines. Multitasking operating systems for computers enable applications to be tightly integrated through dynamic data exchange and object linking and embedding. The index testing system utilizes these features to automate and integrate the processes of data acquisition, data analysis, and reporting.

  17. Optimal Constellation Design for Satellite Based Augmentation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Isao

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely utilized in daily life, for instance car navigation. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) and Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) are proposed so as to provide GPS better navigation accuracy and integrity capability. Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) is a kind of WAAS and Multi-functional Transportation Satellite (MTSAT) has been developed in Japan. To improve navigation accuracy most efficiently, augmentation satellites should be so placed that minimize Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP) of constellation. In this paper the result of optimal constellation design for SBAS is shown.

  18. Combined micro computed tomography and histology study of bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgenstein, Bernd; Deyhle, Hans; Jaquiery, Claude; Kunz, Christoph; Stalder, Anja; Stübinger, Stefan; Jundt, Gernot; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert; Hieber, Simone E.

    2012-10-01

    Bone augmentation is a vital part of surgical interventions of the oral and maxillofacial area including dental implantology. Prior to implant placement, sufficient bone volume is needed to reduce the risk of peri-implantitis. While augmentation using harvested autologous bone is still considered as gold standard, many surgeons prefer bone substitutes to reduce operation time and to avoid donor site morbidity. To assess the osteogenic efficacy of commercially available augmentation materials we analyzed drill cores extracted before implant insertion. In younger patients, distraction osteogenesis is successfully applied to correct craniofacial deformities through targeted bone formation. To study the influence of mesenchymal stem cells on bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis, human mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the distraction gap of nude rat mandibles immediately after osteotomy. The distraction was performed over eleven days to reach a distraction gap of 6 mm. Both the rat mandibles and the drill cores were scanned using synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography. The three-dimensional data were manually registered and compared with corresponding two-dimensional histological sections to assess bone regeneration and its morphology. The analysis of the rat mandibles indicates that bone formation is enhanced by mesenchymal stem cells injected before distraction. The bone substitutes yielded a wide range of bone volume and degree of resorption. The volume fraction of the newly formed bone was determined to 34.4% in the computed tomography dataset for the augmentation material Geistlich Bio-Oss®. The combination of computed tomography and histology allowed a complementary assessment for both bone augmentation and distraction osteogenesis.

  19. Index to Volume 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2001-02-01

    The Subject Index references items under general headings; where a contribution covers two or more clearly defined subjects, each is separately referenced, but otherwise sub-headings within the same topic are not included. Book and other reviews are indexed as such, but their subjects are not further cross-indexed. The Author Index details all named contributions, including talks at Ordinary Meetings, but not questions from the floor.

  20. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  1. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  2. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  3. Radiographic and Histologic Evaluation of a Bone Void that Formed After Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Mediated Sinus Graft Augmentation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Choong-Man; Yun, Jeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In the present case report, the authors describe radiographic and histologic observations of a bone void that formed after a sinus augmentation using a graft material that contained recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and discuss clinical and histologic implications of their findings. Sinus augmentation was performed using a graft material comprising 1 g of hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate, which contained 1 mg of rhBMP-2. Radiographic evaluation was conducted with panoramic radiographs and computed tomography images of the augmented maxillary sinus, which were analyzed using a three-dimensional image-reconstruction program. Histologic evaluation was also performed on a biopsy specimen obtained 6 months after the sinus augmentation. The total augmented volume increased from 1,582.2 mm(3) immediately after the sinus augmentation to 3,344.9 mm3 at 6 months after the augmentation because of the formation of a bone void. Twenty-six months after the sinus augmentation, the bone void remained but had reduced in volume, with the total augmented volume reduced to 2,551.7 mm(3). Histologically, new bone was observed to be in contact with the grafted particles, and a fatty marrow-like tissue was present in the area of the bone void. This case report shows that the bone void that had formed after sinus augmentation resolved over time and seemed to be partially replaced with new bone. Furthermore, none of the implants failed, and clinical adverse events were not observed during the follow-up period. PMID:27031629

  4. Improved secondary caries resistance via augmented pressure displacement of antibacterial adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Li-na; Huang, Li; Fang, Ming; Chang, Gang; Shen, Li-juan; Tay, Franklin R.; Chen, Ji-hua

    2016-01-01

    The present in vitro study evaluated the secondary caries resistance potential of acid-etched human coronal dentin bonded using augmented pressure adhesive displacement in conjunction with an experimental antibacterial adhesive. One hundred and twenty class I cavities were restored with a commercial non-antibacterial etch-and-rinse adhesive (N) or an experimental antibacterial adhesive (A) which was displaced by gentle air-blow (G) or augmented pressure air-blow (H). After bonding and restoration with resin composite, the resulted 4 groups (N-G, N-H, A-G and A-H) were exposed to Streptococcus mutans biofilm for 4, 8, 15, 20 or 25 days. The development of secondary caries in the bonding interface was then examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data acquired from 15, 20 and 25 days of artificial caries induction were analyzed with three-way ANOVA at α = 0.05. The depth of the artificial carious lesions was significantly affected by “adhesive type” (Single Bond 2 vs experimental antibacterial adhesive p = 0.003), “intensity of adhesive displacement” (gentle vs augmented-pressure adhesive displacement; p < 0.001), as well as “artificial caries induction time” (p < 0.001). The combined use of augmented pressure adhesive displacement and experimental antibacterial adhesive reduces the progression of secondary caries. PMID:26928742

  5. Tadalafil augments tumor specific immunity in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Joseph A; Khan, Zubair; Noonan, Kimberly A.; Rudraraju, Lakshmi; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Hao; Goodman, Steven; Gourin, Christine G.; Ha, Patrick K.; Fakhry, Carole; Saunders, John; Levine, Marshall; Tang, Mei; Neuner, Geoffrey; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Blanco, Ray; Agrawal, Nishant; Koch, Wayne M.; Marur, Shanthi; Weed, Donald T.; Serafini, Paolo; Borrello, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors can augment immune function in head and neck cancer patients through inhibition of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Experimental Design We performed a randomized, prospective, double blinded, placebo controlled, phase II clinical trial to determine the in vivo effects of systemic PDE5 inhibition on immune function in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Results Tadalafil augmented immune response, increasing ex vivo T cell expansion to a mean 2.4 fold increase compared to 1.1 fold in control patients (P= 0.01), reducing peripheral MDSC numbers to mean 0.81 fold change compared to a 1.26 fold change in control patients (P=0.001), and increasing general immunity as measured by delayed type hypersensitivity response (P=0.002). Tumor specific immunity in response to HNSCC tumor lysate was augmented in tadalafil treated patients (P=0.04). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that tadalafil augments general and tumor-specific immunity in HNSCC patients and has therapeutic potential in HNSCC. Evasion of immune surveillance and suppression of systemic and tumor specific immunity is a significant feature of head and neck cancer development. This study demonstrates that a PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, can reverse tumor specific immune suppression in head and neck cancer patients, with potential for therapeutic application. PMID:25564570

  6. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Qingnian; Dearth, Christopher L; Corbett, Jacob T; Pierre, Philippe; Chadee, Deborah N; Pizza, Francis X

    2015-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle.

  7. Reconfigurable hardware for an augmented reality application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Moreo, F. Javier; Martinez Alvarez, J. Javier; Garrigos Guerrero, F. Javier; Ferrandez Vicente, J. Manuel

    2005-06-01

    An FPGA-based approach is proposed to build an augmented reality system in order to aid people affected by a visual disorder known as tunnel vision. The aim is to increase the user's knowledge of his environment by superimposing on his own view useful information obtained with image processing. Two different alternatives have been explored to perform the required image processing: a specific purpose algorithm to extract edge detection information, and a cellular neural network with the suitable template. Their implementations in reconfigurable hardware pursue to take advantage of the performance and flexibility that show modern FPGAs. This paper describes the hardware implementation of both the Canny algorithm and the cellular neural network, and the overall system architecture. Results of the implementations and examples of the system functionality are presented.

  8. Augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy with pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ganasen, K A; Ipser, J C; Stein, D J

    2010-09-01

    There has long been interest in combining pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). More recently, basic research on fear extinction has led to interest in augmentation of CBT with the N-methyl Daspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) for anxiety disorders. In this article, the literature on clinical trials that have combined pharmacotherapy and CBT is briefly reviewed, focusing particularly on the anxiety disorders. The literature on CBT and DCS is then systematically reviewed. A series of randomized placebo-controlled trials on panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia suggest that low dose DCS before therapy sessions may be more effective compared with CBT alone in certain anxiety disorders. The strong translational foundation of this work is compelling, and the positive preliminary data gathered so far encourage further work. Issues for future research include delineating optimal dosing, and demonstrating effectiveness in real-world settings.

  9. Image-processing with augmented reality (AR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Hossein R.; Mohurutshe, Pagiel L.; Habibi Lashkari, Arash

    2013-03-01

    In this project, the aim is to discuss and articulate the intent to create an image-based Android Application. The basis of this study is on real-time image detection and processing. It's a new convenient measure that allows users to gain information on imagery right on the spot. Past studies have revealed attempts to create image based applications but have only gone up to crating image finders that only work with images that are already stored within some form of database. Android platform is rapidly spreading around the world and provides by far the most interactive and technical platform for smart-phones. This is why it was important to base the study and research on it. Augmented Reality is this allows the user to maipulate the data and can add enhanced features (video, GPS tags) to the image taken.

  10. Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrooghy, Majid; Anantharaj, Valentine G; Younan, Nicolas H.; Petersen, Walter A.; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Behrangi, Ali; Aanstoos, James

    2013-01-01

    We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

  11. Evolving neural networks through augmenting topologies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Kenneth O; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2002-01-01

    An important question in neuroevolution is how to gain an advantage from evolving neural network topologies along with weights. We present a method, NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), which outperforms the best fixed-topology method on a challenging benchmark reinforcement learning task. We claim that the increased efficiency is due to (1) employing a principled method of crossover of different topologies, (2) protecting structural innovation using speciation, and (3) incrementally growing from minimal structure. We test this claim through a series of ablation studies that demonstrate that each component is necessary to the system as a whole and to each other. What results is significantly faster learning. NEAT is also an important contribution to GAs because it shows how it is possible for evolution to both optimize and complexify solutions simultaneously, offering the possibility of evolving increasingly complex solutions over generations, and strengthening the analogy with biological evolution. PMID:12180173

  12. Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lejing; Weidert, Simon; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro Michael; Riquarts, Christian; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    The Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CamC) system that extends a regular mobile C-arm by a video camera provides an X-ray and video image overlay. Thanks to the mirror construction and one time calibration of the device, the acquired X-ray images are co-registered with the video images without any calibration or registration during the intervention. It is very important to quantify and qualify the system before its introduction into the OR. In this communication, we extended the previously performed overlay accuracy analysis of the CamC system by another clinically important parameter, the applied radiation dose for the patient. Since the mirror of the CamC system will absorb and scatter radiation, we introduce a method for estimating the correct applied dose by using an independent dose measurement device. The results show that the mirror absorbs and scatters 39% of X-ray radiation.

  13. Development of the augmented musculature device.

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Pankretz, Ty

    2004-12-01

    We developed an Augmented Musculature Device (AMD) that assists the movements of its wearer. It has direct application to aiding military and law enforcement personnel, the neurologically impaired, or those requiring any type of cybernetic assistance. The AMD consists of a collection of artificial muscles, each individually actuated, strategically placed along the surface of the human body. The actuators employed by the AMD are known as 'air muscles' and operate pneumatically. They are commercially available from several vendors and are relatively inexpensive. They have a remarkably high force-to-weight ratio--as high as 400:1 (as compared with 16:1 typical of DC motors). They are flexible and elastic, even when powered, making them ideal for interaction with humans.

  14. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  15. Status of Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Lineberry, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems, The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1,5-MW, multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MW, MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable beat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing

  16. Augmented Shock Wave Severance of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for severing or weakening a variety of materials. The technique employs embedding explosive cords into parallel grooves that are cut into a surface of a material. The cords are initiated simultaneously to produce shock waves that progress toward the centerline between the cords and the lower surface of the material. Intersecting incident and reflected waves augment at the centerline to fail or weaken the material in tension. No harmful debris is produced on the opposite side of the material from the explosive cords. The primary focus of the effort described in this paper was to fracture the F-16 aircraft trilaminate canopy. Also, complete severance was achieved in 2024-T4 aluminum plate stock. Possible applications are through canopy egress and crew module severance from military aircraft and separation of rocket vehicle stages and payloads. This approach offers important advantages over explosive methods currently in use.

  17. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  18. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Myocardial Perfusion Reserve Index Is Reduced in Women With Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction: A National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute-Sponsored Study From the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE)

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Louise E.J.; Wei, Janet; Agarwal, Megha; Haft-Baradaran, Afsaneh; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Mehta, Puja K.; Gill, Edward; Johnson, B. Delia; Kenkre, Tanya; Handberg, Eileen; Li, Debiao; Sharif, Behzad; Berman, Daniel S.; Petersen, John; Pepine, Carl J.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel

    2015-01-01

    Background Women with signs and symptoms of ischemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease often have coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), diagnosed by invasive coronary reactivity testing (CRT). While traditional noninvasive stress imaging is often normal in CMD, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) may be able to detect CMD in this population. Methods and Results Vasodilator stress CMRI was performed in 118 women with suspected CMD who had undergone CRT and 21 asymptomatic reference subjects. Semi quantitative evaluation of the first-pass perfusion images was completed to determine myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI). The relationship between CRT findings and MPRI was examined by Pearson correlations, logistic regression and sensitivity/specificity. Symptomatic women had lower mean pharmacologic stress MPRI compared to reference subjects (1.71±0.43 vs. 2.23±0.37, p<0.0001). Lower MPRI was predictive of one or more abnormal CRT variables (OR = 0.78 [0.70, 0.88], p<0.0001, c-statistic 0.78 [0.68, 0.88]). An MPRI threshold of 1.84 predicted CRT abnormality with sensitivity 73% and specificity 74%. Conclusions Noninvasive CMRI MPRI can detect CMD defined by invasive CRT. Further work is aimed to optimize the non-invasive identification and management of CMD patients. PMID:25801710

  19. The glycemic index: methodology and use.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Cyril W C; Augustin, Livia S A; Emam, Azadeh; Josse, Andrea R; Saxena, Nishta; Jenkins, David J A

    2006-01-01

    The glycemic index concept owes much to the dietary fiber hypothesis that fiber would reduce the rate of nutrient absorption and increase the value of carbohydrate foods in the maintenance of health and treatment of disease. However, properties and components of food other than its fiber content contribute to the glycemic and endocrine responses postprandially. The aim of the glycemic index classification of foods was therefore to assist in the physiological classification of carbohydrate foods which, it was hoped, would be of relevance in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Over the past two decades low glycemic index diets have been reported to improve glycemic control in diabetic subjects, to reduce serum lipids in hyperlipidemic subjects and possibly to aid in weight control. In large cohort studies, low glycemic index or glycemic load diets (glycemic index multiplied by total carbohydrate) have also been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduced C-reactive protein concentrations and with a decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. More recently, some case-control and cohort studies have also found positive associations between the dietary glycemic index and the risk of colon, breast and other cancers. While the glycemic index concept continues to be debated and there remain inconsistencies in the data, sufficient positive findings have emerged to suggest that the glycemic index is an aspect of diet of potential importance in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  20. Augmentation of metastasis formation by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, E; Wiltrout, R H; Brunda, M J; Holden, H T; Herberman, R B

    1982-05-15

    Inoculation of thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) into C57BL/6 mice reduced the rate of lung clearance of several intravenously (i.v.) injected murine tumor cells, and increased by up to 100-fold the number of artificially-induced metastatic lung nodules produced by the i.v. injection of B16 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) tumor cells. Maximum effects were observed when PEC were injected either before, or shortly after, tumor cells. Modulation of lung clearance or metastasis formation was observed only with PEC and not with a variety of other cells, such as splenocytes, thymocytes P815 mastocytoma cells, or several macrophage-like cell lines (PU5-1.8 and IC-21). Lysates of PEC were as efficient in reducing lung clearance and augmenting metastasis formation as were intact viable PEC. Lysates of other cell types, including P815 and the macrophage-like cell lines, were unable to produce these effects. PEC populations, enriched for macrophages by adherence to plastic or by percoll density gradient sedimentation, also increased the number of B16-induced artificial metastasis, implicating the macrophage as the cell responsible for these observations. PMID:7095902

  1. Augmented reality system for freehand guide of magnetic endovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Parrini, S; Cutolo, F; Freschi, C; Ferrari, M; Ferrari, V

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic guide of endovascular devices or magnetized therapeutic microparticles to the specific target in the arterial tree is increasingly studied, since it could improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects. Most proposed systems use external permanent magnets attached to robotic manipulators or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems to guide internal carriers to the region of treatment. We aim to simplify this type of procedures, avoiding or reducing the need of robotic arms and MRI systems in the surgical scenario. On account of this we investigated the use of a wearable stereoscopic video see-through augmented reality system to show the hidden vessel to the surgeon; in this way, the surgeon is able to freely move the external magnet, following the showed path, to lead the endovascular magnetic device towards the desired position. In this preliminary study, we investigated the feasibility of such an approach trying to guide a magnetic capsule inside a vascular mannequin. The high rate of success and the positive evaluation provided by the operators represent a good starting point for further developments of the system. PMID:25570003

  2. Ibuprofen augments bilirubin toxicity in rat cortical neuronal culture.

    PubMed

    Berns, Monika; Toennessen, Margit; Koehne, Petra; Altmann, Rodica; Obladen, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Premature infants are at risk for bilirubin-associated brain damage. In cell cultures bilirubin causes neuronal apoptosis and necrosis. Ibuprofen is used to close the ductus arteriosus, and is often given when hyperbilirubinemia is at its maximum. Ibuprofen is known to interfere with bilirubin-albumin binding. We hypothesized that bilirubin toxicity to cultured rat embryonic cortical neurons is augmented by coincubation with ibuprofen. Incubation with ibuprofen above a concentration of 125 microg/mL reduced cell viability, measured by methylthiazole tetrazolium reduction, to 68% of controls (p < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release increased from 29 to 38% (p < 0.01). The vehicle solution did not affect cell viability. Coincubation with 10 microM unconjugated bilirubin (UCB)/human serum albumin in a molar ratio of 3:1 and 250 microg/mL ibuprofen caused additional loss of cell viability and increased LDH release (p < 0.01), DNA fragmentation, and activated caspase-3. Preincubation with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-val-ala-asp-fluoromethyl ketone abolished ibuprofen- and UCB-induced DNA fragmentation. The study demonstrates that bilirubin in low concentration of 10 microM reduces neuron viability and ibuprofen increases this effect. Apoptosis is the underlying cell death mechanism.

