Science.gov

Sample records for reduces spontaneous fat

  1. Restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces spontaneous metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. We previously reported that consumption of a high-fat diet enhances metastasis in mice (Yan, Clin Exp Metastasis 2010). The present study investigated the effects of restricted feeding of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) i...

  2. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  3. Effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Three-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN-93G standard diet or a 45% fat diet (kcal %) for seven weeks before they were subcutaneously injected with 2.5 x 105 viable cells into th...

  4. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  5. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Mori, Trevor A.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  6. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  7. Physicochemical analysis of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat artisan-style goat cheese.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Fresno, M; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-delaNuez, A; Alvarez, S; Argüello, A

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical properties of cheese elaborated via traditional artisan methods using goat milk containing 5, 1.5, or 0.4% fat and ripened for 1, 7, 14, or 28 d. Seventy-two cheeses were produced (2 batches x 3 fat levels x 4 ripening times x triplicate). Proximal composition, pH, texture analysis, and color were recorded in each cheese. Protein and moisture were increased in cheese, and fat and fat in DM were decreased with decreasing fat in milk. Internal and external pH was higher in low-fat and reduced-fat cheese, and pH values decreased during the first 2 wk of ripening but increased slightly on d 28. Cheese fracturability, cohesiveness, masticability, and hardness increased with decreasing fat, whereas elasticity and adhesiveness decreased. Cheese lightness and red and yellow indexes decreased with decreasing fat content; during ripening, lightness decreased further but yellow index increased.

  8. Sustained mild hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Ueda, Kaname; Aoki, Ken; Iwasaki, Ken-ichi

    2014-10-01

    Head-to-foot gravitational force >1G (+Gz hypergravity) augments venous pooling in the lower body and reduces central blood volume during exposure, compared with 1Gz. Central hypovolemia has been reported to reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. However, no investigations have examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exposure to sustained mild +Gz hypergravity. We therefore hypothesized that mild +Gz hypergravity would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, compared with 1Gz. To test this hypothesis, we examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in 16 healthy men during exposure to mild +Gz hypergravity using a short-arm centrifuge. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (tonometry) and R-R interval (electrocardiography) were obtained during 1Gz and 1.5Gz exposures. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by sequence slope and transfer function gain. Stroke volume was calculated from the arterial pressure waveform using a three-element model. All indices of spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity decreased significantly (up slope: 18.6±2.3→12.7±1.6ms/mmHg, P<0.001; down slope: 19.0±2.5→13.2±1.3ms/mmHg, P=0.002; transfer function gain in low frequency: 14.4±2.2→10.1±1.1ms/mmHg, P=0.004; transfer function gain in high frequency: 22.2±7.5→12.4±3.5ms/mmHg, P<0.001). Stroke volume decreased significantly (88±5→80±6ml, P=0.025). Moreover, although systolic arterial pressure variability increased, R-R interval variability did not increase. These results suggest that even mild +Gz hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disturbance during the exposure.

  9. Traffic-light labels could reduce population intakes of calories, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium

    PubMed Central

    Emrich, Teri E.; Qi, Ying; Lou, Wendy Y.; L’Abbe, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-light labelling has been proposed as a public health intervention to improve the dietary intakes of consumers. OBJECTIVES: to model the potential impact of avoiding foods with red traffic lights on the label on the energy, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugars intakes of Canadian adults. METHODS: Canadian adults aged 19 and older (n = 19,915) who responded to the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Cycle 2.2. The nutrient levels in foods consumed by Canadians in CCHS were profiled using the United Kingdom’s criteria for traffic light labelling. Whenever possible, foods assigned a red traffic light for one or more of the profiled nutrients were replaced with a similar food currently sold in Canada, with nutrient levels not assigned any red traffic lights. Average intakes of calories, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugars under the traffic light scenario were compared with actual intakes of calories and these nutrients (baseline) reported in CCHS. RESULTS: Under the traffic light scenario, Canadian’s intake of energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium were significantly reduced compared to baseline; sugars intakes were not significantly reduced. Calorie intake was reduced by 5%, total fat 13%, saturated fat 14%, and sodium 6%. CONCLUSION: Governments and policy makers should consider the adoption of traffic light labelling as a population level intervention to improve dietary intakes and chronic disease risk. PMID:28182630

  10. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0

  11. Project LEAN: a national campaign to reduce dietary fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Samuels, S E

    1990-01-01

    The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation initiated a social marketing campaign in 1987, to reduce the nation's risk for heart disease and some cancers. Project LEAN (Low-Fat Eating for America Now) encourages reduction in dietary fat consumption to 30 percent of total calories, by 1998, through public service advertising, publicity, and point-of-purchase programs in restaurants, supermarkets, and school and worksite cafeterias. The campaign has joined efforts with the Partners for Better Health, a coalition of over thirty national health and consumer organizations that are working towards a common goal of improved health through nutrition. Project LEAN has provided funds to states and communities to initiate local campaigns and work with chefs, food professionals, and the food industry to change norms and customs in food preparation and manufacturing. The goal of the campaign is to accelerate the trend in fat reduction and to stimulate the greater availability of low-fat food choices in the marketplace.

  12. Effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and changes in plasma cytokine concentrations in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study assessed the effects of dietary fat on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Three-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN-93G standard diet or a 45% fat diet (kcal %) for seven weeks before they were subcutaneously injected with 2.5 x 105 viable cells into th...

  13. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a reduction in energy intake ameliorated the high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet with a 5% restriction of the intake. Energy restriction reduced body adiposity and body weight, but maintained growth similar to mice fed the AIN93G diet. The high-fat diet significantly increased the number and size (cross-sectional area and volume) of metastases formed in lungs. Restricted feeding reduced the number of metastases by 23%, metastatic cross-sectional area by 32% and volume by 45% compared to the high-fat diet. The high-fat diet elevated plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin), angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1) and insulin. Restricted feeding significantly reduced the high-fat diet-induced elevations in plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, angiogenic factors and insulin. These results demonstrated that a reduction in diet intake by 5% reduced high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis, which may be associated with the mitigation of adiposity and down-regulation of cancer-promoting proinflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors. PMID:27582541

  14. Nutrient content of the diet when the fat is reduced.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, R M; Fong, A K; Iacono, J M

    1988-10-01

    When the fat content of the typical US diet was reduced from 40 to 44% of total energy (en %) to approximately 25 en % there was a marked improvement in the overall nutrient content of the diet. Cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, and monounsaturated fatty acid intake were decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid content was moderately increased. This kind of dietary change was achieved without changing the usual intake of meats, dairy products, fish, and eggs. As the amount of fat was decreased, carbohydrates in the form of grains, fruits, and vegetables were increased, providing an improvement in the vitamin and mineral content of the diet. Vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B-6, B-12, and folates increased in the 25 en % diet. Potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and copper intake also increased when the dietary fat decreased.

  15. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat ovine and bovine Halloumi.

    PubMed

    Lteif, L; Olabi, A; Kebbe Baghdadi, O; Toufeili, I

    2009-09-01

    Halloumi cheese is a popular cheese in Lebanon and the Middle East. Today, health-conscious consumers are demanding lower fat foods with sensory properties that are comparable to their full-fat counterparts. The objectives of this work were to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine and ovine Halloumi of different fat levels and to provide a baseline sensory profile for Halloumi cheese. Full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat samples were produced from ovine and bovine milks in 2 batches resulting in a total of 12 batches. The fat, protein, moisture, ash, pH, sodium, and calcium levels were determined and the instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Eleven trained panelists used quantitative descriptive analysis to profile the sensory attributes of the samples and an acceptability test was conducted with 84 panelists. The type of milk (ovine vs. bovine) significantly affected the moisture and protein contents, whereas fat level had a significant effect on moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents. Instrumental texture analysis revealed that the type of milk significantly affected adhesiveness, chewiness, and hardness, whereas the fat level affected chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. The sensory results of the trained panelists revealed that the ovine cheese was more yellow and harder than bovine cheese, whereas bovine cheese was squeakier. Low-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were also more yellow and harder than full-fat cheese, and full-fat cheese was more moist with no significant differences between the low-fat and reduced-fat varieties. Type of milk and fat level did not have any significant effect on fermented flavor, whey flavor, or saltiness. Bovine cheese received significantly higher scores on overall acceptability, texture acceptability, and significantly lower scores on the food action rating scale. Full-fat cheese obtained the highest score on overall acceptability

  16. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    PubMed

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p < 0.05). In all probiotic products stored at different temperatures, Bifidobacterium had the greatest survivability, followed by Lactobacillus and Streptococcus/Lactococcus. The probiotics used in the study had different surviving patterns, and their survival was influenced by storage conditions. Fat content of peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children.

  17. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors.

  18. Optimization of fat-reduced ice cream formulation employing inulin as fat replacer via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Aurora; Severiano-Pérez, Patricia; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2014-10-01

    The use of new ingredients like inulin for fat replacement is of wide application in the food industry. The aim of the present work was to reduce the fat content on ice cream formulations. It was possible to reduce up to 25% of butyric and vegetable fats with 3% of inulin, with good textural and sensory characteristics of the final product. The substitution of fat with inulin increased the ice cream mix viscosity, improved air incorporation, and produced ice cream with soft and homogeneous textures. Color characteristics were not affected by the replacement. Hedonic sensory analysis showed that optimized fat-reduced inulin ice cream was not perceived different to commercial vanilla ice cream.

  19. An Environmental Intervention to Reduce Dietary Fat in School Lunches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined lunch entree choices by students in 16 elementary schools. During baseline period, low-fat entrees were available on 23% of days and selected by 39% of students. During intervention period, these figures were 71% of days and 29% of students. Across intervention, fat content of average meal dropped from 36% to 30% of calories from fat. (BC)

  20. Override of spontaneous respiratory pattern generator reduces cardiovascular parasympathetic influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Vallurupalli, S.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary control of breathing on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation. Variability in heart rate was compared between 5 min of spontaneous and controlled breathing. During controlled breathing, for 5 min, subjects voluntarily reproduced their own spontaneous breathing pattern (both rate and volume on a breath-by-breath basis). With the use of this experimental design, we could unmask the effects of voluntary override of the spontaneous respiratory pattern generator on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation without the confounding effects of altered respiratory pattern. Results from 10 subjects showed that during voluntary control of breathing, mean values of heart rate and blood pressure increased, whereas fractal and spectral powers in heart rate in the respiratory frequency region decreased. End-tidal PCO2 was similar during spontaneous and controlled breathing. These results indicate that the act of voluntary control of breathing decreases the influence of the vagal component, which is the principal parasympathetic influence in cardiovascular regulation.

  1. Factors that contribute to the botulinal safety of reduced-fat and fat-free process chesse products.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathleen A; Johnson, Eric A

    2004-08-01

    The effects of fat, type of natural cheese, and adjunct process cheese ingredients were evaluated to determine factors that contribute to the botulinal safety of reduced-fat (RF) process cheese products stored at 30 degrees C. In the first set of experiments, pasteurized process cheese products (PPCPs) were formulated using full-fat (FF) Cheddar, 30% RF Cheddar, or skim milk (SM) cheese as cheese-base types and were standardized to 59% moisture, pH 5.75, 2.8 or 3.2% total salts, and 15 to 19% fat. Subsequent trials evaluated the effect of fat levels and adjunct ingredients in PPCPs made with SM, RF, and FF cheese (final fat levels, less than 1, 13, and 24%, respectively). When fat levels of PPCPs were comparable (15.1, 19.1, and 16.2 for product manufactured with SC, RE and FF cheese, respectively), botulinal toxin production was delayed for up to 2 days in PPCPs formulated with SM compared with RF or FF cheese; however, the effect was not statistically significant. When fat levels were reduced to less than 1% in SM PPCPs, toxin production was delayed 2 weeks in products made with SM compared with RF or FF cheese manufactured with 13 or 24% fat, respectively. The antibotulinal effect of adjunct ingredients varied among the products manufactured with different fat levels. Sodium lactate significantly delayed toxin production (P < 0.05) for all fat levels tested, whereas beta-glucan fat replacer did not delay toxin production. An enzyme-modified cheese used as a flavor enhancer significantly delayed toxin production (P < 0.05) in SM (less than 1% fat) products but had little to no inhibitory effect in RF (13% fat) and FF (24% fat) cheese products. Similarly, monolaurin increased the time to detectable toxin in SM products but was ineffective in RF or FF cheese products. These results verify that RF PPCPs exhibit greater safety than FF products and that safety may be enhanced by using certain adjunct ingredients as antimicrobials.

  2. A reliable, valid questionnaire indicates that preference for dietary fat declines when following a reduced-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ledikwe, Jenny H; Ello-Martin, Julie; Pelkman, Christine L; Birch, Leann L; Mannino, Michelle L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-07-01

    This study establishes the reliability and validity of the Fat Preference Questionnaire, a self-administered instrument to assess preference for dietary fat. Respondents select the food which tastes better and is eaten more frequently from 19 sets of food. Each set is comprised of related foods differing in fat content. The questionnaire was administered to women in laboratory-based (n=63), cross-sectional (n=150), and weight-loss (n=71) studies. The percentage of food sets in which high-fat foods were reported to "taste better" (TASTE score) and to be "eaten more often" (FREQ score) was determined. A measure of dietary fat restriction (DIFF) was created by subtracting TASTE from FREQ. Food intake was assessed by direct measure, 24-h recall, or food diary. Additionally, participants completed a standard survey assessing dietary restraint. Test-retest correlations were high (r=0.75-0.94). TASTE and FREQ scores were positively correlated with total fat intake (r=0.22-0.63). DIFF scores positively correlated with dietary restraint (r=0.39-0.52). Participants in the weight-loss trial experienced declines in fat consumption, TASTE and FREQ scores, and BMI values, and an increase in DIFF scores. Weight loss correlated with declines in FREQ (r=0.36) scores and increases in DIFF scores (r=-0.35). These data suggest that preference for dietary fat declines when following a reduced-fat diet and an increase in restraint for intake of dietary fat is important for weight loss. The Fat Preference Questionnaire is a stable, easily-administered instrument that can be used in research and clinical settings.

  3. Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Belz, Markus C E; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-02-22

    Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50-200) and the final thickness (1.0-3.5 mm) of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK) and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP), the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30%) puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt %) products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or 'liking of mouthfeel'. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation to 'liking of flavor' and overall acceptance by the assessors.

  4. Optimization of Fat-Reduced Puff Pastry Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Belz, Markus C. E.; Arendt, Elke K.

    2017-01-01

    Puff pastry is a high-fat bakery product with fat playing a key role, both during the production process and in the final pastry. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. The technological parameters modified included the level of roll-in fat, the number of fat layers (50–200) and the final thickness (1.0–3.5 mm) of the laminated dough. Quality characteristics of puff pastry were measured using the Texture Analyzer with an attached Extended Craft Knife (ECK) and Multiple Puncture Probe (MPP), the VolScan and the C-Cell imaging system. The number of fat layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, had a significant impact on the internal and external structural quality parameters. With technological changes alone, a fat-reduced (≥30%) puff pastry was developed. The qualities of fat-reduced puff pastries were comparable to conventional full-fat (33 wt %) products. A sensory acceptance test revealed no significant differences in taste of fatness or ‘liking of mouthfeel’. Additionally, the fat-reduced puff pastry resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation to ‘liking of flavor’ and overall acceptance by the assessors. PMID:28231095

  5. Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Park, Jong-Dae; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Lee, Cheol-Won; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Young-Boong

    2016-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level.

  6. Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level. PMID:28115892

  7. Influence of adjunct cultures on ripening of reduced fat Edam cheeses.

    PubMed

    Tungjaroenchai, W; Drake, M A; White, C H

    2001-10-01

    The influence of four adjunct cultures [Brevibacterium linens (BL2), Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus (LH212), and Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272)] on chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced fat Edam cheese was studied. The aminopeptidase activity of Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis was higher than that of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Brevibacterium linens, respectively. Mean percent fat and moisture contents of reduced fat cheese were 20.85 +/- 0.69 and 42.95 +/- 0.43, respectively. Percentage of fat and moisture of full fat control cheese were 30.06 +/- 0.78 and 39.11 +/- 0.60. Titratable acidity increased in all cheese with aging while pH initially decreased but increased in cheese after 6 mo aging at 7 degrees C. Lactic acid bacteria counts were on average one log higher for reduced fat cheeses than for full fat control cheese and counts decreasing with aging. Free amino acids (FAA) in cheeses increased with aging, and were higher in reduced fat cheeses than in the full fat control cheese. Reduced fat cheeses containing L. helveticus exhibited the highest FAA content. Descriptive sensory panelists (n = 9) did not detect differences among cheeses after 3 and 6 mo ripening, but aged/developed flavors (fruity, nutty, brothy, sulfur, free fatty acid) and sweetness increased between 3 and 6 mo. Expert panelists (n = 6) detected differences in texture quality among the cheeses. Reduced fat control cheeses and reduced fat cheeses with L. helveticus and L. reuteri received the highest texture quality scores. Addition of L. helveticus and Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, as adjunct cultures to reduced fat Edam cheeses increased proteolysis, while the addition of L. helveticus and L. reuteri increased texture quality of cheeses.

  8. Consumption of a high-fat diet abrogates inhibitory effects of methylseleninic acid on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with selenium (Se) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were fed the AIN93G diet or that diet modified with 45% calories from fat supplemented with or without 2.5 mg Se/4029 kCal ...

  9. Effects of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficient and wild-type mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in PAI-1 deficient (PAI-1-/-) and wildtype mice (C57BL/6J background) fed the AIN93G diet or that diet modified with 45% calories from fat. The high-fat diet i...

  10. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh)

    PubMed Central

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (∼10%), reduced-fat (∼5%), and low-fat (<1%) concentrated yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P < 0.001) all chemical attributes except moisture and nitrogen-free extract, and fat level significantly impacted moisture, fat, protein, ash, acidity, and magnesium contents of Labneh. Type of milk significantly affected apparent modulus, hardness, hardness work done, and adhesive force, whereas fat level significantly affected hardness. Type of milk significantly affected the sensory attributes of syneresis, compactness, goaty odor and flavor, rate of flow, color, shininess, bitter flavor, denseness, melting rate, and spreadability, whereas fat level affected only color, denseness, and melting rate. Type of milk had a significant effect on overall acceptability and acceptability of flavor and texture. PMID:24804075

  11. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat and low-fat bovine, caprine, and ovine Greek yogurt (Labneh).

    PubMed

    Atamian, Samson; Olabi, Ammar; Kebbe Baghdadi, Omar; Toufeili, Imad

    2014-03-01

    Concentrated/Greek yogurt or Labneh is a semisolid food produced from yogurt by eliminating part of its water and water-soluble compounds. Today's world is geared toward the production of lower fat foods without compromising the texture and flavor of these products. The objective of this study was to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine, caprine, and ovine Labneh with different fat levels. Bovine, caprine, and ovine milks were used to produce two batches of full-fat (∼10%), reduced-fat (∼5%), and low-fat (<1%) concentrated yogurt samples. Chemical analyses of fat, moisture, protein, ash, syneresis, acidity, pH, sodium, magnesium, and calcium contents were conducted. Instrumental texture analysis using the back extrusion method was applied. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis was used to profile samples by 11 trained panelists and the acceptability of samples was assessed by 47 panelists. Type of milk significantly affected (P < 0.001) all chemical attributes except moisture and nitrogen-free extract, and fat level significantly impacted moisture, fat, protein, ash, acidity, and magnesium contents of Labneh. Type of milk significantly affected apparent modulus, hardness, hardness work done, and adhesive force, whereas fat level significantly affected hardness. Type of milk significantly affected the sensory attributes of syneresis, compactness, goaty odor and flavor, rate of flow, color, shininess, bitter flavor, denseness, melting rate, and spreadability, whereas fat level affected only color, denseness, and melting rate. Type of milk had a significant effect on overall acceptability and acceptability of flavor and texture.

  12. Effects of Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Hydrates on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-salt, Reduced-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adding glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient (GM, carboxy methyl cellulose; GC, carrageenan; GI, isolated soy protein; GS, sodium caseinate) on the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The pH and color evaluation showed significant differences, depending on the type of glasswort hydrate added (p<0.05). In the raw batters and cooked frankfurters, the addition of glasswort hydrate decreased the redness and increased the yellowness in comparison with frankfurters without glasswort hydrate. The reduction in salt and fat content significantly increased cooking loss and decreased hardness, tenderness and juiciness (p<0.05). Glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient improved cooking loss, water holding capacity, emulsion stability, hardness, and viscosity of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The GM treatment had the highest myofibiliar protein solubility among all treatments, which was associated with emulsion stability and viscosity. The GC treatment had higher values for all texture parameters than the control. In the sensory evaluation, the addition of glasswort hydrate with non-meat ingredient improved tenderness and juiciness of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. GM, GC, and GI treatments improved not only the physicochemical properties but also the sensory characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The results indicated that the use of glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient was improved the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. PMID:26877638

  13. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  14. Designing a Clean Label Sponge Cake with Reduced Fat Content.

    PubMed

    Eslava-Zomeño, Cristina; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in texture, flavor and overall acceptance between the control and the 30% substitution cake, nor in the rapidly digestible starch values. Consequently, replacing up to 30% of the fat with OptiSol™5300 gives a new product with health benefits and a clean label that resembles the full-fat sponge cake.

  15. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  16. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  17. Dietary anhydrous milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid modify cardiovascular risk biomarkers in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Meza, M S; Mendoza-López, M R; García-Barradas, O; Sanchez-Otero, M G; Silva-Hernández, E R; Angulo, J O; Oliart-Ros, R M

    2013-08-01

    Saturated and trans fatty acids have been associated with the risk to develop cardiovascular diseases. However, health-promoting effects are associated with consumption of anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and ruminant trans fatty acids, such as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vaccenic acid (VA) contained in the lipid fraction of milk and dairy products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of AMF naturally enriched with CLA and VA in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), using sterculic oil to inhibit the conversion of VA into CLA. The administration of AMF to SHR during 7 weeks exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk biomarkers (reduction of insulin, blood lipids, increase of adiponectin). When sterculic oil was included, some parameters were further ameliorated (reduction of insulin, increase of adiponectin). Sterculic oil alone reduced body weight and adiposity, and improved blood pressure, adiponectin and triglyceride levels.

  18. Compound stimulus extinction reduces spontaneous recovery in humans

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Cesar A.O.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design (“deepened extinction”) shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately paired with an electric shock. The target CS (CSA) was extinguished alone followed by compound presentations of the extinguished CSA and nonextinguished CSB. Recovery of conditioned skin conductance responses to CSA was reduced 24 h after compound extinction, as compared with a group who received an equal number of extinction trials to the CSA alone. PMID:26572649

  19. Compound stimulus extinction reduces spontaneous recovery in humans.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Cesar A O; Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design ("deepened extinction") shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately paired with an electric shock. The target CS (CSA) was extinguished alone followed by compound presentations of the extinguished CSA and nonextinguished CSB. Recovery of conditioned skin conductance responses to CSA was reduced 24 h after compound extinction, as compared with a group who received an equal number of extinction trials to the CSA alone.

  20. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Brewer's Spent Grain Dietary Fiber on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Sung; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; n Lee, Soo-Yeo; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The effects of replacing pork back fat with brewer's spent grain (BSG) pre-emulsion for physicochemical, textural properties, and sensory evaluations of reduced-fat chicken sausages are evaluated. Control was prepared with 15% pork back fat, and three reduced-fat chicken sausages were formulated with the replacement of 20, 25, and 30% pork back fat with BSG pre-emulsion. The pH level of reduced-fat sausages formulated with BSG pre-emulsion is lower than that of the control (p<0.05). The redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of reduced-fat chicken sausages increase proportionally with increasing BSG pre-emulsion (p<0.05). With increasing BSG pre-emulsion concentration, the fat contents and energy values are decreased in reduced-fat chicken sausages (p<0.05). The BSG pre-emulsion improves the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of reduced-fat chicken sausages (p<0.05), and the reduction in fat and the addition of BSG pre-emulsion had no influence on the cohesiveness of the chicken sausage. And there is no significant difference in the overall acceptability among control, T1 (chicken sausage with 20% of BSG pre-emulsion, 10% of fat addition), and T2 (chicken sausage with 25% of BSG pre-emulsion, 5% of fat addition) (p>0.05). Therefore, our results indicate that BSG is effective dietary fiber source for manufacturing of reduced-fat meat product and suggest that 20-25% of BSG pre-emulsion is suitable for pork back fat in chicken sausages. PMID:26760933

  1. Compound Stimulus Extinction Reduces Spontaneous Recovery in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Cesar A. O.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design ("deepened extinction") shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately…

  2. Influence of adjunct cultures on volatile free fatty acids in reduced-fat Edam cheeses.

    PubMed

    Tungjaroenchai, W; White, C H; Holmes, W E; Drake, M A

    2004-10-01

    The effects of the adjunct cultures Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Brevibacterium linens BL2, Lactobacillus helveticus LH212, and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272 on volatile free fatty acid production in reduced-fat Edam cheese were studied. Lipase activity evaluation using p-nitrophenyl fatty acid ester substrates indicated that L. lactis ssp. diacetylactis showed the highest activity among the 4 adjunct cultures. Full-fat and 33% reduced-fat control cheeses (no adjunct) were made along with 5 treatments of reduced-fat cheeses, which included individual, and a mixture of the adjunct cultures. Volatile free fatty acids of cheeses were analyzed using static headspace analysis with 4-bromofluorobenzene as an internal standard. Changes in volatile free fatty acid concentrations were found in headspace gas of cheeses after 3-and 6-mo ripening. Acetic acid was the most abundant acid detected throughout ripening. Full-fat cheese had the highest relative amount of propionic acid among the cheeses. Certain adjunct cultures had a definite role in lipolysis at particular times. Reduced-fat cheese with L. lactis ssp. diacetylactis at 3-mo showed the highest levels of butyric, isovaleric, n-valeric, iso-caproic, and n-caproic acid. Reduced-fat cheese with Lactobacillus reuteri at 6 mo produced the highest relative concentration of isocaproic, n-caproic, and heptanoic, and the highest relative concentration of total acids.

  3. Fat-reduced diet in the treatment of hyperoxaluria in patients with ileopathy

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Henrik; Jagenburg, Rudolf

    1974-01-01

    Thirteen patients with ileopathy were studied under metabolic ward conditions, first on a 100-g fat diet and later on a 40-g fat diet. Ten of the patients were studied after three to 27 months on a fat-reduced diet. Ten of the patients had a high urinary oxalate excretion on the high-fat diet compared with a control group. The patients with a faecal fat output of more than 15 g a day showed a reduction in oxalate excretion when the fat intake was decreased and in the follow-up study the oxalate excretion was low in all patients except in one with a remaining steatorrhoea. There was a correlation between urinary oxalate excretion and faecal output of fatty acids. It is postulated that a low intraluminal calcium ion concentration, mainly caused by the high fatty acid content, explains the hyperoxaluria. The low fat diet, which also reduced the diarrhoea and increased the urinary output, was acceptable to the patients. The diet is recommended for patients with ileopathy in order to reduce the risk of formation of renal calculi. PMID:18668844

  4. Application of exopolysaccharide-producing cultures in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese: composition and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Awad, S; Hassan, A N; Halaweish, F

    2005-12-01

    Proteolysis during ripening of reduced fat Cheddar cheeses made with different exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing and nonproducing cultures was studied. A ropy strain of Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (JFR1) and capsule-forming nonropy and moderately ropy strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were used in making reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Commercial Cheddar starter was used in making full-fat cheese. Results showed that the actual yield of cheese made with JFR1 was higher than that of all other reduced-fat cheeses. Cheese made with JFR1 contained higher moisture, moisture in the nonfat substance, and residual coagulant activity than all other reduced-fat cheeses. Proteolysis, as determined by PAGE and the level of water-soluble nitrogen, was also higher in cheese made with JFR1 than in all other cheeses. The HPLC analysis showed a significant increase in hydrophobic peptides (causing bitterness) during storage of cheese made with JFR1. Cheese made with the capsule-forming nonropy adjunct of S. thermophilus, which contained lower moisture and moisture in the nonfat substance levels and lower chymosin activity than did cheese made with JFR1, accumulated less hydrophobic peptides. In conclusion, some EPS-producing cultures produced reduced-fat Cheddar cheese with moisture in the nonfat substance similar to that in its full-fat counterpart without the need for modifying the standard cheese-making protocol. Such cultures might accumulate hydrophobic (bitter) peptides if they do not contain the system able to hydrolyze them. For making high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese, EPS-producing cultures should be used in conjunction with debittering strains.

  5. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen.

    PubMed

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Glial calcium (Ca(2+)) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen saturation alters wave activity; (2) glial Ca(2+) waves change cerebral oxygen metabolism; and (3) neuronal and glial wave activity is correlated. We used two-photon microscopy in the cerebellar cortexes of adult (8- to 15-week-old) and aging (48- to 80-week-old) ketamine-anesthetized mice after bolus loading with OGB-1/AM and SR101. We report that the occurrence of spontaneous waves is 20 times more frequent in the cerebellar cortex of aging as compared with adult mice, which correlated with a reduction in resting brain oxygen tension. In adult mice, spontaneous glial wave activity increased on reducing resting brain oxygen tension, and ATP-evoked glial waves reduced the tissue O(2) tension. Finally, although spontaneous Purkinje cell (PC) activity was not associated with increased glia wave activity, spontaneous glial waves did affect intracellular Ca(2+) activity in PCs. The increased wave activity during aging, as well as low resting brain oxygen tension, suggests a relationship between glial waves, brain energy homeostasis, and pathology.

  6. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  7. The influence of herbs and spices on overall liking of reduced fat food.

    PubMed

    Peters, John C; Polsky, Sarit; Stark, Rebecca; Zhaoxing, Pan; Hill, James O

    2014-08-01

    Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P < 0.0001; 6.29 RF vs. 6.98 RFS, P ≤ 0.0001). The RFS overall meal was liked as well as the FF condition. FF and RFS conditions were liked significantly more than RF conditions for each meal item. Liking of FF and RFS meatloaf and vegetables were not significantly different from one another. Pasta FF and RFS conditions were rated significantly differently from each other (7.33 FF vs. 6.61 RFS, P < 0.0001). Adding herbs and spices to reduced fat foods restored liking of the overall meal, meatloaf, and vegetables to that of FF conditions, and significantly improved the liking of RF pasta. Herbs and spices can be a useful tool to improve liking of foods consistent with national guidelines.

  8. Effect of pH on the spontaneous synthesis of palladium nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaorui; Ooki, Wataru; Kosaka, Yoshinori R.; Okonogi, Akinori; Marzun, Galina; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan; Kondo, Takahiro; Nakamura, Junji

    2016-12-01

    Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles were spontaneously deposited on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) without any external reducing agents. The prepared Pd/rGO composites were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spontaneous deposition occurred because of a redox reaction between the Pd precursor and rGO, which involved reduction of bivalent Pd to metallic Pd0 and oxidation of the sp2 carbon of rGO to oxygen-containing functional groups. The amount of Pd deposited on rGO varied with pH, and this was attributed to electrostatic interactions between the Pd precursor and rGO based on the results of zeta potential measurements. The importance of the redox reaction in the spontaneous deposition was demonstrated in the experiment with Zn, Ni, Cu, Ag, Pt, Pd, and Au.

  9. Fat-reduced diet in the symptomatic treatment of small bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, H.; Isaksson, B.; Sjögren, B.

    1974-01-01

    Thirteen patients suffering from Crohn's disease or subjected to small bowel resection were studied under metabolic ward conditions for an average of 32 days. Most of these patients had chronic, severe diarrhoea and varying degrees of steatorrhoea. All were studied at two levels of fat intake, 100 g and 40 g daily. After the introduction of the low-fat diet, there was a marked reduction in the faecal excretion of water and sodium in most patients and 10 of them passed solid faeces. Two other subjects improved only after the addition of cholestyramine. In one patient with an ileostomy, no improvement occurred. On the low-fat diet, there was a positive balance of nitrogen and potassium in many cases. Faecal fat excretion decreased, but there was no change in the fractional absorption of fat. The most gratifying improvement was seen in patients with a functioning gallbladder. Previous resection of the colon seemed to limit the reduction of faecal water and sodium excretion which followed the reduction in fat intake. A fat-reduced diet is recommended in the symptomatic therapy of chronic diarrhoea in patients suffering from diseases of the ileum. PMID:18668843

  10. Dopamine antagonists reduce spontaneous electrical activity in cultured mammalian neurons from ventral mesencephalon.

    PubMed

    Heyer, E J

    1986-09-24

    Mammalian neurons from ventral mesencephalon (VM) were grown in primary dissociated cell (PDC) culture. These neurons are predominantly non-dopaminergic. Many of these non-dopaminergic neurons have dopamine agonist and antagonist binding sites. Intracellular recordings were obtained from these neurons. When bathed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution they generated action potentials spontaneously. However, in the presence of haloperidol dissolved in PBS solution, the percentage of neurons which generated action potentials spontaneously was reduced in a dose-dependent manner (1-10 microM). This response was also obtained with (+) butaclamol (1 microM) but not with (-) butaclamol (1 microM). This neuroleptic inhibition of spontaneously generated action potentials was specific for neurons in PDC cultures of VM since neurons in PDC cultures of spinal cord did not demonstrate this phenomenon.

  11. Optimization for Reduced-Fat / Low-NaCl Meat Emulsion Systems with Sea Mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) and Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 20% and salt concentrations from 1.5% to 1.0% by partially substituting incorporated phosphate and sea mustard were investigated based on physicochemical properties of reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion systems. Cooking loss and emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness for reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion systems with 20% pork back fat and 1.2% sodium chloride samples with incorporation of phosphate and sea mustard were similar to the control with 30% pork back fat and 1.5% sodium chloride. Results showed that reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion system samples containing phosphate and sea mustard had higher apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that the incorporation of phosphate and sea mustard in the formulation will successfully reduce fat and salt in the final meat products.

  12. Optimization for Reduced-Fat / Low-NaCl Meat Emulsion Systems with Sea Mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) and Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2015-01-01

    The effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 20% and salt concentrations from 1.5% to 1.0% by partially substituting incorporated phosphate and sea mustard were investigated based on physicochemical properties of reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion systems. Cooking loss and emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness for reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion systems with 20% pork back fat and 1.2% sodium chloride samples with incorporation of phosphate and sea mustard were similar to the control with 30% pork back fat and 1.5% sodium chloride. Results showed that reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion system samples containing phosphate and sea mustard had higher apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that the incorporation of phosphate and sea mustard in the formulation will successfully reduce fat and salt in the final meat products. PMID:26761874

  13. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Miklos, Rikke; Lametsch, René; Arnau, Jacint

    2013-03-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat content of standard fermented sausages of similar characteristics. Sausages with SO showed higher sensory ratings in desirable ripened odor and flavor attributes and improved texture defined by lower hardness and chewiness (both sensory and instrumental) and higher crumbliness. Sausages with DAGs showed a similar behavior to that of BF, so they could be a good alternative to produce healthier reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

  14. Production and characterisation of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched Burrata cheese.

    PubMed

    Trani, Antonio; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Gomes, Tommaso F; Loizzo, Pasqua; Cassone, Angela; Faccia, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Burrata is an Italian fresh 'pasta filata' cheese made from cow's milk and cream that is rapidly spreading in Europe. It has very high caloric content, and a technological protocol was developed for producing a reduced-fat type and fortifying it with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of vegetable origin. A satisfactory reduced-fat prototype was obtained by using a 14% fat cream, which was specifically developed by diluting double cream with a suspension of carob seed flour. The composition of the new cheese changed with respect to the control, but the sensory characteristics were not impaired. Moisture increased from 62·6 to 68·4%, fat on dry matter decreased from 59·1 to 34·7%, and the caloric content decreased from 1060·8 to 718 J/100 g. Proteolysis and lipolysis were not affected by the technological modifications: after 7 d storage, the electrophoretic pattern of caseins and the free fatty acids profile of experimental and control cheeses were not significantly different. Fortification of reduced-fat Burrata with PUFA was obtained by using two commercial formulates available at a compatible price with the current economic values of the cheese. The two formulates derived from flaxseeds and Carthamus tinctorius oil and allowed enrichment in C18 :3 : n3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA), and 9cis,11trans- and 10trans,12cis- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Fortification was easy to perform under a technical point of view, but the negative sensory impact limited fortification at a maximum of 7·0 mg g-1 fat ALA and 6·8 g-1 fat CLA.

  15. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    PubMed Central

    Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Boon, Mariëtte R; Khedoe, P. Padmini S. J.; Bartelt, Alexander; Schlein, Christian; Worthmann, Anna; Kooijman, Sander; Hoeke, Geerte; Mol, Isabel M.; John, Clara; Jung, Caroline; Vazirpanah, Nadia; Brouwers, Linda P.J.; Gordts, Philip L.S.M.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Havekes, Louis M.; Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg; Rensen, Patrick C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation protects from atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism that unlike hyperlipidemic Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice expresses functional apoE and LDLR. BAT activation increases energy expenditure and decreases plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that BAT activation enhances the selective uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins into BAT, subsequently accelerating the hepatic clearance of the cholesterol-enriched remnants. These effects depend on a functional hepatic apoE-LDLR clearance pathway as BAT activation in Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice does not attenuate hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. We conclude that activation of BAT is a powerful therapeutic avenue to ameliorate hyperlipidaemia and protect from atherosclerosis. PMID:25754609

  16. Treatment of spontaneous EAE by laquinimod reduces Tfh, B cell aggregates, and disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Varrin-Doyer, Michel; Pekarek, Kara L.; Spencer, Collin M.; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Cree, Bruce A.C.; Schulze-Topphoff, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of oral laquinimod, a candidate multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment, on induction of T follicular helper cells, development of meningeal B cell aggregates, and clinical disease in a spontaneous B cell–dependent MS model. Methods: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rMOG) protein. Spontaneous EAE was evaluated in C57BL/6 MOG p35-55–specific T cell receptor transgenic (2D2) × MOG-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)H-chain knock-in (IgHMOG-ki [Th]) mice. Laquinimod was administered orally. T cell and B cell populations were examined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Results: Oral laquinimod treatment (1) reduced CD11c+CD4+ dendritic cells, (2) inhibited expansion of PD-1+CXCR5+BCL6+ T follicular helper and interleukin (IL)-21–producing activated CD4+CD44+ T cells, (3) suppressed B cell CD40 expression, (4) diminished formation of Fas+GL7+ germinal center B cells, and (5) inhibited development of MOG-specific IgG. Laquinimod treatment not only prevented rMOG-induced EAE, but also inhibited development of spontaneous EAE and the formation of meningeal B cell aggregates. Disability progression was prevented when laquinimod treatment was initiated after mice developed paralysis. Treatment of spontaneous EAE with laquinimod was also associated with increases in CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ and CD4+CD25+IL-10+ regulatory T cells. Conclusions: Our observations that laquinimod modulates myelin antigen–specific B cell immune responses and suppresses both development of meningeal B cell aggregates and disability progression in spontaneous EAE should provide insight regarding the potential application of laquinimod to MS treatment. Results of this investigation demonstrate how the 2D2 × Th spontaneous EAE model can be used successfully for preclinical evaluation of a candidate MS treatment. PMID:27704036

  17. High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured. RESULTS After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group (P < 0.05), and kidney fat and epididymal fat pad weights were significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group (P < 0.05). In the HFCS group, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ1 (PPAR-γ1), and PPAR-γ2 mRNA expression levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in the epididymal fat pad, whereas cluster of differentiation 36, lipoprotein lipase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme-4, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased in liver and adipose tissues (P < 0.05). In the HFCS group, mRNA expression levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 were elevated (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS It can be concluded that high maysin corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat

  18. Technical constraints in the development of reduced-fat bakery products.

    PubMed

    Sharp, T

    2001-11-01

    The present study was funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, its aim being to identify the technical barriers to the development of reduced-fat alternatives for bakery products. Using National Food Survey (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1998) statistics on dietary consumption within the home, biscuits, cakes and pastries were identified as contributing significant amounts of fat to the population's dietary intake. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with contacts in the technical community of the baking industry, who were usually working in technical and new-product development functions. A discussion guide was developed to cover the main lines of enquiry. The companies selected were ingredient suppliers (eight), manufacturers (twelve) and retailers (four) and so represented each step of the food supply chain. In brief, results showed that current labelling rules were too stringent, and constrained development of reduced-fat bakery products. Products with lower fat levels are harder to make due to altered handling and processing properties. Their quality is usually poorer than standard products, particularly for flavour, texture and mouthfeel. The perception of freshness is reduced and product shelf-life may consequently be shorter. For the product developer, there are relatively few ingredients that can be used in place of fat, and knowledge of how they work is limited, which inhibits product development. There is no identifiable source of technical knowledge in this field. Consumers perceive reduced-fat bakery products to be of lower quality and are generally unwilling to pay higher prices than for standard products.

  19. Reducing anti-fat prejudice in preservice health students: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Puhl, Rebecca M; Latner, Janet D; Mir, Azeem S; Hunter, John A

    2010-11-01

    Anti-fat sentiment is increasing, is prevalent in health professionals, and has health and social consequences. There is no evidence for effective obesity prejudice reduction techniques in health professionals. The present experiment sought to reduce implicit and explicit anti-fat prejudice in preservice health students. Health promotion/public health bachelor degree program students (n = 159) were randomized to one of three tutorial conditions. One condition presented an obesity curriculum on the controllable reasons for obesity (i.e., diet/exercise). A prejudice reduction condition presented evidence on the uncontrollable reasons for obesity (i.e., genes/environment); whereas a neutral (control) curriculum focused on alcohol use in young people. Measures of implicit and explicit anti-fat prejudice, beliefs about obese people, and dieting, were taken at baseline and postintervention. Repeated measures analyses showed decreases in two forms of implicit anti-fat prejudice (decreases of 27 and 12%) in the genes/environment condition relative to other conditions. The diet/exercise condition showed a 27% increase in one measure of implicit anti-fat prejudice. Reductions in explicit anti-fat prejudice were also seen in the genes/environment condition (P = 0.006). No significant changes in beliefs about obese people or dieting control beliefs were found across conditions. The present results show that anti-fat prejudice can be reduced or exacerbated depending on the causal information provided about obesity. The present results have implications for the training of health professionals, especially given their widespread negativity toward overweight and obesity.

  20. Anti-obesity effect of alkaline reduced water in high fat-fed obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ignacio, Rosa Mistica Coles; Kang, Tae-Young; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Yang, Young-Chul; Sohn, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not alkaline reduced water (ARW) has a positive effect on obesity is unclear. This study aims to prove the positive effect of ARW in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) in C57BL/6 mice model. Toward this, obesity was induced by feeding the C57BL/6 male mice with high-fat diet (w/w 45% fat) for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the animals were administered with either ARW or tap water. Next, the degree of adiposity and DIO-associated parameters were assessed: clinico-pathological parameters, biochemical measurements, histopathological analysis of liver, the expression of cholesterol metabolism-related genes in the liver, and serum levels of adipokine and cytokine. We found that ARW-fed mice significantly ameliorated adiposity: controlled body weight gain, reduced the accumulation of epididymal fats and decreased liver fats as compared to control mice. Accordingly, ARW coordinated the level of adiponectin and leptin. Further, mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)7A1 was upregulated. In summary, our data shows that ARW intake inhibits the progression of HF-DIO in mice. This is the first note on anti-obesity effect of ARW, clinically implying the safer fluid remedy for obesity control.

  1. Reduced-Fat Foods: The Complex Science of Developing Diet-Based Strategies for Tackling Overweight and Obesity1234

    PubMed Central

    McClements, David J

    2015-01-01

    Fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical properties, sensory attributes, nutritional profile, and biologic response of food products. Overconsumption of fats is linked to chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. There is therefore a need to develop reduced-fat products with physicochemical properties and sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. In addition, foods may be redesigned to increase the feelings of satiety and satiation, and thereby reduce overall food intake. The successful design of these types of functional foods requires a good understanding of the numerous roles that fat plays in determining food attributes and the development of effective strategies to replace these attributes. This article provides an overview of the current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiologic attributes of emulsion-based food products and highlights approaches to create high-quality foods with reduced-fat contents. PMID:25979507

  2. Energy content of reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains and solubles (RFDDGS). A repeated switchback design was used to compare treatments with and without RFDDGS. Diets consisted of 24.2% cor...

  3. Understanding Reduced-Fat Milk Consumption among Male Adolescents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Nada O.; Lee, Jerry W.

    2005-01-01

    This study identifies factors that influences reduced-fat milk consumption among 560 male students, ages 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. The majority of the participants, 94.8%, reported that they currently drank some…

  4. Dietary polyunsaturated fats of the W-6 and W-3 series reduce postprandial lipoprotein levels. Chronic and acute effects of fat saturation on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, M S; Zechner, R; Brown, A; Eisenberg, S; Breslow, J L

    1988-01-01

    The chronic and acute effects of different types of dietary fat on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism were studied in eight normolipidemic subjects. Each person was placed for 25 d on each of three isocaloric diets: a saturated fat (SFA), a w-6 polyunsaturated fat (w-6 PUFA) and a w-3 polyunsaturated fat (w-3 PUFA) diet. Two vitamin A-fat loading tests were done on each diet. The concentrations in total plasma and chylomicron (Sf greater than 1,000) and nonchylomicron (Sf less than 1,000) fractions of retinyl palmitate (RP) were measured for 12 h postprandially. Compared with the SFA diet, the w-6 PUFA diet reduced chylomicron and nonchylomicron RP levels 56 and 38%, respectively, and the w-3 PUFA diet reduced these levels 67 and 53%, respectively. On further analysis, the main determinant of postprandial lipoprotein levels was the type of fat that was chronically fed, which appeared to mediate its effect by changing the concentration of the endogenous competitor for the system that catabolizes triglyeride-rich lipoproteins. However, there was a significant effect of the acute dietary fat load, which appeared to be due to a differential susceptibility to lipolysis of chylomicrons produced by SFA as opposed to PUFA fat loads. The levels of postprandial lipoproteins are determined by the interaction of these chronic and acute effects. PMID:3058748

  5. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Su-Hong, Chen; Qi, Chen; Bo, Li; Jian-Li, Gao; Jie, Su; Gui-Yuan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA) has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD-) induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg) or captopril (15 mg/kg) all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg) could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET) levels. PMID:25784949

  6. Ghrelin secretion is not reduced by increased fat mass during diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiang; Reed, Jason T; Wang, Guiyun; Han, Song; Englander, Ella W; Greeley, George H

    2008-08-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion, adiposity, and food intake. Gastric ghrelin production and secretion are regulated by caloric intake; ghrelin secretion increases during fasting, decreases with refeeding, and is reduced by diet-induced obesity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypotheses that 1) an increase in body adiposity will play an inhibitory role in the reduction of gastric ghrelin synthesis and secretion during chronic ingestion of a high-fat (HF) diet and 2) chronic ingestion of an HF diet will suppress the rise in circulating ghrelin levels in response to acute fasting. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard AIN-76A (approximately 5-12% of calories from fat) or an HF (approximately 45% of calories from fat) diet. The effect of increased adiposity on gastric ghrelin homeostasis was assessed by comparison of stomach ghrelin production and plasma ghrelin levels in obese and nonobese rats fed the HF diet. HF diet-fed, nonobese rats were generated by administration of triiodothyronine to lower body fat accumulation. Our findings indicate that an increased fat mass per se does not exert an inhibitory effect on ghrelin homeostasis during ingestion of the HF diet. Additionally, the magnitude of change in plasma ghrelin in response to fasting was not blunted, indicating that a presumed, endogenous signal for activation of ingestive behavior remains intact, despite excess stored calories in HF-fed rats.

  7. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice Lin Yan*, Lana C. DeMars The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in...

  8. Intramuscular fat in the longissimus muscle is reduced in lambs from sires selected for leanness.

    PubMed

    Pannier, L; Pethick, D W; Geesink, G H; Ball, A J; Jacob, R H; Gardner, G E

    2014-02-01

    Selection for lean growth through Australian Sheep Breeding Values (ASBVs) for post weaning weight (PWWT), eye muscle depth (PEMD) and c-site fat depth (PFAT) raises concerns regarding declining intramuscular fat (IMF) levels. Reducing PFAT decreased IMF by 0.84% for Terminal sired lambs. PEMD decreased IMF by 0.18% across all sire types. Female lambs had higher IMF levels and this was unexplained by total carcass fatness. The negative phenotypic association between measures of muscling (shortloin muscle weight, eye muscle area) and IMF, and positive association between fatness and IMF, was consistent with other literature. Hot carcass weight increased IMF by 2.08% between 12 and 40 kg, reflective of development of IMF as lambs approach maturity. Selection objectives with low PFAT sires will reduce IMF, however the lower impact of PEMD and absence of a PWWT effect, will enable continued selection for lean growth without influencing IMF. Alternatively, the negative impact of PFAT could be off-set by inclusion of an IMF ASBV.

  9. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Mette; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Jørgensen, Henry; Oomah, David; Bügel, Susanne; Toubro, Søren; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group): low DF control (C), 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL), CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL) or ground linseed (5-GL), CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF), and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF). Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8%) and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6%) with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001). Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL) and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF). The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g) compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g), 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g), and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g) (p < 0.05). The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01). In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats. PMID:23966109

  10. High-Fat Diet Reduces the Formation of Butyrate, but Increases Succinate, Inflammation, Liver Fat and Cholesterol in Rats, while Dietary Fibre Counteracts These Effects

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Xu, Jie; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Nyman, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. Objective To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Material and Methods Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin – acetic acid; guar gum – propionic acid; or a mixture – butyric acid). At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. Results and Discussion Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet. PMID:24236183

  11. Evaluation of Fermented Sausages Manufactured with Reduced-fat and Functional Starter Cultures on Physicochemical, Functional and Flavor Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Cheol; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Se Jong; Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum condition for the manufacture of these products. Medium-fat (~15%) fermented sausages reduced the drying time and cholesterol contents, as compared to regular-fat counterparts. In proximate analysis, the contents of moisture and protein of regular-fat products were lower than medium-fat with reduced fat content. The regular-fat products also had a lighter color and less redness, due to reduced fat content. Approximately 35 volatile compounds were identified in functional fermented sausages, and hexanal, trans-caryophyllene, and tetradecanal were the major volatile compounds. Selected mixed starter culture showed the potential possibility of replacing the commercial starter culture (LK30 plus) in flavor profiles. However, medium-fat fermented sausage containing selected mixed starter culture tended to be less acceptable than their high-fat counterparts, due to excess dry ring developed in the surface. These results indicate that the use of combinations of L. plantarum 115 and 167, and P. damnosus L12 as a starter culture, will prove useful for manufacturing the fermented sausage.

