Science.gov

Sample records for reducing ed utilisation

  1. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduce performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akter, M; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-04-11

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance was investigated in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0, 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe x phytase interaction significantly influenced the FI, BWG and FCR. The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe x phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  2. Using PAs in prehospital environments to reduce ED and EMS overuse.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katherine M; Tozier, William L

    2017-04-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) and EDs in large cities are burdened with a significant number of patients with chronic disease who have limited options for receiving proper care. Despite their relatively small numbers, these "superusers" can have a significant effect on EMS, particularly in large cities. Additionally, EDs are not designed to provide chronic and continuous healthcare. This article describes how several organizations use physician assistants to manage these patients.

  3. Take advantage of opportunities to reduce ED violence, recidivism among children and young adults.

    PubMed

    2013-05-01

    There is evidence that ED-based interventions can make a difference in short-circuiting the cycle of violence that often impacts children and young adults. Since the Violence Intervention Advocacy Program was launched at Boston Medical Center in 2006, recidivism to the ED among gunshot victims is down by 30% and recidivism among stabbing victims is down by about one-half. At Denver Health Medical Center, the At Risk Intervention and Monitoring (AIM) project just launched in June, but thus far, none of the patients being followed in the program have reappeared in the ED with a violent injury. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 700,000 people between the ages of 10 and 24 were treated in EDs for injuries caused by violence in 2009. To effectively intervene with victims of violence, experts recommend that EDs partner with community groups that have deep ties to the neighborhoods most impacted by violence. To avoid re-traumatizing victims of violence, health care personnel need to be trained in how to provide"trauma-informed care," a method of speaking to patients so that they feel empowered and safe. With young victims of violence, the biggest issues requiring attention are mental health, safety, and housing.

  4. Targeting services to reduce social inequalities in utilisation: an analysis of breast cancer screening in New South Wales

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Stephen; Haas, Marion; Savage, Elizabeth; Van Gool, Kees

    2007-01-01

    Background Many jurisdictions have used public funding of health care to reduce or remove price at the point of delivery of services. Whilst this reduces an important barrier to accessing care, it does nothing to discriminate between groups considered to have greater or fewer needs. In this paper, we consider whether active targeted recruitment, in addition to offering a 'free' service, is associated with a reduction in social inequalities in self-reported utilization of the breast screening services in NSW, Australia. Methods Using the 1997 and 1998 NSW Health Surveys we estimated probit models on the probability of having had a screening mammogram in the last two years for all women aged 40–79. The models examined the relative importance of socio-economic and geographic factors in predicting screening behaviour in three different needs groups – where needs were defined on the basis of a woman's age. Results We find that women in higher socio-economic groups are more likely to have been screened than those in lower groups for all age groups. However, the socio-economic effect is significantly less among women who were in the actively targeted age group. Conclusion This indicates that recruitment and follow-up was associated with a modest reduction in social inequalities in utilisation although significant income differences remain. PMID:17550622

  5. Free and Reduced-Price Lunch Eligibility Data in Ed"Facts": A White Paper on Current Status and Potential Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lee

    2012-01-01

    ED"Facts" is an initiative of the U. S. Department of Education to base education policy on reliable performance data provided by state education agencies. Among its many data items, ED"Facts" houses school-level counts of students disaggregated by state-defined student economic status, typically free and reduced-price lunch…

  6. Effects of reduced dietary calcium and phytase supplementation on calcium and phosphorus utilisation in broilers with modified mineral status.

    PubMed

    Letourneau-Montminy, M P; Lescoat, P; Narcy, A; Sauvant, D; Bernier, J F; Magnin, M; Pomar, C; Nys, Y; Jondreville, C

    2008-11-01

    1. The impact of modified mineral status and dietary Ca:P ratio on Ca and P utilisation was measured in chicks with or without phytase supplementation. 2. In a preliminary study, 4 diets were given to chicks from 3 to 15 d of age: D1 (6.5 g P/kg and Ca:P = 1.5) and D2, D3 and D4 (6.0, 5.4 and 5.0 g P/kg, respectively, and Ca:P = 1.2). Growth performance was similar across diets. Tibia ash was similar in chicks given D1 and D2, but was gradually depressed from D2 to D4 (-22%). 3. In the depletion period, two groups of chicks, with similar performance, but with different mineral status were achieved by feeding them, from 5 to 15 d of age, diets with a similar Ca:P ratio of 1.2, but containing 6.3 or 5.2 g P/kg. 4. During the subsequent 11 d of the repletion period, chicks from each of the two previous groups were given one of the 4 diets containing 5.7 g P/kg, but differing in their Ca (8.3 and 5.3 g Ca/kg) and microbial phytase (0 or 1000 FTU, Natuphos levels in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. 5. At the end of the repletion period, the initially depleted chicks could not be differentiated from the non-depleted chicks, indicating the capacity of chicks to compensate for their initial depleted mineral status. 6. Interaction between dietary Ca and phytase levels was not significant. Phytase improved growth performance and bone characteristics. Reduced dietary Ca enhanced feed intake and growth rate, but depressed bone dry matter and ash weight. 7. At the end, diets supplemented with phytase maximised bone ash weight when chicks were fed with a Ca:P ratio of 1.5 but elicited the highest growth rate when chicks were fed with a Ca:P ratio of 0.9.

  7. Do new workforce roles reduce waiting times in ED? A difference-in-difference evaluation using hospital administrative data.

    PubMed

    Scott, Anthony; Yong, Jongsay

    2015-04-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of introducing two new workforce roles under a pilot program conducted in Victoria, Australia. The trial took place at a regional hospital's emergency department (ED) between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2009. The evaluation is based on three outcome measures: waiting time (in minutes) at ED before treatment; proportion of presentations with waiting time on target; and length of stay (in days), for ED presentations that led to in-patient admissions. The technique of difference-in-differences analysis is used. A total of 142,980 patient records from the pilot hospital and three comparison hospitals were extracted from the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD). Further, 21,925 records of patients whose ED presentations led to in-patient admissions were extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED). The evaluation finds the piloted roles have lowered waiting time and raised the proportion of on-target presentations. These effects were found to be the strongest for less urgent triage categories. However, the evidence on in-patient length of stay was mixed. The results provide positive evidence that new workforce roles can be effective in improving the efficiency of emergency care delivery.

  8. Effectiveness of practices to reduce blood sample hemolysis in EDs: A laboratory medicine best practices systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heyer, Nicholas J.; Derzon, James H.; Winges, Linda; Shaw, Colleen; Mass, Diana; Snyder, Susan R.; Epner, Paul; Nichols, James H.; Gayken, Julie A.; Ernst, Dennis; Liebow, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To complete a systematic review of emergency department (ED) practices for reducing hemolysis in blood samples sent to the clinical laboratory for testing. Results A total of 16 studies met the review inclusion criteria (12 published and 4 unpublished). All 11 studies comparing new straight needle venipuncture with IV starts found a reduction in hemolysis rates, [average risk ratio of 0.16 (95% CI=0.11–0.24)]. Four studies on the effect of venipuncture location showed reduced hemolysis rates for the antecubital site [average risk ratio of 0.45 (95% CI=0.35–0.57]. Conclusions Use of new straight needle venipuncture instead of IV starts is effective at reducing hemolysis rates in EDs, and is recommended as an evidence-based best practice. The overall strength of evidence rating is high and the effect size is substantial. Unpublished studies made an important contribution to the body of evidence. When IV starts must be used, observed rates of hemolysis may be substantially reduced by placing the IV at the antecubital site. Disclaimer The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the CDC. PMID:22968086

  9. Does receiving care in a medical home reduce racial/ethnic disparities in ED visits among children with asthma in the United States?

    PubMed

    Lin, Susan X; Younge, Richard G; Kleinman, Lawrence C

    2016-07-14

    Evidence has shown the implementation of medical home model improves care quality and outcomes. However, it is not clear whether receiving care from a medical home has any impact on racial/ethnic disparities in emergency department (ED) use by children with asthma. This study using the US National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2009-2010, estimated racial/ethnic disparities in ED use. Generalized liner models were used to examine factors associated with ED use. Racial/ethnic differences in ED use were attenuated after adjusting for socio-economic variables. Ratios of prevalence ratios were calculated to examine the effect modification of medical home on ED use associated with race/ethnicity. The adjusted prevalence ratio of ED use of the Black to non-Hispanic White was 1.51 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-1.67) with medical home and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.24-1.47) without medical home. Among those with care from a medical home Latino children had higher ED use compared with White children. There is no evidence that the self-reported care from a medical home narrows the gaps in ED use between non-Hispanic White and Black or Latino children with asthma.

  10. Imitation and utilisation behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    De Renzi, E; Cavalleri, F; Facchini, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence, anatomical correlates, and clinical features of imitation and utilisation behaviour, which are thought by Lhermitte and coworkers to represent a reliable and frequent index of frontal lobe disease. METHODS: 78 patients with hemispheric local lesions were tested in two separate sessions, in which their reactions to a series of gestures performed by the examiner and to the presentation of a set of objects were recorded. The patients were stratified into a frontal (n = 52) and a non-frontal group (n = 26) on the basis of their CT data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Imitation behaviour was present in 39% of the frontal patients and was mainly associated with medial and lateral lesions, at odds with the claim of Lhermitte et al that it is a constant accompaniment of lower, mediobasal lesions. In the non-frontal group it was found in three patients, all with damage to the deep nuclei region. Utilisation behaviour was a much rarer phenomenon, present in only two patients, both of whom had frontal damage. Neither imitation behaviour nor utilisation behaviour were found in patients with retrorolandic cortical lesions. PMID:8890779

  11. Reduced dental calcium expression and dental mass in chronic sleep deprived rats: Combined EDS, TOF-SIMS, and micro-CT analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yi-Jie; Huang, Yung-Kai; Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Pai, Man-Hui; Lee, Ai-Wei; Mai, Fu-Der; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Teeth are the hardest tissue in the body. The growth of teeth is closely regulated by circadian rhythmicity. Considering that sleep deprivation (SD) is a severe condition that disrupts normal circadian rhythmicity, this study was conducted to determine whether calcium expression (the major element participating in teeth constitution), and dental mass would be significantly impaired following SD. Adolescent rats subjected to 3 weeks of SD were processed for energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analyses. The EDS and TOF-SIMS results indicated that high calcium intensity was detected in both the upper and lower incisors of untreated rats. Micro-CT analysis corresponded closely with spectral data in which an enhanced dental mass was calculated in intact animals. However, following SD, both calcium expression and the dental mass were remarkably decreased to nearly half those of the untreated values. Because SD plays a detrimental role in impairing dental structure, establishing satisfactory sleep behavior would therefore serve as a crucial strategy for preventing or improving prevalent dental dysfunctions.

  12. PREFACE: EDS2010 Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggie, Malcolm I.

    2011-03-01

    The biennial international conference on Extended Defects in Semiconductors started in 1978 with a meeting in Hünfeld, Germany. Subsequent meetings rotated between Poland, France, Great Britain, Germany, Russia and Italy, culminating in EDS2004 in Chernogolovka, EDS2006 in Halle and EDS2008 in Poitiers. EDS2010 was held at the University of Sussex at Brighton, UK from September 19th to 24th. An extension of the tabulation of this history, which first appeared on the EDS2006 website, is given in the attached PDF. It is with sadness that we note one of the founders of the series, Prof. Dr Helmut Alexander, passed away on 3 December 2009 and we were proud to dedicate EDS2010 to his memory. It has become a tradition to make an award in his name, and this year it was made to Ivan Isacov for his poster "Electrical levels of dislocation networks in p- and n-type silicon". A short and warm celebration of Prof. Dr Alexander's life by his friends and colleagues, Prof. Drs Helmut Gottschalk, Eicke Weber and Wolfgang Schröter, is included in this volume. The conference was a forum for the state-of-the-art of investigation and modelling of extended defects in semiconductors. Scientists from universities, research institutes and industry made contributions to a deeper understanding of extended defects, their interaction with point defects and their role in the development of semiconductor technology. The remit of the conference included extended defects, nanostructures, nanoparticles, quantum dots and interfaces within semiconducting materials ranging from narrow to wide band gaps, including graphene-derived materials and diamond. Scientific interests range from defect geometry, electronic structure, dynamics, spectroscopy, microscopy, reactions and chemistry to introduction mechanisms, such as implantation and strained layers and the operation of devices such as integrated circuits, heterostructures, and solar cells. The organisers were confronted with a long period between

  13. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  14. Edward (Ed) T. Schneider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Research Pilot Edward T. Schneider is shown sitting in the cockpit of a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet that was used in the High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames - Dryden Flight Research Facility. When the aircraft arrived at the Dryden Facility in 1987, from the US Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland, it consisted of parts in crates. The aircraft crew made an airplane from those parts, and in doing so they took a 'sow's ear' and created a 'silk purse', thus the name on the side of the aircraft. Ed's helmet is from his time in the Navy. The design was taken from the Flag that is flown on the bow of a Navy ship, referred to as the Jack, and is navy blue with the 50 States being represented by the white stars. Ed arrived at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) on July 5, 1982, as a Navy Liaison Officer, becoming a NASA research pilot one year later. Ed was the project pilot for the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack program and later served as a project pilot for the F-15 aeronautical research aircraft, the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, and the SR-71 'Blackbird' aircraft. He served on active duty with the U.S. Navy from 1968 to 1983. Following squadron service he graduated from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland, in 1973, and then served as an engineering test pilot, and test pilot school instructor at the Naval Air Test Center. Ed has been an active member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots since 1974. He was made a Fellow of the Society in 1993 and served as its President in 1993/94. In 1996 he was awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics' Chanute Flight Award. He retired as a NASA research pilot in September 2000.

  15. Folic acid utilisation related to sulfa drug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bayly, A M; Berglez, J M; Patel, O; Castelli, L A; Hankins, E G; Coloe, P; Hopkins Sibley, C; Macreadie, I G

    2001-11-13

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants deficient in folate synthesis have been constructed and employed to study the utilisation of exogenous folates in yeast. One mutant specifically lacked dihydropteroate synthase while the second lacked dihydrofolate synthase. Exogenous folinic acid restored optimal growth to both strains. Folic acid did not generally rescue growth but spontaneous isolates capable of utilising folic acid were selected. The folic acid synthesis pathway in the folate utilising isolates was restored via transformation with FOL1 or FOL3 expression plasmids and transformants were tested for resistance to sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The presence of elevated levels of folic acid led to greatly reduced SMX sensitivity regardless of whether strains were folate utilisers or not.

  16. Modular operation of membrane bioreactors for higher hydraulic capacity utilisation.

    PubMed

    Veltmann, K; Palmowski, L M; Pinnekamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Using data from 6 full-scale municipal membrane bioreactors (MBR) in Germany the hydraulic capacity utilisation and specific energy consumption were studied and their connexion shown. The average hydraulic capacity utilisation lies between 14% and 45%. These low values are justified by the necessity to deal with intense rain events and cater for future flow increases. However, this low hydraulic capacity utilisation leads to high specific energy consumption. The optimisation of MBR operation requires a better utilisation of MBR hydraulic capacity, particularly under consideration of the energy-intensive membrane aeration. A first approach to respond to large influent flow fluctuations consists in adjusting the number of operating modules. This is practised by most MBR operators but so far mostly with variable flux and constant membrane aeration. A second approach is the real-time adjustment of membrane aeration in line with flux variations. This adjustment is not permitted under current manufacturers' warranty conditions. A further opportunity is a discontinuous operation, in which filtration takes place over short periods at high flux and energy for membrane aeration is saved during filtration pauses. The integration of a buffer volume is thereby indispensable. Overall a modular design with small units, which can be activated/ inactivated according to the influent flow and always operate under optimum conditions, enables a better utilisation of MBR hydraulic capacity and forms a solid base to reduce MBR energy demand.

  17. Mobile unit helps ED cut LWBS in half.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    One viable option for reducing the stress on an overburdened ED is the leasing of a mobile unit. For a relatively modest cost, it can be used as a fast-track department, as the ED at Jefferson Memorial Hospital in Ranson, WV, is doing. The unit at Jefferson is staffed by a registered nurse, a nurse practitioner, and a technician who floats between the mobile unit and the main ED. The mobile care unit has four beds and also is equipped with computers, a medication dispensing system, and monitors to view digital X-rays. The triage nurse determines whether a patient goes to the mobile unit or the main ED.

  18. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Judy

    Ag-Ed is an agricultural education project aimed at upper primary students, held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show (similar to a county fair) in Queensland, Australia. The program achieves its purpose of helping children understand the impact and relevance that agriculture has on their everyday lives through two components, an Ag-Ed day and a…

  19. Rebooting the EdD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wergin, Jon F.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Jon Wergin reminds readers of the philosophical and historical foundations of the doctor of education (EdD) degree. He argues that the EdD should be based, in large part, on John Dewey's progressive ideals of democratization and Paulo Freire's concepts of emancipatory education. Drawing on theories of reflective practice,…

  20. Sago starch and its utilisation.

    PubMed

    Abd-Aziz, Suraini

    2002-01-01

    The importance and development of industrial biotechnology processing has led to the utilisation of microbial enzymes in various applications. One of the important enzymes is amylase, which hydrolyses starch to glucose. In Malaysia, the use of sago starch has been increasing, and it is presently being used for the production of glucose. Sago starch represents an alternative cheap carbon source for fermentation processes that is attractive out of both economic and geographical considerations. Production of fermentable sugars from the hydrolysis of starches is normally carried out by an enzymatic processes that involves two reaction steps, liquefaction and saccharification, each of which has different temperature and pH optima with respect to the maximum reaction rate. This method of starch hydrolysis requires the use of an expensive temperature control system and a complex mixing device. Our laboratory has investigated the possibility of using amylolytic enzyme-producing microorganisms in the continuous single-step biological hydrolysis of sago flour for the production of a generic fermentation medium. The ability of a novel DNA-recombinated yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YKU 107 (expressing alpha-amylase production) to hydrolyse gelatinised sago starch production has been studied with the aim of further utilizing sago starch to obtain value-added products.

  1. EDS operator and control software

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.L.

    1985-04-01

    The Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to acquire, display and analyze large quantities of transient data for a real-time Advanced Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) experiment. Major topics discussed in this paper are the EDS operator interface (SHELL) program, the data acquisition and analysis scheduling software, and the graphics software. The workstation concept used in EDS, the software used to configure a user's workstation, and the ownership and management of a diagnostic are described. An EDS diagnostic is a combination of hardware and software designed to study specific aspects of the process. Overall system performance is discussed from the standpoint of scheduling techniques, evaluation tools, optimization techniques, and program-to-program communication methods. EDS is based on a data driven design which keeps the need to modify software to a minimum. This design requires a fast and reliable data base management system. A third party data base management product, Berkeley Software System Database, written explicitly for HP1000's, is used for all EDS data bases. All graphics is done with an in-house graphics product, Device Independent Graphics Library (DIGLIB). Examples of devices supported by DIGLIB are: Versatec printer/plotters, Raster Technologies Graphic Display Controllers, and HP terminals (HP264x and HP262x). The benefits derived by using HP hardware and software as well as obstacles imposed by the HP environment are presented in relation to EDS development and implementation.

  2. Extreme climatic conditions and health service utilisation across rural and metropolitan New South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jegasothy, Edward; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert; Scalley, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality. We defined heat waves and cold waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and excess cold factor (ECF) metrics, respectively. Heat waves generally resulted in increased rates of ambulance call-outs, ED presentations and mortality across the three regions and the entire state. For all of NSW, very intense heat waves resulted in an increase of 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 17.4%) in mortality, 3.4% (95% CI 0.8, 7.8%) in ED presentations and 10.9% (95% CI 7.7, 14.2%) in ambulance call-outs. Cold waves were shown to have significant effects on ED presentations (9.3% increase for intense events, 95% CI 8.0-10.6%) and mortality (8.8% increase for intense events, 95% CI 2.1-15.9%) in outer regional and remote areas. There was little evidence for an effect from cold waves on health service utilisation in major cities and inner regional areas. Heat waves have a large impact on health service utilisation in NSW in both urban and rural settings. Cold waves also have significant effects in outer regional and remote areas. EHF is a good predictor of health service utilisation for heat waves, although service needs may differ between urban and rural areas.

  3. A Successful ED Fall Risk Program Using the KINDER 1 Fall RiskAssessment Tool.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Ann B; Valle-Ortiz, Marisol; Sansweet, Tracy

    2016-11-01

    Emergency nurses did not perform falls risk assessments routinely on our ED patients; the instrument used was aimed at inpatients. We identified a need to revise fall assessment practices specific to our emergency department. The purpose of the performance improvement project was to reduce ED falls and evaluate the use of an ED-specific fall risk tool, the KINDER 1 Fall Risk Assessment. The plan was to establish fall risk assessment practices at point of ED entry and to decrease total falls.

  4. ED gets patients upstairs in 60 minutes or less.

    PubMed

    2000-09-01

    The ED at Overlook Hospital in Summit, NJ, reduced admission cycle times from 3 1/2 to four hours to less than 60 minutes. Although nursing staff members are encouraged to resolve problems on their own, the "czarina of bed control" serves as a point person in the ED to resolve significant problems. A housekeeping staff member is assigned to clean the beds on each unit in order of priority. ED staff have access to real-time information about patients being discharged from the floors.

  5. Effects of Using a Neuroeducational Intervention to Enhance Perseverance for Online EdD and EdS Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadle, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Developing and maintaining a "completion mindset" is a necessary mental condition for online educational doctorate (EdD) and educational specialist (EdS) students to obtain their advanced degrees. The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a neuroeducational intervention on a volunteer convenience sample of EdD and…

  6. Energy and nutrient utilisation by embryonic reptiles.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael B; Speake, Brian K

    2002-11-01

    Most reptiles are oviparous, with the developing embryos relying on the contents of the yolk to sustain development until hatching (lecithotrophy). The yolk is composed primarily of lipid and protein, which act as an energy source and the essential components to build embryonic tissue. Nevertheless, yolk and the resulting embryos contain many other nutrients, including inorganic ions, vitamins, carotenoids, water and hormones. Apart from water and oxygen, which may be taken up by eggs, and some inorganic ions that can come from the eggshell or even from outside the egg, everything required by the embryo must be in the egg when it is laid. Approximately 20% of squamate reptiles are viviparous, exhibiting a variety of placental complexities. Species with complex placentae have reduced yolk volumes, with the mother augmenting embryonic nutrition by provision across the placenta (placentotrophy). Despite assumed advantages of placentotrophy, only 5 out of approximately 100 lineages of viviparous squamates exhibit substantial placentotrophy. This paper reviews available and recent information on the yolk contents of a variety of squamate reptiles to ask the question, how are nutrients transported from the yolk to the embryo or across the placenta? Although, current available data suggest that, in broad terms, yolk is taken up by embryos without discrimination of the nutrients, there are some apparent exceptions, including the very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, fundamental differences in the patterns of energy utilisation in lizards and snakes suggest fundamental differences in lipid profiles in these taxa, which appear to reflect the differences between placentotrophic and lecithotrophic viviparous lizards.

  7. Safe Handling of Snakes in an ED Setting.

    PubMed

    Cockrell, Melanie; Swanson, Kristofer; Sanders, April; Prater, Samuel; von Wenckstern, Toni; Mick, JoAnn

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to improve consistency in management of snakes and venomous snake bites in the emergency department (ED) can improve patient and staff safety and outcomes, as well as improve surveillance data accuracy. The emergency department at a large academic medical center identified an opportunity to implement a standardized process for snake disposal and identification to reduce staff risk exposure to snake venom from snakes patients brought with them to the ED.