  3. Potential Use of Augmented Reality in LIS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wójcik, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this article is the use of augmented reality technology in library and information science education. The aim is to determine the scope and potential uses of augmented reality in the education of information professionals. In order to determine the scope and forms of potential use of AR technology in LIS education a two-step…

  4. Augmenting a Child's Reality: Using Educational Tablet Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Patricia; Karas, Carly; Schofield, Damian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the classroom integration of an innovative technology, augmented reality. Although the process of adding new technologies into a classroom setting can be daunting, the concept of augmented reality has demonstrated the ability to educate students and to assist with their comprehension of a procedural task. One half of the…

  5. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91... Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any flight crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an...

  6. The Local Games Lab ABQ: Homegrown Augmented Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the use of augmented reality games formerly required extensive material resources and expertise to implement above and beyond what might be possible within the usual educational contexts. Currently, the more common availability of hardware in these contexts and the existence of easy-to-use, general purpose augmented reality design…

  7. Augmented Reality, the Future of Contextual Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungkur, Roopesh Kevin; Panchoo, Akshay; Bhoyroo, Nitisha Kirtee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to show the relevance of augmented reality (AR) in mobile learning for the 21st century. With AR, any real-world environment can be augmented by providing users with accurate digital overlays. AR is a promising technology that has the potential to encourage learners to explore learning materials from a totally new…

  8. 14 CFR 25.945 - Thrust or power augmentation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... augmentation liquid tank capacity available for the use of each engine must be large enough to allow operation of the airplane under the approved procedures for the use of liquid-augmented power. The computation of liquid consumption must be based on the maximum approved rate appropriate for the desired...

  9. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills (PARoD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ressa, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A percussive augmenter is being developed and it is designed to add ultrasonic hammering to a conventional commercial rotary drill through an adapter using a piezoelectric actuator. The combination of ultrasonic hammering and rotation creates a drill that requires low power and low axial load while providing faster penetration than conventional rotary-only drills. These characteristics make percussive augmentation of rotary drills ideal for not only planetary exploration but commercial applications as well. The purpose of this internship was to produce, test, and optimize an augmenter that drives a 2 inch diameter bit. This task was part of the percussive augmenter's phase II of an ongoing contract and it involved increasing the capability of the .25 inch version of the augmenter prototype that was developed in phase I. Due to fabrication delays of the augmenter, an extensive part of the test effort was conducted using previous rotary and hammer drill prototypes. These tests focused on drilling deep over long periods of time to provide for effective stress test of the drill. Modifications were made to the drill, its components, and the testing procedure to achieve desired borehole depths. These results were used to start initial testing on the 2 inch augmenter and provide preliminary data on the augmenter's ability to significantly improve penetration rate over conventional rotary-only drills.

  10. On Location Learning: Authentic Applied Science with Networked Augmented Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Eric; Klopfer, Eric; Perry, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The learning of science can be made more like the practice of science through authentic simulated experiences. We have created a networked handheld Augmented Reality environment that combines the authentic role-playing of Augmented Realities and the underlying models of Participatory Simulations. This game, known as Outbreak @ The Institute, is…

  11. Augmentation of Cognition and Perception Through Advanced Synthetic Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Williams, Steve P.; McNabb, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic Vision System technology augments reality and creates a virtual visual meteorological condition that extends a pilot's cognitive and perceptual capabilities during flight operations when outside visibility is restricted. The paper describes the NASA Synthetic Vision System for commercial aviation with an emphasis on how the technology achieves Augmented Cognition objectives.

  12. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  13. Augmentation in Restless Legs Syndrome: Treatment with Gradual Medication Modification.

    PubMed

    Rosenstein, Adam; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic drugs can cause augmentation during the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). We previously reported that sudden withdrawal of dopaminergic treatment was poorly tolerated. We now report our experience with gradual withdrawal of the dopaminergic drug during the drug substitution process using a retrospective chart review with comparison to previous data. Seven patients with RLS and dopaminergic drug-induced augmentation were treated with a gradual withdrawal of the offending drug and replacement with an alternative medication. Compared to sudden withdrawal, measured outcomes were similar but gradual tapering was better tolerated. We conclude that for augmentation in RLS, gradual tapering of the augmentation-inducing dopaminergic drug is better tolerated than sudden withdrawal. The optimal approach to treating augmentation has not been established and may differ between patients. Further study with direct comparison of strategies and a larger patient population is needed to confirm our preliminary observations.

  14. Augmentation in Restless Legs Syndrome: Treatment with Gradual Medication Modification

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Adam; Rabin, Marcie; Kurlan, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic drugs can cause augmentation during the treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). We previously reported that sudden withdrawal of dopaminergic treatment was poorly tolerated. We now report our experience with gradual withdrawal of the dopaminergic drug during the drug substitution process using a retrospective chart review with comparison to previous data. Seven patients with RLS and dopaminergic drug-induced augmentation were treated with a gradual withdrawal of the offending drug and replacement with an alternative medication. Compared to sudden withdrawal, measured outcomes were similar but gradual tapering was better tolerated. We conclude that for augmentation in RLS, gradual tapering of the augmentation-inducing dopaminergic drug is better tolerated than sudden withdrawal. The optimal approach to treating augmentation has not been established and may differ between patients. Further study with direct comparison of strategies and a larger patient population is needed to confirm our preliminary observations. PMID:26106453

  15. Creating Tangible Interfaces by Augmenting Physical Objects with Multimodal Language

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, David R. ); Cohen, Philip R.

    2001-01-01

    Rasa is a tangible augmented reality environment that digitally enhances the existing paper-based command and control capability in a military command post. By observing and understanding the users' speech, pen, and touch-based multimodal language, Rasa computationally augments the physical objects on a command post map, linking these items to digital representations of the same; for example, linking a paper map to the world and Post-it notes to military units. Herein, we give a thorough account of Rasa's underlying multiagent framework, and its recognition, understanding, and multimodal integration components. Moreover, we examine five properties of language: generativity, comprehensibility, compositionality, referentiality, and, at times, persistence--that render it suitable as an augmentation approach, contrasting these properties to those of other augmentation methods. It is these properties of language that allow users of Rasa to augment physical objects, transforming them into tangible interfaces.

  16. A lifting surface theory for thrust augmenting ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevilaqua, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    The circulation theory of airfoil lift has been applied to calculate the performance of thrust augmenting ejectors. The ejector shroud is considered to be 'flying' in the secondary velocity field induced by the entrainment of the primary jet, so that the augmenting thrust is viewed as analogous to the lift on an airfoil. Vortex lattice methods are utilized to compute the thrust augmentation from the force on the flaps. The augmentation is shown to be a function of the length and shape of the flaps, as well as their position and orientation. Predictions of this new theory are compared with the results of classical methods of calculating the augmentation by integration of the stream thrust.

  17. NEW CONCEPTS IN INDEXING.

    PubMed

    SHANK, R

    1965-07-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting.

  18. Cement leakage in pedicle screw augmentation: a prospective analysis of 98 patients and 474 augmented pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jan U; Baldauf, Joerg; Marx, Sascha; Kirsch, Michael; Schroeder, Henry W S; Pillich, Dirk T

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Loosening and pullout of pedicle screws are well-known problems in pedicle screw fixation surgery. Augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement, first described as early as 1975, increases the pedicle-screw interface and pullout force in osteoporotic vertebrae. The aim of the present study was to identify cement leakage and pulmonary embolism rates in a large prospective single-center series of pedicle screw augmentations. METHODS All patients who underwent cement-augmented pedicle screw placement between May 2006 and October 2010 at the authors' institution were included in this prospective cohort study. Perivertebral cement leakage and pulmonary cement embolism were evaluated with a CT scan of the area of operation and with a radiograph of the chest, respectively. RESULTS A total of 98 patients underwent placement of cement-augmented pedicle screws; 474 augmented screws were inserted in 237 vertebrae. No symptomatic perivertebral cement leakage or symptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was observed, but asymptomatic perivertebral cement leakage was seen in 88 patients (93.6%) and in 165 augmented vertebrae (73.3%). Cement leakage most often occurred in the perivertebral venous system. Clinically asymptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was found in 4 patients (4.1%). CONCLUSIONS Perivertebral cement leakage often occurs in pedicle screw augmentation, but in most cases, it is clinically asymptomatic. Cement augmentation should be performed under continuous fluoroscopy to avoid high-volume leakage. Alternative strategies, such as use of expandable screws, should be examined in more detail for patients at high risk of screw loosening.

  19. Augmentation of IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chi-Chao

    The first edition of the IUE Ultraviolet Spectral Atlas was published in 1983 by Wu et al in printed and magnetic tape versions and it has been widely used by the astronomical community for research and teaching purposes. It was recognized then that numerous spectral type-luminosity class combinations were not available in the Atlas, but the authors decided that it was important to provide the Atlas to the community early. Now we are proposing a 3-year program to augment the Atlas (1) to provide as complete a coverage of the spectral type-luminosity class as possible and (2) to provide more than one star per spectral type-luminosity class combination to guard against variability and pecularity and to allow a finite range of temperature, gravity and metallicity in a given combination. Almost all the data in the 1983 Atlas are the high quality, high SIN trailed spectra, we propose to obtain trailed spectra or images with multiple exposures in the large aperture such that the data for the augmentation effort will have the same quality and SIN as the 1983 Atlas. Our primary goal is to collect the data and make them available to the community immediately (without claiming the 6-month proprietary right) and at the end of each year we will provide National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) an annual incremental delivery of the data at an earliest possible date, so the data can be distributed to the general astronomical community. At the end of the 3rd year, our delivery to the NSSDC will contain all the data collected by this program combined with those from the 1983 Atlas and 50 stars from the archive. These data can be used by other astronomers for stellar population synthesis of galaxies, to study the nature of distant galaxies, to attempt establishing a UV spectral classification system, as comparison stars for interstellar extinction studies and for peculiar objects or binary systems, for the study of the effects of temperature, gravity and metallicity on stellar UV

  20. Ionospheric Challenges for GNSS Based Augmentation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, P.; Valladares, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The ionosphere is a highly dynamic physical phenomenon that presents a variable source of error for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS based operational systems. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Wide-Area Augmentation System (WAAS) was designed to enhance the GNSS standard positioning service by providing additional accuracy, availability and integrity that is sufficient for use in commercial aviation. It is the first of a number of planned regional Satellite Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS). Other systems in development include the European EGNOS system, the MSAS system in Japan and the GAGAN system in India. In addition, the South American countries are investigating the feasibility of operating an SBAS system in this region. Much of the WAAS ionospheric research and development focused on defining and mitigating ionospheric challenges characteristic of the mid-latitude regions, where the ionosphere is well studied and relatively quiescent. The EGNOS and MSAS systems will primarily operate under a similarly quiescent mid-latitude ionosphere. SBAS system development in South America, India and other low-latitude regions, however, will have to contend with much more extreme conditions. These conditions include strong spatial and temporal gradients, plasma depletions and scintillation. All of these conditions have a potential to limit SBAS performance in the low latitude regions. This presentation will review the effects that the ionosphere has on the mid-latitude WAAS system. It will present the techniques that are used to mitigate ionospheric disturbances induced on the system during severe geomagnetic activity and it will quantify the effect that this activity has on system performance. The presentation will then present data from the South American Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) that can be used to infer the ionospheric effects on SBAS performance in the most challenging low-latitude ionospheric environment

  1. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  2. Employing Augmented-Reality-Embedded Instruction to Disperse the Imparities of Individual Differences in Earth Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-ping; Wang, Chang-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Studies have proven that merging hands-on and online learning can result in an enhanced experience in learning science. In contrast to traditional online learning, multiple in-classroom activities may be involved in an augmented-reality (AR)-embedded e-learning process and thus could reduce the effects of individual differences. Using a…

  3. LCD masks for spatial augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, Quinn Y. J.; Reetz, Daniel; Smoot, Lanny

    2014-03-01

    One aim of Spatial Augmented Reality is to visually integrate synthetic objects into real-world spaces amongst physical objects, viewable by many observers without 3D glasses, head-mounted displays or mobile screens. In common implementations, using beam-combiners, scrim projection, or transparent self-emissive displays, the synthetic object's and real-world scene's light combine additively. As a result, synthetic objects appear low-contrast and semitransparent against well-lit backgrounds, and do not cast shadows. These limitations prevent synthetic objects from appearing solid and visually integrated into the real-world space. We use a transparent LCD panel as a programmable dynamic mask. The LCD panel displaying the synthetic object's silhouette mask is colocated with the object's color image, both staying aligned for all points-of-view. The mask blocks the background providing occlusion, presents a black level for high-contrast images, blocks scene illumination thus casting true shadows, and prevents blow-by in projection scrim arrangements. We have several implementations of SAR with LCD masks: 1) beam-combiner with an LCD mask, 2) scrim projection with an LCD mask, and 3) transparent OLED display with an LCD mask. Large format (80" diagonal) and dual layer volumetric variations are also implemented.

  4. Augmentation of tendon-to-bone healing.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Wolf, Megan R; Ochi, Mitsuo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Doral, M Nedim; Lubowitz, James H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-03-19

    Tendon-to-bone healing is vital to the ultimate success of the various surgical procedures performed to repair injured tendons. Achieving tendon-to-bone healing that is functionally and biologically similar to native anatomy can be challenging because of the limited regeneration capacity of the tendon-bone interface. Orthopaedic basic-science research strategies aiming to augment tendon-to-bone healing include the use of osteoinductive growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, gene therapy, enveloping the grafts with periosteum, osteoconductive materials, cell-based therapies, biodegradable scaffolds, and biomimetic patches. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shockwave treatment may affect tendon-to-bone healing by means of mechanical forces that stimulate biological cascades at the insertion site. Application of various loading methods and immobilization times influence the stress forces acting on the recently repaired tendon-to-bone attachment, which eventually may change the biological dynamics of the interface. Other approaches, such as the use of coated sutures and interference screws, aim to deliver biological factors while achieving mechanical stability by means of various fixators. Controlled Level-I human trials are required to confirm the promising results from in vitro or animal research studies elucidating the mechanisms underlying tendon-to-bone healing and to translate these results into clinical practice.

  5. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1990-05-01

    Since 1986 Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF) has participated in the Columbia Basin Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This interagency project was developed to provide a standardized level of fish health information from all Agencies rearing fish in the Columbia Basin. Agencies involved in the project are: WDF, Washington Department of Wildlife, Oregon Fish and Wildlife, Idaho Fish and Game, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. WDF has actively participated in this project, and completed its third year of fish health monitoring, data collection and pathogen inspection during 1989. This report will present data collected from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 1989 and will compare sampling results from screening at spawning for viral pathogens and bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and evaluation of causes of pre-spawning loss. The juvenile analysis will include pre-release examination results, mid-term rearing exam results and evaluation of the Organosomatic Analysis completed on stocks. 2 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Augmented mixed models for clustered proportion data

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Galvis, Diana M; Lachos, Victor H

    2015-01-01

    Often in biomedical research, we deal with continuous (clustered) proportion responses ranging between zero and one quantifying the disease status of the cluster units. Interestingly, the study population might also consist of relatively disease-free as well as highly diseased subjects, contributing to proportion values in the interval [0, 1]. Regression on a variety of parametric densities with support lying in (0, 1), such as beta regression, can assess important covariate effects. However, they are deemed inappropriate due to the presence of zeros and/or ones. To evade this, we introduce a class of general proportion density, and further augment the probabilities of zero and one to this general proportion density, controlling for the clustering. Our approach is Bayesian and presents a computationally convenient framework amenable to available freeware. Bayesian case-deletion influence diagnostics based on q-divergence measures are automatic from the Markov chain Monte Carlo output. The methodology is illustrated using both simulation studies and application to a real dataset from a clinical periodontology study. PMID:25491718

  7. Evaluating User Experience of Augmented Reality Eyeglasses.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Luciano; Orso, Valeria; Beretta, Andrea; Jacucci, Giulio; Spagnolli, Anna; Rimondi, Romina

    2015-01-01

    Augmented reality based applications have been experimented with in various contexts. Typically, the interaction is supported by handled devices, which, in specific scenarios, may hinder the interaction and spoil the experience of use, as the user is forced to hold the device and to keep her eyes on it at all times. The recent launch on the market of light-weight, unobtrusive head-mounted displays may change this circumstance. Nevertheless, investigations are needed to understand if such head-worn devices effectively outperform handheld devices in terms of comfort and pleasant experience of use. Here we present two experiments aimed at assessing the comfort of wearing a head-worn, see-through AR viewer in both a controlled and a natural setting. Besides the comfort of wearing the device, aspects related to the user experience were also investigated in the field evaluation. Our findings suggest that the head-mounted display examined is comfortable to wear regardless of the context of use. Interestingly in the field trails, participants did not express concern for the impression they would have made on other people and the experience of use was overall pleasant. Possible issues related to visual fatigue emerged.