  12. High LPL Activity and Adipocyte Hypertrophy Reduce Visceral Fat and Metabolic Risk in Obese, Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Monica C.; Ryan, Alice S.; Sorkin, John D.; Favors, Knachelle H.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if higher subcutaneous adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity (AT-LPLA) is associated with greater triglyceride (TG) storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), thereby reducing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. Design and Method Obese postmenopausal women (60±1 yrs; mean±SEM; N=101) had body composition by DXA and CT, fat aspirations for fat-cell weight (FCW) and AT-LPLA. Women were ranked by visceral to total abdominal fat ratio (VAT/TAF), and the lowest and highest groups (n=24) matched for % fat and age. Results The prevalence of metabolic dysfunction was 7–10 fold higher in women with high VAT/TAF (P’s<0.01). Women with low VAT/TAF had 11% and 6% lower abdominal and gluteal FCWs, but 28% and 54% higher AT-LPLA/106 cells in abdominal and gluteal fat, respectively. Abdominal FCW correlated with AT-LPLA in women with low (r=0.63, P<0.01), but not high (r=0.14, P=0.52) VAT/TAF, and these lines differed in slope (P<0.05) and intercept (P<0.01), suggesting greater capacity for TG storage with low VAT/TAF. There were no relationships between gluteal FCW and AT-LPLA. The relationship between SAT and abdominal AT-LPLA (r=0.39, P<0.01) suggests that higher AT-LPLA promotes TG storage. Conclusions These results suggest that higher AT-LPLA is associated with SAT adipocyte hypertrophy, which reduces visceral adiposity and metabolic risk in obese, older women. PMID:25612068

  13. A marine fish diet reduces spontaneous lymphoma in outbred Swiss-Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Somers, Christopher M; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Quinn, James S

    2005-12-01

    Diets rich in marine organisms or their oils are known to suppress solid tumor development in humans and rodents, but the potential for marine foods to affect hematopoietic system cancers is not well understood. As part of a toxicology study, we fed groups of mice three different diets for 10 weeks: marine fish, 58% homogenized Atlantic smelt and herring; freshwater fish, 58% smelt and alewife from the North American Great Lakes, and commercial dry rodent chow. Between 1 and 15 weeks following dietary treatment, 20 of 103 (19.4%) mice unexpectedly developed spontaneous lymphoma. Disease incidence peaked when the mice were 7-8 months old, and was not distributed equally across treatment groups. Mice in the control (30%) and fresh water fish (27.5%) groups had significantly higher incidences of lymphoma than those fed Atlantic fish species (5%). Although our experiment was not originally designed for this purpose, our results indicate that consumption of fat-rich Atlantic smelt and herring protected mice against hematopoietic tumor development.

  14. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    PubMed

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high-saturated fat/high-GI (HSAT: 43 % fat/24 % saturated fat/GI>70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (P< 0.05), while the HSAT diet had no effect on glucose or HDL-cholesterol but increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P< 0.05). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model of insulin resistance did not change significantly on either diet, but the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity improved on the LSAT diet (P< 0.05). Assignment to the LSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial.

  15. Myocyte androgen receptors increase metabolic rate and improve body composition by reducing fat mass.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Shannon M; Rao, Pengcheng; Niel, Lee; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Stagljar, Marijana; Monks, D Ashley

    2010-07-01

    Testosterone and other androgens are thought to increase lean body mass and reduce fat body mass in men by activating the androgen receptor. However, the clinical potential of androgens for improving body composition is hampered by our limited understanding of the tissues and cells that promote such changes. Here we show that selective overexpression of androgen receptor in muscle cells (myocytes) of transgenic male rats both increases lean mass percentage and reduces fat mass. Similar changes in body composition are observed in human skeletal actin promoter driving expression of androgen receptor (HSA-AR) transgenic mice and result from acute testosterone treatment of transgenic female HSA-AR rats. These shifts in body composition in HSA-AR transgenic male rats are associated with hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers and decreased size of adipocytes. Metabolic analyses of transgenic males show higher activity of mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle and increased O(2) consumption by the rats. These results indicate that androgen signaling in myocytes not only increases muscle mass but also reduces fat body mass, likely via increases in oxidative metabolism.

  16. A mixture of cod and scallop protein reduces adiposity and improves glucose tolerance in high-fat fed male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal; Borkowski, Kamil; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Low-protein and high-protein diets regulate energy metabolism in animals and humans. To evaluate whether different dietary protein sources modulate energy balance when ingested at average levels obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed high-fat diets (67 energy percent fat, 18 energy percent sucrose and 15 energy percent protein) with either casein, chicken filet or a mixture of cod and scallop (1:1 on amino acid content) as protein sources. At equal energy intake, casein and cod/scallop fed mice had lower feed efficiency than chicken fed mice, which translated into reduced adipose tissue masses after seven weeks of feeding. Chicken fed mice had elevated hepatic triglyceride relative to casein and cod/scallop fed mice and elevated 4 h fasted plasma cholesterol concentrations compared to low-fat and casein fed mice. In casein fed mice the reduced adiposity was likely related to the observed three percent lower apparent fat digestibility compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. After six weeks of feeding an oral glucose tolerance test revealed that despite their lean phenotype, casein fed mice had reduced glucose tolerance compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. In a separate set of mice, effects on metabolism were evaluated by indirect calorimetry before onset of diet-induced obesity. Spontaneous locomotor activity decreased in casein and chicken fed mice when shifting from low-fat to high-fat diets, but cod/scallop feeding tended (P = 0.06) to attenuate this decrease. Moreover, at this shift, energy expenditure decreased in all groups, but was decreased to a greater extent in casein fed than in cod/scallop fed mice, indicating that protein sources regulated energy expenditure differently. In conclusion, protein from different sources modulates energy balance in C57BL/6J mice when given at normal levels. Ingestion of a cod/scallop-mixture prevented diet-induced obesity compared to intake of chicken filet and preserved glucose

  17. A Mixture of Cod and Scallop Protein Reduces Adiposity and Improves Glucose Tolerance in High-Fat Fed Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal; Borkowski, Kamil; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Low-protein and high-protein diets regulate energy metabolism in animals and humans. To evaluate whether different dietary protein sources modulate energy balance when ingested at average levels obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed high-fat diets (67 energy percent fat, 18 energy percent sucrose and 15 energy percent protein) with either casein, chicken filet or a mixture of cod and scallop (1∶1 on amino acid content) as protein sources. At equal energy intake, casein and cod/scallop fed mice had lower feed efficiency than chicken fed mice, which translated into reduced adipose tissue masses after seven weeks of feeding. Chicken fed mice had elevated hepatic triglyceride relative to casein and cod/scallop fed mice and elevated 4 h fasted plasma cholesterol concentrations compared to low-fat and casein fed mice. In casein fed mice the reduced adiposity was likely related to the observed three percent lower apparent fat digestibility compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. After six weeks of feeding an oral glucose tolerance test revealed that despite their lean phenotype, casein fed mice had reduced glucose tolerance compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. In a separate set of mice, effects on metabolism were evaluated by indirect calorimetry before onset of diet-induced obesity. Spontaneous locomotor activity decreased in casein and chicken fed mice when shifting from low-fat to high-fat diets, but cod/scallop feeding tended (P = 0.06) to attenuate this decrease. Moreover, at this shift, energy expenditure decreased in all groups, but was decreased to a greater extent in casein fed than in cod/scallop fed mice, indicating that protein sources regulated energy expenditure differently. In conclusion, protein from different sources modulates energy balance in C57BL/6J mice when given at normal levels. Ingestion of a cod/scallop-mixture prevented diet-induced obesity compared to intake of chicken filet and preserved glucose

  18. High-fat meals reduce 24-h circulating leptin concentrations in women.

    PubMed

    Havel, P J; Townsend, R; Chaump, L; Teff, K

    1999-02-01

    Leptin induces weight loss in rodents via its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. High-fat diets induce weight gain, but the mechanism is not well understood. Previous studies have not found an effect of dietary fat content on fasting leptin. There is a nocturnal increase of leptin, however, which is related to insulin responses to meals. We have reported that adipocyte glucose utilization is involved in insulin-induced leptin secretion in vitro. Accordingly, high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HF/LC) meals, which induce smaller insulin and glucose responses, would produce lower leptin concentrations than low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LF/HC) meals. Blood samples were collected every 30-60 min for 24 h from 19 normal-weight (BMI, 24.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m2; percent body fat = 31 +/- 1%) women on 2 days (10 days apart) during which the subjects were randomized to consume three isocaloric 730-kcal meals containing either 60/20 or 20/60% of energy as fat/carbohydrate. Overall insulin and glycemic responses (24-h area under the curve [AUC]) were reduced by 55 and 61%, respectively, on the HF/LC day (P < 0.0001). During LF/HC feeding, there were larger increases of leptin 4-6 h after breakfast (38 +/- 7%, P < 0.001) and lunch (78 +/- 14%, P < 0.001) than after HF/LC meals (both P < 0.02). During LF/HC feeding, leptin increased from a morning baseline of 10.7 +/- 1.6 ng/ml to a nocturnal peak of 21.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml (change, 10.6 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; percent change, 123 +/- 16%; P < 0.0001). The amplitudes of the nocturnal rise of leptin and the 24-h leptin AUC were 21 +/- 8% (P < 0.005) and 38 +/- 12% (P < 0.0025) larger, respectively, on the LF/HC day. In summary, consumption of HF/LC meals results in lowered 24-h circulating leptin concentrations. This result may be a consequence of decreased adipocyte glucose metabolism. Decreases of 24-h circulating leptin could contribute to the weight gain during consumption of high-fat diets.

  19. Reduced graphene oxide-coated hydroxyapatite composites stimulate spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Ho; Shin, Yong Cheol; Jin, Oh Seong; Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Park, Jong-Chul; Hong, Suck Won; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-07-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite the potential biomedical applications of graphene and its derivatives, only limited information is available regarding their osteogenic activity. This study concentrates upon the effects of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The average particle sizes of HAp and rGO were 1270 +/- 476 nm and 438 +/- 180 nm, respectively. When coated on HAp particulates, rGO synergistically enhanced spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, without hampering their proliferation. This result was confirmed by determining alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of calcium and phosphate as early and late stage markers of osteogenic differentiation. It is suggested that rGO-coated HAp composites can be effectively utilized as dental and orthopedic bone fillers since these graphene-based particulate materials have potent effects on stimulating the spontaneous differentiation of MSCs and show superior bioactivity and osteoinductive potential.Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite

  20. Goat milk fat naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid increased lipoproteins and reduced triacylglycerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raphaela; Soares, Juliana; Garcia, Hugo; Nascimento, Claudenice; Medeiros, Maria; Bomfim, Marco; Medeiros, Maria Carmo; Queiroga, Rita

    2014-03-24

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters--high density lipoprotein (HDL), triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects.

  1. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  2. Storage stability of low-fat sodium reduced fresh merguez sausage prepared with olive oil in konjac gel matrix.

    PubMed

    Triki, Mehdi; Herrero, Ana M; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

    2013-08-01

    This paper evaluates the nutritional values and stability during refrigerated storage of fresh beef merguez sausage as affected by a reformulation process which modified the fat content both by reducing fat (replacing beef fat with konjac gel) and incorporating olive oil (replacing beef fat with olive oil stabilized in a konjac matrix) and by reducing sodium content, replacing sodium chloride with a salt mixture (containing potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride). A preservative (sodium metabisulphite) was also used to extend the shelf-life of the product. The fat was reduced by 32 to 80% and sodium by over 36%. The reformulation did not negatively affect the sensory evaluation. Low microbiota growth rate and biogenic amines were attributed mainly to the presence of sodium metabisulphite. This preservative could be used in the reformulation to enhance safety and/or extend the shelf-life of this type of product.

  3. High-fat diet transition reduces brain DHA levels associated with altered brain plasticity and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    To assess how the shift from a healthy diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids to a diet rich in saturated fatty acid affects the substrates for brain plasticity and function, we used pregnant rats fed with omega-3 supplemented diet from their 2nd day of gestation period as well as their male pups for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the animals were randomly assigned to either a group fed on the same diet or a group fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fats for 3 weeks. We found that the HFD increased vulnerability for anxiety-like behavior, and that these modifications harmonized with changes in the anxiety-related NPY1 receptor and the reduced levels of BDNF, and its signalling receptor pTrkB, as well as the CREB protein. Brain DHA contents were significantly associated with the levels of anxiety-like behavior in these rats.

  4. Reducing spontaneous recovery and reinstatement of operant performance through extinction-cues.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Gámez, A Matías; Nieto, Javier

    2017-02-01

    It has been argued that the response recovery effects share a common mechanism. A possible way to test it is evaluating whether the techniques that impaired renewal would impair the other recovery effects as well. Two experiments with rats used a free operant procedure to explore whether an extinction-cue could prevent the spontaneous recovery and reinstatement of an extinguished lever-pressing. Both experiments consisted of four phases: Acquisition, Extinction and Test 1 and Test 2. First, all rats were trained to perform one instrumental response (R1) for food in context A, and a different instrumental response (R2) for food in context B. Then, responses were extinguished within the same context: R1 in context A and R2 in context B. Throughout this phase all rats received brief presentations of a tone (extinction-cue). In both experiments animals were tested twice. The first test was conducted immediately after the last extinction session. In this test, rats received the extinction-cue for both responses. During the second test, rats experienced the tone only for R1. In Experiment 1 rats were tested after 5days, while for Experiment 2 test 2 took place after a single session of re-exposure to the food. Both experiments showed a recovery effect (spontaneous recovery in Experiment 1 and reinstatement in Experiment 2) for both responses. However, a cue featured in extinction attenuated recovery of R1 in both experiments when presented on the test. The findings suggest that spontaneous recovery, reinstatement and renewal might share a common mechanism. In addition, the present data shows that using an extinction-cue could help to reduces relapsing of voluntary behaviors.

  5. CD36 gene deletion reduces fat preference and intake but not post-oral fat conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Ackroff, K; Abumrad, N A

    2007-11-01

    Several findings suggest the existence of a "fatty" taste, and the CD36 fatty acid translocase is a candidate taste receptor. The present study compared fat preference and acceptance in CD36 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice using nutritive (triglyceride and fatty acid) and nonnutritive (Sefa Soyate oil) emulsions. In two-bottle tests (24 h/day) naive KO mice, unlike WT mice, displayed little or no preference for dilute soybean oil, linoleic acid, or Sefa Soyate emulsions. At high concentrations (2.5-20%), KO mice developed significant soybean oil preferences, although they consumed less oil than WT mice. The postoral actions of fat likely conditioned these preferences. KO mice, like WT mice, learned to prefer a flavored solution paired with intragastric soybean oil infusions. These findings support CD36 mediation of a gustatory component to fat preference but demonstrate that it is not essential for fat-conditioned flavor preferences. The finding that oil-naive KO mice failed to prefer a nonnutritive oil, assumed to provide texture rather than taste cues, requires explanation. Finally, CD36 deletion decreased fat consumption and enhanced the ability of the mice to compensate for the calories provided by their optional fat intake.

  6. Effect of increasing the protein-to-fat ratio and reducing fat content on the chemical and physical properties of processed cheese product.

    PubMed

    Guinee, T P; O'Callaghan, D J

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies indicate that the intake of dietary fat and saturated fats in the modern Western diet is excessive and contributes adversely to health, lifestyle, and longevity. In response, manufacturers of cheese and processed cheese products (PCP) are pursuing the development of products with reduced fat contents. The present study investigated the effect of altering the fat level (13.8, 18.2, 22.7, 27.9, and 32.5 g/100g) in PCP on their chemical and physical properties. The PCP were formulated in triplicate to different fat levels using Cheddar cheese, skim milk cheese, anhydrous milk fat, emulsifying salt (ES), NaCl, and water. The formulations were designed to give fixed moisture (~53 g/100g) and ES:protein ratio (0.105). The resultant PCP, and their water-soluble extracts (WSE), prepared from a macerated blend of PCP and water at a weight ratio of 1:2, were analyzed at 4d. Reducing the fat content significantly increased the firmness of the unheated PCP and reduced the flowability and maximum loss tangent (fluidity) of the melted PCP. These changes coincided with increases in the levels of total protein, water-soluble protein, water-insoluble protein, and water-soluble Ca, and a decrease in the molar ratio of water-soluble Ca to soluble P. However, both water-soluble Ca and water-soluble protein decreased when expressed as percentages of total protein and total Ca, respectively, in the PCP. The high level of protein was a major factor contributing to the deterioration in physical properties as the fat content of PCP was reduced. Diluting the protein content or reducing the potential of the protein to aggregate, and thereby form structures that contribute to rigidity, may provide a means for improving quality of reduced-fat PCP by using natural cheese with lower intact casein content and lower calcium:casein ratio, for example, or by decreasing the ratio of sodium phosphate to sodium citrate-based ES.

  7. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P < .05), and so did body fat mass (placebo vs ASE; bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity.

  8. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  9. Reduced graphene oxide-coated hydroxyapatite composites stimulate spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Ho; Shin, Yong Cheol; Jin, Oh Seong; Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Park, Jong-Chul; Hong, Suck Won; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-07-21

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite the potential biomedical applications of graphene and its derivatives, only limited information is available regarding their osteogenic activity. This study concentrates upon the effects of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The average particle sizes of HAp and rGO were 1270 ± 476 nm and 438 ± 180 nm, respectively. When coated on HAp particulates, rGO synergistically enhanced spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, without hampering their proliferation. This result was confirmed by determining alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of calcium and phosphate as early and late stage markers of osteogenic differentiation. It is suggested that rGO-coated HAp composites can be effectively utilized as dental and orthopedic bone fillers since these graphene-based particulate materials have potent effects on stimulating the spontaneous differentiation of MSCs and show superior bioactivity and osteoinductive potential.

  10. Continuous fat oxidation in acetyl–CoA carboxylase 2 knockout mice increases total energy expenditure, reduces fat mass, and improves insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol Soo; Savage, David B.; Abu-Elheiga, Lutfi; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Kim, Sheene; Kulkarni, Ameya; Distefano, Alberto; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Reznick, Richard M.; Codella, Roberto; Zhang, Dongyan; Cline, Gary W.; Wakil, Salih J.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Acetyl–CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC)2 is a key regulator of mitochondrial fat oxidation. To examine the impact of ACC2 deletion on whole-body energy metabolism, we measured changes in substrate oxidation and total energy expenditure in Acc2−/− and WT control mice fed either regular or high-fat diets. To determine insulin action in vivo, we also measured whole-body insulin-stimulated liver and muscle glucose metabolism during a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp in Acc2−/− and WT control mice fed a high-fat diet. Contrary to previous studies that have suggested that increased fat oxidation might result in lower glucose oxidation, both fat and carbohydrate oxidation were simultaneously increased in Acc2−/− mice. This increase in both fat and carbohydrate oxidation resulted in an increase in total energy expenditure, reductions in fat and lean body mass and prevention from diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, Acc2−/− mice were protected from fat-induced peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance. These improvements in insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism were associated with reduced diacylglycerol content in muscle and liver, decreased PKCθ activity in muscle and PKCε activity in liver, and increased insulin-stimulated Akt2 activity in these tissues. Taken together with previous work demonstrating that Acc2−/− mice have a normal lifespan, these data suggest that Acc2 inhibition is a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:17923673

  11. Hypertension-Induced Vascular Remodeling Contributes to Reduced Cerebral Perfusion and the Development of Spontaneous Stroke in Aged SHRSP Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    induced vascular remodeling contributes to reduced cerebral perfusion and the development of spontaneous stroke in aged SHRSP rats Erica C Henning1...spontaneously-hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRSP) rats is of particular interest because the pathogenesis is believed to be similar to that in the...cerebral infarction and the specific role of cerebral perfusion in disease development. Twelve female SHRSP rats (age: - 1 year) were Imaged within 1

  12. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea polyphenols reduce visceral fat and inflammation in mice fed high-fat, high-sucrose obesogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Heber, David; Zhang, Yanjun; Yang, Jieping; Ma, Janice E; Henning, Susanne M; Li, Zhaoping

    2014-09-01

    Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). This study investigated whether decaffeinated polyphenol extracts from GT, BT, and OT decrease body fat and inflammation in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets. Mice were fed either an HF/HS diet with 0.25% of polyphenol from GT, OT, or BT or a low-fat/high-sucrose [LF/HS (10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diet for 20 wk. Monomeric tea polyphenols were found in the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed the HF/HS diet with GT polyphenols (GTPs) and OT polyphenols (OTPs) but not BT polyphenols (BTPs). Treatment with GTPs, OTPs, BTPs, and an LF/HS diet led to significantly lower body weight, total visceral fat volume by MRI, and liver lipid weight compared with mice in the HF/HS control group. Only GTPs reduced food intake significantly by ∼10%. GTP, BTP, and LF/HS-diet treatments significantly reduced serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with HF/HS controls. In mesenteric fat, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp1) gene expression was significantly decreased by treatment with GTPs, BTPs, OTPs, and an LF/HS diet and in liver tissue by GTP and BTP treatments. Mcp1 gene expression in epididymal fat was significantly decreased by the BTP and LF/HS diet interventions. In epididymal fat, consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, adiponectin gene expression was significantly increased by GTPs and OTPs. Angiogenesis during adipose tissue expansion is anti-inflammatory by maintaining adipocyte perfusion. We observed significantly increased gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A by GTPs and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by BTPs and the LF/HS diet and a decrease in pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression by OTPs and BTPs. In summary, all 3 tea polyphenol

  13. Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia.

  14. Reduced L-carnitine transport in aortic endothelial cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Salsoso, Rocío; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Arroyo, Pablo; Salomón, Carlos; Zambrano, Sonia; Ruiz-Armenta, María Victoria; Blanca, Antonio Jesús; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Mate, Alfonso; Sobrevia, Luis; Vázquez, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    Impaired L-carnitine uptake correlates with higher blood pressure in adult men, and L-carnitine restores endothelial function in aortic rings from spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Thus, endothelial dysfunction in hypertension could result from lower L-carnitine transport in this cell type. L-Carnitine transport is mainly mediated by novel organic cation transporters 1 (Octn1, Na(+)-independent) and 2 (Octn2, Na(+)-dependent); however, their kinetic properties and potential consequences in hypertension are unknown. We hypothesize that L-carnitine transport kinetic properties will be altered in aortic endothelium from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). L-Carnitine transport was measured at different extracellular pH (pHo 5.5-8.5) in the absence or presence of sodium in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) from non-hypertensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR. Octn1 and Octn2 mRNA relative expression was also determined. Dilation of endothelium-intact or denuded aortic rings in response to calcitonine gene related peptide (CGRP, 0.1-100 nmol/L) was measured (myography) in the absence or presence of L-carnitine. Total L-carnitine transport was lower in cells from SHR compared with WKY rats, an effect due to reduced Na(+)-dependent (Na(+) dep ) compared with Na(+)-independent (Na(+) indep ) transport components. Saturable L-carnitine transport kinetics show maximal velocity (V max), without changes in apparent K m for Na(+) indep transport in SHR compared with WKY rats. Total and Na(+) dep component of transport were increased, but Na(+) indep transport was reduced by extracellular alkalization in WKY rats. However, alkalization reduced total and Na(+) indep transport in cells from SHR. Octn2 mRNA was higher than Octn-1 mRNA expression in cells from both conditions. Dilation of artery rings in response to CGRP was reduced in vessels from SHR compared with WKY rats. CGRP effect was endothelium-dependent and restored by L-carnitine. All together these results

  15. Reduced L-Carnitine Transport in Aortic Endothelial Cells from Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salsoso, Rocío; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Arroyo, Pablo; Salomón, Carlos; Zambrano, Sonia; Ruiz-Armenta, María Victoria; Blanca, Antonio Jesús; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Mate, Alfonso; Sobrevia, Luis; Vázquez, Carmen María

    2014-01-01

    Impaired L-carnitine uptake correlates with higher blood pressure in adult men, and L-carnitine restores endothelial function in aortic rings from spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Thus, endothelial dysfunction in hypertension could result from lower L-carnitine transport in this cell type. L-Carnitine transport is mainly mediated by novel organic cation transporters 1 (Octn1, Na+-independent) and 2 (Octn2, Na+-dependent); however, their kinetic properties and potential consequences in hypertension are unknown. We hypothesize that L-carnitine transport kinetic properties will be altered in aortic endothelium from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). L-Carnitine transport was measured at different extracellular pH (pHo 5.5–8.5) in the absence or presence of sodium in rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) from non-hypertensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR. Octn1 and Octn2 mRNA relative expression was also determined. Dilation of endothelium-intact or denuded aortic rings in response to calcitonine gene related peptide (CGRP, 0.1–100 nmol/L) was measured (myography) in the absence or presence of L-carnitine. Total L-carnitine transport was lower in cells from SHR compared with WKY rats, an effect due to reduced Na+-dependent (Na+dep) compared with Na+-independent (Na+indep) transport components. Saturable L-carnitine transport kinetics show maximal velocity (Vmax), without changes in apparent Km for Na+indep transport in SHR compared with WKY rats. Total and Na+dep component of transport were increased, but Na+indep transport was reduced by extracellular alkalization in WKY rats. However, alkalization reduced total and Na+indep transport in cells from SHR. Octn2 mRNA was higher than Octn-1 mRNA expression in cells from both conditions. Dilation of artery rings in response to CGRP was reduced in vessels from SHR compared with WKY rats. CGRP effect was endothelium-dependent and restored by L-carnitine. All together these results suggest that reduced L

  16. Addition of a dairy rich milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and postprandial inflammation are all independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To reduce CVD risk, palm oil has become a common substitute for both hydrogenated unsaturated fats, that contain trans fatty acids, and animal ...

  17. A high-fat, high-oleic diet, but not a high-fat, saturated diet, reduces hepatic n3 fatty acid content in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While considerable research has centered upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n6) as a competitive inhibitor of alpha-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n3) metabolism, a growing literature indicates that the amount of fat consumed can reduce the elongation and desaturation process. However, little data exist ...

  18. The Influence of Herbs, Spices, and Regular Sausage and Chicken Consumption on Liking of Reduced Fat Breakfast and Lunch Items

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Sarit; Beck, Jimikaye; Stark, Rebecca A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Hill, James O.; Peters, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Adults often consume more fat than is recommended. We examined factors that may improve liking of reduced fat and reduced saturated fat foods, including the addition of herbs and spices and habitual consumption of different high-fat and low-fat food items. We randomized adults to taste three different conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of French toast, sausage and the overall meal, or chicken, vegetables, pasta and the overall meal on a nine-point hedonic Likert scale. Overall liking of the RF breakfast and lunch meals were lower than the FF and RFS versions (Breakfast: 6.50 RF vs. 6.84 FF, p=0.0061; 6.50 RF vs. 6.82 RFS, p=0.0030; Lunch: 6.35 RF vs. 6.94 FF, p<0.0001; 6.35 RF vs. 6.71 RFS, p=0.0061). RFS and FF breakfast and lunch meals, French toast, chicken and vegetable likings were similar. FF and RFS conditions were liked more than RF for the breakfast and lunch meals, French toast, chicken entrée and vegetables. Liking of all three sausage conditions were similar. FF Pasta was liked more than RFS and RF (7.47 FF vs. 6.42 RFS, p<0.0001; 7.47 FF vs. 6.47 RF, p<0.0001). Habitual consumption of roasted chicken was associated with reduced liking of FF chicken (r = −0.23, p=0.004) and FF pasta (r = −0.23, p=0.005). Herbs and spices may be useful for improving the liking of lower-fat foods and helping Americans maintain a diet consistent with the US Dietary Guidelines. PMID:25219391

  19. Evidence for reduced cancellous bone mass in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. M.; Hsu, J. F.; Jee, W. S.; Matthews, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    The histomorphometric changes in the proximal tibial metaphysis and epiphyseal growth plate and midtibial shaft of 26-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with those of the corresponding normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were studied. A decrease in body weight, growth plate thickness, and longitudinal growth rate of the proximal tibial epiphysis, trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness and number, the number of osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells per millimeter square surface of the proximal tibial metaphysis, periosteal and endocortical apposition rate and bone formation rate of the tibial diaphysis were observed in the SHR. Additionally, systolic blood pressure, the number of osteoclasts per millimeter square surface and average number of nuclei per osteoclast of the proximal tibial metaphysis were significantly increased. Thus, osteoclastic activity is dominant over osteoblastic and chondroblastic activity in the SHR that results in a cancellous bone deficit in the skeleton. It will require additional work to ascertain the underlying cause for this condition as several factors in the SHR with a potential for causing this change are present, including elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH), depressed 1,25-(OH)2D3, low calcium absorption, reduced body weight (reduced loading) elevated blood pressure and possibly other direct cell differences in the mutant strain. At present elevated PTH and adaptation to underloading from reduced weight are postulated to be a likely cause, but additional studies are required to test this interpretation.

  20. (−)-Epicatechin Prevents Blood Pressure Increase and Reduces Locomotor Hyperactivity in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berenyiova, A.; Drobna, M.; Lukac, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of subchronic (−)-epicatechin (Epi) treatment on locomotor activity and hypertension development in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Epi was administered in drinking water (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Epi significantly prevented the development of hypertension (138 ± 2 versus 169 ± 5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and reduced total distance traveled in the open-field test (22 ± 2 versus 35 ± 4 m, p < 0.01). In blood, Epi significantly enhanced erythrocyte deformability, increased total antioxidant capacity, and decreased nitrotyrosine concentration. In the aorta, Epi significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity and elevated the NO-dependent vasorelaxation. In the left heart ventricle, Epi increased NOS activity without altering gene expressions of nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS. Moreover, Epi reduced superoxide production in the left heart ventricle and the aorta. In the brain, Epi increased nNOS gene expression (in the brainstem and cerebellum) and eNOS expression (in the cerebellum) but had no effect on overall NOS activity. In conclusion, Epi prevented the development of hypertension and reduced locomotor hyperactivity in young SHR. These effects resulted from improved cardiovascular NO bioavailability concurrently with increased erythrocyte deformability, without changes in NO production in the brain. PMID:27885334

  1. Intermittent fasting reduces body fat but exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in young rats regardless of high protein and fat diets.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Yoo, Kyung Min; Hyun, Joo Suk; Kang, Suna

    2017-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IMF) is a relatively new dietary approach to weight management, although the efficacy and adverse effects have not been full elucidated and the optimal diets for IMF are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a one-meal-per-day intermittent fasting with high fat (HF) or protein (HP) diets can modify energy, lipid, and glucose metabolism in normal young male Sprague-Dawley rats with diet-induced obesity or overweight. Male rats aged 5 weeks received either HF (40% fat) or HP (26% protein) diets ad libitum (AL) or for 3 h at the beginning of the dark cycle (IMF) for 5 weeks. Epidydimal fat pads and fat deposits in the leg and abdomen were lower with HP and IMF. Energy expenditure at the beginning of the dark cycle, especially from fat oxidation, was higher with IMF than AL, possibly due to greater activity levels. Brown fat content was higher with IMF. Serum ghrelin levels were higher in HP-IMF than other groups, and accordingly, cumulative food intake was also higher in HP-IMF than HF-IMF. HF-IMF exhibited higher area under the curve (AUC) of serum glucose at the first part (0-40 min) during oral glucose tolerance test, whereas AUC of serum insulin levels in both parts were higher in IMF and HF. During intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test, serum glucose levels were higher with IMF than AL. Consistently, hepatic insulin signaling (GLUT2, pAkt) was attenuated and PEPCK expression was higher with IMF and HF than other groups, and HOMA-IR revealed significantly impaired attenuated insulin sensitivity in the IMF groups. However, surprisingly, hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen storage was higher in IMF groups than AL. The higher glycogen storage in the IMF groups was associated with the lower expression of glycogen phosphorylase than the AL groups. In conclusion, IMF especially with HF increased insulin resistance, possibly by attenuating hepatic insulin signaling, and lowered glycogen phosphorylase expression despite decreased fat mass in young

  2. Influence of salt on the quality of reduced fat cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Mistry, V V; Kasperson, K M

    1998-05-01

    Cream was homogenized in a two-stage homogenizer (17.25 MPa in the first stage and 3.43 MPa in the second stage); blended with skim milk to produce milk containing 1.25% fat, which was pasteurized (63 degrees C for 30 min); and then manufactured into reduced fat Cheddar cheese. After milling, the curd was divided into three equal portions of 13 kg each. Three salting rates, 2.3, 3.8, and 5%, yielded cheeses with 1.3, 1.7, and 2.0% salt and 2.7, 3.7, and 4.5% salt in the moisture phase. Cheese moisture contents ranged from 45% (2.0% salt) to 47.7% (1.3% salt), and fat contents ranged from 14.6 to 15.1%. In the texture profile analysis, the hardness and fracturability of the cheeses increased as the salt content increased. Both parameters decreased during ripening, but cheeses with 4.5% salt in the moisture phase remained the hardest. Cheeses with the most salt had the least desirable body characteristics, but there were no differences in flavor. Intensity of bitterness was lowered as the amount of salt in cheese increased. During ripening, the number of lactic acid bacteria decreased more slowly in cheese with 2.7% salt in the moisture phase than in those with 3.7 or 4.5% salt in the moisture phase. As the salt content increased, proteolysis and the general rate of ripening decreased. Degradation of alpha s-casein was reduced by higher percentages of salt, but no differences were found in the degradation of beta-casein.

  3. Utility of metformin as an adjunct to hydroxycitrate/carnitine for reducing body fat in diabetics.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1998-11-01

    Excessive exposure of tissues to fatty acids is likely to be the chief cause of the various dysfunctions that lead to sustained hyperglycemia in type II diabetes. These dysfunctions are likely to be substantially reversible if body fat and dietary fat can be greatly reduced. Disinhibition of hepatic fatty acid oxidation with hydroxycitrate (HCA) and carnitine has considerable potential as a new weight-loss strategy, but in diabetics runs the risk of further enhancing excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis. Since the clinical utility of metformin in diabetes is probably traceable to inhibition of gluconeogenesis, its use as an adjunct to HCA/carnitine treatment of obesity in diabetics deserves evaluation, particularly as metformin therapy itself tends to reduce body weight. A consideration of relevant evidence suggests that metformin therapy will not impede the activation of fatty acid oxidation by HCA/carnitine, and is likely to potentiate the appetite-suppressant and thermogenic benefits of this strategy. Indeed, since metformin has been reported to lower body weight and improve cardiovascular risk factors in obese non-diabetics, a broader application of a metformin/HCA/carnitine therapy for obesity can be contemplated.

  4. Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Amy M.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A.; Bates, G. Wright; Gower, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. Methods In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40%energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Results Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (p<0.05 for difference between diets). The reduced-CHO diet induced a decrease in subcutaneous-abdominal, intra-abdominal, and thigh-intermuscular adipose tissue (−7.1%, −4.6%, and −11.5%, resp.), and the STD diet induced a decrease in total lean mass. Loss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (p<0.05) during the SMT. Conclusions In women with PCOS, consumption of a diet lower in CHO resulted in preferential loss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. PMID:25125349

  5. Reduced mechanical efficiency in left‐ventricular trabeculae of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    PubMed Central

    Han, June‐Chiew; Tran, Kenneth; Johnston, Callum M.; Nielsen, Poul M. F.; Barrett, Carolyn J.; Taberner, Andrew J.; Loiselle, Denis S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Long‐term systemic arterial hypertension, and its associated compensatory response of left‐ventricular hypertrophy, is fatal. This disease leads to cardiac failure and culminates in death. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an excellent animal model for studying this pathology, suffering from ventricular failure beginning at about 18 months of age. In this study, we isolated left‐ventricular trabeculae from SHR‐F hearts and contrasted their mechanoenergetic performance with those from nonfailing SHR (SHR‐NF) and normotensive Wistar rats. Our results show that, whereas the performance of the SHR‐F differed little from that of the SHR‐NF, both SHR groups performed less stress‐length work than that of Wistar trabeculae. Their lower work output arose from reduced ability to produce sufficient force and shortening. Neither their heat production nor their enthalpy output (the sum of work and heat), particularly the energy cost of Ca2+ cycling, differed from that of the Wistar controls. Consequently, mechanical efficiency (the ratio of work to change of enthalpy) of both SHR groups was lower than that of the Wistar trabeculae. Our data suggest that in hypertension‐induced left‐ventricular hypertrophy, the mechanical performance of the tissue is compromised such that myocardial efficiency is reduced. PMID:25413328

  6. Reducing dietary fat from a meal increases the bioavailability of exogenous carbohydrate without altering plasma glucose concentration

    PubMed Central

    Knuth, Nicolas D.; Shrivastava, Cara R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to determine the acute glycemic and endocrine responses to the reduction of fat content from a meal. On three separate occasions, nine overweight subjects (body mass index = 30 ± 1 kg/m2; 5 men, 4 women) consumed 1) a control meal (∼800 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 31 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), 2) a low-fat meal (∼530 kcal; 100 g of carbohydrate, 1 g of fat, and 30 g of protein), or 3) a low-fat meal plus lipid infusion [same meal as low-fat meal, but the total energy provided was the same as control (800 kcal), with the “missing” fat (∼30 g) provided via an intravenous lipid infusion]. All three meals contained [13C]glucose (3 mg/kg body wt) to assess the bioavailability of ingested glucose. During the 5-h period after each meal, we measured the recovery of [13C]glucose in plasma, plasma glucose, and insulin concentrations. We also measured plasma concentration of the gastrointestinal peptides: glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36). The recovery of the ingested [13C]glucose in the hour after ingestion was greater (P < 0.05) after the low-fat than after the control meal [area under the curve (AUC): 1,206 ± 252 and 687 ± 161 μM·h, respectively]. However, removing dietary fat from the meal did not affect the plasma concentration of glucose or insulin. Importantly, [13C]glucose recovery was not different during the low-fat and lipid infusion trials (AUC: 1,206 ± 252 and 1,134 ± 247 μM·h, respectively), indicating that the accelerated delivery of exogenous glucose found after removing fat from the meal is due exclusively to the reduction of fat in the gastrointestinal tract. In parallel with these findings, the reduction in fat calories from the meal reduced plasma concentration of GIP, GLP-1, and PYY3-36. In summary, these data suggest that removing fat from the diet expedited exogenous glucose delivery into the systemic circulation

  7. Acute Treatment with Lauric Acid Reduces Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Alves, Naiane Ferraz Bandeira; de Queiroz, Thyago Moreira; de Almeida Travassos, Rafael; Magnani, Marciane; de Andrade Braga, Valdir

    2017-04-01

    The effects of acute administration of lauric acid (LA), the most abundant medium-chain fatty acid of coconut oil, on blood pressure, heart rate and oxidative stress were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intravenous doses of LA reduced blood pressure in a dose-dependent fashion (1, 3, 4, 8 and 10 mg/kg) in both SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats. LA (10(-8) to 3 × 10(-3) M) induced vasorelaxation in isolated superior mesenteric artery rings of SHR in the presence (n = 7) or absence (n = 8) of functional endothelium [maximum effect (ME) = 104 ± 3 versus 103 ± 4%]. After exposure to KCl (60 mM), LA also induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation (n = 7) compared to that under Phe-induced contraction (ME = 113.5 + 5.1 versus 104.5 + 4.0%). Furthermore, LA-induced vasorelaxation in vessels contracted with S(-)-BayK8644 (200 nM), a L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist (ME = 91.4 + 4.3 versus 104.5 + 4.0%, n = 7). Lastly, LA (10(-3) M) reduced NADPH-dependent superoxide accumulation in the heart (18 ± 1 versus 25 ± 1 MLU/min/μg protein, n = 4, p < 0.05) and kidney (82 ± 3 versus 99 ± 4 MLU/min/μg protein, n = 4, p < 0.05). Our data show that LA reduces blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive rats. In SHR, this effect might involve Ca(+2) channels in the resistance vessels and by its capability of reducing oxidative stress in heart and kidneys.

  8. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  9. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2016-10-27

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength.

  10. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity.

  11. Combined intervention of medium-chain triacylglycerol diet and exercise reduces body fat mass and enhances energy expenditure in rats.

    PubMed

    Ooyama, Katsuhiko; Wu, Jian; Nosaka, Naohisa; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Kasai, Michio

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies indicated that a medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) diet could inhibit body fat accumulation. It is also well established that exercise can reduce fat mass. However, the effects of a combination of MCT diet and exercise on reduction of fat mass have not been studied. Here we examined whether MCT diet and exercise intervention exert cooperative effects on body composition. Rats were assigned to 4 groups: 1. LCT diet, control (LCT-C); 2. MCT diet, control (MCT-C); 3. LCT diet, exercise (LCT-E); 4. MCT diet, exercise (MCT-E). After the 6-wk intervention, visceral fat mass was measured by CT scan and dissection, and energy expenditure was estimated for 24 h. The value of the visceral fat mass showed a significant correlation between CT scan and dissection (r=0.995, p<0.001). Visceral fat mass in the MCT-C group was lower than that in the LCT-C group. Furthermore, the fat-lowering effects were greater in the MCT-E group than that in either intervention alone. Thus significant effects of the MCT diet and exercise on the reduction of visceral fat mass were observed. Energy expenditure was significantly higher in the MCT-E group than in the other groups. Our present findings suggest that combined intervention of MCT diet and exercise has an additive effect on reduction of visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation, and that this effect may be partially related to increased energy expenditure. However, future studies are necessary to define the relationship between energy expenditure and fat mass accumulation.

  12. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  13. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Girgih, Abraham T.; Alashi, Adeola M.; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday A.; Raj, Pema; Netticadan, Thomas; Aluko, Rotimi E.

    2014-01-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total peroxides (TPx) levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity. PMID:25493943

  14. A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola M; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday A; Raj, Pema; Netticadan, Thomas; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-12-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total peroxides (TPx) levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  15. Prowashonupana barley dietary fibre reduces body fat and increases insulin sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans model

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chenfei; King, Michael L.; Fitzpatrick, Zachary L.; Wei, Wenqian; King, Jason F.; Wang, Mingming; Greenway, Frank L.; Finley, John W.; Johnson, William D.; Keenan, Michael J.; Enright, Frederick M.; Martin, Roy J.; Zheng, Jolene

    2016-01-01

    Prowashonupana barley (PWB) is high in β-glucan with moderate content of resistant starch. PWB reduced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) in wild type Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, N2), and in sir-2.1 or daf-16 null mutants, and sustained a surrogate marker of lifespan, pharyngeal pumping rate (PPR), in N2, sir-2.1, daf-16, or daf-16/daf-2 mutants. Hyperglycaemia (2% glucose) reversed or reduced the PWB effect on IFD in N2 or daf-16/daf-2 mutants with a sustained PPR. mRNA expression of cpt-1, cpt-2, ckr-1, and gcy-8 were dose-dependently reduced in N2 or daf-16 mutants, elevated in daf-16/daf-2 mutants with reduction in cpt-1, and unchanged in sir-2.1 mutants. mRNA expressions were increased by hyperglycaemia in N2 or daf-16/daf-2 mutants, while reduced in sir-2.1 or daf-16 mutants. The effects of PWB in the C. elegans model appeared to be primarily mediated via sir-2.1, daf-16, and daf-16/daf-2. These data suggest that PWB and β-glucans may benefit hyperglycaemia-impaired lipid metabolism. PMID:27721901

  16. Method for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.H.; Bonnecaze, B.F.; Matthews, J.D.; Skinner, J.L.; Wunderlich, D.K.

    1983-08-02

    A method is disclosed for producing a dried coal fuel having a reduced tendency to spontaneously ignite from a low rank coal by drying the low rank coal and thereafter cooling the dried coal to a temperature below about 100/sup 0/F. Optionally the dried coal is partially oxidized prior to cooling and optionally the dried coal is mixed with a deactivating fluid.

  17. Reduced FANCD2 influences spontaneous SCE and RAD51 foci formation in uveal melanoma and Fanconi anaemia.

    PubMed

    Gravells, P; Hoh, L; Solovieva, S; Patil, A; Dudziec, E; Rennie, I G; Sisley, K; Bryant, H E

    2013-11-14

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is unique among cancers in displaying reduced endogenous levels of sister chromatid exchange (SCE). Here we demonstrate that FANCD2 expression is reduced in UM and that ectopic expression of FANCD2 increased SCE. Similarly, FANCD2-deficient fibroblasts (PD20) derived from Fanconi anaemia patients displayed reduced spontaneous SCE formation relative to their FANCD2-complemented counterparts, suggesting that this observation is not specific to UM. In addition, spontaneous RAD51 foci were reduced in UM and PD20 cells compared with FANCD2-proficient cells. This is consistent with a model where spontaneous SCEs are the end product of endogenous recombination events and implicates FANCD2 in the promotion of recombination-mediated repair of endogenous DNA damage and in SCE formation during normal DNA replication. In both UM and PD20 cells, low SCE was reversed by inhibiting DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit). Finally, we demonstrate that both PD20 and UM are sensitive to acetaldehyde, supporting a role for FANCD2 in repair of lesions induced by such endogenous metabolites. Together, these data suggest FANCD2 may promote spontaneous SCE by influencing which double-strand break repair pathway predominates during normal S-phase progression.

  18. Tongxinluo improves the cognition by reducing β-amyloid accumulation in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yu-Lang; Lv, Hong-Jun; Li, Yan-Bo; Liu, Jie; Qian, Yi-Hua; Yang, Wei-Na; Ma, Kai-Ge; Li, Hong-Bao; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2017-03-05

    β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is the major pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). Hypertension is a risk factor for AD by promoting Aβ deposition. Traditional Chinese medicinal compound tongxinluo (TXL) can improve blood circulation and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. This study investigates the effects of TXL on cognition and Aβ accumulation using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). TXL was intragastrically administered to SHRs at low-dose, mid-dose and high-dose for 15, 30 or 60 days. Cognition was evaluated with a Morris Water Maze (MWM). Aβ accumulation in the brain was detected by Thioflavin-S staining and ELISA. Western blot and RT-PCR were employed to exam the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and amyloid precursor protein (APP). After TXL treatment for 60 days, compared with the vehicle, the number of crossed platform and the time spent in the target quadrant increased in parallel with the increasing length of treatment in MWM. Moreover, the Aβ accumulation in the hippocampus significantly decreased compared to the vehicle group, both in Thioflavin-S staining and ELISA. Additionally, TXL reduced RAGE expression in a dose- and time-depended manner, but LRP-1 expression had no difference between TXL groups and vehicle groups. Furthermore, the β-secretase expression was significantly decreased compared to the vehicle group, but APP expression had no difference. In conclusion, TXL improved cognition and reduced Aβ accumulation in SHRs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, the underlying mechanism may involved in inhibiting RAGE and β-secretase expression.

  19. Swimming exercise reduces preference for a high-fat diet by increasing insulin sensitivity in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hong-Tao; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of 4-week swimming training on the preference for a high-fat diet and insulin sensitivity in mice. C57BL/6 J mice were placed on either a low-fat diet or a choice diet (with both low-fat and high-fat diets available) for 6 weeks. During this period, a group of mice on the free-choice diet were randomly selected to receive a 4-week swimming exercise intervention. Mice that received the swimming exercise intervention showed a reduced preference for the high-fat diet as well as a slower rate of weight gain. Moreover, changes in insulin sensitivity, tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens system, and the expression of IRS2, IRS2, and high-fat diet-induced Akt phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens were delayed in the swimming exercise intervention group. Taken together, these results suggest that swimming exercise regulates the dopaminergic reward system to decrease high-fat diet intake, thereby controlling body weight to prevent obesity, in a manner likely mediated by increased insulin signal transduction in the nucleus accumbens.

  20. Beneficial effects of exercise on offspring obesity and insulin resistance are reduced by maternal high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Saskia; Klaus, Susanne; Kanzleiter, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Scope We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. Methods C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. Results Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. Conclusion Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance. PMID:28235071

  1. Development of fat-reduced sausages: Influence of binary and ternary combinations of carrageenan, inulin, and bovine plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Yanina; Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of the binary and ternary combinations of bovine plasma proteins (BPP), inulin (I) and κ-carrageenan (C) in the overall quality of fat-reduced sausages. The influence of these components over different properties (chemical composition, weight loss after cooking, emulsion stability, texture profile and sensory analysis of fat-reduced sausages) was studied and compared against two samples, one without fat reduction and another a fat-reduced sample without addition of texturing agents. In this sense, a full factorial experimental design of two levels with central point was used. The samples containing BPP+I and BPP+C showed a synergy in which the binary combinations presented higher values of moisture and protein content than the samples containing the individual components. The reduction of fat content increases the values of hardness and decreases the values of springiness. Samples with 5% BPP (w/w) and binary combinations of BPP+C and BPP+I had the best stability values (low total fluid loss), demonstrating a significant synergistic effect by combining BPP+C. Similar results were obtained from the study of weight loss after cooking. However, both studies showed a destabilization of the sample BPP+I+C as emulsion stability decreased and weight loss increased after cooking compared to binary combinations ( P < 0.05). Samples with a binary combination of BPP+C and BPP+I do not present a statistically significant difference in the chewiness with respect to a not-fat-reduced commercial sample ( P > 0.05). The less acceptable sample for flavor and texture was the one containing only BPP. However, when BPP combined with I or C, a major acceptability was obtained, demonstrating the synergistic effect of these binary combinations. Therefore, our studies revealed that the binary combinations of BPP with I or C are good alternatives for the development of fat-reduced sausage.

  2. Consumption of Pueraria flower extract reduces body mass index via a decrease in the visceral fat area in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Takano, Akira; Matsuzuka, Yuki; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Takagaki, Kinya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, kudzu is a familiar plant, well-known as an ingredient in the Japanese-style confections kudzu-kiri and kudzu-mochi. In this study, we focused on the flower of kudzu (Pueraria thomsonii) and conducted a clinical trial to investigate the effects of Pueraria thomsonii flower extract (PFE) on obesity using obese Japanese males and females (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Eighty-one obese subjects were randomly divided into three groups and consumed test food containing 300 mg of PFE, 200 mg of PFE, and a placebo over 12 weeks. The results indicate that PFE intake reduces BMI and decreases, the visceral fat area, but not the subcutaneous fat area. In addition, the decrease in visceral fat area showed no sexual dimorphism. Consequently, we propose that PFE intake expresses its BMI reduction effects via a decrease in visceral fat area.

  3. Superoxide dismutase reduces the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in the spontaneously hypertensive rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Yanamoto, Aiko; Sunano, Satoru

    2004-04-01

    The involvement of the superoxide anion in endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) was examined in noradrenaline-contracted aortic smooth muscle preparations isolated from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-9)-10(-5) M) induced EDR in both WKY and SHRSP preparations in a concentration-dependent manner, but with a significantly smaller amplitude in those from SHRSP than in those from WKY. The ACh-induced EDR was inhibited by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), in a concentration-dependent manner, both in WKY and SHRSP. The EDR produced in WKY in the presence of 3 x 10(-6) M L-NOARG was similar in magnitude to that produced in SHRSP in the absence of L-NOARG. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 units/ml) increased the amplitude of EDR in SHRSP but not in WKY, with no alteration of the threshold or of the maximal amplitude. The maximal amplitude of EDR produced in SHRSP in the presence of SOD was still smaller than that in WKY. In WKY, a possible involvement of superoxide in the EDR was examined in aortae whose EDR was partially inhibited by treatment with a subthreshold concentration (3 x 10 (-6) M) of L-NOARG. In the L-NOARG-conditioned aorta, the reduced EDR was partially but significantly recovered by SOD. These results suggest that the impaired EDR in aortae of SHRSP may be causally related to a higher production of superoxide. The L-NOARG-induced inhibition of EDR in WKY may be produced, in part, by the reduction of effective NO due to its destruction by superoxide.