  8. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  9. Overview of Deployed EDS Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C

    2009-09-24

    The term explosive detection system (EDS) is used by the TSA to describe equipment that is certified to detect explosives in checked bags. The EDS, as certified, by the TSL must consist of device for interrogating a bag and an automated detection algorithm (ATD) for evaluating the results of the interrogation. We only consider CT as the interrogation device in this report. A schematic drawing of a CT-based EDS is shown in Figure 2. The output of the ATD is the binary decision of alarm or non-alarm. Alarms may true- or false-positives. Non-alarms may be true- or false-negatives. False positives are also denoted false alarms. The true detection means that the ATD reports an alarm when a threat is present in the scanned bag. The probability of detecting a threat given that a threat is present is denoted the probability of detection (PD). The probability of false alarm (PFA) is the case when an alarm is reported when a threat is not present in a bag. Certification in this context means passing tests for PD and PFA at the TSL. The results of the EDS include CT cross-sectional images of the bag and specifics about the alarmed objects generated by ATD. These results are presented on a display so that a person may override the decision of ATD and declare the alarm to be a non-alarm. This process is denoted clearing. Bags that are not cleared by the person are sent to a secondary inspection process. Here the bags may be opened or assessed with explosive trace detection (ETD) in order to clear the bags. Bags that are not cleared at this point are evaluated by an ordinance disposal team. The CT scanner along with ATD is denoted Level 1 screening. The process of clearing on a display is denoted Level 2 screening. Secondary inspection is denoted Level 3 screening. Vendors of the deployed EDSs supply the TSA with equipment for all three levels. Therefore, the term EDS may include the equipment provided for Levels 1, 2 and 3. A schematic diagram of an EDS and the levels of

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) from Gossypium barbadense.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaofeng; Qi, Xiliang; Cheng, Hongmei

    2014-06-01

    Arabidopsis enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) plays an important role in plant defense against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. The necrotrophic pathogen Verticillium dahliae infection of Gossypium barbadense could lead to Verticillium wilt which seriously reduces the cotton production. Here, we cloned and characterized a G. barbadense homolog of EDS1, designated as GbEDS1. The full-length cDNA of the GbEDS1 gene was obtained by the technique of rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The open reading frame of the GbEDS1 gene was 1,647 bp long and encoded a protein of 548 amino acids residues. Comparison of the cDNA and genomic DNA sequence of GbEDS1 indicated that this gene contained a single intron and two exons. Like other EDS1s, GbEDS1 contained a conserved N-terminal lipase domain and an EDS1-specific KNEDT motif. Subcellular localization assay revealed that GbEDS1-green fluorescence protein fusion protein was localized in both cytosol and nucleus. Interestingly, the transcript levels of GbEDS1 were dramatically increased in response to pathogen V. dahliae infection. To investigate the role of GbEDS1 in plant resistance against V. dahliae, a conserved fragment derived from GbEDS1 was used to knockdown the endogenous EDS1 in Nicotiana benthamiana by heterologous virus-induced gene silencing. Our data showed that silencing of NbEDS1 resulted in increased susceptibility to V. dahliae infection in N. benthamiana, suggesting a possible involvement of the novelly isolated GbEDS1 in the regulation of plant defense against V. dahliae.

  11. Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: Factors Associated with ED Revisits

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Brian R.; Sharp, Kristen M.; Patterson, Brian; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is a condition that commonly affects women in the first trimester of pregnancy. Despite frequently leading to emergency department (ED) visits, little evidence exists to characterize the nature of ED visits or to guide its treatment in the ED. Our objectives were to evaluate the treatment of NVP in the ED and to identify factors that predict return visits to the ED for NVP. Methods We conducted a retrospective database analysis using the electronic medical record from a single, large academic hospital. Demographic and treatment variables were collected using a chart review of 113 ED patient visits with a billing diagnosis of “nausea and vomiting in pregnancy” or “hyperemesis gravidarum.” Logistic regression analysis was used with a primary outcome of return visit to the ED for the same diagnoses. Results There was wide treatment variability of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy patients in the ED. Of the 113 patient visits, 38 (33.6%) had a return ED visit for NVP. High gravidity (OR 1.31, 95% CI [1.06–1.61]), high parity (OR 1.50 95% CI [1.12–2.00]), and early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.60–0.90]) were associated with an increase in return ED visits in univariate logistic regression models, while only early gestational age (OR 0.74 95% CI [0.59–0.91]) was associated with increased return ED visits in a multiple regression model. Admission to the hospital was found to decrease the likelihood of return ED visits (p=0.002). Conclusion NVP can be difficult to manage and has a high ED return visit rate. Optimizing care with aggressive, standardized treatment in the ED and upon discharge, particularly if factors predictive of return ED visits are present, may improve quality of care and reduce ED utilization for this condition. PMID:27625723

  12. In review of ED utilization reduction strategies, data regarding impact on safety, outcomes in short supply.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    To gather insight on an array strategies used to curb ED utilization, investigators conducted a systematic review of five types of interventions that are based outside of the ED: patient education, patient financial incentives, the creation of additional non-ED capacity, pre-hospital diversion, and managed care. While the available evidence showed that all of the interventions had some impact on reducing ED utilization, researchers caution that there was scant data showing what impact these interventions had on outcomes or safety. Investigators found that patient education interventions were associated with the greatest magnitude of reductions in ED use, but they stress that the interventions reviewed were very heterogeneous. Interventions involving patient financial incentives primarily focused on putting financial barriers in place between patients and the ED. They were effective at reducing ED utilization, but investigators caution that policy makers need to consider the potential impact on outcomes. There was some evidence that creating additional non-ED capacity fueled demand for care, but had a small impact on ED utilization. Going forward, emergency providers need to fully engage in any discussions about ED utilization and demonstrate the value that EDs bring to the health care system, say experts.

  13. Real time analysis under EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    The analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis.

  14. Real time analysis under EDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  15. Utilisation of Thermal Radiation for Process Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberpals, Jan; Hermann, Tobias; Berger, Peter; Singpiel, Holger

    Particularly the automation of thermal material processing makes high demands on monitoring and controlling the resulting quality. A new promising approach is the utilisation of the emitted thermal radiation to get detailed information about temperature distributions and geometrical structures. Indeed, current laser systems with strong focusability exhibit a high innovation potential in many application ranges, for example the possibility of adjusting the welding depth to even small material thicknesses. However, the usability of these advantages is limited because the suitable process windows are considerably constricted at increased welding speed. Therefore, a reliable monitoring of thermal material processing is of vital importance.

  16. ED becomes 'lean' and cuts LBTC, LOS times.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    Lean manufacturing techniques, first developed by Toyota, can be successfully adapted to help improve processes in your ED. St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston, has used Lean to reduce median length of stay, frequency of diversions, and the percentage of patients who left before treatment was complete (LBTC). Here's why "Lean" can help improve the performance of your ED: It enables you and your staff to see things from the patient's point of view. Lean tools enable you to view the status of your department in real-time and to compare that status with your performance goals. Exercises help identify areas where your processes break down and determine the most likely solutions.

  17. Reduction of electron channeling in EDS using precession.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yifeng; Marks, Laurence D

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrated that EDS measurement can be significantly improved by precessing the electron beam, thereby reducing electron channeling effects. For a SrTiO3 specimen orientated along the [001] zone axis, the measured strontium to titanium atomic ratio was 0.74-0.80 using conventional EDS methods, and the ratio was improved to ~0.99 by precessing the electron beam for angles greater than 22.54 mRad. In ALCHEMI-like experiments in which the specimen was tilted to near two-beam condition, the strontium to titanium ratio was insensitive to the deviation from the Bragg condition using a precessed electron beam. Similar reduction of electron channeling effects was also observed in precession-assisted EDS measurements for an L21-ordered Fe2MnAl intermetallic alloy tilted to the [011] zone axis as well as near two-beam conditions.

  18. Motivations for seeking treatment for ED: the woman's perspective.

    PubMed

    McCabe, M P; Conaglen, H; Conaglen, J; O'Connor, E

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that partners have a major role in treatment-seeking behavior for men with ED. This study investigated the motivations of 100 females for seeking medical treatment for their partner's ED. Semi-structured interviews focused on reasons for seeking treatment from the female's perspective. The themes that emerged from the data centered on the importance of sex in the relationship, with closeness and intimacy frequently being seen as more important than sex. The second major theme related to hopes that females had in relation to the medication, particularly in relation to increasing their partner's confidence and reducing his sexual frustration. Enhancement of the relationship as well as improving the female's own feelings of self-doubt and sexual frustration were also mentioned. The results of this study show the multi-faceted nature of the motivations that females express in terms of seeking help for their partner's ED.

  19. A primary-school-based study to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity – the EdAl (Educació en Alimentació) study: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is one of the main determinants of avoidable disease burden. To implement a program by university students acting as “health promoting agents” (HPAs) and to evaluate the effects on obesity prevalence of the primary-school-based program that promotes healthy lifestyle, including dietary and physical activity recommendations over 28 months. Methods Two school clusters were randomly assigned to intervention (24 schools, 1,222 pupils) or control (14 schools, 717 pupils); 78% of pupils were Western European. Mean age (±SD) was 8.4 ± 0.6 years (49.9% females) at baseline. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in primary outcome between both groups. Data collected included body mass index (BMI) every year. Dietary habits and lifestyle questionnaires were filled in by the parents at baseline and at the end of the study. The interventions focused on eight lifestyle topics covered in 12 activities (1 hour/activity/session) implemented by HPAs over 3 school academic years. Results At 28 months, obesity prevalence in boys was decreased −2.36% in the intervention group (from 9.59% to 7.23%) and increased 2.03% (from 7.40% to 9.43%) in the control group; the difference was 4.39% (95% CI 3.48 to 5.30; P = 0.01). The boys in the intervention group had an effective reduction of −0.24 units in the change of BMI z-score (from 0.01 to −0.04), compared to control (from −0.10 to 0.09); 5.1% more intervention pupils undertook physical activity >5 hours/week than control pupils (P = 0.02). Fish consumption was a protector (odds ratio 0.39; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.67) while “fast-food” consumption was a risk factor for childhood obesity (odds ratio: 2.27; 95% CI 1.08 to 4.77). Conclusions Our school-based program, conducted by HPA students, successfully reduced childhood obesity prevalence in boys. Trial registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN29247645. PMID:24529258

  20. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

  1. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For diffuse UV exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than 60° and 50° respectively can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-330 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of damaging UVA observed in full sun.

  2. The consequences of introducing stochasticity in nutrient utilisation models: the case of phosphorus utilisation by pigs.

    PubMed

    Symeou, V; Leinonen, I; Kyriazakis, I

    2016-02-14

    Simulation models of nutrient utilisation ignore that variation in pig system components can influence the predicted mean and variance of the performance of a group of pigs. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to investigate how variation in feed composition would (a) affect the outputs of a nutrient utilisation model and (b) interact with variation that arises from the traits of individual pigs. We used a P intake and utilisation model to address these characteristics. Introduction of stochasticity gave rise to a number of methodological challenges--for example, how to generate variation in both feed composition and pigs and account for correlations between ingredients when modelling variation associated with feed mixing efficiency. Introducing variation in feed composition and pig phenotype resulted in moderate decreases in mean digested, retained and excreted P predicted for a population of pigs and an increase in their associated CV. A lower percentage of pigs in the population were predicted to meet their requirements during the feeding period considered, by comparison with the no-variation scenario. Variation in feed ingredient composition contributed more to performance variation than variation due to mixing efficiency. When variations in both feed composition and pig traits were considered, it was the former rather than the latter that had the dominant influence on variability in pig performance. The developed framework emphasises the consequences of random variability on the predictions of nutrient utilisation models. Such consequences will have a significant impact on decisions about management strategies such as feeding that are subject to variation.

  3. Perspectives and visions on CO2 capture and utilisation.

    PubMed

    North, M; Styring, P

    2015-01-01

    This article summarises and contextualises the debates which occurred during the Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Faraday Discussion meeting. The utilisation of carbon dioxide is discussed in terms of both conversion to fuel, with a potential impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and conversion to chemicals with a potential impact on sustainability.

  4. Utilisation of chip thickness models in grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Roger

    Grinding is now a well established process utilised for both stock removal and finish applications. Although significant research is performed in this field, grinding still experiences problems with burn and high forces which can lead to poor quality components and damage to equipment. This generally occurs in grinding when the process deviates from its safe working conditions. In milling, chip thickness parameters are utilised to predict and maintain process outputs leading to improved control of the process. This thesis looks to further the knowledge of the relationship between chip thickness and the grinding process outputs to provide an increased predictive and maintenance modelling capability. Machining trials were undertaken using different chip thickness parameters to understand how these affect the process outputs. The chip thickness parameters were maintained at different grinding wheel diameters for a constant productivity process to determine the impact of chip thickness at a constant material removal rate.. Additional testing using a modified pin on disc test rig was performed to provide further information on process variables. The different chip thickness parameters provide control of different process outputs in the grinding process. These relationships can be described using contact layer theory and heat flux partitioning. The contact layer is defined as the immediate layer beneath the contact arc at the wheel workpiece interface. The size of the layer governs the force experienced during the process. The rate of contact layer removal directly impacts the net power required from the system. It was also found that the specific grinding energy of a process is more dependent on the productivity of a grinding process

  5. Integrated nuclear data utilisation system for innovative reactors.

    PubMed

    Yamano, N; Hasegawa, A; Kato, K; Igashira, M

    2005-01-01

    A five-year research and development project on an integrated nuclear data utilisation system was initiated in 2002, for developing innovative nuclear energy systems such as accelerator-driven systems. The integrated nuclear data utilisation system will be constructed as a modular code system, which consists of two sub-systems: the nuclear data search and plotting sub-system, and the nuclear data processing and utilisation sub-system. The system will be operated with a graphical user interface in order to enable easy utilisation through the Internet by both nuclear design engineers and nuclear data evaluators. This paper presents an overview of the integrated nuclear data utilisation system, describes the development of a prototype system to examine the operability of the user interface and discusses specifications of the two sub-systems.

  6. Chronic hypothyroidism only marginally affects adult-type Leydig cell regeneration after EDS administration.

    PubMed

    Rijntjes, Eddy; van Kesteren-Buiting, Anita; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja J

    2010-02-01

    Chronic prenatally induced dietary hypothyroidism delays adult-type Leydig cell development, but does not block this process. Using a chemical model to induce hypothyroidism, it was suggested that development of a new population of Leydig cells was completely inhibited following the addition of the cytotoxic compound ethane-1,2-dimethyl sulphonate (EDS). In this study, we used a dietary approach to induce hypothyroidism and reinvestigated the regeneration of the Leydig cell population following EDS administration. Eighty-four day old euthyroid and chronically hypothyroid rats received an injection of EDS and were killed directly before or at regular intervals up to 77 days after EDS. In some control and hypothyroid animals, the first progenitor-type Leydig cells were observed at day 12 after EDS. At day 16, Leydig cell progenitors were present in all rats. The percentage of proliferating Leydig cells peaked in the euthyroid animals at day 21 after EDS. In the hypothyroid testis such a peak was not observed, although the percentage of proliferating regenerating Leydig cells was significantly higher from days 35 to 56 compared with the controls. This suggested that the wave of Leydig cell proliferation was delayed in the hypothyroid animals as compared with the euthyroid controls. On the day of EDS injection, the Leydig/Sertoli cell ratio was 37% lower in the hypothyroid rats compared with the controls. The Leydig/Sertoli cell ratio remained lower in the EDS-treated hypothyroid animals compared with the controls at all time points investigated. At day 77 after EDS, the Leydig cell population had returned to its pre-treatment size in both groups. Plasma testosterone production was reduced to below detectable levels immediately after EDS injection, and started to increase again on day 16, reaching pre-treatment values on day 21 in both groups. Taken together, severely reduced thyroid hormone levels did not block the regeneration of the adult-type Leydig cell population

  7. Mechanical Ventilation and ARDS in the ED

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Nicholas M.; Miller, Christopher N.; Deitchman, Andrew R.; Castagno, Nicole; Hassebroek, Elizabeth C.; Dhedhi, Adam; Scott-Wittenborn, Nicholas; Grace, Edward; Lehew, Courtney; Kollef, Marin H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data regarding mechanical ventilation and ARDS in the ED. This could be a vital arena for prevention and treatment. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, observational, prospective, cohort study aimed at analyzing ventilation practices in the ED. The primary outcome was the incidence of ARDS after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ARDS. RESULTS: We analyzed 219 patients receiving mechanical ventilation to assess ED ventilation practices. Median tidal volume was 7.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW) (interquartile range, 6.9-8.9), with a range of 4.3 to 12.2 mL/kg PBW. Lung-protective ventilation was used in 122 patients (55.7%). The incidence of ARDS after admission from the ED was 14.7%, with a mean onset of 2.3 days. Progression to ARDS was associated with higher illness severity and intubation in the prehospital environment or transferring facility. Of the 15 patients with ARDS in the ED (6.8%), lung-protective ventilation was used in seven (46.7%). Patients who progressed to ARDS experienced greater duration in organ failure and ICU length of stay and higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Lung-protective ventilation is infrequent in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ED, regardless of ARDS status. Progression to ARDS is common after admission, occurs early, and worsens outcome. Patient- and treatment-related factors present in the ED are associated with ARDS. Given the limited treatment options for ARDS, and the early onset after admission from the ED, measures to prevent onset and to mitigate severity should be instituted in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01628523; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:25742126

  8. Expedition 7 Crew Interview: Ed Lu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Ed Lu of Expedition Seven is seen during a pre-launch interview. He explains why he became interested in space flight. He states that this is a different type of mission and gives his reaction to the Columbia Space Shuttle tragedy. The handover of Expedition six is explained by Ed Lu. The challenges of this mission are also described by Lu. These challenges include working with a crew member reduction from three to two, and the conservation of clothing and consumables. Ed Lu talks about what it is like to work with commander Yuri Malenchenko in space. Finally, Ed Lu states that he will continue scientific experiments in space on calcium loss in bones.

  9. MicroED data collection and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; Cruz, M. Jason de la; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-07-01

    The collection and processing of MicroED data are presented. MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges.

  10. Impact of continuous Medical Aid utilisation on healthcare utilisation: unique insight using the 2008–2012 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Na Rae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although there has been considerable discussion about the social safety net, few studies related to effect of duration of continuous receipt of Medical Aid on healthcare utilisation have been conducted. Therefore, we investigate whether the duration of receiving Medical Aid affected medical care utilisation. Setting Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study conducted from 2008 to 2012. Participants We included 11 783 samples. Interventions Estimating changes in their healthcare utilisation during specific time intervals (1, 2 and ≥3 years) after they switched from National Health Insurance to Medical Aid. Primary and secondary outcome measures Number of outpatient visits. Results The number of outpatient visits per year was 0.0.051-fold higher (p value: 0.434) among those who were Medical Aid beneficiaries for a continuous period of 1 year, 0.0.267-fold higher (p value: 0.000) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 2 years, and 0.0.562-fold higher (p value:<0.0001) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 3 years than it was among those who were beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Conclusions Our results reflect an association between the number of consecutive years of receiving Medical Aid and number of outpatient visits. Since duration of dependence is correlated with reduced exit rates, limits on length of benefits should be considered to strengthen the incentive to return to work. PMID:27053265

  11. Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

    1984-02-01

    In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

  12. Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented

  13. Increased biohydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and substrate utilisation rates via the electrodialysis of a continually fed sucrose fermenter.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rhys Jon; Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Mulder, Martijn J J; Premier, Giuliano; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Electrodialysis (ED) removed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from a continually-fed, hydrogen-producing fermenter. Simultaneously, electrochemical removal and adsorption removed gaseous H2 and CO2, respectively. Removing VFAs via ED in this novel process increased H2 yields by a factor of 3.75 from 0.24molH2mol(-1)hexose to 0.90molH2mol(-1)hexose. VFA production and substrate utilisation rates were consistent with the hypothesis that end product inhibition arrests H2 production. The methodology facilitated the recovery of 37g of VFAs, and 30L H2 that was more than 99% pure, both of which are valuable, energy dense chemicals. Typically, short hydraulic and solid retention times, and depressed pH levels are used to suppress methanogenesis, but this limits H2 production. To produce H2 from real world, low grade biomass containing complex carbohydrates, longer hydraulic retention times (HRTs) are required. The proposed system increased H2 yields via increased substrate utilisation over longer HRTs.

  14. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  15. Study: wait times continue to lengthen--visits increase as EDS disappear.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    Despite seemingly insurmountable odds, several ED managers have been able to reduce wait times--in many cases, quite dramatically. Here are some of the strategies they say will help you decrease those waiting times: Create a chest pain policy that focuses not only on getting patients back as quickly as possible, but also frontloads your work force. Encourage staff to bring EKG results to the ED doc as soon as they are obtained. When seeking important hospitalwide changes, remind your board of the political consequences of a poor ED image.

  16. MicroED data collection and processing

    PubMed Central

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; de la Cruz, M. Jason; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges. PMID:26131894

  17. Controlling chromium slag pollution utilising scavengers: a case of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhao; Côté, Raymond P

    2015-04-01

    The problem of chromium slag pollution is a great challenge for China. It is now an urgent task for China to take effective measures to eliminate chromium slag pollution. This article examines the case of the treatment of chromium slag in Shandong Province and explores how chromium slag pollution can be eliminated in Shandong Province. It shows that the chromium slag stockpiled by the chemical plants was successfully utilised by local steel companies, who act as 'scavenger companies'. The driving mechanism, seeking a potential 'scavenger company' within the local region and the role of the local government on the case of Shandong Province are discussed. This article concludes that local steel companies can be utilised to effectively and efficiently treat the chromium slag while benefiting the steel companies. The local governments need to play multiple roles in solving the problem of chromium slag pollution. Seeking and identifying 'scavenger companies' within a region could be an important approach to reducing pollution within the region.

  18. States leverage telepsychiatry solutions to ease ED crowding, accelerate care.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Many states are having success turning to telepsychiatry-based solutions to connect mental health patients with needed care while also decompressing crowded EDs. Just one year into a statewide telepsychiatry initiative in North Carolina (NC-STeP), administrators say the approach has saved as much as $7 million, and hospital demand for the service is higher than anticipated. In Texas, mental health emergency centers (MHEC) that use telepsychiatry to connect patients in rural areas with needed psychiatric care are freeing up EDs to focus on medical care. In just 11 months, 91 North Carolina hospitals have at least started the process to engage in NC-STeP. Much of the savings from NC-STeP come from involuntary commitment orders being overturned as a result of the telepsychiatry consults, reducing the need for expensive inpatient care. Implementing NC-STeP has involved multiple hurdles including credentialing difficulties and technical/firewall challenges. The Texas model provides 24/7 availability of psychiatrists via telemedicine through a network of MHECs. In-person staff at the MHECs perform basic screening tests and blood draws so that medical clearance can be achieved without the need for an ED visit in most cases. Funding for the MHECs comes from the state, hospitals in the region, and local governmental authorities that reap savings or benefits from the initiative.