  8. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    PubMed

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis.

  9. Augmented standard model and the simplest scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Sau Lan

    2015-11-01

    The experimental discovery of the Higgs particle in 2012 by the ATLAS Collaboration and the CMS Collaboration at CERN ushers in a new era of particle physics. On the basis of these data, scalar quarks and scalar leptons are added to each generation of quarks and leptons. The resulting augmented standard model has fermion-boson symmetry for each of three generations, but only one Higgs doublet giving masses to all the elementary particles. A specific special case, the simplest scenario, is studied in detail. In this case, there are twenty six quadratic divergences, and all these divergences are cancelled provided that one single relation between the masses is satisfied. This mass relation contains a great deal of information, and in particular determines the masses of all the right-handed scalar quarks and scalar leptons, while gives relations for the masses of the left-handed ones. An alternative procedure is also given with a different starting point and less reliance on the experimental data. The result is of course the same.

  10. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  11. Augmenting Transition Probabilities for Neutral Atomic Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrazas-Salines, Imelda; Park, Chul; Strawa, Anthony W.; Hartman, G. Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The transition probability values for a number of neutral atomic nitrogen (NI) lines in the visible wavelength range are determined in order to augment those given in the National Bureau of Standards Tables. These values are determined from experimentation as well as by using the published results of other investigators. The experimental determination of the lines in the 410 to 430 nm range was made from the observation of the emission from the arc column of an arc-heated wind tunnel. The transition probability values of these NI lines are determined to an accuracy of +/- 30% by comparison of their measured intensities with those of the atomic oxygen (OI) multiplet at around 615 nm. The temperature of the emitting medium is determined both using a multiple-layer model, based on a theoretical model of the flow in the arc column, and an empirical single-layer model. The results show that the two models lead to the same values of transition probabilities for the NI lines.

  12. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1988 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1989-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. Second year activities focused on full implementation of disease surveillance activities and histopathological support services to participating state agencies. Persistent and sometimes severe disease losses were caused by infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho and in spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River. Diagnostic capability was enhanced by the installation, for field use, of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center for the detection and assay of bacterial kidney disease and by a dot-blot'' training session for virus identification at the Lower Columbia Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River basin National Fish hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis. This report briefly describes work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at those hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1988. 2 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1990-08-15

    Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Contract AI79-87BP35585 was implemented on July 20, 1987. This report briefly describes third-year work being done to meet contract requirements for fish disease surveillance at Service facilities in the Columbia River basin and for histopathological support services provided to participating state agencies. It also summarizes the health status of fish reared at participating Service hatcheries and provides a summary of case history data for calendar year 1989. Items of note included severe disease losses to infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in summer steelhead trout in Idaho, the detection of IHN virus in juvenile spring chinook salmon at hatcheries on the lower Columbia River, and improved bacterial kidney disease (BKD) detection and adult assay by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology at the Dworshak Fish Health Center. Complete diagnostic and inspection services were provided to 13 Columbia River Basin National Fish Hatcheries. Case history data was fully documented in a computerized data base for storage and analysis and is summarized herein. 2 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Wave Augmented Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A wave augmented diffuser for a centrifugal compressor surrounds the outlet of an impeller that rotates on a drive shaft having an axis of rotation. The impeller brings flow in in an axial direction and imparts kinetic energy to the flow discharging it in radial and tangential directions. The flow is discharged into a plurality of circumferentially disposed wave chambers. The wave chambers are periodically opened and closed by a rotary valve such that the flow through the diffuser is unsteady. The valve includes a plurality of valve openings that are periodically brought into and out of fluid communication with the wave chambers. When the wave chambers are closed, a reflected compression wave moves upstream towards the diffuser bringing the flow into the wave chamber to rest. This action recovers the kinetic energy from the flow and limits any boundary layer growth. The flow is then discharged in an axial direction through an opening in the valve plate when the valve plate is rotated to an open position. The diffuser thus efficiently raises the static pressure of the fluid and discharges an axially directed flow at a radius that is predominantly below the maximum radius of the diffuser.

  15. Directing driver attention with augmented reality cues

    PubMed Central

    Rusch, Michelle L.; Schall, Mark C.; Gavin, Patrick; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Vecera, Shaun; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This simulator study evaluated the effects of augmented reality (AR) cues designed to direct the attention of experienced drivers to roadside hazards. Twenty-seven healthy middle-aged licensed drivers with a range of attention capacity participated in a 54 mile (1.5 hour) drive in an interactive fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant received AR cues to potential roadside hazards in six simulated straight (9 mile long) rural roadway segments. Drivers were evaluated on response time for detecting a potentially hazardous event, detection accuracy for target (hazard) and non-target objects, and headway with respect to the hazards. Results showed no negative outcomes associated with interference. AR cues did not impair perception of non-target objects, including for drivers with lower attentional capacity. Results showed near significant response time benefits for AR cued hazards. AR cueing increased response rate for detecting pedestrians and warning signs but not vehicles. AR system false alarms and misses did not impair driver responses to potential hazards. PMID:24436635

  16. Predictive Design Morphologies for Gravel Augmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2004-12-01

    Spawning habitat rehabilitation (SHR) is an interdisciplinary practice merging hydrology, geomorphology, aquatic ecology, and civil engineering to improve existing aquatic habitat and restoring fluvial complexity. Although SHR is widespread, it needs a science-based design process. The Spawning Habitat Integrated Rehabilitation Approach (SHIRA) is a scientifically peer-reviewed framework for doing SHR on regulated rivers. Although SHIRA has shown success with gravel augmentation on the Mokulmne River using hypothesis driven designs, the goal of this study was to evaluate several more natural processes for their potential in SHR, and to do so at the geomorphic-unit scale for the first time. Multiple design hypotheses were included in 6 SHR scenarios for rehabilitating the Lewiston Dam reach of the Trinity River, CA. Morphologies tested for their process mechanics included central bars, transverse-oblique bars, riffles, point bars, and bench-constricted pools. Varying longitudinal and lateral approach slopes for each feature were evaluated as well as feature sequencing. For each design scenario, a 2D model predicted local depth, velocity, shields stress, depth of scour, and habitat suitability for life stages of chinook and steelhead salmon at 300 and 6000 cfs. Data were analyzed to determine if conceptually expected geomorphic and ecological outcomes were in fact predicted by the 2D model. One design will be selected for actual construction in 2005 to evaluate 2D model predictions.

  17. Augmented force output in skeletal muscle fibres of Xenopus following a preceding bout of activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bruton, J D; Westerblad, H; Katz, A; Lännergren, J

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of a brief period of activity on subsequent isometric tetanic force production was investigated in single muscle fibres of Xenopus laevis. 2. Following a train of ten tetani separated by 4 s intervals, tetanic force was significantly augmented by about 10%. The tetanic force augmentation persisted for at least 15 min and then slowly subsided. A similar potentiation was seen following trains of five and twenty tetani. 3. During the period of tetanic force potentiation, tetanic calcium was reduced by more than 30%, and intracellular pH was reduced from 7.15 +/- 0.07 to 7.03 +/- 0.11 (n = 4). 4. Fibre swelling was greatest at 1 min and then subsided over 15-20 min and possibly accounted for a small part of the observed force potentiation. 5. A reduction in the inorganic phosphate (P1) concentration of more than 40% was found in fibres frozen in liquid nitrogen at the peak of force potentiation compared with resting fibres. 6. It is concluded that the augmentation of tetanic force found after a brief preceding bout of activity is due to a reduction in inorganic phosphate. This mechanism may underlie the improved performance observed in athletes after warm-up. Images Figure 2 PMID:8735706

  18. The use of augmented auditory feedback to improve arm reaching in stroke: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    Purpose After practice, augmented feedback is the most important factor that facilitates motor learning. We assess the potential effectiveness of two types of augmented auditory feedback on the re-learning of arm reaching in individuals with stroke: (a) real-time knowledge of performance (KP) feedback and (b) rhythmic cueing in the form of knowledge of results (KR) feedback. Method Five participants with stroke underwent short-term practice, reaching with their affected arm with KP, KR and no feedback, on separate days. We assessed range of motion of the upper extremity (shoulder, elbow) and trunk, mean error and variability of the performed trajectory, and movement time, before and after training. Results All participants benefitted from practice with feedback, though the effects varied across participants and feedback type. In three participants, KP feedback increased elbow extension and reduced compensatory trunk flexion. In four participants, KR feedback reduced movement time taken to perform the reach. Of note, one participant benefitted mostly from KP feedback, which increased shoulder flexion and elbow extension, and decreased compensatory trunk flexion and mean error. Conclusions Within day practice with augmented auditory feedback improves reaching in individuals with stroke. This warrants further investigation with longer practice periods in a larger sample size. PMID:26314746

  19. Breast Augmentation after Conservation Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, James; Hsieh, Frank; Boyages, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of data regarding outcomes for patients undergoing breast augmentation with implants after breast conservation surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy. This retrospective study examined outcomes for patients with breast implant-only augmentation after BCS and radiotherapy. Methods: Between June 1998 and December 2010, 671 women underwent prosthetic breast reconstruction. Nineteen patients (2.8%) underwent an augmentation after BCS and radiotherapy. The mean age was 55.8 years (range, 40–69 years). Sixteen of these patients underwent one-stage implant-only breast augmentation, whereas 3 patients underwent two-stage expander and then implant augmentation. Results: All surgeries were successful. The average size of breast implant used was 258.7 g. Seven patients also received contralateral augmentation with an average implant size of 232.2 g. One patient received oral antibiotics for minor wound infection. Patients were judged to have an excellent (14/19; 73.7%), good (3/19; 15.8%), or fair (2/19; 10.5%) cosmetic result. Conclusion: The breasts of selected patients with breast cancer after BCS and radiotherapy. with asymmetry can be adequately augmented with breast implants alone. PMID:27536475

  20. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  1. Curcumin augments the cytostatic and anti-invasive effects of mitoxantrone on carcinosarcoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Luty, Marcin; Kwiecień, Edyta; Firlej, Magdalena; Łabędź-Masłowska, Anna; Paw, Milena; Madeja, Zbigniew; Czyż, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    Numerous adverse effects limit the applicability of mitoxantrone for the treatment of drug-resistant tumors, including carcinosarcoma. Here, we estimated the additive effects of mitoxantrone and curcumin, a plant-derived biomolecule isolated from Curcuma longa, on the neoplastic and invasive potential of carcinosarcoma cells in vitro. Curcumin augmented the cytostatic, cytotoxic and anti-invasive effects of mitoxantrone on the Walker-256 cells. It also strengthened the inhibitory effects of mitoxantrone on the motility of drug-resistant Walker-256 cells that had retained viability after a long-term mitoxantrone/curcumin treatment. Thus, curcumin reduces the effective doses of mitoxantrone and augments its interference with the invasive potential of drug-resistant carcinosarcoma cells. PMID:27390785

  2. Tissue augmentation and replacement of a heel fat pad with a decellularized sterile human dermal matrix.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Gerit

    2012-07-01

    The use of xenografts and allografts has been primarily direct- ed at chronic wounds and tendon repair. Currently, there are no known devices in this category that can successfully be used to augment tis- sue. Patients who have undergone trauma and subsequent surgery, par- ticularly in weight-bearing areas, may experience pain with pressure or ambulation at the site. This report illustrates the use of an allograft for tissue augmentation in a young individual who was involved in a motor vehicle accident resulting in loss of the plantar fat pad. An allograft was successfully used for tissue replacement, thereby reducing pain and facilitating weight-bearing ambulation. . PMID:25874540

  3. Augmenting real data with synthetic data: an application in assessing radio-isotope identification algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L; Hamada, Michael; Graves, Todd; Myers, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The performance of Radio-Isotope Identification (RIID) algorithms using gamma spectroscopy is increasingly important. For example, sensors at locations that screen for illicit nuclear material rely on isotope identification to resolve innocent nuisance alarms arising from naturally occurring radioactive material. Recent data collections for RIID testing consist of repeat measurements for each of several scenarios to test RIID algorithms. Efficient allocation of measurement resources requires an appropriate number of repeats for each scenario. To help allocate measurement resources in such data collections for RIID algorithm testing, we consider using only a few real repeats per scenario. In order to reduce uncertainty in the estimated RIID algorithm performance for each scenario, the potential merit of augmenting these real repeats with realistic synthetic repeats is also considered. Our results suggest that for the scenarios and algorithms considered, approximately 10 real repeats augmented with simulated repeats will result in an estimate having comparable uncertainty to the estimate based on using 60 real repeats.

  4. Avoiding Focus Shifts in Surgical Telementoring Using an Augmented Reality Transparent Display.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Daniel; Popescu, Voicu; Cabrera, Maria Eugenia; Shanghavi, Aditya; Gomez, Gerardo; Marley, Sherri; Mullis, Brian; Wachs, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Conventional surgical telementoring systems require the trainee to shift focus away from the operating field to a nearby monitor to receive mentor guidance. This paper presents the next generation of telementoring systems. Our system, STAR (System for Telementoring with Augmented Reality) avoids focus shifts by placing mentor annotations directly into the trainee's field of view using augmented reality transparent display technology. This prototype was tested with pre-medical and medical students. Experiments were conducted where participants were asked to identify precise operating field locations communicated to them using either STAR or a conventional telementoring system. STAR was shown to improve accuracy and to reduce focus shifts. The initial STAR prototype only provides an approximate transparent display effect, without visual continuity between the display and the surrounding area. The current version of our transparent display provides visual continuity by showing the geometry and color of the operating field from the trainee's viewpoint. PMID:27046545

  5. Minimally invasive subnasal elevation and antral membrane balloon elevation along with bone augmentation and implants placement.

    PubMed

    Kfir, Efraim; Kfir, Vered; Goldstein, Moshe; Mazor, Ziv; Kaluski, Edo

    2012-08-01

    Atrophic edentulous anterior maxilla is a challenging site for implant placement and has been successfully treated surgically by anterior maxillary osteoplasty. This procedure is associated with considerable discomfort, morbidity, and cost-and consequently reduced patient acceptance. The efficacy and safety of minimally invasive bone augmentation of the posterior maxilla has not been extended thus far to the anterior subnasal maxilla. We present 2 representative cases in which minimally invasive subnasal floor elevation was performed along with minimally invasive antral membrane balloon elevation. Both segments underwent bone grafting and implant placement during the same sitting. Minimally invasive anterior maxilla bone augmentation appears to be feasible. Designated instruments for alveolar ridge splitting and nasal mucosa elevation are likely to further enhance this initial favorable experience.

  6. Requirements for PKC-augmented JNK activation by MKK4/7

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Bergami, Pablo; Ronai, Ze'ev

    2008-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are activated in response to stress, DNA damage, and cytokines by MKK4 and MKK7. We recently demonstrated that PKC can augment the degree of JNK activation by phosphorylating JNK, which requires the adaptor protein RACK1. Here we report on the conditions required for PKC-dependent JNK activation. In vitro kinase assays reveal that PKC phosphorylation of JNK is not sufficient for its activation but rather augments JNK activation by canonical JNK upstream kinases MKK4 or MKK7 alone or in combination. Further, to enhance JNK activity, PKC phosphorylation of JNK should precede its phosphorylation by MKK4/7. Inhibition of PKC phosphorylation of JNK affects both early and late phases of JNK activation following UV-irradiation and reduces the apoptotic response mediated by JNK. These data provide important insight into the requirements for PKC activation of JNK signaling. PMID:18182317

  7. An experimental study of a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce Lowell

    1989-01-01

    Flow field measurements were obtained in a three-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire anemometry. The primary nozzle, segmented into twelve slots of aspect ratio 3.0, was tested at a pressure ratio of 1.15. Results are presented on the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and Reynolds stress progressions in the mixing chamber of the constant area ejector. The segmented nozzle was found to produce streamwise vortices that may increase the mixing efficiency of the ejector flow field. Compared to free jet results, the jet development is reduced by the presence of the ejector walls. The resulting thrust augmentation ratio of this ejector was also calculated to be 1.34.