  4. DENTAL MINERALIZATION AND SALIVARY ACTIVITY ARE REDUCED IN OFFSPRING OF SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS (SHR)

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Gracieli Prado; dos Santos, Otoniel Antonio Macedo; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Antoniali, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Several pathologies have been diagnosed in children of hypertensive mothers; however, some studies that evaluated the alterations in their oral health are not conclusive. This study analyzed the salivary gland activity and dental mineralization of offsprings of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Thirty-day-old SHR males and Wistar rats were studied. The salivary flow was evaluated by injection of pilocarpine, the protein concentration and salivary amylase activity, by the Lowry method and kinetic method at 405 nm, respectively. Enamel and dentin mineralization of the mandibular incisors was quantified with aid of the microhardness meter. The results were analyzed by the ANOVA or Student's t test (p<0.05). It was noticed that the salivary flow rate (0.026 mL/min/100 g ± 0.002) and salivary protein concentration (2.26 mg/mL ± 0.14) of SHR offspring were reduced compared to Wistar normotensive offspring (0.036 mL/min/100 g ± 0.003 and 2.91 mg/mL ± 0.27, respectively), yet there was no alteration in amylase activity (SHR: 242.4 U/mL ± 36.9; Wistar: 163.8 U/mL ± 14.1). Microhardness was lower both in enamel (255.8 KHN ± 2.6) and dentin (59.9 KHN ± 0.8) for the SHR teeth compared to the Wistar teeth (enamel: 328.7 KHN ± 3.3 and dentin: 67.1 KHN ± 1.0). These results suggest that the SHR offspring are more susceptible to development of pathologies impairing oral health, once they presented lesser flow and salivary protein concentration and lower dental mineralization. PMID:19089272

  5. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  6. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-05-09

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia.

  7. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27171111

  8. Captopril reduces cardiac inflammatory markers in spontaneously hypertensive rats by inactivation of NF-kB

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor widely used in the treatment of arterial hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to study whether captopril is able to attenuate the cardiac inflammatory process associated with arterial hypertension. Methods Left ventricle mRNA expression and plasma levels of pro-inflammatory (interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, were measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and their control normotensive, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, with or without a 12-week treatment with captopril (80 mg/Kg/day; n = six animals per group). To understand the mechanisms involved in the effect of captopril, mRNA expression of ACE, angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) and p22phox (a subunit of NADPH oxidase), as well as NF-κB activation and expression, were measured in the left ventricle of these animals. Results In SHR, the observed increases in blood pressures, heart rate, left ventricle relative weight, plasma levels and cardiac mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-6, as well as the reductions in the plasma levels and in the cardiac mRNA expression of IL-10, were reversed after the treatment with captopril. Moreover, the mRNA expressions of ACE, AT1R and p22phox, which were enhanced in the left ventricle of SHR, were reduced to normal values after captopril treatment. Finally, SHR presented an elevated cardiac mRNA expression and activation of the transcription nuclear factor, NF-κB, accompanied by a reduced expression of its inhibitor, IκB; captopril administration corrected the observed changes in all these parameters. Conclusion These findings show that captopril decreases the inflammation process in the left ventricle of hypertensive rats and suggest that NF-κB-driven inflammatory reactivity might be responsible for this effect through an inactivation of NF-κB-dependent pro-inflammatory factors. PMID:20462420

  9. High-fat diet induces metabolic changes and reduces oxidative stress in female mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Barba, Ignasi; Miró-Casas, Elisabet; Torrecilla, José L; Pladevall, Eulàlia; Tejedor, Sergi; Sebastián-Pérez, Rubén; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Berrendero, José R; Cuevas, Antonio; García-Dorado, David

    2017-02-01

    After an acute myocardial infarction, obese patients generally have a better prognosis than their leaner counterparts, known as the "obesity paradox". In addition, female sex is associated with a lower risk of cardiac ischemic events and smaller infarct size compared to males. The objective of the present work was to study the metabolic phenotype and mitochondrial function associated to female sex and short-term high-fat diet. (1)H NMR spectra of mice heart extracts were analysed by mRMR variable selection and linear discriminant analysis was used to evaluate metabolic changes. In separate experiments, O2 consumption and H2O2 production were measured from isolated mitochondria as well as serum oxidation susceptibility. Fingerprinting showed that male hearts contained more myo-inositol, taurine and glutamate than female hearts. HFD reduced the levels of creatine, taurine citrate and acetate. Profiling showed increased alanine and fumarate in HFD suggesting altered glycolitic and Krebs cycle pathways. Female mice contained less glucose than males. Female sex nor HFD altered mitochondria oxygen consumption but both conditions reduced the amount of H2O2 produced in an additive manner. Serum of females had lower oxidation susceptibility than serum from males but there were no differences associated with HFD. In conclusion, female sex and short-term HFD have an effect on the myocardial metabolic pattern and reduce the amount of H2O2 produced by mitochondria in an additive manner suggesting different mechanisms of action. This could explain, at least in part, the protection afforded by female sex and the "obesity paradox".

  10. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  11. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces adiposity and inflammatory cytokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythms contributes to obesity. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day may reset the circadian rhythms and reduce obesity and resulting complications. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity...

  12. A high-protein diet for reducing body fat: mechanisms and possible caveats.

    PubMed

    Pesta, Dominik H; Samuel, Varman T

    2014-01-01

    High protein diets are increasingly popularized in lay media as a promising strategy for weight loss by providing the twin benefits of improving satiety and decreasing fat mass. Some of the potential mechanisms that account for weight loss associated with high-protein diets involve increased secretion of satiety hormones (GIP, GLP-1), reduced orexigenic hormone secretion (ghrelin), the increased thermic effect of food and protein-induced alterations in gluconeogenesis to improve glucose homeostasis. There are, however, also possible caveats that have to be considered when choosing to consume a high-protein diet. A high intake of branched-chain amino acids in combination with a western diet might exacerbate the development of metabolic disease. A diet high in protein can also pose a significant acid load to the kidneys. Finally, when energy demand is low, excess protein can be converted to glucose (via gluconeogenesis) or ketone bodies and contribute to a positive energy balance, which is undesirable if weight loss is the goal. In this review, we will therefore explore the mechanisms whereby a high-protein diet may exert beneficial effects on whole body metabolism while we also want to present possible caveats associated with the consumption of a high-protein diet.

  13. A High-Fat, High-Oleic Diet, But Not a High-Fat, Saturated Diet, Reduces Hepatic α-Linolenic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Content in Mice.

    PubMed

    Picklo, Matthew J; Murphy, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused upon the role of linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n-6) as a competitive inhibitor of α-linolenic (ALA; 18:3n-3) metabolism; however, little data exist as to the impact of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) on ALA metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that a high SFA diet, compared to a high MUFA (oleic acid 18:1n-9) diet, reduces ALA conversion to long chain n-3 fatty acids. Mice were fed for 12 weeks on three diets: (1) a control, 16 % fat energy diet consisting of similar levels of SFA and MUFA (2) a 50 % fat energy high MUFA energy diet (35 % MUFA and 7 % SFA) or (3) a 50 % fat energy, high SFA energy diet (34 % SFA, 8 % MUFA). ALA and LNA content remained constant. Analysis of hepatic lipids demonstrated a selective reduction (40 %) in ALA but not LNA and a 35 % reduction in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) in the high MUFA mice compared to the other groups. Lower content of ALA was reflected in the neutral lipid fraction, while smaller levels of phospholipid esterified EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3) were evident. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) content was elevated by the high SFA diet. Expression of Fads1 (Δ5 desaturase) and Fads2 (Δ6 desaturase) was elevated by the high MUFA and reduced by the high SFA diet. These data indicate that a high MUFA diet, but not a high SFA diet, reduces ALA metabolism and point to selective hepatic disposition of ALA versus LNA.

  14. Visceral fat and body weight are reduced in overweight adults by the supplementation of Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Ae; Back, Hyang-Im; Kim, Soo-Ran; Kim, Min-Gul; Jung, Su-Jin; Song, Won O; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Various forms of fermented soybean products are well documented for their health benefits. The efficacy of anti-obesogenic effect of Doenjang, one of the most commonly used seasonings in Korean cuisine, has been reported only in animal models; thus, an evaluation of Doenjang needs to be conducted in human studies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that Doenjang supplementation reduces body weight and changes body composition in overweight adults. A total of 51 overweight adults participated in this study. A group of males with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and waist to hip ratio (WHR) ≥ 0.90, and a group of females with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and WHR ≥ 0.85 were randomly assigned to either a Doenjang supplement (9.9 g dry/day) group or a placebo group for a 12-week randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat distribution by computerized tomography (CT) and blood components were measured before and after the intervention period. After the 12-week study, the Doenjang supplementation group had significant reductions in body weight (kg), body fat mass (kg) and body fat (%) compared to the placebo group, the supplementation of Doenjang resulted in a significant reduction in visceral fat (cm2), although no changes were observed in total and subcutaneous fat are as (cm2), serum lipid profiles and dietary intakes. The present study demonstrated that daily supplementation of 9.9 g dry/day of Doenjang for 12 weeks reduces body weight and visceral fat in overweight adults. PMID:23346302

  15. A new behavioural apparatus to reduce animal numbers in multiple types of spontaneous object recognition paradigms in rats.

    PubMed

    Ameen-Ali, K E; Eacott, M J; Easton, A

    2012-10-15

    Standard object recognition procedures assess animals' memory through their spontaneous exploration of novel objects or novel configurations of objects with other aspects of their environment. Such tasks are widely used in memory research, but also in pharmaceutical companies screening new drug treatments. However, behaviour in these tasks may be driven by influences other than novelty such as stress from handling which can subsequently influence performance. This extra-experimental variance means that large numbers of animals are required to maintain power. In addition, accumulation of data is time consuming as animals typically perform only one trial per day. The present study aimed to explore how effectively recognition memory could be tested with a new continual trials apparatus which allows for multiple trials within a session and reduced handling stress through combining features of delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition tasks. In this apparatus Lister hooded rats displayed performance significantly above chance levels in object recognition tasks (Experiments 1 and 2) and in tasks of object-location (Experiment 3) and object-in-context memory (Experiment 4) with data from only five animals or fewer per experimental group. The findings indicated that the results were comparable to those of previous reports in the literature and maintained statistical power whilst using less than a third of the number of animals typically used in spontaneous recognition paradigms. Overall, the results highlight the potential benefit of the continual trials apparatus to reduce the number of animals used in recognition memory tasks.

  16. High-viscosity dietary fibers reduce adiposity and decrease hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Brockman, David A; Chen, Xiaoli; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2014-09-01

    Viscous dietary fiber consumption lowers the postprandial glucose curve and may decrease obesity and associated comorbidities such as insulin resistance and fatty liver. We determined the effect of 2 viscous fibers, one fermentable and one not, on the development of adiposity, fatty liver, and metabolic flexibility in a model of diet-induced obesity. Rats were fed a normal-fat (NF) diet (26% energy from fat), a high-fat diet (60% energy from fat), each containing 5% fiber as cellulose (CL; nonviscous and nonfermentable), or 5% of 1 of 2 highly viscous fibers-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC; nonfermentable) or guar gum (GG; fermentable). After 10 wk, fat mass percentage in the NF (18.0%; P = 0.03) and GG groups (17.0%; P < 0.01) was lower than the CL group (20.7%). The epididymal fat pad weight of the NF (3.9 g; P = 0.04), HPMC (3.9 g; P = 0.03), and GG groups (3.6 g; P < 0.01) was also lower than the CL group (5.0 g). The HPMC (0.11 g/g liver) and GG (0.092 g/g liver) groups had lower liver lipid concentrations compared with the CL group (0.14 g/g liver). Fat mass percentage, epididymal fat pad weight, and liver lipid concentration were not different among the NF, HPMC, and GG groups. The respiratory quotient was higher during the transition from the diet-deprived to fed state in the GG group (P = 0.002) and tended to be higher in the HPMC group (P = 0.06) compared with the CL group, suggesting a quicker shift from fatty acid (FA) to carbohydrate oxidation. The HPMC group [15.1 nmol/(mg ⋅ h)] had higher ex vivo palmitate oxidation in muscle compared with the GG [11.7 nmol/(mg ⋅ h); P = 0.04] and CL groups [10.8 nmol/(mg ⋅ h); P < 0.01], implying a higher capacity to oxidize FAs. Viscous fibers can reduce the adiposity and hepatic steatosis that accompany a high-fat diet, and increase metabolic flexibility, regardless of fermentability.

  17. Prolonged High Fat Diet Reduces Dopamine Reuptake without Altering DAT Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Jackson J.; Chartoff, Elena H.; Potter, David N.; Ebner, Stephanie R.; Roitman, Mitchell F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of diet-induced obesity (DIO) can potently alter multiple aspects of dopamine signaling, including dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and dopamine reuptake. However, the time-course of diet-induced changes in DAT expression and function and whether such changes are dependent upon the development of DIO remains unresolved. Here, we fed rats a high (HFD) or low (LFD) fat diet for 2 or 6 weeks. Following diet exposure, rats were anesthetized with urethane and striatal DAT function was assessed by electrically stimulating the dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and recording resultant changes in dopamine concentration in the ventral striatum using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. We also quantified the effect of HFD on membrane associated DAT in striatal cell fractions from a separate group of rats following exposure to the same diet protocol. Notably, none of our treatment groups differed in body weight. We found a deficit in the rate of dopamine reuptake in HFD rats relative to LFD rats after 6 but not 2 weeks of diet exposure. Additionally, the increase in evoked dopamine following a pharmacological challenge of cocaine was significantly attenuated in HFD relative to LFD rats. Western blot analysis revealed that there was no effect of diet on total DAT protein. However, 6 weeks of HFD exposure significantly reduced the 50 kDa DAT isoform in a synaptosomal membrane-associated fraction, but not in a fraction associated with recycling endosomes. Our data provide further evidence for diet-induced alterations in dopamine reuptake independent of changes in DAT production and demonstrates that such changes can manifest without the development of DIO. PMID:23516454

  18. Dietary milk fat globule membrane reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci in Fischer-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Snow, Dallin R; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Ward, Robert E; Cambell, Jesse; Young, Michael J; Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry J

    2010-02-24

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is a biopolymer composed primarily of membrane proteins and lipids that surround the fat globules in milk. Although it is considered to have potential as a bioactive ingredient, few feeding studies have been conducted to measure its potential benefits. The aim of this investigation was to determine if dietary MFGM confers protection against colon carcinogenesis compared to diets containing corn oil (CO) or anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Male, weanling Fischer-344 rats were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments that differed only in the fat source: (1) AIN-76A diet, corn oil; (2) AIN-76A diet, AMF; and (3) AIN-76A diet, 50% MFGM, 50% AMF. Each diet contained 50 g/kg diet of fat. With the exception of the fat source, diets were formulated to be identical in macro and micro nutrient content. Animals were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine once per week at weeks 3 and 4, and fed experimental diets for a total of 13 weeks. Over the course of the study dietary treatment did not affect food consumption, weight gain or body composition. After 13 weeks animals were sacrificed, colons were removed and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were counted by microscopy. Rats fed the MFGM diet (n = 16) had significantly fewer ACF (20.9 +/- 5.7) compared to rats fed corn oil (n = 17) or AMF (n = 16) diets (31.3 +/- 9.5 and 29.8 +/- 11.4 respectively; P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis of colonic mucosa did not reveal differential expression of candidate colon cancer genes, and the sphingolipid profile of the colonic mucosa was not affected by diet. While there were notable and significant differences in plasma and red blood cell lipids, there was no relationship to the cancer protection. These results support previous findings that dietary sphingolipids are protective against colon carcinogenesis yet extend this finding to MFGM, a milk fat fraction available as a food ingredient.

  19. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, reduces body fat without weight rebound like swimming exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2011-08-01

    Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reduce body weight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise. In the present study, we report that 2 weeks treatment of capsiate and exercise increased energy metabolism and suppressed body fat accumulation during 4 more weeks of ad libitum feeding. The body weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. The oxygen consumption was significanlty increased in capsiate and exercise groups than in the vehicle administered mice. In addition, the abdominal adipose tissue weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicate that suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate intake is beneficial for maintaining an ideal body weight as exercise.

  20. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P < 0.01) but glucagon level was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in arginine-supplemented than in control pigs. Compared with the control, arginine supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P < 0.01) carcass fat content by 11%. The arginine treatment enhanced (P < 0.05) longissimus dorsi muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  1. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B.; Philbrick, Kenneth A.; Branscum, Adam J.; Kalra, Satya P.; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  2. Rheological Modification of Reduced Fat Chocolate Induced by the Addition of Limonene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, T.-A. Line; Vieira, Joselio; Hargreaves, Jeremy; Wolf, Bettina; Mitchell, John

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how the addition of limonene, a low molecular weight hydrophobic compound, to chocolate, leads to a decrease in the viscosity of molten chocolate. Chocolate is a fat (cocoa butter) based dispersion of solids (sugar, cocoa and milk solids). We showed that, by mixing with cocoa butter, limonene decreases the viscosity of chocolate by decreasing the viscosity of its continuous phase, liquid cocoa butter. To understand the functionality of limonene in decreasing the viscosity of cocoa butter (triacylglyceride melt), additional mixtures of cocoa butter and limonene were prepared and their viscosity was measured. The dependence of the viscosity on the ratio of cocoa butter to limonene analyzed using Kay's equation seems to indicate that limonene mixes with and within the cocoa butter triacylglycerides, diluting the fat and leading to a decrease in the overall fat viscosity.

  3. Dietary Intervention with Vitamin D, Calcium and Whey Protein Reduced Fat Mass and Increased Lean Mass in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, S.M.K.; Chang, E.; Li, J.; Burlage, C.; Zou, M.; Buhman, K. K.; Koser, S.; Donkin, S.S.; Teegarden, D.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the effects and the mechanisms of inclusion of dietary whey protein, high calcium and high vitamin D intake with either a high sucrose or high fat base diets on body composition of rodents. Male Wistar rats were assigned to either no whey protein, suboptimal calcium (0.25%) and vitamin D (400 IU/kg) diet (LD) or a diet containing whey protein, high calcium (1.5%) and vitamin D (10,000 IU/kg) diet (HD) and either high fat (40% of energy) or high sucrose (60%) base diets for 13 weeks. Liver tissue homogenates were used to determine [14C]glucose and [14C]palmitate oxidation. mRNA expression of enzymes related to energy metabolism in liver, adipose and muscle as well as regulators of muscle mass and insulin receptor were assessed. The results demonstrated that there was reduced accumulation of body fat mass (P = 0.01) and greater lean mass (P = 0.03) for the HD compared to LD fed group regardless of the background diet. There were no consistent differences between the LD and HD groups across background diets in substrate oxidation and mRNA expression for enzymes measured that regulate energy metabolism, myostatin or muscle VEGF. However, there was an increase in insulin receptor mRNA expression in muscle in the HD compared to the LD groups. In conclusion, elevated whey protein, calcium and vitamin D intake resulted in reduced accumulation of body fat mass and increased lean mass, with a commensurate increase in insulin receptor expression, regardless of the level of calories from fat or sucrose. PMID:19083488

  4. Dietary intervention with vitamin D, calcium, and whey protein reduced fat mass and increased lean mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shamim M K; Chang, Eugene; Li, Jia; Burlage, Catherine; Zou, Mi; Buhman, Kimberly K; Koser, Stephanie; Donkin, Shawn S; Teegarden, Dorothy

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the effects and the mechanisms of inclusion of dietary whey protein, high calcium, and high vitamin D intake with either a high-sucrose or high-fat base diets on body composition of rodents. Male Wistar rats were assigned to either no whey protein, suboptimal calcium (0.25%), and vitamin D (400 IU/kg) diet (LD), or a diet containing whey protein, high calcium (1.5%), and vitamin D (10 000 IU/kg) diet (HD), and either high-fat (40% of energy) or high-sucrose (60%) base diets for 13 weeks. Liver tissue homogenates were used to determine [(14)C]glucose and [(14)C]palmitate oxidation. mRNA expression of enzymes related to energy metabolism in liver, adipose, and muscle, as well as regulators of muscle mass and insulin receptor was assessed. The results demonstrated that there was reduced accumulation of body fat mass (P = .01) and greater lean mass (P = .03) for the HD- compared to LD-fed group regardless of the background diet. There were no consistent differences between the LD and HD groups across background diets in substrate oxidation and mRNA expression for enzymes measured that regulate energy metabolism, myostatin, or muscle vascular endothelial growth factor. However, there was an increase in insulin receptor mRNA expression in muscle in the HD compared to the LD groups. In conclusion, elevated whey protein, calcium, and vitamin D intake resulted in reduced accumulation of body fat mass and increased lean mass, with a commensurate increase in insulin receptor expression, regardless of the level of calories from fat or sucrose.

  5. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.

  6. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  7. Development of reduced-fat mayonnaise using 4alphaGTase-modified rice starch and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Mun, Saehun; Kim, Young-Lim; Kang, Choon-Gil; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Shim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2009-06-01

    In this study a disproportionating enzyme, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (4alphaGTase), was used to modify the structural properties of rice starch to produce a suitable fat substitute in reduced-fat (RF) mayonnaise. The mayonnaise fat was partially substituted with the 4alphaGTase-treated starch paste at levels up to 50% in combination with xanthan gum and the physical and rheological properties of the modified RF mayonnaise samples were investigated. All mayonnaises prepared in this study exhibited shear thinning behavior and yield stress. Viscoelastic properties of mayonnaise were characterized using dynamic oscillatory shear test and it was observed that mayonnaises exhibited weak gel-like properties. The magnitude of elastic and loss moduli was also affected by 4alphaGTase-treated starch concentration and presence of xanthan gum. In relation to microstructure, RF mayonnaise prepared with 3.8 or 5.6 wt% of 4alphaGTase-treated starch and xanthan gum showed smaller droplets. The use of 5.6 wt% of 4alphaGTase-treated starch and 0.1 wt% of xanthan gum produced a RF mayonnaise with similar rheological properties and appearances as FF mayonnaise with gum. This study demonstrated a high feasibility for using 4alphaGTase-treated rice starch as a viable fat replacer in mayonnaise.

  8. Valproic acid reduces insulin-resistance, fat deposition and FOXO1-mediated gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Kumar, Sandeep; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in insulin-resistance, gluconeogenesis and islet function. HDACs can modulate the expression of various genes, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of valproic acid (VPA) on fat deposition, insulin-resistance and gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. VPA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day and metformin (positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 weeks were administered by oral gavage. Insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and glycemia were evaluated by biochemical estimations, while fat accumulation and structural alteration were assessed by histopathology. Protein expression and insulin signaling were evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue and liver, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, VPA inhibited the gluconeogenesis and glucagon expression as well as restored the histopathological alterations in pancreas and liver. Our findings provide new insights on the anti-diabetic role of VPA in type-2 diabetes mellitus by the modulation of insulin signaling and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1)-mediated gluconeogenesis. Since VPA is a well established clinical drug, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the present findings can be further investigated for possible clinical use.

  9. Spontaneous Preterm Delivery, Particularly with Reduced Fetal Growth, is Associated with DNA Hypomethylation of Tumor Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinhua; Bai, Guang; Scholl, Theresa O

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm delivery and sub-optimal fetal growth are associated with each other and affect both mother and infant. Our aim was to determine (i) whether there are detectable differences in DNA methylation between early and late gestation and (ii) whether changes in DNA methylation from entry are associated with spontaneous preterm delivery with and without reduced fetal growth. Methods We conducted a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort. Gene specific methylation was measured by Methyl-Profiler PCR Array in a Human Breast Cancer Signature Panel of 24 genes from maternal peripheral leukocytes genomic DNA at entry and 3rd trimester (sampled at 16 and 30 weeks of gestation, respectively). Clonal bisulfite DNA sequencing was performed to confirm the changes in selected genes (CYP1B1, GADD45A and CXCL12). Multivariable analysis was used for data analysis. Results There was significantly decrease in DNA methylation in 15 of 24 genes during the 3rd trimester in cases of spontaneous preterm delivery (n=23) as compared to the controls (n=19) (p<0.05–p<0.01 for each gene). Similar results were observed by bisulfite sequencing for 3 genes. The change in DNA methylation between late and early gestation was significantly different in cases (overall decrease in methylation was −4.0 ± 1.5%) compared to the controls (overall increase in methylation was 12.6 ± 2.19%, p<0.0001). A graded pattern of DNA methylation was observed in 15 genes. Cases who delivered preterm with reduced fetal growth had the lowest level of methylation, cases delivering preterm without reduced fetal growth were next and term controls were highest in methylation (p for trend <0.05 to p<0.01 for each gene). Cases of preterm delivery also had significantly lower dietary choline intake. Conclusions These data suggest that epigenetic modification is associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, spontaneous preterm delivery with reduced fetal growth in

  10. Template to improve glycemic control without reducing adiposity or dietary fat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drugs that improve chronic hyperglycemia independently of insulin signaling or reduction of adiposity or dietary fat intake may be highly desirable. Ad36, a human adenovirus, promotes glucose uptake in vitro independently of adiposity or proximal insulin signaling. We tested the ability of Ad36 to i...

  11. A novel gastrointestinal microbiome modulator from soy pods reduces absorption of dietary fat in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet impacts the composition of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome and it has shifted toward unprecedented fat and sugar. Because dietary habits are difficult to change, we developed a novel GI microbiome modulator (GIMM) as an intervention. Male mice were fed 1 of 3 isocaloric diets for 30 d; o...

  12. Effect of the use of entire male fat in the production of reduced salt fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the use of entire male fat and salt reduction in dry fermented sausages was evaluated. Four different sausage formulations were manufactured with back fat from gilt or entire male and two different salt contents. The physicochemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture, lipid composition, volatile compounds and boar taint compounds were analysed. The use of entire male fat produced the highest weight losses producing high hardness and chewiness while salt reduction produced a decrease in hardness. Entire male sausages had the lowest oxidation values due to the low content of C18:2n6 while salt reduction did not affect the oxidation process. Boar taint odour was due to the presence of androstenone and skatole but entire male fat sausages had different generations of volatile compounds. The presence of androstenone was perceived by consumers as abnormal odours but also other sausage characteristics such as texture (high hardness) and oxidation were detected due to the different chemical compositions of entire males versus gilts.

  13. Coupled and reduced dimensional modeling of respiratory mechanics during spontaneous breathing.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M; Comerford, A; Wall, W A

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a total lung model based on a tree of 0D airway and acinar models for studying respiratory mechanics during spontaneous breathing. This model utilizes both computer tomography-based geometries and artificially generated lobe-filling airway trees to model the entire conducting region of the lung. Beyond the conducting airways, we develop an acinar model, which takes into account the alveolar tissue resistance, compliance, and the intrapleural pressure. With this methodology, we compare four different 0D models of airway mechanics and determine the best model based on a comparison with a 3D-0D coupled model of the conducting airways; this methodology is possible because the majority of airway resistance is confined to the lower generations, that is, the trachea and the first few bronchial generations. As an example application of the model, we simulate the flow and pressure dynamics under spontaneous breathing conditions, that is, at flow conditions driven purely by pleural space pressure. The results show good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with reported physiological values. One of the key advantages of this model is the ability to provide insight into lung ventilation in the peripheral regions. This is often crucial because this is where information, specifically for studying diseases and gas exchange, is needed. Thus, the model can be used as a tool for better understanding local peripheral lung mechanics without excluding the upper portions of the lung. This tool will be also useful for in vitro investigations of lung mechanics in both health and disease.

  14. Physical Activity and Reduced Intra-abdominal Fat in Midlife African-American and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Sheila A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth F.; Wesley, Deidre E.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine whether self-reported physical activity (PA), including recreational, household, and exercise activities, is associated with intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in community-dwelling white and black midlife women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 369 women from the Chicago site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) ancillary study, the SWAN Fat Patterning Study. PA level was the independent variable, and IAF, assessed by computerized tomography (CT) scan, was the dependent variable. Measures were obtained at SWAN Fat Patterning Baseline visit between August 2002 and December 2005. Linear regression models explored the association between PA and IAF. The first model included IAF as the outcome and total score PA as the main predictor, adjusting for total percent fat mass, age, and ethnicity. The second model included education, parity, sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) level, and depressive symptoms, measured by Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. Each 1-point higher total PA score was associated with a 4.0 cm2 lower amount of IAF (P = 0.004), independent of total percent fat mass, age, ethnicity, SHBG level, educational level, CES-D, and parity. Associations did not differ between white and black women. This study demonstrates a significant negative association between PA and IAF independent of multiple covariates in midlife women. Our findings suggest that motivating white and black women to increase PA during midlife may lessen IAF, which may have a positive impact on subsequent development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19876007

  15. Reducing saturated fat with oleogel/shortening blends in a baked product.

    PubMed

    Mert, Behic; Demirkesen, Ilkem

    2016-05-15

    Short dough cookie structure, characterized by its aerated and tender texture, depends on the presence of solid fat during kneading. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of Candelilla wax (CDW) containing oleogels for partial replacement of the shortening in cookies. Oleogels were prepared with different amounts of CDW and blended with a commercial bakery shortening. After crystallizing the oleogel/shortening blends by using a pilot scale crystallization unit, the blends were evaluated in a cookie formulations. When the shortening was completely replaced with oleogel softer products were obtained compared to liquid oil, but they were harder than the shortening containing products. On the other hand, partial replacement of shortening with oleogels provided much more acceptable dough and cookie characteristics. Results suggest that gradual replacement of shortening with oleogels may be a suitable approach for reduction of saturated fat in short dough products.

  16. Gene Expression Suggests Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats May Have Altered Metabolism and Reduced Hypoxic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Marie-Françoise; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Engelter, Stefan; Lyrer, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is an important cause of stroke, cognitive decline and vascular dementia (VaD). It is associated with diffuse white matter abnormalities and small deep cerebral ischemic infarcts. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of SVD are unclear. As hypertension is a major risk factor for developing SVD, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) are considered an appropriate experimental model for SVD. Prior work suggested an imbalance between the number of blood microvessels and astrocytes at the level of the neurovascular unit in 2-month-old SHR, leading to neuronal hypoxia in the brain of 9-month-old animals. To identify genes and pathways involved in the development of SVD, we compared the gene expression profile in the cortex of 2 and 9-month-old of SHR with age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats using microarray-based technology. The results revealed significant differences in expression of genes involved in energy and lipid metabolisms, mitochondrial functions, oxidative stress and ischemic responses between both groups. These results strongly suggest that SHR suffer from chronic hypoxia, and therefore are unable to tolerate ischemia-like conditions, and are more vulnerable to high-energy needs than WKY. This molecular analysis gives new insights about pathways accounting for the development of SVD. PMID:22272763

  17. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Siavash, Mansour; Naseri, Mohsen; Rahimi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group). Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001) that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375). Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001), but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004). Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001), although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139). Conclusion: Topical AE ointment

  18. Table grape consumption reduces adiposity and markers of hepatic lipogenesis and alters gut microbiota in butter fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Jessie; Collins, Brian; Wolf, Patricia G; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Zhong, Wei; Cooney, Paula; Cockrell, Chase; Chang, Eugene; Gaskins, H Rex; McIntosh, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if consuming table grapes reduces adiposity and its metabolic consequences and alters gut microbiota in mice fed a high-fat (HF), butter-rich diet. C57BL/6J mice were fed a low-fat (LF) diet or HF diet with 3% or 5% grapes for 11weeks. Total body and inguinal fat were moderately but significantly reduced in mice fed both levels of grapes compared to their controls. Mice fed 5% grapes had lower liver weights and triglyceride levels and decreased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (Gpat1) compared to the 5% controls. Mice fed 3% grapes had lower hepatic mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2, sterol-CoA desaturase 1, fatty-acid binding protein 4 and Gpat1 compared to the 3% controls. Although grape feeding had only a minor impact on markers of inflammation or lipogenesis in adipose tissue or intestine, 3% of grapes decreased the intestinal abundance of sulfidogenic Desulfobacter spp. and the Bilophila wadsworthia-specific dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene and tended to increase the abundance of the beneficial bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to controls. In addition, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Allobaculum and several other genera correlated negatively with adiposity. Allobaculum in particular was increased in the LF and 3% grapes groups compared to the HF-fed controls. Notably, grape feeding attenuated the HF-induced impairment in epithelial localization of the intestinal tight junction protein zonula occludens. Collectively, these data indicate that some of the adverse health consequences of consuming an HF diet rich in saturated fat can be attenuated by table grape consumption.

  19. Sodium butyrate reduces insulin-resistance, fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetic rat: A comparative study with metformin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-07-25

    Recent evidences highlighted that histone deacetylases (HDACs) can deacetylate the histone, various transcription factors and regulatory proteins, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. The present study aimed to evaluate the comparative effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) and metformin on the glucose homeostasis, insulin-resistance, fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet (HFD) and low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg). NaB at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg twice daily as well as metformin (as a positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 consecutive weeks were administered by i.p. and oral route, respectively. NaB treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and gluconeogenesis, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, NaB treatment ameliorated the micro- and macro-vesicular steatosis in liver and fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (adipocytes hypertrophy) as well as pancreatic beta-cell damage. In the present study, both NaB and metformin inhibited the diabetes-associated increased HDACs activity, thereby increased the acetylation of histone H3 in liver. The present findings demonstrated that NaB and metformin reduced insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, fat accumulation and gluconeogenesis thereby improved the glucose homeostasis in rat. Thus, NaB might be a promising molecule for the prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.

  20. Table grape consumption reduces adiposity and markers of hepatic lipogenesis and alters gut microbiota in butter fat-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Jessie; Collins, Brian; Wolf, Patricia G.; Martinez, Kristina; Shen, Wan; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Zhong, Wei; Cooney, Paula; Cockrell, Chase; Chang, Eugene; Gaskins, H. Rex; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if consuming table grapes reduces adiposity and its metabolic consequences and alters gut microbiota in mice fed a high fat (HF), butter-rich diet. C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (LF) diet or HF diet with 3% or 5% grapes for 11 weeks. Total body and inguinal fat were moderately, but significantly reduced in mice fed both levels of grapes compared to their controls. Mice fed 5% grapes had lower liver weights and triglyceride levels, and decreased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (Gpat1) compared to the 5% controls. Mice fed 3% grapes had lower hepatic mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2, sterol-CoA desaturase 1, fatty-acid binding protein 4, and Gpat1 compared to the 3% controls. Although grape feeding had only a minor impact on markers of inflammation or lipogenesis in adipose tissue or intestine, 3% grapes decreased the intestinal abundance of sulfidogenic Desulfobacter spp., and the Bilophila wadsworthia-specific dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA-Bw), and tended to increase the abundance of the beneficial bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to controls. Additionally, Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Allobaculum, and several other genera correlated negatively with adiposity. Allobaculum in particular was increased in the LF and 3% grapes groups compared to the HF-fed controls. Notably, grape feeding attenuated the HF-induced impairment in epithelial localization of the intestinal tight junction protein zonula occludens. Collectively, these data indicate that some of the adverse health consequences of consuming a HF diet rich in saturated fat can be attenuated by table grape consumption. PMID:26423887

  1. Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticle Exposure Improves Microvascular Dysfunction and Reduces Oxidative Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Minarchick, Valerie C.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Sabolsky, Edward M.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    The elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular wall is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. This increase in oxidative stress contributes to various mechanisms of vascular dysfunction, such as decreased nitric oxide bioavailability. Therefore, anti-oxidants are being researched to decrease the high levels of ROS, which could improve the microvascular dysfunction associated with various cardiovascular diseases. From a therapeutic perspective, cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NP) hold great anti-oxidant potential, but their in vivo activity is unclear. Due to this potential anti-oxidant action, we hypothesize that injected CeO2 NP would decrease microvascular dysfunction and oxidative stress associated with hypertension. In order to simulate a therapeutic application, spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were intravenously injected with either saline or CeO2 NP (100 μg suspended in saline). Twenty-four hours post-exposure mesenteric arteriolar reactivity was assessed via intravital microscopy. Endothelium-dependent and –independent function was assessed via acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Microvascular oxidative stress was analyzed using fluorescent staining in isolated mesenteric arterioles. Finally, systemic inflammation was examined using a multiplex analysis and venular leukocyte flux was counted. Endothelium-dependent dilation was significantly decreased in the SH rats (29.68 ± 3.28%, maximal response) and this microvascular dysfunction was significantly improved following CeO2 NP exposure (43.76 ± 4.33%, maximal response). There was also an increase in oxidative stress in the SH rats, which was abolished following CeO2 NP treatment. These results provided evidence that CeO2 NP act as an anti-oxidant in vivo. There were also changes in the inflammatory profile in the WKY and SH rats. In WKY rats, IL-10 and TNF-α were increased following CeO2 NP treatment. Finally, leukocyte

  2. The benefits of supplementary fat in feed rations for ruminants with particular focus on reducing levels of methane production.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, J; Harrison, A

    2011-01-01

    Methane (CH4), a highly potent greenhouse gas, has repeatedly been identified as a significant contributor to global warming. In this connection, ruminants, animals that produce large quantities of methane, have been singled out as an area for reduction with regard to their emissions to the atmosphere. In an analysis of recently published data, we identify the underlying mechanisms of methane production in ruminants and focus on the efficacy of different fat sources in terms of their ability to reduce methane production. Specific attention has been placed on in vivo studies involving cattle and sheep, as well as studies based on a large number of animals (>10), recorded over a longer period (>21 days), and employing reliable techniques for the quantification of methane production. Data clearly indicate that supplementary fat, given to ruminants inhibits methane production, with medium-chain fatty acids (laurin, myristic acid) as well as poly-unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and especially linolenic acid) having a significant effect. It is also apparent that conflicting findings between individual published trials can largely be resolved when one takes into consideration differences in experimental design, the composition of the basic feeds, the fat sources used, and the number of animals involved.

  3. Increased lean mass with reduced fat mass in an elite female cyclist returning to competition: case study.

    PubMed

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G

    2013-11-01

    Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30-40 kcal · kg fat-free mass(-1) · d(-1) and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (-2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (-3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.

  4. Does increased glucose exposure lead to increased body fat and reduced lean body mass in anuric peritoneal dialysis patients?

    PubMed

    Fan, S; Davenport, A

    2014-11-01

    Residual renal function has been reported to be a major determinant of peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique survival for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Anuria leads to increases in PD prescriptions designed to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes, resulting in greater exposure to hypertonic glucose dialysates. We reviewed the effect of developing anuria in a cohort of 136 PD patients followed for a median of 12 months, to determine whether increasing exposure to higher glucose dialysates affected body composition by increasing body fat and reducing muscle mass. Despite increasing prescription of 22.7 and 38.6 g/l glucose dialysates there was no increase in body fat (31.1±15.4 vs 30.9±16.3 kg) or loss of fat-free weight (36.4±12.1 vs 35.8±12.3 kg). Changing PD prescriptions to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes did not lead to detrimental changes in body composition in the short term.

  5. Increased fat mass is associated with increased bone size but reduced volumetric density in pre pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Cole, Z A; Harvey, N C; Kim, M; Ntani, G; Robinson, S M; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M; Cooper, C; Dennison, E M

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that obesity is associated with an increased risk of fracture in both adults and children. It has been suggested that, despite greater bone size, obese individuals may have reduced true volumetric density; however this is difficult to assess using two dimensional techniques such as DXA. We evaluated the relationship between fat mass, and bone size and density, in a population cohort of children in whom DXA and pQCT measurements had been acquired. We recruited 530 children at 6 years old from the Southampton Women's Survey. The children underwent measurement of bone mass at the whole body, lumbar spine and hip, together with body composition, by DXA (Hologic Discovery, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA). In addition 132 of these children underwent pQCT measurements at the tibia (Stratec XCT2000, Stratec Biomedical Systems, Birkenfeld, Germany). Significant positive associations were observed between total fat mass and both bone area (BA) and bone mineral content (BMC) at the whole body minus head, lumbar spine and hip sites (all p<0.0001). When true volumetric density was assessed using pQCT data from the tibia, fat mass (adjusted for lean mass) was negatively associated with both trabecular and cortical density (β=-14.6 mg/mm(3) per sd, p=0.003; β=-7.7 mg/mm(3) per sd, p=0.02 respectively). These results suggest that fat mass is negatively associated with volumetric bone density at 6 years old, independent of lean mass, despite positive associations with bone size.

  6. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chong, Pee-Win; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Grube, Barbara; Riede, Linda

    2014-10-01

    IQP-GC-101 is a patented blend of the standardized extracts of Garcinia cambogia, Camellia sinensis, unroasted Coffea arabica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa. These individual ingredients of IQP-GC-101 have each shown promise in promoting weight loss; however, the efficacy of the blend has not been established. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group study conducted over 14 weeks (including a 2-week run-in phase) aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of IQP-GC-101 in reducing body weight and body fat mass in overweight Caucasian adults. Subjects took three IQP-GC-101 or placebo tablets, twice a day, 30 min before main meals. All subjects also adhered to a 500 kcal/day energy deficit diet with 30% of energy from fat. Ninety-one overweight and mildly obese subjects (46 in the IQP-GC-101 group, 45 in the placebo group) completed the study. After 12-week intervention, IQP-GC-101 resulted in a mean (±SD) weight loss of 2.26 ± 2.37 kg compared with 0.56 ± 2.34 kg for placebo (pU  = 0.002). There was also significantly more reduction in body fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the IQP-GC-101 group. No serious adverse events were reported. The use of IQP-GC-101 has been shown to result in body weight and body fat reduction in the current study, with good tolerability.

  7. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Adipose tissue produces pro-inflammatory adipokines that contribute obesity-related malignant progression. This study investigated the effects of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) deficiency on pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57...

  8. Why Reduce? Phonological Neighborhood Density and Phonetic Reduction in Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahl, Susanne; Yao, Yao; Johnson, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Frequent or contextually predictable words are often phonetically reduced, i.e. shortened and produced with articulatory undershoot. Explanations for phonetic reduction of predictable forms tend to take one of two approaches: Intelligibility-based accounts hold that talkers maximize intelligibility of words that might otherwise be difficult to…

  9. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    PubMed

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  10. Chronic high fat feeding increases anxiety-like behaviour and reduces transcript abundance of glucocorticoid signalling genes in the hippocampus of female rats.

    PubMed

    Sivanathan, Shathveekan; Thavartnam, Kabriya; Arif, Shahneen; Elegino, Trisha; McGowan, Patrick O

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of diets high in saturated fats and obesity have been associated with impaired physical and mental health. Previous studies indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption leads to systemic inflammation in humans and non-human animal models. Studies in non-human animals suggest that altered physiological responses to stress are also a consequence of high fat diet consumption. Glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms may link immune and stress-related pathways in the brain, and were shown to be significantly altered in the brains of female rat offspring of mothers exposed to chronic high fat diet during pregnancy and lactation. For adult females, the consequence of chronic high fat diet consumption on these signalling pathways and their relationship to stress-related behaviour is not known. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic consumption of a high fat diet compared to a low fat control diet among adult female Long Evans rats. We found significant differences in weight gain, caloric intake, anxiety-related behaviours, and glucocorticoid-related gene expression over a 10-week exposure period. As expected, rats in the high fat diet group gained the most weight and consumed the greatest number of calories. Rats in the high fat diet group showed significantly greater levels of anxiety-related behaviour in the Light Dark and Open Field tasks compared to rats in the low fat diet group. Rats consuming high fat diet also exhibited reduced transcript abundance in the hippocampus of stress-related mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor genes, as well as nuclear factor kappa beta gene expression, implicated in inflammatory processes. Together, these data indicate that chronic high fat diet consumption may increase anxiety-like behaviour at least in part via alterations in glucocorticoid signalling mechanisms in limbic brain regions.

  11. Endogenous antioxidant defense induction by melon superoxide dismutase reduces cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Rugale, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Jover, Bernard

    2014-08-01

    We assessed the influence of SODB, a melon superoxide dismutase (SOD), on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in SHR. SODB (4 or 40U SOD) was given orally for 4 or 28 days to SHR. For each treatment period, LV weight index (LVWI) and cardiomyocytes size were measured. SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase expressions, and LV production and presence of superoxide anion were determined. Pro-inflammatory markers were also measured. SODB reduced LVWI and cardiomyocytes size after 4 or 28 days. Cardiac SOD and GPx increased by 30-40% with SODB. The presence but not production of superoxide anion was significantly reduced by SODB. No effect of SODB was detected on inflammatory status in any group. The beneficial effect of SODB on cardiac hypertrophy seems to be related to the stimulation of endogenous antioxidant defense, suggesting that SODB may be of interest as a dietary supplementation during conventional antihypertensive therapy.

  12. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-02-14

    Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1's role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  13. Alcohol and High Fat Induced Chronic Pancreatitis: TRPV4 Antagonist Reduces Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Kline, Robert H; Deevska, Gergana; Ma, Fei; Nikolova-Karakashian, Mariana; Westlund, Karin N

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis is poorly understood, and its treatment can be a major clinical challenge. Surgical and other invasive methods have variable outcomes that can be unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is a great need for further discovery of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis pain and new therapeutic targets. Human and animal studies indicate a critical role for oxidative stress and activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel subfamily members TRPV1 and TRPA1 on pancreatic nociceptors in sensitization mechanisms that result in pain. However, the in vivo role of TRPV4 in chronic pancreatitis needs further evaluation. The present study characterized a rat alcohol/high fat diet (AHF) induced chronic pancreatitis model with hypersensitivity, fibrotic pathology, and fat vacuolization consistent with the clinical syndrome. The rats with AHF induced pancreatitis develop referred visceral pain-like behaviors, i.e. decreased hindpaw mechanical thresholds and shortened abdominal and hindpaw withdrawal latency to heat. In this study, oxidative stress was characterized as well as the role of TRPV4 in chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Lipid peroxidase and oxidative stress were indicated by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and diminished pancreatic manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). The secondary sensitization associated with AHF induced pancreatitis was effectively alleviated by the TRPV4 antagonist, HC 067047. Similarity of the results to those with the peripherally restricted µ-opiate receptor agonist, loperamide, suggested TRPV4 channel activated peripheral sensitization. This study using a reliable model that provides pre-clinical correlates of human chronic pancreatitis provides further evidence that TRPV4 channel is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of pancreatitis pain. PMID:26480812

  14. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers.

  15. Composition, yield, and functionality of reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese: effects of using skim milk or a dry milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Caro, I; Soto, S; Franco, M J; Meza-Nieto, M; Alfaro-Rodríguez, R H; Mateo, J

    2011-02-01

    The effect of adding either skim milk or a commercial dry milk protein concentrate (MPC) to whole milk on the composition, yield, and functional properties of Mexican Oaxaca cheese were investigated. Five batches of Oaxaca cheeses were produced. One batch (the control) was produced from whole milk containing 3.5% fat and 9% nonfat solids (SNF). Two batches were produced from milk standardized with skim milk to 2.7 and 1.8% fat, maintaining the SNF content at 9%. In the other 2 batches, an MPC (40% protein content) was used to standardize the milk to a SNF content of 10 and 11%, maintaining the milk fat content at 3.5%. The use of either skim milk or MPC caused a significant decrease in the fat percentage in cheese. The use of skim milk or MPC showed a nonsignificant tendency to lower total solids and fat recoveries in cheese. Actual, dry matter, and moisture-adjusted cheese yields significantly decreased with skim milk addition, but increased with MPC addition. However, normalized yields adjusted to milk fat and protein reference levels did not show significant differences between treatments. Considering skim milk-added and control cheeses, actual yield increased with cheese milk fat content at a rate of 1.34 kg/kg of fat (R=0.88). In addition, cheese milk fat and SNF:fat ratio proved to be strong individual predictors of cheese moisture-adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.90). Taking into account the results obtained from control and MPC-added cheeses, a 2.0-kg cheese yield increase rate per kg of milk MPC protein was observed (R=0.89), with TS and SNF being the strongest predictors for moisture adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.77). Reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese functionality differed from that of controls. In unmelted reduced-fat cheeses, hardness and springiness increased. In melted reduced-fat cheeses, meltability and free oil increased, but stretchability decreased. These changes were related to differences in cheese composition, mainly fat in dry matter and calcium in SNF.

  16. Effects of fructooligosaccharide and whey protein concentrate on the viability of starter culture in reduced-fat probiotic yogurt during storage.

    PubMed

    Akalin, A S; Gönç, S; Unal, G; Fenderya, S

    2007-09-01

    Viability of yogurt starter cultures and Bifidobacterium animalis was assessed during 28 d storage in reduced-fat yogurts containing 1.5% milk fat supplemented with 1.5% fructooligosaccharide or whey protein concentrate. These properties were examined in comparison with control yogurts containing 1.5% and 3% milk fat and no supplement. Although fructooligosaccharide improved the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium animalis, the highest growth was obtained when milk was supplemented with whey protein concentrate in reduced-fat yogurt (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1.5% whey protein concentrate in reduced-fat yogurt increased the viable counts of S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus, and B. animalis by 1 log cycle in the 1st week of storage when compared to control sample. Similar improvement in the growth of both yogurt bacteria and B. animalis was also obtained in the full-fat yogurt containing 3% milk fat and no supplement. Addition of whey protein concentrate also resulted in the highest content of lactic and acetic acids (P < 0.05). A gradual increase was obtained in organic acid contents during the storage.

  17. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Safety and efficacy of reduced doses of Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 vaccine in pregnant Iranian fat-tailed ewes.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Nejad, Ramin Bagheri; Alamian, Saeed; Mokhberalsafa, Ladan; Abedini, Fatemeh; Ghaderi, Rainak; Jalali, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is a significant cause of abortion in animals. Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 is recommended as the most effective vaccine for small ruminants but the application of full doses in adult animals is restricted. This study was conducted to determine a proper reduced dose of vaccine which confers protection but which is not abortifacient in Iranian fat-tailed sheep. A total of 51 non-vaccinated pregnant ewes were divided into three main groups and several subgroups. Ewes in different groups were vaccinated at different stages of pregnancy and various subgroups were subcutaneously immunised with different quantities of the micro-organism (7.5 × 10(6), 10(6), 5 × 10(5)). Ewes again became pregnant a year later and were challenged with the wild-type strain to evaluate the protection conferred. Results revealed that the proportion of vaccination-induced abortions was significantly higher in ewes immunised with 7.5 × 10(6) Rev. 1 organisms than in those which received 10(6) or 5 × 10(5) bacteria. While 80% of non-vaccinated ewes aborted after challenge, none of the vaccinated ewes aborted post-challenge. This study indicated that a reduced dose of Rev. 1 vaccine containing 10(6) or 5 × 10(5) live cells could be safely used to induce protection in Iranian fat-tailed sheep at various stages of pregnancy.

  19. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  20. Ipragliflozin effectively reduced visceral fat in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under adequate diet therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chiho; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ono, Kota; Sugawara, Hajime; Kameda, Reina; Ichiyama, Mei; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Akinobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2016-06-30

    To investigate if ipragliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, alters body composition and to identify variables associated with reductions in visceral adipose tissue in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This prospective observational study enrolled Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were administered ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) once daily for 16 weeks. Body composition, visceral adipose tissue volume and plasma variables were measured at 0, 8, and 16-weeks. The subjects' lifestyle habits including diet and exercise were evaluated at baseline and 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was defined as the decrease of visceral adipose tissue mass. Twenty-four of 26 enrolled participants completed the study. The visceral adipose tissue decreased significantly (110 ± 33 to 101 ± 36 cm(2), p = 0.005) as well as other parameters for metabolic insufficiency including hemoglobin A1c. Seventy-one % of the total body weight reduction (-2.49 kg) was estimated by a decrease in fat mass (-1.77 kg), and the remaining reduction (22%) by water volume (-0.55 kg). A minor but significant reduction in the skeletal muscle index was also observed. Correlation analyses were performed to identify variables associated with changes in visceral adipose tissue and the only significant variable identified was diet therapy (Spearman's r = -0.416, p = 0.043). Ipragliflozin significantly decreased visceral adipose tissue, and improved parametres for metabolic dysfunction. Adequate diet therapy would be necessary to induce and enhance the therapeutic merit.