  19. One Year Medical Outcomes and ED Recidivism Following ED Observation for Cocaine-Associated Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen A.; Weber, Jim Edward; O'Broin, Samantha; Tripathi, Shanti P; Maio, Ronald F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Chest pain is the most common complaint among cocaine users who present to the ED seeking care and many hospital resources are applied to stratify cocaine users in regard to future cardiac morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the longitudinal cardiac and non cardiac medical outcomes of cocaine users who have been stratified to an ED observation period following their ED visit. Objectives to examine one-year cardiac outcomes in a low-intermediate risk sample of patients with cocaine- associated chest pain in an urban ED, as well as to examine ED recidivism one year for cardiac and non-cardiac complaints. Methods Prospective consecutive cohort study of patients (18–60 years) who presented to an urban Level 1 ED with cocaine-associated chest pain and were risk stratified to low-intermediate cardiac risk. Exclusion criteria: EKG suggestive of AMI, elevated serum cardiac markers, history of AMI or CABG, hemodynamic instability, unstable angina. Baseline interviews using validated measures of health functioning, and substance use were conducted during CPOU stay, and 3, 6, and 12 months. ED utilization during the study year was abstracted from medical chart. Zero-Inflated Poisson regression analyses were conducted to predict recurrent ED visits. Results 219 participants (73% participation) were enrolled, 65% returned to the ED post index visit; 23% returned for chest pain, of these 66% had a positive cocaine urine screen. No patient had an AMI within the one year follow up period. Patients with continued cocaine use were more likely to have a recurrent ED visit (p<0.001) but these repeat visits were most often related to musculoskeletal pain (21%), and injury (30%) rather than potential cardiac complaints. Conclusions Patients with cocaine-associated chest pain who are low to intermediate cardiac risk and complete a CPOU protocol have less then 1% rate of MI in the subsequent 12-months. PMID:18824277

  20. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  1. 34 CFR 85.942 - ED Deciding Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false ED Deciding Official. 85.942 Section 85.942 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.942 ED Deciding Official. The ED Deciding Official is an ED officer who has...

  2. 34 CFR 85.942 - ED Deciding Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false ED Deciding Official. 85.942 Section 85.942 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.942 ED Deciding Official. The ED Deciding Official is an ED officer who has...

  3. The Consequences of edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    States and teacher preparation programs across the country are increasingly using a teacher candidate assessment called edTPA. The purpose? To make sure that teacher candidates are ready and able to teach before they begin their careers. The teacher performance assessment requires candidates to compile a portfolio that consists of lesson plans,…

  4. Manufacturing techniques help turn ED around.

    PubMed

    2005-05-01

    Borrowing quality tools from other industries can help give you a new perspective on the operations of your ED. Computer simulations can help you visualize impact of patient arrivals at peak hours. A flexible approach opens up new options for using existing space more efficiently. 'Manufacturing' approach enables you to break down large processes into more manageable subsets.

  5. ED's Oasis: Teacher Support for Internet Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Terrie

    1998-01-01

    Describes ED's Oasis, a multifunction Web site funded by the AT&T Foundation, through the AT&T Learning Network program, and developed by a team of educators to help teachers use the Internet with their students. Examples are given of various possible uses, including designing interdisciplinary units. (LRW)

  6. What Should I Know about ED Grants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The Department of Education's ability to create a high-performance education system is directly linked to the public's understanding of how to apply for and make proper use of federal grant funds. This booklet is intended for individuals who are interested in applying to the U.S. Department of Education (ED) for discretionary grants and…

  7. Mentoring from Different Social Spheres: How Can Multiple Mentors Help in Doctoral Student Success in Ed.D Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Tarae; Ghosh, Rajashi

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students leave their programs early due to lack of mentoring relationships needed to support degree completion and success. However, how mentoring contributes to Ed.D degree completion is not widely studied. In this qualitative narrative study, we sought to explore how multiple mentoring relationships reduced attrition in an Ed.D program.…

  8. Utilisation of wartime nutrition survival experiences.

    PubMed

    Giay, T

    1998-12-01

    In protracted and recurrent conflict, Vietnamese people have learned to minimize food insecurity through governance, mutual social responsibility, infrastructure development, ecological sensitivity, agricultural diversification and emphasis on family needs and traditional food patterns. Drawing on this experience, in 1992 a National Plan of Action for Nutrition was devised. Its goals include increasing energy intake and reducing childhood malnutrition.

  9. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  10. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  11. Regulation of methanol utilisation pathway genes in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

    2006-01-01

    Methylotrophic yeasts such as Candida boidinii, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia methanolica and Pichia pastoris are an emerging group of eukaryotic hosts for recombinant protein production with an ever increasing number of applications during the last 30 years. Their applications are linked to the use of strong methanol-inducible promoters derived from genes of the methanol utilisation pathway. These promoters are tightly regulated, highly repressed in presence of non-limiting concentrations of glucose in the medium and strongly induced if methanol is used as carbon source. Several factors involved in this tight control and their regulatory effects have been described so far. This review summarises available data about the regulation of promoters from methanol utilisation pathway genes. Furthermore, the role of cis and trans acting factors (e.g. transcription factors, glucose processing enzymes) in the expression of methanol utilisation pathway genes is reviewed both in the context of the native cell environment as well as in heterologous hosts. PMID:17169150

  12. Risk factors for ED use among homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    Despite national concern about homeless veterans, there has been little examination of their use of emergency department (ED) services. This study examines factors related to the use of ED services in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, where insurance is not a barrier to ambulatory healthcare. National VA administrative data from fiscal year 2010 are used to describe the proportions of ED users among homeless and domiciled VA patients. A case-control design is then used to compare homeless ED and non-ED users on sociodemographic and clinical correlates, as well as use of ambulatory care and psychotropic medications. Sixteen percent of domiciled VA patients used EDs at least once during the year and 1% were frequent ED users (>4 ED visits) compared to 45% of homeless VA patients, 10% who were frequent ED users. Among homeless VA patients, those who used EDs were more likely to have a range of psychiatric and medical conditions, and had more service visits and psychotropic medication prescriptions than non-ED users. Multivariate analyses suggest their risk for psychiatric and medical conditions increase their likelihood of using ED services. The high rate of ED use among homeless veterans is associated with significant morbidity, but also greater use of ambulatory care and psychotropics suggesting their ED use may reflect unmet psychosocial needs.

  13. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  14. Ethanol elimination rates in an ED population.

    PubMed

    Brennan, D F; Betzelos, S; Reed, R; Falk, J L

    1995-05-01

    Knowledge of the rate of ethanol elimination is essential in the assessment of the intoxicated patient. Surprisingly little literature is available regarding ethanol elimination rates in emergency department (ED) patients; prior studies almost exclusively examined populations of alcoholics or normal controls. Consequently, this prospective observational study was undertaken to assess the rate of ethanol elimination in an ED population. Twenty-four consecutive adult ED patients clinically suspected of intoxication who had serum ethanol determinations drawn were enrolled. Patients underwent serial ethanol determinations via breathalyzer (Intoxilyzer 1400, CMI Inc., Owensboro, KY). Linear regression analysis of the plot of decrease in ethanol level over time was performed to determine the rate of ethanol elimination. Initial ethanol levels in the 24 patients ranged from 58 to 447 mg/dL (mean, 249 +/- 109 [SD] mg/dL). Patients were observed for a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 9 observations (mean, 3.9 +/- 1.7), over a period of 0.5 to 12.1 hours (mean, 4.4 +/-3.5 h). Clinical features of intoxication were poorly correlated with ethanol level (r < .5). The rate of ethanol elimination in the ED population was 19.6 mg/dL/h (r = .83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9 to 22.3 mg/dL/h). Subgroup analysis found differences that were statistically significant but small. Multiple regression analysis showed that time was the major variable useful in predicting changes in ethanol level (P < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. EDs pool resources to weather flood.

    PubMed

    2006-10-01

    When disaster strikes your community, creativity can go a long way toward keeping your ED up and running, but cooperating with neighboring facilities can double your available resources in a hurry. Contact all unscheduled staff members and request that they accept additional shifts during the crisis. If nearby facilities are shut down, contact their manager to ascertain availability of their staff and supplies. Seek additional staffing help from local residency programs.

  16. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  17. Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

  18. Redirecting Under-Utilised Computer Laboratories into Cluster Computing Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, John S.; Spenneman, Dirk H. R.; Cornforth, David

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide administrators at an Australian university with data on the feasibility of redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories facilities into a distributed high performance computing facility. Design/methodology/approach: The individual log-in records for each computer located in the computer laboratories at the university were…

  19. 2 CFR 3485.937 - ED Deciding Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false ED Deciding Official. 3485.937 Section 3485.937 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 3485.937 ED Deciding Official. The ED Deciding Official...

  20. 2 CFR 3485.937 - ED Deciding Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false ED Deciding Official. 3485.937 Section 3485.937 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 3485.937 ED Deciding Official. The ED Deciding Official...

  1. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  2. Text message program improves outcomes, decreases ED utilization among ED patients with poorly controlled diabetes.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic patients who lack access to primary care tend to frequent the ED, often with complications from their disease that could have been prevented with proper management and education. To get around the problem of access, researchers tested an automated program that continuously delivered educational messaging via text to a group of patients who presented to the ED with poorly controlled diabetes. After six months, researchers noted improvements in Hb A1c levels, self-reported medication adherence, and ED utilization when compared with a control group. And the impact was particularly noteworthy among Latinos, according to the researchers. The text messaging program, dubbed TExT-Med, was developed by four physicians and two diabetes educators. The messages were delivered daily, and contained educational as well motivational content derived from the National Diabetes Education Program.There were also medication reminders, healthy living challenges, and trivia questions about diabetes. At six months, Hb A1c levels decreased by 1.05% in the intervention group, compared to 0.60% in the control group, and self-reported medication adherence improved from 4.5 to 5.4 (as measured on an 8 point scale) in the intervention group versus a decrease of 0.1 in the control group. During the six-month study period, 35.9% of patients in the intervention group presented to the ED for care, as compared to 51.6% of patients in the control group.

  3. The Utilisation of Music by Casino Managers: An Interview Study.

    PubMed

    Bramley, Stephanie; Dibben, Nicola; Rowe, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Music is ubiquitous in retail and commercial environments, with some managers believing that music can enhance the customer experience, increase footfall and sales and improve consumer satisfaction. Casino gambling is popular in the United Kingdom and anecdotal evidence suggests that music is often present. However, little is known about the rationale for music use from the perspective of casino managers. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with five casino managers to establish their motivations for utilising music, the factors informing their choice of music and the extent to which music is used with the intention of influencing gambling behaviour. Results showed that casino managers utilised two types of music-recorded background music, often sourced via external music supply companies and live music. Live music was often situated away from the gaming floor and used primarily to accompany participation in non-gambling activities. Recorded background music was not used with the direct aim of influencing customers' gambling behaviour, but to create the right atmosphere for gambling and to promote certain moods within the casinos. To achieve these aims casino managers manipulated the tempo, volume and genre of the recorded background music. Casino managers also reported that some gamblers listen to music via portable music players, possibly with the intention of customising their gambling experience. This study is unique as it has provided a first-hand account of casino managers' implicit theories with regards to why they utilise music and the roles which music is considered to fulfil in casinos.

  4. Formal home-care utilisation by older adults in Ireland: evidence from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Catriona M; Whelan, Brendan J; Normand, Charles

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a population-based estimate of the utilisation of publicly financed formal home care by older adults in Ireland and to identify the principal characteristics of those utilising formal home care. Data were collected through computer-aided personal interviews from a representative sample of community living older adults in Ireland. The interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 as part of the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). The study is cross-sectional in design and limited to participants aged 65 years and older (n = 3507). Results reveal that 8.2% (95% CI 7.1%-9.3%) of participants utilised publicly financed formal home care in the form of home help and/or personal care. Key determinants of formal home-care utilisation were Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) difficulty (Adj OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.7-5.3), older age (Adj OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-4.8) and living alone (Adj OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.8). Almost half of those utilising formal care did not self-report an Activity of Daily Living (ADL) difficulty or an IADL difficulty. Government policy aims to reduce the need for long-term residential care by providing formal home care for older adults with low to moderate levels of dependency. This requires an increasing emphasis on personal care provision in the home. No evidence was found in this study to suggest that a shift in emphasis from formal domestic to personal care is taking place in Ireland. The absence of standardised assessment and eligibility criteria are deemed to be barriers to reorientation of the system. From a health services perspective, the current situation is not sustainable into the future and requires a focused policy response.

  5. An environmental analysis of options for utilising wasted food and food residue.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Thomas L; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    The potential environmental impact of wasted food minimisation versus its utilisation in a circular bioeconomy is investigated based on a case study of Ireland. The amount of wasted food and food residue (WFFR) produced in 2010 was used for business-as-usual, (a) and four management options were assessed, (b) minimisation, (c) composting, (d) anaerobic digestion and (e) incineration. The environmental impacts Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP) and Eutrophication Potential (EP) were considered. A carbon return on investment (CRoI) was calculated for the three processing technologies (c-e). The results showed that a minimisation strategy for wasted food would result in the greatest reduction of all three impacts, -4.5 Mt CO2-e (GWP), -11.4 kt PO4(3)-e (EP) and -43.9 kt SO2-e (AP) compared to business as usual. For WFFR utilisation in the circular bioeconomy, anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest environmental impact and best CRoI of -0.84 kg CO2-e per Euro. From an economic perspective, for minimisation to be beneficial, 0.15 kg of wasted food would need to be reduced per Euro spent.

  6. Environmental-benign utilisation of fly ash as low-cost adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Wu, Hongwei

    2006-08-25

    Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. that is found in abundance in the world. In recent years, utilisation of fly ash has gained much attention in public and industry, which will help reduce the environmental burden and enhance economic benefit. In this paper, the technical feasibility of utilisation of fly ash as a low-cost adsorbent for various adsorption processes for removal of pollutants in air and water systems has been reviewed. Instead of using commercial activated carbon or zeolites, a lot of researches have been conducted using fly ash for adsorption of NO(x), SO(x), organic compounds, and mercury in air, and cations, anions, dyes and other organic matters in waters. It is recognised that fly ash is a promising adsorbent for removal of various pollutants. Chemical treatment of fly ash will make conversion of fly ash into a more efficient adsorbent for gas and water cleaning. Investigations also revealed that unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in adsorption capacity. Directions for future research are also discussed.

  7. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Purabi R; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B; Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  8. Carbon substrate utilisation profile of a high concentration effluent degrading microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Jena, S; Jeanmeure, L F C; Wichukorn, S D; Wright, P C

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the carbon substrate utilisation profile of a group of microorganisms responsible for the biodegradation of a highly concentrated industrial effluent. A 1 litre bioreactor was used to study this consortium's biodegradation potential, with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the waste being reduced by 90% from 24000 mg l(-1) within 456 hours. This study also demonstrates that the consortium is capable of degrading organic solvents, such as isopropanol, at concentrations of 260 mg l(-1). The population distribution and biochemical behaviour were also characterised using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog Eco Plates at various stages of bioreactor operation. The DGGE results indicated that the dominant bands of the microbial population profile were stable at various operational stages, and that only a few bands varied with time. Moreover, four Biolog Eco plates were inoculated with samples drawn from the bioreactor at 0, 24, 72 and 120 hours after inoculation. Based on this Biolog Eco Plate profiling, a carbon source utilisation analysis was conducted to group the substrates according to their colour development patterns. Patterns were quantified via measurement of well optical density. Subsequently, cross-correlation statistical techniques were used to establish the existence of recurrent behavioural responses from each carbon source to the various wastewater samples. From the cross correlation, an attempt was made to classify the metabolic potential for future biodegradation processes. Carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids were the most predominant groups of sole carbon substrates showing similar growth behaviour in the consortium.

  9. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices. PMID:27847805

  10. Contribution of ED admissions to inpatient hospital revenue.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Alfred; Harris, Russell H; Warden, Todd; Roth, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) practices are traditionally profiled in terms of their patient encounters. Such evaluations reflect a preponderance of outpatient visits while crediting income from admitted patients to traditional hospital-based services. This study evaluates the contribution of ED admissions to inpatient hospital revenue. The study was set at an urban tertiary care community hospital with university affiliation. Information referable to ED patients was collected from the hospital's Universal Billing Code (UB-92)-based patient information warehouse. Data fields referable to hospital charges, insurance type, and disposition were used for analysis of a 1-year period from September 1, 1998 to August 31, 1999. Statistical analysis was through chi square and ANOVA. During the study period 33,174 patients were treated in the ED with 6,671 (20%) admitted to inpatient services. Total hospital charges for all ED patients during this time were $107 million dollars with $9.1 million (8.5%) generated from discharged patients and $98.0 million (91.5%) from admitted ED patients (P <.001). Mean charges for individual discharged patients were $344.10 whereas for individual admitted patients mean charges were $14,692.28. (P <.001) Medicaid and self pay represented 55.4% of the insurance coverage for discharged ED patients whereas these same insurance classes accounted for only 16.3% of admitted patients. (P <.001) Medicare visits accounted for 12.7% of discharged ED patients but 60.7% of admitted patients (P <.001). Total hospital gross revenue for inpatient services for the study period was $288 million of which 34% was contributed from admitted ED patients. ED services represent a major source of inpatient hospital revenue. The recognition of the ED's potential in this area may be lost if income from patients admitted through the ED is credited to traditional hospital-based services.

  11. Fish Utilisation of Wetland Nurseries with Complex Hydrological Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting ‘facultative wetland resident’ group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the ’interrupted persistence’ group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the ‘facultative wetland resident’ and ‘delayed recruitment group’, and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the ‘delayed recruitment’ group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in

  12. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity

  13. EDs trying not to let the bed bugs bite.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    As bed bugs have emerged as a growing problem for EDs, managers have developed strategies for prevention and decontamination. Here are some of the approaches they have shared with ED Management: Educate your staff on what they should look for on patients and in rooms that would indicate the presence of bed bugs. Be proactive. Have an exterminator examine your ED on a regular basis. A decontamination room on the outside of the building will prevent the spread of these bugs in your ED.

  14. Web Formation - Skylab Student Experiment ED-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Judith S. Miles of Lexington High School, Lexington, Massachusetts, proposed skylab student experiment ED-52, Web Formation. This experiment was a study of a spider's behavior in a weightless environment. The geometrical structure of the web of the orb-weaving spider provides a good measure of the condition of its central nervous system. Since the spider senses its own weight to determine the required thickness of web material and uses both the wind and gravity to initiate construction of its web, the lack of gravitational force in Skylab provided a new and different stimulus to the spider's behavioral response. Two common cross spiders, Arabella and Anita, were used for the experiment aboard the Skylab-3 mission. After initial disoriented attempts, both spiders produced almost Earth-like webs once they had adapted to weightlessness. This photograph is of Arabella, a cross spider, in her initial attempt at spirning a web. This picture was taken by the crew of the Skylab 3 mission before Arabella adapted to her new environment.

  15. Self-Assembled Hydrogels Utilising Polymer-Nanoparticle Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Eric A.; Tibbitt, Mark W.; Webber, Matthew J.; Mattix, Bradley A.; Veiseh, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Mouldable hydrogels that flow upon applied stress and rapidly self-heal are increasingly utilised as they afford minimally invasive delivery and conformal application. Here we report a new paradigm for the fabrication of self-assembled hydrogels with shear-thinning and self-healing properties employing rationally engineered polymer-nanoparticle interactions. Biopolymer derivatives are linked together by selective adsorption to nanoparticles. The transient and reversible interactions between biopolymers and nanoparticles enable flow under applied shear stress, followed by rapid self-healing when the stress is relaxed. We develop a physical description of polymer-nanoparticle gel formation that is utilised to design biocompatible gels for minimally-invasive drug delivery. Owing to the hierarchical structure of the gel, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs can be entrapped and delivered with differential release profiles, both in vitro and in vivo. The work introduces a facile and generalizable class of mouldable hydrogels amenable to a range of biomedical and industrial applications. PMID:25695516

  16. Application Development for the Utilisation of ENVISAT Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csornai, G.; Suba, Zs.; Wirnhardt, Cs.; Nádor, G.; Tikász, L.; László, I.; Csekõ, Á.; Martinovich, L.

    2004-05-01

    Natural disasters connected to climatic extremities (floods, waterlog and drought) tend to occur more frequently in Hungary in the past decade. Serious waterlog affecting more than 100 000 hectares of arable land, flood peak records during spring and serious drought in summer causing losses to agriculture and to the whole economy happened yearly between 1998-2002. After the development and application of monitoring methods, FÖMI RSC have started to develop a cost-effective satellite based model to monitor these natural disaster at regional level. The ESA- titled "Application development for the utilisation of ENVISAT data in remote sensing based regional flood/waterlog and drought monitoring (2000-2003)" aimed at the rapid and large scale monitoring of these disasters utilising available low- and medium resolution operational satellite data (NOAA AVHRR, SPOT VEGETATION, IRS-1C/1D WiFS and ERS SAR) involving the new ESA ENVISAT (specially MERIS and ASAR) data. This paper describes the present status of the project and shows several examples about the achievements.

  17. Energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuels from landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Rotheut, Martin; Quicker, Peter

    2017-02-19

    The residence of municipal solid waste within a landfill body results in a significant change of material properties. Experiences with the energetic utilisation of the burnable fractions from formerly landfilled waste are hardly documented, the influence of refuse derived fuels (RDF) from such materials on the performance of modern waste-to-energy plants is not sufficiently described in scientific literature. Therefore this study focuses on the energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuel from landfilled waste, processed in a mechanical waste treatment facility, and the impact of the material on the operation of the incineration plant. Additionally, the possibility of direct combustion of non-pre-treated excavated landfill material has been evaluated in the same facility. First, sampling and analysis of the fuel has been carried out. Based on this, a large-scale combustion experiment was planned and conducted in an industrial waste-to-energy plant. Steam mass flow rate, concentration of harmful substances in the raw gas, as well as total emissions of the facility have been monitored in detail. Furthermore, the influence of the landfilled material on the additive consumption has been determined. The combustion residues (bottom ash) were also sampled and analysed. Based on the evaluation of operating data and analysis of both fuel and residue, suitable thermal treatment approaches for the refuse-derived fuel and the non-pre-treated excavated material have been assessed.

  18. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    PubMed

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus.

  19. Healthcare Resource Utilisation Associated with Herpes Zoster in a Prospective Cohort of Older Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Surendra; Newall, Anthony T.; MacIntyre, C. Raina; Heywood, Anita E.; McIntyre, Peter; Banks, Emily; Liu, Bette

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common condition that increases in incidence with older age but vaccines are available to prevent the disease. However, there are limited data estimating the health system burden attributable to herpes zoster by age. Methods In this study, we quantified excess healthcare resource usage associated with HZ during the acute/sub-acute period of disease (21days before to 90 days after onset) in 5952 cases and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and prior healthcare resource usage. Estimates were adjusted for potential confounders in multivariable regression models. Using population-based estimates of HZ incidence, we calculated the age-specific excess number of health service usage events attributable to HZ in the population. Results Per HZ case, there was an average of 0.06 (95% CI 0.04–0.08) excess hospitalisations, 1.61 (95% CI 1.51–1.69) excess general practitioner visits, 1.96 (95% CI 1.86–2.15) excess prescriptions filled and 0.11 (95% CI 0.09–0.13) excess emergency department visits. The average number of healthcare resource use events, and the estimated excess per 100,000 population increased with increasing age but were similar for men and women, except for higher rates of hospitalisation in men. The excess annual HZ associated burden of hospitalisations was highest in adults ≥80 years (N = 2244, 95%CI 1719–2767); GP visits was highest in those 60–69 years (N = 50567, 95%CI 39958–61105), prescriptions and ED visits were highest in 70–79 years (N = 50524, 95%CI 40634–60471 and N = 2891, 95%CI 2319–3449 respectively). Conclusions This study provides important data to establish the healthcare utilisation associated with HZ against which detailed cost-effectiveness analyses of HZ immunisation in older adults can be conducted. PMID:27483007

  20. Tired of seeing your patients in the ED? Let's give parent education another look!

    PubMed

    Yoffe, Stuart J; McClellan, David A; Tolson, Homer; Moore, Robert W; McKay, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine if a parent-oriented educational intervention reduces the use of emergency department (ED) services for the care of infants. Infants aged 7 days to 1 year and older children aged 2 to 10 years were tracked for 3 years in two separate primary care (PC) practices in Washington County, Texas, with the last year being the interventional study period. Also, infants aged 7 days to 1 year and older children aged 7 days to 5 years were tracked in a third PC practice in Burleson County, Texas. The study group consisted of all parents of patients aged 7 days to 1 year seen by the pediatric group in Washington County during the 1-year interventional period. Only parents of infants in the study group received a specific educational intervention booklet. Five separate control groups were followed in this study. The control groups received usual care with standardized patient information, but they did not receive the educational intervention booklet. Each group was evaluated by calculating its monthly ED utilization rate, which is the quotient derived from dividing the number of children from that particular group seen in the ED per month by the number of children from the same group seen in the PC clinic per month. A difference of proportions test was applied to test for statistical significance regarding ED utilization. Compared with parents in the control group, parents receiving the intervention booklet (the study group) showed significantly (P < .05) lower use of ED services for care of their infants. We found no change in ED utilization for children of parents receiving other standard educational information.