  8. An analysis of a candidate control algorithm for a ride quality augmentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of a candidate algorithm for a ride quality augmentation system. The algorithm consists of a full-state feedback control law based on optimal control output weighting, estimators for angle of attack and sideslip, and a maneuvering algorithm. The control law is shown to perform well by both frequency and time domain analysis. The rms vertical acceleration is reduced by about 40 percent over the whole mission flight envelope. The estimators for the angle of attack and sideslip avoid the often inaccurate or costly direct measurement of those angles. The maneuvering algorithm will allow the augmented airplane to respond to pilot inputs. The design characteristics and performance are documented by the closed-loop eigenvalues; rms levels of vertical, lateral, and longitudinal acceleration; and representative time histories and frequency response.

  9. Use of augmented feedback for the modification of the pedaling mechanics of cyclists.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, D J; Cavanagh, P R

    1990-03-01

    On-line computer representation of forces applied to the pedals during a 90-degree sector of the pedaling cycle were used to train a group of cyclists to alter their pattern of force application while they cycled on a stationary cycle. The subjects rode for 32 min each day for ten days. During these training rides, three cyclists were given augmented feedback on only their pedaling rate, while three other cyclists were presented with augmented, visual feedback on the magnitude of force application in the sector of interest as well as cadence. At the end of the training period it was noted that the experimental group showed significantly reduced pedal forces in the sector of interest while the control group did not. It was concluded that this technique of modifying a well-practised task was an effective one and that it could be used to explore various training modalities and other pedaling styles.

  10. Personnel Management Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Carol

    1984-01-01

    Concentrates on four specialized indexes that are devoted exclusively to personnel and human resources topics: "Personnel Literature,""Personnel Management Abstracts,""Human Resources Abstracts," and "Work Related Abstracts." A concluding section compares strengths and weaknesses of these publications to three broader indexes: "The Business…

  11. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  12. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  13. A Factor Simplicity Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an index for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)

  14. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  15. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  16. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  17. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  18. Augmenting endothelial repair in diabetes: role of bone marrow-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Richard E

    2013-10-01

    Endothelial loss, a consequence of both higher rates of apoptosis and diminished repair, is a major factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. Although the repair process previously was viewed to arise primarily from the proliferation and migration of neighbouring endothelial cells, it now has become evident that certain bone marrow-derived cells contribute substantially to this process. Unfortunately, both the number and function of such cells are reduced in diabetes. Here, we first review the effects of current therapies on angiogenic bone marrow-derived cells and then explore future strategies to augment their number and function, aiming to reduce both the microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes.

  19. Machine aided indexing from natural language text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

  20. 3D augmented reality with integral imaging display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xin; Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging display for augmented reality is presented. By implementing the pseudoscopic-to-orthoscopic conversion method, elemental image arrays with different capturing parameters can be transferred into the identical format for 3D display. With the proposed merging algorithm, a new set of elemental images for augmented reality display is generated. The newly generated elemental images contain both the virtual objects and real world scene with desired depth information and transparency parameters. The experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed 3D augmented reality with integral imaging.

  1. Augmented reality for underground pipe inspection and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Pretlove, John R. G.

    1998-12-01

    The University of Surrey is engaged in developing augmented reality systems and teleoperation techniques for enhanced visual analysis and task performance in hostile environments. One particular current project in the UK is addressing the development of stereo vision systems, augmented reality, image processing techniques and specialist robotic vehicles which may be used for the future examination and maintenance of underground sewage pipes. This paper describes the components of the stereo vision and augmented reality system and illustrates some preliminary results of the use of the stereo robotic system mounted on a mobile laboratory vehicle and calibrated using a pin-hole camera model.

  2. Pyriform Aperture Augmentation as An Adjunct to Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Yaremchuk, Michael J; Vibhakar, Dev

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal deficiency in the central midface impacts nasal aesthetics. This lack of lower face projection can be corrected by alloplastic augmentation of the pyriform aperture. Creating convexity in the deficient midface will make the nose seem less prominent. Augmentation of the pyriform aperture is, therefore, often a useful adjunct during the rhinoplasty procedure. Augmenting the skeleton in this area can alter the projection of the nasal base, the nasolabial angle, and the vertical plane of the lip. The implant design and surgical techniques described here are extensions of others' previous efforts to improve paranasal aesthetics. PMID:26616706

  3. Cable-Augmented, Quad Ligament Tenodesis Scapholunate Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bain, Gregory I; Watts, Adam C; McLean, James; Lee, Yu C; Eng, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Maintaining reduction of the scapholunate interval after reconstruction can be difficult. The authors performed scapholunate reconstruction using tensionable suture anchors in 8 patients. The anchors provide a fixed cable that both fixes the graft, and reduces the scapholunate diastasis and maintains reduction. The flexor carpi radialis tendon graft stabilizes not only the volar scaphotrapezial ligament, and dorsal scapholunate ligament, but also the dorsal intercarpal and dorsal radiocarpal ligament. The Berger flap is closed using an ulnar advancement capsulodesis that further reinforces the dorsal intercarpal and dorsal radiocarpal ligament. The mean pain score improved from 5.8 to 2.1. Mean extension was 56° (91% of contralateral side), flexion 44° (70% of contralateral side), and grip strength was 41kg (95% of the contralateral side). The mean scapholunate angle was 71°, radiolunate angle 16° and scapholunate interval 3.0 mm. The cable augmented, quad ligament scapholunate ligament reconstruction offers theoretical advantages but long term follow up is required.

  4. Objective Clinical Assessment of Posture Patterns after Implant Breast Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Mandrini, Silvia; Finotti, Valentina; Dall’Angelo, Anna; Malovini, Alberto; Chierico, Simona; Faga, Angela; Dalla Toffola, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Background: An increased weight of the breasts causes several spinal postural alterations that reduce the ability to perform dynamic tasks requiring a stable balance. The effects of the increased weight of the breasts on static posture after implant breast augmentation have not been investigated yet. Methods: Forty volunteer healthy women were asked to wear different sized breast implants (800, 400, and 300 g) inside a dedicated sports bra for 6½ consecutive hours during their everyday life activities, 1 day for every implant size. Posture changes were assessed with the association of a physiatric clinical examination with a static force platform analysis. Results: A significant increase in cervical lordosis after the use of 400-g breast implants and upward was demonstrated. This alteration was stable between the 400-g and 800-g breast implants. The 400-g (per breast) implant might therefore be the load threshold that breaks the cervical postural physiologic balance. A significant increase in lumbar lordosis was demonstrated only after the use of the 800-g breast implants. The static force platform assessment demonstrated a worsening of the balance independent from the visual control with the use of 400-g and 800-g implants. Conclusions: Heavy breast implants proved to induce reversible alterations in the spinal curve, and 400 g is the cutoff for functional physiologic compensation in the short term. Such a weight might be considered the safety limit for the use of breast implants for cosmetic purposes. PMID:26218390

  5. Augmenting weak semantic cognitive maps with an "abstractness" dimension.

    PubMed

    Samsonovich, Alexei V; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2013-01-01

    The emergent consensus on dimensional models of sentiment, appraisal, emotions, and values is on the semantics of the principal dimensions, typically interpreted as valence, arousal, and dominance. The notion of weak semantic maps was introduced recently as distribution of representations in abstract spaces that are not derived from human judgments, psychometrics, or any other a priori information about their semantics. Instead, they are defined entirely by binary semantic relations among representations, such as synonymy and antonymy. An interesting question concerns the ability of the antonymy-based semantic maps to capture all "universal" semantic dimensions. The present work shows that those narrow weak semantic maps are not complete in this sense and can be augmented with other semantic relations. Specifically, including hyponym-hypernym relations yields a new semantic dimension of the map labeled here "abstractness" (or ontological generality) that is not reducible to any dimensions represented by antonym pairs or to traditional affective space dimensions. It is expected that including other semantic relations (e.g., meronymy/holonymy) will also result in the addition of new semantic dimensions to the map. These findings have broad implications for automated quantitative evaluation of the meaning of text and may shed light on the nature of human subjective experience.

  6. Morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.; Lowry, P.; Nguyen, M.; Pollack, M.

    1986-12-01

    Cholescintigraphy is a sensitive procedure for diagnosing or excluding acute cholecystitis. However, when rapid diagnosis is critical, the requirement for delayed images (4 hr or more after injection) to minimize the false-positive rate diminishes its utility. We prospectively evaluated 40 cholescintigraphic examinations that did not visualize the gallbladder 1 hr after injection of 99mTc diisopropyliminodiacetic acid. These examinations were then augmented by administration of IV morphine, followed by an additional 30 min of imaging. After the morphine, 18 of these examinations demonstrated visualization of the gallbladder; none subsequently required surgical exploration. Of the remaining 22, who demonstrated persistent nonvisualization of the gallbladder post-morphine, 11 were explored surgically and found to be abnormal. The 11 others were treated medically. Low-dose morphine administered when the gallbladder fails to visualize after 1 hr is a useful adjunct to conventional cholescintigraphy because it reduces the time required to obtain a diagnostic result and decreases the number of false-positive results.

  7. Verification of Image Based Augmented Reality for Urban Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuse, T.; Nishikawa, S.; Fukunishi, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Recently, visualization of urban scenes with various information attracts attention. For the transmission of urban scenes, virtual reality has been widely used. Since the virtual reality requires comprehensive and detailed three dimensional models, the manual dependent modelling takes a lot of time and effort. On the other hand, it has been tackled that various data is superimposed on the scene which the users see at the time instead of comprehensive modelling, which is well known as augmented reality (AR). Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has been attempted using simple video cameras for the AR. This method estimates exterior orientation factors of the camera, and three dimensional reconstructions of feature points simultaneously. The method, however, has been applied to only small indoor space. This paper investigates the applicability of the popular method of SALM to wide outdoor space, and improves the stability of the method. Through the application, the tracked feature points successfully are greatly reduced compared with application in indoor environment. According to the experimental result, simple markers or GPS are introduced as auxiliary information. The markers gives the stability of optimization, and GPS gives real scale to AR spaces. Additionally, feature points tracking method is modified by assigning amplitude of displacement and depth. The effect of the markers and GPS are confirmed. On the other hand, some limitations of the method are understood. As a result, more impressive visualization will be accomplished.

  8. Using Laser Scanners to Augment the Systematic Error Pointing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, D. R.

    2016-08-01

    The antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) rely on precise pointing algorithms to communicate with spacecraft that are billions of miles away. Although the existing systematic error pointing model is effective at reducing blind pointing errors due to static misalignments, several of its terms have a strong dependence on seasonal and even daily thermal variation and are thus not easily modeled. Changes in the thermal state of the structure create a separation from the model and introduce a varying pointing offset. Compensating for this varying offset is possible by augmenting the pointing model with laser scanners. In this approach, laser scanners mounted to the alidade measure structural displacements while a series of transformations generate correction angles. Two sets of experiments were conducted in August 2015 using commercially available laser scanners. When compared with historical monopulse corrections under similar conditions, the computed corrections are within 3 mdeg of the mean. However, although the results show promise, several key challenges relating to the sensitivity of the optical equipment to sunlight render an implementation of this approach impractical. Other measurement devices such as inclinometers may be implementable at a significantly lower cost.

  9. Long-term complications following bladder augmentations in patients with spina bifida: bladder calculi, perforation of the augmented bladder and upper tract deterioration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background We desire to review our experience with bladder augmentation in spina bifida patients followed in a transitional and adult urologic practice. This paper will specifically focus on three major complications: bladder calculi, the most frequent complication found following bladder augmentation, perforation of the augmentation, its most lethal complication and finally we will address loss of renal function as a direct result of our surgical reconstructive procedures. Methods We reviewed a prospective data base maintained on patients with spina bifida followed in our transitional and adult urology clinic from 1986 to date. Specific attention was given to patients who had developed bladder calculi, sustained a spontaneous perforation of the augmented bladder or had developed new onset of renal scarring or renal insufficiency (≥ stage 3 renal failure) during prolonged follow-up. Results The development of renal stones (P<0.05) and symptomatic urinary tract infections (P<0.0001) were found to be significantly reduced by the use of high volume (≥240 mL) daily bladder wash outs. Individuals who still developed bladder calculi recalcitrant to high volume wash outs were not benefited by the correction of underlying metabolic abnormalities or mucolytic agents. Spontaneous bladder perforations in the adult patient population with spina bifida were found to be directly correlated to substance abuse and noncompliance with intermittent catheterization, P<0.005. Deterioration of the upper tracts as defined by the new onset of renal scars occurred in 40% (32/80) of the patients managed by a ileocystoplasty and simultaneous bladder neck outlet procedure during a median follow-up interval 14 years (range, 8–45 years). Development of ≥ stage 3 chronic renal failure occurred within 38% (12/32) of the patients with scarring i.e., 15% (12/80) of the total patient population. Prior to the development of the renal scarring, 69% (22/32) of the patients had been noncompliant

  10. Damping augmentation of helicopter rotors using magnetorheological dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongsheng

    This dissertation describes an investigation exploring the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers to augment the stability of helicopter rotors. Helicopters with advanced soft in-plane rotors are susceptible to ground resonance instabilities due to the coupling of the lightly damped rotor lag modes and fuselage modes. Traditional passive lag dampers, such as hydraulic or elastomeric dampers, can be used to alleviate these instabilities. However, these passive dampers suffer from the disadvantages that they produce large damper loads in forward flight conditions. These damper forces increase fatigue loads and reduce component life. Thus, it is desirable to have lag dampers controllable or adaptable, so that the damper can apply loads only when needed. MR fluid based dampers have recently been considered for helicopter lag damping augmentation because the forces generated by these dampers can be controlled by an applied magnetic field. In this dissertation, control schemes to integrate MR dampers with helicopters are developed and the influences of the MR dampers on rotorcraft ground resonance are studied. Specifically, the MR dampers are incorporated into the ground resonance model in two ways: using a linear equivalent viscous damping and using a nonlinear damper model. The feasibility of using MR dampers to stabilize ground resonance is studied. The open loop on-off control is utilized where MR dampers are turned on over RPM where ground resonance occurs, and turned off otherwise. To further explore the damping control ability of MR dampers, the nonlinear semi-active closed loop feedback control strategies are developed: feedback linearization control and sliding mode control. The performance of the two control strategies is evaluated using two examples: to stabilize an unstable rotor and to augment the stability of a marginally stable rotor. In addition, the robustness of the closed loop control strategies is studied using two cases: damper degradation and

  11. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Daniele; Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting(®) (VBS), OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®). VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix(®) and Spine Jack(®) are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix(®) has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting(®) and Spine Jack(®), the OsseoFix(®) has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack(®) is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  12. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors.

  13. Soft Tissue Augmentation with Silk Composite Graft

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Tae; Kweon, Hae Yong; Kim, Seong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) and antibody as that affects the performance of a silk-4HR combination graft for soft tissue augmentation in an animal model. Methods: The silk graft materials consisted of four types: silk+10% tricalcium phosphate (TCP) (ST0), silk+10% TCP+1% 4HR (ST1), silk+10% TCP+3% 4HR (ST3), and silk+10% TCP+6% 4-HR (ST6). The antibody binding assay tested the 4HR effect and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) exam was done for silk grafts. The animal experiment used a subcutaneous pocket mouse model. The graft – SH0 or SH1 or SH3 or SH6 – was placed in a subcutaneous pocket. The animals were killed at one, two, and four weeks, postoperatively. The specimens were subjected to histological analysis and lysozyme assay. Results: Groups with 4HR applied showed lower antibody binding affinity to antigen compared to groups without 4HR. In the SEM examination, there was no significant difference among groups. Histological examinations revealed many foreign body giant cells in ST0 and ST1 group at four weeks postoperatively. Both ST3 and ST6 groups developed significantly lower levels of giant cell values compared to ST0 and ST1 groups (P <0.001) at four weeks postoperatively. In the lysozyme assay, the ST1 and ST3 groups showed denser signals than the other groups. Conclusion: 4HR combined silk implants resulted in high levels of vascular and connective tissue regeneration. PMID:27489833

  14. Gravel Augmentation Below Dams: California Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Minear, J. T.

    2004-12-01

    Most dams block all coarse sediment traveling downstream, such that reaches downstream are commonly typically depleted of gravel, causing a variety of effects such as incision, bank erosion, coarsening of the bed material, and reduction of salmonid spawning habitiat. To compensate for this reduction in coarse sediment supply, gravel has been artificially added below dams, using techniques such as high flow stock piling, high flow direct injection, artificial riffle construction, riffle supplementation, and construction of side channel or artificial spawning channels. In the Trinity and Sacramento-San Joaquin River systems of northern California, loss of suitable salmonid spawning gravels below dams has motivated augmentation of over 320,000 m3 of gravel in 73 separate projects on 19 rivers since 1978, mostly since 1990. Of the 67 projects for which adequate data were available, 48 involved adding less than 7,500 m3 each. Costs reported for 57 of the projects totaled nearly $8,753,000, but these figures generally did not include the cost of staff time involved in planning, design, and oversight. Despite the magnitude of this experimental intervention, fewer than half of the projects were monitored, and of those few had monitored sufficient parameters pre- and post- project to evaluate project performance. Performance of these projects to date has been mixed: in many cases the imported gravels have promptly washed out, some channel forms created have been unnatural and not heavily used by salmon. In all cases, the volumes of gravel artificially added have been only a small percentage of the annual coarse sediment deficit.