  1. Increased intramuscular fat induced by reduced dietary protein in finishing pigs: effects on the longissimus lumborum muscle proteome.

    PubMed

    Pires, V M R; Madeira, M S; Dowle, A A; Thomas, J; Almeida, A M; Prates, J A M

    2016-07-19

    Due to genetic selection towards reduced subcutaneous fat, the amount of intramuscular fat (IMF) in commercial pigs has been reduced (<2.5%), compromising pork quality. The use of reduced protein diets (RPD) is a good strategy to increase IMF in pigs. We have previously shown that increased IMF promoted by RPD is mediated by lysine restriction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here we performed a proteomics study to quantify differentially regulated proteins in the longissimus lumborum muscle of pigs (n = 4) fed a normal protein diet (NPD) (16.0% CP) or a reduced protein diet (RPD) (13.0% CP). Both isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and label-free methods were used. Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, mitochondrion, contractile proteins, respiratory chain, and calcium signalling were significantly enriched in muscle samples. Thirty five proteins shown to be differentially expressed and were classified using gene ontology (GO) terms and functional annotation clustering, highlighting main relevant biological networks and proteins associated with muscle physiology and meat quality. Members of GO categories "muscle contraction" and "structural constituents of cytoskeleton", were the most significantly up-regulated proteins in muscle from pigs fed RPD. Conversely, in animals fed NPD most up-regulated proteins were enzymes involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. Our data revealed that RPD affects the amounts of proteins related to fibre type and structure, and energy metabolism. It is suggested that the increased IMF promoted by dietary protein reduction in growing-finishing pigs is mediated by shifting the metabolic properties of fibres from glycolytic to oxidative.

  2. Arctigenin reduces blood pressure by modulation of nitric oxide synthase and NADPH oxidase expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Guoyuan; Yang, Mingguang; Chen, Haining; zhao, Yan; Yang, Shucai; Sun, Changhao

    2015-12-25

    Arctigenin is a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L., which was traditionally used as medicine. Arctigenin exhibits various bioactivities, but its effects on blood pressure regulation are still not widely studied. In this study, we investigated antihypertensive effects of arctigenin by long-term treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Arctigenin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered to SHRs or Wistar rats as negative control by oral gavage once a day for total 8 weeks. Nifedipine (3 mg/kg) was used as a positive drug control. After treatment, hemodynamic and physical parameters, vascular reactivity in aorta, the concentration of plasma arctigenin and serum thromboxane B2, NO release and vascular p-eNOS, p-Akt, caveolin-1 protein expression, and vascular superoxide anion generation and p47phox protein expression were detected and analyzed. The results showed that arctigenin significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction of SHRs. Arctigenin reduced the levels of thromboxane B2 in plasma and superoxide anion in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Furthermore, arctigenin increased the NO production by enhancing the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS (Ser 1177), and inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidase in thoracic aorta of SHRs. Our data suggested that antihypertensive mechanisms of arctigenin were associated with enhanced eNOS phosphorylation and decreased NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide anion generation.

  3. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). In subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the HFD+BSA diet increased the mRNA levels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). The SAT mRNA levels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (P< 0·05) with SAT mass, which was reduced in HFD+BSA mice compared with HFD controls (P< 0·01). No differences in epididymal fat mass existed between the groups. The HFD+BSA diet normalised plasma leptin and corticosterone levels compared with the HFD (P< 0·05). While differences in leptin levels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·01), changes in corticosterone concentrations were independent of the percentage of fat mass (P< 0·05). The data suggest that the HFD+BSA diet influences plasma leptin levels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  4. Consumption of pork-liver protein hydrolysate reduces body fat in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Muneshige; Tanabe, Soichi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Kato, Norihisa; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effect of consumption of pork-liver protein hydrolysate (PLH) on body fat accumulation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus model and in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats as a control. Male 20-week-old OLETF and LETO rats were pair-fed either PLH or casein containing diet for 14 weeks. In the OLETF rats, dietary PLH significantly reduced the growth and weight of fat pad including perirenal and epididymal adipose tissues. Consumption of PLH markedly suppressed hepatic activities of lipogenesis enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase and slightly elevated fecal excretion of total fat. In the LETO rats, growth and adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary treatment. The results suggest that PLH is a novel ingredient suppressing body fat in genetically obese rats by reducing lipogenesis.

  5. Exenatide improves liver mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance by reducing oxidative stress in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zixuan; Hou, Lin; Huang, Lanhui; Guo, Jun; Zhou, Xinli

    2017-04-22

    Oxidative stress is associated with obesity and may be accompanied by liver insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Decreased mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymatic activities and decreased insulin metabolic signaling may promote these maladaptive changes. In this context, exenatide has been reported to reduce hepatic lipid deposition, improve insulin sensitivity and improve mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesized that exenatide would attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction by reducing hepatic lipid deposition, blunting oxidant stress and promoting insulin metabolic signaling in a high fat diet-induced model of obesity and insulin resistance. Sixteen-week-old male C57BL/6 diet-induced obese (DIO) mices and age-matched standard diet (STD) mices were treated with exenatide (10 μg/kg twice a day) for 28 days. Compared with untreated STD mice, untreated DIO mice exhibited deposited excessive lipid in liver and produced the oxidative stress in conjunction with insulin resistance, abnormal hepatic cells and mitochondrial histoarchitecture, mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced organism metabolism. Exenatide reduced hepatic steatosis, decreased oxidative stress, and improved insulin resistance in DIO mice, in concert with improvements in the insulin metabolic signaling, mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymatic activation, adenine nucleotide production, organism metabolism and weight gain. Results support the hypothesis that exenatide reduces hepatic cells and mitochondrial structural anomaly and improves insulin resistance in concert with improvements in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function activation, concomitantly with reductions in oxidative stress.

  6. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting.

  7. Green tea decoction improves glucose tolerance and reduces weight gain of rats fed normal and high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Snoussi, Chahira; Ducroc, Robert; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Dhaouadi, Karima; Abaidi, Houda; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Nazaret, Corinne; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André

    2014-05-01

    Green tea containing polyphenols exerts antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we first analyzed and compared polyphenol compounds [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC)] in decoction of green tea leaves versus usual green tea extracts. Second, the effects of acute (30 min) or chronic (6 weeks) oral administration of green tea decoction (GTD) on intestinal glucose absorption were studied in vitro in Ussing chamber, ex vivo using isolated jejunal loops and in vivo through glucose tolerance tests. Finally, we explore in rat model fed normal or high-fat diet the effects of GTD on body weight, blood parameters and on the relative expression of glucose transporters SGLT-1, GLUT2 and GLUT4. GTD cooked for 15 min contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. In fasted rats, acute administration of GTD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, increased GLUT2 activity and improved glucose tolerance. Similarly to GTD, acute administration of synthetic phenolic compounds (2/3 EGCG+1/3 EGC) inhibited SGLT-1 activity. Chronic administration of GTD in rat fed high-fat diet reduced body weight gain, circulating triglycerides and cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. GTD-treated rats for 6 weeks display significantly reduced SGLT-1 and increased GLUT2 mRNA levels in the jejunum mucosa. Moreover, adipose tissue GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased. These results indicate that GTD, a traditional beverage rich in EGCG and EGC reduces intestinal SGLT-1/GLUT2 ratio, a hallmark of regulation of glucose absorption in enterocyte, and enhances adipose GLUT4 providing new insights in its possible role in the control of glucose homeostasis.

  8. Dietary consequences of recommending reduced-fat dairy products in the weight-loss context: a secondary analysis with practical implications for registered dietitians.

    PubMed

    Nolan-Clark, Deborah; Mathers, Elizabeth; Probst, Yasmine; Charlton, Karen; Batterham, Marijka; Tapsell, Linda C

    2013-03-01

    Replacing full-fat dairy products with reduced-fat varieties is a dietetic strategy for reducing energy intake while maintaining nutritional adequacy. This study aimed to explore the dietary outcomes of this recommendation in the context of weight loss. This study involved a secondary analysis of diet-history data for 86 adults (23 males and 63 females; body mass index=31.1±3.4) who had completed 3 months of a weight-loss trial in 2009, including advice to consume reduced-fat dairy products. Dairy food intake was categorized using the Australian 1995 National Nutrition Survey food hierarchy. Paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests determined dairy product consumption change after dietetic intervention. Total fat and energy per day from dairy products decreased significantly, from 14.1±1.2 g to 5.8±0.6 g and 283±20 kcal to 223±14 kcal, respectively, and total carbohydrate from dairy products increased significantly (P=0.04). Only 19.7% of participants met their dietary target of two to three servings of dairy foods per day at 3 months. When analyzed by sex, males decreased their intake of dairy products significantly, from 377.63±62.3 g/day to 357.3±46.7 g/day. Despite consuming less fat from dairy products, females did not significantly reduce energy intake from these foods (P=0.05). This study indicated that men and women responded differently to advice to change from regular to reduced-fat dairy products. Of more concern, however, is that in a weight-loss context, both men and women might choose to consume fewer servings of this food category with significant nutritional implications. Overall, this research highlights the need to consider the impact of sex and the background diet when recommending reduced-fat dairy products in the weight-loss context.

  9. Intravenous administration of pravastatin immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion reduces cerebral oedema in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mariucci, Giuseppina; Taha, Elena; Tantucci, Michela; Spaccatini, Cristiano; Tozzi, Alessandro; Ambrosini, Maria Vittoria

    2011-06-25

    3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to protect against ischemic stroke by mechanisms that are independent of lowering serum cholesterol levels. In this study we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of a single i.v. treatment with four increasing doses of pravastatin on permanent occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCAo) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pravastatin was given 10 min after MCAo and its effect was determined 24 h later. Treatment results were evaluated in terms of infarct volume, homolateral hemisphere oedema, glial fibrillary acid (GFAP), vimentin (Vim) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity and TUNEL positivity. Cerebral levels of eNOS were measured by western blot analysis. Pravastatin did not reduce cerebral infarct while it mitigated homolateral hemisphere oedema in a dose-dependent manner with respect to controls. No differences among groups were found regarding GFAP and Vim immunoreactivity and TUNEL positivity. Instead, pravastatin-treated animals presented a more marked cerebral eNOS immunoreactivity as compared with controls. In agreement with immunohistochemistry, immunoblot revealed dose-dependent increases in cerebral levels of eNOS in pravastatin rats. Our data confirm statin neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia. In particular, it is of great interest that a single i.v. Pravastatin administration reduced cerebral oedema by upregulating eNOS expression/activity. This, by increasing vascular NO bioavailability, could have produced proximal vasodilation and contributed to reducing perfusional deficit. It is worthy stressing how important the anti-oedema action is that pravastatin seems to exert. Indeed, cerebral oedema, when widespread and beyond limits of physiological compensation, causes endocranic hypertension and additional cerebral damage over time.

  10. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces diet-induced obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing obesity may alleviate many medical complications including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has been suggested that obesity is contributed by the disruption of the circadian rhythms in addition to increased caloric intake. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day ma...

  11. Doxycycline, a matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, reduces vascular remodeling and damage after cerebral ischemia in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pires, Paulo W; Rogers, Curt T; McClain, Jonathon L; Garver, Hannah S; Fink, Gregory D; Dorrance, Anne M

    2011-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of zinc peptidases involved in extracellular matrix turnover. There is evidence that increased MMP activity is involved in remodeling of resistance vessels in chronic hypertension. Thus we hypothesized that inhibition of MMP activity with doxycycline (DOX) would attenuate vascular remodeling. Six-week-old male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with DOX (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in the drinking water) for 6 wk. Untreated SHRSP were controls. Blood pressure was measured by telemetry during the last week. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) and mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) passive structures were assessed by pressure myography. MMP-2 expression in aortas was measured by Western blot. All results are means ± SE. DOX caused a small increase in mean arterial pressure (SHRSP, 154 ± 1; SHRSP + DOX, 159 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.001). Active MMP-2 expression was reduced in aorta from SHRSP + DOX (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.49 ± 0.13 arbitrary units; P < 0.05). In the MCA, at 80 mmHg, DOX treatment increased the lumen (273.2 ± 4.7 vs. 238.3 ± 6.3 μm; P < 0.05) and the outer diameter (321 ± 5.3 vs. 290 ± 7.6 μm; P < 0.05) and reduced the wall-to-lumen ratio (0.09 ± 0.002 vs. 0.11 ± 0.003; P < 0.05). Damage after transient cerebral ischemia (transient MCA occlusion) was reduced in SHRSP + DOX (20.7 ± 4 vs. 45.5 ± 5% of hemisphere infarcted; P < 0.05). In the MRA, at 90 mmHg DOX, reduced wall thickness (29 ± 1 vs. 22 ± 1 μm; P < 0.001) and wall-to-lumen ratio (0.08 ± 0.004 vs. 0.11 ± 0.008; P < 0.05) without changing lumen diameter. These results suggest that MMPs are involved in hypertensive vascular remodeling in both the peripheral and cerebral vasculature and that DOX reduced brain damage after cerebral ischemia.

  12. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  13. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes123

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Methods: Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. Results: As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P < 0.05). After weight loss, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P < 0.01), whereas EAs showed no difference between diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (−2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and “dynamic” β-cell response (96.1 · 109; P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (−4.8 cm2; P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (−1.2 cm2; P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (−0

  14. Effect of reducing and replacing pork fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Arnau, Jacint

    2014-05-01

    The effect of pork fat reduction (from 44% to 20% final fat content) and its partial substitution by sunflower oil (3% addition) on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory properties throughout storage time of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) with reduced sodium content (with partial substitution of NaCl by KCl and K-lactate) and without direct addition of nitrate and nitrite (natural nitrate source used instead) was studied. Results showed that sausages with reduced fat (10% initial fat content) and with acceptable sensory characteristics can be obtained by adding to the shoulder lean (8% fat content) during the grinding, either 3.3% backfat (3% fat content) or 3% sunflower oil, both previously finely comminuted with lean. Furthermore, sunflower oil showed to be suitable for partial pork backfat substitution in very lean fermented sausages, conferring desirable sensory properties similar to those of sausages with standard fat content. The sensory quality of the sausages was maintained after three-month cold storage in modified atmosphere.

  15. High fat diet reduces neuroprotection of isoflurane post-treatment: role of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein-Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Deng, Jiao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2014-01-01

    Objective High fat diet (HFD) contributes to the increased prevalence of obesity and hyperlipidemia in young adults, a possible cause for their recent increase in stroke. Isoflurane post-treatment provides neuroprotection. We determined whether isoflurane post-treatment induced neuroprotection in HFD-fed mice. Design and Methods Six-week old CD-1 male mice were fed HFD or regular diet (RD) for 5 or 10 weeks. Their hippocampal slices (400 µm) were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Some slices were exposed to isoflurane for 30 min immediately after OGD. Some mice had a 90-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion and were post-treated with 2% isoflurane for 30 min. Results OGD time-dependently induced cell injury. This injury was dose-dependently reduced by isoflurane. The effect was apparent at 1% or 2% isoflurane in RD-fed mice but required 3% isoflurane in HFD-fed mice. HFD influenced the isoflurane effects in DG. OGD increased carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), an Akt inhibitor, and decreased Akt signaling. Isoflurane reduced these effects. LY294002, an Akt activation inhibitor, attenuated the isoflurane effects. HFD increased CTMP and reduced Akt signaling. Isoflurane improved neurological outcome in the RD-fed mice but not in the HFD-fed mice. Conclusions HFD attenuated isoflurane post-treatment-induced neuroprotection possibly due to decreased prosurvival Akt signaling. PMID:25142024

  16. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake.

    PubMed

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-05-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) μ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain.

  17. The use of LeptiCore® in reducing fat gain and managing weight loss in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background LeptiCore® is a proprietary combination of various ingredients which have been shown to have properties which could be beneficial to weight loss in obese and overweight human subjects. This study evaluates the effect of Lepticore® on bodyweight as well as parameters associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods The study was an 8 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 92 obese (mean BMI > 30 kg/m2) participants (37 males; 55 females; ages 19-52; mean age = 30.7). The participants were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 30), LeptiCore® formula A (low dose) (n = 31) and LeptiCore® formula B (high dose) (n = 31). Capsules containing the placebo or active formulations were administered twice daily before meals with 300 ml of water. None of the participants followed any specific diet nor took any weight-reducing medications for the duration of the study. A total of 12 anthropomorphic and serological measurements were taken at the beginning of the study and after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of treatment. Results Compared to the placebo group, the two active groups showed statistically significant differences on all 12 variables by week 8. These included four anthropomorphic variables (body weight, body fat, waist and hip size) and eight measures of serological levels (plasma total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, blood glucose, serotonin, leptin, C-reactive protein). The two active groups also showed significant intra-group differences on all 12 variables between study onset and week 8. Conclusion The LeptiCore® formulation at both the low and high dosages appears to be helpful in the management of fat gain and its related complications. The higher dosage resulted in significantly greater reductions in body weight and triglyceride, blood glucose, and C-reactive protein levels, as well as increased serotonin levels. PMID:20170522

  18. Increased fatty acid β-oxidation as a possible mechanism for fat-reducing effect of betaine in broilers.

    PubMed

    Leng, Zhixian; Fu, Qin; Yang, Xue; Ding, Liren; Wen, Chao; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicates of eight chickens per replicate cage for a 42-day feeding trial. Broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by betaine. Incremental levels of betaine decreased the absolute and relative weight of abdominal fat (linear P < 0.05, quadratic P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (linear P < 0.05), and increased concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) (linear P = 0.038, quadratic P = 0.003) in serum of broilers. Moreover, incremental levels of betaine increased linearly (P < 0.05) the proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, but decreased linearly (P < 0.05) the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGR) mRNA expression in liver of broilers. In conclusion, this study indicated that betaine supplementation did not affect growth performance of broilers, but was effective in reducing abdominal fat deposition in a dose-dependent manner, which was probably caused by combinations of a decrease in fatty acid synthesis and an increase in β-oxidation.

  19. Green tea epigallocatechin 3-gallate alleviates hyperglycemia and reduces advanced glycation end products via nrf2 pathway in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Chethan; Rashid, Muhammed Raihan; Sang, Shengmin; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea may reduce plasma glucose and alleviate complications of diabetes by attenuating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation. We hypothesized that EGCG would mitigate AGEs formation via activating the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related-factor-2 (Nrf2) pathway in a mouse model of high fat diet-induced obesity. Dietary EGCG was tested in C57BL/6 mice that were placed on a high-fat diet with or without ECGC for 17 weeks and compared to a control group placed on low-fat diet for the same period. Weight gain and fasting blood glucose were measured throughout the study duration. Supplementation of high fat diet with dietary EGCG significantly reduced weight gain, plasma glucose, insulin level, liver and kidney weight. EGCG administration also decreased the levels of AGEs in both plasma and liver while inhibiting the receptor for AGE (RAGE) expression of, activating Nrf2 and enhancing GSH/GSSG ratio compared to mice on high fat diet without added EGCG. This study demonstrated that EGCG has the potential to help control hyperglycemia, reduce weight, and alleviate diabetes complications.

  20. Reduced effect of caffeine on twitch contraction of oesophageal striated muscle from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Kawata, Kyoko; Shimamura, Keiichi; Sunano, Satoru

    2003-04-01

    1. There are known differences in the sensitivity to caffeine between skeletal muscle (soleus) of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The present study was performed in order to examine differences in the effects of caffeine on twitch contraction between visceral striated muscle using the outer layer of the oesophagus from WKY rats and stroke-prone SHR (SHRSP). 2. Caffeine, at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 10 mmol/L, exhibited potentiating effects on twitch contraction in preparations from both WKY rats and SHRSP. The potentiating effect of caffeine was markedly less prominent in preparations from SHRSP compared with preparations from WKY rats. 3. The rate of contraction and relaxation, the time to peak tension and 80% relaxation time were not significantly altered by caffeine at concentrations lower than 3 mmol/L in preparations from either strain. 4. With 10 mmol/L caffeine, the rate of relaxation was markedly reduced and the 80% relaxation time was prolonged, with no significant changes in the rate of contraction, in preparations from WKY rats. These changes were significantly smaller in preparations from SHRSP. 5. The duration of the action potential was greater in preparations from SHRSP than in preparations from WKY rats, although the membrane potential and the amplitude of the action potential were not significantly different between preparations from WKY rats and SHRSP. 6. Caffeine, at 10 mmol/L, prolonged the duration of the action potential in preparations from both strains. The effect of caffeine was not different between preparations from WKY rats and SHRSP. 7. The results of the present study suggest that caffeine augments release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) at low concentrations and attenuates Ca2+ re-uptake at 10 mmol/L. Decreased reactivity of SR to caffeine may be a cause of the lesser potentiation of twitch contraction by caffeine in preparations from SHRSP.

  1. Chronic PARP-1 inhibition reduces carotid vessel remodeling and oxidative damage of the dorsal hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Eros, Krisztian; Magyar, Klara; Deres, Laszlo; Skazel, Arpad; Riba, Adam; Vamos, Zoltan; Kalai, Tamas; Gallyas, Ferenc; Sumegi, Balazs; Toth, Kalman

    2017-01-01

    Vascular remodeling during chronic hypertension may impair the supply of tissues with oxygen, glucose and other compounds, potentially unleashing deleterious effects. In this study, we used Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats with or without pharmacological inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 by an experimental compound L-2286, to evaluate carotid artery remodeling and consequent damage of neuronal tissue during hypertension. We observed elevated oxidative stress and profound thickening of the vascular wall with fibrotic tissue accumulation induced by elevated blood pressure. 32 weeks of L-2286 treatment attenuated these processes by modulating mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 cellular levels in carotid arteries. In hypertensive animals, vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction was observed by NF-κB nuclear accumulation and impaired vasodilation to acetylcholine, respectively. Pharmacological poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 inhibition interfered in these processes and mitigated Apoptosis Inducing Factor dependent cell death events, thus improved structural and functional alterations of carotid arteries, without affecting blood pressure. Chronic poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 inhibition protected neuronal tissue against oxidative damage, assessed by nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxinonenal and 8-oxoguanosine immunohistochemistry in the area of Cornu ammonis 1 of the dorsal hippocampus in hypertensive rats. In this area, extensive pyramidal cell loss was also attenuated by treatment with lowered poly(ADP-ribose)polymer formation. It also preserved the structure of fissural arteries and attenuated perivascular white matter lesions and reactive astrogliosis in hypertensive rats. These data support the premise in which chronic poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 inhibition has beneficial effects on hypertension related tissue damage both in vascular tissue and in the hippocampus by altering signaling events, reducing oxidative

  2. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haoyong; Jia, Weiping; Guo, ZengKui

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal) and low carbohydrate (<10%) for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP) and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. Results: the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004). Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05). The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002) whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3). Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment. PMID:25411646

  3. A SHORT-TERM CIRCUIT RESISTANCE PROGRAMME REDUCED EPICARDIAL FAT IN OBESE AGED WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Rosety, Miguel Angel; Pery, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Pareja, Maria Antonia; Diaz, Antonio; Rosety, Jesus; Garcia, Natalia; Brenes-Martin, Francisco; Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Toro, Rocío; Ordoñez, Francisco Javier; Rosety, Ignacio

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: en la actualidad se acepta la asociación entre masa grasa epicárdica y patología cardiovascular. Recientes estudios sugieren que el ejercicio aeróbico podría reducir la masa grasa epicárdica. La originalidad de este trabajo reside en determinar la utilidad para tal fin de un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza en mujeres adultas mayores obesas. Como segundo objetivo nos propusimos que el programa fuese seguro para las participantes. Material y método: participaron voluntariamente 48 mujeres (70-75 años) con obesidad procedentes de la comunidad. De ellas, 24 fueron asignadas aleatoriamente al grupo experimental para desarrollar un programa de entrenamiento de fuerza en circuito de seis estaciones durante doce semanas con tres sesiones/semana. La masa grasa epicárdica se determinó mediante ecografía transtorácica bidimensional por personal entrenado. También se evaluaron los niveles plasmáticos de creatina cinasa y mioglobina. Este protocolo fue aprobado por un comité de ética institucional. Resultados: el grosor de la masa grasa epicárdica se redujo significativamente tras completar el programa de intervención (8,4 ± 1,0 vs. 7,3 ± 1,3 mm; p = 0,014; d = 0,76). Además, las participantes no mostraron cambios en marcadores de daño muscular como creatin kinasa (181,6 ± 36,9 vs. 194,2 ± 37,8 U/l; p = 0,31) y mioglobina (62,4 ± 7,1 vs. 67,3 ± 7,7 ng/ml; p = 0,26). Conclusión: el entrenamiento de fuerza en circuito reduce la masa grasa epicárdica de forma segura en mujeres mayores obesas. Aunque estos resultados son prometedores, aún son necesarios futuros estudios para consolidar su aplicación en clínica.

  4. Palmitoylethanolamide treatment reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats: involvement of cytochrome p450-derived eicosanoids and renin angiotensin system.

    PubMed

    Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Pirozzi, Claudio; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Simeoli, Raffaele; Santoro, Anna; Lama, Adriano; Di Guida, Francesca; Russo, Roberto; De Caro, Carmen; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, has been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure and kidney damage secondary to hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Currently, no information is available concerning the putative effect of PEA on modulating vascular tone. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underpinning PEA blood pressure lowering effect, exploring the contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, CYP-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites, as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF), and renin angiotensin system (RAS) modulation. To achieve this aim SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated with PEA (30 mg/kg/day) for five weeks. Functional evaluations on mesenteric bed were performed to analyze EDHF-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, mesenteric bed and carotid were harvested to measure CYP2C23 and CYP2J2, the key isoenzymes in the formation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for their degradation in the corresponding diols. Effect of PEA on RAS modulation was investigated by analyzing angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin receptor 1 expression. Here, we showed that EDHF-mediated dilation in response to acetylcholine was increased in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR. Western blot analysis revealed that the increase in CYP2C23 and CYP2J2 observed in SHR was significantly attenuated in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR, but unchanged in the carotids. Interestingly, in both vascular tissues, PEA significantly decreased the soluble epoxide hydrolase protein level, accompanied by a reduced serum concentration of its metabolite 14-15 dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, implying a reduction in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid hydrolisis. Moreover, PEA treatment down-regulated angiotensin receptor 1 and angiotensin converting enzyme expression, indicating a reduction in angiotensin II-mediated effects. Consistently, a damping of the activation of

  5. Palmitoylethanolamide Treatment Reduces Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Involvement of Cytochrome P450-Derived Eicosanoids and Renin Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Pirozzi, Claudio; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Simeoli, Raffaele; Santoro, Anna; Lama, Adriano; Di Guida, Francesca; Russo, Roberto; De Caro, Carmen; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist, has been demonstrated to reduce blood pressure and kidney damage secondary to hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Currently, no information is available concerning the putative effect of PEA on modulating vascular tone. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underpinning PEA blood pressure lowering effect, exploring the contribution of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, CYP-dependent arachidonic acid metabolites, as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF), and renin angiotensin system (RAS) modulation. To achieve this aim SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats were treated with PEA (30 mg/kg/day) for five weeks. Functional evaluations on mesenteric bed were performed to analyze EDHF-mediated vasodilation. Moreover, mesenteric bed and carotid were harvested to measure CYP2C23 and CYP2J2, the key isoenzymes in the formation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, and the soluble epoxide hydrolase, which is responsible for their degradation in the corresponding diols. Effect of PEA on RAS modulation was investigated by analyzing angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensin receptor 1 expression. Here, we showed that EDHF-mediated dilation in response to acetylcholine was increased in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR. Western blot analysis revealed that the increase in CYP2C23 and CYP2J2 observed in SHR was significantly attenuated in mesenteric beds of PEA-treated SHR, but unchanged in the carotids. Interestingly, in both vascular tissues, PEA significantly decreased the soluble epoxide hydrolase protein level, accompanied by a reduced serum concentration of its metabolite 14-15 dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid, implying a reduction in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid hydrolisis. Moreover, PEA treatment down-regulated angiotensin receptor 1 and angiotensin converting enzyme expression, indicating a reduction in angiotensin II-mediated effects. Consistently, a damping of the activation of

  6. Neonatal Exendin-4 Reduces Growth, Fat Deposition and Glucose Tolerance during Treatment in the Intrauterine Growth-Restricted Lamb

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Saidatul N. B.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Harland, M. Lyn; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Owens, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background IUGR increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in later life, due to reduced insulin sensitivity and impaired adaptation of insulin secretion. In IUGR rats, development of T2DM can be prevented by neonatal administration of the GLP-1 analogue exendin-4. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration on insulin action and β-cell mass and function in the IUGR neonate in the sheep, a species with a more developed pancreas at birth. Methods Twin IUGR lambs were injected s.c. daily with vehicle (IUGR+Veh, n = 8) or exendin-4 (1 nmol.kg-1, IUGR+Ex-4, n = 8), and singleton control lambs were injected with vehicle (CON, n = 7), from d 1 to 16 of age. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were measured in vivo during treatment (d 12–14). Body composition, β-cell mass and in vitro insulin secretion of isolated pancreatic islets were measured at d 16. Principal Findings IUGR+Veh did not alter in vivo insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity or β-cell mass, but increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 treatment of the IUGR lamb impaired glucose tolerance in vivo, reflecting reduced insulin sensitivity, and normalised glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Exendin-4 also reduced neonatal growth and visceral fat accumulation in IUGR lambs, known risk factors for later T2DM. Conclusions Neonatal exendin-4 induces changes in IUGR lambs that might improve later insulin action. Whether these effects of exendin-4 lead to improved insulin action in adult life after IUGR in the sheep, as in the PR rat, requires further investigation. PMID:23424667

  7. Shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages as affected by antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Incoronato, Anna Lucia; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2011-10-17

    The combined use of antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages was investigated in this study. First, a pre-screening of different antimicrobial compounds and MAP was addressed. In particular, the consumer test was used as a tool to select the most pleasant antimicrobial compounds, whereas both sausage color and cell load of main spoilage microorganisms were used to choose optimal MAP. Afterwards, antimicrobial compounds (lemon alkott and thymol) and MAP (MAP1: 20% CO(2), 5% O(2), 75% N(2)) that had shown the best performance were used to run the shelf life tests. In order to assess the influence of the variables described beforehand on the shelf life of investigated sausages, the sensorial and microbiological (mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria and coccus-shaped lactic acid bacteria) quality was monitored during storage. Results recorded in this study suggested that Pseudomonas spp. were responsible for sausage unacceptability in all samples, except for thymol and thymol-MAP samples. For these samples, the sensorial quality was the limiting factor while the microbial growth did not limit the shelf life. In particular, for thymol and thymol-MAP samples a shelf life value of more than 5 days with respect to the other samples (2 days) was obtained.

  8. Ingestion of cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 agonist, reduces visceral fats in mice fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yasuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Narukawa, Masataka; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CNA), a pungent compound in cinnamon or dried bark of cassia, is a TRPA1 agonist. The effect of 0.1-1.0% CNA on pair-fed mice with high fat and high sucrose (HFS) diet for 1 mo was investigated. The total food intake was similar in the mice fed control and CNA diets, but the body weight showed a tendency to be lower in CNA-fed mice than in control mice. By adding CNA at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0% concentrations, the weight of the mesenteric adipose tissue decreased significantly, and there was a tendency foward lower perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue weights compared to the control. No differences were found in any blood component measured. UCP1 protein levels in the interscapular brown adipose tissue were higher in the 0.5 and 1.0% CNA groups than in the HSF group, as shown by Western blotting. Collectively, these data show that the addition of CNA diminishes visceral fat deposition in HFS diet-fed mice, in part by stimulating interscapular brown adipose tissue.

  9. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA), in comparison with selenomethionine (SeMet), on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male C57BL/6 mice using intramuscular and subcutaneous injection models. Mice were fed AIN9...

  10. Do corticosteroids reduce the risk of fat embolism syndrome in patients with long-bone fractures? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bederman, S. Samuel; Bhandari, Mohit; McKee, Michael D.; Schemitsch, Emil H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a potentially lethal condition most commonly seen in polytrauma patients with multiple long-bone fractures. Treatment has centred around supportive care and early fracture fixation. Several small clinical trials have suggested corticosteroids benefit patients with FES, but this treatment remains controversial. Our objective was to determine the effect of corticosteroids in preventing FES in patients with long-bone fractures. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies of patients with long-bone fractures who were randomly assigned to groups receiving corticosteroids or standard treatment for the prevention of FES (1966–2006). Data were extracted on quality, population, intervention and outcomes. Our primary outcome was the development of FES. We used random-effects models to pool results across studies, assessing for study heterogeneity. Results Of the 104 studies identified, 7 met our eligibility criteria. Overall, the quality of the trials was poor. Our pooled analysis of 389 patients found that corticosteroids reduced the risk of FES by 78% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43%–92%) and that only 8 patients needed to be treated (95% CI 5–13 patients) to prevent 1 case of FES. Similarly, corticosteroids significantly reduced the risk of hypoxia. We found no differences in the rates of mortality or infection. Rates of avascular necrosis were not reported in any of these studies. Conclusion Evidence suggests that corticosteroids may be beneficial in preventing FES and hypoxia but not mortality in patients with long-bone fractures. The risk of infection is not increased with the use of cortisosteroids. However, methodological limitations of these trials necessitate a large confirmatory randomized trial. PMID:19865573

  11. A high-fat, refined sugar diet reduces hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal plasticity, and learning.

    PubMed

    Molteni, R; Barnard, R J; Ying, Z; Roberts, C K; Gómez-Pinilla, F

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated a potential mechanism by which a diet, similar in composition to the typical diet of most industrialized western societies rich in saturated fat and refined sugar (HFS), can influence brain structure and function via regulation of neurotrophins. We show that animals that learn a spatial memory task faster have more brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. Two months on the HFS diet were sufficient to reduce hippocampal level of BDNF and spatial learning performance. Consequent to the action of BDNF on synaptic function, downstream effectors for the action of BDNF on synaptic plasticity were reduced proportionally to BDNF levels, in the hippocampus of rats maintained on the HFS diet between 2 and 24 months. In particular, animals maintained on the HFS diet showed a decrease in levels of: (i) synapsin I mRNA and protein (total and phosphorylated), important for neurotransmitter release; (ii) cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) mRNA and protein (total and phosphorylated); CREB is required for various forms of memory and is under regulatory control of BDNF; (iii) growth-associated protein 43 mRNA, important for neurite outgrowth, neurotransmitter release, and learning and memory. Diet-related changes were specific for the hippocampus consequent to its role in memory formation, and did not involve neurotrophin-3, another member of the neurotrophin family. Our results indicate that a popularly consumed diet can influence crucial aspects of neuronal and behavioral plasticity associated with the function of BDNF.

  12. Tis7 deletion reduces survival and induces intestinal anastomotic inflammation and obstruction in high-fat diet-fed mice with short bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Amy M; Wakeman, Derek; Lu, Jianyun; Rowley, Christopher; Geisman, Taylor; Butler, Catherine; Bala, Shashi; Swietlicki, Elzbieta A; Warner, Brad W; Levin, Marc S; Rubin, Deborah C

    2014-09-15

    Effective therapies are limited for patients with parenteral nutrition-dependent short bowel syndrome. We previously showed that intestinal expression of the transcriptional coregulator tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate-induced sequence 7 (tis7) is markedly increased during the adaptive response following massive small bowel resection and tis7 plays a role in normal gut lipid metabolism. Here, we further explore the functional implications of tis7 deletion in intestinal lipid metabolism and the adaptive response following small bowel resection. Intestinal tis7 transgenic (tis7(tg)), tis7(-/-), and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to 50% small bowel resection. Mice were fed a control or a high-saturated-fat (42% energy) diet for 21 days. Survival, body weight recovery, lipid absorption, mucosal lipid analysis, and the morphometric adaptive response were analyzed. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to identify tis7 downstream gene targets. Postresection survival was markedly reduced in high-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice. Decreased survival was associated with anastomotic inflammation and intestinal obstruction postresection. High-fat, but not control, diet-fed tis7(-/-) mice had increased intestinal IL-6 expression. Intestinal lipid trafficking was altered in tis7(-/-) compared with WT mice postresection. In contrast, high-fat diet-fed tis7(tg) mice had improved survival postresection compared with WT littermates. High-fat diet feeding in the setting of tis7 deletion resulted in postresection anastomotic inflammation and small bowel obstruction. Tolerance of a calorie-rich, high-fat diet postresection may require tis7 and its target genes. The presence of luminal fat in the setting of tis7 deletion promotes an intestinal inflammatory response postresection.

  13. Green tea extract supplementation induces the lipolytic pathway, attenuates obesity, and reduces low-grade inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cláudio A; Lira, Fábio S; Rosa Neto, José C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Gabriel I H; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Souza, Cláudio T; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Oyama, Lila M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water); CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract); HW (high-fat diet and water); HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract). The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage) with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.). The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  14. Green tea beverages enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety reduce body fat in moderately obese adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Kawano, Takanori; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Fukuhara, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether ingesting a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults. Design Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Subjects A total of 126 obese subjects (25 ≤ body mass index < 30 kg m(-2)) were randomly assigned to a group receiving green tea beverages without catechins (placebo), or a group receiving green tea beverages with a low or high content of catechins with a galloyl moiety. Each subject ingested 500 mL bottled green tea beverages containing 25, 180, or 279.5 mg green tea catechins (0, 149.5, or 246.5 mg catechins with a galloyl moiety, respectively), at mealtimes for 12 weeks; the subjects were instructed to ingest the beverage during the meal that had the highest fat content on that day. Methods Anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry analysis were performed during the run-in period; at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the intake period; and at the end of the withdrawal period. Abdominal fat area was measured by computed tomography at weeks 0, 8, and 12 of the intake period and at the end of the withdrawal period. Results Both the low- and high-dose groups exhibited significant reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat areas compared to the control group at 12 weeks post-intervention. Conclusion Ingestion of a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a high-fat meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults.

  15. U-69,593 microinjection in the infralimbic cortex reduces anxiety and enhances spontaneous alternation memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Wall, P M; Messier, C

    2000-02-21

    The present report investigated the contributions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the control of spontaneous alternation/working memory and anxiety-related behaviour. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of microinjections of the selective kappa(1) receptor agonist, U-69,593, in the infralimbic cortex (IL) of CD-1 mice on several ethologically-derived anxiety indices in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and defensive/withdrawal (D/W) anxiety in the open field, as well as on memory in the EPM transfer-latency (T-L) test and implicit spontaneous alternation memory (SAP) in the Y-maze. In week 1, pretreatment with one injection of vehicle, 1, 10 or 25 nmol/1.0 microliter U-69,593 in the IL dose-dependently prolonged T-L and produced a dose-dependent anxiolytic behavioural profile in the first EPM trial. Following a 24-h delay, the same mice were given a drug-free second trial in the EPM tests of T-L memory and anxiety. Whereas T-L memory was not disturbed, small but detectable carry-over effects were observed in trial-2 EPM behaviour relative to vehicle-treated animals. In week 2, the same groups of mice were again pretreated with one injection of the same doses of U-69,593 in the IL and given a D/W test in an open field, followed immediately by an 8-min SAP trial in the Y-maze. The smallest U-69,593 dose was anxiolytic in the D/W test, and SAP/working memory was dose-dependently enhanced in the Y-maze. In Experiment 2, we evaluated whether 0.5 microliter volume microinjections would produce comparable behavioural and carry-over effects in the IL of three new groups of CD-1 mice, in the event that the 1.0 microl volume injections used in Experiment 1 diffused beyond the IL and therefore may have confounded some effects. Experiment 2 procedures were carried out in the same manner as in Experiment 1, except the animals were tested in reverse order. Thus in week 1, SAP memory was tested in the Y-maze followed by D/W anxiety in the open field for half of the

  16. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Juey-Ming; Shih, Yao-Ming; Pai, Man-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2016-03-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC) group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP) after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC). The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th)1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05). Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05). Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05), at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis.

  17. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  18. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L.; Tovar, Armando R.; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M.; Raybould, Helen E.

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism. PMID:28196086

  19. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (p<0.05) by formulation and cooking procedure. Compared with raw products, cooked samples had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of MUFAs and PUFAs (both n-3 and n-6); the difference was greater (p<0.05) in the pan-fried patties. Fatty acid retention was generally better in pan-fried than in grilled samples. When cooked, the PUFA levels in the medium-fat/improved sample containing the oil bulking system ranged between 1.4 and 1.6g/100g (0.47-0.51 from n-3 PUFAs), with EPA+DHA concentrations of around 75mg/100g. Konjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition.

  20. Stem cell activation in adults can reverse detrimental changes in body composition to reduce fat and increase lean mass in both sexes.

    PubMed

    Wiren, Kristine M; Hashimoto, Joel G; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2011-12-01

    Detrimental changes in body composition are often associated with declining levels of testosterone. Here, we evaluated the notion that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, that give rise to both fat and muscle tissue, can play a significant role to alter existing body composition in the adult. Transgenic mice with targeted androgen receptor (AR) overexpression in stem cells were employed. Wild-type littermate and AR-transgenic male and female mice were gonadectomized and left untreated for 2 months. After the hypogonadal period, mice were then treated with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 6 weeks. After orchidectomy (ORX), wild-type males have reduced lean mass and increased fat mass compared to shams. DHT treatment was beneficial to partially restore body composition. In wild-type females, ovariectomy (OVX) produced a similar change but there was no improvement with DHT. In targeted AR transgenic mice, DHT treatment increased lean and reduced fat mass to sham levels. In contrast to wild-type females, DHT treatment in female transgenic mice significantly ameliorated the increased fat and decreased lean mass changes that result after OVX. Our results show that DHT administration reduces fat mass and increases lean mass in wild-type males but not females, indicating that wild-type females are not as sensitive to androgen treatment. Because both male and female transgenic mice are more responsive than wild-type, results suggest that body composition remains linked to stem cell fate in the adult and that targeted androgen signaling in stem cells can play a significant role to reverse detrimental changes in body composition in both sexes.

  1. Dietary supplementation of chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsook; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Seo, Kunho; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-02-26

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for 3 weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control diets. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The antiobesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  2. Suppressed Fat Appetite after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Associates with Reduced Brain μ-opioid Receptor Availability in Diet-Induced Obese Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hankir, Mohammed K.; Patt, Marianne; Patt, Jörg T. W.; Becker, Georg A.; Rullmann, Michael; Kranz, Mathias; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Schischke, Kristin; Seyfried, Florian; Brust, Peter; Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Krügel, Ute; Fenske, Wiebke K.

    2017-01-01

    Brain μ-opioid receptors (MORs) stimulate high-fat (HF) feeding and have been implicated in the distinct long term outcomes on body weight of bariatric surgery and dieting. Whether alterations in fat appetite specifically following these disparate weight loss interventions relate to changes in brain MOR signaling is unknown. To address this issue, diet-induced obese male rats underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sham surgeries. Postoperatively, animals were placed on a two-choice diet consisting of low-fat (LF) and HF food and sham-operated rats were further split into ad libitum fed (Sham-LF/HF) and body weight-matched (Sham-BWM) to RYGB groups. An additional set of sham-operated rats always only on a LF diet (Sham-LF) served as lean controls, making four experimental groups in total. Corresponding to a stage of weight loss maintenance for RYGB rats, two-bottle fat preference tests in conjunction with small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies with the selective MOR radioligand [11C]carfentanil were performed. Brains were subsequently collected and MOR protein levels in the hypothalamus, striatum, prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex were analyzed by Western Blot. We found that only the RYGB group presented with intervention-specific changes: having markedly suppressed intake and preference for high concentration fat emulsions, a widespread reduction in [11C]carfentanil binding potential (reflecting MOR availability) in various brain regions, and a downregulation of striatal and prefrontal MOR protein levels compared to the remaining groups. These findings suggest that the suppressed fat appetite caused by RYGB surgery is due to reduced brain MOR signaling, which may contribute to sustained weight loss unlike the case for dieting. PMID:28133443

  3. A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children.

    PubMed

    Wong, William W; Barlow, Sarah E; Mikhail, Carmen; Wilson, Theresa A; Hernandez, Paula M; Shypailo, Roman J; Abrams, Stephanie H

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and weight-related quality of life, we measured the changes in body fat by bioimpedance and quality of life by Impact of Weight on Quality of Life instrument on 42 multiethnic obese children who took part in our Kamp K'aana program. Significant reduction in body fat was detected with significant improvements in the weight-related quality of life scores.

  4. Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Sato, Satoko; Ohnishi, Nanae; Inoue, Junji; Iguchi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiro; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Harada, Kazuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0.05), but the burdock diet did not. These results suggest that consumption of fermented burdock improves the intestinal luminal environment and suppresses obesity in rats fed a HF diet.

  5. Linoleic acid-rich fats reduce atherosclerosis development beyond its oxidative and inflammatory stress-increasing effect in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice in comparison with saturated fatty acid-rich fats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masao; Shibata, Kenichi; Nomura, Run; Kawamoto, Daisuke; Nagamine, Rika; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2005-12-01

    The relative benefit of replacing saturated fatty acid with linoleic acids is still being debated because a linoleic acid-enriched diet increases oxidative and inflammatory stresses, although it is associated with a reduction in serum cholesterol levels. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of linoleic acid-rich (HL) fat, compared with a saturated fatty acid-rich (SF) fat on atherosclerotic lesion areas, serum and liver cholesterol levels, oxidative stress (urinary isoprostanes and serum malondialdehayde) and inflammatory stress (expression of aortic monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MCP-1) in apo E-deficient mice. Male and female apo E-deficient mice (8 weeks old; seven to eight per group) were fed an AIN-76-based diet containing SF fat (50 g palm oil and 50 g lard/kg) or HL fat (100 g high-linoleic safflower-seed oil/kg) for 9 weeks. Compared with the SF diet, the HL diet lowered atherosclerosis (P<0.05). It reduced serum total cholesterol levels (P<0.05), increased HDL-cholesterol levels (P<0.05) and lowered liver esterified cholesterol levels (P<0.01). The HL diet-fed mice showed increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA (P<0.05), serum levels of malondialdehayde (P<0.05) and urinary excretion of 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha; P<0.05). These results suggest that having biomarkers in vivo for oxidative stress and inflammatory status of endothelial cells does not necessarily indicate predisposition to an increased lesion area in the aortic root in apo E-deficient mice fed an HL or SF diet.

  6. Loss of NHE1 activity leads to reduced oxidative stress in heart and mitigates high-fat diet-induced myocardial stress.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vikram; Lorenz, John N; Miller, Marian L; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Nieman, Michelle L; Wang, Yigang; Shull, Gary E

    2013-12-01

    Acute inhibition of the NHE1 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic inhibition attenuates development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. To determine the cardiac effects of chronic inhibition of NHE1 under non-pathological conditions we used NHE1-null mice as a model of long-term NHE1 inhibition. Cardiovascular performance was relatively normal in Nhe1(-/-) mice although cardiac contractility and relaxation were slightly improved in mutant mice of the FVB/N background. GSH levels and GSH:GSSG ratios were elevated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts indicating an enhanced redox potential. Consistent with a reduced need for antioxidant protection, expression of heat shock proteins Hsp60 and Hsp25 was lower in Nhe1(-/-) hearts. Similarly, expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 was reduced, with no increase in expression of other ROS scavenging enzymes. GLUT1 levels were increased in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, the number of lipid droplets in myocytes was reduced, and PDK4 expression was refractory to high-fat diet-induced upregulation observed in wild-type hearts. High-fat diet-induced stress was attenuated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, as indicated by smaller increases in phosphorylation of Hsp25 and α-B crystallin, and there was better preservation of insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by PKB/Akt phosphorylation. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were lower and high-fat diet-induced hepatic lipid accumulation was reduced in Nhe1(-/-) mice, demonstrating extracardiac effects of NHE1 ablation. These data indicate that long-term ablation of NHE1 activity increases the redox potential, mitigates high-fat diet-induced myocardial stress and fatty liver disease, leads to better preservation of insulin sensitivity, and may alter both cardiac and systemic metabolic substrate handling in mice.

  7. Leptin treatment reduces body fat but does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis in lean hypoleptinemic women.

    PubMed

    Brinkoetter, Mary; Magkos, Faidon; Vamvini, Maria; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-07-01

    Animal studies in vivo indicate that leptin treatment in extremely leptin-sensitive ob/ob mice reduces body weight exclusively by reducing fat mass and that it increases muscle mass by downregulating myostatin expression. Data from human trials are limited. Therefore, we aimed at characterizing the effects of leptin administration on fat mass, lean body mass, and circulating regulators of muscle growth in hypoleptinemic and presumably leptin-sensitive human subjects. In an open-label, single-arm trial, seven lean, strenuously exercising, amenorrheic women with low leptin concentrations (≤5 ng/ml) were given recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin; 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 10 wk. In a separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, seven women were given metreleptin (initial dose: 0.08 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 mo, increased thereafter to 0.12 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) if menstruation did not occur), and six were given placebo for 9 mo. Metreleptin significantly reduced total body fat by an average of 18.6% after 10 wk (P < 0.001) in the single-arm trial and by 19.5% after 9 mo (placebo subtracted; P for interaction = 0.025, P for metreleptin = 0.004) in the placebo-controlled trial. There were no significant changes in lean body mass (P ≥ 0.33) or in serum concentrations of myostatin (P ≥ 0.35), follistatin (P ≥ 0.30), and activin A (P ≥ 0.20) whether in the 10-wk trial or the 9-mo trial. We conclude that metreleptin administration in lean hypoleptinemic women reduces fat mass exclusively and does not affect lean body mass or the myostatin-follistatin-activin axis.

  8. Yeast inoculation as a strategy to improve the physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced salt fermented sausages produced with entire male fat.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Belloch, Carmela; López-Díez, José Javier; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Yeast inoculation of dry fermented sausages manufactured with entire male fat was evaluated as a strategy to improve sausage quality. Four different formulations with entire male/gilt back fat and inoculated/non-inoculated with Debaryomyces hansenii were manufactured. The use of entire male back fat produced the highest weight losses, hardness and chewiness in dry sausages. Consumers clearly distinguished samples according to drying time and D. hansenii inoculation while the use of entire/gilt back fat was not highly perceived. The presence of androstenone and skatole was close to their sensory thresholds. Androstenone was not degraded during the process but skatole was affected by yeast inoculation. D. hansenii growth on the surface regulated water release during ripening, reduced hardness and chewiness in entire male sausages and resulted with similar texture to gilt sausages. Yeast inoculation inhibited lipid oxidation providing fruity odours and less oxidized fatty sausages in the sensory analysis. The effectiveness of yeast to mask boar taint was demonstrated by sensory analysis.