  1. MedEdPORTAL: Educational Scholarship for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Robby J.; Candler, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    MedEdPORTAL is an online publication service provided at no charge by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The intent is to promote collaboration and educational scholarship by helping educators publish and share educational resources. With MedEdPORTAL, users can quickly locate high-quality, peer-reviewed teaching materials in both…

  2. ExpandED Options: Learning beyond High School Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Through ExpandED Options by TASC, New York City high school students get academic credit for learning career-related skills that lead to paid summer jobs. Too many high school students--including those most likely to drop out--are bored or see classroom learning as irrelevant. ExpandED Options students live the connection between mastering new…

  3. Teaching Elementary School Social Studies Methods under edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a self-study that analyzes my experience as a teacher educator navigating a turbulent educational landscape with the advent of edTPA. The data consist of my journal entries, the syllabi, handouts, work submitted by my students, and course evaluations. Data were analyzed by using an inductive process to describe how the edTPA…

  4. Measuring the Fidelity of Re-ED Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadowcroft, Pamela; Cantrell, Mary Lynn; Cantrell, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention like Re-ED (Reeducation of Emotional Disturbed Children) requires a clear definition of the essential components of the model. This article describes an ongoing process to create a program assessment tool for Re-ED. Program fidelity requires being able to specify precisely what is meant by certain…

  5. ED leadership competency matrix: an administrative management tool.

    PubMed

    Propp, Douglas A; Glickman, Seth; Uehara, Dennis T

    2003-10-01

    A successful ED relies on its leaders to master and demonstrate core competencies to be effective in the many arenas in which they interact and are responsible. A unique matrix model for the assessment of an ED leadership's key administrative skill sets is presented. The model incorporates capabilities related to the individual's cognitive aptitude, experience, acquired technical skills, behavioral characteristics, as well as the ability to manage relationships effectively. Based on the personnel inventory using the matrix, focused evaluation, development, and recruitment of ED key leaders occurs. This dynamic tool has provided a unique perspective for the evaluation and enhancement of overall ED leadership performance. It is hoped that incorporation of such a model will similarly improve the accomplishments of EDs at other institutions.

  6. TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series Fact Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murbach, Marcus; Martinez, Andres; Guarneros Luna, Ali

    2014-01-01

    TechEdSat-3p is the second generation in the TechEdSat-X series. The TechEdSat Series uses the CubeSat standards established by the California Polytechnic State University Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo. With typical blocks being constructed from 1-unit (1U 10x10x10 cm) increments, the TechEdSat-3p has a 3U volume with a 30 cm length. The project uniquely pairs advanced university students with NASA researchers in a rapid design-to-flight experience lasting 1-2 semesters.The TechEdSat Nano-Satellite Series provides a rapid platform for testing technologies for future NASA Earth and planetary missions, as well as providing students with an early exposure to flight hardware development and management.

  7. Utilisation of inorganic salts in fungal crop disease management in the U.K.

    PubMed

    Deliopoulos, T; Kettlewell, P S; Hare, M C

    2009-01-01

    The overaLl aim of the study described in this communication was to utilise the findings of a global scientific and technical literature survey on the use of inorganic salts against crop fungal diseases in order to assess the potential of using these substances to reduce the reliance of UK growers on conventional fungicides. A summary of the main findings of the Literature survey is provided followed by information on the current commercial use of inorganic salt-based products in fungal disease management. Finally, the scope of potential use of inorganic salts on high disease risk crops in the UK is assessed and specific crop/pathogen combinations are prioritised for further research.

  8. The relationships between sulphate reduction and COD/VFA utilisation using grass cellulose as carbon and energy sources.

    PubMed

    Mulopo, Jean; Greben, Harma; Sigama, Julia; Radebe, Vivian; Mashego, Mlawule; Burke, Lisa

    2011-02-01

    The release of mine effluents can have a damaging impact on receiving water bodies. Therefore, treatment of mine waters before discharge is imperative. A novel biological SO²⁻₄ removal technology has been developed whereby the degradation/fermentation products of grass cellulose, volatile fatty acids (VFA), function as the electron donors and SO²⁻₄ as the electron acceptor. The aim of the study presented here was to elucidate the interactions between the cellulose degradation rate, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), VFA production and its/utilisation rate as well as the sulphate reduction rate. To this end, two stirred batch reactors were operated: a test and a control reactor. The results showed that high COD and VFA concentrations were achieved after cellulose degradation, which resulted in a rapid decrease in the SO²⁻₄ concentration in the test reactor. The VFA results indicated that propionic and butyric acids were preferentially utilised, producing acetate. In the control reactor, the VFA and the COD production increased initially at the same rate, followed later by a decrease at a similar rate. These results suggest that the degradation products formed were utilised by the methanogenic bacteria to produce methane rather than by the sulphate-reducing bacteria, since the control reactor contained no sulphate (Visser 1995). Furthermore, these results showed a clear relationship between the COD/VFA production and the SO²⁻₄reduction in the test reactor and between the COD and VFA pattern in the control reactor.

  9. Efficiency of energy utilisation and voluntary feed intake in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Tolkamp, B J

    2010-07-01

    Energy requirements of animals are most readily expressed in terms of net energy (NE), while the energy yield of feed is, at least initially, expressed in terms of metabolisable energy (ME). Energy evaluation systems 'translate' NE requirements into ME requirements (ME systems) or assign NE values to feeds (NE systems). Efficiency of ME utilisation is higher for maintenance than for production and the NE yield of a feed varies, therefore, with ME intake. In addition, energetic efficiency for maintenance and production is thought to be different for lactating and non-lactating animals and to be affected by diet quality. As a result, there are currently many national energy evaluation systems that are complex, differ in their approach and are, as a result, difficult to compare. As ruminants in most production systems are fed ad libitum, this is also the most appropriate intake level at which to estimate energetic efficiency. Analyses of older as well as more recent data suggest that ad libitum feeding (i) abolishes the effects of diet quality on energetic efficiency (almost) completely, (ii) abolishes the differences between lactating and non-lactating animals (almost) entirely and (iii) results in overall energetic efficiencies that are always close to 0.6. The paper argues that there is now sufficient information to develop an international energy evaluation system for ad libitum fed ruminants. Such a system should (i) unify ME and NE systems, (ii) avoid the systematic bias and large errors that can be associated with current systems (iii) be simpler than current systems and (iv) have as a starting point a constant efficiency of ME utilisation, with a value of around 0.6. The remarkably constant efficiency of ME utilisation in ad libitum fed ruminants could be the result of energetic efficiency as well as feed intake regulation being affected by the same variables or of a direct role of energetic efficiency in feed intake regulation. Models to predict intake on the

  10. Real-time tracking data drive process improvements, even while ED volumes continue to climb.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Christiana Hospital in Newark, DE, has been able to dramatically reduce length-of-stay in the ED by making use of data derived from a real-time location system (RTLS) that tracks the movements of patients, providers, and staff. Administrators say that while some efficiencies are gained from the system alone, most of the positive impact is derived from using the RTLS data to focus on specific processes and make refinements. Within one year of implementing the RTLS technology, LOS in the ED was reduced by 40 minutes for admitted patients and 18 to 20 minutes for the treated-and-released population. A work group focused on process improvements in the ED's fast track section reduced the average LOS from 2.5 hours to 60 minutes or less. Similarly, a work group focused on the ESI 3 population reduced the average treatment time for this population from 5 or 6 hours to 3.4 hours. Administrators say key steps toward a successful RTLS implementation are careful planning for how you want to use the technology, and alleviating staff concerns about why their movements are being tracked.

  11. EDS1 contributes to nonhost resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana against Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Manon; Degrave, Alexandre; Vedel, Régine; Bitton, Frédérique; Patrit, Oriane; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Barny, Marie-Anne; Fagard, Mathilde

    2012-03-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in rosaceous plants. In nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana, E. amylovora triggers necrotic symptoms associated with transient bacterial multiplication, suggesting either that A. thaliana lacks a susceptibility factor or that it actively restricts E. amylovora growth. Inhibiting plant protein synthesis at the time of infection led to an increase in necrosis and bacterial multiplication and reduced callose deposition, indicating that A. thaliana requires active protein synthesis to restrict E. amylovora growth. Analysis of the callose synthase-deficient pmr4-1 mutant indicated that lack of callose deposition alone did not lead to increased sensitivity to E. amylovora. Transcriptome analysis revealed that approximately 20% of the genes induced following E. amylovora infection are related to defense and signaling. Analysis of mutants affected in NDR1 and EDS1, two main components of the defense-gene activation observed, revealed that E. amylovora multiplied ten times more in the eds1-2 mutant than in the wild type but not in the ndr1-1 mutant. Analysis of mutants affected in three WRKY transcription factors showing EDS1-dependent activation identified WRKY46 and WRKY54 as positive regulators and WRKY70 as a negative regulator of defense against E. amylovora. Altogether, we show that EDS1 is a positive regulator of nonhost resistance against E. amylovora in A. thaliana and hypothesize that it controls the production of several effective defenses against E. amylovora through the action of WRKY46 and WRKY54, while WRKY70 acts as a negative regulator.

  12. Advancing Coupled Human-Earth System Models: The Integrated Ecosystem Demography Model (iED) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtt, G. C.; Chini, L. P.; Clarke, L.; Calvin, K. V.; Chambers, J. Q.; Dubayah, R.; Dolan, K.; Edmonds, J. A.; Fisk, J. P.; Flanagan, S.; Frolking, S.; Janetos, A. C.; LePage, Y.; Morton, D. C.; Patel, P.; Rourke, O.; Sahajpal, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Wise, M.; Ying, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies with integrated assessment models, models linking human and natural systems at a global scale, highlight the importance of terrestrial systems in climate stabilization efforts. Here we introduce a new modeling framework iED, designed to link advanced remote sensing data (active and passive.), height-structured terrestrial ecosystem dynamics (ED), gridded land-use change projections (GLM), and integrated assessment modeling (GCAM) into a single coupled modeling framework with unprecedented spatial resolution and process-level detail. Our research aims to reduce uncertainties associated with forest modeling within integrated assessments, and to quantify the impacts of climate change on forest growth, mortality, and productivity for integrated assessments of terrestrial carbon management. iED is being used to address key science questions including: (1) What are the opportunities for land-use strategies such as afforestation or woody bioenergy crop production to contribute to stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations? (2) How could potentially altered disturbance rates from tropical cyclones and Amazonian fires affect vegetation, carbon stocks and fluxes, and the development of climate change mitigation strategies? (3) What are the linked remote sensing/ecosystem modeling requirements for improving integrated assessments of climate mitigation strategies? With its strong connections to data and conceptual linkages to other models in development, iED is also designed to inform the next generation of remote sensing and integrated Earth system modeling efforts.

  13. ED cuts LWBS from 5% to 0.5%.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    The leaders at King's Daughters Medical Center in Ashland, KY, firmly believe that solving ED throughput problems must be the responsibility of the entire hospital. They must be on the right track. A recent initiative has slashed the rate of patients who left without being seen from 5% to 0.5%. When beds are available in the ED, presenting patients are moved there immediately and then triaged by the bed nurse. Throughput assessments are conducted hourly so that problems can be addressed immediately. When the ED is in danger of becoming overwhelmed, all department leaders are paged and direct their units to take appropriate action.

  14. Direct imaging of dehydrogenase activity within living cells using enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (ED-FRAP).

    PubMed Central

    Combs, C A; Balaban, R S

    2001-01-01

    Reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a key metabolite involved in cellular energy conversion and many redox reactions. We describe the use of confocal microscopy in conjunction with enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (ED-FRAP) of NADH as a topological assay of NADH generation capacity within living cardiac myocytes. Quantitative validation of this approach was performed using a dehydrogenase system, in vitro. In intact cells the NADH ED-FRAP was sensitive to temperature (Q(10) of 2.5) and to dehydrogenase activation by dichloroacetate or cAMP (twofold increase for each). In addition, NADH ED-FRAP was correlated with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD(+)) fluorescence. These data, coupled with the cellular patterns of NADH ED-FRAP changes with dehydrogenase stimulation, suggest that NADH ED-FRAP is localized to the mitochondria. These results suggest that ED-FRAP enables measurement of regional dynamics of mitochondrial NADH production in intact cells, thus providing information regarding region-specific intracellular redox reactions and energy metabolism. PMID:11259315

  15. State Pilots Sweeping Changes in Special Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The Illinois State Board of Education launched a special education pilot project using a concept called Response to Intervention (RtI) that some experts believe could lead to a sea change in the way special education is provided. RtI places greater emphasis on early intervention and a reduced emphasis on psychological testing and other traditional…

  16. Elephants or Dinosaurs? A Call to Action for Ed Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jerome T.

    2006-01-01

    To conclude this special section, guest editor Murphy examines why Ed Schools should redesign their leadership education programs, explores what it will take to foster change, and presents a model program to stimulate debate and action. (Contains 21 endnotes.)

  17. 1. Photocopy of photograph (from Stuart, I. L., ed. History ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (from Stuart, I. L., ed. History of Franklin County, Iowa. Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1914. Date unknown, sometime in period 1866-1890 GENERAL VIEW - Franklin County Courthouse II, Courthouse Square, Hampton, Franklin County, IA

  18. Redefining the EdD: Seeking a Separate Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Barbara Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript was to discuss the recommendations and guidelines of the Carnegie Group's 2007 effort to "Reclaim the EdD" as well as to outline the work completed at the University of Virginia related to their re-design of the Doctor of Education (EdD) degree. In order to address the re-envision and re-formulation of the…

  19. Phytase effects on the efficiency of utilisation and blood concentrations of phosphorus and calcium in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Hempel, R; Wendt, P

    2006-06-01

    was significantly reduced by phytase supplementation. 6. It was concluded that the efficacy of a microbial phytase varies even under similar experimental conditions. Differences in intrinsic phytase activity of maize/soybean meal-based diets may be responsible for this. The 6-phytase used has the potential to improve the utilisation of plant P in duck feeding. A plateau in response was reached above 1500 U/kg.

  20. The Igκ Gene Enhancers, E3′ and Ed, Are Essential for Triggering Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Xiang, Yougui; Garrard, William T.

    2010-01-01

    The mouse Igκ gene locus has three known transcriptional enhancers: an intronic enhancer (Ei), a 3′ enhancer (E3′), and a further downstream enhancer (Ed). Previous studies on B lymphocytes derived from mutant ES cells have shown that deletion of either Ei or E3′ significantly reduces Igκ gene rearrangement, whereas the combined deletion of both Ei and E3′ eliminates such recombination. Furthermore, deletion of either E3′ or Ed significantly reduces rearranged Igκ gene transcription. To determine whether the combined presence of both E3′ and Ed are essential for Igκ gene expression, we generated homozygous double knockout mice (DKO) with targeted deletions in both elements. Significantly, homozygous DKO mice were unable to generate κ+ B cells both in bone marrow and the periphery, and exhibited surface expression almost exclusively of Igλ chains, in spite of the fact that they possessed potentially functional rearranged Igκ genes. Compared with their single-enhancer-deleted counterparts, Igκ loci in homozygous DKO mice exhibited dramatically reduced germline and rearranged gene transcription, lower levels of gene rearrangement and histone H3 acetylation, and markedly increased DNA methylation. This contributed to a partial developmental block at the pre-B cell stage of development. We conclude that the two downstream enhancers are essential in Igκ gene expression and that Ei in homozygous DKO mice is incapable of triggering Igκ gene transcription. Furthermore, these results reveal unexpected compensatory roles for Ed in E3′ knockout mice in triggering germline transcription, and Vκ gene rearrangements to both Jκ and RS elements. PMID:21076060

  1. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  2. Biological carbon dioxide utilisation in food waste anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Y Bajón; Green, K; Schuler, K; Soares, A; Vale, P; Alibardi, L; Cartmell, E

    2015-12-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment of anaerobic digesters (AD) was previously identified as a potential on-site carbon revalorisation strategy. This study addresses the lack of studies investigating this concept in up-scaled units and the need to understand the mechanisms of exogenous CO2 utilisation. Two pilot-scale ADs treating food waste were monitored for 225 days, with the test unit being periodically injected with CO2 using a bubble column. The test AD maintained a CH4 production rate of 0.56 ± 0.13 m(3) CH4·(kg VS(fed) d)(-1) and a CH4 concentration in biogas of 68% even when dissolved CO2 levels were increased by a 3 fold over the control unit. An additional uptake of 0.55 kg of exogenous CO2 was achieved in the test AD during the trial period. A 2.5 fold increase in hydrogen (H2) concentration was observed and attributed to CO2 dissolution and to an alteration of the acidogenesis and acetogenesis pathways. A hypothesis for conversion of exogenous CO2 has been proposed, which requires validation by microbial community analysis.

  3. Rhinovirus infection and healthcare utilisation in prematurely born infants.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, Simon B; Alcazar-Paris, Mireia; Wilson, Theresa; Smith, Melvyn; Zuckerman, Mark; Broughton, Simon; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Peacock, Janet L; Johnston, Sebastian L; Greenough, Anne

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to determine whether rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in prematurely born infants increase health-related cost of care during infancy. 153 infants born at <36 weeks of gestation were prospectively followed to 1 year. Cost of care was calculated from the National Health Service reference costing scheme and healthcare utilisation determined by examining hospital/general practitioner records. 20 infants developed RV LRTIs (RV group), 17 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) LRTIs (RSV group), 12 both RV and RSV LRTIs (RV/RSV group) and 74 had no LRTI (no LRTI group). Compared with the no LRTI group, the RV/RSV LRTI group had the greatest increase in adjusted mean cost (difference GBP 5769), followed by the RV LRTI group (difference GBP 278) and, finally, the RSV LRTI group (difference GBP 172) (p=0.045). The RV group had more outpatient (p<0.05) and respiratory-related general practitioner (p<0.05) attendances, more wheezed at follow-up (p<0.001) than the no LRTI group and more had respiratory-related outpatient attendances than the RSV LRTI group (p<0.05). We conclude that RV LRTIs were associated with increased health-related cost of care during infancy; our results suggest that the RV group compared with the RSV group suffered greater chronic respiratory morbidity.

  4. Utilising multimedia for training merchant mariners as paramedics.

    PubMed

    Anogianakis, G; Maglavera, S

    2000-01-01

    MERMAID is a telemedicine project with global reach and a 24-hour, multilingual capability. It aspires to provide a model for the provision of health care services based on the electronic transmission of medical information, via ISDN based videoconferencing. This model is not limited to medical diagnostics but it encompasses all cases where the actual delivery of health care services involves a patient who is not located where the provider is. Its implementation requires the commissioning of an expensive telecommunications infrastructure and the exploration of a number of solutions. In fact, all categories of telemedical applications are considered while the full range of network choices is explored in terms of the cost/performance tradeoffs inherent to them and the developmental stage each of these options occupies in its life cycle. MERMAID utilises advanced land based line transmission technologies to aid the remote patient by making available the specialty care best suited to each particular case. Finally, the development of programme modules for training and education of the seafarers in the use of the MERMAID medical communications system is given top priority as such modules constitute the firmest basis for the promotion of proper practice of telemedicine at sea.

  5. Eye care services utilisation among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Waheed A; Ibraheem, Anifat B; Owonikoko, Musliudeen; Tijani, Aramide; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; AbdSalam, Soliu

    2016-07-01

    One hundred and sixty-five pregnant Nigerian women attending the antenatal clinic of LAUTECH teaching hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and April 2014 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were obtained. Respondents were also asked: if they had had their eye examined by an eye specialist during the index pregnancy, frequencies of visit to eye care centers and indications for their visitation. A history of previous eye examination by eye care specialist/visit to eye clinic was considered as eye care utilisation. Selection of eligible subjects who consented to participate in the study was done using simple random technique. Logistic regression model was used to control sociodemographic and obstetric factors in order to determine independent covariate factor influencing the use of eye care services. Among the population studied, only 46 (32%) had eye examination during the index pregnancy. Level of education and occupational status of the respondents were found to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). There is a need for a policy that will encourage regular eye care services usage during pregnancy.

  6. Ambienti Circumstellari ed Interstellari di Supernovae di vario Tipo ed Applicazioni Astrofisiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffi, Francesca R.

    Nella presente tesi vengono studiati gli ambienti circumstellari ed interstellari di supernovae (anche SNe; singolare SN) di vario tipo. In particolare si descrivono alcune applicazioni astrofisiche, relative a questi ambienti, che permettono di desumere informazioni sui sistemi stellari progenitori delle supernovae o di determinare le distanze a tali oggetti. L' emissione radio da supernovae, prodotta nell' ambiente circumstellare ad opera dell'interazione idrodinamica del gas di SN con l' ambiente circostante, puo' essere impiegata come mezzo di indagine del sistema di pre-supernova. In particolare si e' introdotta l'idea che tale emissione possa essere impiegata nel caso delle SNe di tipo Ia come test dei sistemi progenitori di tipo simbiotico. Il test e' stato effettuato sulla SN 1986G, per la quale avevamo ottenuto limiti superiori a lunghezze d'onda radio. Nel caso che un sistema simbiotico sia responsabile di una SN Ia, l'interazione tra l' ejecta e una shell circumstellare origina, in un'epoca molto prossima al massimo di luce, un'emissione radio rivelabile con strumenti tipo Very Large Array. Inoltre l'emissione radio fornisce informazioni circa gli stadi di pre-supernova nel caso di altri tipi di supernova. In questo lavoro di tesi vengono presentati i risultati ottenuti nel caso delle SNe di tipo II 1984E e 1986E. Queste due SNe non mostrano emissione radio: la prima, in prossimita del massimo ottico, stava interagendo con una shell circumstellare prodotta da un episodio di perdita di massa di breve durata in fase di pre-supernova; la seconda, invece e' la prima SN ``vecchia'' ad essere rivelata nell' ottico ma non nel radio (l' oggetto non ha ancora iniziato la fase di supernova remnant ed emette radiazione ottica prodotta ancora per interazione circumstellare). In ambiente circum-interstellare, gli echi di luce, prodotti dallo scattering della luce della supernova ad opera della polvere presente, possono essere utilizzati per determinare le distanze

  7. Variation in opioid prescribing patterns between ED providers.

    PubMed

    Smulowitz, Peter B; Cary, Chris; Boyle, Katherine L; Novack, Victor; Jagminas, Liudvikas

    2016-12-01

    Abuse of opioid prescription drugs has become an epidemic across the developed world. Despite the fact that emergency physicians overall account for a small proportion of total opioids prescribed, the number of prescriptions has risen dramatically in the past decade and, to some degree, contributes to the available supply of opioids in the community, some of which are diverted for non-medical use. Since successfully reducing opioid prescribing on the individual level first requires knowledge of current prescribing patterns, we sought to determine to what extent variation exists in opioid prescribing patterns at our institution. This was a single-institution observational study at a community hospital with an annual ED volume of 47,000 visits. We determined the number of prescriptions written by each provider, both total number and accounting for the number of patients seen. Our primary outcome measure was the level of variation at the physician level for number of prescriptions written per patient. We also identified the mean number of pills written per prescription. We analyzed data from November 13, 2014 through July 31, 2015 for 21 full-time providers. There were a total of 2211 prescriptions for opioids written over this time period for a total of 17,382 patients seen. On a per-patient basis, the rate of opioid prescriptions written per patient during this period was 127 per 1000 visits (95 % CI 122-132). There was a variation on the individual provider level, with rates ranging from 33 per to 332 per 1000 visits. There was also substantial variation by provider in the number of pills written per prescription with coefficient of variation (standard deviation divided by mean) averaged over different opioids ranging from 16 to 40 %. There was significant variation in opioid prescribing patterns at the individual physician level, even when accounting for the number of patients seen.