  15. Third-generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato; Kazakova, Anna; Pantalone, Andrea; Grillea, Giovanni; Bartolo, Marcello; Salini, Vincenzo; Magliani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no general consensus about the management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF). In the past, conservative treatment for at least one month was deemed appropriate for the majority of vertebral fractures. When pain persisted after conservative treatment, it was necessary to consider surgical interventions including: vertebroplasty for vertebral fractures with less than 30% loss of height of the affected vertebral body and kyphoplasty for vertebral fractures with greater than 30% loss of height. Currently, this type of treatment is not feasible. Herein we review the characteristics and methods of operation of three of the most common percutaneous vertebral augmentation systems (PVAS) for the treatment of OVF: Vertebral Body Stenting® (VBS), OsseoFix® and Spine Jack®. VBS is a titanium device accompanied by a hydraulic (as opposed to mechanical) working system which allows a partial and not immediate possibility to control the opening of the device. On the other hand, OsseoFix® and Spine Jack® are accompanied by a mechanical working system which allows a progressive and controlled reduction of the vertebral fracture. Another important aspect to consider is the vertebral body height recovery. OsseoFix® has an indirect mechanism of action: the compaction of the trabecular bone causes an increase in the vertebral body height. Unlike the Vertebral Body Stenting® and Spine Jack®, the OsseoFix® has no direct lift mechanism. Therefore, for these characteristics and for the force that this device is able to provide. In our opinion, Spine Jack® is the only device also suitable for the treatment OVF, traumatic fracture (recent, old or inveterate) and primary or secondary bone tumors. PMID:27683690

  16. Telescopic multi-resolution augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Frenchi, Christopher; Szu, Harold

    2014-05-01

    To ensure a self-consistent scaling approximation, the underlying microscopic fluctuation components can naturally influence macroscopic means, which may give rise to emergent observable phenomena. In this paper, we describe a consistent macroscopic (cm-scale), mesoscopic (micron-scale), and microscopic (nano-scale) approach to introduce Telescopic Multi-Resolution (TMR) into current Augmented Reality (AR) visualization technology. We propose to couple TMR-AR by introducing an energy-matter interaction engine framework that is based on known Physics, Biology, Chemistry principles. An immediate payoff of TMR-AR is a self-consistent approximation of the interaction between microscopic observables and their direct effect on the macroscopic system that is driven by real-world measurements. Such an interdisciplinary approach enables us to achieve more than multiple scale, telescopic visualization of real and virtual information but also conducting thought experiments through AR. As a result of the consistency, this framework allows us to explore a large dimensionality parameter space of measured and unmeasured regions. Towards this direction, we explore how to build learnable libraries of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms. Fusing analytical sensors with TMR-AR libraries provides a robust framework to optimize testing and evaluation through data-driven or virtual synthetic simulations. Visualizing mechanisms of interactions requires identification of observable image features that can indicate the presence of information in multiple spatial and temporal scales of analog data. The AR methodology was originally developed to enhance pilot-training as well as `make believe' entertainment industries in a user-friendly digital environment We believe TMR-AR can someday help us conduct thought experiments scientifically, to be pedagogically visualized in a zoom-in-and-out, consistent, multi-scale approximations.

  17. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  18. Augmenting the Deliberative Method for Ranking Risks.

    PubMed

    Susel, Irving; Lasley, Trace; Montezemolo, Mark; Piper, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) characterized and prioritized the physical cross-border threats and hazards to the nation stemming from terrorism, market-driven illicit flows of people and goods (illegal immigration, narcotics, funds, counterfeits, and weaponry), and other nonmarket concerns (movement of diseases, pests, and invasive species). These threats and hazards pose a wide diversity of consequences with very different combinations of magnitudes and likelihoods, making it very challenging to prioritize them. This article presents the approach that was used at DHS to arrive at a consensus regarding the threats and hazards that stand out from the rest based on the overall risk they pose. Due to time constraints for the decision analysis, it was not feasible to apply multiattribute methodologies like multiattribute utility theory or the analytic hierarchy process. Using a holistic approach was considered, such as the deliberative method for ranking risks first published in this journal. However, an ordinal ranking alone does not indicate relative or absolute magnitude differences among the risks. Therefore, the use of the deliberative method for ranking risks is not sufficient for deciding whether there is a material difference between the top-ranked and bottom-ranked risks, let alone deciding what the stand-out risks are. To address this limitation of ordinal rankings, the deliberative method for ranking risks was augmented by adding an additional step to transform the ordinal ranking into a ratio scale ranking. This additional step enabled the selection of stand-out risks to help prioritize further analysis. PMID:26224206

  19. Enrichment design with patient population augmentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Zhou, Yijie; Zhang, Lanju; Cui, Lu

    2015-05-01

    Clinical trials can be enriched on subpopulations that may be more responsive to treatments to improve the chance of trial success. In 2012 FDA issued a draft guidance to facilitate enrichment design, where it pointed out the uncertainty on the subpopulation classification and on the treatment effect outside of the identified subpopulation. We consider a novel design strategy where the identified subpopulation (biomarker-positive) is augmented by some biomarker-negative patients. Specifically, after sufficiently powering biomarker-positive subpopulation we propose to enroll biomarker-negative patients, enough to assess the overall treatment benefit. We derive a weighted statistic for this assessment, correcting for the disproportionality of biomarker-positive and biomarker-negative subpopulations under enriched trial setting. Screening information is utilized for weight determination. This statistic is an unbiased estimate of the overall treatment effect as that in all-comer trials, and is the basis to power for the overall treatment effect. For analysis, testing will be first performed on biomarker-positive subpopulation; only if treatment benefit is established in this subpopulation will overall treatment effect be tested using the weighted statistic. This design approach differs from typical enrichment design or stratified all-comer design in that the former enrolls only biomarker-positive patients and the latter enrolls a regular all-comer population. It also differs from adaptive enrichment by maintaining the trial design and analysis priority on biomarker-positive subpopulation. Therefore the proposed approach not only warrants a high probability of trial success on biomarker-positive subpopulation, but also efficiently assesses the overall treatment effect in the presence of an uncertain treatment benefit among biomarker-negative patients.

  20. Cyclooxygenase inhibition augments central blood pressure and aortic wave reflection in aging humans.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N; Casey, Darren P; Hines, Casey N; Nicholson, Wayne T; Joyner, Michael J

    2012-06-15

    The augmentation index and central blood pressure increase with normal aging. Recently, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, commonly used for the treatment of pain, have been associated with transient increases in the risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of the COX inhibitor indomethacin (Indo) on central arterial hemodynamics and wave reflection characteristics in young and old healthy adults. High-fidelity radial arterial pressure waveforms were measured noninvasively by applanation tonometry before (control) and after Indo treatment in young (25 ± 5 yr, 7 men and 6 women) and old (64 ± 6 yr, 5 men and 6 women) subjects. Aortic systolic (control: 115 ± 3 mmHg vs. Indo: 125 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.05) and diastolic (control: 74 ± 2 mmHg vs. Indo: 79 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) pressures were elevated after Indo treatment in older subjects, whereas only diastolic pressure was elevated in young subjects (control: 71 ± 2 mmHg vs. Indo: 76 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure increased in both young and old adults after Indo treatment (P < 0.05). The aortic augmentation index and augmented pressure were elevated after Indo treatment in older subjects (control: 30 ± 5% vs. Indo 36 ± 6% and control 12 ± 1 mmHg vs. Indo: 18 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas pulse pressure amplification decreased (change: 8 ± 3%, P < 0.05). In addition, older subjects had a 61 ± 11% increase in wasted left ventricular energy after Indo treatment (P < 0.05). In contrast, young subjects showed no significant changes in any of the variables of interest. Taken together, these results demonstrate that COX inhibition with Indo unfavorably increases central wave reflection and augments aortic pressure in old but not young subjects. Our results suggest that aging individuals have a limited ability to compensate for the acute hemodynamic changes caused by systemic COX inhibition.

  1. Augmented Reality System for E-maintenance Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbelkacem, S.; Zenati-Henda, N.; Belhocine, M.; Malek, S.

    2009-03-01

    We present in this paper an Augmented Reality platform for e-maintenance application. In our case, the aim is not to develop a vision system based on augmented reality concept, but to show the relationship between the different actors in the proposed architecture and to facilitate maintenance of the machine. With this platform we identify all possible scenarios which allow the technician to intervene on a machine breakdown using distant expert if necessary. Each scenario depends on the machine parameters and the technician competences. To implement a configuration of Augmented Reality system, we chose a case study of maintenance scenario for machine breakdown. Then we represent this scenario by an interaction model which allows establishing Augmented Reality configuration.

  2. Control-Volume Analysis Of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1990-01-01

    New method of analysis of transient flow in thrust-augmenting ejector based on control-volume formulation of governing equations. Considered as potential elements of propulsion subsystems of short-takeoff/vertical-landing airplanes.

  3. Augmented Reality a Review on Technology and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruse, Radu Emanuil; Bondrea, Ioan

    2014-11-01

    We present in this paper an overview of the concepts and potential industrial Augmented Reality applications that can be very efficient. We also present the basic technological requirements for an AR system

  4. [Cement augmentation of pedicle screws : Pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Schnake, K J; Blattert, T R; Liljenqvist, U

    2016-09-01

    Cement augmentation of pedicle screws biomechanically increases screw purchase in the bone. However, clinical complications may occur. The pros and cons of the technique are discussed from different clinical perspectives. PMID:27514827

  5. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, C.G.; Scholz, W.

    1987-02-01

    Both the energy efficiency and projectile velocity of a rail-gun system can be substantially increased by the addition of an adjunct superconducting augmentation coil system. The energy efficiency results from the superconducting coil's ability to recover the rail magnetic field energy normally dissipated at the end of launch in rail guns, by means of a unique application of the flux conservation of property of superconducting coils. The increased velocity results from the augmented Lorentz force due to the augmentation-coil magnetic field. In an idealized system, both the energy efficiency and projectile velocities can be increased by more than 80%, dependent on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation coils. The theoretical evaluation was extended to include dissipative effects which reveal that actual launch efficiencies are increased from 25% (rail gun) to over 50% (SARG). A theoretical analysis of SARG is presented here together with the progress of an experimental demonstrator developer at Benet Weapons Lab.

  6. Transpedicle body augmenter for vertebral augmentation in symptomatic multiple osteoporotic compression fractures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Allen; Li, Kung-Chia; Hsieh, Ching-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) have been treated with polymethylmethacrylate augmentation; however, there are cement complications and long-term fracture healing that are unknown. Transpedicle body augmenter (a porous titanium spacer) has been reported as an internal support to reconstruct the vertebral body combining short-segment fixation in burst fracture and Kümmell's disease with cord compression. Transpedicle body augmenter for vertebral augmentation (TpBA) also has been reported successfully in treating single painful VCF and vertebral metastasis lesions including pending fractures and pathologic compression fractures. To test the hypothesis that TpBA can effectively and safely treat the symptomatic multiple VCFs, this retrospective study was done by analyzing the radiographic and clinical results. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic results of TpBA for symptomatic multiple (more than two levels) VCFs in 62 patients with a total of 236 levels, i.e. 3.8 VCFs per patient. Manual reduction and TpBA via paramedian incisions with blunt dissection were done. One incision was made for two continuous levels and alternative side was selected for next incision. Mean age was 74.3 years (range, 62-87 years), and female-male ratio was 5.2:1. Anterior vertebral height and wedge angle by radiographic findings were measured at preoperative, initial follow-up and final follow-up. Clinical results were assessed by questionnaires and clinical observations. By July 2008, 58 patients returned to answer the questionnaire including quantification of pain on the visual analog scale, the response to operations (better, same, or worse after operation), returned to their pre-fracture function (yes/no) and satisfaction (a scale of 0 = completely dissatisfied to 10 = completely satisfied). Results: The mean symptom duration was 7 months, and follow-up, 48 months. The average operation time was 21 min per

  7. Capsular Contracture after Breast Augmentation: An Update for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Headon, Hannah; Kasem, Adbul

    2015-01-01

    Capsular contracture is the most common complication following implant based breast surgery and is one of the most common reasons for reoperation. Therefore, it is important to try and understand why this happens, and what can be done to reduce its incidence. A literature search using the MEDLINE database was conducted including search terms 'capsular contracture breast augmentation', 'capsular contracture pathogenesis', 'capsular contracture incidence', and 'capsular contracture management', which yielded 82 results which met inclusion criteria. Capsular contracture is caused by an excessive fibrotic reaction to a foreign body (the implant) and has an overall incidence of 10.6%. Risk factors that were identified included the use of smooth (vs. textured) implants, a subglandular (vs. submuscular) placement, use of a silicone (vs. saline) filled implant and previous radiotherapy to the breast. The standard management of capsular contracture is surgical via a capsulectomy or capsulotomy. Medical treatment using the off-label leukotriene receptor antagonist Zafirlukast has been reported to reduce severity and help prevent capsular contracture from forming, as has the use of acellular dermal matrices, botox and neopocket formation. However, nearly all therapeutic approaches are associated with a significant rate of recurrence. Capsular contracture is a multifactorial fibrotic process the precise cause of which is still unknown. The incidence of contracture developing is lower with the use of textured implants, submuscular placement and the use of polyurethane coated implants. Symptomatic capsular contracture is usually managed surgically, however recent research has focussed on preventing capsular contracture from occurring, or treating it with autologous fat transfer. PMID:26430623

  8. Blunt chest trauma: evaluation of the augmented breast.

    PubMed

    Dellon, A L; Cowley, R A; Hoopes, J E

    1980-11-01

    Breast augmentation is being done increasingly, not only for women who consider their breasts too small but also for those with breast asymmetry, and post-mastectomy patients with reconstruction. It appears inevitable that traumatologists will have to evaluate injury to an augmented breast in a patient who has sustained blunt chest trauma. This paper discusses the differential diagnosis and treatment of implant rupture, hematoma, and spherical capsular contracture as a result of trauma.

  9. Orion MPCV Continuum RCS Heating Augmentation Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Andrew J.; White, Molly E.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction control system jets of the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle can have a significant impact on the magnitude and distribution of the surface heat flux on the leeside of the aft-body, when they are fired. Changes in surface heating are expressed in terms of augmentation factor over the baseline smooth body heating. Wind tunnel tests revealed heating augmentation factors as high as 13.0, 7.6, 2.8, and 5.8 for the roll, pitch down, pitch up, and yaw jets respectively. Heating augmentation factor models, based almost exclusively on data from a series of wind tunnel tests have been developed, for the purposes of thermal protection system design. The wind tunnel tests investigated several potential jet-to-freestream similarity parameters, and heating augmentation factors derived from the data showed correlation with the jet-to-freestream momentum ratio. However, this correlation was not utilized in the developed models. Instead augmentation factors were held constant throughout the potential trajectory space. This simplification was driven by the fact that ground to flight traceability and sting effects are not well understood. Given the sensitivity of the reaction control system jet heating augmentation to configuration, geometry, and orientation the focus in the present paper is on the methodology used to develop the models and the lessons learned from the data. The models that are outlined in the present work are specific to the aerothermal database used to design the thermal protection system for the Exploration Flight Test 1 vehicle.

  10. Dorsal Augmentation in Rhinoplasty: A Survey and Review.

    PubMed

    Malone, Melanie; Pearlman, Steven

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the nuanced practices and grafting options of dorsal augmentation will improve outcomes and results in rhinoplasty. To better understand the practices of dorsal augmentation among our colleagues. To review the current literature regarding the indications, safety profiles, and outcomes of different materials used in dorsal augmentation. A PubMed search was performed to capture current articles containing reviews or large series regarding the safety and efficacy of various grafting materials used for dorsal augmentation. Of the many options available, autologous cartilage grafts maintain widespread use for dorsal augmentation and other techniques in rhinoplasty. Homologous cartilage grafts, namely irradiated rib, are a preferred alternative. Irradiated costal cartilage has been shown to have low complication rates and is unique in its abundance of supply, particularly in the revision rhinoplasty. Alloplastic implants, particularly silicone, are prevalent in Asian countries where they are a popular first-line choice. ePTFE has a favorable complication profile in primary rhinoplasty; however, caution is recommended when using ePTFE in revision cases. Porous polyethylene has a higher risk of associated complications than the other alloplastic implants listed, and therefore should be considered thoughtfully. Although cartilage is often the preferred graft for dorsal augmentation, there are many other autogenous, homologous, and alloplastic materials that have been shown to be safe and effective choices when applied in the proper setting. PMID:26126225

  11. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  12. Audio Indexing for Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmlow, Harold F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Article describes a new development in indexing audiotapes called Zimdex. The system was developed in response to the problem of individualizing review materials for candidates studying the mathematics of life insurance. (Author/HB)

  13. Techniques for video indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Liu, Larry J.; Chang, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    A data model for long objects (such as video files) is introduced, to support general referencing structures, along with various system implementation strategies. Based on the data model, various indexing techniques for video are then introduced. A set of basic functionalities is described, including all the frame level control, indexing, and video clip editing. We show how the techniques can be used to automatically index video files based on closed captions with a typical video capture card, for both compressed and uncompressed video files. Applications are presented using those indexing techniques in security control and viewers' rating choice, general video search (from laser discs, CD ROMs, and regular disks), training videos, and video based user or system manuals.

  14. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  15. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  16. Numerical Treatment of Differential-Algebraic Equations with Index 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attili, Basem S.