  9. Treatment with 17β-Estradiol Reduced Body Weight and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a High-Fat Diet-Induced Animal Model of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Wei-Jen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Jiang, Chong-He; Lin, Yueh-Min; Chung, Li-Chin; Shen, Chia-Yao; Pai, Peiying; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Liao, Shih-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) play important roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Recently, these estrogen receptors were reconsidered as an important treatment target of obesity leading to CVD. In this study, 17β-estradiol (17β-E) replacement therapy applied to high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice and ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated, and the protective effects against high-fat diet-induced obesity were assessed in C57B mouse hearts. The results showed that 17β-E treatment activated both ERα and ERβ, and ERβ levels increased in a dose-dependent manner in high-fat diet C57B mouse cardiomyocytes following 17β-E treatment. Notably, an almost 16% reduction in body weight was observed in the 17β-E-treated (12 μg/kg/day for 60 days) high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice. These results suggested that 17β-E supplements may reduce CVD risk due to obesity. PMID:28335423

  10. Reduced autophagy in livers of fasted, fat-depleted, ghrelin-deficient mice: Reversal by growth hormone

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fang, Fei; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Zhao, Tong-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) and hepatic autophagy each have been reported to protect against hypoglycemia in the fasted state, but previous data have not linked the two. Here we demonstrate a connection using a mouse model of fasting in a fat-depleted state. Mice were subjected to 1 wk of 60% calorie restriction, causing them to lose nearly all body fat. They were then fasted for 23 h. During fasting, WT mice developed massive increases in plasma GH and a concomitant increase in hepatic autophagy, allowing them to maintain viable levels of blood glucose. In contrast, lethal hypoglycemia occurred in mice deficient in the GH secretagogue ghrelin as a result of knockout of the gene encoding ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT), which catalyzes a required acylation of the peptide. Fasting fat-depleted Goat−/− mice showed a blunted increase in GH and a marked decrease in hepatic autophagy. Restoration of GH by infusion during the week of calorie restriction maintained autophagy in the Goat−/− mice and prevented lethal hypoglycemia. Acute injections of GH after 7 d of calorie restriction also restored hepatic autophagy, but failed to increase blood glucose, perhaps owing to ATP deficiency in the liver. These data indicate that GH stimulation of autophagy is necessary over the long term, but not sufficient over the short term to maintain blood glucose levels in fasted, fat-depleted mice. PMID:25583513

  11. A 12-week aerobic exercise program reduces hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in obese, Hispanic adolescents.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t...

  12. A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and w...

  13. HPMC supplementation reduces abdominal fat content, intestinal permeability, inflammation, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous non-fermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with either HPMC or insoluble fiber. DIO C57BL/6J m...

  14. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by altering adipose tissue glycolytic and inflammatory function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. In this study, we dissected mechanisms mediating anti-inflammatory and anti-lipogenic actions of EPA, using histology/ immunohistochemistry, transcriptomi...

  15. High protein high fibre snack bars reduce food intake and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles compared with high fat snack bars.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gemma; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Foster, Paul; Clifton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The replacement in the diet of refined carbohydrate and fat with fibre and protein has been shown to promote satiety and improve glucose and insulin profiles. It is less clear whether the macronutrient composition of individual foods such as snacks have any meaningful impact on metabolic parameters and satiety. We examined if the consumption of higher protein higher fibre snack bars would result in reducing outcome measures such as food intake and glucose and insulin patterns compared to a conventional isocaloric high fat high refined carbohydrate snack bar. Twenty three women were randomized in a single blind cross over study with 2 interventions, a high fat high sugar snack bar and a comparatively higher protein, higher fibre snack bar intervention. Snack bars were eaten at mid morning and mid afternoon, and a standard breakfast and ad libitum buffet lunch. The glucose and insulin responses over 9 hours were significantly lower (P = 0.014 and P = 0.012 respectively) during the high protein snack bar intervention. Peak glucose levels were also 16% lower after the morning HP bar (P <0.001). The morning high protein bar reduced the energy intake at the buffet lunch meal by 5% (4657 +/- 1025KJ vs 4901 +/- 1186KJ, P < 0.05). Altering the macronutrient composition of a snack bar can assist in reducing the energy intake at a subsequent meal and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles.

  16. Dietary DHA reduces downstream endocannabinoid and inflammatory gene expression and epididymal fat mass while improving aspects of glucose use in muscle in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Carlson, M E; Kuchel, G A; Newman, J W; Watkins, B A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Endocannabinoid system (ECS) overactivation is associated with increased adiposity and likely contributes to type 2 diabetes risk. Elevated tissue cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) derived from the n-6 polyunsaturated acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA) occur in obese and diabetic patients. Here we investigate whether the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet can reduce ECS overactivation (that is, action of ligands, receptors and enzymes of EC synthesis and degradation) to influence glycemic control. This study targets the ECS tonal regulation of circulating glucose uptake by skeletal muscle as its primary end point. Design: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a semipurified diet containing DHA or the control lipid. Serum, skeletal muscle, epididymal fat pads and liver were collected after 62 and 118 days of feeding. Metabolites, genes and gene products associated with the ECS, glucose uptake and metabolism and inflammatory status were measured. Results: Dietary DHA enrichment reduced epididymal fat pad mass and increased ECS-related genes, whereas it reduced downstream ECS activation markers, indicating that ECS activation was diminished. The mRNA of glucose-related genes and proteins elevated in mice fed the DHA diet with increases in DHA-derived and reductions in AA-derived EC and EC-like compounds. In addition, DHA feeding reduced plasma levels of various inflammatory cytokines, 5-lipoxygenase-dependent inflammatory mediators and the vasoconstrictive 20-HETE. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that DHA feeding altered ECS gene expression to reduce CB1 activation and reduce fat accretion. Furthermore, the DHA diet led to higher expression of genes associated with glucose use by muscle in mice, and reduced those associated with systemic inflammatory status. PMID:26219414

  17. Utilization of konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer in low-fat and skimmed yogurt.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shuhong; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-09-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been reported to be beneficial to human health, as well as having potential functional properties as a fat replacer in dairy products. In this study, 0.5% KGM solution was added to prepare low-fat (LFKGM) and skimmed (SKKGM) yogurts, and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of full-fat yogurt control (FFC), low-fat yogurt control (LFC), and skimmed yogurt control (SKC). Properties and composition were determined and the microscopic structures of all yogurts were observed during storage at 4°C for 21d. Generally, addition of KGM to yogurts had no significant effect on composition, pH, and titratable acidity at each storage day. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher whiteness, greenness, and yellowness hues compared with those of the LFC and SKC. The proteolysis of LFKGM and SKKGM was similar to that of FFC, whereas it was lower than in LFC and SKC after 14d of storage. Addition of KGM had no positive effects on the water-holding capacity, but led to a decrease in syneresis and spontaneous whey separation in LFKGM and SKKGM compared with those of LFC and SKC. The spontaneous whey separation of LFKGM was similar to that of FFC. Presence of KGM in skimmed yogurt affected textural characteristics, while having little effect on texture of low-fat yogurt. Additionally, LFKGM and SKKGM showed stronger and more stable gel structures than those of FFC, LFC, and SKC. Overall, no substantial changes were found in the characteristics for each yogurt during storage, except for pH and gel structures. Results indicated that KGM may be a good fat replacer to develop reduced-fat yogurts with desired characteristics.

  18. The Herbal Medicine KBH-1 Inhibits Fat Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Reduces High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity through Regulation of the AMPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Taesoo; Lee, Jung-Jin; Lee, Kwang Jin; Kim, Hyun-Kyu; Yun, Bora; Jeon, Jongwook; Kim, Sang Kyum; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel formulation of an herbal extract, KBH-1, has an inhibitory effect on obesity. To determine its anti-obesity effects and its underlying mechanism, we performed anti-obesity-related experiments in vitro and in vivo. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were analyzed for lipid accumulation as well as the protein and gene expression of molecular targets involved in fatty acid synthesis. To determine whether KBH-1 oral administration results in a reduction in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, we examined five groups (n = 9) of C57BL/6 mice as follows: 10% kcal fat diet-fed mice (ND), 60% kcal fat diet-fed mice (HFD), HFD-fed mice treated with orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin, marketed under the trade name Xenical), HFD-fed mice treated with 150 mg/kg KBH-1 (KBH-1 150) and HFD-fed mice treated with 300 mg/kg KBH-1 (KBH-1 300). During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells in vitro, KBH-1 significantly reduced lipid accumulation and down-regulated the expression of master adipogenic transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) β, C/EBP α and peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor (PPAR) γ, which led to the suppression of the expression of several adipocyte-specific genes and proteins. KBH-1 also markedly phosphorylated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, KBH-1-induced the inhibition effect on lipid accumulation and AMPK-mediated signal activation were decreased by blocking AMPK phosphorylation using AMPK siRNA. Furthermore, daily oral administration of KBH-1 resulted in dose-dependent decreases in body weight, fat pad mass and fat tissue size without systemic toxicity. These results suggest that KBH-1 inhibits lipid accumulation by down-regulating the major transcription factors of the adipogenesis pathway by regulating the AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in mice with HFD-induced obesity. These results implicate KBH-1, a safe herbal

  19. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM.

  20. Translational research to reduce trans-fat intakes in Northern Québec (Nunavik) Inuit communities: a success story?

    PubMed

    Counil, Émilie; Gauthier, Marie-Josée; Blouin, Valérie; Grey, Minnie; Angiyou, Eli; Kauki, Takralik; Dewailly, Éric

    2012-07-20

    Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational activities. Our goal was to support Inuit communities in the practical implementation of a reduction of the trans-fat content of food sold in Nunavik. We carried out a preliminary feasibility study in Kuujjuaq and participated in several meetings. This translational phase involved an Inuk leader, an Inuk student, a southern student, a southern nutritionist and a southern researcher in the framework of a public health project. In the present article, we recount the different phases of the process, from research implementation to results dissemination and institutional commitment to implement a primary prevention program of reduction in trans-fat exposure in Nunavik. This is the occasion to draw broader conclusions on the factors that could either act in favour of or, on the contrary, would likely compromise the implementation of primary prevention interventions dealing with food and nutrition in the Arctic. Finally, we share some reflections on future translational activities dealing with trans-fat as well as other junk food issues. The analytical framework we propose integrates a range of factors, from geo-climatic to socio-economic, ethno-cultural, and even political, that we think should be examined while identifying and building preventive recommendations and strategies related to the Northern diet.

  1. Translational research to reduce trans-fat intakes in Northern Québec (Nunavik) Inuit communities: a success story?

    PubMed Central

    Counil, Émilie; Gauthier, Marie-Josée; Blouin, Valérie; Grey, Minnie; Angiyou, Eli; Kauki, Takralik; Dewailly, Éric

    2012-01-01

    Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational activities. Our goal was to support Inuit communities in the practical implementation of a reduction of the trans-fat content of food sold in Nunavik. We carried out a preliminary feasibility study in Kuujjuaq and participated in several meetings. This translational phase involved an Inuk leader, an Inuk student, a southern student, a southern nutritionist and a southern researcher in the framework of a public health project. In the present article, we recount the different phases of the process, from research implementation to results dissemination and institutional commitment to implement a primary prevention program of reduction in trans-fat exposure in Nunavik. This is the occasion to draw broader conclusions on the factors that could either act in favour of or, on the contrary, would likely compromise the implementation of primary prevention interventions dealing with food and nutrition in the Arctic. Finally, we share some reflections on future translational activities dealing with trans-fat as well as other junk food issues. The analytical framework we propose integrates a range of factors, from geo-climatic to socio-economic, ethno-cultural, and even political, that we think should be examined while identifying and building preventive recommendations and strategies related to the Northern diet. PMID:22818719

  2. Grape seed and skin extract reduces pancreas lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Faten; Charradi, Kamel; Hichami, Aziz; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H2O2. HFD induced pro-inflammatory chemokines mRNA as RANTES and MCP1 as well as cytokines expression as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β. Importantly GSSE counteracted all the deleterious effects of HFD on pancreas in vivo i-e lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, GSSE could find potential applications in fat-induced pancreas lipotoxicity and dysfunction.

  3. Transcription analysis of genes involved in lipid metabolism reveals the role of chromium in reducing body fat in animal models.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Najaf Panah, Mohammad Javad; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential trace element over 50 years ago and has been accepted as an essential element for over 30 years. The recent studies indicated that the addition of supra nutritional amounts of chromium to the diet can only be considered as having pharmacological effects. However, the precise mechanism through which chromium acts on lipid, carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid metabolism are relatively poor studied. To uncover, at least partially, the role of chromium in lipid metabolism, in this study, we evaluated the expression status of eight important genes, involved in fat biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, in four different tissue types (liver, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and longissimus muscle) in domestic goat kids feeding on three different chromium levels. The quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was established for expression analyses with HSP90 gene was used as reference gene. The results showed that supplementation of goats with 1.5mg/day chromium significantly decreases the expression of the ACC1, DGAT1, FABP4, FAS, HSL, LEP genes, but does not affect the expression of the LPL and SCD1 genes in all studied tissues. This study highlights, for the first time, the role of supra nutritional levels of chromium in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. These findings are of especial importance for improving meat quality in domestic animals.

  4. Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-induced mouse model of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaqin; Wu, Zhihong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xiang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, which is characteristic by chronic inflammation, is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese state and is known to be strongly associated with chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ER stress on adipokine secretion in obese mice and explore the potential mechanisms. In this study, we found high-fat diet induced-obesity contributed to strengthened ER stress and triggered chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Chemical chaperones, 4-PBA and TUDCA, modified metabolic disorders and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The alleviation of ER stress is in accordance with the decrease of free cholesterol in adipose tissue. Furthermore chemical chaperones suppress NF-κB activity in adipose tissue of obese mice in vivo. In vitro studies showed IKK/NF-κB may be involved in the signal transduction of adipokine secretion dysfunction induced by ER stress. The present study revealed the possibility that inhibition of ER stress may be a novel drug target for metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. Further studies are now needed to characterize the initial incentive of sustained ER stress in obese. PMID:27271106

  5. Reducing Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin With Vitamin K Supplementation Does Not Promote Lean Tissue Loss or Fat Gain Over 3 Years in Older Women and Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shea, M Kyla; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Gundberg, Caren M; Booth, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein synthesized during bone formation. Mice injected with the undercarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) had more skeletal muscle mass and less fat mass than sham-treated controls, suggesting a unique metabolic role for ucOC. UcOC decreases in response to vitamin K supplementation. Our objective was to determine the effect of reducing ucOC on change in lean tissue and fat mass in older community-dwelling adults (n = 401, mean ± SD 69 ± 6 years) using data from a randomized controlled trial of vitamin K supplementation. Over 3 years, serum ucOC was reduced by 58% in women and by 61% in men randomized to vitamin K, whereas in the control group, ucOC decreased by 1% in women and 4% in men (supplementation*time p < 0.001 in men and women). However, there were no differences in the change in appendicular lean mass (calculated as arm lean mass + leg lean mass) or total body fat mass between women randomized to vitamin K and control over 3 years (supplementation*time p values all ≥ 0.18) or between men randomized to vitamin K and control (supplementation*time p values all ≥ 0.54). Consistent with these findings, ucOC was not associated cross-sectionally with appendicular lean mass or fat mass in men or women after adjustment for total OC at baseline (all p ≥ 0.12). These findings indicate the undercarboxylated form of OC is not implicated in age-related changes in skeletal muscle or adipose tissue mass in older community-dwelling adults. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Raspberry ketone fails to reduce adiposity beyond decreasing food intake in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cotten, Bradley M; Diamond, Stephanie A; Banh, Taylor; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Cole, Rachel M; Li, Jinhui; Simons, Christopher T; Bruno, Richard S; Belury, Martha A; Vodovotz, Yael

    2017-04-05

    As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, identifying novel nutritional therapies to enhance weight loss are needed. Raspberry ketone (RK; 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one) is a bioactive phytochemical that is marketed as a weight loss supplement in the United States, yet there is scant scientific evidence demonstrating that RK promotes weight loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RK on accumulation of adipose mass, hepatic lipid storage, and levels of plasma adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were individually housed and fed a HF control diet (45% kcal from fat) for two weeks to induce weight gain, then assigned to HF control, high-dose (1.74% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (HRK), low-dose (0.25% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (LRK), or a pair-fed group (PF) fed similar food intake to LRK mice. Following five weeks of feeding, mice fed LRK and HRK diets showed reduced food intake and body weight compared to mice maintained on control diet. When normalized to body weight, mice fed HRK diet exhibited decreased inguinal fat mass and increased liver mass compared to the control group. Hepatic steatosis was lowest in mice fed HRK diet, whereas LRK diet did not have an effect when compared to the PF group. Plasma adiponectin concentration was unaffected by RK and pair-feeding. Our findings demonstrate that RK supplementation has limited benefit to adipose loss beyond reducing energy intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. The present study supports the need for appropriate study design when validating weight-loss supplements.

  7. A Combination of Flaxseed Oil and Astaxanthin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Oxidative Stress in High Fat-Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqu; Rong, Shuang; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Yang, Wei; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Xiao, Lingyun; Huang, Fenghong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks. Substitution of lard with FO + ASX reduced steatosis and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The combination of FO and ASX significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression. FO + ASX significantly suppressed fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase but induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. FO + ASX also significantly elevated hepatic SOD, CAT and GPx activity and GSH, and markedly reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Thus, FO and ASX may reduce NAFLD by reversing hepatic steatosis and reducing lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:28335388

  8. Addition of a dairy fraction rich in milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Meals high in SFA, particularly palmitate, are associated with postprandial inflammation and insulin resistance. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) has anti-inflammatory properties that may attenuate the negative effects of SFA-rich meals. Our objective was to examine the postprandial metabolic and inflammatory response to a high-fat meal composed of palm oil (PO) compared with PO with an added dairy fraction rich in MFGM (PO+MFGM) in overweight and obese men and women (n 36) in a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over trial. Participants consumed two isoenergetic high-fat meals composed of a smoothie enriched with PO with v. without a cream-derived complex milk lipid fraction ( dairy fraction rich in MFGM) separated by a washout of 1-2 weeks. Serum cytokines, adhesion molecules, cortisol and markers of inflammation were measured at fasting, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially. Glucose, insulin and lipid profiles were analysed in plasma. Consumption of the PO + MFGM v. PO meal resulted in lower total cholesterol (P = 0·021), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0·046), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (P = 0·005) and insulin (P = 0·005) incremental AUC, and increased IL-10 (P = 0·013). Individuals with high baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (≥3 mg/l, n 17) had higher (P = 0·030) insulin at 1 h after the PO meal than individuals with CRP concentrations <3 mg/l (n 19). The addition of MFGM attenuated this difference between CRP groups. The addition of a dairy fraction rich in MFGM attenuated the negative effects of a high-SFA meal by reducing postprandial cholesterol, inflammatory markers and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals, particularly in those with elevated CRP.

  9. 17beta-estradiol pretreatment reduces CA1 sector cell death and the spontaneous hyperthermia that follows forebrain ischemia in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Plahta, W C; Clark, D L; Colbourne, F

    2004-01-01

    Pretreatment with 17beta-estradiol attenuates ischemia-induced hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) neuronal death. We assessed whether this is mediated through prevention of hyperthermia that normally follows ischemia in gerbils. Male gerbils were given sustained-released 17beta-estradiol pellets or sham operation. Later, a guide cannula was implanted for brain temperature measurement and some were implanted with core temperature telemetry probes. Gerbils were subjected to either 5 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion or sham procedures 2 weeks after pellet surgery. Brain temperature was normothermic during surgery in all cases. In experiment 1, only core temperature was measured afterward in untreated and estrogen-treated gerbils. In experiment 2, postischemic core temperature was measured in untreated and two estrogen-treated ischemic groups, one of which had their postischemic temperature increased, via infrared lamp, to mimic the untreated group. Habituation was assessed on days 5 and 6. Hyperthermia, like that which occurs spontaneously, was forced on untreated and estrogen-treated ischemic animals in the third experiment, where brain temperature was measured. CA1 cell counts were assessed after a 7-day survival. A fourth experiment measured brain and core temperature simultaneously in normal gerbils during heating with an infrared lamp. Estrogen did not affect core temperature of non-ischemic gerbils whereas spontaneous postischemic hyperthermia was blocked. Estrogen reduced cell death and provided behavioral protection when gerbils regulated their own core temperature, but not when core hyperthermia was enforced. Conversely, estrogen reduced cell death in gerbils that had their brain temperature elevated. Experiment 4 showed that the brain becomes overheated (by approximately 1 degree C) when core temperature is elevated. Accordingly, estrogen likely failed to reduce CA1 injury in experiment 2, when core hyperthermia was enforced, because of overheating the

  10. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Cassidy, Sophie; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    Although lifestyle changes encompassing weight loss and exercise remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management, the effect of different types of exercise on NAFLD is unknown. This study defines the effect of modified high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on liver fat, cardiac function and metabolic control in adults with NAFLD. Twenty-three patients with NAFLD [age 54±10 years, body mass index (BMI) 31±4 kg/m(2), intra-hepatic lipid >5%) were assigned to either 12 weeks HIIT or standard care (controls). HIIT involved thrice weekly cycle ergometry for 30-40 min. MRI and spectroscopy were used to assess liver fat, abdominal fat and cardiac structure/function/energetics. Glucose control was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and body composition by air displacement plethysmography. Relative to control, HIIT decreased liver fat (11±5% to 8±2% compared with 10±4% to 10±4% P=0.019), whole-body fat mass (35±7 kg to 33±8 kg compared with 31±9 kg to 32±9 kg, P=0.013), alanine (52±29 units/l to 42±20 units/l compared with 47±22 units/l to 51±24 units/l, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 36±18 units/l to 33±15 units/l compared with 31±8 units/l to 35±8 units/l, P=0.017) and increased early diastolic filling rate (244±84 ml/s to 302±107 ml/s compared with 255±82 ml/s to 251±82 ml/s, P=0.018). There were no between groups differences in glucose control. Modified HIIT reduces liver fat and improves body composition alongside benefits to cardiac function in patients with NAFLD and should be considered as part of the broader treatment regimen by clinical care teams. ISRCTN trial ID: ISRCTN78698481.

  11. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%).

  12. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation reduces mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle from high fat fed, obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuyun; Dungan, Cory M; Carrier, Bradley; Rideout, Todd C; Williamson, David L

    2014-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is hyperactive in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle tissues of obese rodents. Alpha-lipoic acid (αLA) has been well accepted as a weight-loss treatment, though there are limited studies on its effect on mTOR signaling in high-fat fed, obese rodents. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine mTOR signaling and oxidative protein alterations in skeletal muscle of high-fat fed, obese rats after αLA supplementation. Phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eIF4B were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in muscle from αLA supplemented rats. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an mTOR inhibitory kinase, was higher (p < 0.05) in the αLA group. Protein expression of markers of oxidative metabolism, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) after αLA supplementation compared to non-supplemented group. Our findings show that αLA supplementation limits the negative ramifications of consuming a high fat diet on skeletal muscle markers of oxidative metabolism and mTORC1 signaling.

  13. Infrared spectroscopy used to determine effects of chia and olive oil incorporation strategies on lipid structure of reduced-fat frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Herrero, A M; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Carmona, P; Jimenez-Colmenero, F

    2017-04-15

    This article reports an infrared spectroscopic study, using attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR), on the structural characteristics of lipids in frankfurters as affected by different strategies to replace animal fat with chia flour and olive oil. Three incorporation strategies were considered: direct addition (FCO) and addition in a conventional emulsion (non-gelled) (FCE) or an emulsion gel using alginate as a gelling agent (FCEG). Reduced-fat (all-pork-fat) frankfurters (FP) were used as reference. Proximate composition and specific technological properties (pH, processing loss, texture) were also evaluated. FCE and FCEG frankfurters showed a shift to higher frequencies and the highest (p<0.05) half-bandwidth in the νasCH2 and νsCH2 bands. These spectroscopic results could be related to the fact that the lipid chain was more disorderly in these samples, presumably because there were more lipid interactions than in the reference frankfurter. These features of lipid structure correlated significantly with processing loss and textural behaviour.

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid-induced milk fat depression in lactating ewes is accompanied by reduced expression of mammary genes involved in lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hussein, M; Harvatine, K H; Weerasinghe, W M P B; Sinclair, L A; Bauman, D E

    2013-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are produced during rumen biohydrogenation and exert a range of biological effects. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer is a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows and some aspects of the mechanism have been established. Conjugated linoleic acid-induced milk fat depression has also been observed in small ruminants and our objective was to examine the molecular mechanism in lactating ewes. Multiparous lactating ewes were fed a basal ration (0.55:0.45 concentrate-to-forage ratio; dry matter basis) and randomly allocated to 2 dietary CLA levels (n=8 ewes/treatment). Treatments were zero CLA (control) or 15 g/d of lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement containing cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomers in equal proportions. Treatments were fed for 10 wk and the CLA supplement provided 1.5 g of trans-10,cis-12/d. No treatment effects were observed on milk yield or milk composition for protein or lactose at wk 10 of the study. In contrast, CLA treatment significantly decreased both milk fat percentage and milk fat yield (g/d) by about 23%. The de novo synthesized fatty acids (FA; C16) was increased (10%) for the CLA treatment. In agreement with the reduced de novo FA synthesis, mRNA abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase α, FA synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 6 decreased by 25 to 40% in the CLA-treated group. Conjugated linoleic acid treatment did not significantly reduce the mRNA abundance of enzymes involved in NADPH production, but the mRNA abundance for sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 and insulin-induced gene 1, genes involved in regulation of transcription of lipogenic enzymes, was decreased by almost 30 and 55%, respectively, with CLA treatment. Furthermore, mRNA abundance of lipoprotein lipase decreased by almost 40% due to CLA treatment

  15. Characterisation and microstructure of reduced-fat chicken patties made with a novel polymer from Agrobacterium radiobacter k84.

    PubMed

    Calliari, Caroline Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Castro-Goméz, Raúl Jorge Hernan; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-04-15

    Chicken patties elaborated with a novel polymer from Agrobacterium radiobacter k84 (ARB) were characterised during 60days of frozen storage. After cooking, formulations without ARB (F0), with ARB 5 g/100 g (F5) and ARB 10 g/100 g (F10) presented 4.23%, 2.83% and 0.11% fat, respectively. No differences were observed to water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force among formulations. Microstructural analysis showed formation of meat emulsion for F5 and gel for F10. Colour and chicken flavour decreased with increase of ARB; no difference was found for tenderness among the formulations. Overall acceptance showed higher scores for F0 when compared to F5 and F10. Lipid oxidation was not a limiting factor for stability of patties; all formulations presented suitable microbiological quality over the assessed period. These results suggest ARB as a promising fat substitute, capable of maintain the quality aspects of chicken patties, although a negative impact in colour has been found.

  16. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-06

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  17. High-protein diet selectively reduces fat mass and improves glucose tolerance in Western-type diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Hu, Eugenia; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Pisegna, Joseph R; Taché, Yvette

    2013-09-15

    Obesity is an increasing health problem. Because drug treatments are limited, diets remain popular. High-protein diets (HPD) reduce body weight (BW), although the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated physiological mechanisms altered by switching diet induced obesity (DIO) rats from Western-type diet (WTD) to HPD. Male rats were fed standard (SD) or WTD (45% calories from fat). After developing DIO (50% of rats), they were switched to SD (15% calories from protein) or HPD (52% calories from protein) for up to 4 weeks. Food intake (FI), BW, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal hormone plasma levels were monitored. Rats fed WTD showed an increased FI and had a 25% greater BW gain after 9 wk compared with SD (P < 0.05). Diet-induced obese rats switched from WTD to HPD reduced daily FI by 30% on day 1, which lasted to day 9 (-9%) and decreased BW during the 2-wk period compared with SD/SD (P < 0.05). During these 2 wk, WTD/HPD rats lost 72% more fat mass than WTD/SD (P < 0.05), whereas lean mass was unaltered. WTD/HPD rats had lower blood glucose than WTD/SD at 30 min postglucose gavage (P < 0.05). The increase of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY during the 2-h dark-phase feeding was higher in WTD/HPD compared with WTD/SD (P < 0.05). These data indicate that HPD reduces BW in WTD rats, which may be related to decreased FI and the selective reduction of fat mass accompanied by improved glucose tolerance, suggesting relevant benefits of HPD in the treatment of obesity.

  18. Ablation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ligen; Saha, Pradip K; Ma, Xiaojun; Henshaw, Iyabo O; Shao, Longjiang; Chang, Benny H J; Buras, Eric D; Tong, Qiang; Chan, Lawrence; McGuinness, Owen P; Sun, Yuxiang

    2011-12-01

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show that ablation of the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R) improves insulin sensitivity during aging. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, old Ghsr(-/-) mice have reduced fat and preserve a healthier lipid profile. Old Ghsr(-/-) mice also exhibit elevated energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate, yet have similar food intake and locomotor activity. While GHS-R expression in white and brown adipose tissues was below the detectable level in the young mice, GHS-R expression was readily detectable in visceral white fat and interscapular brown fat of the old mice. Gene expression profiles reveal that Ghsr ablation reduced glucose/lipid uptake and lipogenesis in white adipose tissues but increased thermogenic capacity in brown adipose tissues. Ghsr ablation prevents age-associated decline in thermogenic gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Cell culture studies in brown adipocytes further demonstrate that ghrelin suppresses the expression of adipogenic and thermogenic genes, while GHS-R antagonist abolishes ghrelin's effects and increases UCP1 expression. Hence, GHS-R plays an important role in thermogenic impairment during aging. Ghsr ablation improves aging-associated obesity and insulin resistance by reducing adiposity and increasing thermogenesis. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonists may be a new means of combating obesity by shifting the energy balance from obesogenesis to thermogenesis.

  19. Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Joung; Hwang, Jung Hyun; Ko, Hyun Ji; Na, Hye Bock; Kim, Jung Hee

    2015-05-01

    The lemon detox program is a very low-calorie diet which consists of a mixture of organic maple and palm syrups, and lemon juice for abstinence period of 7 days. We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. Eighty-four premenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group without diet restriction (Normal-C), a pair-fed placebo diet group (Positive-C), and a lemon detox diet group (Lemon-D). The intervention period was 11 days total: 7 days with the lemon detox juice or the placebo juice, and then 4 days with transitioning food. Changes in body weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, and waist-hip ratio were significantly greater in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups compared to the Normal-C group. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the Lemon-D group while they decreased in the Positive-C and Normal-C groups. Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes.

  20. Reducing fat levels in cheddar-like goat cheese: impact on proteolysis and rheological properties over 6 months of refrigerated storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low-fat goat cheeses that appeal to health conscious consumers requires information on how the reduction of fat affects the quality traits of the cheese, such as its proteolysis and rheology. Goat milk samples containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and <0.5% fat were processed into full-fat (F...

  1. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - saturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - saturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - saturated fat; Coronary artery disease - saturated fat; ...

  2. Consumption of sericin reduces serum lipids, ameliorates glucose tolerance and elevates serum adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Kakehi, Shoko; Xu, Yonghui; Tsujimoto, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Masahiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Norihisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect was examined of dietary sericin on the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet. The rats were fed with a 20% beef tallow diet with or without sericin at the level of 4% for 5 weeks. The final body weight and white adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary manipulation. The consumption of sericin significantly reduced the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids. Serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and LDL-phospholipids were also significantly reduced by the sericin intake. Liver triglyceride and the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, the lipogenic enzymes, were also reduced by the sericin intake. Dietary sericin caused a marked elevation in serum adiponectin. The consumption of sericin suppressed the increases in plasma glucose and insulin levels after an intraperitoneal glucose injection. These results imply the usefulness of sericin for improving the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

  3. A systematic review investigating interventions that can help reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children leading to changes in body fatness

    PubMed Central

    Avery, A; Bostock, L; McCullough, F

    2015-01-01

    Background Both the prevalence of childhood obesity and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have increased globally. The present review describes interventions that reduce the consumption of SSBs in children and determines whether this leads to subsequent changes in body fatness. Methods Three databases were searched from 2000 to August 2013. Only intervention control trials, ≥6 months in duration, which aimed to reduce the consumption of SSBs in >100 children aged 2–18 years, and reporting changes in body fatness, were included. The quality of selected papers was assessed. Results Eight studies met inclusion criteria. Six interventions achieved significant (P < 0.05) reductions in SSB intake, although this was not always sustained. In the two interventions providing replacement drinks, significant differences in body mass index (12- or 18-month follow-up) were reported (P = 0.001 and 0.045). The risk of being overweight/obesity was reduced (P < 0.05) in three of the five education programmes but in one programme only for girls who were overweight at baseline and in one programme only for pupils perceived to be at greater risk at baseline. In the one study that included both provision of water and education, the risk of being overweight was reduced by 31% (P = 0.04) in the intervention group. Conclusions The evidence suggests that school-based education programmes focusing on reducing SSB consumption, but including follow-up modules, offer opportunities for implementing effective, sustainable interventions. Peer support and changing the school environment (e.g. providing water or replacement drinks) to support educational programmes could improve their effectiveness. Home delivery of more suitable drinks has a big impact on reducing SSB consumption, with associated reductions in body weight. PMID:25233843

  4. Reduced activity of SKCa and Na-K ATPase underlies the accelerated impairment of EDH-type relaxations in mesenteric arteries of aging spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Billy W C; Man, Ricky Y K; Gao, Yuansheng; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction due to reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) and/or reduced endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations (EDH). This study examines the hypothesis that hypertension aggravates the impairment of EDH-type relaxation due to aging. EDH-type relaxations were studied in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats of 12, 36, 60, and 72 weeks of age. EDH-type relaxations in WKY were reduced with aging, and this was associated with an impairment of the function of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SKCa) and sodium-potassium ATPase (Na-K ATPase). EDH-type relaxation in SHR was smaller than that in WKY arteries, and further reduction occurred with aging. Pharmacological experiments suggested a reduced involvement of SKCa and Na-K ATPase and activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and silent information regulator T1 (sirtuin-1; SIRT1) in mesenteric arteries of 12-week-old SHR. These pharmacological findings suggest that in superior mesenteric arteries of the rat, the reduction in EDH-type relaxation occurs with aging and that such a reduction is exacerbated in hypertension. The latter exacerbation appears to involve proteins associated with the process of cellular senescence and is related to impaired function of SKCa and Na-K ATPase, a phenomenon that is also observed in mesenteric arteries of older normotensive rats. PMID:26171229

  5. Calcium Reduces Liver Injury in Mice on a High-Fat Diet: Alterations in Microbial and Bile Acid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem Aslam, Muhammad; Bassis, Christine M.; Zhang, Li; Zaidi, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    A high-fat “Western-style” diet (HFWD) promotes obesity-related conditions including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the histologic manifestation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition to high saturated fat and processed carbohydrates, the typical HFWD is deficient in calcium. Calcium-deficiency is an independent risk factor for many conditions associated with the Western-style diet. However, calcium has not been widely evaluated in the context of NAFLD. The goal of the present study was to determine if dietary calcium supplementation could protect mice fed a HFWD from NAFLD, specifically by decreasing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and its down-stream consequences. Male C57BL/6NCrl mice were maintained for 18-months on a HFWD containing dietary calcium at either 0.41 gm/kg feed (unsupplemented) or 5.25 gm/kg feed (supplemented). Although there was no difference in body weight or steatosis, calcium-supplemented mice were protected against downstream consequences of hepatic steatosis, manifested by lower inflammation, less fibrosis, and by lower overall histologic NAFLD activity scores (NAS). Calcium supplementation correlated with distinctly segregating gut fecal and cecal microbial communities as defined by 16S rRNA gene sequence. Further, calcium supplementation also correlated with decreased hepatic concentration of the major conjugated murine primary bile acid, tauro-β-muricholic acid (as well as a decrease in the parent unconjugated bile acid). Thus, calcium was protective against progression of diet-induced hepatic steatosis to NASH and end-stage liver disease, suggesting that calcium supplementation may effectively protect against adverse hepatic consequences of HFWD in cases where overall diet modification cannot be sustained. This protective effect occurred in concert with calcium-mediated gut microbial community shifts and alterations of the hepatic bile acid pool. PMID:27851786

  6. Metformin reduces body weight gain and improves glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yukari; Hirasawa, Yasushi; Sugiura, Takahiro; Toyoshi, Tohru; Kyuki, Kohei; Ito, Mikio

    2010-01-01

    In an acute treatment experiment, metformin (150, 300 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) markedly reduced the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) (45 kcal% fat-containing diet) for 2 h after the HFD was given to the fasted male C57BL/6J (B6) mice. In addition, metformin at a higher dose increased plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels at 1 h after the HFD was given. On the other hand, pioglitazone (12 mg/kg, p.o.) slightly increased the food intake but did not affect active GLP-1 levels when given at 6 and 12 mg/kg, p.o. In a long-team experiment for 9 weeks, metformin treatment (0.25, 0.5% in the HFD) resulted in reduction of body weight gain and HFD intake. When wet weights of various body fat pads of each mouse were measured at 9 weeks after treatment, metformin markedly decreased these weights. However, pioglitazone treatment (0.01, 0.02% in the HFD) did not have obvious effects on these parameters. Oral glucose tolerance test was carried out after 20-h fasting at 4 weeks post-treatment. Whereas metformin treatment (0.25, 0.5%) markedly improved glucose intolerance, pioglitazone treatment (0.02%) slightly improved this parameter. At 9 weeks, both metformin and pioglitazone markedly improved hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Metformin treatment also improved hyperleptinemia, whereas pioglitazone was ineffective. These results indicate that metformin reduces body weight gain and improves glucose intolerance in HFD-induced obese diabetic B6 mice.

  7. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (P<0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (P<0·001) were reduced after 8 weeks, compared with the C-diet group. The difference in change between the two groups at the end of the study was -9 and -11 % in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. No difference in change in plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-6, soluble TNF receptor 1 and interferon-γ) was observed between the groups. In conclusion, exchanging a few regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  8. Intrameal Hepatic Portal and Intraperitoneal Infusions of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Reduce Spontaneous Meal Size in the Rat via Different Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rüttimann, Elisabeth B.; Arnold, Myrtha; Hillebrand, Jacquelien J.; Geary, Nori; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral administration of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 reduces food intake in animals and humans, but the sites and mechanism of this effect and its physiological significance are not yet clear. To investigate these issues, we prepared rats with chronic catheters and infused GLP-1 (0.2 ml/min; 2.5 or 5.0 min) during the first spontaneous dark-phase meals. Infusions were remotely triggered 2–3 min after meal onset. Hepatic portal vein (HPV) infusion of 1.0 or 3.0 (but not 0.33) nmol/kg GLP-1 reduced the size of the ongoing meal compared with vehicle without affecting the subsequent intermeal interval, the size of subsequent meals, or cumulative food intake. In double-cannulated rats, HPV and vena cava infusions of 1.0 nmol/kg GLP-1 reduced meal size similarly. HPV GLP-1 infusions of 1.0 nmol/kg GLP-1 also reduced meal size similarly in rats with subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentations and in sham-operated rats. Finally, HPV and ip infusions of 10 nmol/kg GLP-1 reduced meal size similarly in sham-operated rats, but only HPV GLP-1 reduced meal size in subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation rats. These data indicate that peripherally infused GLP-1 acutely and specifically reduces the size of ongoing meals in rats and that the satiating effect of ip, but not iv, GLP-1 requires vagal afferent signaling. The findings suggest that iv GLP-1 infusions do not inhibit eating via hepatic portal or hepatic GLP-1 receptors but may act directly on the brain. PMID:18948395

  9. Inhibition of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide Receptor Signaling in Adipose Tissue Reduces Insulin Resistance and Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Joo, Erina; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Toru; Taura, Daisuke; Iwasaki, Kanako; Sankoda, Akiko; Shibue, Kimitaka; Harada, Takanari; Suzuki, Kazuyo; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2017-04-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR) directly induces energy accumulation in adipose tissue in vitro. However, the importance of the direct effect of GIPR signaling on adipose tissue in vivo remains unclear. In the current study, we generated adipose tissue-specific GIPR knockout (GIPR(adipo-/-)) mice and investigated the direct actions of GIP in adipose tissue. Under high-fat diet (HFD)-fed conditions, GIPR(adipo-/-) mice had significantly lower body weight and lean body mass compared with those in floxed GIPR (GIPR(fl/fl)) mice, although the fat volume was not significantly different between the two groups. Interestingly, insulin resistance, liver weight, and hepatic steatosis were reduced in HFD-fed GIPR(adipo-/-) mice. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine that induces insulin resistance, were reduced in HFD-fed GIPR(adipo-/-) mice compared with those in HFD-fed GIPR(fl/fl) mice. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) signaling is located downstream of the IL-6 receptor and is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Expression levels of SOCS3 mRNA were significantly lower in adipose and liver tissues of HFD-fed GIPR(adipo-/-) mice compared with those of HFD-fed GIPR(fl/fl) mice. Thus, GIPR signaling in adipose tissue plays a critical role in HFD-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in vivo, which may involve IL-6 signaling.

  10. Tetrahydro iso-alpha acids from hops improve glucose homeostasis and reduce body weight gain and metabolic endotoxemia in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Everard, Amandine; Geurts, Lucie; Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.

  11. Supplementation of a Fermented Soybean Extract Reduces Body Mass and Prevents Obesity in High Fat Diet-Induced C57BL/6J Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Yeon; Aravinthan, Adithan; Park, Young Shik; Hwang, Kyo Yeol; Seong, Su-Il; Hwang, Kwontack

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a growing health problem that many countries face, mostly due to the consumption of a Westernized diet. In this present study we observed the effects of a soybean extract fermented by Bacillus subtilis MORI (BTD-1) containing 1-deoxynojirimycin against high fat diet-induced obesity. The results obtained from this study indicated that BTD-1 reduced body weight, regulated hepatic lipid content and adipose tissue, and also affected liver antioxidant enzymes and glucose metabolism. These results suggest that administration of BTD-1 affects obesity by inhibiting hyperglycemia and free radical-mediated stress; it also reduces lipid accumulation. Therefore, BTD-1 may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity and its related secondary complications. PMID:27752494

  12. RENAL PRO-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS ARE REDUCED BY GROWTH HORMONE RESISTANCE BUT NOT BY VISCERAL FAT REMOVAL

    PubMed Central

    Gesing, Adam; Bartke, Andrzej; Wang, Feiya; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata; Masternak, Michal M.

    2013-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice are highly insulin sensitive and long-lived. Surgical visceral fat removal (VFR) improves insulin signaling in normal mice and rats and extends longevity in rats. We have previously demonstrated decreased expression of certain pro-apoptotic genes in kidneys of GHRKO mice, and suggested that this may contribute to the increased longevity of these animals. The aim of the present study was to examine the level of the following proteins: caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, bax, bad, phospho-bad (p-bad), bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, Apaf-1, phospho-p53 (pp53) and cytochrome c (cyc) in male GHRKO and normal (N) mice subjected to VFR or sham surgery, at approximately 6 months of age. The kidneys were collected 2 months after VFR. Results: Caspase-3, caspase-8, bax, bad, Smac/DIABLO, Apaf-1 and pp53 levels were decreased in GHRKO mice as compared to N animals. VFR did not change the level of any of the examined proteins. Conclusion: Decreased renal levels of pro-apoptotic proteins may contribute to extended lifespan due to targeted disruption of GH receptor (Ghr) gene but are apparently not involved in mediating the effects of VFR. PMID:21391871

  13. Spontaneous decoration of Au nanoparticles on micro-patterned reduced graphene oxide shaped by focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. C.; Tok, E. S.; Teoh, H. F.; Sow, C. H.

    2015-02-07

    We report a facile, two-step method for the micro-landscaping of Au nanoparticles(NPs) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) film en route to micro-patterned Au(NPs)-rGO hybrid functional materials. This method employs a focused laser beam to first locally convert GO to rGO before immersing the micro-patterned GO-rGO film into HAuCl{sub 4} solution. The rGO micro-pattern, shaped by the focused laser beam, serves as nucleation sites for the reduction of Au ions. The reduction mechanism that governs the decoration of Au NPs on rGO films is akin to electroless deposition process. In this instance, surface charges that are formed during laser reduction of GO to rGO provide active nucleation sites for Au{sup 3+} ions to form Au NPs when HAuCl{sub 4} solution is introduced. The number density, the size, and size distribution of the Au NPs can thus be directly tuned and preferentially anchored onto the rGO micro-pattern by varying the incident laser power, the scanning speed of the laser, or the concentration of HAuCl{sub 4}. The resulting hybrid materials can be used as a substrate for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Using Rhodamine 6G as the test subject, we found an improvement of SERS enhancement over bare rGO of up to four times, depending on the size of the Au NPs.

  14. Pharmacological Administration of the Isoflavone Daidzein Enhances Cell Proliferation and Reduces High Fat Diet-Induced Apoptosis and Gliosis in the Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Patricia; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J.; Serrano, Antonia; Crespillo, Ana; Cifuentes, Manuel; López-Ávalos, María-Dolores; Grondona, Jesús M.; Vida, Margarita; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Soy extracts have been claimed to be neuroprotective against brain insults, an effect related to the estrogenic properties of isoflavones. However, the effects of individual isoflavones on obesity-induced disruption of adult neurogenesis have not yet been analyzed. In the present study we explore the effects of pharmacological administration of daidzein, a main soy isoflavone, in cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and gliosis in the adult hippocampus of animals exposed to a very high-fat diet. Rats made obese after 12-week exposure to a standard or high-fat (HFD, 60%) diets were treated with daidzein (50 mg kg−1) for 13 days. Then, plasma levels of metabolites and metabolic hormones, cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ), and immunohistochemical markers of hippocampal cell apoptosis (caspase-3), gliosis (GFAP and Iba-1), food reward factor FosB and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were analyzed. Treatment with daidzein reduced food/caloric intake and body weight gain in obese rats. This was associated with glucose tolerance, low levels of HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and testosterone, and high levels of leptin and 17β-estradiol. Daidzein increased the number of phospho-histone H3 and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-ir cells detected in the SGZ of standard diet and HFD-fed rats. Daidzein reversed the HFD-associated enhanced immunohistochemical expression of caspase-3, FosB, GFAP, Iba-1 and ERα in the hippocampus, being more prominent in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that pharmacological treatment with isoflavones regulates metabolic alterations associated with enhancement of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis and gliosis in response to high-fat diet. PMID:23741384

  15. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2 knockdown leads to decreased fatty acid oxidation in fat body and reduced reproductive capacity in the insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Klett, Eric L; De Paula, Iron F; Ramos, Isabela B; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are important intermediates in lipid metabolism and are synthesized from fatty acids by long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL). The hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, produces glycerolipids in the midgut after a blood meal, which are stored as triacylglycerol in the fat body and eggs. We identified twenty acyl-CoA synthetase genes in R. prolixus, two encoding ACSL isoforms (RhoprAcsl1 and RhoprAcsl2). RhoprAcsl1 transcripts increased in posterior midgut on the second day after feeding, and RhoprAcsl2 was highly transcribed on the tenth day. Both enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant RhoprACSL1 and RhoprACSL2 had broad pH optima (7.5-9.5 and 6.5-9.5, respectively), were inhibited by triacsin C, and were rosiglitazone-insensitive. Both showed similar apparent Km for palmitic and oleic acid (2-6 μM), but different Km for arachidonic acid (0.5 and 6 μM for RhoprACSL1-Flag and RhoprACSL2-Flag, respectively). The knockdown of RhoprAcsl1 did not result in noticeable phenotypes. However, RhoprACSL2 deficient insects exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in triacylglycerol content in the fat body, and 90% decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation. RhoprAcsl2 knockdown also resulted in 20% increase in lifespan, delayed digestion, 30% reduced oviposition, and 50% reduction in egg hatching. Laid eggs and hatched nymphs showed remarkable alterations in morphology. In summary, R. prolixus ACSL isoforms have distinct roles on lipid metabolism. Although RhoprACSL1 functions remain unclear, we propose that RhoprACSL2 is the main contributor for the formation of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool channeled for β-oxidation in the fat body, and is also required for normal reproduction.

  16. Pharmacological administration of the isoflavone daidzein enhances cell proliferation and reduces high fat diet-induced apoptosis and gliosis in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Patricia; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Crespillo, Ana; Cifuentes, Manuel; López-Ávalos, María-Dolores; Grondona, Jesús M; Vida, Margarita; Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Soy extracts have been claimed to be neuroprotective against brain insults, an effect related to the estrogenic properties of isoflavones. However, the effects of individual isoflavones on obesity-induced disruption of adult neurogenesis have not yet been analyzed. In the present study we explore the effects of pharmacological administration of daidzein, a main soy isoflavone, in cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and gliosis in the adult hippocampus of animals exposed to a very high-fat diet. Rats made obese after 12-week exposure to a standard or high-fat (HFD, 60%) diets were treated with daidzein (50 mg kg(-1)) for 13 days. Then, plasma levels of metabolites and metabolic hormones, cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ), and immunohistochemical markers of hippocampal cell apoptosis (caspase-3), gliosis (GFAP and Iba-1), food reward factor FosB and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were analyzed. Treatment with daidzein reduced food/caloric intake and body weight gain in obese rats. This was associated with glucose tolerance, low levels of HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and testosterone, and high levels of leptin and 17β-estradiol. Daidzein increased the number of phospho-histone H3 and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-ir cells detected in the SGZ of standard diet and HFD-fed rats. Daidzein reversed the HFD-associated enhanced immunohistochemical expression of caspase-3, FosB, GFAP, Iba-1 and ERα in the hippocampus, being more prominent in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that pharmacological treatment with isoflavones regulates metabolic alterations associated with enhancement of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis and gliosis in response to high-fat diet.

  17. Treatment with a Ca(2+) channel blocker, barnidipine, reduces platelet-derived growth factor B-chain mRNA in glomeruli of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, M; Yamauchi, T; Ogura, T; Oishi, T; Mimura, Y; Otsuka, F; Kashihara, N; Makino, H

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of barnidipine hydrochloride, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, on the glomerular level of mRNA expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen-week-old SHR were provided with food containing barnidipine (0.6 mg/g of food, average dose during treatment: 53 mg/kg of body mass/day) for 3 weeks. A stable reduction in systolic blood pressure relative to that of age-matched control SHR was recorded after week 1 of therapy. Although no renal histological changes were observed after 3 weeks of treatment with barnidipine, the level of expression of PDGF B-chain mRNA in glomeruli was significantly reduced relative to that in control SHR. The glomerular level of TGF-beta(1) mRNA expression was not affected by the treatment. Treatment with barnidipine significantly reduced the excretion of urinary protein. Thus, the stable reduction in systemic blood pressure by barnidipine is associated with a reduction in PDGF B-chain mRNA expression in the glomerulus and reduction in urinary protein excretion in SHR.

  18. Heat Killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 Reduces Fibrosis Effects on the Liver and Heart in High Fat Diet-Hamsters via TGF-β Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Wei-Jen; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Ray-Jade; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and NAFLD is highly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Scholars have suggested that certain probiotics may significantly impact cardiovascular health, particularly certain Lactobacillus species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263) probiotics, which have been shown to reduce obesity and arteriosclerosis in vivo. In the present study, we examined the potential of heat-killed bacteria to attenuate high fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic and cardiac damages and the possible underlying mechanism of the positive effects of heat-killed Lr263 oral supplements. Heat-killed Lr263 treatments (625 and 3125 mg/kg-hamster/day) were provided as a daily supplement by oral gavage to HFD-fed hamsters for eight weeks. The results show that heat-killed Lr263 treatments reduce fatty liver syndrome. Moreover, heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 supplementation in HFD hamsters also reduced fibrosis in the liver and heart by reducing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) expression levels. In conclusion, heat-killed Lr263 can reduce lipid metabolic stress in HFD hamsters and decrease the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26516851

  19. Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Hallikainen, Maarit; Olsson, Johan; Gylling, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST) added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group (n = 27) consumed 2.7 g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65 mL/d) with the control group (n = 29) receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls (P < 0.05 for all). Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12-25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls (P < 0.05 for all). Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390.