  8. Chick embryo proliferation studies using EdU labeling.

    PubMed

    Warren, Michelle; Puskarczyk, Karolina; Chapman, Susan C

    2009-04-01

    Cell proliferation studies are an important experimental tool. The most commonly used thymidine analogues, tritiated thymidine and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) label cells during S-phase. Both methods have significant drawbacks: low sensitivity in the case of tritiated thymidine and a denaturation step during BrdU detection that destroys most cellular epitopes, requiring careful optimization. The antibody against BrdU is also large and tissue penetration can be difficult. EdU (5'-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) is closely chemically related to BrdU, with detection achieved by a copper catalyzed reaction requiring a small fluorescently conjugated azide. Cell cultures, flow cytometry and high throughput studies using EdU-labeled cells is exceptionally fast and does not require denaturation or antibodies. We have developed a tissue-labeling technique in chick embryos using EdU. Following EdU chemistry to detect proliferating cells, the tissue can undergo immunolabeling. We demonstrate fluorescent EdU chemistry followed by Tuj1 antibody staining resulting in multiplex fluorescent tissues.

  9. Factors affecting Japanese retirees' healthcare service utilisation in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Ayako; Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Musa, Ghazali; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili; Nakayama, Takeo; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Objective While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia. Design We conducted 6 focus group discussions with Japanese retirees and interviewed 8 relevant medical services providers in-depth. Guided by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, we managed and analysed the data, using QSR NVivo 10 software and the directed content analysis method. Setting We interviewed participants at Japan Clubs and their offices. Participants 30 Japanese retirees who live in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, and 8 medical services providers. Results We identified health beliefs, medical symptoms and health insurance as the 3 most important themes, respectively, representing the 3 dimensions within the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model. Additionally, language barriers, voluntary health repatriation to Japan and psychological support were unique themes that influence healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees. Conclusions The healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be partially explained by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, together with some factors that were unique findings to this study. Healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be improved by alleviating negative health beliefs through awareness programmes for Japanese retirees about the healthcare systems and cultural aspects of medical care in Malaysia. PMID:27006344

  10. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A.; Burgert, Clara R.; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew SEK; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. Methods We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Results Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19–0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61–0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45–0.75). Conclusions Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all

  11. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  12. Utilisation of malaria preventive measures during pregnancy and birth outcomes in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in sub Saharan Africa and the extent of utilisation of malaria preventive measures may impact on the burden of malaria in pregnancy. This study sought to determine the association between malaria preventive measures utilized during pregnancy and the birth outcomes of birth weight and preterm delivery. Methods This cross sectional survey involved 800 mothers who delivered at the University College Hospital, and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan. Data obtained included obstetric information, gestational age, birth weight and self reported use of malaria prevention strategies in index pregnancy. Results Most (95.6%) mothers used one or more malaria control measures. The most commonly used vector control measures were window net (84.0%), insecticide spray (71.5%) and insecticide treated bed nets (20.1%), while chemoprophylactic agents were pyrimethamine (23.5%), Intermittent Preventive Treatments with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTsp) (18.5%) and intermittent chloroquine (9.5%) and 21.7% used herbal medications. The mean ± SD birthweight and gestational age of the babies were 3.02 kg ± 0.56 and 37.9 weeks ± 2.5 respectively. Preterm delivery rate was 19.4% and 9% had low birth weight. Comparing babies whose mothers had IPTsp with those who did not, mean birth weight was 3.13 kg ± 0.52 versus 3.0 kg ± 0.56 (p = 0.016) and mean gestational age was 38.5 weeks ± 2.1 versus 37.8 weeks ± 2.5 (p = 0.002). The non-use of IPTsp was associated with increased risk of having low birth weight babies (AOR: 2.27, 95% CI: 0.98; 5.28) and preterm birth (AOR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.44). The non use of herbal preparations (AOR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.85) was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth. The mean ± SD birth weight and gestational ages of babies born to mothers who slept under ITNs were not significantly different from those who did not (p = 0.07 and 0.09 respectively). Conclusions There is a need for

  13. Effects of feeding raw or reconstituted high tannin red sorghum on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Elangovan, A V; Mandal, A B; Tyagi, P K; Bhanja, S K; Dash, B B

    2007-04-01

    1. A feeding trial was conducted on 360 1-d-old chicks from 0 to 6 weeks of age to assess the effect of processed high tannin red sorghum in the diet of broiler chickens on nutrient utilisation and certain welfare parameters. 2. Each of 9 dietary treatments was allotted to 4 groups (replicates) of chicks in a completely randomised design. The treatments were a maize-soy based standard broiler diet (control, RS(0)) and eight test diets formulated by incorporating either raw red sorghum (RS(25), RS(50), RS(75), RS(100)) or reconstituted red sorghum (RS(25)(R), RS(50)(R), RS(75)(R), RS(100)(R)) replacing 25, 50, 75 or 100% of maize from the control diet. 3. The tannin content was reduced from 23 to 16 g/kg in reconstituted red sorghum. 4. Utilisations of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus retention were similar in all the dietary groups. 5. The cell-mediated immune response measured as footpad index (FPI) value of birds given raw red sorghum was significantly higher than in control and reconstituted red sorghum groups. Similarly, comparatively better humoral response measured as HA titre value was observed in raw red sorghum based groups than in reconstituted ones. 6. Plasma albumin, globulin, protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, SGOT, SGPT and uric acid levels did not differ significantly due to dietary treatments. 7. Mild histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney tissues of birds given raw red sorghum. 8. From the present study, it is concluded that (1) the reconstitution of high tannin red sorghum resulted in about 30% reduction in its tannin concentration; (2) the feeding of reconstituted sorghum based diets to broiler chickens did not exert any appreciable influence on nutrient utilisation, blood biochemicals and enzymes and gross pathological changes; and (3) the birds fed on raw red sorghum exhibited higher immuno-responsiveness in comparison to their reconstituted counterparts.

  14. Distance and utilisation of out-of-hours services in a Norwegian urban/rural district: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long travel distances limit the utilisation of health services. We wanted to examine the relationship between the utilisation of a Norwegian out-of-hours service and the distance from the municipality population centroid to the associated casualty clinic. Methods All first contacts from ten municipalities in Arendal out-of-hours district were registered from 2007 through 2011. The main outcomes were contact and consultation rates for each municipality for each year. The associations between main outcomes and distance from the population centroid of the participating municipalities to the casualty clinic and were examined by linear regression. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were included in multivariate linear regression. Secondary endpoints include association between distance and rates of different first actions taken and priority grades assessed by triage nurses. Age and gender specific subgroup analyses were performed. Results 141 342 contacts were included in the analyses. Increasing distance was associated with marked lower rates of all contact types except telephone consultations by doctor. Moving 43 kilometres away from the casualty clinic led to a 50 per cent drop in the rate of face-to-face consultations with a doctor. Availability of primary care doctors and education level contributed to a limited extent to the variance in consultation rate. The rates of all priority grades decreased significantly with increasing distance. The rate of acute events was reduced by 22 per cent when moving 50 kilometres away. The proportion of patients above 66 years increased with increasing distance, while the proportion of 13- to 19 year olds decreased. The proportion of female patients decreased with increasing distance. Conclusions The results confirm that increasing distance is associated with lower utilisation of out-of-hours services, even for the most acute cases. Extremely long distances might compromise patient safety. This must be taken into

  15. Effect of partial replacement of oats with sugar beet pulp and maize oil on nutrient utilisation in horses.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, J E; Karlsson, C P

    2001-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to assess the influence of partial replacement of oats with dried unmolassed sugar beet pulp (SBP) and/or maize oil on nutrient utilisation in horses fed a traditional hay and concentrate diet. The total tract digestibility of nutrients, urinary excretion and plasma parameters were studied in a 4 x 4 Latin-square design experiment with purebred Arabian geldings. Horses fed the SBP diets responded with a reduced (P<0.05) apparent digestibility of crude protein and feeding of maize oil resulted in an increased (P<0.05) apparent digestibility of crude fat. The apparent energy digestibility was unaffected by the replacement of oats with SBP, but increased (P<0.05) when maize oil replaced part of the oats. The urinary excretion of nitrogen increased (P<0.05) when maize oil replaced oats and the excretion of energy was higher (P<0.05) on the diets where oats were replaced by maize oil and SBP. There was a significant (P<0.05) effect across treatments of postprandial blood sampling time on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Also, plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin tended to be higher on the oats than on the SBP diets. In conclusion, the limited effects on the digestibility of nutrients and energy suggest that it should be possible to partially replace oats with maize oil and/or SBP in diets for horses without any impairing effects on the overall nutrient utilisation. However, the dietary-induced changes in the urinary excretion of energy and on plasma glucose and insulin levels, indicate a possible influence of dietary carbohydrate composition on nutrient utilisation at the organ level, which requires further study.

  16. Microbiologic Methods Utilized in the MAL-ED Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Eric; Gratz, Jean; Kosek, Margaret; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Qureshi, Shahida; Kang, Gagandeep; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Barrett, Leah; Lima, Aldo; Havt, Alexandre; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Taniuchi, Mami; Stroup, Suzanne; McGrath, Monica; Lang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    A central hypothesis of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is that enteropathogens contribute to growth faltering. To examine this question, the MAL-ED network of investigators set out to achieve 3 goals: (1) develop harmonized protocols to test for a diverse range of enteropathogens, (2) provide quality-assured and comparable results from 8 global sites, and (3) achieve maximum laboratory throughput and minimum cost. This paper describes the rationale for the microbiologic assays chosen and methodologies used to accomplish the 3 goals. PMID:25305291

  17. New psych unit eases patient burden in ED.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    Creating a special unit for psychiatric patients frees up beds in your ED, ensures better care for that patient population, and improves the atmosphere in the main department for the rest of your patients. Consider these suggestions: The creation of a psych unit can be extremely costly. Be prepared to demonstrate projected savings when pitching the idea to administration. Make sure an ED physician has overall responsibility for each patient at all times. Keep a regular group of nurses in rotation. This setup will help ensure smooth handoffs.

  18. Microbiologic methods utilized in the MAL-ED cohort study.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Eric; Gratz, Jean; Kosek, Margaret; Zaidi, Anita K M; Qureshi, Shahida; Kang, Gagandeep; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Barrett, Leah; Lima, Aldo; Havt, Alexandre; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Taniuchi, Mami; Stroup, Suzanne; McGrath, Monica; Lang, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    A central hypothesis of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is that enteropathogens contribute to growth faltering. To examine this question, the MAL-ED network of investigators set out to achieve 3 goals: (1) develop harmonized protocols to test for a diverse range of enteropathogens, (2) provide quality-assured and comparable results from 8 global sites, and (3) achieve maximum laboratory throughput and minimum cost. This paper describes the rationale for the microbiologic assays chosen and methodologies used to accomplish the 3 goals.

  19. Automated SEM-EDS GSR Analysis for Turkish Ammunitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H. Bulent

    2007-04-01

    In this work, Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize 7.65 and 9mm cartridges Turkish ammunition. All samples were analyzed in a SEM Jeol JSM-5600LV equipped BSE detector and a Link ISIS 300 (EDS). A working distance of 20mm, an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and gunshot residue software was used in all analysis. Automated search resulted in a high number of particles analyzed containing gunshot residues (GSR) unique elements (PbBaSb). The obtained data about the definition of characteristic GSR particles was concordant with other studies on this topic.

  20. Automated SEM-EDS GSR Analysis for Turkish Ammunitions

    SciTech Connect

    Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H. Bulent

    2007-04-23

    In this work, Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was used to characterize 7.65 and 9mm cartridges Turkish ammunition. All samples were analyzed in a SEM Jeol JSM-5600LV equipped BSE detector and a Link ISIS 300 (EDS). A working distance of 20mm, an accelerating voltage of 20 keV and gunshot residue software was used in all analysis. Automated search resulted in a high number of particles analyzed containing gunshot residues (GSR) unique elements (PbBaSb). The obtained data about the definition of characteristic GSR particles was concordant with other studies on this topic.

  1. System-wide flow initiative slashes patient wait times in the ED, boosts volume by 25%.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    Emergency department administrators at Cambridge Health Alliance, a three-hospital health care organization in Cambridge, MA, implemented a system-wide flow initiative that has reduced the average length-of-stay for rapid assessment patients from three hours to just over an hour. Under the approach, patients are immediately placed in a room, and providers and registration staff come to the patients rather than the traditional approach of having patients constantly move from place to place with wait times in between each interval of care. The approach relies on "patient partners," non-clinical personnel who are trained in customer service, to greet and quick-register patients who present to the ED for care. Administrators say 97% of patients who present to the ED are in a room within five minutes, and over 90% of them are seen by a provider within 14 minutes. The leave-without-being-seen (LWBS) rate has been slashed from 4.5% to 0.6%. System-wide ED volume, which was dropping before the new approach was implemented, has gone from 77,000 patients per year to nearly 100,000 patients per year.

  2. Advances in EBSD and EBSD/EDS integration for the characterization of mineralogical samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palasse, L.; Goran, D.; Schwager, T.

    2013-12-01

    Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) is a well-known powerful technique for petrofabric studies using Scanning Electron Microscope. By assessing the quantitative microstructural information, i.e. crystallographic orientation data, it allows a large variety of applications: understanding the deformation mechanisms, seismic properties, metamorphic processes; and more recently, performing phase identification and discrimination when combined with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). However, it is known that for multiphase mineralogical samples, the information delivered either by EBSD or by EDS alone is not enough to successfully distinguish the present phases. Typical examples for EBSD related indexing issues are phases creating similar patterns; and for EDS technique alone, phases with similar chemical composition like calcite and aragonite, quartz and cristobalite. Recent software and hardware developments have significantly improved the data quality as well as the efficiency/productivity. This presentation aims to reveal the latest development in data processing that has transformed the combination of the two complementary techniques into a powerful tool for characterizing multiphase materials. Through geosciences application examples, we will present the advantages brought by this new approach which uses the quantified EDS results and EBSP to identify the correct phase, reducing the need of data cleaning, and without spending extra time at the SEM. We will also demonstrate how powerful EBSD indexing algorithm can overcome the limitation from sample preparation, with some examples of high hit rate achieved on polyphase mineralogical specimen and even on shock-metamorphosed minerals. Last but not least, recent developments also enable the investigation of nanostructured materials in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD). Through some mineralogical applications, we will demonstrate the high spatial resolution

  3. 34 CFR 84.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ED Awarding Officials § 84.400 What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official? As a(n) ED awarding official, you...

  4. 34 CFR 84.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ED Awarding Officials § 84.400 What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official? As a(n) ED awarding official, you...

  5. 34 CFR 84.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ED Awarding Officials § 84.400 What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official? As a(n) ED awarding official, you...

  6. 34 CFR 84.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ED Awarding Officials § 84.400 What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official? As a(n) ED awarding official, you...

  7. 34 CFR 84.400 - What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Responsibilities of ED Awarding Officials § 84.400 What are my responsibilities as a(n) ED awarding official? As a(n) ED awarding official, you...

  8. Authentic Field-Based Learning Experiences for EdD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershberger, Jane Boag

    2009-01-01

    This EPP examines the problem of EdD coursework not having sufficient connection to the work that EdD students will eventually assume as leaders of school districts or other educational systems. It reviews literature critical of EdD programs and websites of educational administration professional organizations with recommended curriculum for EdD…

  9. Violence prevention in the ED: linkage of the ED to a social service agency.

    PubMed

    Zun, Leslie S; Downey, La Vonne; Rosen, Jodi

    2003-10-01

    was a strong positive correlation of using services and case management (Pearson coefficient = 0.728, significance =.00). The referral of young victims of violence from the ED to psychosocial services could be successful using a case management model and an alliance between a healthcare system and a social service agency.

  10. Effect of dietary calcium level and source on mineral utilisation by piglets fed diets containing exogenous phytase.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, P; Gutzwiller, A

    2016-11-21

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals, closely linked in digestive processes and metabolism. With widespread use of low P diets containing exogenous phytase, the optimal dietary Ca level was verified. The 40-day study evaluated the effects of Ca level (4, 7 and 10 g/kg diet) and Ca source (Ca from CaCO3 and from Lithothamnium calcareum) on mineral utilisation in 72 piglets (7.9 ± 1.0 kg BW) fed an exogenous phytase containing diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg. Measured parameters were growth performance, stomach mineral solubility, bone breaking strength and urinary, serum and bone mineral concentration. The apparent total tract digestibility of minerals was also assessed in the two diets with 7 g Ca/kg, using 12 additional pigs. Regardless of Ca source, increasing dietary Ca impaired feed conversion ratio, increased urinary pH, increased serum and urinary Ca, decreased serum and urinary P, decreased serum Mg and increased urinary Mg, increased serum AP activity, decreased bone Mg increased bone Zn. Bone breaking strength was improved with 7 compared to 4 g Ca/kg. Compared to CaCO3 , Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum increased serum Mg and with, 10 g Ca/kg, it limited body weight gain. The dose response of Ca in a diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg and including exogenous phytase indicated that: (i) a low dietary Ca was beneficial for piglet growth, but was limiting the metabolic use of P; (ii) a high dietary Ca level impaired P utilisation; (iii) the optimal P utilisation and bone breaking strength was obtained with a dietary Ca-to-digestible P ratio of 2.1 to 2.4:1; (iv). Increasing dietary Ca reduced Mg utilisation, but not Zn status, when fed at adequate level. Finally, Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum had similar effects on Ca and P metabolism as CaCO3 , but impaired growth when fed at the highest inclusion level.

  11. Tolerance of pentose utilising yeast to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol fermentations follow traditional beverage fermentations where the yeast is exposed to adverse conditions such as oxidative stress. Lignocellulosic bioethanol fermentations involve the conversion of pentose and hexose sugars into ethanol. Environmental stress conditions such as osmotic stress and ethanol stress may affect the fermentation performance; however, oxidative stress as a consequence of metabolic output can also occur. However, the effect of oxidative stress on yeast with pentose utilising capabilities has yet to be investigated. Results Assaying for the effect of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on Candida, Pichia and Scheffersomyces spp. has demonstrated that these yeast tolerate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in a manner consistent with that demonstrated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia guillermondii appears to be more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress when compared to Candida shehatae, Candida succiphila or Scheffersomyces stipitis. Conclusions Sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress increased in the presence of minimal media; however, addition of amino acids and nucleobases was observed to increase tolerance. In particular adenine increased tolerance and methionine reduced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24636079

  12. The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hanney, Stephen R; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A; Buxton, Martin J; Kogan, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies. PMID:12646071

  13. Utilisation of preharvest dropped apple peels as a flour substitute for a lower glycaemic index and higher fibre cake.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yujin; Bae, In Young; Lee, Suyong; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2014-02-01

    Fibre-enriched materials (FEMs) obtained from preharvest dropped apple peels were utilised as a source of dietary fibre in baked cakes and their effects on the textural/nutritional qualities and starch digestibility (glucose release behaviour, starch digestion fraction, predicted glycaemic index) of the cakes were evaluated. When FEMs were incorporated into the cake formulation (3 g and 6 g of dietary fibre per serving (100 g)), the volume of the cakes seemed to be reduced and their texture become harder. However, 3 g of FEMs did not degrade the cake qualities. The use of FEMs in cakes significantly reduced the levels of rapidly digestible starch and slowly digestible starch, while the levels of resistant starch increased. Additionally, the cake samples prepared with FEMs exhibited a lower predicted glycaemic index. This study may give rise to multi-functional bakery products with acceptable quality and low glycaemic index.

  14. HAZ-ED Classroom Activities for Understanding Hazardous Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Superfund Program investigates and cleans up hazardous waste sites throughout the United States. Part of this program is devoted to informing the public and involving people in the process of cleaning up hazardous waste sites from beginning to end. The Haz-Ed program was developed to assist the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)…

  15. FETC, TCEA Commemorate 25 Years of Serving Ed Tech Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    There's only one way to prepare for all of the exciting things that the ed tech market has in store for 2005-- by attending a conference. That's why T.H.E. Journal hopes readers will join them at this year's FETC (Booth 1505) and TCEA (Booth 1934) conferences to help celebrate their 25th anniversaries. Overviews are provided for both conferences…

  16. The Theater of Confrontation: Ed Bullins, Up Against the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Don

    1974-01-01

    Discusses ed Bullins' role in bringing together in the summer of 1968 a representative collection of works from the Black Arts Movement; the controversy surrounding his 1971 Lincoln Center production of his play, "The Duplex"; and his play, "House Party," a collage of voices and images from Blacktown mounted at The American…

  17. Lifeworld and Textualism: Reassembling the Researcher/ed and "Others"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Phillip G.

    2005-01-01

    This response to McKenzie's "post-post" concerns about environmental education research draws upon empirical, conceptual, anecdotal, metaphorical, imaged and poetic means to help the researcher "reassemble" the researcher/ed by attending to her/his relational body and embodiment of various, often hegemonic, socially constructed environmental…

  18. Skylab-4 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Ed Gibson at Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This Skylab-4 mission onboard photograph shows Astronaut Ed Gibson at the complex control and display console for the Apollo Telescope Mount solar telescopes located in the Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter. Astronauts watched the Sun, and photographed and recorded the solar activities, such as the birth of a solar flare.

  19. Perceived Influence of Cooperating Teachers on edTPA Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The Education Teaching Performance Assessment (edTPA) is a performance assessment of teacher effectiveness that is increasingly used to make decisions about licensure for teacher candidates, including candidates seeking certification in world languages. Because of the high-stakes nature of this assessment, it is important to isolate and better…

  20. Candidate Success and edTPA: Looking at the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Lesley A.; Kelly, Mary K.; Baldwin, Joni L.; Arnold, Jackie M.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive study looks at the correlations between Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) data and numerous program data points, including GPA, major GPA, and benchmark assignment scores, gathered in an Early Childhood Education (ECE) program. Previous studies have looked to correlate grade point average (GPA) with pre-service teacher…

  1. Three Ways edTPA Prepared Me for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    edTPA, a capstone assessment designed to assess whether new teachers are ready for the job by evaluating their teaching and their analysis of their teaching, helped prepare the author for the classroom in three ways. First, he became accountable to his students. Second, he learned to analyze his teaching. Third, he discovered how to relate…

  2. EdMOO: One Approach to a Multimedia Collaborative Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holkner, Bernard

    The nature of the multiuser object oriented (MOO) environment lends itself to flexible and rich interactive collaboration space providing interactive discussion, mail, mailing list, and news features to its virtual denizens. EdMOO (HREF1) was created in mid-1995 as an environment for teachers to experience the text based virtual reality…

  3. Creating a Minnesota Statewide SNAP-Ed Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Abby; Barno, Trina Adler; Sherman, Shelley; Lovett, Kathleen; Hurtado, G. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an essential tool for understanding program effectiveness. This article describes the pilot test of a statewide evaluation tool for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed). A computer algorithm helped Community Nutrition Educators (CNEs) build surveys specific to their varied educational settings…

  4. Inside the Sex Ed Studio: An Interview with Peggy Brick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    "Inside the Sex Ed Studio" profiles leaders in the field of sexuality education. Peggy Brick, former director of Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey's Center for Family Life Education (CFLE) and author of numerous sexuality education resources used worldwide, is the subject of this interview. Ms. Brick was interviewed by…

  5. Embracing the Common Cause Advocating for Ed Tech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This is a common response from educators confronted with the notion of advocating for educational technology funding. But, in a time when U.S. funding for Ed Tech is in danger of being cut from the budget, ISTE believes that all of its members, and in fact, all U.S. educators, must become advocates for our common cause. "Effective advocacy from…

  6. SSF1deg-Month Terra Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-08

    ... Search and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search Guide ... Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Month_Ed4_R6V1 Readme Files:  ...