    2007-09-01

    We will consider index-2 differential algebraic systems. Since they are usually harder to solve, we will show how to reduce the index 2 problem to index 1 DAE which becomes easier to solve numerically. For the numerical treatment, we will treat the resulting index-1 DAE using power series solutions coupled with pade' approximation for better convergence results. Numerical examples will be presented also.

  17. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  18. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1992-08-01

    The Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project (Project) had its origin, in the mid-1980's, in perceived differences or inconsistencies in fish disease detection, diagnosis and control capabilities between the five conservation agencies rearing and releasing anadromous salmonids for fishery resource management and mitigation purposes in the Columbia River basin. Agency fish health programs varied greatly. Some agencies had personnel, equipment and funding to frequently monitor the health status of both juvenile production fish and adult salmon or steelhead trout at the time of spawning. Other agencies had much smaller programs and limited resources. These differences became better understood when the Pacific Northwest Fish Health Protection Committee developed its Model Fish Health Protection Program including recommendations for standard fish disease detection procedures. Even though some agencies could not immediately attain the goals set by the Model Program it was unanimously adopted as a desirable objective. Shortly thereafter, a multi-party planning group was assembled to help the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) find ways to improve agency fish health programs and implement measures under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The planning group assessed existing agency fish health monitoring capabilities, agreed upon satisfactory levels of capability to detect and identify important fish pathogens, and designed a five-year project establishing comparable fish health monitoring capability in each agency. It was strongly believed that such a project would improve the health and quality of the millions of hatchery fish released annually in the Columbia River basin and improve interagency communications and disease control coordination. During 1986 and 1987 BPA individually negotiated five separate contracts with the fishery agencies to standardize fish health monitoring, develop a common data collection and reporting format

  19. Augmented reality for biomedical wellness sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    Due to the commercial move and gaming industries, Augmented Reality (AR) technology has matured. By definition of AR, both artificial and real humans can be simultaneously present and realistically interact among one another. With the help of physics and physiology, we can build in the AR tool together with real human day-night webcam inputs through a simple interaction of heat transfer -getting hot, action and reaction -walking or falling, as well as the physiology -sweating due to activity. Knowing the person age, weight and 3D coordinates of joints in the body, we deduce the force, the torque, and the energy expenditure during real human movements and apply to an AR human model. We wish to support the physics-physiology AR version, PPAR, as a BMW surveillance tool for senior home alone (SHA). The functionality is to record senior walking and hand movements inside a home environment. Besides the fringe benefit of enabling more visits from grand children through AR video games, the PP-AR surveillance tool may serve as a means to screen patients in the home for potential falls at points around in house. Moreover, we anticipate PP-AR may help analyze the behavior history of SHA, e.g. enhancing the Smartphone SHA Ubiquitous Care Program, by discovering early symptoms of candidate Alzheimer-like midnight excursions, or Parkinson-like trembling motion for when performing challenging muscular joint movements. Using a set of coordinates corresponding to a set of 3D positions representing human joint locations, we compute the Kinetic Energy (KE) generated by each body segment over time. The Work is then calculated, and converted into calories. Using common graphics rendering pipelines, one could invoke AR technology to provide more information about patients to caretakers. Alerts to caretakers can be prompted by a patient's departure from their personal baseline, and the patient's time ordered joint information can be loaded to a graphics viewer allowing for high

  20. Effects of normal acceleration on transient burning rate augmentation of an aluminized solid propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    Instantaneous burning rate data for a polybutadiene acrylic acid propellant, containing 16 weight percent aluminum, were calculated from the pressure histories of a test motor with 96.77 sq cm of burning area and a 5.08-cm-thick propellant web. Additional acceleration tests were conducted with reduced propellant web thicknesses of 3.81, 2.54, and 1.27 cm. The metallic residue collected from the various web thickness tests was characterized by weight and shape and correlated with the instantaneous burning rate measurements. Rapid depressurization extinction tests were conducted in order that surface pitting characteristics due to localized increased burning rate could be correlated with the residue analysis and the instantaneous burning rate data. The acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation was strongly dependent on propellant distance burned, or burning time, and thus was transient in nature. The results from the extinction tests and the residue analyses indicate that the transient rate augmentation was highly dependent on local enhancement of the combustion zone heat feedback to the surface by the growth of molten residue particles on or just above the burning surface. The size, shape, and number density of molten residue particles, rather than the total residue weight, determined the acceleration-induced burning rate augmentation.

  1. NADH augments blood flow in physiologically activated retina and visual cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ido, Yasuo; Chang, Katherine; Williamson, Joseph R.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism(s) that increase retinal and visual cortex blood flows in response to visual stimulation are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that increased transfer of electrons and protons from glucose to cytosolic free NAD+, reducing it to NADH, evoked by increased energy metabolism, fuels redox-signaling pathways that augment flow. The near-equilibrium between free cytosolic NADH/NAD+ and lactate/pyruvate ratios established by lactate dehydrogenase predicts that transfer of additional electrons and protons from injected lactate to NAD+ will augment the elevated blood flows in stimulated retina and cortex, whereas transfer of electrons and protons from NADH to injected pyruvate will attenuate the elevated flows. These predictions were tested and confirmed in rats. Increased flows evoked by stimulation also were prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. These findings support an important role for cytosolic free NADH in fueling a signaling cascade that increases NO production, which augments blood flow in photostimulated retina and visual cortex.

  2. Augmenting antidepressant medication with modular CBT for geriatric generalized anxiety disorder: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Stoddard, Jill A.; White, Kamila S.; Kornblith, Sander; Nguyen, Hoang; Andreescu, Carmen; Zisook, Sidney; Lenze, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in older adults with deleterious effects on health and cognition. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications have some efficacy as acute treatments for geriatric GAD, incomplete response is the most common outcome of monotherapy. We therefore developed a novel sequential treatment strategy, using personalized, modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (mCBT) to augment SSRI medication. Method In an open label pilot study (N =10), subjects received a sequenced trial of 12 weeks of escitalopram followed by 16 weeks of escitalopram augmented with mCBT. We also examined the maintenance effects of mCBT over a 28-week follow-up period following drug discontinuation and termination of psychotherapy. Results Results suggest that (1) adding mCBT to escitalopram significantly reduced anxiety symptoms and pathological worry, resulting in full remission for most patients and (2) some patients maintained response after all treatments were withdrawn. Conclusion Findings suggest that mCBT may be an effective augmentation strategy when added to SSRI medication and provide limited support for the long-term benefit of mCBT after discontinuation of pharmacotherapy. PMID:20872925

  3. Cement leakage in pedicle screw augmentation: a prospective analysis of 98 patients and 474 augmented pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jan U; Baldauf, Joerg; Marx, Sascha; Kirsch, Michael; Schroeder, Henry W S; Pillich, Dirk T

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Loosening and pullout of pedicle screws are well-known problems in pedicle screw fixation surgery. Augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement, first described as early as 1975, increases the pedicle-screw interface and pullout force in osteoporotic vertebrae. The aim of the present study was to identify cement leakage and pulmonary embolism rates in a large prospective single-center series of pedicle screw augmentations. METHODS All patients who underwent cement-augmented pedicle screw placement between May 2006 and October 2010 at the authors' institution were included in this prospective cohort study. Perivertebral cement leakage and pulmonary cement embolism were evaluated with a CT scan of the area of operation and with a radiograph of the chest, respectively. RESULTS A total of 98 patients underwent placement of cement-augmented pedicle screws; 474 augmented screws were inserted in 237 vertebrae. No symptomatic perivertebral cement leakage or symptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was observed, but asymptomatic perivertebral cement leakage was seen in 88 patients (93.6%) and in 165 augmented vertebrae (73.3%). Cement leakage most often occurred in the perivertebral venous system. Clinically asymptomatic pulmonary cement embolism was found in 4 patients (4.1%). CONCLUSIONS Perivertebral cement leakage often occurs in pedicle screw augmentation, but in most cases, it is clinically asymptomatic. Cement augmentation should be performed under continuous fluoroscopy to avoid high-volume leakage. Alternative strategies, such as use of expandable screws, should be examined in more detail for patients at high risk of screw loosening. PMID:26943258

  4. Bone Cement-Augmented Percutaneous Short Segment Fixation: An Effective Treatment for Kummell's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon Joo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Lee, Seok Ki

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation for treating Kummell's disease accompanied by severe osteoporosis. Methods From 2009 to 2013, ten patients with single-level Kummell's disease accompanied by severe osteoporosis were enrolled in this study. After postural reduction for 1-2 days, bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation was performed at one level above, one level below, and at the collapsed vertebra. Clinical results, radiological parameters, and related complications were assessed preoperatively and at 1 month and 12 months after surgery. Results Prior to surgery, the mean pain score on the visual analogue scale was 8.5±1.5. One month after the procedure, this score improved to 2.2±2.0 and the improvement was maintained at 12 months after surgery. The mean preoperative vertebral height loss was 48.2±10.5%, and the surgical procedure reduced this loss to 22.5±12.4%. In spite of some recurrent height loss, significant improvement was achieved at 12 months after surgery compared to preoperative values. The kyphotic angle improved significantly from 22.4±4.9° before the procedure to 10.1±3.8° after surgery and the improved angle was maintained at 12 months after surgery despite a slight correction loss. No patient sustained adjacent fractures after bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation during the follow-up period. Asymptomatic cement leakage into the paravertebral area was observed in one patient, but no major complications were seen. Conclusion Bone cement-augmented percutaneous short segment fixation can be an effective and safe procedure for Kummell's disease. PMID:26279814

  5. Needs for Research in Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstead, Jessica L.

    1994-01-01

    Uncovers issues in indexing that need scientific research, including the cognitive processes of indexers and users; vocabulary control; how best to supplement human indexers' intellectual effort with computer capabilities; structure and layout of indexes on the printed page and on the computer screen; and evaluation of indexes. (Contains 21…

  6. Reduced-Order Kalman Filtering for Processing Relative Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    2008-01-01

    A study in Kalman-filter theory has led to a method of processing relative measurements to estimate the current state of a physical system, using less computation than has previously been thought necessary. As used here, relative measurements signifies measurements that yield information on the relationship between a later and an earlier state of the system. An important example of relative measurements arises in computer vision: Information on relative motion is extracted by comparing images taken at two different times. Relative measurements do not directly fit into standard Kalman filter theory, in which measurements are restricted to those indicative of only the current state of the system. One approach heretofore followed in utilizing relative measurements in Kalman filtering, denoted state augmentation, involves augmenting the state of the system at the earlier of two time instants and then propagating the state to the later time instant.While state augmentation is conceptually simple, it can also be computationally prohibitive because it doubles the number of states in the Kalman filter. When processing a relative measurement, if one were to follow the state-augmentation approach as practiced heretofore, one would find it necessary to propagate the full augmented state Kalman filter from the earlier time to the later time and then select out the reduced-order components. The main result of the study reported here is proof of a property called reduced-order equivalence (ROE). The main consequence of ROE is that it is not necessary to augment with the full state, but, rather, only the portion of the state that is explicitly used in the partial relative measurement. In other words, it suffices to select the reduced-order components first and then propagate the partial augmented state Kalman filter from the earlier time to the later time; the amount of computation needed to do this can be substantially less than that needed for propagating the full augmented

  7. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1987 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Michak, Patty

    1989-04-01

    Washington Department of Fisheries has divided the sampling and data collection into three major groups: adult analysis, juvenile analysis and database development. The adult analysis done at spawning includes screening for viral pathogens and Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD). Pre-spawning mortalities are sampled for the presence of bacterial pathogens and parasites to determine causes of pre-spawning loss. Juvenile analysis involves monthly monitoring; pre-release examinations for viral pathogens, BKD and, where appropriate, whirling disease (M. cerebralis); completion of the Organosomatic analysis on four index stocks, and midterm exams on yearling groups for BKD and M. cerebralis. Database development required constructing fish health monitoring forms and a computer based data entry and retrieval system. We have completed a full year of sampling and data collection, January, 1987 to January, 1988. This report will present and analyze this information.

  8. Aggregated Indexing of Biomedical Time Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Woodbridge, Jonathan; Mortazavi, Bobak; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Bui, Alex A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Remote and wearable medical sensing has the potential to create very large and high dimensional datasets. Medical time series databases must be able to efficiently store, index, and mine these datasets to enable medical professionals to effectively analyze data collected from their patients. Conventional high dimensional indexing methods are a two stage process. First, a superset of the true matches is efficiently extracted from the database. Second, supersets are pruned by comparing each of their objects to the query object and rejecting any objects falling outside a predetermined radius. This pruning stage heavily dominates the computational complexity of most conventional search algorithms. Therefore, indexing algorithms can be significantly improved by reducing the amount of pruning. This paper presents an online algorithm to aggregate biomedical times series data to significantly reduce the search space (index size) without compromising the quality of search results. This algorithm is built on the observation that biomedical time series signals are composed of cyclical and often similar patterns. This algorithm takes in a stream of segments and groups them to highly concentrated collections. Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is used to reduce the overall complexity of the algorithm, allowing it to run online. The output of this aggregation is used to populate an index. The proposed algorithm yields logarithmic growth of the index (with respect to the total number of objects) while keeping sensitivity and specificity simultaneously above 98%. Both memory and runtime complexities of time series search are improved when using aggregated indexes. In addition, data mining tasks, such as clustering, exhibit runtimes that are orders of magnitudes faster when run on aggregated indexes.

  9. AUGMENTATION OF LIMB PERFUSION AND REVERSAL OF TISSUE ISCHEMIA PRODUCED BY ULTRASOUND-MEDIATED MICROBUBBLE CAVITATION

    PubMed Central

    Belcik, J. Todd; Mott, Brian H.; Xie, Aris; Zhao, Yan; Kim, Sajeevani; Lindner, Nathan J.; Ammi, Azzdine; Linden, Joel M.; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ultrasound can increase tissue blood flow in part through the intravascular shear produced by oscillatory pressure fluctuations. We hypothesized that ultrasound-mediated increases in perfusion can be augmented by microbubble contrast agents that undergo ultrasound-mediated cavitation, and sought to characterize the biologic mediators. Methods and Results Contrast ultrasound perfusion imaging of hindlimb skeletal muscle and femoral artery diameter measurement were performed in non-ischemic mice after unilateral 10 min exposure to intermittent ultrasound alone (mechanical index [MI] 0.6 or 1.3) or ultrasound with lipid microbubbles (2×108 I.V.). Studies were also performed after inhibiting shear- or pressure-dependent vasodilator pathways, and in mice with hindlimb ischemia. Ultrasound alone produced a 2-fold increase (p<0.05) in muscle perfusion regardless of ultrasound power. Ultrasound-mediated augmentation in flow was greater with microbubbles (3-fold and 10-fold higher than control for MI 0.6 and 1.3, respectively; p<0.05), as was femoral artery dilation. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) attenuated flow augmentation produced by ultrasound and microbubbles by 70% (p<0.01), whereas inhibition of adenosine-A2a receptors and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids had minimal effect. Limb nitric oxide (NO) production and muscle phospho-eNOS increased in a stepwise fashion by ultrasound and ultrasound with microbubbles. In mice with unilateral hindlimb ischemia (40–50% reduction in flow), ultrasound (MI 1.3) with microbubbles increased perfusion by 2-fold to a degree that was greater than the control non-ischemic limb. Conclusions Increases in muscle blood flow during high-power ultrasound are markedly amplified by the intravascular presence of microbubbles and can reverse tissue ischemia. These effects are most likely mediated by cavitation-related increases in shear and activation of eNOS. PMID:25834183

  10. Augmented feedback influences upper limb reaching movement times but does not explain violations of Fitts' Law

    PubMed Central

    de Grosbois, John; Heath, Matthew; Tremblay, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fitts' (1954) classic theorem asserts that the movement time (MT) of voluntary reaches is determined by amplitude and width requirements (i.e., index of difficulty: ID). Actions associated with equivalent IDs should elicit equivalent MTs regardless of the amplitude and/ or width requirements. However, contemporary research has reported that amplitude-based contributions to IDs yield larger increases in MTs than width-based contributions. This discrepancy may relate to the presence of augmented terminal feedback in Fitts' original research, which has not been provided in more recent investigations (e.g., Heath et al., 2011). To address this issue, participants performed reaching movements during two sessions wherein feedback regarding terminal accuracy was either provided or withheld. It was hypothesized that the absence of augmented terminal feedback would result in a stereotyped performance across target widths and explain the violation of Fitts' theorem. Yet, the results revealed distinct influences of amplitude- and width-based manipulations on MT, which also persisted across feedback conditions. This finding supports the assertion that the unitary nature of Fitts' theorem does not account for a continuous range of movement amplitudes and target widths. A secondary analysis was competed in an attempt to further investigate the violation of Fitts' Law. Based on error rates, participants were segregated into accuracy- and speed-prone groups. Additionally, target's IDs were recalculated based on each participant's performance using the effective target width (i.e., IDWe) instead of the nominal target width. When using MT data from the accuracy-prone group with this IDWe, the aforementioned violation was alleviated. Overall, augmented terminal feedback did not explain the violation of Fitts' theorem, although one should consider using the effective target width and participant's strategy in future investigations. PMID:26136703

  11. Utilization of the Space Vision System as an Augmented Reality System For Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technique whereby computer generated images are superimposed on live images for visual enhancement. Augmented reality can also be characterized as dynamic overlays when computer generated images are registered with moving objects in a live image. This technique has been successfully implemented, with low to medium levels of registration precision, in an NRA funded project entitled, "Improving Human Task Performance with Luminance Images and Dynamic Overlays". Future research is already being planned to also utilize a laboratory-based system where more extensive subject testing can be performed. However successful this might be, the problem will still be whether such a technology can be used with flight hardware. To answer this question, the Canadian Space Vision System (SVS) will be tested as an augmented reality system capable of improving human performance where the operation requires indirect viewing. This system has already been certified for flight and is currently flown on each shuttle mission for station assembly. Successful development and utilization of this system in a ground-based experiment will expand its utilization for on-orbit mission operations. Current research and development regarding the use of augmented reality technology is being simulated using ground-based equipment. This is an appropriate approach for development of symbology (graphics and annotation) optimal for human performance and for development of optimal image registration techniques. It is anticipated that this technology will become more pervasive as it matures. Because we know what and where almost everything is on ISS, this reduces the registration problem and improves the computer model of that reality, making augmented reality an attractive tool, provided we know how to use it. This is the basis for current research in this area. However, there is a missing element to this process. It is the link from this research to the current ISS video system and to

  12. Transforming Polar Research with Google Glass Augmented Reality (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruthkoski, T.