  20. Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST) added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group (n = 27) consumed 2.7 g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65 mL/d) with the control group (n = 29) receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls (P < 0.05 for all). Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12–25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls (P < 0.05 for all). Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390. PMID:24151550

  1. High-fat diet reduces local myostatin-1 paralog expression and alters skeletal muscle lipid content in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Galt, Nicholas J; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Meyer, Ben M; Barrows, Frederic T; Biga, Peggy R

    2014-06-01

    Muscle growth is an energetically demanding process that is reliant on intramuscular fatty acid depots in most fishes. The complex mechanisms regulating this growth and lipid metabolism are of great interest for human health and aquaculture applications. It is well established that the skeletal muscle chalone, myostatin, plays a role in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in mammals; however, this function has not been fully assessed in fishes. We therefore examined the interaction between dietary lipid levels and myostatin expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Five weeks of high-fat diet (HFD; 25 % lipid) intake increased white muscle lipid content and decreased circulating glucose levels and hepatosomatic index when compared to low-fat diet (LFD; 10 % lipid) intake. In addition, HFD intake reduced myostatin-1a and myostatin-1b expression in white muscle and myostatin-1b expression in brain tissue. Characterization of the myostatin-1a, myostatin-1b, and myostatin-2a promoters revealed putative binding sites for a subset of transcription factors associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that HFD may regulate myostatin expression through cis-regulatory elements sensitive to increased lipid intake. Further, these findings provide a framework for future investigations of mechanisms describing the relationships between myostatin and lipid metabolism in fish.

  2. High-fat diet reduces local myostatin-1 paralog expression and alters skeletal muscle lipid content in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Galt, Nicholas J.; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Meyer, Ben M.; Barrows, Frederic T.; Biga, Peggy R.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle growth is an energetically demanding process that is reliant on intramuscular fatty acid depots in most fishes. The complex mechanisms regulating this growth and lipid metabolism are of great interest for human health and aquaculture applications. It is well established that the skeletal muscle chalone, myostatin, plays a role in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in mammals; however, this function has not been fully assessed in fishes. We therefore examined the interaction between dietary lipid levels and myostatin expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Five-weeks of high-fat (HFD; 25% lipid) dietary intake increased white muscle lipid content, and decreased circulating glucose levels and hepatosomatic index when compared to low-fat diet (LFD; 10% lipid) intake. In addition HFD intake reduced myostatin-1a and -1b expression in white muscle and myostatin-1b expression in brain tissue. Characterization of the myostatin-1a, -1b, and -2a promoters revealed putative binding sites for a subset of transcription factors associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that HFD may regulate myostatin expression through cis-regulatory elements sensitive to increased lipid intake. Further, these findings provide a framework for future investigations of mechanisms describing the relationships between myostatin and lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:24264425

  3. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces energy intake from high fat and sweet snacks in middle-aged healthy women.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Torii, Kunio; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and inosine monophosphate-5 (IMP) are flavor enhancers for umami taste. However, their effects on appetite and food intake are not well-researched. The objective of the current study was to test their additions in a broth preload on subsequent appetite ratings, energy intake and food choice. Eighty-six healthy middle-aged women with normal body weight received three preload conditions on 3 test days 1 week apart - a low-energy chicken flavor broth (200 ml) as the control preload, and broths with added MSG alone (0.5 g/100 ml, MSG broth) or in combination with IMP (0.05 g/100 ml) (MSG+ broth) served as the experimental conditions. Fifteen minutes after preload administration subjects were provided an ad libitum testing meal which consisted of 16 snacks varying in taste and fat content. MSG and MSG+ enhanced savory taste and broth properties of liking and pleasantness. In comparison with control, the MSG preload resulted in less consumption of total energy, as well as energy from sweet and high-fat snacks. Furthermore, MSG broth preload reduced added sugar intake. These findings were not observed after MSG+ preload. Appetite ratings were not different across the three preloads. Results suggest a potential role of MSG addition to a low-energy broth preload in subsequent energy intake and food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01761045.

  4. Berberine reduces methylation of the MTTP promoter and alleviates fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet in rats[S

    PubMed Central

    Chang, XinXia; Yan, HongMei; Fei, Jing; Jiang, MingHong; Zhu, HongGuang; Lu, DaRu; Gao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    High-calorie food leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through dysregulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. DNA methylation represents one of the mechanisms that contributes to dysregulation of gene expression via interaction with environmental factors. Berberine can alleviate fatty liver in db/db and ob/ob mice. Here, we investigated whether DNA methylation is involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and whether berberine improves NAFLD through influencing the methylation status of promoters of key genes. HFD markedly decreased the mRNA levels encoding CPT-1α, MTTP, and LDLR in the liver. In parallel, DNA methylation levels in the MTTP promoter of rats with NAFLD were elevated in the liver. Interestingly, berberine reversed the downregulated expression of these genes and selectively inhibited HFD-induced increase in the methylation of MTTP. Consistently, berberine increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) export and ameliorated HFD-induced fatty liver. Furthermore, a close negative correlation was observed between the MTTP expression and its DNA methylation (at sites −113 and −20). These data indicate that DNA methylation of the MTTP promoter likely contributes to its downregulation during HFD-induced NAFLD and, further, that berberine can partially counteract the HFD-elicited dysregulation of MTTP by reversing the methylation state of its promoter, leading to reduced hepatic fat content. PMID:20567026

  5. Combined inhibition of PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ reduces fat mass by enhancing α-MSH-dependent sympathetic drive.

    PubMed

    Perino, Alessia; Beretta, Martina; Kilić, Ana; Ghigo, Alessandra; Carnevale, Daniela; Repetto, Ivan Enrico; Braccini, Laura; Longo, Dario; Liebig-Gonglach, Michaela; Zaglia, Tania; Iacobucci, Roberta; Mongillo, Marco; Wetzker, Reinhard; Bauer, Michael; Aime, Silvio; Vercelli, Alessandro; Lembo, Giuseppe; Pfeifer, Alexander; Hirsch, Emilio

    2014-11-18

    Obesity is defined as an abnormal increase in white adipose tissue and has become a major medical burden worldwide. Signals from the brain control not only appetite but also energy expenditure, both of which contribute to body weight. We showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of two phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ) in mice reduced fat mass by promoting increased energy expenditure. This effect was accompanied by stimulation of lipolysis and the acquisition of the energy-burning characteristics of brown adipocytes by white adipocytes, a process referred to as "browning." The browning of the white adipocytes involved increased norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nervous system. We found that PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ together promoted a negative feedback loop downstream of the melanocortin 4 receptor in the central nervous system, which controls appetite and energy expenditure in the periphery. Analysis of mice with drug-induced sympathetic denervation suggested that these kinases controlled the sympathetic drive in the brain. Administration of inhibitors of both PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ to mice by intracerebroventricular delivery induced a 10% reduction in fat mass as quickly as 10 days. These results suggest that combined inhibition of PI3Kβ and PI3Kγ might represent a promising treatment for obesity.

  6. Discordance between fat mass index and body mass index is associated with reduced bone mineral density in women but not in men: the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, K; Hunter, M; James, A; Lim, E M; Cooke, B R; Walsh, J P

    2017-01-01

    The obesity-BMD relationship is complex. In 3045 middle-aged adults, we found that in women (but not men) with discordant fat mass index (FMI)/BMI categories, higher body fat for BMI was associated with lower BMD, suggesting that increased fat mass without an accompanying increase in lean mass may be deleterious to bone.

  7. Spontaneous Fission

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Segre, Emilio

    1950-11-22

    The first attempt to discover spontaneous fission in uranium was made by [Willard] Libby, who, however, failed to detect it on account of the smallness of effect. In 1940, [K. A.] Petrzhak and [G. N.] Flerov, using more sensitive methods, discovered spontaneous fission in uranium and gave some rough estimates of the spontaneous fission decay constant of this substance. Subsequently, extensive experimental work on the subject has been performed by several investigators and will be quoted in the various sections. [N.] Bohr and [A.] Wheeler have given a theory of the effect based on the usual ideas of penetration of potential barriers. On this project spontaneous fission has been studied for the past several years in an effort to obtain a complete picture of the phenomenon. For this purpose the spontaneous fission decay constants {lambda} have been measured for separated isotopes of the heavy elements wherever possible. Moreover, the number {nu} of neutrons emitted per fission has been measured wherever feasible, and other characteristics of the spontaneous fission process have been studied. This report summarizes the spontaneous fission work done at Los Alamos up to January 1, 1945. A chronological record of the work is contained in the Los Alamos monthly reports.

  8. Fats and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Reduce Your Intake Public Health Concerns Carbohydrates Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar Fiber Added Sugar in the Diet Low-Carbohydrate Diets Sustainability Healthy Weight Measuring Fat The Best ...

  9. AJS1669, a novel small-molecule muscle glycogen synthase activator, improves glucose metabolism and reduces body fat mass in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Kazuhiro; Takeshita, Sen; Kawasaki, Noriko; Miyanaga, Wataru; Okamatsu, Yoriko; Dohi, Mizuki; Nakagawa, Tadakiyo

    2017-04-01

    Impaired glycogen synthesis and turnover are common in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As glycogen synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the synthetic process, it presents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we identified a novel, potent and orally available GS activator AJS1669 {sodium 2-[[5-[[4-(4,5-difluoro-2-methylsulfanyl-phenyl)phenoxy] methyl]furan-2-carbonyl]-(2-furylmethyl)amino] acetate}. In vitro, we performed a glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) activation assay for screening GS activators and identified that the activity of AJS1669 was further potentiated in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). In vivo, we used ob/ob mice to evaluate the novel anti-diabetic effects of AJS1669 by measuring basal blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance and body fat mass index. Repeated administration of AJS1669 over 4 weeks reduced blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in ob/ob mice. AJS1669 also improved glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased body fat mass. The mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis were elevated in skeletal muscle tissue following AJS1669 treatment. Hepatic tissue of treated mice also exhibited elevated expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation. In contrast to ob/ob mice, in C57Bl/6 mice AJS1669 administration did not alter body weight or reduce glucose levels. These results demonstrate that pharmacological agents that activate GYS1, the main GS subtype found in skeletal muscle, have potential for use as novel treatments for diabetes that improve glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle.

  10. AJS1669, a novel small-molecule muscle glycogen synthase activator, improves glucose metabolism and reduces body fat mass in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Kazuhiro; Takeshita, Sen; Kawasaki, Noriko; Miyanaga, Wataru; Okamatsu, Yoriko; Dohi, Mizuki; Nakagawa, Tadakiyo

    2017-01-01

    Impaired glycogen synthesis and turnover are common in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As glycogen synthase (GS) is a key enzyme involved in the synthetic process, it presents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we identified a novel, potent and orally available GS activator AJS1669 {sodium 2-[[5-[[4-(4,5-difluoro-2-methylsulfanyl-phenyl) phenoxy] methyl]furan-2-carbonyl]-(2-furylmethyl)amino] acetate}. In vitro, we performed a glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) activation assay for screening GS activators and identified that the activity of AJS1669 was further potentiated in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). In vivo, we used ob/ob mice to evaluate the novel anti-diabetic effects of AJS1669 by measuring basal blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance and body fat mass index. Repeated administration of AJS1669 over 4 weeks reduced blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in ob/ob mice. AJS1669 also improved glucose tolerance in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased body fat mass. The mRNA levels of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis were elevated in skeletal muscle tissue following AJS1669 treatment. Hepatic tissue of treated mice also exhibited elevated expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation. In contrast to ob/ob mice, in C57Bl/6 mice AJS1669 administration did not alter body weight or reduce glucose levels. These results demonstrate that pharmacological agents that activate GYS1, the main GS subtype found in skeletal muscle, have potential for use as novel treatments for diabetes that improve glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:28290602

  11. COH-SR4 Reduces Body Weight, Improves Glycemic Control and Prevents Hepatic Steatosis in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Figarola, James Lester; Singhal, Preeti; Rahbar, Samuel; Gugiu, Bogdan Gabriel; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 (“SR4”) is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight.) in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1), acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ). Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders. PMID:24376752

  12. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  13. Fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Canteli, B; Saez, F; de los Ríos, A; Alvarez, C

    1996-04-01

    We report the MR appearance of a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is a previously unreported etiology for knee mass. The role of MR imaging in differentiating fat necrosis from other causes of soft tissue masses is discussed. We conclude that MR characteristics of subcutaneous fat necrosis are typical and allow its differentiation from other types of soft tissue lesions.

  14. Pioglitazone reduces angiotensin II-induced COX-2 expression through inhibition of ROS production and ET-1 transcription in vascular cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Girón, Jose V; Palacios, Roberto; Martín, Angela; Hernanz, Raquel; Aguado, Andrea; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Barrús, María T; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J

    2014-06-01

    Glitazones have anti-inflammatory properties by interfering with the transcription of proinflammatory genes, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and with ROS production, which are increased in hypertension. This study analyzed whether pioglitazone modulates COX-2 expression in hypertension by interfering with ROS and endothelin (ET)-1. In vivo, pioglitazone (2.5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), 28 days) reduced the greater levels of COX-2, pre-pro-ET-1, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression and activity as well as O2 (·-) production found in aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). ANG II increased COX-2 and pre-pro-ET-1 levels more in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from hypertensive rats compared with normotensive rats. The ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 reduced ANG II-induced COX-2 expression in SHR cells. ANG II also increased NOX-1 expression, NOX activity, and superoxide production in SHR cells; the selective NOX-1 inhibitor ML-171 and catalase reduced ANG II-induced COX-2 and ET-1 transcription. ANG II also increased c-Jun transcription and phospho-JNK1/2, phospho-c-Jun, and p65 NF-κB subunit nuclear protein expression. SP-600125 and lactacystin, JNK and NF-κB inhibitors, respectively, reduced ANG II-induced ET-1, COX-2, and NOX-1 levels and NOX activity. Pioglitazone reduced the effects of ANG II on NOX activity, NOX-1, pre-pro-ET-1, COX-2, and c-Jun mRNA levels, JNK activation, and nuclear phospho-c-Jun and p65 expression. In conclusion, ROS production and ET-1 are involved in ANG II-induced COX-2 expression in SHRs, explaining the greater COX-2 expression observed in this strain. Furthermore, pioglitazone inhibits ANG II-induced COX-2 expression likely by interfering with NF-κB and activator protein-1 proinflammatory pathways and downregulating ROS production and ET-1 transcription, thus contributing to the anti-inflammatory properties of glitazones.

  15. A novel hydrodynamic approach of drag-reducing polymers to improve left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinlu; Wang, Xu; Hu, Feng; Zhou, Boda; Chen, Hai-Bin; Zha, Daogang; Liu, Yili; Guo, Yansong; Zheng, Lemin; Xiu, Jiancheng

    2016-01-01

    Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs), when added in minute concentrations, have been shown to decrease peripheral vascular resistance. In this study, the effect of DRPs on the hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling was evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male SHR and age-matched Wistar rats were divided into four groups and received intravenous injection of normal saline (NS) or DRPs. Body weight (BW), heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. Echocardiography was used to evaluate the changes in left ventricle (LV) function and global wall motion. The LV and aorta were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Cell size of cardiomyocytes and aortic medial thickness were evaluated for each section. The expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) of LV and aorta was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in the increase of SBP among SHR + NS, SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups. SHR + NS group had markedly smaller left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter but bigger anterior and posterior systolic wall thicknesses, while there was no significant difference in fractional shortening and ejection fraction. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of cardiomyocytes and the medial thickness of the aorta in SHR + 10 (ppm) DRP and SHR + 20 (ppm) DRP groups were significantly reduced compared with SHR + NS group. The expression of ET-1 in SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups was significantly attenuated. These results suggest that chronic treatment with DRPs can protect against left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling. DRPs may offer a new approach to the treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling caused by hypertension. PMID:28008249

  16. A novel hydrodynamic approach of drag-reducing polymers to improve left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinlu; Wang, Xu; Hu, Feng; Zhou, Boda; Chen, Hai-Bin; Zha, Daogang; Liu, Yili; Guo, Yansong; Zheng, Lemin; Xiu, Jiancheng

    Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs), when added in minute concentrations, have been shown to decrease peripheral vascular resistance. In this study, the effect of DRPs on the hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling was evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male SHR and age-matched Wistar rats were divided into four groups and received intravenous injection of normal saline (NS) or DRPs. Body weight (BW), heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. Echocardiography was used to evaluate the changes in left ventricle (LV) function and global wall motion. The LV and aorta were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Cell size of cardiomyocytes and aortic medial thickness were evaluated for each section. The expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) of LV and aorta was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in the increase of SBP among SHR + NS, SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups. SHR + NS group had markedly smaller left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter but bigger anterior and posterior systolic wall thicknesses, while there was no significant difference in fractional shortening and ejection fraction. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of cardiomyocytes and the medial thickness of the aorta in SHR + 10 (ppm) DRP and SHR + 20 (ppm) DRP groups were significantly reduced compared with SHR + NS group. The expression of ET-1 in SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups was significantly attenuated. These results suggest that chronic treatment with DRPs can protect against left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling. DRPs may offer a new approach to the treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling caused by hypertension.

  17. Hypothyroidism Reduces the Size of Ovarian Follicles and Promotes Hypertrophy of Periovarian Fat with Infiltration of Macrophages in Adult Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Castelán, J.; Méndez-Tepepa, M.; Carrillo-Portillo, Y.; Anaya-Hernández, A.; Zambrano, E.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian failure is related to dyslipidemias and inflammation, as well as to hypertrophy and dysfunction of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Although hypothyroidism has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemias, and inflammation in humans and animals, its influence on the characteristics of ovarian follicles in adulthood is scarcely known. Control and hypothyroid rabbits were used to analyze the ovarian follicles, expression of aromatase in the ovary, serum concentration of lipids, leptin, and uric acid, size of adipocytes, and infiltration of macrophages in the periovarian VAT. Hypothyroidism did not affect the percentage of functional or atretic follicles. However, it reduced the size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles considered as large and the expression of aromatase in the ovary. This effect was associated with high serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In addition, hypothyroidism induced hypertrophy of adipocytes and a major infiltration of CD68+ macrophages into the periovarian VAT. Our results suggest that the reduced size of ovarian follicles promoted by hypothyroidism could be associated with dyslipidemias, hypertrophy, and inflammation of the periovarian VAT. Present findings may be useful to understand the influence of hypothyroidism in the ovary function in adulthood. PMID:28133606

  18. Hypothyroidism Reduces the Size of Ovarian Follicles and Promotes Hypertrophy of Periovarian Fat with Infiltration of Macrophages in Adult Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Castelán, J; Méndez-Tepepa, M; Carrillo-Portillo, Y; Anaya-Hernández, A; Rodríguez-Antolín, J; Zambrano, E; Castelán, F; Cuevas-Romero, E

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian failure is related to dyslipidemias and inflammation, as well as to hypertrophy and dysfunction of the visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Although hypothyroidism has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemias, and inflammation in humans and animals, its influence on the characteristics of ovarian follicles in adulthood is scarcely known. Control and hypothyroid rabbits were used to analyze the ovarian follicles, expression of aromatase in the ovary, serum concentration of lipids, leptin, and uric acid, size of adipocytes, and infiltration of macrophages in the periovarian VAT. Hypothyroidism did not affect the percentage of functional or atretic follicles. However, it reduced the size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles considered as large and the expression of aromatase in the ovary. This effect was associated with high serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In addition, hypothyroidism induced hypertrophy of adipocytes and a major infiltration of CD68+ macrophages into the periovarian VAT. Our results suggest that the reduced size of ovarian follicles promoted by hypothyroidism could be associated with dyslipidemias, hypertrophy, and inflammation of the periovarian VAT. Present findings may be useful to understand the influence of hypothyroidism in the ovary function in adulthood.

  19. Insulin, not glutamine dipeptide, reduces lipases expression and prevents fat wasting and weight loss in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Hely; Silva, Flaviane de Fatima; da Silva, Francemilson Goulart; Silva, Milene Ortiz; Graciano, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues; Martins, Maria Isabel Lovo; Rafael Carpinelli, Ângelo; Mazucco, Tânia Longo; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2017-04-05

    Cachexia is the main cause of mortality in advanced cancer patients. We investigated the effects of insulin (INS) and glutamine dipeptide (GDP), isolated or associated, on cachexia and metabolic changes induced by Walker 256 tumor in rats. INS (NPH, 40 UI/kg, sc) or GDP (1.5g/kg, oral gavage) was once-daily administered during 11 days after tumor cell inoculation. GDP, INS or INS+GDP treatments did not influence the tumor growth. However, INS and INS+GDP prevented retroperitoneal fat wasting and body weight loss of tumor-bearing rats. In consistency, INS and INS+GDP prevented the increased expression of triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), without changing the expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue of tumor-bearing rats. INS and INS+GDP also prevented anorexia and hyperlactatemia of tumor-bearing rats. However, INS and INS+GDP accentuated the loss of muscle mass (gastrocnemius, soleus and long digital extensor) without affecting the myostatin expression in the gastrocnemius muscle and blood corticosterone. GDP treatment did not promote beneficial effects. It can be concluded that treatment with INS (INS or INS + GDP), not with GDP, prevented fat wasting and weight loss in tumor-bearing rats without reducing tumor growth. These effects might be attributed to the reduction of lipases expression (ATGL and LHS) and increased food intake. The results show the physiological function of INS in the suppression of lipolysis, induced by cachexia mediators in tumor-bearing rats.

  20. Green tea extract with polyethylene glycol-3350 reduces body weight and improves glucose tolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Yong Woon; Kim, Sang Pyo; Cho, Ho-Chan; Ahn, Shinbyoung; Bae, Ki-Cheor; Im, Seung-Soon; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2013-08-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is regarded to be effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes, but definitive evidences have not been proven. Based on the assumption that the gallated catechins (GCs) in GTE attenuate intestinal glucose and lipid absorption, while enhancing insulin resistance when GCs are present in the circulation through inhibiting cellular glucose uptake in various tissues, this study attempted to block the intestinal absorption of GCs and prolong their residence time in the lumen. We then observed whether GTE containing the nonabsorbable GCs could ameliorate body weight (BW) gain and glucose intolerance in db/db and high-fat diet mice. Inhibition of the intestinal absorption of GCs was accomplished by co-administering the nontoxic polymer polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG). C57BLKS/J db/db and high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with drugs as follows: GTE, PEG, GTE+PEG, voglibose, or pioglitazone. GTE mixed with meals did not have any ameliorating effects on BW gain and glucose intolerance. However, the administration of GTE plus PEG significantly reduced BW gain, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, without affecting food intake and appetite. The effect was comparable to the effects of an α-glucosidase inhibitor and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ/α agonist. These results indicate that prolonging the action of GCs of GTE in the intestinal lumen and blocking their entry into the circulation may allow GTE to be used as a prevention and treatment for both obesity and obesity-induced type 2 diabetes.

  1. Mct8-Deficient Mice Have Increased Energy Expenditure and Reduced Fat Mass That Is Abrogated by Normalization of Serum T3 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Di Cosmo, Caterina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Ye, Honggang; Ferrara, Alfonso Massimiliano; Weiss, Roy E.; Refetoff, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Children with monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency lose weight, even when adequately nourished. Changes in serum markers of thyroid hormone (TH) action compatible with thyrotoxicosis suggested that this might be due to T3 excess in peripheral tissues. Mct8-deficient mice (Mct8KO) replicate the human thyroid phenotype and are thus suitable for metabolic studies so far unavailable in humans. In the current work, compared with wild-type (Wt) mice, Mct8KO mice were leaner due to reduced fat mass. They tended to use more carbohydrates and fewer lipids during the dark phase. Mct8KO mice had increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and food and water intake, with normal total activity, indicating hypermetabolism. To determine whether this is due to the high serum T3, we studied mice deficient in both Mct8 and deiodinase 1 (Mct8D1KO) with serum T3 similar to Wt mice and Wt mice given L-T3 to raise their serum T3 to the level of Mct8KO mice. Contrary to Mct8KO, Mct8D1KO mice had similar fat mass, TEE, and food intake as their D1KO littermates, whereas T3-treated Wt mice showed increased food intake and TEE, similar to Mct8KO mice. In skeletal muscle, Mct8KO mice had increased T3 content and TH action and increased glucose metabolism, which improved in Mct8D1KO mice. These studies indicate that the high serum T3 in MCT8 deficiency increases the TEE and fails to maintain weight despite adequate calorie intake. This is mediated by tissues that are not predominantly MCT8 dependent for TH transport, including skeletal muscle. Normalizing serum T3 level by deleting deiodinase 1 corrects body composition and the metabolic alterations caused by the MCT8 deficiency. PMID:24029243

  2. Mct8-deficient mice have increased energy expenditure and reduced fat mass that is abrogated by normalization of serum T3 levels.

    PubMed

    Di Cosmo, Caterina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Ye, Honggang; Ferrara, Alfonso Massimiliano; Weiss, Roy E; Refetoff, Samuel; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M

    2013-12-01

    Children with monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency lose weight, even when adequately nourished. Changes in serum markers of thyroid hormone (TH) action compatible with thyrotoxicosis suggested that this might be due to T3 excess in peripheral tissues. Mct8-deficient mice (Mct8KO) replicate the human thyroid phenotype and are thus suitable for metabolic studies so far unavailable in humans. In the current work, compared with wild-type (Wt) mice, Mct8KO mice were leaner due to reduced fat mass. They tended to use more carbohydrates and fewer lipids during the dark phase. Mct8KO mice had increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and food and water intake, with normal total activity, indicating hypermetabolism. To determine whether this is due to the high serum T3, we studied mice deficient in both Mct8 and deiodinase 1 (Mct8D1KO) with serum T3 similar to Wt mice and Wt mice given L-T3 to raise their serum T3 to the level of Mct8KO mice. Contrary to Mct8KO, Mct8D1KO mice had similar fat mass, TEE, and food intake as their D1KO littermates, whereas T3-treated Wt mice showed increased food intake and TEE, similar to Mct8KO mice. In skeletal muscle, Mct8KO mice had increased T3 content and TH action and increased glucose metabolism, which improved in Mct8D1KO mice. These studies indicate that the high serum T3 in MCT8 deficiency increases the TEE and fails to maintain weight despite adequate calorie intake. This is mediated by tissues that are not predominantly MCT8 dependent for TH transport, including skeletal muscle. Normalizing serum T3 level by deleting deiodinase 1 corrects body composition and the metabolic alterations caused by the MCT8 deficiency.

  3. Blueberry Peel Extracts Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Reduce High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Lee, Soo-Jung; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Gon-Sup; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of blueberry peel extracts (BPE) in 3T3-L1 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The levels of lipid accumulation were measured, along with the changes in the expression of genes and proteins associated with adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Evidenced by Oil-red O staining and triglyceride assay, BPE dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation at concentrations of 0, 50, and 200 µg/ml. BPE decreased the expression of the key adipocyte differentiation regulator C/EBPβ, as well as the C/EBPα and PPARγ genes, during the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Moreover, BPE down-regulated adipocyte-specific genes such as aP2 and FAS compared with control adipocytes. The specific mechanism mediating the effects of BP revealed that insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was strongly decreased, and its downstream substrate, phospho-GSK3β, was downregulated by BPE treatment in 3T3-L1 cells. Together, these data indicated that BP exerted anti-adipogenic activity by inhibiting the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPβ and the Akt signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Next, we investigated whether BP extracts attenuated HFD-induced obesity in rats. Oral administration of BPE reduced HFD-induced body weight gain significantly without affecting food intake. The epididymal or perirenal adipose tissue weights were lower in rats on an HFD plus BPE compared with the tissue weights of HFD-induced obese rats. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the rats fed BPE were modestly reduced, and the HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFD plus BP-fed rats compared with those of HFD-fed rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of BP on adipogenesis through the down-regulation of C/EBPβ, C/EBPα, and PPARγ and the reduction of the phospho-Akt adipogenic factor in 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, BPE reduced body weight gain and inhibited fat

  4. Comparison of Methods to Reduce Myocardial 18F-FDG Uptake in Mice: Calcium Channel Blockers versus High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Cussó, Lorena; Vaquero, Juan José; Bacharach, Stephen; Desco, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Besides its application in oncology, 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging is also useful in the diagnosis of certain lung infections, inflammatory diseases, and atherosclerotic plaques. Myocardial uptake of 18F-FDG may hamper visualization of the lesions caused by these diseases. Two approaches have been proposed for reducing myocardial uptake in preclinical studies, namely, calcium channel blockers (verapamil) and high-fat diets such as commercial ketogenic diets and sunflower seed diets. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these approaches in reducing myocardial uptake of 18F-FDG in mice. Methods We performed two experiments. In experiment A, each animal underwent four 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in the following order: baseline, after administration of verapamil, after two days on ketogenic diet and after two days on sunflower seeds. PET scans were performed 60 minutes after injection of 18.5 MBq of 18F-FDG. In experiment B, the best protocol of the three (ketogenic diet) was evaluated in a lung inflammation model to assess the efficacy of reducing myocardial uptake of 18F-FDG. Results Compared with baseline (SUV 2.03±1.21); the greatest reduction in uptake of 18F-FDG was with ketogenic diet (SUV 0.79±0.16; p = 0.008), followed by sunflower seeds (SUV 0.91±0.13; p = 0.015); the reduction in myocardial uptake produced by verapamil was not statistically significant (SUV 1.78±0.79; p = NS). In experiment B, complete suppression of myocardial uptake noticeably improved the visualization of inflamed areas near the heart, while in the case of null or partial myocardial suppression, it was much harder to distinguish lung inflammation from myocardial spillover. Conclusion A high-fat diet appeared to be the most effective method for decreasing myocardial uptake of 18F-FDG in healthy mice, outperforming verapamil. Our findings also demonstrate that ketogenic diet actually improves visualization of inflammatory lesions near the heart. PMID

  5. Low-cholesterol and high-fat diets reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Calleja, L; París, M A; Paul, A; Vilella, E; Joven, J; Jiménez, A; Beltrán, G; Uceda, M; Maeda, N; Osada, J

    1999-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of most common oils used in human nutrition on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice. Seven groups of animals, separated according to sex, were fed for 10 weeks either chow diet or the chow diet 10% (wt/wt) enriched with different oils (palm, coconut, 2 types of olive oil, and 2 types of sunflower oil) without addition of cholesterol. At the end of this period, plasma lipid parameters were measured and vascular lesions scored. None of the diets induced changes in plasma cholesterol concentrations, whereas plasma triglycerides were uniformly reduced in all diet groups. Some diets caused significant reductions in the size of atherosclerotic lesions in males and others in females; males responded most to sunflower oils and females to palm oil and one olive oil (II). The lesion reduction in males consuming sunflower oils was associated with the decrease of triglycerides in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, whereas the decrease in females consuming olive oil II or palm oil was accompanied by an increase in plasma apoA-I. The increase in plasma apoA-I in the latter condition, is mainly due to overexpression of hepatic message elicited by a mechanism independent of apoE ligand. The data suggest that the different diets modulate lesion development in a gender specific manner and by different mechanisms and that the development of atherosclerosis, due to genetic deficiencies, may be modulated by nutritional maneuvers that may be implemented in human nutrition.

  6. Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Damian; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2016-01-01

    Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb “globesity” has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general. PMID:28115880

  7. Spontaneous human combustion in the light of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The term "spontaneous human combustion" refers to a situation when a human body is found with significant portions of the middle parts of the body reduced to ashes, much less damage to the head and extremities, and minimal damage to the direct surroundings of the body. Typically, no observable source of ignition is found in the vicinity of the victim and a bad smelling oily substance is noted. In the past, such a situation was erroneously attributed to supernatural powers, as such phenomenon occurs in the absence of any witness. The purpose of this review article was to analyze articles published from January 1, 2000, on this unique type of burn injury. Further aims were to gather and present data on the causes and events leading to this situation. The literature was reviewed with PubMed interface using the key words spontaneous human combustion and preternatural combustion. Specific inclusion criteria resulted in 12 patients. A unique sequence of events takes place for the human body to incinerate to ashes. The flame burn victim has to die for the body fat to start melting. A tear in the skin has to occur for the melted fat to impregnate the charred clothes, igniting a wick effect that produces localized heat for extended period. A phenomenon called spontaneous human combustion is reality. The term "spontaneous human combustion" has nuances which are not applicable to this situation or to these modern times, therefore we suggest a new term "fat wick burns."

  8. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat. PMID:28246535

  9. Consumption of vitamin B(6) reduces fecal ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid, a risk factor for colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Utama, Zaki; Suidasari, Sofya; Zhang, Peipei; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Ei; Kato, Norihisa

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) on the colonic luminal environment, growing male rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg diet for 6 wk. Food intake and growth were unaffected by the dietary treatment. Supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) significantly reduced the production of a fecal secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (the most toxic secondary bile acid and a risk factor for colon cancer), and markedly reduced the ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid (a less toxic secondary bile acid) in feces (p<0.05). Increasing dietary vitamin B(6) increased fecal mucin levels (a marker of intestinal barrier function) in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) but did not affect fecal immunoglobulin A levels (an index of intestinal immune function). Cecal levels of organic acids were not significantly affected by supplemental dietary vitamin B(6). These results suggest the possibility that dietary vitamin B(6) affects the colonic luminal environment by altering the production of secondary bile acids and mucins.

  10. Carcase weight and dressing percentage are increased using Australian Sheep Breeding Values for increased weight and muscling and reduced fat depth.

    PubMed

    Gardner, G E; Williams, A; Ball, A J; Jacob, R H; Refshauge, G; Hocking Edwards, J; Behrendt, R; Pethick, D W

    2015-01-01

    Pre-slaughter live weight, dressing percentage, and hot standard carcase weight (HCWT) from the 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010 birth-years of the Information Nucleus Flock Lambs (n=7325) were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Increasing the sire breeding value for post-weaning weight (PWWT), and c-site eye muscle depth (PEMD), and reducing the sire breeding value for fat depth (PFAT) all had positive impacts on HCWT. The magnitude of the PWWT effect was greater in pure bred Merinos compared to Maternal and Terminal sired progeny. The improved HCWT resulting from increased PEMD was entirely due to its impact on improving dressing percentage, given that it had no impact on pre-slaughter live weight. There were marked differences between sire types and dam breeds, with pure-bred Merinos having lower pre-slaughter weight, reduced dressing percentage, and lower HCWT than progeny from Terminal and Maternal sired lambs or progeny from Maternal (1st cross) dams.

  11. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Samat, Suhana; Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  12. Potentiation of mGlu5 receptors with the novel enhancer, VU0360172, reduces spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats

    PubMed Central

    D’Amore, V.; Santolini, I.; van Rijn, C.M.; Biagioni, F.; Molinaro, G.; Prete, A.; Conn, P.J.; Lindsley, C.W.; Zhou, Y.; Vinson, P.N.; Rodriguez, A.L.; Jones, C.K.; Stauffer, S.R.; Nicoletti, F.; van Luijtelaar, G.; Ngomba, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is generated by the cortico-thalamo-cortical network, which undergoes a finely tuned regulation by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. We have shown previously that potentiation of mGlu1 receptors reduces spontaneous occurring spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, whereas activation of mGlu2/3 and mGlu4 receptors produces the opposite effect. Here, we have extended the study to mGlu5 receptors, which are known to be highly expressed within the cortico-thalamo-cortical network. We used presymptomatic and symptomatic WAG/Rij rats and aged-matched ACI rats. WAG/Rij rats showed a reduction in the mGlu5 receptor protein levels and in the mGlu5-receptor mediated stimulation of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in the ventrobasal thalamus, whereas the expression of mGlu5 receptors was increased in the somatosensory cortex. Interestingly, these changes preceded the onset of the epileptic phenotype, being already visible in pre-symptomatic WAG/Rij rats. SWDs in symptomatic WAG/Rij rats were not influenced by pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 receptors with MTEP (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.), but were significantly decreased by mGlu5 receptor potentiation with the novel enhancer, VU0360172 (3 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.), without affecting motor behaviour. The effect of VU0360172 was prevented by co-treatment with MTEP. These findings suggest that changes in mGlu5 receptors might lie at the core of the absence-seizure prone phenotype of WAG/Rij rats, and that mGlu5 receptor enhancers are potential candidates to the treatment of absence epilepsy. PMID:22705340

  13. An automated Y-maze based on a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller for the assessment of continuous spontaneous alternation in rats.

    PubMed

    Heredia-López, Francisco J; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando J; Collí-Alfaro, José G; Bata-García, José L; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Góngora-Alfaro, José L

    2016-12-01

    Continuous spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) in a Y-maze is used for evaluating working memory in rodents. Here, the design of an automated Y-maze equipped with three infrared optocouplers per arm, and commanded by a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller is described. The software was devised for recording only true entries and exits to the arms. Experimental settings are programmed via a keyboard with three buttons and a display. The sequence of arm entries and the time spent in each arm and the neutral zone (NZ) are saved as a text file in a non-volatile memory for later transfer to a USB flash memory. Data files are analyzed with a program developed under LabVIEW® environment, and the results are exported to an Excel® spreadsheet file. Variables measured are: latency to exit the starting arm, sequence and number of arm entries, number of alternations, alternation percentage, and cumulative times spent in each arm and NZ. The automated Y-maze accurately detected the SAB decrease produced in rats by the muscarinic antagonist trihexyphenidyl, and its reversal by caffeine, having 100 % concordance with the alternation percentages calculated by two trained observers who independently watched videos of the same experiments. Although the values of time spent in the arms and NZ measured by the automated system had small discrepancies with those calculated by the observers, Bland-Altman analysis showed 95 % concordance in three pairs of comparisons, while in one it was 90 %, indicating that this system is a reliable and inexpensive alternative for the study of continuous SAB in rodents.

  14. Nicotine-stimulated release of [3H]norepinephrine is reduced in the hippocampus of an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Sterley, Toni-Lee; Howells, Fleur M; Russell, Vivienne A

    2014-07-14

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous, developmental disorder, and is one of the most common child-psychiatric disorders. It is also a risk factor for early smoking and adult nicotine dependence. Nicotine has been shown to improve symptoms associated with ADHD, including problems with attention, working memory and response inhibition. Norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter involved in attention, is highly implicated in ADHD, and often targeted in the treatment thereof. In the present study we investigated nicotine׳s effect on release of norepinephrine in the hippocampus of a validated rat model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), as well as in two control strains: Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley rats (SD). Hippocampal slices obtained from male SHR, WKY and SD (postnatal day 31-33) were pre-incubated with radioactively labelled norepinephrine ([3H]NE) and perfused with buffer. The slices were stimulated by exposure to different concentrations of nicotine (1, 10, 100 or 1000 µM) for 1 min at 2 intervals (S1 and S2, separated by 20 min). Following a 10 min wash, slices were stimulated with 25 mM potassium. Since glutamate and GABA receptor function differ in SHR and WKY, we investigated the possible involvement of AMPA and GABA(A) receptors in nicotine (100 µM)-stimulated release of hippocampal [3H]NE in each of the strains by blocking these receptors with CNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist, 10 µM) or bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist, 30 µM) respectively. Nicotine-stimulated release (S1) of [3H]NE from SHR hippocampal slices was less than that of WKY and SD, at 100 µM and 1000 µM nicotine, suggesting reduced density and/or function of nicotinic receptors in SHR hippocampus. Nicotine-stimulated release of [3H]NE in response to S2 was reduced compared to S1 in all strains, indicating desensitization of receptors involved in stimulation of [3H]NE by nicotine. Potassium-stimulated release of [3H]NE following the

  15. Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 Reduces Obesity-Associated Inflammation by Restoring the Lymphocyte-Macrophage Balance and Gut Microbiota Structure in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moya-Pérez, Angela; Neef, Alexander; Sanz, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives The role of intestinal dysbiosis in obesity-associated systemic inflammation via the cross-talk with peripheral tissues is under debate. Our objective was to decipher the mechanisms by which intervention in the gut ecosystem with a specific Bifidobacterium strain reduces systemic inflammation and improves metabolic dysfunction in obese high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Methods Adult male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed either a standard or HFD, supplemented with placebo or Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765, for 14 weeks. Lymphocytes, macrophages and cytokine/chemokine concentrations were quantified in blood, gut, liver and adipose tissue using bead-based multiplex assays. Biochemical parameters in serum were determined by ELISA and enzymatic assays. Histology was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. Results B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 reduced obesity-associated systemic inflammation by restoring the balance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B lymphocytes and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines of adaptive (IL-17A) and innate (TNF-α) immunity and endotoxemia. In the gut, the bifidobacterial administration partially restored the HFD-induced alterations in microbiota, reducing abundances of Firmicutes and of LPS-producing Proteobacteria, paralleled to reductions in B cells, macrophages, and cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-17A), which could contribute to systemic effects. In adipose tissue, bifidobacterial administration reduced B cells whereas in liver the treatment increased Tregs and shifted different cytokines (MCP-1 plus ILP-10 in adipose tissue and INF-γ plus IL-1β in liver). In both tissues, the bifidobacteria reduced pro-inflammatory macrophages and, TNF-α and IL-17A concentrations. These effects were accompanied by reductions in body weight gain and in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels and improved oral glucose

  16. Lychee pulp phenolics ameliorate hepatic lipid accumulation by reducing miR-33 and miR-122 expression in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongxiao; Zhang, Ruifen; Hou, Fangli; Chi, Jianwei; Huang, Fei; Yan, Shijuan; Liu, Lei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-02-22

    Dietary phenolics exhibit hypolipidemic activity by changing lipid metabolism-related microRNA (miRNA) expression. Quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-l-rhamnosidase (quercetin 3-rut-7-rha), rutin and (-)-epicatechin are the main phenolics in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pulp. A previous study reported that quercetin 3-rut-7-rha and rutin had hypolipidemic effects. To elucidate these effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of lychee pulp phenolics (LPPs), the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and their associated miRNAs were measured after ten weeks of treatment with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or in combination with LPPs. The administration of LPPs significantly reduced the HFD-induced increase in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels but increased the HDL-c content. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) were upregulated, while fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA and the corresponding protein expression levels were downregulated by LPPs. Furthermore, the expression levels of miR-33, which directly modulates ABCA1 and CPT1a, and miR-122, which indirectly regulates FAS, were downregulated in mouse hepatocytes. The repression of miR-33 and miR-122 is a possible molecular mechanism of the hypolipidemic effects of LPPs in the liver. Our results suggest a novel hypolipidemic mechanism of LPPs.

  17. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFA; Cholesterol - polyunsaturated fat; Atherosclerosis - polyunsaturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - polyunsaturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - polyunsaturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - polyunsaturated ...

  18. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    PubMed

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  19. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  20. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  1. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  2. Increased feeding frequency increased milk fat yield and may reduce the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in higher-risk cows.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, K; Gao, X; Oba, M

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding behavior is different between cows at higher or lower risk for subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and whether increasing feeding frequency could be used to reduce the severity of SARA in higher-risk cows. In preliminary studies, 16 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed high-grain diets once per day to increase the risk of SARA. After a 17-d diet adaptation, ruminal pH was measured every 30 s over 24 h. Cows were classified as higher-risk (n = 7) or lower-risk (n = 9) for SARA based on an acidosis index (area of pH <5.8/dry matter intake). Feeding behavior was recorded every 5 min over the same 24 h. The 24-h observation period was analyzed in 3 periods of 8 h after feeding. Although there was no significant difference in overall dry matter intake, higher-risk cows spent more time eating in the first 8-h period after feeding than lower-risk cows (186 vs. 153 min) and less time eating in the third 8-h period (19 vs. 43 min). In the primary experiment, 8 ruminally cannulated lactating cows were fed a high-grain diet once per day (1×; 0800 h) or 3 times per day (3×; 0800, 1500, and 2000 h) in a crossover design with 21-d periods (16 d of treatment adaptation and 5 d of data collection). Rumen pH and feeding behavior were measured over 72 h. Behavior data were summarized separately for the 3 periods (0800 to 1500, 1500 to 2200, and 2200 to 0800 h). Four cows were categorized as higher-risk and 4 as lower-risk, based on their acidosis index. The 3× feeding reduced eating time between 0800 and 1500 h (99 vs. 145 min) and increased eating time between 2200 and 0800 h (76 vs. 43 min) for all cows, regardless of category, compared with 1× feeding. For higher-risk cows, 3× feeding reduced the area below pH 5.8 (51 vs. 98 pH × min/d), but it did not affect rumen pH for the lower-risk cows. Milk yield was not different between groups, but 3× feeding increased milk fat yield (1.22 vs. 1.08 kg/d) for all

  3. Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Wanecq, Estelle; Lomba, Almudena; Portillo, Maria P; Pellati, Federica; Szöko, Eva; Bour, Sandy; Woodley, John; Milagro, Fermin I; Alfredo Martinez, J; Valet, Philippe; Carpéné, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome.

  4. Reduced adiponectin expression after high-fat diet is associated with selective up-regulation of ALDH1A1 and further retinoic acid receptor signaling in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Landrier, Jean-Francois; Kasiri, Elnaz; Karkeni, Esma; Mihály, Johanna; Béke, Gabriella; Weiss, Kathrin; Lucas, Renata; Aydemir, Gamze; Salles, Jérome; Walrand, Stéphane; de Lera, Angel R.; Rühl, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived adipokine with potent antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic activity. Long-term, high-fat diet results in gain of body weight, adiposity, further inflammatory-based cardiovascular diseases, and reduced adiponectin secretion. Vitamin A derivatives/retinoids are involved in several of these processes, which mainly take place in white adipose tissue (WAT). In this study, we examined adiponectin expression as a function of dietary high-fat and high–vitamin A conditions in mice. A decrease of adiponectin expression in addition to an up-regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDH1A1), retinoid signaling, and retinoic acid response element signaling was selectively observed in WAT of mice fed a normal–vitamin A, high-fat diet. Reduced adiponectin expression in WAT was also observed in mice fed a high–vitamin A diet. Adipocyte cell culture revealed that endogenous and synthetic retinoic acid receptor (RAR)α- and RARγ-selective agonists, as well as a synthetic retinoid X receptor agonist, efficiently reduced adiponectin expression, whereas ALDH1A1 expression only increased with RAR agonists. We conclude that reduced adiponectin expression under high-fat dietary conditions is dependent on 1) increased ALDH1A1 expression in adipocytes, which does not increase all-trans-retinoic acid levels; 2) further RAR ligand–induced, WAT-selective, increased retinoic acid response element–mediated signaling; and 3) RAR ligand–dependent reduction of adiponectin expression.—Landrier, J.-F., Kasiri, E., Karkeni, E., Mihály, J., Béke, G., Weiss, K., Lucas, R., Aydemir, G., Salles, J., Walrand, S., de Lera, A. R., Rühl, R. Reduced adiponectin expression after high-fat diet is associated with selective up-regulation of ALDH1A1 and further retinoic acid receptor signaling in adipose tissue. PMID:27729412

  5. Explicit Disassociation of a Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus during Extinction Training Reduces Both Time to Asymptotic Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery of a Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickley, G. Andrew; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N.; Huffman, Jennifer; Bacik, Stephanie; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M.; Kim, Ye-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) may be acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). This aversion may be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone. However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). In the current…

  6. Gastric Bypass Surgery Recruits a Gut PPAR-α-Striatal D1R Pathway to Reduce Fat Appetite in Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Seyfried, Florian; Hintschich, Constantin A; Diep, Thi-Ai; Kleberg, Karen; Kranz, Mathias; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Tellez, Luis A; Rullmann, Michael; Patt, Marianne; Teichert, Jens; Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Brust, Peter; Hansen, Harald S; de Araujo, Ivan E; Krügel, Ute; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2017-02-07

    Bariatric surgery remains the single most effective long-term treatment modality for morbid obesity, achieved mainly by lowering caloric intake through as yet ill-defined mechanisms. Here we show in rats that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-like rerouting of ingested fat mobilizes lower small intestine production of the fat-satiety molecule oleoylethanolamide (OEA). This was associated with vagus nerve-driven increases in dorsal striatal dopamine release. We also demonstrate that RYGB upregulates striatal dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) expression specifically under high-fat diet feeding conditions. Mechanistically, interfering with local OEA, vagal, and dorsal striatal D1R signaling negated the beneficial effects of RYGB on fat intake and preferences. These findings delineate a molecular/systems pathway through which bariatric surgery improves feeding behavior and may aid in the development of novel weight loss strategies that similarly modify brain reward circuits compromised in obesity.

  7. The relative contribution of intramyocellular lipid to whole body fat oxidation is reduced with age, but subsarcolemmal lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are only associated with overweight individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Carolyn; Shannon, Chris E.; Burns, Aisling; Selby, Anna L.; Wilkinson, Daniel; Smith, Kenneth; Greenhaff, Paul L.; Stephens, Francis B.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is closely related to intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation, and both are associated with increasing age. It remains to be determined to what extent perturbations in IMCL metabolism are related to the ageing process per se. On two separate occasions whole-body and muscle insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp with 2-deoxyglucose) and fat utilisation during 1 h of exercise at 50% VO2max ([U-13C]palmitate infusion combined with electron microscopy of IMCL) were determined in young lean (YL), old lean (OL), and old overweight (OO) males. OL displayed comparable IMCL content and insulin sensitivity to YL, whereas OO were markedly insulin resistant and had over 2-fold greater IMCL in the subsarcolemmal (SSL) region. Indeed, whereas the plasma free fatty acid rate of appearance and disappearance was twice that of YL in both OL and OO, SSL only increased during exercise in OO. Thus, skeletal muscle insulin resistance and lipid accumulation often observed in older individuals are likely due to lifestyle factors, rather than inherent ageing of skeletal muscle as usually reported. However, age per se appears to cause exacerbated adipose tissue lipolysis, suggesting that strategies to reduce muscle lipid delivery and improve adipose tissue function may be warranted in older overweight individuals. The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is most apparent in older people (1), and it is estimated that the number of people over 65 years of age with diabetes will have increased 4.5 fold by 2050 (2). Gaining mechanistic insight of age related insulin resistance and strategies to improve insulin sensitivity with age are clearly warranted. Although ageing is associated with insulin resistance, age per se does not appear to cause insulin resistance (3, 4, 5). Several factors that likely contribute to age related insulin resistance include increased abdominal adiposity and reduced physical activity (3, 4), along with declines in muscle mass (6

  8. Antimicrobial properties of lauric arginate alone or in combination with essential oils in tryptic soy broth and 2% reduced fat milk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiumin; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-08-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of lauric arginate (LAE) when used alone or in combination with the essential oil (EO) from cinnamon leaf and EO components, thymol and eugenol. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) for Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis were determined by the microbroth dilution method in tryptic soy broth (TSB) at their optimal growth temperatures. The MIC for LAE was 11.8ppm against L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 and 23.5ppm against S. Enteritidis. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was demonstrated against L. monocytogenes with combinations of LAE and cinnamon leaf oil or eugenol, while the LAE and thymol combination showed additive antimicrobial activity. Conversely, antagonistic effects were shown for all combinations against E. coli O157:H7 and S. Enteritidis. Beef extract, at 2 or 5% w/v in TSB, showed no effects on the MIC and MBC of LAE against L. monocytogenes, while soluble starch from potato, at 2-10% w/v in TSB, increased the MIC and MBC. When tested in 2% reduced fat milk, significantly higher levels of antimicrobials were required to achieve similar inhibitions as in TSB. The growth curves of bacteria at 21°C followed similar trends as in TSB, showing synergism against the Gram-positive L. monocytogenes and antagonism against the two Gram-negative bacteria. Findings suggest that application of LAE could enhance microbial food safety, especially when used in combination with EO to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders.