  7. SSF1deg-Day Terra Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-08

    ... Search and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search Guide ... Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Day_Ed4_R5V1 Readme Files:  ...

  8. SSF1deg-Month Aqua Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-08

    ... Search and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search Guide ... Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Month_Ed4_R6V1 Readme Files:  ...

  9. SSF1deg-Day Aqua Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-08

    ... Search and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search Guide ... Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Day_Ed4_R6V1 Readme Files:  ...

  10. 5 Ways That edX Could Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Since MIT and Harvard started edX, their joint experiment with free online courses, the venture has attracted enormous attention for opening the ivory tower to the world. But in the process, the world will become part of an expensive and ambitious experiment testing some of the most interesting--and difficult--questions in digital education. Can…

  11. Weck Ed. Weck Educational Development Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer; And Others

    This document includes a final performance report and evaluation report from the Weck Ed program, through which job-linked adult basic education and General Educational Development (GED) test preparation courses that were jointly developed by the company Pilling Weck and Durham Technical Community College were offered to Pilling Weck employees on…

  12. Engaging the public through writing an op-ed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labosier, Chris; Zhu, Laiyin; Quiring, Steven

    2012-10-01

    In May, prior to the start of the 2012 hurricane season, AGU asked us to write an op-ed for the Houston Chronicle on the importance of funding hurricane research. We were excited to be asked and pleased that AGU facilitated the process by providing us with some guidance on writing the op-ed. Given the impact that Hurricane Ike had in Texas just a few years ago, we felt it was important to remind the citizens of the greater Houston metropolitan area of the societal benefits of funding hurricane research. Thanks to the assistance of AGU staff, writing the article required only a few hours of time. Our op-ed was published in the print edition of the Houston Chronicle on 1 June 2012, the official start of the hurricane season (http://www.chron.com/default/article/Tight-budgets-posing-threat-to-Texas-hurricane-3600363.php). It was picked up by the media relations office in the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M University and featured on the college's Web site in the dean's biweekly briefing and on its Facebook page. As a result, the op-ed reached a large and diverse audience.

  13. Preparing Ed.D. Students to Conduct Group Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Jensen, Jane McEldowney

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present an overview of a recently launched cohort-based Ed.D. program that prepares participants to conduct group dissertations. The program, a hybrid model of online learning activities and monthly face-to-face class sessions, is delivered through a partnership between a university's college of education and the administrative…

  14. Evaluation and development of an ED management model: an effort to optimize patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Kelly S; Pemberton, Meg

    2013-09-01

    In 2008, the emergency department at Mary Washington Hospital was in the midst of a crisis marked by increasing volumes, increasing numbers of left without being seen (LWBS) patients, falling patient satisfaction numbers and a staff dissatisfied with ED leadership. The existing ED model of charge nurses, a nurse manager, and an administrative director was not working. The single nurse manager could not effectively manage the over 200 staff members he/she was assigned. Based upon the findings from the employee satisfaction survey the inability of the nurse managers to properly manage such large numbers of employees was at the core of the issue. Through benchmarking with a similar healthcare system, an evidence based leadership model was identified, developed, and implemented. The model included the addition of six patient care managers with 24-hour coverage in the department, led to a reduced number of direct reports per manager, and an increased connection with employees. The goal was to engage employees in the effort to provide patient centered, quality care. Residual benefits of our change effort improved the patient satisfaction scores as evidenced by meeting organizational goals within 12 months; goal was exceeded in the following year. Additionally, the walk out rate was reduced 75% over 18 months. The correlation between satisfied employees, patient satisfaction, and reduced walk-outs cannot be ignored. Engaged employees positively impact service and quality.

  15. Ethynyldeoxyuridine (EdU) suppresses in vitro population expansion and in vivo tumor progression of human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ross, Heather H; Rahman, Maryam; Levkoff, Lindsay H; Millette, Sebastien; Martin-Carreras, Teresa; Dunbar, Erin M; Reynolds, Brent A; Laywell, Eric D

    2011-12-01

    Thymidine analogs (TAs) are synthetic nucleosides that incorporate into newly synthesized DNA. Halogenated pyrimidines (HPs), such as bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), are a class of TAs that can be detected with antibodies and are commonly used for birthdating individual cells and for assessing the proliferative index of cell populations. It is well established that HPs can act as radiosensitizers when incorporated into DNA chains, but they are generally believed not to impair normal cell function in the absence of secondary stressors. However, we and others have shown that HP incorporation leads to a sustained suppression of cell cycle progression in mammalian cells, resulting in cellular senescence in somatic cells. In addition, we have shown that HP incorporation results in delayed tumor progression in a syngeneic rat model of glioma. Here we examine ethynyldeoxyuridine (EdU), a newly developed and alkylated TA, for its anti-cancer activity, both in vitro and in vivo. We show that EdU, like HPs, leads to a severe reduction in the proliferation rate of normal and transformed cells in vitro. Unlike HPs, however, EdU incorporation also causes DNA damage resulting in the death of a substantial subset of treated cells. When administered over an extended time as a monotherapy to mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts of human glioblastoma multiforme tumors, EdU significantly reduces tumor volume and increases survival without apparent significant toxicity. These results, combined with the fact that EdU readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, support the continued investigation of EdU as a potential therapy for malignant brain tumors.

  16. Nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of resistant starch varieties and conventional fibres in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Liu, Qiang; Wood, Peter; Fan, Ming Z

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the influence of different resistant starch (RS) varieties and conventional fibres on the efficiency of nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation in pigs. Thirty-six pigs (30 kg) were fed poultry meal-based diets supplemented with 10 % granular resistant corn starch (GCS), granular resistant potato starch (GPS), retrograded resistant corn starch (RCS), guar gum (GG) or cellulose for 36 d according to a completely randomised block design. Distal ileal and total tract recoveries were similar (P>0.05) among the RS varieties. Distal ileal starch recovery was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs consuming the RS diets (27-42 %) as compared with the control group (0.64 %). Consumption of GCS reduced (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility and whole-body retention of crude protein in comparison with the control group. Consumption of GPS reduced (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility and whole-body retention of Ca and P compared with the control group. However, consumption of RCS increased (P < 0.05) total tract Ca digestibility compared with the control group. Caecal butyrate concentration was increased (P < 0.05) following consumption of RCS and GG in comparison with the control group. Consumption of all the RS varieties reduced (P < 0.05) caecal indole concentrations compared with the control. Caecal butyrate concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0.05; r 0.63-0.83) with thermal properties among the RS varieties. We conclude that nutrient utilisation and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of different RS varieties and types of fibres. Thermal properties associated with different RS varieties may be useful markers for developing RS varieties with specific functionality.

  17. The experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people from culturally and linguistically diverse groups are underrepresented in residential aged care but overrepresented in community aged care in Australia. However, little is known about culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia because previous studies mainly focused on the majority cultural group. Experiences of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups who are eligible to utilise dementia services in Australia are needed in order to optimize the utilisation of dementia services for these caregivers. Methods The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of family caregivers from Chinese, Greek, Italian and Vietnamese groups in utilising dementia services. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret the experiences of the participants. Focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data collection was conducted over a six month period in 2011. In total, 46 family caregivers who were caring for 39 persons with dementia participated. Results Four themes were revealed: (1) negotiating services for the person with dementia; (2) the impact of acculturation on service utilisation; (3) the characteristics of satisfactory services; and (4) negative experiences in utilising services. The present study revealed that the participation of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups in planning and managing dementia services ranged markedly from limited participation to full participation. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups need to be fully prepared so they can participate in the utilisation of dementia services available to them in Australia. PMID:24148155

  18. Evaluation de l'intergiciel de communication DDS pour son utilisation dans le domaine avionique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque-Landry, Kevin

    Les aeronefs modernes doivent combler de plus en plus de fonctionnalites afin de satisfaire les besoins de la clientele. De ce fait, les besoins en communications des systemes avioniques sont grandissants. De plus, la portabilite et la reutilisabilite des applications sont des defis d'actualite dans le domaine avionique. De ce fait, ce projet de recherche vise a faire une evaluation de la technologie d'intergiciel de service de distribution de donnees (DDS) pour son utilisation dans le domaine avionique. Cette technologie permettrait de reduire la complexite des communications et faciliter la portabilite et reutilisabilite des applications grâce a son interface standardisee. Dans ce projet de recherche, la norme DDS est tout d'abord etudiee pour cibler les fonctionnalites qui sont utiles au domaine avionique. Les differentes polices de qualite de services sont ainsi etudiees et denotent la flexibilite de la technologie DDS. Un intergiciel DDS est egalement evalue dans un environnement de laboratoire afin de mesurer l'impact de l'utilisation de cette technologie sur les performances de latence ainsi que sur l'utilisation de la bande passante. Les resultats montrent une faible augmentation de la latence moyenne lorsque l'intergiciel DDS est utilise. L'intergiciel DDS est egalement utilise dans une etude de cas avec un AFCS (automatic flight control system) afin de quantifier les effets de son utilisation sur une application avionique. Les resultats montrent que l'utilisation de l'intergiciel DDS n'empeche pas l'AFCS d'atteindre la stabilite, mais qu'elle ralentit l'atteinte de cette derniere. Finalement, une etude de cas est effectuee afin de valider que la technologie DDS peut etre utilisee pour construire des systemes redondants. Les resultats montrent que l'intergiciel DDS permet de faire de la redondance de reserve sans avoir un impact visible sur les performances du systeme redondant.

  19. Patient's jewelry stolen as she rests in the ED.

    PubMed

    2007-12-01

    In a hospital ED in Rhode Island, a 96-year-old patient was robbed of her jewelry while she rested in her room. The thief was dressed in scrubs. Identification badges are only one way of keeping unwanted intruders out and your patients' belongings safe. Other suggestions: Have different groups of staff members, i.e., ED doctors and nurses, wear color-coded scrubs that distinguish them from other hospital personnel. If your staff see a strangely dressed person or someone who looks lost or like they don't fit in, they should question them about their identity. Create protocols for the removal and safekeeping of patients' jewelry that cover several different scenarios.

  20. ED Utilization Trends in Sports-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Wendy J.; Gittelman, Mike

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency department (ED) visits for sports-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have risen. This study evaluated how the number and severity of admissions have changed as ED visits for sports-related TBIs have increased. METHODS: A retrospective study of children aged 0 to 19 years at a level 1 trauma center was performed. Patients from 2002 to 2011 with a primary or secondary diagnosis of TBI were identified from the hospital’s inpatient and outpatient trauma registries. Frequencies were used to characterize the population, χ2 analysis was performed to determine differences between groups, and regression analysis looked at relationship between year and injury severity score or length of stay. RESULTS: Sport was responsible for injury in 3878 (15.4%) cases during the study period; 3506 (90.4%) were discharged from the hospital, and 372 (9.6%) were admitted. Seventy-three percent were male patients and 78% Caucasian; mean age was 13 ± 3.5 years. ED visits for sports-related TBIs increased 92% over the study period, yet there was no significant change (χ2 = 9.8, df = 9, P = .37) in the percentage of children admitted. Mean injury severity score for those admitted decreased from 7.8 to 4.8 (β = –0.46; P = .006); length of stay trended downward (β = –0.05; P = .05). CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of children being admitted from the ED with sports-related TBI has not changed over the past 10 years. The severity of admitted sports-related TBI is decreasing. Additional research is needed to correlate these trends with other TBI mechanisms. PMID:24081999

  1. Lean-driven solutions slash ED wait times, LOS.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    The ED at The Aroostook Medical Center (TAMC) in Presque Isle, ME, is a level II trauma center. It is the largest in the region, with only 89 beds. It has undergone a transformation in recent months, with average wait times to see a provider going from four to five hours down to less than five minutes, and the left-without-being-seen (LWBS) rate has been slashed from a high of 7% down to less than 1%. The hospital says the improvements are the result of lean-driven, staff-designed solutions, coupled with administrative engagement and oversight. And administrators say more improvements are on the way in 2013 when a hospital-wide workgroup will try to clear away obstacles and inefficiencies from the hospital admissions process. To tackle long wait times among patients with lower triage levels, the ED instituted a fast-track system, manned by mid-level providers and a tech or LPN. Responsibilities for charge nurses have been redesigned so that they have the power to monitor and facilitate patient flow. The ED has initiated more point-of-care testing so that nurses and techs can conduct many routine tests on their own. While the lean model relies on staff-driven solutions, administrators make the difference when it comes to sustaining changes and minimizing employee resistance.

  2. Edward (Ed) T. Schneider preparing for an F-104 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA research pilot Edward T. Scheider is shown standing in the cockpit of a two-seat F-104. He is wearing a full pressure suit, which is required on all flights above 50,000 feet. Ed served in the U.S. Navy from 1968 to 1983. He attended the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and graduated in 1973. He was then assigned as an engineering test pilot, and as an instructor at the Naval Test Pilot School. He first arrived at what was then called the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) as a Navy Liaison Officer on July 5, 1982. He joined NASA as a research pilot a year later. Ed was a project pilot on the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack program, the F-15 aeronautical research aircraft, the B-52 launch aircraft, and the NASA-operated SR-71 Blackbirds. Ed retired as a NASA research pilot in September 2000.

  3. Utilisation of biochar and superabsorbent polymers for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Ekebafe, M O; Ekebafe, L O; Maliki, M

    2013-01-01

    The application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and/or biochars to stressed lands offer solutions to several critical ecological, energy and economic challenges posed by degraded lands due to human activities. These substances are like, 'artificial humus' as they are hydrophilic and contain carboxylic groups (SAPs) which enable them to bind cations and water and sequester carbon from air to reverse global warming (biochars). Several research studies using these substances point to their ability to increase the plant-available water in the soil which enables the plants to survive longer with water shortage, increase soil fertility and agricultural yields, improve soil structure, aeration and water penetration, reduce use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, reduce nitrous oxide and methane emission from soil, reduce nitrate and farm chemicals leaching into watersheds, convert green and brown wastes into valuable resources, and reduce the evapotranspiration rate of the plants. SAPs and biochars induce a significantly higher growth rate in plants; they bind heavy metals and mitigate their action on plants as well as mitigate the effects of salinity. This paper reviews what is known about these claims and considers the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processess. The intention is not just to summarise the current knowledge but also to identify gaps that require further research.

  4. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  5. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m-2 s-1) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36–60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA. PMID:26938454

  6. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA.

  7. EDS coal liquefaction process development, Phase V. Engineering design study of an EDS Illinois bottoms fired hybrid boiler

    SciTech Connect

    1984-04-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company and was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc. This report is the second of two reports by Combustion Engineering, Inc. on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program and covers the results of an engineering design study of a Hybrid Boiler firing the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from processing Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. The function of the Hybrid Boiler is to heat the coal slurry feed for an EDS coal liquefaction plant by a process coil in the convection section and to generate high pressure steam in the radiant section. The Hybrid Boiler design developed in this phase of the program is based on the results of a laboratory characterization program (reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-112), on Combustion Engineering, Inc.'s extensive experience as a designer and supplier of steam generating equipment, and on Exxon Research and Engineering Co.'s experience with the design and operation of process heaters.

  8. Rural/urban differences in the association between deprivation and healthcare utilisation.

    PubMed

    Gilthorpe, Mark S; Wilson, Richard C

    2003-12-01

    Whilst associations between inequalities in healthcare utilisation and socio-economic deprivation are well established in the UK it is argued that deprivation indices, such as the Townsend index, remain insensitive to rural/urban differences. This study examines how Townsend and its components differ in their association with healthcare utilisation across the rural/urban spectrum of a large health region. Our research was carried out in the West Midlands National Health Service region (population 5.3 million), comprising of a similar geographical population diversity to that of the United Kingdom (UK) using Hospital Episode Statistics (1994/5-1998/9) and 1991 census socio-demographic data. Retrospective multilevel multivariate models compare three ward-level healthcare utilisation measures (standardised episode-, admission-, and bed-rates) in relation to the Townsend index of material deprivation, its components, and four rural/urban characteristics (population density, population potential, electoral ward area and perimeter size). The associations between outcomes and Townsend were generally not attenuated by the rural/urban characteristics. The constituent component of car-ownership was similarly unperturbed, whereas population potential significantly perturbed the home-ownership model and overcrowding was significantly perturbed by all four rural/urban characteristics considered. A deprivation index may encapsulate different meanings to that of its components when used to assess variations in healthcare utilisation. Constituent components may yield considerable perturbation in relation to healthcare utilisation across the rural/urban spectrum, whilst the composite measure does not. In particular, and contrary to anecdotal opinion, car-ownership and unemployment (as recorded in the 1991 UK census) exhibited a stable relationship across different rural/urban areas with respect to healthcare utilisation.

  9. Replica exchange enveloping distribution sampling (RE-EDS): A robust method to estimate multiple free-energy differences from a single simulation.

    PubMed

    Sidler, Dominik; Schwaninger, Arthur; Riniker, Sereina

    2016-10-21

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, free-energy differences are often calculated using free energy perturbation or thermodynamic integration (TI) methods. However, both techniques are only suited to calculate free-energy differences between two end states. Enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) presents an attractive alternative that allows to calculate multiple free-energy differences in a single simulation. In EDS, a reference state is simulated which "envelopes" the end states. The challenge of this methodology is the determination of optimal reference-state parameters to ensure equal sampling of all end states. Currently, the automatic determination of the reference-state parameters for multiple end states is an unsolved issue that limits the application of the methodology. To resolve this, we have generalised the replica-exchange EDS (RE-EDS) approach, introduced by Lee et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 2738 (2014)] for constant-pH MD simulations. By exchanging configurations between replicas with different reference-state parameters, the complexity of the parameter-choice problem can be substantially reduced. A new robust scheme to estimate the reference-state parameters from a short initial RE-EDS simulation with default parameters was developed, which allowed the calculation of 36 free-energy differences between nine small-molecule inhibitors of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase from a single simulation. The resulting free-energy differences were in excellent agreement with values obtained previously by TI and two-state EDS simulations.

  10. Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests

  11. Variation in nitrogen source utilisation by nine Amanita muscaria genotypes from Australian Pinus radiata plantations.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Nicole A; Chambers, Susan M; Cairney, John W G

    2003-08-01

    The abilities of nine genotypes of Amanita muscaria (L.:Fr) Pers. to utilise a range of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources for growth was examined in axenic liquid cultures. Considerable intraspecific variation was observed in biomass yields on all substrates; however biomass yield was highest on glutamine and/or NH4+ for all genotypes. Yields on aspartic acid, glutamic acid and histidine were generally low relative to NH4+, while utilisation of arginine and glycine showed marked variation between genotypes. Eight genotypes produced significantly less biomass on bovine serum albumin than on NH4+, raising questions regarding classification of A. muscaria as a 'protein fungus'.

  12. Eldecalcitol (ED-71), an analog of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 as a potential anti-cancer agent for oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shintani, T; Rosli, S N Z; Takatsu, F; Choon, Y F; Hayashido, Y; Toratani, S; Usui, E; Okamoto, T

    2016-11-01

    We have previously reported that 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits NF-κB activity and thus inhibits growth of OSCC cells in serum-free culture and down-regulates HBp17/FGFBP-1 expression, which is important for cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. Here, we have investigated the effects of ED-71, an analog of vitamin D3 (VD) on OSCC cell lines in serum-free culture. It is known that ED-71 has a stronger inhibitory effect on bone resorption compared to VD and other VD analogs. To the best of our knowledge, there was no report examining the potential of ED-71 as an anti-cancer agent for OSCC. We found that ED-71 is able to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines at a concentration of hundred times lower than calcitriol. As Cyp24A1 was reportedly induced in cancer cells, we measured the expression of CYP24A1 in OSCC cell lines (NA and UE), A431 epidermoid carcinoma and normal fibroblast cell (gfi) in serum-free culture. As a result, CYP24A1 mRNA and the protein expression in the OSCC cells treated with ED-71 increased in a dose-dependent manner. However, in vivo experiment, in which the A431 cells were implanted in mice, tumor formation was reduced by the ED-71 treatment with no significant difference between Cyp24A1 expression in the tumors of ED-71-treated and control group, as analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that ED-71 is a potential anti-cancer agent for OSCC.

  13. An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.D.

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems, even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.

  14. EDS V26 Containment Vessel Explosive Qualification Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, Robert W.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Stofleth, Jerome H.

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the test was to qualify the vessel for its intended use by subjecting it to a 1.25 times overtest. The criteria for success are that the measured strains do not exceed the calculated strains from the vessel analysis, there is no significant additional plastic strain on subsequent tests at the rated design load (shakedown), and there is no significant damage to the vessel and attached hardware that affect form, fit, or function. Testing of the V25 Vessel in 2011 established a precedent for testing V26 [2]. As with V25, two tests were performed to satisfy this objective. The first test used 9 pounds of Composition C-4 (11.25 lbs. TNT-equivalent), which is 125 percent of the design basis load. The second test used 7.2 pounds of Composition C-4 (9 lbs. TNT-equivalent) which is 100 percent of the design basis load. The first test provided the required overtest while the second test served to demonstrate shakedown and the absence of additional plastic deformation. Unlike the V25 vessel, which was mounted in a shipping cradle during testing, the V26 vessel was mounted on the EDS P2U3 trailer prior to testing. Visual inspections of the EDS vessel, surroundings, and diagnostics were completed before and after each test event. This visual inspection included analyzing the seals, fittings, and interior surfaces of the EDS vessel and documenting any abnormalities or damages. Photographs were used to visually document vessel conditions and findings before and after each test event.

  15. 34 CFR 110.17 - Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations. 110.17... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.17 Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations. Any age distinction contained in regulations issued by ED is presumed to be...

  16. Uncovering the Identities of Students and Graduates in a CPED-Influenced EdD Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby; Buss, Ray R.; Zambo, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The educational doctorate (EdD) is being re-envisioned as a distinct professional degree. Today's EdD graduates are envisioned as scholarly practitioners. Given this it may be reasoned these individuals have unique identities comprised of several layers. In this study, we examined how 18 entering students and 17 graduating students from an EdD…

  17. 34 CFR 110.1 - What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 110.1 What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of these regulations is to set out ED's rules for implementing the...

  18. 34 CFR 110.1 - What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 110.1 What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of these regulations is to set out ED's rules for implementing the...

  19. 34 CFR 110.1 - What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 110.1 What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of these regulations is to set out ED's rules for implementing the...

  20. 34 CFR 110.1 - What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 110.1 What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of these regulations is to set out ED's rules for implementing the...

  1. 34 CFR 110.1 - What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 110.1 What is the purpose of ED's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of these regulations is to set out ED's rules for implementing the...