    2013-12-01

    Augmented reality is a new technology with the potential to accelerate the advancement of science, particularly in geophysical research. Augmented reality is defined as a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. When paired with advanced computing techniques on cloud resources, augmented reality has the potential to improve data collection techniques, visualizations, as well as in-situ analysis for many areas of research. Google is currently a pioneer of augmented reality technology and has released beta versions of their wearable computing device, Google Glass, to a select number of developers and beta testers. This community of 'Glass Explorers' is the vehicle from which Google shapes the future of their augmented reality device. Example applications of Google Glass in geophysical research range from use as a data gathering interface in harsh climates to an on-site visualization and analysis tool. Early participation in the shaping of the Google Glass device is an opportunity for researchers to tailor this new technology to their specific needs. The purpose of this presentation is to provide geophysical researchers with a hands-on first look at Google Glass and its potential as a scientific tool. Attendees will be given an overview of the technical specifications as well as a live demonstration of the device. Potential applications to geophysical research in polar regions will be the primary focus. The presentation will conclude with an open call to participate, during which attendees may indicate interest in developing projects that integrate Google Glass into their research. Application Mockup: Penguin Counter Google Glass Augmented Reality Device

  13. Transforming Polar Research with Google Glass Augmented Reality (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; McEniry, M.; Maskey, M.

    2011-12-01

    Augmented reality is a new technology with the potential to accelerate the advancement of science, particularly in geophysical research. Augmented reality is defined as a live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. When paired with advanced computing techniques on cloud resources, augmented reality has the potential to improve data collection techniques, visualizations, as well as in-situ analysis for many areas of research. Google is currently a pioneer of augmented reality technology and has released beta versions of their wearable computing device, Google Glass, to a select number of developers and beta testers. This community of 'Glass Explorers' is the vehicle from which Google shapes the future of their augmented reality device. Example applications of Google Glass in geophysical research range from use as a data gathering interface in harsh climates to an on-site visualization and analysis tool. Early participation in the shaping of the Google Glass device is an opportunity for researchers to tailor this new technology to their specific needs. The purpose of this presentation is to provide geophysical researchers with a hands-on first look at Google Glass and its potential as a scientific tool. Attendees will be given an overview of the technical specifications as well as a live demonstration of the device. Potential applications to geophysical research in polar regions will be the primary focus. The presentation will conclude with an open call to participate, during which attendees may indicate interest in developing projects that integrate Google Glass into their research. Application Mockup: Penguin Counter Google Glass Augmented Reality Device

  14. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  15. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  16. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice.

    PubMed

    Miville-Godbout, Edith; Bourque, Mélanie; Morissette, Marc; Al-Sweidi, Sara; Smith, Tara; Mochizuki, Asuka; Senanayake, Vijitha; Jayasinghe, Dushmanthi; Wang, Li; Goodenowe, Dayan; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg). On day 5 mice received MPTP and were killed on day 11. Next, in a post-treatment study, male mice were treated with MPTP and then received daily for 5 days PPI-1011 (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg). MPTP treatment reduced serum plasmalogen levels, striatal contents of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, serotonin, DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Pre-treatment with PPI-1011 (10 and 50 mg/kg) prevented all MPTP-induced effects. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding. Post-treatment with PPI-1011 prevented all MPTP-induced effects at 50 mg/kg but not at lower doses. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding in the post-treatment experiment. PPI-1011 treatment (10 days at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg) of intact mice left unchanged striatal biogenic amine contents. These data demonstrate that treatment with a plasmalogen precursor is capable of protecting striatal dopamine markers in an animal model of PD. PMID:26959819

  17. Augmented reality application utility for aviation maintenance work instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourcho, John Bryan

    Current aviation maintenance work instructions do not display information effectively enough to prevent costly errors and safety concerns. Aircraft are complex assemblies of highly interrelated components that confound troubleshooting and can make the maintenance procedure difficult (Drury & Gramopadhye, 2001). The sophisticated nature of aircraft maintenance necessitates a revolutionized training intervention for aviation maintenance technicians (United States General Accounting Office, 2003). Quite simply, the paper based job task cards fall short of offering rapid access to technical data and the system or component visualization necessary for working on complex integrated aircraft systems. Possible solutions to this problem include upgraded standards for paper based task cards and the use of integrated 3D product definition used on various mobile platforms (Ropp, Thomas, Lee, Broyles, Lewin, Andreychek, & Nicol, 2013). Previous studies have shown that incorporation of 3D graphics in work instructions allow the user to more efficiently and accurately interpret maintenance information (Jackson & Batstone, 2008). For aircraft maintenance workers, the use of mobile 3D model-based task cards could make current paper task card standards obsolete with their ability to deliver relevant, synchronized information to and from the hangar. Unlike previous versions of 3D model-based definition task cards and paper task cards, which are currently used in the maintenance industry, 3D model based definition task cards have the potential to be more mobile and accessible. Utilizing augmented reality applications on mobile devices to seamlessly deliver 3D product definition on mobile devices could increase the efficiency, accuracy, and reduce the mental workload for technicians when performing maintenance tasks (Macchiarella, 2004). This proposal will serve as a literary review of the aviation maintenance industry, the spatial ability of maintenance technicians, and benefits of

  18. Plasmalogen Augmentation Reverses Striatal Dopamine Loss in MPTP Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miville-Godbout, Edith; Bourque, Mélanie; Morissette, Marc; Al-Sweidi, Sara; Smith, Tara; Mochizuki, Asuka; Senanayake, Vijitha; Jayasinghe, Dushmanthi; Wang, Li; Goodenowe, Dayan; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg). On day 5 mice received MPTP and were killed on day 11. Next, in a post-treatment study, male mice were treated with MPTP and then received daily for 5 days PPI-1011 (5, 10 and 50 mg/kg). MPTP treatment reduced serum plasmalogen levels, striatal contents of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, serotonin, DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Pre-treatment with PPI-1011 (10 and 50 mg/kg) prevented all MPTP-induced effects. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding. Post-treatment with PPI-1011 prevented all MPTP-induced effects at 50 mg/kg but not at lower doses. Positive correlations were measured between striatal DA contents and serum plasmalogen levels as well as striatal DAT and VMAT2 specific binding in the post-treatment experiment. PPI-1011 treatment (10 days at 5, 10 and 50 mg/kg) of intact mice left unchanged striatal biogenic amine contents. These data demonstrate that treatment with a plasmalogen precursor is capable of protecting striatal dopamine markers in an animal model of PD. PMID:26959819

  19. Gradual Height Decrease of Augmented Vertebrae after Vertebroplasty at the Thoracolumbar Junction

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Han San; Kim, Hyun Gon; Park, Kwan Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vertebroplasty is an effective treatment for vertebral compression fracture, but may progress gradual vertebral height decrease in spite of vertebroplasty. Gradual vertebral height decrease also may induce aggravation of kyphotic change without severe pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease in the absence of recurrent severe back pain. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 44 patients who were diagnosed with a first osteoporotic compression fracture at a single level at the thoracolumbar junction. All patients were taken vertebroplasty. Possible risk factors for gradual vertebral height decrease, such as sex, age, bone mineral density, body mass index, level of compression fracture, volume of injected cement, cement leakage into disc space, and air clefts within fractured vertebrae, were analyzed. Results Gradual vertebral height decrease of augmented vertebrae occurred commonly when more than 4 cc of injected cement was used, and when air clefts within fractured vertebrae were seen on admission. In addition, the sagittal Cobb angle more commonly increased during the follow-up period in such cases. Conclusion Injection of more than 4 cc of cement during vertebroplasty and air cleft within fractured vertebrae on admission induced gradual vertebral height decrease in augmented vertebrae. Thus, longer follow-up will be needed in such cases, even when patients do not complain of recurrent severe back pain. PMID:27182497

  20. An Efficient Augmented Lagrangian Method for Statistical X-Ray CT Image Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiaojiao; Niu, Shanzhou; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Feng, Qianjin; Yu, Gaohang; Liang, Zhengrong; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) under the penalized weighted least-squares criteria can yield significant gains over conventional analytical reconstruction from the noisy measurement. However, due to the nonlinear expression of the objective function, most exiting algorithms related to the SIR unavoidably suffer from heavy computation load and slow convergence rate, especially when an edge-preserving or sparsity-based penalty or regularization is incorporated. In this work, to address abovementioned issues of the general algorithms related to the SIR, we propose an adaptive nonmonotone alternating direction algorithm in the framework of augmented Lagrangian multiplier method, which is termed as “ALM-ANAD”. The algorithm effectively combines an alternating direction technique with an adaptive nonmonotone line search to minimize the augmented Lagrangian function at each iteration. To evaluate the present ALM-ANAD algorithm, both qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted by using digital and physical phantoms. Experimental results show that the present ALM-ANAD algorithm can achieve noticeable gains over the classical nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm and state-of-the-art split Bregman algorithm in terms of noise reduction, contrast-to-noise ratio, convergence rate, and universal quality index metrics. PMID:26495975

  1. Beyond the Kubler index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.

    1989-01-01

    The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler index or the illite "crystallinity' index. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler index method alone. -Authors

  2. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted.

  3. Thrust Augmentation Measurements for a Pulse Detonation Engine Driven Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Santoro, Robert J.; Shehadeh, R.; Saretto, S.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Thrust augmentation results of an ongoing study of pulse detonation engine driven ejectors are presented and discussed. The experiments were conducted using a pulse detonation engine (PDE) setup with various ejector configurations. The PDE used in these experiments utilizes ethylene (C2H4) as the fuel, and an equi-molar mixture of oxygen and nitrogen as the oxidizer at an equivalence ratio of one. High fidelity thrust measurements were made using an integrated spring damper system. The baseline thrust of the PDE engine was first measured and agrees with experimental and modeling results found in the literature. Thrust augmentation measurements were then made for constant diameter ejectors. The parameter space for the study included ejector length, PDE tube exit to ejector tube inlet overlap distance, and straight versus rounded ejector inlets. The relationship between the thrust augmentation results and various physical phenomena is described. To further understand the flow dynamics, shadow graph images of the exiting shock wave front from the PDE were also made. For the studied parameter space, the results showed a maximum augmentation of 40%. Further increase in augmentation is possible if the geometry of the ejector is tailored, a topic currently studied by numerous groups in the field.

  4. Bubble Augmented Propulsor Mixture Flow Simulation near Choked Flow Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin-Keun; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges

    2013-03-01

    The concept of waterjet thrust augmentation through bubble injection has been the subject of many patents and publications over the past several decades, and computational and experimental evidences of the augmentation of the jet thrust through bubble growth in the jet stream have been reported. Through our experimental studies, we have demonstrated net thrust augmentation as high as 70%for air volume fractions as high as 50%. However, in order to enable practical designs, an adequately validated modeling tool is required. In our previous numerical studies, we developed and validated a numerical code to simulate and predict the performance of a two-phase flow water jet propulsion system for low void fractions. In the present work, we extend the numerical method to handle higher void fractions to enable simulations for the high thrust augmentation conditions. At high void fractions, the speed of sound in the bubbly mixture decreases substantially and could be as low as 20 m/s, and the mixture velocity can approach the speed of sound in the medium. In this numerical study, we extend our numerical model, which is based on the two-way coupling between the mixture flow field and Lagrangian tracking of a large number of bubbles, to accommodate compressible flow regimes. Numerical methods used and the validation studies for various flow conditions in the bubble augmented propulsor will be presented. This work is supported by Office of Naval Research through contract N00014-11-C-0482 monitored by Dr. Ki-Han Kim.

  5. Gunner Goggles: Implementing Augmented Reality into Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leo L; Wu, Hao-Hua; Bilici, Nadir; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that both smartphone and tablet integration into medical education has been lacking. At the same time, there is a niche for augmented reality (AR) to improve this process through the enhancement of textbook learning. Gunner Goggles is an attempt to enhance textbook learning in shelf exam preparatory review with augmented reality. Here we describe our initial prototype and detail the process by which augmented reality was implemented into our textbook through Layar. We describe the unique functionalities of our textbook pages upon augmented reality implementation, which includes links, videos and 3D figures, and surveyed 24 third year medical students for their impression of the technology. Upon demonstrating an initial prototype textbook chapter, 100% (24/24) of students felt that augmented reality improved the quality of our textbook chapter as a learning tool. Of these students, 92% (22/24) agreed that their shelf exam review was inadequate and 19/24 (79%) felt that a completed Gunner Goggles product would have been a viable alternative to their shelf exam review. Thus, while students report interest in the integration of AR into medical education test prep, future investigation into how the use of AR can improve performance on exams is warranted. PMID:27046620

  6. Vertical bone augmentation procedures: basics and techniques in dental implantology.

    PubMed

    Draenert, F G; Huetzen, D; Neff, A; Mueller, W E G

    2014-05-01

    An appropriate bony situation is essential for dental implant placement and bony support of soft tissues (pink esthetic). Loss of teeth often results in complex horizontal and vertical alveolar ridge defects. They demand advanced bone augmentation techniques for reconstruction. We present the different techniques and materials used in complex bone augmentation. Clinical cases show the application of the methods in the clinical setting. We present current techniques and materials used in complex bone augmentations. Clinical cases show the application of the methods in the clinical setting. Applied techniques include stabilized-guided bone regeneration (GBR), autologous local block augmentation, modified techniques such as Gellrich shell technique including piezosurgery, pelvic bone blocks, complex materials such as graft-derived bone blocks and their unique handling problems. Successful basic principles are reduction of cortical bone healing due to long remodeling time and possible late loss; extended application of materials with interconnecting porous system and particulate material resulting in fast healing analogous to cancellous bone; mechanical stabilization of the augmentation to allow bony healing in vertical defect situations. GBR and autologous bone blocks with minimal cortical thickness and a high volume of particulated material are most favorable techniques.

  7. Biomechanical evaluation of combined short segment fixation and augmentation of incomplete osteoporotic burst fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Treating traumatic fractures in osteoporosis is challenging. Multiple clinical treatment options are found in literature. Augmentation techniques are promising to reduce treatment-related morbidity. In recent years, there have been an increasing number of reports about extended indication for augmentation techniques. However, biomechanical evaluations of these techniques are limited. Methods Nine thoracolumbar osteoporotic spinal samples (4 FSU) were harvested from postmortem donors and immediately frozen. Biomechanical testing was performed by a robotic-based spine tester. Standardized incomplete burst fractures were created by a combination of osteotomy-like weakening and high velocity compression using a hydraulic material testing apparatus. Biomechanical measurements were performed on specimens in the following conditions: 1) intact, 2) fractured, 3) bisegmental instrumented, 4) bisegmental instrumented with vertebroplasty (hybrid augmentation, HA) and 5) stand-alone vertebroplasty (VP). The range of motion (RoM), neutral zone (NZ), elastic zone (EZ) and stiffness parameters were determined. Statistical evaluation was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples (p = 0.05). Results Significant increases in RoM and in the NZ and EZ (p < 0.005) were observed after fracture production. The RoM was decreased significantly by applying the dorsal bisegmental instrumentation to the fractured specimens (p < 0.005). VP reduced fractured RoM in flexion but was still increased significantly (p < 0.05) above intact kinematic values. NZ stiffness (p < 0.05) and EZ stiffness (p < 0.01) was increased by VP but remained lower than prefracture values. The combination of short segment instrumentation and vertebroplasty (HA) showed no significant changes in RoM and stiffness in NZ in comparison to the instrumented group, except for significant increase of EZ stiffness in flexion (p < 0.05). Conclusions Stand

  8. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  9. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  10. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  11. A Sociodemographic Risk Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Vandivere, Sharon; Redd, Zakia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an index of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…

  12. Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

  13. The Misery Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

  14. Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  15. Wave reflection augments central systolic and pulse pressures during facial cooling.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David G; Roy, Matthew S; Prasad, Raju Y

    2008-06-01

    Cardiovascular events are more common in the winter months, possibly because of hemodynamic alterations in response to cold exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of acute facial cooling on central aortic pressure, arterial stiffness, and wave reflection. Twelve healthy subjects (age 23 +/- 3 yr; 6 men, 6 women) underwent supine measurements of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), brachial artery blood pressure, and central aortic pressure (via the synthesis of a central aortic pressure waveform by radial artery applanation tonometry and generalized transfer function) during a control trial (supine rest) and a facial cooling trial (0 degrees C gel pack). Aortic augmentation index (AI), an index of wave reflection, was calculated from the aortic pressure waveform. Measurements were made at baseline, 2 min, and 7 min during each trial. Facial cooling increased (P < 0.05) peripheral and central diastolic and systolic pressures. Central systolic pressure increased more than peripheral systolic pressure (22 +/- 3 vs. 15 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05), resulting in decreased pulse pressure amplification ratio. Facial cooling resulted in a robust increase in AI and a modest increase in PWV (AI: -1.4 +/- 3.8 vs. 21.2 +/- 3.0 and 19.9 +/- 3.6%; PWV: 5.6 +/- 0.2 vs. 6.5 +/- 0.3 and 6.2 +/- 0.2 m/s; P < 0.05). Change in mean arterial pressure but not PWV predicted the change in AI, suggesting that facial cooling may increase AI independent of aortic PWV. Facial cooling and the resulting peripheral vasoconstriction are associated with an increase in wave reflection and augmentation of central systolic pressure, potentially explaining ischemia and cardiovascular events in the cold.