  10. Association of consumption of products containing milk fat with reduced asthma risk in pre-school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wijga, A; Smit, H; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, H; Boshuizen, H; Brunekreef, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Environment and lifestyle contribute to the development of asthma in children. Understanding the relevant factors in this relationship may provide methods of prevention. The role of diet in the development of asthma in pre-school children was investigated. Methods: Data from 2978 children participating in a prospective birth cohort study were used. Food frequency data were collected at the age of 2 years and related to asthma symptoms reported at the age of 3 years. Results: The prevalence of recent asthma at age 3 was lower in children who consumed (at age 2) full cream milk daily (3.4%) than in those who did not (5.6%) and in those who consumed butter daily (1.5%) than in those who did not (5.1%). The prevalence of recent wheeze was lower in children who consumed milk products daily (13.7%) than in those who did not (18.4%) and in children who consumed butter daily (7.7%) than in those who did not (15.4%). These effects remained in a logistic regression model including different foods and confounders (adjusted odds ratio (CI) for recent asthma: full cream milk daily v rarely 0.59 (0.40 to 0.88), butter daily v rarely 0.28 (0.09 to 0.88)). Daily consumption of brown bread was also associated with lower rates of asthma and wheeze, whereas no associations were observed with the consumption of fruits, vegetables, margarine, and fish. Conclusions: In pre-school children, frequent consumption of products containing milk fat is associated with a reduced risk of asthma symptoms. PMID:12832666

  11. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD), such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA), greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck) was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3) years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04). In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p < 0.001). In addition, greater amounts of lean mass and higher IGF-1 serum concentrations played a

  12. A high-fat diet and the threonine-encoding allele (Thr54) polymorphism of fatty acid–binding protein 2 reduce plasma triglyceride–rich lipoproteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Thr54 allele of the fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) DNA polymorphism is associated with increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and insulin resistance. We investigated whether the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein response to diets of varied fat content is affected by the fatty acid binding pr...

  13. The Efficacy of Web-Based and Print-Delivered Computer-Tailored Interventions to Reduce Fat Intake: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Campbell, Marci; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test and compare the efficacy of interactive- and print-delivered computer-tailored nutrition education targeting saturated fat intake reduction. Design: A 3-group randomized, controlled trial (2003-2005) with posttests at 1 and 6 months post-intervention. Setting: Worksites and 2 neighborhoods in the urban area of Rotterdam.…

  14. High fat diet-induced obesity reduces bone formation through activation of ppar gamma to suppress wnt/beta-catenin signaling in prepubertal rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of a high fat diet (HFD) and of obesity on skeletal development, maturation and remodeling remain largely unclear particularly in children. In this report, we utilized a total enteral nutrition (TEN) model to examine the direct effect of HFD feeding on bone prior to puberty. We chronical...

  15. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  16. Altered fatty acid profile in the liver and serum of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats: reduced proportion of cis-vaccenic acid.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shizuyo; Kojiguchi, Chiho; Yamazaki, Tohru; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are utilized as models for study of the pathogenesis of not only stroke and cardiovascular disorders but also atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Basic information on the profiles of fatty acids and lipid classes in the liver is indispensable to use SHRSP as a model of disorder of lipid metabolism; nevertheless, detailed information on the metabolism of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and fatty acids in the liver of SHRSP is lacking. This study aimed to characterize profiles of lipid classes and fatty acids and to explore the mechanism underlying the characteristic alterations in metabolism of TAGs and fatty acids in the liver of SHRSP, in comparison with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The characteristic changes observed in SHRSP were (1) markedly lower hepatic TAG contents; (2) altered expressions of genes encoding three enzymes responsible for the control of TAG level, namely, adipose triglyceride lipase (for TAG degradation; up-regulated), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (for fatty acid β-oxidation; up-regulated) and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (for glycerolipid synthesis; down-regulated); (3) evidently lower contents and proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), in the liver and serum; and (4) down-regulation of palmitoleoyl-CoA chain elongase, which is necessary for the biosynthesis of 18:1n-7, in the liver. From the above observations, we concluded that there are significant differences in profiles of lipid classes and fatty acids between SHRSP and SHR, and that altered characteristics in SHRSP are likely responsible for increases in TAG hydrolysis and β-oxidation, and decreases in TAG synthesis and 18:1n-7 synthesis.

  17. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Reduces LDL-Particle Number and PCSK9 Concentrations in High-Fat Fed Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Bradley; Wen, Shin; Zigouras, Sophia; Browne, Richard W.; Li, Zhuyun; Patel, Mulchand S.; Williamson, David L.; Rideout, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the hypolipidemic effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA, R-form) and examined the associated molecular mechanisms in a high fat fed Zucker rat model. Rats (n = 8) were assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet with 0.25% LA (HF-LA) for 30 days and pair fed to remove confounding effects associated with the anorectic properties of LA. Compared with the HF controls, the HF-LA group was protected against diet-induced obesity (102.5±3.1 vs. 121.5±3.6,% change BW) and hypercholesterolemia with a reduction in total-C (−21%), non-HDL-C (−25%), LDL-C (−16%), and total LDL particle number (−46%) and an increase in total HDL particles (∼22%). This cholesterol-lowering response was associated with a reduction in plasma PCSK9 concentration (−70%) and an increase in hepatic LDLr receptor protein abundance (2 fold of HF). Compared with the HF-fed animals, livers of LA-supplemented animals were protected against TG accumulation (−46%), likely through multiple mechanisms including: a suppressed lipogenic response (down-regulation of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase expression); enhanced hepatic fat oxidation (increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase Iα expression); and enhanced VLDL export (increased hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and elevated plasma VLDL particle number). Study results also support an enhanced fatty acid uptake (2.8 fold increase in total lipase activity) and oxidation (increased CPT1β protein abundance) in muscle tissue in LA-supplemented animals compared with the HF group. In summary, in the absence of a change in caloric intake, LA was effective in protecting against hypercholesterolemia and hepatic fat accumulation under conditions of strong genetic and dietary predisposition toward obesity and dyslipidemia. PMID:24595397

  18. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Spontaneous coronary artery dissection — sometimes referred to as SCAD — is an ... the blood vessels in the heart. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can slow or block blood flow ...

  19. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ...

  20. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  1. A novel benzenediamine derivative FC98 reduces insulin resistance in high fat diet-induced obese mice by suppression of metaflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changmai; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Hengfei; Zhuo, Yujie; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Aihua; Hou, Yayi; Xiang Tan, Ren; Li, Erguang

    2015-08-15

    Chronic low-grade metabolic inflammation (metaflammation) is a hallmark of metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a newly identified benzenediamine derivative (FC98, PubChem CID: 14989837) against metaflammation and insulin resistance using a high fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) murine model. LPS and free fatty acids (FFAs)-induced gene expression and signaling was determined in cell culture systems. Inflammasome activation was determined by measuring IL-1β release with ELISA. The in vivo activity was assayed in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) by measuring body weight gains, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The effect was also evaluated by H&E and IHC staining, by measuring gene expression and cytokine production, and by analysis of F4/80(+)CD11b(+) macrophage infiltration. FC98 exhibited anti-inflammatory activity against LPS- and FFAs-induced IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α gene expression and JNK and p38 activation. The IC50 for FC98 to inhibit NO production was determined at 6.8μM. FC98 also dose-dependently inhibited IL-1β secretion. In DIO mice, FC98 at 10 and 20mg/kg significantly improved metabolic parameters, including body weight, fat mass, glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity. The reduction in adipocyte area, F4/80(+)CD11b(+) macrophage infiltration, proinflammatory gene expression, along with JNK activation, was also significant in those groups. Additionally, FC98-treated animals had increased AKT phosphorylation in response to insulin stimulation. FC98 inhibits metaflammation and ameliorates insulin resistance mainly by inhibiting signaling pathways of proinflammatory response in DIO animals. This study highlights the significance of targeting metaflammation for obesity-attributive metabolic syndrome.

  2. Transcriptome Profile Reveals that Pu-Erh Tea Represses the Expression of Vitellogenin Family to Reduce Fat Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ru-Yue; Hao, Junjun; Ding, Yi-Hong; Che, Yan-Yun; Zou, Xiao-Ju; Liang, Bin

    2016-10-17

    Due to misbalanced energy surplus and expenditure, obesity has become a common chronic disorder that is highly associated with many metabolic diseases. Pu-erh tea, a traditional Chinese beverage, has been believed to have numerous health benefits, such as anti-obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms of its anti-obesity effect are yet to be understood. Here, we take the advantages of transcriptional profile by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to view the global gene expression of Pu-erh tea. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was treated with different concentrations of Pu-erh tea water extract (PTE, 0 g/mL, 0.025 g/mL, and 0.05 g/mL). Compared with the control, PTE indeed decreases lipid droplets size and fat accumulation. The high-throughput RNA-Sequence technique detected 18073 and 18105 genes expressed in 0.025 g/mL and 0.05 g/mL PTE treated groups, respectively. Interestingly, the expression of the vitellogenin family (vit-1, vit-2, vit-3, vit-4 and vit-5) was significantly decreased by PTE, which was validated by qPCR analysis. Furthermore, vit-1(ok2616), vit-3(ok2348) and vit-5(ok3239) mutants are insensitive to PTE triggered fat reduction. In conclusion, our transcriptional profile by RNA-Sequence suggests that Pu-erh tea lowers the fat accumulation primarily through repression of the expression of vit(vitellogenin) family, in addition to our previously reported (sterol regulatory element binding protein) SREBP-SCD (stearoyl-CoA desaturase) axis.

  3. Running 338 Kilometres within Five Days has no Effect on Body Mass and Body Fat But Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mass - the Isarrun 2006.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Kohler, Götz

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the change of body composition in ultra- endurance runners during a multi-stage ultra-endurance run, the Isarrun 2006 in Bavaria, Germany, where athletes had to run 338 km within 5 days. Body mass, skin fold thicknesses and circumferences of extremities were measured in 21 well-experienced extreme endurance male runners (mean ± SD, 41.5 ± 6.9 years, 72.6 ± 6.4 kg, 178 ± 5 cm, BMI 23.0 ± 2.0 kg·m(-2)), who finished mainly within the first half of the ranking, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass and body fat mass to prove changes after the race. Body mass and calculated fat mass did not change significantly (p>0.05), but, calculated skeletal muscle mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) by 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race. The most apparent decline (p<0.01) of the calculated skeletal muscle mass was during the first stage, and no changes were observed during the last 4 stages. We conclude, that a multi- stage ultra-endurance run over 338 km within 5 days leads to no changes of body mass or body fat mass, but a statistically significant decrease of skeletal muscle mass of 0.63 ± 0.79 kg by the end of the race in well-trained and well-experienced ultra-endurance runners. The change of skeletal muscle mass has to be evaluated in further studies at ultra-endurance races with suitable methods to detect changes in hydration status and water metabolism. Key pointsUltra-runners at the Isarrun 2006 suffered no loss of body mass.Skeletal muscle mass decreased highly significantly during the first stage but no significant changes of skeletal muscle mass were observed during the following 4 stages of the Isarrun 2006.Body fat mass remained stable during the Isarrun 2006.

  4. Long-term, calorie-restricted intake of a high-fat diet in rats reduces impulse control and ventral striatal D2 receptor signalling - two markers of addiction vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Adams, Wendy K; Sussman, Jacob L; Kaur, Sukhbir; D'souza, Anna M; Kieffer, Timothy J; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2015-12-01

    High impulsivity, mediated through ventral striatal dopamine signalling, represents an established risk factor for substance abuse, and may likewise confer vulnerability to pathological overeating. Mechanistically, the assumption is that trait impulsivity facilitates the initiation of maladaptive eating styles or choices. However, whether consumption of appetitive macronutrients themselves causes deficits in impulse control and striatal signalling, thereby contributing to cognitive changes permissive of overeating behaviour, has yet to be considered. We examined the effects of chronic maintenance on restricted equicaloric, but high-fat or high-sugar, diets (48 kcal/day; 60 kcal% fat or sucrose) on rats' performance in the five-choice serial reaction time task, indexing impulsivity and attention. Markers of dopamine signalling in the dorsal and ventral striatum, and plasma insulin and leptin levels, were also assessed. Rats maintained on the high-fat diet (HFD) were more impulsive, whereas the high-sugar diet (HSD) did not alter task performance. Importantly, body weight and hormone levels were similar between groups when behavioural changes were observed. Maintenance on HFD, but not on HSD, reduced the levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2 R), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphophorylated CREB (Ser133) proteins in the ventral, but not dorsal, striatum. D2 R expression in the ventral striatum also negatively correlated with impulsive responding, independently of diet. These data indicate that chronic exposure to even limited amounts of high-fat foods may weaken impulse control and alter neural signalling in a manner associated with vulnerability to addictions - findings that have serious implications for the propagation of uncontrolled eating behaviour in obesity and binge-eating disorder.

  5. Inhibition of Inactive States of Tetrodotoxin-Sensitive Sodium Channels Reduces Spontaneous Firing of C-Fiber Nociceptors and Produces Analgesia in Formalin and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant Models of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Matson, David J.; Hamamoto, Darryl T.; Bregman, Howard; Cooke, Melanie; DiMauro, Erin F.; Huang, Liyue; Johnson, Danielle; Li, Xingwen; McDermott, Jeff; Morgan, Carrie; Wilenkin, Ben; Malmberg, Annika B.; McDonough, Stefan I.; Simone, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    While genetic evidence shows that the Nav1.7 voltage-gated sodium ion channel is a key regulator of pain, it is unclear exactly how Nav1.7 governs neuronal firing and what biophysical, physiological, and distribution properties of a pharmacological Nav1.7 inhibitor are required to produce analgesia. Here we characterize a series of aminotriazine inhibitors of Nav1.7 in vitro and in rodent models of pain and test the effects of the previously reported “compound 52” aminotriazine inhibitor on the spiking properties of nociceptors in vivo. Multiple aminotriazines, including some with low terminal brain to plasma concentration ratios, showed analgesic efficacy in the formalin model of pain. Effective concentrations were consistent with the in vitro potency as measured on partially-inactivated Nav1.7 but were far below concentrations required to inhibit non-inactivated Nav1.7. Compound 52 also reversed thermal hyperalgesia in the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) model of pain. To study neuronal mechanisms, electrophysiological recordings were made in vivo from single nociceptive fibers from the rat tibial nerve one day after CFA injection. Compound 52 reduced the spontaneous firing of C-fiber nociceptors from approximately 0.7 Hz to 0.2 Hz and decreased the number of action potentials evoked by suprathreshold tactile and heat stimuli. It did not, however, appreciably alter the C-fiber thresholds for response to tactile or thermal stimuli. Surprisingly, compound 52 did not affect spontaneous activity or evoked responses of Aδ-fiber nociceptors. Results suggest that inhibition of inactivated states of TTX-S channels, mostly likely Nav1.7, in the peripheral nervous system produces analgesia by regulating the spontaneous discharge of C-fiber nociceptors. PMID:26379236

  6. Protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS) reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Sivak, Olena; Darlington, Jerry; Gershkovich, Pavel; Constantinides, Panayiotis P; Wasan, Kishor M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of chronic administration of protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS) on the plasma cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein (ApoE) deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficient mice were divided into the following treatment groups: protonated NSAS 1.4% (w/w), untreated control and 2% (w/w) stigmastanol mixed with high-cholesterol/high-fat diet. Animals were treated for 12 weeks, blood samples were withdrawn every 4 weeks for determination of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. At the end of the study the aortic roots were harvested for assessment of atherosclerotic lesions. NSAS at 1.4% (w/w) and stigmastanol at 2% (w/w) treatment groups showed significant decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations at all time points relative to the control animals. The lesion sum area in 1.4% (w/w) NSAS and 2% (w/w) stigmastanol groups were significantly less from the control animals. In conclusion, in this study, the effectiveness of chronic administration of protonated NSAS material in the reduction of plasma cholesterol levels and decrease in development of atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated in Apo-E deficient mice model. PMID:19638223

  7. Comparison of reducing epicardial fat by exercise, diet or bariatric surgery weight loss strategies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rabkin, S W; Campbell, H

    2015-05-01

    The objectives were to determine whether epicardial fat (EAT) is subject to modification, and whether various strategies accomplish this end point and the relationship between weight loss and EAT. A systematic review of the literature following meta-analysis guidelines was conducted using the search strategy 'epicardial fat' OR 'epicardial adipose tissue' AND 'diet' OR 'exercise' OR 'bariatric surgery (BS)' OR 'change in body weight' limited to humans. Eleven articles were identified with 12 intervention approaches of which eight studies showed a statistically significant reduction in EAT. A random-effects meta-analysis suggests an overall significant reduction of 1.12 standardized units (95% CI = [-1.71, -0.54], P value < 0.01). While there is a large amount of heterogeneity across study groups, a substantial amount of this variability can be accounted for by considering intervention type and change in body mass index (BMI). These variables were incorporated into a random-effects meta-regression model. Using this analysis, significant EAT reduction occurred with diet and BS but not with exercise. BMI reductions correlated significantly with EAT reductions for diet-based interventions, i.e. for some but not all interventions. In conclusion, EAT, a factor that is significantly associated with coronary artery disease, can be modified. The type of intervention, in addition to the amount of weight loss achieved, is predictive of the amount of EAT reduction.

  8. Long-term oral administration of glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate reduces destruction of cartilage and up-regulation of MMP-3 mRNA in a model of spontaneous osteoarthritis in Hartley guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shin; Ryu, Junnosuke; Seki, Masayuki; Sumino, Takanobu; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Esumi, Mariko

    2012-05-01

    Histological and molecular changes were examined to investigate the effects of long-term administration of glucosamine (GlcN) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) in a model of spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA) in Hartley guinea pigs. Three groups of female 3-week-old Hartley guinea pigs received GlcN, CS, and neither agent, respectively. Five animals in each group were sacrificed at 8, 12, and 18 months of age. At 8 months of age, Hartley guinea pigs had severe degeneration of knee joint cartilage, chondrocyte apoptosis, marked reduction of tissue total RNA, decreases of aggrecan and collagen type 2 mRNAs, and increases in MMP-3 and MMP-8 mRNAs. Long-term administration of GlcN and CS reduced cartilage degeneration at 8 months of age. The marked loss of total RNA and the increase in MMP-3 mRNA were also inhibited by GlcN and CS. Thus, long-term oral administration of GlcN or CS inhibits OA progression, maintains total RNA and down-regulates MMP-3 mRNA in a spontaneous OA model in Hartley guinea pigs.

  9. Increased body condition score through increased lean muscle, but not fat deposition, is associated with reduced reproductive response to oestrus induction in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, A; Gonzalez-Padilla, E; Garcés-Yepez, P; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Calderón-Robles, R C; Whittier, W D; Keisler, D H; Gutierrez, C G

    2016-10-01

    Energy reserve, estimated as body condition score (BCS), is the major determinant of the re-initiation of ovarian activity in postpartum cows. Leptin, IGF-I and insulin are positively related to BCS and are putative mediators between BCS and reproductive function. However, when BCS and body composition dissociates, concentrations of these metabolic hormones are altered. We hypothesized that increasing lean muscle tissue, but not fat tissue, would diminish the reproductive response to oestrus induction treatments. Thirty lactating beef cows with BCS of 3.10±1.21 and 75.94±12 days postpartum were divided in two groups. Control cows (n=15) were supplemented with 10.20 kg of concentrate daily for 60 days. Treated cows (n=15) were supplemented equally, and received a β-adrenergic receptor agonist (β-AA; 0.15 mg/kg BW) to achieve accretion of lean tissue mass and not fat tissue mass. Twelve days after ending concentrate supplementation/β-AA treatment, cows received a progestin implant to induce oestrus. Cows displaying oestrus were inseminated during the following 60 days, and maintained with a fertile bull for a further 21 days. Cows in both groups gained weight during the supplementation period (Daily weight gain: Control=0.75 kg v. β-AA=0.89 kg). Cows treated with β-AA had a larger increase in BCS (i.e. change in BCS: control=1 point (score 4.13) v. β-AA=2 points (score 5.06; P0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the number of cows displaying oestrus (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; P<0.05) and the percentage cycling (control 6/8 v. β-AA 3/10; P=0.07) after progestin treatment and the pregnancy percentage at the end of the breeding period (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; P<0.05) were lower in β-AA than control cows. In summary, the increase BCS through muscle tissue accretion, but not through fat tissue accretion, resulted in a lower response to oestrus induction, lower percentage of cycling animals and lower pregnancy percentage after progestin treatment

  10. The saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract reduces cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Rama Manohar I; Latha, Pushpa B; Vijaya, Tartte; Rao, Dattatreya S

    2012-01-01

    We examined the antiobesity effect of a saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. aqueous leaf extract (SGE) using cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obese rats for a period of eight weeks. SGE was orally administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight once a day to the treatment group. It significantly decreased the body weight, food consumption, visceral organs weight, and the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, very low-density lipoproteins, atherogenic index, glucose, and increased the levels of high-density lipoproteins. There was no significant difference with respect to all parameters of the study in case of normal (N) diet and N diet + SGE rats. In vitro, SGE inhibited the pancreatic lipase activity. The present study gave clear evidence that the SGE has a significant antiobese action, supporting its use in traditional medicine, and can be used as a substitute for synthetic drugs.

  11. Endocannabinoids may mediate the ability of (n-3) fatty acids to reduce ectopic fat and inflammatory mediators in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Batetta, Barbara; Griinari, Mikko; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Ligresti, Alessia; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sanna, Francesca; Bisogno, Tiziana; Uda, Sabrina; Collu, Maria; Bruheim, Inge; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Banni, Sebastiano

    2009-08-01

    Dietary (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA] ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, although the mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effects of dietary (n-3) LCPUFA, in the form of either fish oil (FO) or krill oil (KO) balanced for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content, with a control (C) diet containing no EPA and DHA and similar contents of oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids, on ectopic fat and inflammation in Zucker rats, a model of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Diets were fed for 4 wk. Given the emerging evidence for an association between elevated endocannabinoid concentrations and metabolic syndrome, we also measured tissue endocannabinoid concentrations. In (n-3) LCPUFA-supplemented rats, liver triglycerides and the peritoneal macrophage response to an inflammatory stimulus were significantly lower than in rats fed the control diet, and heart triglycerides were lower, but only in KO-fed rats. These effects were associated with a lower concentration of the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the visceral adipose tissue and of anandamide in the liver and heart, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids, but not with higher activity of endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes. Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with (n-3) LCPUFA are the result of changes in membrane fatty acid composition. The reduction of substrates for inflammatory molecules and endocannabinoids may account for the dampened inflammatory response and the physiological reequilibration of body fat deposition in obese rats.

  12. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet.

  13. Enhanced UV-B radiation during pupal stage reduce body mass and fat content, while increasing deformities, mortality and cell death in female adults of solitary bee Osmia bicornis.

    PubMed

    Wasielewski, Oskar; Wojciechowicz, Tatiana; Giejdasz, Karol; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-08-01

    The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the oogenesis and morpho-anatomical characteristics of the European solitary red mason bee Osmia bicornis L. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) were tested under laboratory conditions. Cocooned females in the pupal stage were exposed directly to different doses (0, 9.24, 12.32, and 24.64 kJ/m(2) /d) of artificial UV-B. Our experiments revealed that enhanced UV-B radiation can reduce body mass and fat body content, cause deformities and increase mortality. Following UV exposure at all 3 different doses, the body mass of bees was all significantly reduced compared to the control, with the highest UV dose causing the largest reduction. Similarly, following UV-B radiation, in treated groups the fat body index decreased and the fat body index was the lowest in the group receiving the highest dose of UV radiation. Mortality and morphological deformities, between untreated and exposed females varied considerably and increased with the dose of UV-B radiation. Morphological deformities were mainly manifested in the wings and mouthparts, and occurred more frequently with an increased dose of UV. Cell death was quantified by the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (DNA fragmentation) during early stages of oogenesis of O. bicornis females. The bees, after UV-B exposure exhibited more germarium cells with fragmented DNA. The TUNEL test indicated that in germarium, low doses of UV-B poorly induced the cell death during early development. However, exposure to moderate UV-B dose increased programmed cell death. In females treated with the highest dose of UV-B the vast majority of germarium cells were TUNEL-positive.

  14. Prehypertensive treatment with losartan, however not amlodipine, leads to long-term effects on blood pressure and reduces the risk of stroke in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangmin; He, Dehua; Lin, Jinxiu

    2016-02-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy of losartan and amlodipine in protecting spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHRSP) rats against the risk of stroke. SHRSP rats were administered losartan, amlodipine or the vehicle for 6 weeks. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) in rats treated with losartan or amlodipine, however, following drug withdrawal, rats treated with losartan maintained reduced SBP for a longer time compared with rats treated with amlodipine. In addition, rats treated with losartan exhibited thinner vascular walls and improved systolic and diastolic function. Clinical stroke scores in the losartan group were significantly reduced compared with those in the amlodipine and vehicle groups. However, rats treated with losartan exhibited higher levels of angiotensin II and lower levels of aldosterone in the serum and brain cortex compared with the vehicle and amlodipine-treated rats. Furthermore, losartan significantly reduced the abnormal expression of angiotensin II receptors type 1 and 2 in SHRSP rats, whilst amlodipine did not. These results suggest that losartan may be more efficacious than amlodipine in ameliorating blood pressure deterioration and reducing stroke risk in SHRSP rats via regulation of the renin angiotensin system.

  15. Marie Ménard apples with high polyphenol content and a low-fat diet reduce 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats: effects on inflammation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Bianchini, Francesca; Salvadori, Maddalena; Salvianti, Francesca; Pinzani, Pamela; Dolara, Piero; Calorini, Lido; Caderni, Giovanna

    2012-08-01

    Inflammation may increase cancer risk, therefore, we studied whether polyphenol-rich Marie Ménard (MM) apples with reported anti-inflammatory activity prevent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and, likewise whether high-fat (HF) diet promoting carcinogenesis, may affect inflammation. DMH-induced rats were fed for 15 weeks with: an HF diet (23% corn oil w/w); an HF diet containing 7.6% w/w lyophilized MM (apple diet (AD)); a low-fat (LF) diet and an HF diet containing piroxicam (PXC) (0.01% w/w) as control. Mucin depleted foci (MDF), precancerous lesions in the colon, were dramatically reduced in the AD, LF, and PXC groups compared with the HF. Peritoneal macrophage activation, an index of systemic inflammation, was significantly decreased in the AD, LF, and PXC groups. TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6 m-RNA expression in the colon, as well as CD68 cells and plasmatic PGE2 were lower in the AD, but not in the LF group. Apoptosis in the MDF of both the AD and LF-fed rats was significantly higher than in HF rats. In conclusion, AD has a strong chemopreventive effect, reducing inflammation, and increasing apoptosis, while the chemopreventive effect of the LF diet seems mediated mainly by increased apoptosis in MDF.

  16. The role of dietary fat in obesity.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Arne

    2005-02-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that dietary fat plays a role in weight loss and maintenance. Meta-analyses of intervention trials find that fat-reduced diets cause a 3-4-kg larger weight loss than normal-fat diets. A 10% reduction in dietary fat can cause a 4-5-kg weight loss in individuals with initial body mass index of 30 kg m (-2). Short-term trials show that nonfat dietary components are equally important. Sugar-sweetened beverages promote weight gain, and replacement of energy from fat by sugar-sweetened beverages is counterproductive in diets aimed at weight loss. Protein has been shown to be more satiating than carbohydrate, and fat-reduced diets with a high protein content (20-25% of energy) may increase weight loss significantly. There is little evidence that low-glycemic index foods facilitate weight control. Evidence linking certain fatty acids to body fatness is weak. Monounsaturated fatty acids may even be more fattening than polyunsaturated and saturated fats. No ad libitum dietary intervention study has shown that a normal-fat, high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet is comparable to a low-fat diet in preventing weight gain. Current evidence indicates that the best diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease is low in fat and sugar-rich beverages and high in carbohydrates, fiber, grains, and protein.

  17. Gravity separation of pericardial fat in cardiotomy suction blood: an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Kinard, M Rhett; Shackelford, Anthony G; Sistino, Joseph J

    2009-06-01

    Fat emboli generated during cardiac surgery have been shown to cause neurologic complications in patients postoperatively. Cardiotomy suction has been known to be a large generator of emboli. This study will examine the efficacy of a separation technique in which the cardiotomy suction blood is stored in a cardiotomy reservoir for various time intervals to allow spontaneous separation of fat from blood by density. Soybean oil was added to heparinized porcine blood to simulate the blood of a patient with hypertriglyceridemia (> 150 mg/dL). Roller pump suction was used to transfer the room temperature blood into the cardiotomy reservoir. Blood was removed from the reservoir in 200-mL aliquots at 0, 15, 30 45, and 60 minutes. Samples were taken at each interval and centrifuged to facilitate further separation of liquid fat. Fat content in each sample was determined by a point-of-care triglyceride analyzer. Three trials were conducted for a total of 30 samples. The 0-minute group was considered a baseline and was compared to the other four times. Fat concentration was reduced significantly in the 45- and 60-minute groups compared to the 0-, 15-, and 30-minute groups (p < .05). Gravity separation of cardiotomy suction blood is effective; however, it may require retention of blood for more time than is clinically acceptable during a routing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  18. Syzygium aromaticum ethanol extract reduces high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice through downregulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang Hwa; Ahn, Jiyun; Jeon, Tae-Il; Kim, Tae Wan; Ha, Tae Youl

    2012-09-01

    Numerous medicinal plants and their derivatives have been reported to prevent obesity and related diseases. Although Syzygium aromaticum has traditionally been used as an anodyne, carminative and anthelmintic in Asian countries, its potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity has not yet been explored. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-obesity effect of S. aromaticum ethanol extract (SAE) both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the anti-obesity potential of SAE in vitro, the effect of SAE treatment on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. To evaluate its potential in vivo, mice were assigned to three groups: a group fed the American Institute of Nutrition AIN-76A diet (normal group), an experimental group fed a high-fat diet (HFD group) and an experimental group fed an HFD supplemented with 0.5% (w/w) SAE (HFD + SAE group). After 9 weeks of feeding, the body weight; white adipose tissue (WAT) mass; serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose, insulin and leptin; hepatic lipid accumulation; and levels of lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver and WAT were measured. In vitro investigation of the effect of SAE treatment on 3T3-L1 cells revealed that it had efficiently inhibited the conversion of cells into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo investigation revealed that SAE supplementation had significantly decreased HFD-induced increases in the body weight, liver weight, WAT mass, and serum TG, TC, lipid, glucose, insulin and leptin levels. Consistent with its effects on liver weight and WAT mass, SAE supplementation was found to have suppressed the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins, including SREBP-1, FAS, CD36 and PPARγ in the liver and WAT, in addition to downregulating mRNA levels of transcription factors including Srebp and Pparg. SAE inhibits fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice via the suppression of transcription factors integral

  19. A saturated-fat diet aggravates the outcome of traumatic brain injury on hippocampal plasticity and cognitive function by reducing brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Wu, A; Molteni, R; Ying, Z; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted studies to determine the potential of dietary factors to affect the capacity of the brain to compensate for insult. Rats were fed with a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet, a popularly consumed diet in industrialized western societies, for 4 weeks before a mild fluid percussion injury (FPI) or sham surgery was performed. FPI impaired spatial learning capacity in the Morris water maze, and these effects were aggravated by previous exposure of the rats to the action of the HFS diet. Learning performance decreased according to levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in individual rats, such that rats with the worst learning efficacy showed the lowest levels of BDNF in the hippocampus. BDNF immunohistochemistry localized the decreases in BDNF to the CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. BDNF has a strong effect on synaptic plasticity via the action of synapsin I and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), therefore, we assessed changes in synapsin I and CREB in conjunction with BDNF. Levels of synapsin I and CREB decreased in relation to decreases in BDNF levels. The combination of FPI and the HFS diet had more dramatic effects on the active state (phosphorylated) of synapsin I and CREB. There were no signs of neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of any rat group assessed with Fluoro-Jade B staining. The results suggest that FPI and diet impose a risk factor to the molecular machinery in charge of maintaining neuronal function under homeostatic and challenging situations.

  20. Reduced neurotrophic factor level is the early event before the functional neuronal deficiency in high-fat diet induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanhuan; Wang, Bing; Yin, Hongping; Zhang, Guoqing; Yu, Liping; Kong, Xiangmin; Yuan, Haiying; Fang, Xingyue; Liu, Qibing; Liu, Cuiqing; Shi, Liyun

    2017-02-01

    Neurodegeneration is considered one of the possible complications of high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. Much evidence has shown the close relationship between HFD and dementia at comparatively later stage of neuronal injury. It is so far not clear that the initial events of neuronal injury resulting from HFD and obesity. In the present research, obese mouse model achieved by 3-month HFD was applied for the investigation of the possible neuronal deficiency before the obvious cognitive decline. We found that 3-month HFD has already increased the average level of body weight of mice. But almost no obvious cognitive defect was observed. At such time point, we detected the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP), including the expression and maturation level of α- and β-secretase and proteolytic fragment soluble APP. Results showed similar readout between HFD and normal diet (ND) mice. Besides, neuronal inflammation and brain-blood barrier permeability were also detected. No obvious changes could be observed between HFD and ND mice. Surprisingly, the first detectable neuronal changes was showed to be the downregulation of some neurotrpic factors, like neuronal growth factor β and brain derived neurotrophic factor, together with the activity of specific receptors, like Trk receptor phosphorylation. All the data piled up indicated that the early neuronal change in HFD induced obese mice was the downregulation of some neurotrophic factors. The results may provide the potential clue to therapeutic and preventive strategy for HFD induced cognitive decline.

  1. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  2. Phosphodiesterases reduce spontaneous sinoatrial beating but not the 'fight or flight' tachycardia elicited by agonists through Gs-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaumann, Alberto J

    2011-07-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) steers the generation of basal heart beat in the sinoatrial node. It also induces sinoatrial tachycardia and increased cardiac force, elicited through activation of Gs-protein-coupled receptors (GsPCRs). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyse cAMP. In the heart mainly PDE3 and PDE4 would be expected to limit those functions, and the PDE isoenzymes do indeed reduce basal sinoatrial beating rate and blunt the positive inotropic effects of agonists, mediated by GsPCRs. By contrast, recent evidence shows that GsPCR-mediated sinoatrial tachycardia is not controlled by PDE1-5. A PDE-resistant cAMP pool in sinoatrial cells, generated through activation of GsPCRs, including β(1)- and β(2)-adrenoceptors, appears to guarantee unrestrained tachycardia during fight or flight stress.

  3. Betaine attenuates hepatic steatosis by reducing methylation of the MTTP promoter and elevating genomic methylation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Hong-wei; Zhou, Jing-ya; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xiao-ling; Zhu, Cui-hong; Zheng, Rui-dan; Ling, Wen-hua; Zhu, Hui-lian

    2014-03-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation contributes to the abnormality of hepatic gene expression, one of the main factors in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Betaine is a methyl donor and has been considered to be a lipotropic agent. However, whether betaine supplementation improves NAFLD via its effect on the DNA methylation of specific genes and the genome has not been explored. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 0%, 1% and 2% betaine in water (wt/vol) for 12 weeks. Betaine supplementation ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in a dose-dependent manner. HFD up-regulated FAS and ACOX messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and down-regulated PPARα, ApoB and MTTP mRNA expression; however, these alterations were reversed by betaine supplementation, except ApoB. MTTP mRNA expression was negatively correlated with the DNA methylation of its CpG sites at -184, -156, -63 and -60. Methylation of these CpG sites was lower in both the 1% and 2% betaine-supplemented groups than in the HFD group (averages; 25.55% and 14.33% vs. 30.13%). In addition, both 1% and 2% betaine supplementation significantly restored the methylation capacity [S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) concentration and SAM/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios] and genomic methylation level, which had been decreased by HFD (0.37% and 0.47% vs. 0.25%). These results suggest that the regulation of aberrant DNA methylation by betaine might be a possible mechanism of the improvements in NAFLD upon betaine supplementation.

  4. Epigallocatechin gallate prevents inflammation by reducing macrophage infiltration and inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α signaling in the pancreas of rats on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanli; Bao, Suqing; Yang, Wanli; Zhang, Jin; Li, Lin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) would suppress inflammation in the pancreas, and thus, we investigated the effects that EGCG administration had in the pancreas of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). To test our hypothesis, 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: normal diet (control) group and HFD group. When there was a significant difference in body weight between the 2 groups (P < .05), the HFD group was further divided into 2 subgroups: the HFD group (HFD, n = 10, 16 weeks) and the EGCG group (HFD + 3.2 g/kg EGCG, n = 10, 16 weeks). Metabolite levels and the expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin 6 [IL-6], and toll-like receptor 4) were measured using standard biochemical techniques. Insulin secretion and pancreatic histology were also evaluated. Epigallocatechin gallate significantly decreased fasting insulin levels as well as the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index. In the HFD group, the average glucose infusion rate and the TNF-α and IL-6 levels increased, whereas toll-like receptor 4 and TNF receptor-associated factor-6 did not. A pathologic analysis of pancreatic tissue revealed an increase in inflammatory TNF-α and infiltrating CD68+ macrophages in the islets of the HFD rats, but rarely is this observed in the in the HFD + EGCG rats. Overall, these data suggest that EGCG suppresses inflammation, partially reverses metabolic abnormalities, and ultimately increases insulin sensitivity in the pancreas of HFD rats.

  5. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  6. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  7. A Better Way to Measure Fat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-24

    all Marines active today are being affected by the current system by which we measure body fat . The Marine Corps’ current system of tape...measurement to determine body fat is the least accurate of multiple modern methods now available to the public. Using more advanced methods would reduce human...error and increase standardization throughout the Marine Corps. Current Method Initially when the Marine Corps began testing for body fat in 1981

  8. Dietary Fat, Eicosanoids and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    postmenopausal women. The study objectives are to: 1) evaluate the effects of total fat and omega -3 fatty acid intake on plasma and urinary sex hormone...associated with reducing breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Dietary fat, omega -3 fatty acids , eicosanoids, sex hormones 16...candidate in September, 2007. • Preliminary data from plasma sex hormone analysis supports low fat, high omega -3 fatty acid diet in prevention of breast

  9. A spontaneously arising mutation in connexin32 with repeated passage of FRTL-5 cells coincides with increased growth rate and reduced thyroxine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Tran, D. T.; Nelson, G. A.; Shah, M. M.; Luben, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    reduced thyroid function and supports the previously postulated, tumor-suppressor role for Cx32.

  10. A spontaneously arising mutation in connexin32 with repeated passage of FRTL-5 cells coincides with increased growth rate and reduced thyroxine release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Tran, D. T.; Nelson, G. A.; Shah, M. M.; Luben, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    reduced thyroid function and supports the previously postulated, tumor-suppressor role for Cx32. FRTL-5 cultures from low passage numbers are an excellent model of primary thyroid cells. However, many reports in the literature ascribe features to FRTL-5 cells that are mutually inconsistent. These differences may be resolved in the future by addressing the passage number and the conditional differences of the cultures being studied.

  11. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  12. Peanuts, Peanut Oil and Fat Free Peanut Flour Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Syrian Golden Hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without reducing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The cardiovascular effects of the non-lipid portion of peanuts has...

  13. The N-reductive system composed of mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC), cytochrome b5 (CYB5B) and cytochrome b5 reductase (CYB5R) is regulated by fasting and high fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Heyka H; Mikula, Michal; Havemeyer, Antje; Strzalkowska, Adriana; Borowa-Chmielak, Monika; Dzwonek, Artur; Gajewska, Marta; Hennig, Ewa E; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Clement, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component mARC is the fourth mammalian molybdenum enzyme. The protein is capable of reducing N-oxygenated structures, but requires cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase for electron transfer to catalyze such reactions. It is well accepted that the enzyme is involved in N-reductive drug metabolism such as the activation of amidoxime prodrugs. However, the endogenous function of the protein is not fully understood. Among other functions, an involvement in lipogenesis is discussed. To study the potential involvement of the protein in energy metabolism, we tested whether the mARC protein and its partners are regulated due to fasting and high fat diet in mice. We used qRT-PCR for expression studies, Western Blot analysis to study protein levels and an N-reductive biotransformation assay to gain activity data. Indeed all proteins of the N-reductive system are regulated by fasting and its activity decreases. To study the potential impact of these changes on prodrug activation in vivo, another mice experiment was conducted. Model compound benzamidoxime was injected to mice that underwent fasting and the resulting metabolite of the N-reductive reaction, benzamidine, was determined. Albeit altered in vitro activity, no changes in the metabolite concentration in vivo were detectable and we can dispel concerns that fasting alters prodrug activation in animal models. With respect to high fat diet, changes in the mARC proteins occur that result in increased N-reductive activity. With this study we provide further evidence that the endogenous function of the mARC protein is linked with lipid metabolism.

  14. How much dietary fat in therapeutic nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Simko, V.

    1990-01-01

    Dietary fat has a less prominent role in realimentation than the alternate source of energy, carbohydrate. Presently available therapeutic diets, in typical feeding routines, provide only 3 to 120 g of fat per day. Three major factors contribute to fat underutilization: long-standing belief that fat is to blame for various vague symptoms of indigestion, misconception that daily fecal fat in excess of 7 g represents bowel dysfunction, and fear of fat-induced atherogenesis. None of these apply to refeeding starved and malnourished patients. The small intestine has a vastly underutilized capacity for fat absorption, and at the habitual fat intake of 100 g per day absorption is complete in the proximal one fifth of the gut. In patients requiring vigorous realimentation, the remaining small intestine should also be utilized. Dietary fat is well tolerated, and daily intakes of 500 g of polyunsaturated fat in a complete diet have not been associated with important side effects, while there was a significant improvement in body stores of fat and protein. Compared to diets high in carbohydrate, adequate intake of fat results in better nutrient utilization, less CO2 production and decreased lipogenesis and insulin requirements. Diets higher in fat are also better tolerated because of their lower volume and osmolality. The result is more effective absorption of calories and a faster nutritional recovery. Increased adipose tissue and protein reserve benefits patients who are in stress, immunocompromised, or debilitated. Adequate dietary fat should be considered for malnourished subjects with intact gastrointestinal function, and when intestinal absorptive capacity is reduced by surgery or disease. PMID:2194611

  15. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  16. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Dyck, D J

    2000-12-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  17. Fat discrimination: a phenotype with potential implications for studying fat intake behaviors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lisa C H; Sakimura, Johannah; May, Daniel; Breen, Cameron; Driggin, Elissa; Tepper, Beverly J; Chung, Wendy K; Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-01-18

    Variations in fat preference and intake across humans are poorly understood in part because of difficulties in studying this behavior. The objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure to assess fat discrimination, the ability to accurately perceive differences in the fat content of foods, and assess the associations between this phenotype and fat ingestive behaviors and adiposity. African-American adults (n=317) were tested for fat discrimination using 7 forced choice same/different tests with Italian salad dressings that ranged in fat-by-weight content from 5 to 55%. Performance on this procedure was determined by tallying the number of trials in which a participant correctly identified the pair of samples as "same" or "different" across all test pairs (ranging from 1 to 7). Individuals who received the lowest scores on this task (≤3 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat non-discriminators (n=33) and those who received the highest scores (7 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat discriminators (n=59). These 2 groups were compared for the primary outcome variables: reported food intake, preferences, and adiposity. After adjusting for BMI, sex, age, and dietary restraint and disinhibition, fat non-discriminators reported greater consumption of both added fats and reduced fat foods (p<0.05 for both). Fat non-discriminators also had greater abdominal adiposity compared to fat discriminators (p<0.05). Test-retest scores performed in a subset of participants (n=40) showed moderate reliability of the fat discrimination test (rho=0.53; p<0.01). If these results are replicated, fat discrimination may serve as clinical research tool to identify participants who are at risk for obesity and other chronic diseases due to increased fat intake.

  18. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    PubMed Central

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  19. The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010?1234

    PubMed Central

    Dyerberg, Jørn; Elwood, Peter; Hermansen, Kjeld; Hu, Frank B; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Kok, Frans J; Krauss, Ronald M; Lecerf, Jean Michel; LeGrand, Philippe; Nestel, Paul; Risérus, Ulf; Sanders, Tom; Sinclair, Andrew; Stender, Steen; Tholstrup, Tine; Willett, Walter C

    2011-01-01

    Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and mechanistic studies is consistent in finding that the risk of CHD is reduced when SFAs are replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In populations who consume a Western diet, the replacement of 1% of energy from SFAs with PUFAs lowers LDL cholesterol and is likely to produce a reduction in CHD incidence of ≥2–3%. No clear benefit of substituting carbohydrates for SFAs has been shown, although there might be a benefit if the carbohydrate is unrefined and has a low glycemic index. Insufficient evidence exists to judge the effect on CHD risk of replacing SFAs with MUFAs. No clear association between SFA intake relative to refined carbohydrates and the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes has been shown. The effect of diet on a single biomarker is insufficient evidence to assess CHD risk. The combination of multiple biomarkers and the use of clinical endpoints could help substantiate the effects on CHD. Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total SFAs because individual SFAs may have different cardiovascular effects and major SFA food sources contain other constituents that could influence CHD risk. Research is needed to clarify the role of SFAs compared with specific forms of carbohydrates in CHD risk and to compare specific foods with appropriate alternatives. PMID:21270379

  20. Laser cooling without spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Corder, Christopher; Arnold, Brian; Metcalf, Harold

    2015-01-30

    This Letter reports the demonstration of laser cooling without spontaneous emission, and thereby addresses a significant controversy. It works by restricting the atom-light interaction to a time short compared to a cycle of absorption followed by natural decay. It is achieved by using the bichromatic force on an atomic transition with a relatively long excited state lifetime and a relatively short cooling time so that spontaneous emission effects are minimized. The observed width of the one-dimensional velocity distribution is reduced by ×2 thereby reducing the "temperature" by ×4. Moreover, our results comprise a compression in phase space because the spatial expansion of the atomic sample is limited. This accomplishment is of interest to direct laser cooling of molecules or in experiments where working space or time is limited.

  1. AGGRESSIVE TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Sydney P.; Jamplis, Robert W.; Mitchell, Sidney P.

    1962-01-01

    In analysis of the results of treatment of 48 episodes of spontaneous pneumothorax, aggressive treatment by means of closed intercostal drainage with constant suction was found to achieve the aims of therapy more effectively than conservative measures of bed rest with or without needle aspiration. In general, full expansion of the lung was more quickly restored, recurrence was of lesser incidence, the period in hospital was shorter and the time away from work was reduced. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13905846

  2. Consumption of policosanol enhances HDL functionality via CETP inhibition and reduces blood pressure and visceral fat in young and middle-aged subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Suk-Jeong; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known that policosanol can improve serum lipid profiles, although the physiological mechanism is still unknown. Here, we investigated functional and structural changes in lipoproteins after consumption of policosanol. To investigate the physiological effect of policosanol, we analyzed serum parameters in young non-smoker (YN; n=7, 24.0±2.4 years), young smoker (YS; n=7, 26.3±1.5 years), and middle-aged subjects (MN; n=11, 52.5±9.8 years) who consumed policosanol daily (10 mg/day) for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, systolic blood pressure was significantly lowered to 4% (7 mmHg, p=0.022) from initial levels in the YS and MN groups. Moisture content of facial skin increased up to 38 and 18% from initial levels in the YS and MN groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride (TG) levels decreased to 28 and 26% from initial levels in the YN and MN groups, respectively. The percentage of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in total cholesterol was elevated in all subjects (YN, 36%; YS, 35%; MN, 8%) after 8 weeks of policosanol consumption. All groups showed a reduction in serum glucose and uric acid levels. Serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was significantly diminished up to 21 and 32% from initial levels in the YN and MN groups, respectively. After 8 weeks, oxidation of the low-density lipoprotein fraction was markedly reduced accompanied by decreased apolipoprotein B (apoB) fragmentation. In the HDL fraction, paraoxonase activity was elevated by 17% along with elevation of apoA-I and cholesterol contents. Electron microscopy revealed that the size and number of HDL particles increased after 8 weeks, and the YS group showed a 2-fold increase in particle size. Daily consumption of policosanol for 8 weeks resulted in lowered blood pressure, reduced serum TG level and CETP activity, and elevated HDL-C contents. These functional enhancements of HDL can prevent and/or attenuate aging-related diseases, hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart

  3. MSG intake suppresses weight gain, fat deposition, and plasma leptin levels in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Takashi; Torii, Kunio

    2008-09-03

    Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG), an umami taste substance, may be a key molecule coupled to a food intake signaling pathway, possibly mediated through a specific l-glutamate (GLU) sensing mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the effect of the spontaneous ingestion of a 1% MSG solution and water on food intake and body weight in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed diets of varying caloric density, fat and carbohydrate contents. Fat mass and lean mass in the abdomen, blood pressure, and several blood metabolic markers were also measured. Rats given free access to MSG and water showed a high preference (93-97%) for the MSG solution, regardless of the diet they consumed. Rats ingesting MSG had a significantly smaller weight gain, reduced abdominal fat mass, and lower plasma leptin levels, compared to rats ingesting water alone. Naso-anal length, lean mass, food and energy intakes, blood pressure, blood glucose, and plasma levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, albumin, and GLU were not influenced by the ingestion of the MSG solution. These same effects were observed in a study of adult rats. Together, these results suggest that MSG ingestion reduces weight gain, body fat mass, and plasma leptin levels. Moreover, these changes are likely to be mediated by increased energy expenditure, not reduced energy intake or delayed development. Conceivably, these effects of MSG might be mediated via gut GLU receptors functionally linked to afferent branches of the vagus nerve in the gut, or the afferent sensory nerves in the oral cavity.

  4. Intake of hydrolyzed casein is associated with reduced body fat accretion and enhanced phase II metabolism in obesity prone C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Morten Rahr; Zhang, Xumin; Yde, Christian C; Ditlev, Ditte B; Lillefosse, Haldis H; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn; Bertram, Hanne C

    2015-01-01

    The amount and form of dietary casein have been shown to affect energy metabolism and lipid accumulation in mice, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated 48 hrs urinary metabolome, hepatic lipid composition and gene expression in male C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets with 16 or 32 energy% protein in the form of extensively hydrolyzed or intact casein. LC-MS based metabolomics revealed a very strong impact of casein form on the urinary metabolome. Evaluation of the discriminatory metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry indicated that intake of extensively hydrolyzed casein modulated Phase II metabolism associated with an elevated urinary excretion of glucuronic acid- and sulphate conjugated molecules, whereas glycine conjugated molecules were more abundant in urine from mice fed the intact casein diets. Despite the differences in the urinary metabolome, we observed no differences in hepatic expression of genes involved in Phase II metabolism, but it was observed that expression of Abcc3 encoding ATP binding cassette c3 (transporter of glucuronic acid conjugates) was increased in livers of mice fed hydrolyzed casein. As glucuronic acid is derived from glucose and sulphate is derived from cysteine, our metabolomic data provided evidence for changes in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and we propose that this modulation of metabolism was associated with the reduced glucose and lipid levels observed in mice fed the extensively hydrolyzed casein diets.

  5. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  6. The role of non-fat ingredients on confectionery fat crystallization.