  2. Self-Esteem and Emotional Intelligence among B.Ed Trainees of Tsunami Affected Coastal Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu M, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    Through this study the author investigates the relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence among B.Ed trainees of Tsunami affected coastal belt of Alappey district of Kerala, India. Stream of study, marital status and age based comparisons were made among the B.Ed trainees. 92 B.Ed trainees were the participants in the study. It…

  3. EDS1 mediates pathogen resistance and virulence function of a bacterial effector in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) and phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4) are well known regulators of both basal and resistance (R) protein-mediated plant defense. We identified two EDS1- (GmEDS1a/b) and one PAD4-like (GmPAD4) protein that are required for resistance signaling in soybean. Consist...

  4. ED case managers are crucial to help maximize reimbursement.

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    As payers tighten their belts and recoup payments for inappropriate care and regulators increase penalties for fraud and abuse, hospitals need to ensure all admissions are appropriate and patient are placed in the right level of care. Hospitals are likely to have to return reimbursement for patients who don't meet inpatient criteria. Improper admissions can exacerbate capacity problems and result in hospital-acquired conditions. Correcting inappropriate admissions retrospectively can be a red flag to auditors. ED case managers can impact length of stay by ensuring that care starts in the emergency department.

  5. SEM/EDS Characterization of Ambient PM during Agricultural Burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Wall, S.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) samples were collected with UNC passive samplers during agricultural burns in Imperial Valley, California. Four Bermuda grass field burn events were sampled at 3-8 locations surrounding each burn. Sampling began at the start of each burn (30-60 min) and continued for 24-120 hours. During 3 of the 4 burn events, winds were calm and plumes were observed to travel straight up to the inversion layer. In one event, winds created a ground-level plume that enveloped two UNC samplers mounted on telephone poles very close to the field (0.2-0.3 miles away). Computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy / energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM/EDS) was used to measure particle sizes and elemental composition, from which mass concentrations and size distributions were calculated. The median PM2.5 and PM10 levels measured in this study were 3.4 and 20 ug/m3, respectively. To determine quantitative accuracy, UNC sampler PM2.5 results (PM< 2.5 um) were compared to PM2.5 results from four co-located, continuous-reading beta-attenuation monitors (EBAMs). The median agreement (EBAM - UNC) was 3.8 ug/m3. Manual SEM/EDS detected various distinctive species in these samples, including sea salt, spores, plant fragments, and large soot agglomerates. During the ‘plume event’, 24-hour PM2.5 exposures downwind were up to 17 times higher than that measured upwind. Numerous submicron combustion particles with carbon and oxygen only were directly observed by manual SEM/EDS in the two plume-impacted samples, along with larger ash particles enriched in potassium, sulfur, chlorine, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. CCSEM/EDS data from this event was grouped into 5 particle classes to generate size-fraction-specific pie charts. Burn-related particle types contributed 95% of the PM2.5 in the location directly impacted by the ground-level plume, compared to only 12% in the upwind location. A sample of Imperial County Bermuda grass analyzed in bulk and

  6. Pilot explores organ donation in the ED--challenges raised.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    A pilot program for ED organ donation at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)--Presbyterian Hospital is seeking much-needed organs, while maintaining optimal medical care for the living and avoiding potential conflicts of interest. Separate teams are involved with organ donation and with patient care, creating a "firewall" to prevent conflicts of interest. After failed CPR, a minimum of two minutes of no-CPR time is allowed to pass after death is pronounced to be certain there is no occult cardiac activity. Infusions of cold fluids are used to give enough time for the transplant surgeon to arrive and determine if any organs can be procured.

  7. Reducing Frequent Visits to the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review of Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Soril, Lesley J. J.; Leggett, Laura E.; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Noseworthy, Tom W.; Clement, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to establish the effectiveness of interventions to reduce frequent emergency department (ED) use among a general adult high ED-use population. Methods Systematic review of the literature from 1950-January 2015. Studies were included if they: had a control group (controlled trials or comparative cohort studies), were set in an ED or acute care facility, and examined the impact of an intervention to reduce frequent ED use in a general adult population. Studies reporting non-original data or focused on a specific patient population were excluded. Study design, patient population, intervention, the frequency of ED visits, and costs of frequent ED use and/or interventions were extracted and narratively synthesized. Results Among 17 included articles, three intervention categories were identified: case management (n = 12), individualized care plans (n = 3), and information sharing (n = 2). Ten studies examining case management reported reductions in mean (-0.66 to -37) or median (-0.1 to -20) number of ED visits after 12-months; one study reported an increase in mean ED visits (+2.79); and one reported no change. Of these, 6 studies also reported reduced hospital costs. Only 1 study evaluating individualized care plans examined ED utilization and found no change in median ED visits post-intervention. Costs following individualized care plans were also only evaluated in 1 study, which reported savings in hospital costs of $742/patient. Evidence was mixed regarding information sharing: 1 study reported no change in mean ED visits and did not examine costs; whereas the other reported a decrease in mean ED visits (-16.9) and ED cost savings of $15,513/patient. Conclusions The impact of all three frequent-user interventions was modest. Case management had the most rigorous evidence base, yielded moderate cost savings, but with variable reductions in ED use. Future studies evaluating non-traditional interventions, tailoring to patient

  8. GPU-based Space Situational Awareness Simulation utilising Parallelism for Enhanced Multi-sensor Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, T.; Clarkson, V.

    2012-09-01

    As a result of continual space activity since the 1950s, there are now a large number of man-made Resident Space Objects (RSOs) orbiting the Earth. Because of the large number of items and their relative speeds, the possibility of destructive collisions involving important space assets is now of significant concern to users and operators of space-borne technologies. As a result, a growing number of international agencies are researching methods for improving techniques to maintain Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Computer simulation is a method commonly used by many countries to validate competing methodologies prior to full scale adoption. The use of supercomputing and/or reduced scale testing is often necessary to effectively simulate such a complex problem on todays computers. Recently the authors presented a simulation aimed at reducing the computational burden by selecting the minimum level of fidelity necessary for contrasting methodologies and by utilising multi-core CPU parallelism for increased computational efficiency. The resulting simulation runs on a single PC while maintaining the ability to effectively evaluate competing methodologies. Nonetheless, the ability to control the scale and expand upon the computational demands of the sensor management system is limited. In this paper, we examine the advantages of increasing the parallelism of the simulation by means of General Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU). As many sub-processes pertaining to SSA management are independent, we demonstrate how parallelisation via GPGPU has the potential to significantly enhance not only research into techniques for maintaining SSA, but also to enhance the level of sophistication of existing space surveillance sensors and sensor management systems. Nonetheless, the use of GPGPU imposes certain limitations and adds to the implementation complexity, both of which require consideration to achieve an effective system. We discuss these challenges and

  9. Skills Utilisation at Work, the Quality of the Study Programme and Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Støren, Liv Anne; Arnesen, Clara Åse

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that may have impact on the extent to which the knowledge and skills of master's degree graduates in Norway are utilised at work, three years after graduation. The focus is on the impact of the quality of the study programme as well as the graduates' fields of study, when also taking into account other factors…

  10. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  11. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  12. Interventions to improve patient access to and utilisation of genetic and genomic counselling services

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Caroline M; Thomas, Lois H; Skirton, Heather; Gustafson, Shanna; Coupe, Jacqueline; Patch, Christine; Belk, Rachel; Tishkovskaya, Svetlana; Calzone, Kathleen; Payne, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: Primary objective The primary objective is to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve patient identification, access to and utilisation of genetic and genomic counselling services when compared to: No intervention; Usual or current practice; and Other active intervention. Secondary objective The secondary objective is to explore the resource use and costs associated with interventions aimed at improving patient identification, access to and utilisation of genetic and genomic counselling services from studies meeting the eligibility criteria. We will report on factors that may explain variation in the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving patient identification, access to and utilisation of genetic and genomic counselling services from studies meeting the eligibility criteria. Another secondary objective is to explore how interventions which target improved patient identification, access to and utilisation of genetic and genomic counselling services affect the subsequent appropriate use of health services for the prevention or early detection of disease. It is also possible that the genetic counselling interaction itself will contribute to the possible use of preventative services. PMID:26989348

  13. The Utilisation of Psychological Support Services in Primary Schools in Gauteng

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Jace; Wasielewski, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in four Gauteng public primary schools to assess the utilisation of psychological support services. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with various stakeholders. The results indicated an underutilisation of Psychological Support Services attributed to lack of staff within the support…

  14. Utilisation of Local Inputs in the Funding and Administration of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiri, Agharuwhe A.

    2014-01-01

    The article discussed how, why and who is in charge of administering and funding schools in Nigeria. The author utilised the relevant statistical approach which examined and discussed various political and historical trends affecting education. Besides this, relevant documented statistical data were used to both buttress and substantiate related…

  15. Coping and health service utilisation in a UK study of paediatric sickle cell pain

    PubMed Central

    Anie, K; Steptoe, A; Ball, S; Dick, M; Smalling, B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess sickle cell pain and coping in children and to examine the relation between these factors and the utilisation of health services. Methods: Cross sectional study involving 67 children with sickle cell disease attending three London hospitals. Interviews and questionnaires involved measures of pain, health service utilisation, and coping responses (measured with the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), revised for children with sickle cell disease). Medical data on complications, haemoglobin (Hb) levels, and foetal haemoglobin (HbF) percentage were also collected. Results: Pain accounted for about 24% of hospital service use, independent of age, sex, number of with sickle cell disease complications, and Hb levels. However, 42% of patients had not utilised hospital services in the past 12 months. Three higher order factors emerged from analysis of the CSQ (active coping, affective coping, passive adherence coping). Pain severity was predicted by passive adherence coping, while utilisation of hospital services was predicted by active coping. Conclusions: Sickle cell disease in children involves severe recurrent pain leading to hospitalisation in some cases. Psychological coping patterns are relevant to both pain experience, and the use of acute hospital services. It is likely that children would benefit from community based interventions that incorporate both medical and psychological assessments. PMID:11970920

  16. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland.

  17. ICT and OTs: a model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Louise K; Pervan, Graham P

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to health and there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within health and to examine acceptance and utilisation issues amongst health professionals to improve the success of information system implementation in this arena. This paper outlines a project that examines ICT acceptance and utilisation by Australian occupational therapists. It describes the theoretical basis behind the development of a research model and the methodology being employed to empirically validate the model using substantial quantitative, qualitative and longitudinal data. Preliminary results from Phase II of the study are presented. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with potentially the largest sample size ever tested, to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector.

  18. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  19. Edward (Ed) T. Schneider in Front of SR-71 Blackbird

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    SR-71 research pilot Ed Schneider is pictured here in front of an SR-71 Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Schneider became a NASA research pilot at Dryden in 1983. Data from the SR-71 program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic aircraft and propulsion systems. He retired as a NASA research pilot in September 2000. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or

  20. The collection of MicroED data for macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dan; Nannenga, Brent L; de la Cruz, M Jason; Liu, Jinyang; Sawtelle, Steven; Calero, Guillermo; Reyes, Francis E; Hattne, Johan; Gonen, Tamir

    2016-05-01

    The formation of large, well-ordered crystals for crystallographic experiments remains a crucial bottleneck to the structural understanding of many important biological systems. To help alleviate this problem in crystallography, we have developed the MicroED method for the collection of electron diffraction data from 3D microcrystals and nanocrystals of radiation-sensitive biological material. In this approach, liquid solutions containing protein microcrystals are deposited on carbon-coated electron microscopy grids and are vitrified by plunging them into liquid ethane. MicroED data are collected for each selected crystal using cryo-electron microscopy, in which the crystal is diffracted using very few electrons as the stage is continuously rotated. This protocol gives advice on how to identify microcrystals by light microscopy or by negative-stain electron microscopy in samples obtained from standard protein crystallization experiments. The protocol also includes information about custom-designed equipment for controlling crystal rotation and software for recording experimental parameters in diffraction image metadata. Identifying microcrystals, preparing samples and setting up the microscope for diffraction data collection take approximately half an hour for each step. Screening microcrystals for quality diffraction takes roughly an hour, and the collection of a single data set is ∼10 min in duration. Complete data sets and resulting high-resolution structures can be obtained from a single crystal or by merging data from multiple crystals.

  1. Domestic violence in an inner-city ED.

    PubMed

    Ernst, A A; Nick, T G; Weiss, S J; Houry, D; Mills, T

    1997-08-01

    A confidential written survey was conducted at the emergency department (ED) of Charity Hospital in New Orleans to determine the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) for male and female ED patients and to determine the demographics of DV. Four violence parameters were calculated for patients who had a partner at the time of presentation: 1) present physical; 2) present nonphysical; 3) past physical; and 4) past nonphysical. Out of the 516 patients enrolled, 283 were women and 233 were men. On the basis of Index of Spouse Abuse scoring, 14% of men and 22% of women had experienced past nonphysical violence, and 28% of men and 33% of women had experienced past physical violence. Of the 157 men and 207 women with partners at the time of presentation, 11% men and 15% women reported present nonphysical violence, and 20% men and 19% of the women reported present physical violence. Logistic-regression models demonstrated that women experienced significantly more past and present nonphysical violence but not physical violence than men. Alcohol, drug use, and suicidal ideation were found to be significant predictors associated with DV. In conclusion, DV rates were high in the New Orleans population, with nearly equal rates of past and present physical violence for men and women.

  2. The collection of MicroED data for macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dan; Nannenga, Brent L; de la Cruz, M Jason; Liu, Jinyang; Sawtelle, Steven; Calero, Guillermo; Reyes, Francis E; Hattne, Johan; Gonen, Tamir

    2017-01-01

    The formation of large, well-ordered crystals for crystallographic experiments remains a crucial bottleneck to the structural understanding of many important biological systems. To help alleviate this problem in crystallography, we have developed the MicroED method for the collection of electron diffraction data from 3D microcrystals and nanocrystals of radiation-sensitive biological material. In this approach, liquid solutions containing protein microcrystals are deposited on carbon-coated electron microscopy grids and are vitrified by plunging them into liquid ethane. MicroED data are collected for each selected crystal using cryo-electron microscopy, in which the crystal is diffracted using very few electrons as the stage is continuously rotated. This protocol gives advice on how to identify microcrystals by light microscopy or by negative-stain electron microscopy in samples obtained from standard protein crystallization experiments. The protocol also includes information about custom-designed equipment for controlling crystal rotation and software for recording experimental parameters in diffraction image metadata. Identifying microcrystals, preparing samples and setting up the microscope for diffraction data collection take approximately half an hour for each step. Screening microcrystals for quality diffraction takes roughly an hour, and the collection of a single data set is ~10 min in duration. Complete data sets and resulting high-resolution structures can be obtained from a single crystal or by merging data from multiple crystals. PMID:27077331

  3. Micro Slot Generation by μ-ED Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, H. K.; Mayanak, M. K.; Rajpurohit, S. R.; Mathai, V. J.

    2016-08-01

    Micro electro discharge machining is one of the most widely used advanced micro machining technique owing to its capability to fabricate micro features on any electrically conductive materials irrespective of its material properties. Despite its wide acceptability, the process is always adversely affected by issues like wear that occurred on the tool electrode, which results into generation of inaccurate features. Micro ED milling, a process variant in which the tool electrode simultaneously rotated and scanned during machining, is reported to have high process efficiency for generation of 3D complicated shapes and features with relatively less electrode wear intensity. In the present study an attempt has been made to study the effect of two process parameters viz. capacitance and scanning speed of tool electrode on end wear that occurs on the tool electrode and overcut of micro slots generated by micro ED milling. The experiment has been conducted on Al 1100 alloy with tungsten electrode having diameter of 300 μm. Results suggest that wear on the tool electrode and overcut of the micro features generated are highly influenced by the level of the capacitance employed during machining. For the parameter usage employed for present study however, no significant effect of variation of scanning speed has been observed on both responses.

  4. Utilising green and bluespace to mitigate urban heat island intensity.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, K R; Wells, M J; Kershaw, T

    2017-04-15

    It has long been recognised that cities exhibit their own microclimate and are typically warmer than the surrounding rural areas. This 'mesoscale' influence is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect and results largely from modification of surface properties leading to greater absorption of solar radiation, reduced convective cooling and lower water evaporation rates. Cities typically contain less vegetation and bodies of water than rural areas, and existing green and bluespace is often under threat from increasing population densities. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the key ways in which green and bluespace affect both urban canopy- and boundary-layer temperatures, examined from the perspectives of city-planning, urban climatology and climate science. The analysis suggests that the evapotranspiration-based cooling influence of both green and bluespace is primarily relevant for urban canopy-layer conditions, and that tree-dominated greenspace offers the greatest heat stress relief when it is most needed. However, the magnitude and transport of cooling experienced depends on size, spread, and geometry of greenspaces, with some solitary large parks found to offer minimal boundary-layer cooling. Contribution to cooling at the scale of the urban boundary-layer climate is attributed mainly to greenspace increasing surface roughness and thereby improving convection efficiency rather than evaporation. Although bluespace cooling and transport during the day can be substantial, nocturnal warming is highlighted as likely when conditions are most oppressive. However, when both features are employed together they can offer many synergistic ecosystem benefits including cooling. The ways in which green and bluespace infrastructure is applied in future urban growth strategies, particularly in countries expected to experience rapid urbanisation, warrants greater consideration in urban planning policy to mitigate the adverse effects of the UHI and enhance climate

  5. Validity of self reported utilisation of primary health care services in an urban population in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, J. A.; Lardelli, P.; Luna, J. d.; Delgado, A.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the validity and factors related with the validity of self reported numbers of visits to a primary health care centre, in comparison with the recorded number.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study.
SETTING—The urban area served by the Zaidín-Sur Primary Health Care Centre (Granada, Spain).
PARTICIPANTS—Two population samples (236 high users and 420 normal users) who were seen at the centre from 1985 to 1991 were interviewed in 1993.
MAIN RESULTS—A net tendency to overreport the actual number of visits was observed. Absolute concordance between self reported and recorded utilisation decreased as time interval lengthened, although this mainly reflected the increase in maximum variability both with time interval length and with the number of recorded visits. Corrected Spearman ρ coefficients obtained between the number of self reported and recorded visits ranged from 0.602 for the two weeks before the interview to 0.678 for the year before. Regression slopes of self reported utilisation upon recorded utilisation did not change between periods. In multiple regression analyses the actual number of visits was the main factor associated with both underreporting and overreporting. Older age was also significantly associated with underreporting. Poor health status and high satisfaction with health care were significantly associated with overreporting.
CONCLUSIONS—There was a substantial degree of inaccuracy in self reported utilisation, with a net tendency to overreport the number of visits. In relative terms, however, accuracy of self reports did not seem to decrease appreciably as the recall time lengthened. To compare the accuracy of different measures, it is important to take into account the maximum variability of each one. Otherwise, contradictory results may be obtained.


Keywords: self reported utilisation; primary health care; validity PMID:10846198

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of 2,5-dihydrochorismate analogues as inhibitors of the chorismate-utilising enzymes.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard J; Bulloch, Esther M M; Toscano, Miguel M; Jones, Michelle A; Kerbarh, Olivier; Abell, Chris

    2009-06-07

    A library of 2,5-dihydrochorismate analogues were designed as inhibitors of the chorismate-utilising enzymes including anthranilate synthase, isochorismate synthase, salicylate synthase and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase. The inhibitors were synthesised in seven or eight steps from shikimic acid, sourced from star anise. The compounds exhibited moderate but differential inhibition against the four chorismate-utilising enzymes.

  7. Registered Nurses and Discharge Planning in a Taiwanese ED: A Neglected Issue?

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen; Goopy, Suzanne; Lin, Chun-Chih; Barnard, Alan; Liu, Hsueh-Erh; Han, Chin-Yen

    2016-10-01

    Published research on discharge planning is written from the perspective of hospital wards and community services. Limited research focuses on discharge planning in the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to identify ED nurses' perceptions of factors influencing the implementation of discharge planning. This qualitative study collected data from 25 ED nurses through in-depth interviews and a drawing task in which participants were asked to depict on paper the implementation of discharge planning in their practice. Factors influencing discharge planning were grouped into three categories: discharge planning as a neglected issue in the ED, heavy workload, and the negative attitudes of ED patients and their families. The study highlighted a need for effective discharge planning to be counted as an essential clinical competency for ED nurses and factored into their everyday workload. Nurses perceived that organizational culture, and parents' and relatives' attitudes were barriers to implementing discharge teaching in the ED.

  8. A hybrid ED/RO process for TDS reduction of produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.; Datta, R.; Frank, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Large volumes of produced waters are generated from natural gas production. In the United States the prevailing management practice for produced waters is deep well injection, but this practice is costly. Therefore minimizing the need for deep well injection is desirable. A major treatment issue for produced waters is the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS), which consist mostly of inorganic salts. A hybrid electrodialysis/reverse-osmosis (ED/RO) treatment process is being developed to concentrate the salts in produced waters and thereby reduce the volume of brine that needs to be managed for disposal. The desalted water can be used beneficially or discharged. In this study, laboratory feasibility experiments were conducted by using produced waters from multiple sites. A novel-membrane configuration approach to prevent fouling and scale formation was developed and demonstrated. Results of laboratory experiments and plans for field demonstration are discussed.

  9. The ingestion of protein with a maltodextrin and fructose beverage on substrate utilisation and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, Michael D; Roberts, Justin D; Kass, Lindsy S; Tarpey, Richard J; Roberts, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    The study investigated the ingestion of maltodextrin, fructose, and protein on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation (CHOEXO) and exercise performance. Seven trained cyclists and (or) triathletes (maximal oxygen consumption, 59.20 ± 9.00 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed 3 exercise trials that consisted of 150 min of cycling at 50% maximal power output (160 ± 11 W), followed by a 60-km time trial. One of 3 beverages were randomly assigned during each trial and consumed at 15-min intervals: (i) 0.84 g · min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.52 g · min(-1) fructose + 0.34 g · min(-1) protein (MD+F+P); (ii) 1.10 g · min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.60 g · min(-1) fructose (MD+F); or (iii) 1.70 g · min(-1) maltodextrin (MD). CHO(EXO) and fuel utilisation were assessed via measurement of expired air (13)C content and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Mean total CHO oxidation (CHOTOT) rates were 2.35 ± 0.18, 2.76 ± 0.08, and 2.61 ± 0.17 g · min(-1) with MD, MD+F, and MD+F+P, respectively, although not significantly different. Peak CHO(EXO) rates with MD+F were significantly greater by 41.4% (p = 0.001) and 45.4% (p = 0.0001) compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively (1.57 ± 0.22 g · min(-1), 1.11 ± 0.08 g · min(-1), and 1.08 ± 0.11 g · min(-1), respectively). Performance times were 2.2% and 5.0% faster with MD+F compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively; however, they were not statistically significant. Ingestion of an MD-fructose-protein commercial sports beverage significantly reduced peak and mean CHO(EXO) rates compared with MD+F, but did not significantly influence CHOTOT. The addition of protein to an MD+F beverage did not enhance performance times.