  16. Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion.

    PubMed

    Xie, Songlin; Wang, Peng; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Chengyu

    2016-05-30

    A video see-through augmented reality three-dimensional display method is presented. The system that is used for dense viewpoint augmented reality presentation fuses the light fields of the real scene and the virtual model naturally. Inherently benefiting from the rich information of the light field, depth sense and occlusion can be handled under no priori depth information of the real scene. A series of processes are proposed to optimize the augmented reality performance. Experimental results show that the reconstructed fused 3D light field on the autostereoscopic display is well presented. The virtual model is naturally integrated into the real scene with a consistence between binocular parallax and monocular depth cues. PMID:27410076

  17. Augmenting ejector endwall effects. [V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. L.; Squyers, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Rectangular inlet ejectors which had multiple hypermixing nozzles for their primary jets were investigated for the effects of endwall blowing on thrust augmentation performance. The ejector configurations tested had both straight wall and active boundary layer control type diffusers. Endwall flows were energized and controlled by simple blowing jets suitably located in the ejector. Both the endwall and boundary layer control diffuser blowing rates were varied to determine optimum performance. High area ratio diffusers with insufficient endwall blowing showed endwall separation and rapid degradation of thrust performance. Optimized values of diffuser boundary layer control and endwall nozzle blowing rates in an ejector augmenter were shown to achieve high levels of augmentation performance for maximum compactness.

  18. "Messing with the mind": evolutionary challenges to human brain augmentation.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur; Henneberg, Maciej; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Grantham, James P

    2014-01-01

    The issue of brain augmentation has received considerable scientific attention over the last two decades. A key factor to brain augmentation that has been widely overlooked are the complex evolutionary processes which have taken place in evolving the human brain to its current state of functioning. Like other bodily organs, the human brain has been subject to the forces of biological adaptation. The structure and function of the brain, is very complex and only now we are beginning to understand some of the basic concepts of cognition. Therefore, this article proposes that brain-machine interfacing and nootropics are not going to produce "augmented" brains because we do not understand enough about how evolutionary pressures have informed the neural networks which support human cognitive faculties. PMID:25324734

  19. Injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue for tissue augmentation.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sung-Mi; You, Hi-Jin; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Soft tissue augmentation is a process of implanting tissues or materials to treat wrinkles or soft tissue defects in the body. Over the years, various materials have evolved to correct soft tissue defects, including a number of tissues and polymers. Autogenous dermis, autogenous fat, autogenous dermis-fat, allogenic dermis, synthetic implants, and fillers have been widely accepted for soft tissue augmentations. Tissue engineering technology has also been introduced and opened a new venue of opportunities in this field. In particular, a long-lasting filler consisting of hyaluronic acid filler and living human mesenchymal cells called "injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue" has been created and applied clinically, as this strategy has many advantages over conventional methods. Fibroblasts and adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells can be clinically used as injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue at present. In this review, information on the soft tissue augmentation method using the injectable tissue-engineered soft tissue is provided.

  20. An Argument Against Augmenting the Lagrangean for Nonholonomic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is known that correct dynamical equations of motion for a nonholonomic system cannot be obtained from a Lagrangean that has been augmented with a sum of the nonholonomic constraint equations weighted with multipliers, previous publications suggest otherwise. An example has been proposed in support of augmentation and purportedly demonstrates that an accepted method fails to produce correct equations of motion whereas augmentation leads to correct equations; this paper shows that in fact the opposite is true. The correct equations, previously discounted on the basis of a flawed application of the Newton-Euler method, are verified by using Kane's method and a new approach to determining the directions of constraint forces. A correct application of the Newton-Euler method reproduces valid equations.

  1. [Subantral augmentation with porous titanium in experiment and clinic].

    PubMed

    Sirak, S V; Shchetinin, E V; Sletov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the use of porous titanium for subantral augmentation. Experimental study was conducted on 12 yearling rams. Subantral augmentation using porous titanium was performed in 33 patients. In the control group consisting of 14 patients calcium phosphates and bone collagen based agents ("Bio-Оss" and "Collost") were used. In the main and control groups 46 and 32 implant were placed, respectively. Pilot histological and clinical studies proved that the granules of porous titanium are biocompatible with bone tissue, provide the optimal surface microrelief, thus creating good conditions for adhesion, expansion and migration of osteoforming cells, have negligible kinetics of resorption, are porous to ensure effective neovascularization of de novo formed bone tissue. Porous titanium is an effective alternative material for subantral bone augmentation for dental implantation and reconstructive operations on the maxillary sinus. PMID:26925568

  2. Augmented reality three-dimensional display with light field fusion.

    PubMed

    Xie, Songlin; Wang, Peng; Sang, Xinzhu; Li, Chengyu

    2016-05-30

    A video see-through augmented reality three-dimensional display method is presented. The system that is used for dense viewpoint augmented reality presentation fuses the light fields of the real scene and the virtual model naturally. Inherently benefiting from the rich information of the light field, depth sense and occlusion can be handled under no priori depth information of the real scene. A series of processes are proposed to optimize the augmented reality performance. Experimental results show that the reconstructed fused 3D light field on the autostereoscopic display is well presented. The virtual model is naturally integrated into the real scene with a consistence between binocular parallax and monocular depth cues.

  3. [Subantral augmentation with porous titanium in experiment and clinic].

    PubMed

    Sirak, S V; Shchetinin, E V; Sletov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the use of porous titanium for subantral augmentation. Experimental study was conducted on 12 yearling rams. Subantral augmentation using porous titanium was performed in 33 patients. In the control group consisting of 14 patients calcium phosphates and bone collagen based agents ("Bio-Оss" and "Collost") were used. In the main and control groups 46 and 32 implant were placed, respectively. Pilot histological and clinical studies proved that the granules of porous titanium are biocompatible with bone tissue, provide the optimal surface microrelief, thus creating good conditions for adhesion, expansion and migration of osteoforming cells, have negligible kinetics of resorption, are porous to ensure effective neovascularization of de novo formed bone tissue. Porous titanium is an effective alternative material for subantral bone augmentation for dental implantation and reconstructive operations on the maxillary sinus.

  4. Complications from injectable materials used for breast augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Walter; Fornasier, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Fewer surgical procedures have a history as fascinating and as terrifying as breast augmentation. Initial efforts at augmentation involved injection of substances such as paraffin or oil into the breast tissue, or the implantation of substances including ivory or glass balls, or rubber. More recent efforts have included the injection of liquid silicone or polyacrylamide hydrogel. The current paper reviews four distinct eras of breast augmentation, and provides the current status of these injection materials. A case report is presented on a woman whose breasts were injected with polyacrylamide hydrogel in Iran. The current status of this group of materials is also presented. During the past 110 years, history has repeated itself during each of the four eras of injection. PMID:20808751

  5. Vertebral augmentation treatment of painful osteoporotic compression fractures with the Kiva VCF Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    Olivarez, Luis M. Rosales; Dipp, Juan M.; Escamilla, Ricardo Flores; Bajares, Guillermo; Perez, Alejandro; Stubbs, Harrison A.; Block, Jon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) can cause significant pain and functional impairment, and their cumulative effect can lead to progressive morbidity. This single-arm, prospective feasibility trial, conducted at 4 clinical sites, was undertaken to evaluate the clinical outcomes associated with the use of an innovative vertebral augmentation device, the Kiva VCF Treatment System (Benvenue Medical, Santa Clara, California), in the management of symptomatic VCFs associated with osteoporosis. Methods Vertebral augmentation treatment was performed for persistent back pain symptoms in 57 patients (mean age, 71.9 ± 10.4 years), including 46 women, with radiologically confirmed VCFs; 36 of these patients (63%) had reached 12 months of follow-up at this data analysis. There were 51 one-level cases, 5 two-level cases, and 1 three-level case, representing 64 treated levels. Back pain severity and condition-specific functional impairment were evaluated with a standard 100-mm visual analog scale and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively, before device implantation as well as at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months. Results Marked clinical improvements were realized in back pain severity and functional impairment through 12 months of follow-up. The mean back pain score on the visual analog scale improved from 79.3 ± 17.2 before treatment to 21.9 ± 21.3, 21.9 ± 24.6, and 23.2 ± 23.3 at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months, respectively. The mean decrease at 12 months was 49.9 ± 30.3 mm, or approximately 66% (P < .0001). Similarly, the mean ODI score improved from 68.1% ± 16.9% before treatment to 27.4% ± 17.2%, 23.8% ± 18.7%, and 23.3% ± 15.5% at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 12 months, respectively, representing a mean change of 39.2 ± 19.6 percentage points, or approximately 63%, at 12 months. Overall clinical success rates based on a 30% improvement in pain severity or greater and maintenance or improvement in the ODI were 91%, 88%, and 89% at 6 weeks

  6. An application of active surface heating for augmenting lift and reducing drag of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible 2-D nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip of the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  7. REDUCING ENERGY AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS BY ELECTROSTATIC AUGMENTATION OF A PULSE-JET FABRIC FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In work performed several years ago by EPA's research lab then known as Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (EPA/AEERL), small-scale testing and modeling of electrostatically stimulated fabric filtration (ESFF) has indicated than substantial performance benefits could ...

  8. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    Navigation through a three-dimensional indoor environment is a formidable challenge for an autonomous micro air vehicle. A main obstacle to indoor navigation is maintaining a robust navigation solution (i.e. air vehicle position and attitude estimates) given the inadequate access to satellite positioning information. A MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) based inertial navigation system provides a small, power efficient means of maintaining a vehicle navigation solution; however, unmitigated error propagation from relatively noisy MEMS sensors results in the loss of a usable navigation solution over a short period of time. Several navigation systems use camera imagery to diminish error propagation by measuring the direction to features in the environment. Changes in feature direction provide information regarding direction for vehicle movement, but not the scale of movement. Movement scale information is contained in the depth to the features. Depth-from-defocus is a classic technique proposed to derive depth from a single image that involves analysis of the blur inherent in a scene with a narrow depth of field. A challenge to this method is distinguishing blurriness caused by the focal blur from blurriness inherent to the observed scene. In 2007, MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory demonstrated replacing the traditional rounded aperture with a coded aperture to produce a complex blur pattern that is more easily distinguished from the scene. A key to measuring depth using a coded aperture then is to correctly match the blur pattern in a region of the scene with a previously determined set of blur patterns for known depths. As the depth increases from the focal plane of the camera, the observable change in the blur pattern for small changes in depth is generally reduced. Consequently, as the depth of a feature to be measured using a depth-from-defocus technique increases, the measurement performance decreases. However, a Fresnel zone

  9. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  10. E-maintenance Scenarios Based on Augmented Reality Software Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbelkacem, S.; Zenati-Henda, N.; Belhocine, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents architecture of augmented reality for e-maintenance application. In our case, the aim is not to develop a vision system based on augmented reality concept, but to show the relationship between the different actors in the proposed architecture and to facilitate maintenance of the machine. This architecture allows implementing different scenarios which give to the technician possibilities to intervene on a breakdown device with a distant expert help. Each scenario is established according to machine parameters and technician competences. In our case, a hardware platform is designed to carry out e-maintenance scenarios. An example of e-maintenance scenario is then presented.

  11. Compression Pad Cavity Heating Augmentation on Orion Heat Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the effects of compression pad cavities on the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle heat shield. Testing was conducted in Mach 6 and 10 perfect-gas wind tunnels to obtain heating measurements in and around the compression pads cavities using global phosphor thermography. Data were obtained over a wide range of Reynolds numbers that produced laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow within and downstream of the cavities. The effects of cavity dimensions on boundary-layer transition and heating augmentation levels were studied. Correlations were developed for transition onset and for the average cavity-heating augmentation.

  12. MHD augmented chemical rocket propulsion for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.J.; Chapman, J.N.; Rhodes, R.P. )

    1992-07-01

    A performance analysis is carried out of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmented chemical thruster (based on a gaseous hydrogen-oxygen system) for space applications such as orbit transfer. The mathematical model used in the analysis is a one-dimensional flow model using equilibrium chemistry for the combustor, choked nozzle, and MHD channel portions of the system, and chemical nonequilibrium kinetics for the high area-ratio gas dynamic nozzle portion of the system. The performance of the chemical-MHD-augmented thruster is compared with that of a pure electric thruster of the same specific impulse level. 13 refs.

  13. Cheek augmentation with Dermicol-P35 27G.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Palmisano, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Full and high cheekbones are considered a desirable component of facial attractiveness. The aging process can result in a loss of facial volume and changes in facial contours. Cheek augmentation can replace lost facial volume, rejuvenate facial appearance, enhance cheek prominence, and improve facial symmetry. A new, highly purified, porcine-based collagen filler Dermicol-P35 #27G (Evolence; Ortho Dermatologics, Skillman, NJ) is now available that does not require pretreatment sensitivity testing and has shown a 12-month persistence of results in clinical trials. This article discusses the clinical experience of patients who received cheek augmentation with Dermicol-P35.

  14. Backstepping Control Augmented by Neural Networks For Robot Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkheiri, Mohammed; Boudjema, Farès

    2008-06-01

    A new control approach is proposed to address the tracking problem of robot manipulators. In this approach, one relies first on a partially known model to the system to be controlled using a backstepping control strategy. The obtained controller is then augmented by an online neural network that serves as an approximator for the neglected dynamics and modeling errors. The proposed approach is systematic, and exploits the known nonlinear dynamics to derive the stepwise virtual stabilizing control laws. At the final step, an augmented Lyapunov function is introduced to derive the adaptation laws of the network weights. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through computer simulation on PUMA 560 robot.

  15. Experimental Investigations of Generalized Predictive Control for Tiltrotor Stability Augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Piatak, David J.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    A team of researchers from the Army Research Laboratory, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), and Bell Helicopter-Textron, Inc. have completed hover-cell and wind-tunnel testing of a 1/5-size aeroelastically-scaled tiltrotor model using a new active control system for stability augmentation. The active system is based on a generalized predictive control (GPC) algorithm originally developed at NASA LaRC in 1997 for un-known disturbance rejection. Results of these investigations show that GPC combined with an active swashplate can significantly augment the damping and stability of tiltrotors in both hover and high-speed flight.

  16. Effect of resistance on projectile oscillations in augmented rail guns

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgdon, M.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Homan, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    Approximate solutions for the equation of motion of a projectile in an augmented rail gun are presented. These solutions show that the resistance in the rail gun system plays a role similar to the resistance in an R-C-L circuit. For small values of resistance, the projectile exhibits a slightly damped oscillatory motion, and there is a value of resistance for which the oscillations disappear and the motion appears critically damped. The dependence of the oscillations on the projectile mass and the augmenting field are also discussed.

  17. Indexing Theory and Retrieval Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Stephen E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes recent attempts to make explicit connections between the indexing process and the use of the index or information retrieval system, particularly the utility-theoretic and automatic indexing models of William Cooper and Stephen Harter. Theory and performance, information storage and retrieval, search stage feedback, and indexing are also…

  18. Automatic Indexing of Full Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonak, Zdenek

    1984-01-01

    Demonstrates efficiency of preparation of query description using semantic analyser method based on analysis of semantic structure of documents in field of automatic indexing. Results obtained are compared with automatic indexing results performed by traditional methods and results of indexing done by human indexers. Sample terms and codes are…

  19. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  20. Augmenting your own reality: student authoring of science-based augmented reality games.

    PubMed

    Klopfer, Eric; Sheldon, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) simulations superimpose a virtual overlay of data and interactions onto a real-world context. The simulation engine at the heart of this technology is built to afford elements of game play that support explorations and learning in students' natural context--their own community and surroundings. In one of the more recent games, TimeLab 2100, players role-play citizens of the early 22nd century when global climate change is out of control. Through AR, they see their community as it might be nearly one hundred years in the future. TimeLab and other similar AR games balance location specificity and portability--they are games that are tied to a location and games that are movable from place to place. Focusing students on developing their own AR games provides the best of both virtual and physical worlds: a more portable solution that deeply connects young people to their own surroundings. A series of initiatives has focused on technical and pedagogical solutions to supporting students authoring their own games. PMID:21240956