    PubMed

    West, Ryan; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-03-31

    Confections such as chocolate and biscuit fillings are composed of a continuous fat phase that contains dispersed non-fat ingredients such as sugar and cocoa powder. Research on fat crystallization and rheology in confections often extrapolates crystallization and textural properties from bulk to mixed systems while overlooking the important role of composition or particle interactions. For example, in chocolate processing the fat phase aids dispersed phase lubrication and fluidity whereas the dispersed particles assist in fat crystallization by providing many nucleation sites. In confections with a high dispersed phase volume fraction, fat crystallization may be hindered due to reduced triacyglycerol mobility, confinement, and increased tortuosity. This is further complicated in systems with slow crystallizing fats such as palm oil whose crystallization is exceptionally sensitive to composition and processing. This review breaks down the physical chemistry of fat-based confections and discusses the impact of different non-fat ingredients towards fat crystallization and rheology. The behaviour of palm oil is further highlighted as it is becoming increasingly popular as a confectionery ingredient. Lastly, ingredient-ingredient interactions and their role in fat crystallization are described along with force spectroscopy as a novel tool to characterize such phenomena. Force spectroscopy utilizes atomic force microscopy to measure intermolecular forces as a function of distance but remains largely unexplored in the area of food science.

  7. Characterization of hepatic fatty acids in mice with reduced liver fat by ultra-short echo time (1)H-MRS at 14.1 T in vivo.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Francisca; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2015-08-01

    Alterations in the hepatic lipid content (HLC) and fatty acid composition are associated with disruptions in whole body metabolism, both in humans and in rodent models, and can be non-invasively assessed by (1)H-MRS in vivo. We used (1)H-MRS to characterize the hepatic fatty-acyl chains of healthy mice and to follow changes caused by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Using STEAM at 14.1 T with an ultra-short TE of 2.8 ms, confounding effects from T2 relaxation and J-coupling were avoided, allowing for accurate estimations of the contribution of unsaturated (UFA), saturated (SFA), mono-unsaturated (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated (PUFA) fatty-acyl chains, number of double bonds, PU bonds and mean chain length. Compared with in vivo (1) H-MRS, high resolution NMR performed in vitro in hepatic lipid extracts reported longer fatty-acyl chains (18 versus 15 carbons) with a lower contribution from UFA (61 ± 1% versus 80 ± 5%) but a higher number of PU bonds per UFA (1.39 ± 0.03 versus 0.58 ± 0.08), driven by the presence of membrane species in the extracts. STZ injection caused a decrease of HLC (from 1.7 ± 0.3% to 0.7 ± 0.1%), an increase in the contribution of SFA (from 21 ± 2% to 45 ± 6%) and a reduction of the mean length (from 15 to 13 carbons) of cytosolic fatty-acyl chains. In addition, SFAs were also likely to have increased in membrane lipids of STZ-induced diabetic mice, along with a decrease of the mean chain length. These studies show the applicability of (1)H-MRS in vivo to monitor changes in the composition of the hepatic fatty-acyl chains in mice even when they exhibit reduced HLC, pointing to the value of this methodology to evaluate lipid-lowering interventions in the scope of metabolic disorders.

  8. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... have plenty of fat. They include nuts, oils, butter, and meats like beef. The name — fat — may ... you reach that goal. It includes a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, milk, and an apple. The ...

  9. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ...

  10. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  11. Saturated fats (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fats are found predominantly in animal products such as meat and dairy products, and are strongly associated with higher cholesterol levels. Tropical oils such as palm, coconut, and coconut butter, are also high in saturated fats.

  12. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink low-fat or skim milk. Doing the Math How much fat should you eat? Experts say ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  13. Spontaneous closure of stoma.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Narendra; Singh, Harjeet; Kumar, Hemanth; Gupta, Rajesh; Verma, G R

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal loop stoma is a common surgical procedure performed for various benign and malignant abdominal problems, but it rarely undergoes spontaneous closure, without surgical intervention. Two male patients presented to our emergency surgical department with acute abdominal pain. One of them was diagnosed as having rectosigmoid perforation and underwent diversion sigmoid loop colostomy after primary closure of the perforation. The other was a known case of carcinoma of the rectum who had already undergone low anterior resection with covering loop ileostomy; the patient underwent second loop ileostomy, this time for complicated intestinal obstruction. To our surprise, both the loop colostomy and ileostomy closed spontaneously at 8 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively, without any consequences. Spontaneous stoma closure is a rare and interesting event. The exact etiology for spontaneous closure remains unknown, but it may be hypothesized to result from slow retraction of the stoma, added to the concept of a tendency towards spontaneous closure of enterocutaneous fistula.

  14. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  15. A high-fat diet containing whole walnuts (Juglans regia) reduces tumour size and growth along with plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is linked to prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed male cancer, but the nature and strength of the relationships between total fat, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PCa remain incompletely understood. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (N=10-12 per grou...

  16. Replacing foods high in saturated fat by low-saturated fat alternatives: a computer simulation of the potential effects on reduction of saturated fat consumption.

    PubMed

    Schickenberg, Bilbo; van Assema, Patricia; Brug, Johannes; Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Ocké, Marga C; de Vries, Nanne K

    2009-08-01

    This simulation study aimed to assess the change in saturated fat intake achieved by replacing one to three of the products contributing most to individual saturated fat intake by alternative products low in saturated fat. Food consumption data of 750 participants (aged 19-30 years) from a recent Dutch food consumption survey were used. For each participant, the three products (from different product groups) that contributed most to their saturated fat intake were ranked in order of diminishing contribution. These products were sequentially replaced by lower saturated fat alternatives that were available in Dutch supermarkets. Mean percentage energy (en%) from saturated fat and energy intake in kJ per d were calculated before and after each of the three replacements. Dutch cheese, meat (for dinner) and milk were the main contributors to saturated fat intake for most participants. Starting at a mean en% from saturated fat of 12.4, the three replacements together resulted in a mean reduction of 4.9 en% from saturated fat. The percentage of participants meeting the recommendation for saturated fat ( < 10 en%) increased from 23.3 % to 86.0 %. We conclude that the replacement of relatively few important high-saturated fat products by available lower-saturated fat alternatives can significantly reduce saturated fat intake and increase the proportion of individuals complying with recommended intake levels.

  17. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Rahimeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Parsay, Sosan

    2017-01-01

    Background Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods This case-control study included the case group (n=331) experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331) who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively). There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001). Conclusion Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion. PMID:28042413

  18. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    PubMed

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  19. Effects of oolong tea on renal sympathetic nerve activity and spontaneous hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Tsuruoka, Nobuo; Shen, Jiao; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Nagai, Katsuya

    2008-04-01

    In a previous study, evidence was presented that oolong tea (OT) reduced abdominal fat accumulation in diet-induced obese mice. In the study presented here, we examined the sympathetic and cardiovascular effects of intraduodenal injection of OT in urethane-anesthetized rats and found that it suppressed renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and blood pressure (BP). In addition, pretreatment with the histaminergic H3-receptor antagonist thioperamide or bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy eliminated the effects of OT on RSNA and BP. Furthermore, OT drinking for 14 weeks reduced BP elevation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results thus suggest that OT may exert its hypotensive action through changes in autonomic neurotransmission via an afferent neural mechanism. Moreover, we found that intraduodenal injection of decaffeinated OT lowered RSNA and BP as well as OT, indicating that substances other than caffeine contained in OT may function as effective modulators of RSNA and BP.

  20. 6-Paradol and 6-Shogaol, the Pungent Compounds of Ginger, Promote Glucose Utilization in Adipocytes and Myotubes, and 6-Paradol Reduces Blood Glucose in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chien-Kei; Tsai, Yi-Hong; Korinek, Michal; Hung, Pei-Hsuan; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Yang-Chang; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2017-01-01

    The anti-diabetic activity of ginger powder (Zingiber officinale) has been recently promoted, with the recommendation to be included as one of the dietary supplements for diabetic patients. However, previous studies presented different results, which may be caused by degradation and metabolic changes of ginger components, gingerols, shogaols and paradols. Therefore, we prepared 10 ginger active components, namely 6-, 8-, 10-paradols, 6-, 8-, 10-shogaols, 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and zingerone, and evaluated their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Among the tested compounds, 6-paradol and 6-shogaol showed potent activity in stimulating glucose utilization by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. The effects were attributed to the increase in 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 6-Paradol, the major metabolite of 6-shogaol, was utilized in an in vivo assay and significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol and body weight in high-fat diet-fed mice. PMID:28106738

  1. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  2. Spontaneous combustion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm; Pothmann, PH

    1923-01-01

    It is shown by the author's experiments that hydrogen which escapes to the atmosphere through openings in the system may burn spontaneously if it contains dust. Purely thermal reasoning can not account for the combustion. It seems to be rather an electrical ignition. In order to determine whether the cause of the spontaneous ignition was thermo-chemical, thermo-mechanical, or thermo-electrical, the experiments in this paper were performed.

  3. Hyper-Variability in Circulating Insulin, High Fat Feeding Outcomes, and Effects of Reducing Ins2 Dosage in Male Ins1-Null Mice in a Specific Pathogen-Free Facility

    PubMed Central

    Templeman, Nicole M.; Mehran, Arya E.; Johnson, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is an essential hormone with key roles in energy homeostasis and body composition. Mice and rats, unlike other mammals, have two insulin genes: the rodent-specific Ins1 gene and the ancestral Ins2 gene. The relationships between insulin gene dosage and obesity has previously been explored in male and female Ins2-/- mice with full or reduced Ins1 dosage, as well as in female Ins1-/- mice with full or partial Ins2 dosage. We report herein unexpected hyper-variability in Ins1-null male mice, with respect to their circulating insulin levels and to the physiological effects of modulating Ins2 gene dosage. Two large cohorts of Ins1-/-:Ins2+/- mice and their Ins1-/-:Ins2+/+ littermates were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) from weaning, and housed in specific pathogen-free conditions. Cohort A and cohort B were studied one year apart. Contrary to female mice from the same litters, inactivating one Ins2 allele on the complete Ins1-null background did not consistently cause a reduction of circulating insulin in male mice, on either diet. In cohort A, all HFD-fed males showed an equivalent degree of insulin hypersecretion and weight gain, regardless of Ins2 dosage. In cohort B the effects of HFD appeared generally diminished, and cohort B Ins1-/-:Ins2+/- males showed decreased insulin levels and body mass compared to Ins1-/-:Ins2+/+ littermates, on both diets. Although experimental conditions were consistent between cohorts, we found that HFD-fed Ins1-/-:Ins2+/- mice with lower insulin levels had increased corticosterone. Collectively, these observations highlight the phenotypic characteristics that change in association with differences in circulating insulin and Ins2 gene dosage, particularly in male mice. PMID:27055260

  4. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta D.; Keim, Nancy L.; Adams, Sean H.; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R.; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R.; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A.; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered. PMID:21941636

  5. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Van Loan, Marta D; Keim, Nancy L; Adams, Sean H; Souza, Elaine; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Thomas, Anthony; Witbracht, Megan; Gertz, Erik R; Piccolo, Brian; Bremer, Andrew A; Spurlock, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD) or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD). All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P = 0.02) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  6. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Yildizhan, Begüm; Uyar, Esra; Şişmanoğlu, Alper; Güllüoğlu, Gülfem; Kavak, Zehra N.

    2006-01-01

    Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01−0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy). Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture. PMID:17093350

  7. Biomodal spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K. )

    1989-09-26

    Investigations of mass and kinetic-energy distributions from spontaneous fission have been extended in recent years to an isotope of element 104 and, for half-lives, to an isotope of element 108. The results have been surprising in that spontaneous fission half-lives have turned out to be much longer than expected and mass and kinetic- energy distributions were found to abruptly shift away from those of the lighter actinides, showing two modes of fission. These new developments have caused a re-evaluation of our understanding of the fission process, bringing an even deeper appreciation of the role played by nuclear shell effects upon spontaneous fission properties. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Insulin sensitivity and regional fat gain in response to overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, S. B.; Jensen, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Although insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are associated with upper body fat distribution, it is unknown whether insulin resistance predisposes to upper body fat gain or whether upper body fat gain causes insulin resistance. Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity predicts abdominal (subcutaneous and/or visceral) fat gain in normal weight adults. Twenty-eight (15 men) lean (BMI = 22.1±2.5 kg/m2), healthy adults underwent ~8 weeks of overfeeding to gain ~4 kg fat. Body composition was assessed before and after overfeeding using DXA and abdominal CT to measure total and regional (visceral, abdominal, and lower body subcutaneous) fat gain. We assessed insulin sensitivity with an IV glucose tolerance test and the 24h insulin area-under-the-curve(AUC). We found a wide range of insulin sensitivity and a relatively narrow range of body fat distribution in this normal weight cohort. Participants gained 3.8±1.7 kg of body fat (4.6±2.2 kg body weight). The baseline 24h AUC of insulin concentration was positively correlated with percent body fat (r=0.43, p<0.05). The contribution of leg fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 29–79%, while the contributions of abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 17–69% and −5–22%, respectively. Baseline insulin sensitivity, whether measured by an IVGTT or the 24h AUC insulin Si, did not predict upper body subcutaneous or visceral fat gain in response to overfeeding. We conclude that reduced insulin sensitivity is not an obligate precursor to upper body fat gain. PMID:21127472

  9. The opioid system contributes to the acquisition of reinforcement for dietary fat but is not required for its maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Okafuji, Yoko; Eguchi, Ai; Yoneda, Takeshi; Mizushige, Takafumi; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    The opioid system plays an important role in ingestive behavior, especially with regard to palatable high-fat or sweetened foods. In the present study, we investigated the role of the opioid system in the regulation of ingestive behavior in mice with regard to dietary fat intake, reinforcement, and particularly the processes involved in development of these behavior types. Subcutaneous administration of the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.5 or 2.0mg/kg body weight [BW]) reduced the spontaneous intake of fat emulsion (Intralipid). We investigated the effect of naltrexone on reinforcement by using an operant behavioral paradigm under a progressive ratio schedule in which the number of lever presses required to obtain a test sample increased progressively. Mice showed stronger reinforcement by Intralipid as a function of concentration. However, naltrexone (0.5 or 2.0mg/kg BW) did not affect reinforcement at any concentration of Intralipid in mice that had repeatedly ingested Intralipid before testing was carried out. Intralipid ingestion also induced conditioned place preference (CPP), which is another evaluation index of reinforcement. High-dose naltrexone (2.0mg/kg BW) administration during CPP conditioning suppressed the reinforcement induced by Intralipid ingestion, although the drug administration (0.5 or 2.0mg/kg BW) during CPP testing did not affect reinforced behavior. These results suggest that the amount of fat ingestion and reinforcement for fat ingestion are separately regulated by the opioid system. Furthermore, our results indicate that the opioid system plays an important role in acquiring reinforcement for fat but is not required for maintenance of learned reinforcement.

  10. Position of the American Dietetic association: fat replacers.

    PubMed

    2005-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the majority of fat replacers, when used in moderation by adults, can be safe and useful adjuncts to lowering the fat content of foods and may play a role in decreasing total dietary energy and fat intake. Moderate use of low-calorie, reduced-fat foods, combined with low total energy intake, could potentially promote dietary intake consistent with the objectives of Healthy People 2010 and the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans . The obesity epidemic in the nation has been attributed to energy imbalance, mainly because of increased food consumption and/or sedentary lifestyle, or both. Evidence suggests that lowering total energy intake along with a reduction in total fat intake can have a substantial impact on body weight and risk of chronic diseases. Fat replacers are used to provide some or all of the functional properties of fat, while providing fewer calories than the fat being replaced, and are used in a variety of products, from baked goods to frozen desserts. Fat replacers can be effective only if they lower the total caloric content of the food and if the consumer uses these foods as part of a balanced meal plan. Consumers should not be led to believe that fat- and calorie-reduced products can be consumed in unlimited amounts. Fat replacers are most useful when they help with calorie control and when their use encourages the consumption of foods delivering important nutrients.

  11. Spontaneous sarcomere dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten

    2010-12-01

    Sarcomeres are the basic force generating units of striated muscles and consist of an interdigitating arrangement of actin and myosin filaments. While muscle contraction is usually triggered by neural signals, which eventually set myosin motors into motion, isolated sarcomeres can oscillate spontaneously between a contracted and a relaxed state. We analyze a model for sarcomere dynamics, which is based on a force-dependent detachment rate of myosin from actin. Our numerical bifurcation analysis of the spontaneous sarcomere dynamics reveals notably Hopf bifurcations, canard explosions, and gluing bifurcations. We discuss possible implications for experiments.

  12. Spontaneous bilateral tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wali, Aisha Syed; Khan, Rozilla Sadia

    2012-02-01

    With the increase in incidence of ectopic pregnancy over the decades, bilateral ectopic pregnancy is also increasing. It is usually associated with assisted reproductive techniques (ART) but in recent years few cases of spontaneous bilateral ectopic pregnancy have been reported. Gynaecologists should be aware of this and that ultrasonography has limitations in diagnosis. In cases of ectopic pregnancy where contralateral adnexa is not clearly identified on ultrasound and fertility needs to be conserved, patient should be managed by experts in well equipped centres. A case of spontaneous bilateral tubal pregnancy that remained undiagnosed till laparotomy, is described.

  13. Anti-fat prejudice reduction: a review of published studies.

    PubMed

    Daníelsdóttir, Sigrún; O'Brien, Kerry S; Ciao, Anna

    2010-02-01

    Prejudice against those who are perceived as 'fat' or obese (anti-fat prejudice) is rife, increasing, and associated with negative outcomes for those targeted for such treatment. The present review sought to identify and describe published research on interventions to reduce anti-fat prejudice. A systematic search of relevant databases (e.g. PsychInfo, PubMed, Scopus) found 16 published studies that had sought to reduce anti-fat prejudice. Most notable was the lack of research on interventions for reducing anti-fat prejudice. Methodological problems that limit the interpretability of results were identified in the majority of studies found. Interventions employing more rigorous experimental designs provided at best mixed evidence for effectiveness. Although several studies reported changes in beliefs and knowledge about the causes of obesity, reductions in anti-fat prejudice did not typically accompany these changes. Anti-fat prejudice interventions adopting social norm- and social consensus-based approaches appear encouraging but are scarce. The lack of prejudice reduction following most interventions suggests that psychological mechanisms other than, or additional to, those being manipulated may underpin anti-fat prejudice. New directions for researching anti-fat prejudice are suggested. Given the strength of antipathy displayed toward those who are perceived as 'fat' or obese, research in this area is urgently required.

  14. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From ... some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the Fats Quiz II - and be sure to check out Face ...

  15. Omega-3 fats: Good for your heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries - omega-3s; Coronary artery disease - omega-3s; Heart disease - omega-3s ... Omega-3s are good for your heart and blood vessels in several ways. They reduce triglycerides , a type of fat in your blood. They reduce the risk of an ...

  16. Chronic Spontaneous Nephrocutaneous Fistula Associated With Renal Replacement Lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Khallouk, A; Tazi, M. F; Elfassi, M. J; Farih, M. H

    2010-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare renal disease. Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is the result of the atrophy and destruction of renal parenchyma with massive increases in the amount of fat in the sinus and perirenal space. The 2 conditions can be associated because they may have the same etiology. Indeed, urolithiasis is the most common cause of these diseases. We report a case of chronic nephrocutaneous fistula associated with RRL due to both urolithiasis and renal tuberculosis. PMID:21234262

  17. Chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula associated with renal replacement lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Khallouk, A; Tazi, M F; Elfassi, M J; Farih, M H

    2010-01-01

    Chronic spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula is a rare renal disease. Renal replacement lipomatosis (RRL) is the result of the atrophy and destruction of renal parenchyma with massive increases in the amount of fat in the sinus and perirenal space. The 2 conditions can be associated because they may have the same etiology. Indeed, urolithiasis is the most common cause of these diseases. We report a case of chronic nephrocutaneous fistula associated with RRL due to both urolithiasis and renal tuberculosis.

  18. Spontaneous transverse colon volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Sana, Landolsi; Ali, Gassara; Kallel, Helmi; Amine, Baklouti; Ahmed, Saadaoui; Mohamed Ali, Elouer; Wajdi, Chaeib; Saber, Mannaï

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous transverse colon volvulus in a young healthy woman. It constitutes an unusual case since it occurred in a young healthy woman with a subacute onset and no aetiological factor has been found. Its diagnosis is still challenging. Prompt recognition with emergency intervention constitutes the key to successful outcome. PMID:23785565

  19. Spontaneous transverse colon volvulus.

    PubMed

    Sana, Landolsi; Ali, Gassara; Kallel, Helmi; Amine, Baklouti; Ahmed, Saadaoui; Ali, Elouer Mohamed; Wajdi, Chaeib; Saber, Mannaï

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of spontaneous transverse colon volvulus in a young healthy woman. It constitutes an unusual case since it occurred in a young healthy woman with a subacute onset and no aetiological factor has been found. Its diagnosis is still challenging. Prompt recognition with emergency intervention constitutes the key to successful outcome.

  20. Spontaneous fulminant gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Delbridge, M S; Turton, E P L; Kester, R C

    2005-07-01

    Gas gangrene is a rare condition, usually associated with contaminated traumatic injuries. It carries a high rate of mortality and morbidity. A number of studies have implicated non-traumatic gas gangrene and colonic neoplasia. This paper reports a patient who presented spontaneously with Clostridium septicum gas gangrene and an occult caecal carcinoma.

  1. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with increased histone methyl transferase (G9a) and reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  2. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  3. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  4. Spontaneous nephrocutaneous fistula.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Alberto A; Calado, Adriano A; Falcão, Evandro

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous renal fistula to the skin is rare. The majority of cases develop in patients with antecedents of previous renal surgery, renal trauma, renal tumors, and chronic urinary tract infection with abscess formation. We report the case of a 62-year old woman, who complained of urine leakage through the skin in the lumbar region for 2 years. She underwent a fistulography that revealed drainage of contrast agent to the collecting system and images suggesting renal lithiasis on this side. The patient underwent simple nephrectomy on this side and evolved without intercurrences in the post-operative period. Currently, the occurrence of spontaneous renal and perirenal abscesses is extremely rare, except in patients with diabetes, neoplasias and immunodepression in general.

  5. Spontaneous recovery from acalculia.

    PubMed

    Basso, Anna; Caporali, Alessandra; Faglioni, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    A topic much considered in research on acalculia was its relationship with aphasia. Far less attention has been given to the natural course of acalculia. In this retrospective study, we examined the relationship between aphasia and acalculia in an unselected series of 98 left-brain-damaged patients and the spontaneous recovery from acalculia in 92 acalculic patients with follow-up. There was a significant association between aphasia and acalculia although 19 participants exhibited aphasia with no acalculia and six acalculia with no aphasia. We observed significant improvement between a first examination carried out between 1 and 5 months post-onset and a second examination carried out between 3 and 11 months later (mean: 5 months). The mechanisms of spontaneous recovery are discussed.

  6. Spontaneous Transomental Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hun

    2016-01-01

    A transomental hernia through the greater or lesser omentum is rare, accounting for approximately 4% of internal hernias. Transomental hernias are generally reported in patients aged over fifty. In such instances, acquired transomental hernias are usual, are commonly iatrogenic, and result from surgical interventions or from trauma or peritoneal inflammation. In rare cases, such as the one described in this study, internal hernias through the greater or lesser omentum occur spontaneously as the result of senile atrophy without history of surgery, trauma, or inflammation. A transomental hernia has a high postoperative mortality rate of 30%, and emergency diagnosis and treatment are critical. We report a case of a spontaneous transomental hernia of the small intestine causing intestinal obstruction. An internal hernia with strangulation of the small bowel in the lesser sac was suspected from the image study. After an emergency laparotomy, a transomental hernia was diagnosed. PMID:26962535

  7. [Spontaneous pneumothorax in children].

    PubMed

    Michel, J L

    2000-03-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is rare in childhood. Before 12 years of age the main underlying pathologies are asthma, cystic malformations, post infectious bullae, and infectious pneumoniae. After 12 years of age it is mainly associated with cystic fibrosis and constitutional slim morphology. Symptoms vary according to the extent of lung collapse and the diagnosis is confirmed on chest X rays. In mildly symptomatic pneumothorax, spontaneous resolution is achieved within few days. When cardiorespiratory difficulties are present, mechanical evacuation of air from the pleural cavity is necessary through a tube drainage maintained until complete pulmonary reexpansion. Surgical treatment is indicated in case of persisting air leakage after one week of efficient drainage, large cystic malformation or post infectious bullae, recurring or bilateral pneumothorax.

  8. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Bhaphiralyne, Wankhar

    2016-01-01

    Pyometra is collection of purulent material which occurs when there is interference with its normal drainage. It is an uncommon condition with incidence of 0.1 to 0.5% of all gynecological patients. Spontaneous rupture of uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. A 65-year-old lady presented with pain abdomen and purulent vaginal discharge. Preoperative diagnosis of pyometra was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laparotomy followed by peritoneal lavage and repair of perforation was performed. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, the condition must be borne in mind with regard to elderly women with acute abdominal pain. Preoperative diagnosis of perforated pyometra is absolutely essential. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI are diagnostic tools. In selected cases conservative approach at surgery can be opted. PMID:27152313

  9. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nalini; Singh, Ahanthem Santa; Bhaphiralyne, Wankhar

    2016-04-01

    Pyometra is collection of purulent material which occurs when there is interference with its normal drainage. It is an uncommon condition with incidence of 0.1 to 0.5% of all gynecological patients. Spontaneous rupture of uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. A 65-year-old lady presented with pain abdomen and purulent vaginal discharge. Preoperative diagnosis of pyometra was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Laparotomy followed by peritoneal lavage and repair of perforation was performed. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, the condition must be borne in mind with regard to elderly women with acute abdominal pain. Preoperative diagnosis of perforated pyometra is absolutely essential. Computed tomography (CT) and MRI are diagnostic tools. In selected cases conservative approach at surgery can be opted.

  10. Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Mallah, Fatemeh; Eftekhar, Tahere; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation is a very rare complication of pyometra. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and other causes of acute abdomen. In most cases, a correct and definite diagnosis can be made only by laparotomy. We report two cases of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforated pyometra. The first case is a 78-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of suspected incarcerated hernia. The second case is a 61-year-old woman with abdominal pain for which laparotomy was performed because of symptoms of peritonitis. At laparotomy of both cases, 1 liter of pus with the source of uterine was found in the abdominal cavity. The ruptured uterine is also detected. More investigations revealed no malignancy as the reason of the pyometra. PMID:24024054

  11. Spontaneous Iliopsoas Tendon Tear

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Mary; Patnaik, Soumya; Wang, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hip pain is one of the most common reasons for the elderly to present to the emergency department, and the differential diagnosis spectrum is vast. Iliopsoas injury is a relatively uncommon condition that may present with hip or groin pain. It is usually seen in athletes due to trauma, particularly flexion injuries. However, spontaneous iliopsoas tendon tear is extremely rare, and only a small number of cases have been reported; it has an estimated prevalence of 0.66% in individuals from 7 to 95 years. Risk factors include aging, use of steroids, and chronic diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using its high soft-tissue contrast resolution remains the most valuable imaging modality. A prompt diagnosis and treatment, which is usually conservative, is important to improve the quality of life in this group of patients. We describe a case of spontaneous iliopsoas tendon tear in an elderly woman. PMID:26929854

  12. Spontaneous ileostomy closure

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, Mohammad S.; Lundberg, Peter W.; Cotte, Eddy G.; Glehen, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ileostomies are routinely placed during colorectal surgery for the diversion of intestinal contents to permit healing of the distal anastomosis prior to elective reversal. We present an interesting case of spontaneous closure of a diverting ileostomy without any adverse effects to the patient. A 65-year-old woman, positive for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type-I, with locally invasive cancer of the distal colon underwent en-bloc total colectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingoophorectomy with creation of a proximal loop ileostomy. The ostomy temporarily closed without reoperation at 10 weeks, after spontaneously reopening, it definitively closed, again without surgical intervention at 18 weeks following the original surgery. This rare phenomenon has occurred following variable colorectal pathology and is poorly understood, particularly in patients with aggressive disease and adjunct perioperative interventions. PMID:27279518

  13. Arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture.

    PubMed

    Marques, Inês Brás; Vieira Barbosa, José

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are benign congenital cerebrospinal fluid collections, usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally in children or adolescents. They may become symptomatic after enlargement or complications, frequently presenting with symptoms of intracranial hypertension. We report an unusual case of progressive refractory headache in an adult patient due to an arachnoid cyst spontaneous rupture. Although clinical improvement occurred with conservative treatment, the subdural hygroma progressively enlarged and surgical treatment was ultimately needed. Spontaneous rupture is a very rare complication of arachnoid cysts. Accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid accumulation in the subdural space causes sustained intracranial hypertension that may be life-threatening and frequently requires surgical treatment. Patients with arachnoid cysts must be informed on their small vulnerability to cyst rupture and be aware that a sudden and severe headache, especially if starting after minor trauma or a Valsalva manoeuvre, always requires medical evaluation.

  14. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum in Labor

    PubMed Central

    Benlamkadem, Said; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema also known as Hamman's syndrome is a very rare complication of labor that is often related to the valsalva maneuver during the labor. In most case, Hamman's syndrome is a self-limiting condition, rarely complicated unless there are underlying respiratory diseases. Chest X-ray can be a useful early diagnostic technique in severe clinical presentation. We report an uneventful pregnancy in a primigravid parturient, which was complicated in the late second stage of labor by the development of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and mild pneumothorax. Spontaneous recovery occurred after four days of conservative management. This condition shows the major interest of labor analgesia especially locoregional techniques. PMID:28316849

  15. What Are Solid Fats?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stick margarine shortening hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils* coconut oil* palm and palm kernel oils* * The starred items are ... and from fish. A few plant oils, including coconut oil and palm oil, are high in saturated fats and for ...

  16. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in avocados and olive, peanut, and canola oils polyunsaturated , found in most vegetable oils omega-3 fatty acids , a type of polyunsaturated ... saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are often used in commercial baked goods. ...

  17. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  18. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered. This is a better evaluation of fat digestion and absorption. There are two reasons for this: ... normally and that the person may have impaired digestion or malabsorption . Malabsorption is seen with a wide ...

  19. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  20. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Ellanti, P; Morris, S

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  1. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  2. FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Gee, Heon Yung; Sadowski, Carolin E; Aggarwal, Pardeep K; Porath, Jonathan D; Yakulov, Toma A; Schueler, Markus; Lovric, Svjetlana; Ashraf, Shazia; Braun, Daniela A; Halbritter, Jan; Fang, Humphrey; Airik, Rannar; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Cho, Kyeong Jee; Chan, Timothy A; Morris, Luc G T; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Allen, Nicholas; McNeill, Helen; Büscher, Rainer; Kyrieleis, Henriette; Wallot, Michael; Gaspert, Ariana; Kistler, Thomas; Milford, David V; Saleem, Moin A; Keng, Wee Teik; Alexander, Stephen I; Valentini, Rudolph P; Licht, Christoph; Teh, Jun C; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Koziell, Ania; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Soliman, Neveen A; Otto, Edgar A; Lifton, Richard P; Holzman, Lawrence B; Sibinga, Nicholas E S; Walz, Gerd; Tufro, Alda; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-02-24

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function.

  3. FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Heon Yung; Sadowski, Carolin E.; Aggarwal, Pardeep K.; Porath, Jonathan D.; Yakulov, Toma A.; Schueler, Markus; Lovric, Svjetlana; Ashraf, Shazia; Braun, Daniela A.; Halbritter, Jan; Fang, Humphrey; Airik, Rannar; Vega-Warner, Virginia; Cho, Kyeong Jee; Chan, Timothy A.; Morris, Luc G. T.; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Allen, Nicholas; McNeill, Helen; Büscher, Rainer; Kyrieleis, Henriette; Wallot, Michael; Gaspert, Ariana; Kistler, Thomas; Milford, David V.; Saleem, Moin A.; Keng, Wee Teik; Alexander, Stephen I.; Valentini, Rudolph P.; Licht, Christoph; Teh, Jun C.; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Koziell, Ania; Bierzynska, Agnieszka; Soliman, Neveen A.; Otto, Edgar A.; Lifton, Richard P.; Holzman, Lawrence B.; Sibinga, Nicholas E. S.; Walz, Gerd; Tufro, Alda; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function. PMID:26905694

  4. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  5. Fats and atheroma: a retrial.

    PubMed Central

    Mann, J I

    1979-01-01

    The controversy over medical endorsement of dietary measures to reduce cholesterol intake has been reconsidered. The results of several published reports that apparently do not confirm the association between diet, cholesterol concentrations, and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) were found to be largely inapplicable to the argument. Results of primary prevention trials, however, suggested that lowering the cholesterol concentration had a beneficial effect in reducing morbidity from IHD. The "average Western diet" is particularly associated with accelerated or premature atherosclerotic disease, yet the saturated fatty acid component of the diet may be only one of several factors relevant to IHD. Such diets are usually high in refined carbohydrate and total energy intake. Disordered nutrition generally, and other environmental and constitutional factors seem to be important in the aetiology of IHD. A prudent diet, incorporating decreased intake of fats, simple sugars, and refined carbohydrate, with polyunsaturated fats comprising less than 25% of total energy intake, may be the best method of reducing the incidence of IHD and other diseases of overnutrition. PMID:435754

  6. High Fat Diets Induce Colonic Epithelial Cell Stress and Inflammation that is Reversed by IL-22

    PubMed Central

    Gulhane, Max; Murray, Lydia; Lourie, Rohan; Tong, Hui; Sheng, Yong H.; Wang, Ran; Kang, Alicia; Schreiber, Veronika; Wong, Kuan Yau; Magor, Graham; Denman, Stuart; Begun, Jakob; Florin, Timothy H.; Perkins, Andrew; Cuív, Páraic Ó.; McGuckin, Michael A.; Hasnain, Sumaira Z.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged high fat diets (HFD) induce low-grade chronic intestinal inflammation in mice, and diets high in saturated fat are a risk factor for the development of human inflammatory bowel diseases. We hypothesized that HFD-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/oxidative stress occur in intestinal secretory goblet cells, triggering inflammatory signaling and reducing synthesis/secretion of proteins that form the protective mucus barrier. In cultured intestinal cells non-esterified long-chain saturated fatty acids directly increased oxidative/ER stress leading to protein misfolding. A prolonged HFD elevated the intestinal inflammatory cytokine signature, alongside compromised mucosal barrier integrity with a decrease in goblet cell differentiation and Muc2, a loss in the tight junction protein, claudin-1 and increased serum endotoxin levels. In Winnie mice, that develop spontaneous colitis, HFD-feeding increased ER stress, further compromised the mucosal barrier and increased the severity of colitis. In obese mice IL-22 reduced ER/oxidative stress and improved the integrity of the mucosal barrier, and reversed microbial changes associated with obesity with an increase in Akkermansia muciniphila. Consistent with epidemiological studies, our experiments suggest that HFDs are likely to impair intestinal barrier function, particularly in early life, which partially involves direct effects of free-fatty acids on intestinal cells, and this can be reversed by IL-22 therapy. PMID:27350069

  7. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea.

    PubMed

    Yerkes, S A; Thompson, D H; Fisher, W S

    1992-07-01

    The diagnosis of CSF rhinorrhea requires the performance of a thorough history and physical examination. Often no objective findings can be found and further evaluation will be required. In our experience, metrizamide CT cisternography yields the most information for localization of the fistula. When indicated, patients can be protected against meningitis by using prophylactic antibiotics for 4-6 weeks to allow a fistula to close spontaneously. If the fistula fails to close during this time, surgical closure with dural or muscle graft with or without waxing of the bone is the treatment of choice.

  8. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology.

    PubMed

    Gaziel, Ahuva

    2012-01-01

    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  9. Therapeutic effects of autologous bone marrow cells and metabolic intervention in the ischemic hindlimb of spontaneously hypertensive rats involve reduced cell senescence and CXCR4/Akt/eNOS pathways.

    PubMed

    de Nigris, Filomena; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; D'Armiento, Francesco P; Lerman, Lilach O; Byrns, Russell; Crimi, Ettore; Palagiano, Antonio; Fatigati, Gennaro; Ignarro, Louis J; Napoli, Claudio

    2007-10-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a major health problem, especially when associated with severe hypertension. Administration of autologous bone marrow cells (BMCs) is emerging as a novel intervention to induce neoangiogenesis in ischemic limb models and in patients with PAD. This study evaluates the neovascularization capacity of BMCs alone or in combination with metabolic cotreatment (0.8% vitamin E, 0.05% vitamin C, and 5% of L-arginine) in a rat model of ischemic hindlimbs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Molecular mechanisms were investigated in bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPC) derived from rats. BMC therapy increased blood flow and capillary densities and Ki67 proliferative marker, and it decreased interstitial fibrosis. These effects were amplified by metabolic cotreatment, an intervention that induces vascular protection at least partly through the nitric oxide (NO)/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway, reduction of systemic oxidative stress, and macrophage activation. In addition, BMC therapy alone and, more consistently, in combination with metabolic treatment, ameliorated BM-EPC functional activity via decreased cellular senescence and improved homing capacity by increasing CXCR4-expression levels. These data suggest potential therapeutic effects of autologous BMCs and metabolic treatment in hypertensive PAD patients.

  10. Proestrous compared to diestrous wildtype, but not estrogen receptor beta knockout, mice have better performance in the spontaneous alternation and object recognition tasks and reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus and mirror maze.

    PubMed

    Walf, Alicia A; Koonce, Carolyn; Manley, Kevin; Frye, Cheryl A

    2009-01-23

    17beta-Estradiol (E(2)) may influence cognitive and/or affective behavior in part via the beta isoform of the estrogen receptor (ERbeta). Endocrine status and behavior in cognitive (object recognition, T-maze), anxiety (open field, elevated plus maze, mirror maze, emergence), and motor/coordination (rotarod, activity chamber) tasks of proestrous and diestrous wildtype (WT) and ERbeta knockout (betaERKO) mice was examined. Proestrous (WT or betaERKO), versus diestrous, mice had higher E(2) and progestin levels in plasma, hippocampus, and cortex. The only effect of genotype on hormone levels was for corticosterone, such that betaERKO mice had higher concentrations of corticosterone than did WT mice. Proestrous WT, but not betaERKO, mice had improved performance in the object recognition (greater percentage of time with novel object) and T-maze tasks (greater percentage of spontaneous alternations) and less anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze (increased duration on open arms) and mirror chamber task (increased duration in mirror) than did diestrous mice. This pattern was not seen in the rotarod, open field, or activity monitor, suggesting effects may be specific to affective and cognitive behavior, rather than motor behavior/coordination. Thus, enhanced performance in cognitive tasks and anti-anxiety-like behavior of proestrous mice may require actions of ERbeta in the hippocampus and/or cortex.

  11. Characterizing The Spontaneous Blink Generator: An Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kaminer, Jaime; Powers, Alice S.; Horn, Kyle G.; Hui, Channing; Evinger, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Although spontaneous blinking is one of the most frequent human movements, little is known about its neural basis. We developed a rat model of spontaneous blinking in order to identify and better characterize the spontaneous blink generator. We monitored spontaneous blinking for 55 min periods in normal conditions and after the induction of mild dry eye or dopaminergic drug challenges. The normal spontaneous blink rate was 5.3 ± 0.3 blinks/min. Dry eye or 1 mg/kg apomorphine significantly increased and 0.1 mg/kg haloperidol significantly decreased the blink rate. Additional analyses revealed a consistent temporal organization to spontaneous blinking with a median 750 s period that was independent of the spontaneous blink rate. Dry eye and dopaminergic challenges significantly modified the regularity of the normal pattern of episodes of frequent blinking interspersed with intervals having few blinks. Dry eye and apomorphine enhanced the regularity of this pattern, whereas haloperidol reduced its regularity. The simplest explanation for our data is that the spinal trigeminal complex is a critical element in the generation of spontaneous blinks; incorporating reflex blinks from dry eye and indirect basal ganglia inputs into the blink generator. Although human subjects exhibited a higher average blink rate (17.6 ± 2.4) than rats, the temporal pattern of spontaneous blinking was qualitatively similar for both species. These data demonstrate that rats are an appropriate model for investigating the neural basis of human spontaneous blinking and suggest that the spinal trigeminal complex is a major element in the spontaneous blink generator. PMID:21813686

  12. Order in Spontaneous Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Maye, Alexander; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Sugihara, George; Brembs, Björn

    2007-01-01

    Brains are usually described as input/output systems: they transform sensory input into motor output. However, the motor output of brains (behavior) is notoriously variable, even under identical sensory conditions. The question of whether this behavioral variability merely reflects residual deviations due to extrinsic random noise in such otherwise deterministic systems or an intrinsic, adaptive indeterminacy trait is central for the basic understanding of brain function. Instead of random noise, we find a fractal order (resembling Lévy flights) in the temporal structure of spontaneous flight maneuvers in tethered Drosophila fruit flies. Lévy-like probabilistic behavior patterns are evolutionarily conserved, suggesting a general neural mechanism underlying spontaneous behavior. Drosophila can produce these patterns endogenously, without any external cues. The fly's behavior is controlled by brain circuits which operate as a nonlinear system with unstable dynamics far from equilibrium. These findings suggest that both general models of brain function and autonomous agents ought to include biologically relevant nonlinear, endogenous behavior-initiating mechanisms if they strive to realistically simulate biological brains or out-compete other agents. PMID:17505542

  13. Effects of fat reserves on annual apparent survival of blackbirds Turdus merula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.W.; Aradis, A.; Landucci, G.

    2003-01-01

    1. Fat reserves are stored energy that may help birds survive periods of harsh winter weather. This hypothesis predicts that annual apparent survival is higher for birds with large fat reserves than for birds with few or no fat reserves in winter. 2. Blackbirds (Turdus merula Linnaeus) were ringed in central Italy from 16 November to 20 February during 1990-2001. Fat scores were recorded for each bird. We used these capture-mark-recapture data for 1703 blackbirds to estimate the effect of large fat reserves on annual apparent survival, while controlling for transients, using computer programs surviv and mark. Probability of birds retaining large fat reserves, or retaining few fat reserves, over 2 successive years was also estimated. 3. Birds with large fat reserves did not have higher estimated annual apparent survival than birds with few fat reserves, inconsistent with our prediction. No effects of age, sex or year were detected on annual apparent survival. Birds with few fat reserves in any given year tended to have few fat reserves the following year. Birds with large fat reserves in any given year were unlikely to have large fat reserves the next year. 4. Large fat reserves may not increase annual survival of blackbirds wintering in central Italy. Winter weather in our study area may be too mild to effect survival. Alternatively, increased predation risk associated with large fat reserves may counteract any benefits of reduced starvation risk.

  14. Fat chance for longevity

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Han, Min

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of specific fatty acids and physiological roles of fat metabolism are important subjects that are still poorly understood. In this issue of Genes & Development, O'Rourke and colleagues (pp. 429–440) uncovered a role for lipase-generated ω-6 fatty acids in promoting autophagy and, consequently, life span extension under both fed and fasting conditions. The impact of this finding is discussed with regard to the nutritional value of ω-6 fatty acids and regulatory functions of fat metabolism beyond its well-known role in energy storage. PMID:23431052

  15. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p < 0.05) were upregulated at birth and 14 weeks postweaning. DNA hypermethylation (2% p = 0.006) was observed in the dopamine receptor 1 (Drd1) promoter region. We conclude that a gestational diet high in vitamins A, D, E, and K does not show the effects of the HV diet on body weight or food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  16. Effect of fat reduction on chemical composition, proteolysis, functionality, and yield of Mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Rudan, M A; Barbano, D M; Yun, J J; Kindstedt, P S

    1999-04-01

    Mozzarella cheese was made from skim milk standardized with cream (unhomogenized, 40% milk fat) to achieve four different target fat percentages in the cheese (ca. 5, 10, 15, and 25%). No statistically significant differences were detected for cheese manufacturing time, stretching time, concentration of salt in the moisture phase, pH, or calcium as a percentage of the protein in the cheese between treatments. As the fat percentage was reduced, there was an increase in the moisture and protein content of the cheese. However, because the moisture did not replace the fat on an equal basis, there was a significant decrease in the moisture in the nonfat substance in the cheese as the fat percentage was reduced. This decrease in total filler volume (fat plus moisture) was associated with an increase in the hardness of the unmelted cheese. Whiteness and opacity of the unmelted cheese decreased as the fat content decreased. Pizza baking performance, meltability, and free oil release significantly decreased as the fat percentage decreased. The minimum amount of free oil release necessary to obtain proper functionality during pizza baking was between 0.22 and 2.52 g of fat/100 g of cheese. Actual cheese yield was about 30% lower for cheese containing 5% fat than for cheese with 25% fat. Maximizing fat recovery in the cheese becomes less important to maintain high cheese yield, and moisture control and the retention of solids in the water phase become more important as the fat content of the cheese is reduced.

  17. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... and canola oils. Sources of polyunsaturated fats include soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oil and foods like ... and polyunsaturated fats like olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and corn oil. Need More ...

  18. Influence of lipid type on water and fat mobility in fermented sausages studied by low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Miklos, R; Mora-Gallego, H; Larsen, F H; Serra, X; Cheong, L-Z; Xu, X; Arnau, J; Lametsch, R

    2014-01-01

    The effects of diacylglycerols (DAG), pork back fat and sunflower oil on water and fat mobility in fermented sausages were studied with (1)H NMR relaxometry. The added fat affected the physicochemical parameters weight loss, water activity, moisture content and moisture content on a defatted-dry-matter basis of reduced-fat non-acid fermented sausages. The weight losses were the lowest in sausages prepared with DAG and sunflower oil, which resulted in higher water activity compared to sausages prepared with back fat. The relaxation times related to fat mobility differed between fat types and increased in the order: controlfatfat mobility were ascribed to differences in the fat distribution caused by deviations in the physicochemical properties of the fat types.

  19. Particle size, temperature, and released amount of fat for safe periorbital fat grafts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Se Ho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the particle size, temperature, and amount of released fat for safe periorbital fat grafts. From 28 patients, fat was suctioned from the abdomen (large particles [LPs]) and from the inner thigh (small particles [SPs]) using a 2.1-mm harvesting cannula with a diameter 3.2 × 1.4-mm hole and a 1-mm hole, respectively. The 10-mL syringes full of fat were then put into a centrifuge for 3 minutes (LP) and 1 minute (SP) at 3000 revolutions/min. Fat was then transferred to a 1-mL syringe with Luer-Lock adapters and a blunt cannula of 0.9-mm diameter. The force needed to push the fat out of the cannula was measured with a force gauge. The force was measured within the different groups according to particle size of the fat, temperature of the fat, and released amount of fat. The force needed to push the SP fat out of the cannula into the air with minimal amount (MA) (0.01-0.02 mL) injected at room temperature (25 °C) (1.75 ± 0.82 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at body temperature (BT, 33 °C) (1.27 ± 0.38 N). At BT, the force needed to push the SP fat into subcutaneous pig tissue (2.30 ± 1.46 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than LP fat (6.54 ± 2.39 N). At BT, the force needed to push the MA of SP fat into pig subcutaneous tissue (1.38 ± 0.26 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to push the usual amount (0.03-0.04 mL) of SP fat (3.83 ± 1.78 N). The force needed to push the fat into human lower eyelids at room temperature (4.06 ± 2.26 N) was significantly greater (P = 0.000 [t test]) than at BT (2.11 ± 0.96 N). At BT, the force needed to inject an MA of SP fat into human lower eyelids (1.55 ± 0.83 N) was significantly lesser (P = 0.000 [t test]) than the force needed to inject a usual amount of fat (2.78 ± 1.03 N). We suggest injections of the SP (1-mm hole diameter harvesting cannula) fat with MAs (0.01-0.02 mL) by means of fragmented incremental

  20. Fat reduction in comminuted meat products-effects of beef fat, regular and pre-emulsified canola oil.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M K; Barbut, S

    2011-04-01

    The effects of fat reduction (25.0%, 17.5%, and 10.0%) and substituting beef fat with canola oil or pre-emulsified canola oil (using soy protein isolate, sodium caseinate or whey protein isolate) on cooking loss, texture and color of comminuted meat products were investigated. Reducing fat from 25 to 10% increased cooking loss and decreased hardness. Canola oil or pre-emulsified treatments showed a positive effect on improving yield and restoring textural parameters. Using sodium caseinate to pre-emulsify the oil resulted in the highest hardness value. Cohesiveness was affected by fat type and level. The color of reduced fat meat batters was darker for all, except the beef fat treatments. Using canola oil or pre-emulsified oil resulted in a significant reduction in redness. The results show that pre-emulsification can offset some of the changes in reduced fat meat products when more water is used to substitute for the fat and that pre-emulsification can also help to produce a more stable meat matrix.

  1. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  2. Facts about trans fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/pubmed/24327023 . US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. Trans fat . Updated June 15, 2015. www.fda.gov/food/populartopics/ucm292278.htm . Accessed May 5, 2015. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. 2015 - 2020 ...

  3. Two paths to fat.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Evan D

    2015-04-01

    Excess caloric intake leads to both the growth of existing fat cells and the generation of new adipocytes. New findings show that PI3K-Akt2 signalling is involved in the differentiation of adult adipose precursor cells—a pathway not required for adipogenesis in the embryo.

  4. That Fat Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  5. Pricing and Promotion Effects on Low-Fat Vending Snack Purchases: The CHIPS Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Story, Mary; Breitlow, Kyle K.; Baxter, Judith S.; Hannan, Peter; Snyder, M. Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines set up at secondary schools and worksites in Minnesota. Analysis of sales data indicated that reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was very effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both settings. (SM)

  6. Hyperinsulinemia and ectopic fat deposition develop in the face of hyperadiponectinemia in young obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of reduced adiponenctin signaling in childhood obesity is unclear. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were overfed a high fat diet via total enteral nutrition. Excessive caloric intake led to increased weight and fat mass; dyslipidemia; ectopic fat deposition; and hyperinsulinemia (P less th...

  7. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Daniele; Capodanno, Davide; Dangas, George; Tamburino, Corrado

    2014-07-15

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a relatively rare and unexplored type of coronary disease. Although atherosclerosis, hormonal changes during pregnancy and connective tissue disorders might represent a sufficiently convincing explanation for some patients with SCAD, the many remaining cases display only a weak relationship with these causes. While on one side the clinical heterogeneity of SCAD masks a full understanding of their underlying pathophysiologic process, on the other side paucity of data and misleading presentations hamper the quick diagnosis and optimal management of this condition. A definite diagnosis of SCAD can be significantly facilitated by endovascular imaging techniques. In fact, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) overcome the limitations of coronary angiography providing detailed endovascular morphologic information. In contrast, optimal treatment strategies for SCAD still represent a burning controversial question. Herein, we review the published data examining possible causes and investigating the best therapy for SCAD in different clinical scenarios.

  8. Chemotherapy can induce weight normalization of morbidly obese mice despite undiminished ingestion of high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Myers, Cheryl E; Hoelzinger, Dominique B; Truong, Tiffany N; Chew, Lindsey A; Myles, Arpita; Chaudhuri, Leena; Egan, Jan B; Liu, Jun; Gendler, Sandra J; Cohen, Peter A

    2017-01-17

    Morbidly obese patients who accomplish substantial weight loss often display a long-term decline in their resting metabolism, causing even relatively restrained caloric intake to trigger a relapse to the obese state. Paradoxically, we observed t