  10. EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolphi, John Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

  11. Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Buron, Andrea; Cots, Francesc; Garcia, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Castells, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Background The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of Barcelona. Methods The study population included all adults residing in the area of study and visiting the emergency department of Hospital del Mar in 2004. The emergency care episodes were selected from the Emergency Department register, and the population figures from the Statistics Department of Barcelona. Emergency care episodes were classified into five large clinical categories. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) of utilisation among foreign-born vs. Spanish-born residents were assessed through negative binomial regression. Results The overall utilisation rate was 382 emergency contacts per 1,000 persons-years. The RR for foreign-born versus Spanish-born residents was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52; 0.74%). The RR was also significantly below one in surgery (0.51, 95% CI: 0.42; 0.63), traumatology (0.47, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59), medicine (0.48, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59) and psychiatry (0.42, 95% CI: 0.18; 0.97). No differences were found in utilisation of gynaecology and minor emergency services. Conclusion The overall lower utilisation rates obtained for foreign-born residents is consistent with previous studies and is probably due to the "healthy immigrant effect". Thus, the population increase due to immigration does not translate directly into a corresponding increase in the number of emergency contacts. The lack of differences in minor and gynaecological emergency care supports the hypothesis that immigrants overcome certain barriers by using the emergency department to access to health services. The issue of healthcare barriers should therefore be addressed, especially among

  12. Reducing Ambulance Diversion at Hospital and Regional Levels: Systemic Review of Insights from Simulation Models

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, M. Kit; Meng, Lesley J.; Mercer, Mary P.; Pines, Jesse M.; Owens, Douglas K.; Zaric, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Optimal solutions for reducing diversion without worsening emergency department (ED) crowding are unclear. We performed a systematic review of published simulation studies to identify: 1) the tradeoff between ambulance diversion and ED wait times; 2) the predicted impact of patient flow interventions on reducing diversion; and 3) the optimal regional strategy for reducing diversion. Methods: Data Sources: Systematic review of articles using MEDLINE, Inspec, Scopus. Additional studies identified through bibliography review, Google Scholar, and scientific conference proceedings. Study Selection: Only simulations modeling ambulance diversion as a result of ED crowding or inpatient capacity problems were included. Data extraction: Independent extraction by two authors using predefined data fields. Results: We identified 5,116 potentially relevant records; 10 studies met inclusion criteria. In models that quantified the relationship between ED throughput times and diversion, diversion was found to only minimally improve ED waiting room times. Adding holding units for inpatient boarders and ED-based fast tracks, improving lab turnaround times, and smoothing elective surgery caseloads were found to reduce diversion considerably. While two models found a cooperative agreement between hospitals is necessary to prevent defensive diversion behavior by a hospital when a nearby hospital goes on diversion, one model found there may be more optimal solutions for reducing region wide wait times than a regional ban on diversion. Conclusion: Smoothing elective surgery caseloads, adding ED fast tracks as well as holding units for inpatient boarders, improving ED lab turnaround times, and implementing regional cooperative agreements among hospitals are promising avenues for reducing diversion. PMID:24106548

  13. The specificity of energy utilisation by trained and untrained adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N; Davies, B; Heal, M

    1983-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between estimates of alactacid anaerobic power, lactacid anaerobic power and aerobic power in a sample of trained swimmers (age 14.4 yr., n = 8) and a sample of untrained boys (age 13.7 yr., n = 13). The anaerobic power outputs were estimated using a modification of the Wingate Anaerobic Test and aerobic power was estimated using a continuous, incremental cycle ergometer test. In addition to leg power outputs the swimmers' arm power using each energy system was estimated and compared with the corresponding leg value. There was no relationship between the estimates of the power of the three energy systems with either the trained or untrained boys. Furthermore with the trained boys there was no relationship between estimates of the power of the same energy system utilised by different limbs. The data support a specificity hypothesis of energy utilisation during exercise with both trained and untrained adolescent boys.

  14. Sustainability indicator system and policy processes in Malaysia: a framework for utilisation and learning.

    PubMed

    Hezri, A A

    2004-12-01

    Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.

  15. Life cycle assessment of biohydrogen and biomethane production and utilisation as a vehicle fuel.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Tim; Esteves, Sandra; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Maddy, Jon

    2013-03-01

    Environmental burdens for the production and utilisation of biomethane vehicle fuel or a biohydrogen/biomethane blend produced from food waste or wheat feed, based on data from two different laboratory experiments, have been compared. For food waste treated by batch processes the two stage system gave high hydrogen yields (84.2l H2kg(-1) VS added) but a lower overall energy output than the single stage system. Reduction in environmental burdens compared with diesel was achieved, supported by the diversion of waste from landfill. For wheat feed, the semi continuously fed two stage process gave low hydrogen yields (7.5l H2kg(-1) VS added) but higher overall energy output. The process delivers reduction in fossil fuel burdens, and improvements in process efficiencies will lead to reduction in CO2 burdens compared with diesel. The study highlights the importance of understanding and optimising biofuel production parameters according to the feedstock utilised.

  16. Automatic Detection of Military Targets Utilising Neural Networks and Scale Space Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Detection of Military Targets utilising Neural Networks and Scale Space Analysis A. Khashman Chairman, Department of Computer Engineering Near East...and 3) high computational cost. This required for the employment of neural networks and new approach to edge detection is formalized in the providing...analysis, edge detection and of the Laplacian of the Gaussian (FLoG) edge neural networks . The result is an automatic edge detection operator [1][2], as

  17. Characteristics of unturned eggs: critical period, retarded embryonic growth and poor albumen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Deeming, D C

    1989-06-01

    1. The physiological effects of egg turning during incubation are described. 2. There was a critical period for turning, from days 3 to 7 of incubation, which affected hatchability, embryo growth and utilisation of extra-embryonic fluids. 3. Failure to turn eggs retarded formation of allantoic and amniotic fluids, restricted alumen uptake and retarded growth of the embryo, but only after day 12 of incubation.

  18. RESPECT-ED: Rates of Pulmonary Emboli (PE) and Sub-Segmental PE with Modern Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiograms in Emergency Departments: A Multi-Center Observational Study Finds Significant Yield Variation, Uncorrelated with Use or Small PE Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kevin; Joseph, Anthony; Read, Catherine; Blecher, Gabriel; Furyk, Jeremy; Bharat, Chrianna; Velusamy, Karthik; Munro, Andrew; Baker, Kylie; Kinnear, Frances; Mukherjee, Ahses; Watkins, Gina; Buntine, Paul; Livesay, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overuse of CT Pulmonary Angiograms (CTPA) for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly in Emergency Departments (ED), is considered problematic. Marked variations in positive CTPA rates are reported, with American 4–10% yields driving most concerns. Higher resolution CTPA may increase sub-segmental PE (SSPE) diagnoses, which may be up to 40% false positive. Excessive use and false positives could increase harm vs. benefit. These issues have not been systematically examined outside America. Aims To describe current yield variation and CTPA utilisation in Australasian ED, exploring potential factors correlated with variation. Methods A retrospective multi-centre review of consecutive ED-ordered CTPA using standard radiology reports. ED CTPA report data were inputted onto preformatted data-sheets. The primary outcome was site level yield, analysed both intra-site and against a nominated 15.3% yield. Factors potentially associated with yield were assessed for correlation. Results Fourteen radiology departments (15 ED) provided 7077 CTPA data (94% ≥64-slice CT); PE were reported in 1028 (yield 14.6% (95%CI 13.8–15.4%; range 9.3–25.3%; site variation p <0.0001) with four sites significantly below and one above the 15.3% target. Admissions, CTPA usage, PE diagnosis rates and size of PE were uncorrelated with yield. Large PE (≥lobar) were 55% (CI: 52.1–58.2%) and SSPE 8.8% (CI: 7.1–10.5%) of positive scans. CTPA usage (0.2–1.5% adult attendances) was correlated (p<0.006) with PE diagnosis but not SSPE: large PE proportions. Discussion/ Conclusions We found significant intra-site CTPA yield variation within Australasia. Yield was not clearly correlated with CTPA usage or increased small PE rates. Both SSPE and large PE rates were similar to higher yield historical cohorts. CTPA use was considerably below USA 2.5–3% rates. Higher CTPA utilisation was positively correlated with PE diagnoses, but without evidence of increased proportions

  19. Donor blood procurement and utilisation at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City.

    PubMed

    Enosolease, M E; Imarengiaye, C O; Awodu, O A

    2004-08-01

    Banked blood is a limited resource in Nigeria. We sought to evaluate factors that may further limit the effective utilisation of donor blood in a tertiary hospital in Benin City. The records of the blood transfusion unit of the hospital were studied to identify the methods of blood procurement and utilisation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. A total of 11,021 units of blood were received in the blood transfusion unit within this period out of which 1491 (13.5%) donor blood samples were found unfit for transfusion and, hence, discarded. Commercial blood donation accounted for 95.3%, compared to 4.7% from replacement and volunteer donors. Commercial blood donation was a major risk factor for likely disposal of donor blood (chi2 = 74.3, p < 0.0001, OR = 21.1. 95% CI = 7.8-56.7). Expired units of blood with low PCV were discarded for lack of infrastructure to fractionate and store them. Over 0.8million naira (US$6000.00) is wasted annually on discarded units of donor blood mainly from commercial donors. A policy on blood procurement to include subgroup selection of donors and improved funding of blood banking services may enhance efficient and effective utilisation of donor blood.

  20. How are policy makers using evidence? Models of research utilisation and local NHS policy making

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, H.; Popay, J.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This paper is based on a qualitative study that aimed to identify factors that facilitate or impede evidence-based policy making at a local level in the UK National Health Service (NHS). It considers how models of research utilisation drawn from the social sciences map onto empirical evidence from this study.
DESIGN—A literature review and case studies of social research projects that were initiated by NHS health authority managers or GP fundholders in one region of the NHS. In depth interviews and document analysis were used.
SETTING—One NHS region in England.
PARTICIPANTS—Policy makers, GPs and researchers working on each of the social research projects selected as case studies.
MAIN RESULTS—The direct influence of research evidence on decision making was tempered by factors such as financial constraints, shifting timescales and decision makers' own experiential knowledge. Research was more likely to impact on policy in indirect ways, including shaping policy debate and mediating dialogue between service providers and users.
CONCLUSIONS—The study highlights the role of sustained dialogue between researchers and the users of research in improving the utilisation of research-based evidence in the policy process.


Keywords: evidence-based policy making; research/policy interface; research utilisation PMID:10818123

  1. Utilisation of prey by antlion larvae (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) in terms of energy and nutrients.

    PubMed

    De K Van Der Linde, T C.; Van Der Westhuizen, M C.; Van Zyl, A

    1997-07-01

    Prey utilisation at low prey densities was determined for third instar Cueta sp., Furgella intermedia (Markl) and Palpares annulatus (Stitz) larvae in terms of wet weight, dry weight, energy and nutrients. Prey utilisation was similar to other insects on a wet weight (42-47%), dry weight (46-49%), energetic (40-58%) and nutritive basis (62-79%). Lipids (33-36%) provided energetically the highest contribution of the nutrients ingested. The quantities of water, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates extracted by the antlion larvae were in proportion to their availability in their prey, the Hodotermes mossambicus larvae. The quantities of nutrients extracted by the antlion larvae at low prey densities were not significantly influenced by the differences in mandible size, antlion body weight or the trapping method (building a pit or not) of the antlion species. It is proposed that a low metabolic rate and the accumulation of fat reserves, and not the extent of prey utilisation, enable P. annulatus larvae to tolerate a 123-d starvation period in which 22.3% of their body weight is lost.

  2. Influence of palm olein on protein utilisation in the growing rat.

    PubMed

    Henry, C J; Ghusain-Choueiri, A; Gurr, M I

    1999-03-01

    In view of our preliminary findings that refined palm oil (RPOL) enhanced protein utilisation, and because of the growing importance of palm oil in human diets, two separate studies were conducted. The first study aimed to investigate the effect of the palm oil source and fraction on protein utilisation, as determined by net protein utilization (NPU) in growing rats. The second study aimed to investigate the influence of the dietary concentration of one particular palm oil fraction, refined palm olein (RPO) on net protein utilisation. The fat source of each of the semi-purified diets was as follows: crude palm oil (CPO), refined palm kernel oil (RKO), refined palm olein (RPO), refined palm stearin (RPS), and refined palm oil (RPOL). A sixth control group was offered an identical diet but with olive oil (OO, control) as the fat source. Both the oil source (P < 0.01) and the oil level (P < 0.05) influenced NPU in rats. NPU values were generally higher for rats given the RPO-containing diets, particularly at the 20% dietary level (P < 0.01) compared to the diets containing ground nut oil (GNO). The results of these two experiments indicate that RPO influences protein metabolism specifically at a concentration of at least 20% in the diet. This may suggest that RPO is superior to GNO as a source of fat for the rehabilitation of malnourished children. Human trials notably during the rehabilitation of malnourished children may therefore be the next step in this line of research.

  3. SEM-EDS analysis and discrimination of forensic soil.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Salih; Cengiz Karaca, Ali; Cakir, Ismail; Bülent Uner, H; Sevindik, Aytekin

    2004-04-20

    Soils vary among different areas, and have some characteristics because of the natural effects and transfers made by human and other living beings in time. So that forensic examination of soil is not only concerned with the analysis of naturally occurring rocks, minerals, vegetation, and animal matter. It also includes the detection of such manufactured materials such as ions from synthetic fertilizers and from different environments (e.g., nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate) as environmental artifacts (e.g., lead or objects as glass, paint chips, asphalt, brick fragments, and cinders) whose presence may impart soil with characteristics that will make it unique to a particular location. Many screening and analytical methods have been applied for determining the characteristics which differentiate and discriminate the forensic soil samples but none of them easily standardized. Some of the methods that applied in forensic laboratories in forensic soil discrimination are the color comparison of the normal air-dried (dehumidified) and overheated soil samples, macroscopic observation, and low-power stereo-microscopic observation, determination of anionic composition by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and the elemental composition by scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and other high sensitivity techniques. The objective of this study was to show the effect of the application of 9 tonnes/cm2 pressure on the elemental compositions obtained by SEM-EDS technique and comparing the discrimination power of the pressed-homogenized and not homogenized forensic soil samples. For this purpose soil samples from 17 different locations of Istanbul were collected. Aliquots of the well mixed samples were dried in an oven at 110-120 degrees C and sieved by using 0.5 mm sieve and then the undersieve fraction(<0.5 mm) of these samples put on an adhesive tape placed on a stub. About 100-150 mg aliquots of dried, sieved samples were pressed under 9

  4. Are family physicians the answer to ED doctor shortage, or 'blasphemy'?

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Some organizations maintain that family physicians have the skills and training necessary to practice in the ED and help combat the current physician shortage, while others maintain their training is inadequate. Here are some issues to take into consideration with such candidates: Have they obtained thorough experience the necessary skills to practice in the ED? Have they received a significant amount of clinical training in an ED? Has their training progress been monitored by a teaching attending?

  5. FormEd: An X Window System application for managing first-order formulas

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, T.L.; McCune, W.W.

    1990-11-01

    FormEd is a window-based program for constructing, displaying, and managing first-order logic formulas. The main motivation for constructing FormEd was the desire to have formulas displayed in a readable, two-dimensional format. Users of FormEd can make two kinds of transformation on formulas: logic transformations, such as negation normal form translation, which preserve the meaning of a formula, and edit transformations, which can be used to make arbitrary changes, such as adding a hypothesis to a subformula. FormEd was written by using the X Window System, Version 11, and code from the theorem prover OTTER. 4 refs.

  6. Curvature sensing MARCKS-ED peptides bind to membranes in a stereo-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; de Jesus, Armando Jerome; Tamura, Ryo; Li, Victoria; Cheng, Kui; Yin, Hang

    2015-07-01

    Membrane curvature and lipid composition plays a critical role in interchanging of matter and energy in cells. Peptide curvature sensors are known to activate signaling pathways and promote molecular transport across cell membranes. Recently, the 25-mer MARCKS-ED peptide, which is derived from the effector domain of the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate protein, has been reported to selectively recognize highly curved membrane surfaces. Our previous studies indicated that the naturally occurring L-MARCKS-ED peptide could simultaneously detect both phosphatidylserine and curvature. Here, we demonstrate that D-MARCKS-ED, composed by unnatural D-amino acids, has the same activities as its enantiomer, L-MARCKS-ED, as a curvature and lipid sensor. An atomistic molecular dynamics simulation suggests that D-MARCKS-ED may change from linear to a boat conformation upon binding to the membrane. Comparable enhancement of fluorescence intensity was observed between D- and L-MARCKS-ED peptides, indicating similar binding affinities. Meanwhile, circular dichroism spectra of D- and L-MARCKS-ED are almost symmetrical both in the presence and absence of liposomes. These results suggest similar behavior of artificial D- and natural L-MARCKS-ED peptides when binding to curved membranes. Our studies may contribute to further understanding of how MARCKS-ED senses membrane curvature as well as provide a new direction to develop novel membrane curvature probes.

  7. A preliminary examination of Loss of Control Eating Disorder (LOC-ED) in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Matherne, Camden E; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Altschul, Anne M; Shank, Lisa M; Schvey, Natasha A; Brady, Sheila M; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew P; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Loss of Control Eating Disorder (LOC-ED) has been proposed as a diagnostic category for children 6-12years with binge-type eating. However, characteristics of youth with LOC-ED have not been examined. We tested the hypothesis that the proposed criteria for LOC-ED would identify children with greater adiposity, more disordered eating attitudes, and greater mood disturbance than those without LOC-ED. Participants were 251 youth (10.29years±1.54, 53.8% female, 57.8% White, 35.5% Black, 2.0% Asian, 4.8% Hispanic, 53.0% overweight). Youth were interviewed regarding eating attitudes and behaviors, completed questionnaires to assess general psychopathology, and underwent measurements of body fat mass. Using previously proposed criteria for LOC-ED, children were classified as LOC-ED (n=19), LOC in the absence of the full disorder (subLOC, n=33), and youth not reporting LOC (noLOC, n=199). LOC-ED youth had higher BMIz (p=0.001) and adiposity (p=0.003) and reported greater disordered eating concerns (p<0.001) compared to noLOC youth. Compared to subLOC youth, LOC-ED youth had non-significantly higher BMIz (p=0.11), and significantly higher adiposity (p=0.04) and disordered eating attitudes (p=0.02). SubLOC youth had greater disordered eating concerns (p<0.001) and BMIz (p=0.03) but did not differ in adiposity (p=0.33) compared to noLOC youth. These preliminary data suggest that LOC-ED youth are elevated on disordered eating cognitions and anthropometric measures compared to youth without LOC-ED. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if those with LOC-ED are at particularly increased risk for progression of disordered eating and excess weight gain.

  8. Utilisation of a community-based health facility in a low-income urban community in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asuzu, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary healthcare is established to ensure that people have access to health services through facilities located in their community. However, utilisation of health facilities in Nigeria remains low in many communities. Aim To assess the utilisation of community-based health facility (CBHF) amongst adults in Ibadan, Nigeria Settings A low-income community in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a simple random sampling technique to select one adult per household in all 586 houses in the community. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and utilisation of the CBHF. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and association testing using the Chi-square test at p = 0.05. Results The mean age of the respondents was 46.5 ± 16.0 years; 46.0% were men and 81.0% married; 26% had no formal education and 38.0% had secondary-level education and above; traders constituted 52.0% of the sample; and 85.2% were of low socioeconomic standing; 90% had patronised the CBHF. The main reasons for non-utilisation were preference for general hospitals (13.8%) and self-medication (12.1%). Respondents who had secondary education and above, were in a higher socioeconomic class, who had good knowledge of the facility and were satisfied with care, utilised the CBHF three months significantly more than their counterparts prior to the study (p < 0.05). However, only satisfaction with care was found to be a significant predictor of utilisation of the CBHF. Conclusion The utilisation of the CBHF amongst adults in the study setting is high, driven mostly by satisfaction with the care received previously. Self-medication, promoted by uncontrolled access to drugs through pharmacies and patent medicine stores, threatens this high utilisation. PMID:26245600

  9. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  10. Preventing avoidable incidents leading to a presentation to the emergency department (ED) by older adults with cognitive impairment: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Véronique; Généreux, Mélissa; Gagnon-Roy, Mireille; Veillette, Nathalie; Egan, Mary; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Lacasse, Francis; Rose, Kathy; Stocco, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Older adults with cognitive impairment represent a large portion (21–42%) of people (65+) who consult at an emergency department (ED). Because this sub-group is at higher risk for hospitalisation and mortality following an ED visit, awareness about ‘avoidable’ incidents should be increased in order to prevent presentations to the ED due to such incidents. This study aims to synthetise the actual knowledge related to ‘avoidable’ incidents (ie, traumatic injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external causes) (WHO, 2016) leading to ED presentations in older people with cognitive impairment. Methodology and analysis A scoping review will be performed. Scientific and grey literature (1996–2016) will be searched using a combination of key words pertaining to avoidable incidents, ED presentations, older adults and cognitive impairment. A variety of databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ageline, SCOPUS, ProQuest Dissertations/theses, EBM Reviews, Healthstar), online library catalogues, governmental websites and published statistics will be examined. Included sources will pertain to community-dwelling older adults presenting to the ED as a result of an avoidable incident, with the main focus on those with cognitive impairment. Data (eg, type, frequency, severity, circumstances of incidents, preventive measures) will be extracted and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. Discussion and dissemination This scoping review will provide a picture of the actual knowledge on the subject and identify knowledge gaps in existing literature to be filled by future primary researches. Findings will help stakeholders to develop programmes in order to promote safe and healthy environments and behaviours aimed at reducing avoidable incidents in seniors, especially those with cognitive impairment. PMID:26873049

  11. G. ED. Paper-Book 1974-1984. The Process of Growth of an Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verduin-Muller, Henriette, Ed.

    Fifteen papers presented at conferences throughout Europe and in the USSR, Nigeria, Japan, Jamaica, and Tunesia provide an introduction to the research work being done by the graduate level Department of Geography for Education (G.ED.) at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. An introductory chapter describes the three G.ED. modules, which…

  12. Using edTPA to Compare Online and Face to Face Teacher Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heafner, Tina; Petty, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Central to determining the effectiveness of technology to support learning and the value of technology-mediated instruction is the quality of programs. edTPA is a widely accepted, national measure of teacher readiness and preparation. Using edTPA score reports for teacher candidates completing a teacher education program, this study provides data…

  13. Minimizing ED Waiting Times and Improving Patient Flow and Experience of Care.

    PubMed

    Sayah, Assaad; Rogers, Loni; Devarajan, Karthik; Kingsley-Rocker, Lisa; Lobon, Luis F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a pre- and postintervention analysis to assess the impact of a process improvement project at the Cambridge Hospital ED. Through a comprehensive and collaborative process, we reengineered the emergency patient experience from arrival to departure. The ED operational changes have had a significant positive impact on all measured metrics. Ambulance diversion decreased from a mean of 148 hours per quarter before changes in July 2006 to 0 hours since April 2007. ED total length of stay decreased from a mean of 204 minutes before the changes to 132 minutes. Press Ganey patient satisfaction scores rose from the 12th percentile to the 59th percentile. ED patient volume grew by 11%, from a mean of 7,221 patients per quarter to 8,044 patients per quarter. Compliance with ED specific quality core measures improved from a mean of 71% to 97%. The mean rate of ED patients that left without being seen (LWBS) dropped from 4.1% to 0.9%. Improving ED operational efficiency allowed us to accommodate increasing volume while improving the quality of care and satisfaction of the ED patients with minimal additional resources, space, or staffing.

  14. Minimizing ED Waiting Times and Improving Patient Flow and Experience of Care

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Loni; Devarajan, Karthik; Lobon, Luis F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a pre- and postintervention analysis to assess the impact of a process improvement project at the Cambridge Hospital ED. Through a comprehensive and collaborative process, we reengineered the emergency patient experience from arrival to departure. The ED operational changes have had a significant positive impact on all measured metrics. Ambulance diversion decreased from a mean of 148 hours per quarter before changes in July 2006 to 0 hours since April 2007. ED total length of stay decreased from a mean of 204 minutes before the changes to 132 minutes. Press Ganey patient satisfaction scores rose from the 12th percentile to the 59th percentile. ED patient volume grew by 11%, from a mean of 7,221 patients per quarter to 8,044 patients per quarter. Compliance with ED specific quality core measures improved from a mean of 71% to 97%. The mean rate of ED patients that left without being seen (LWBS) dropped from 4.1% to 0.9%. Improving ED operational efficiency allowed us to accommodate increasing volume while improving the quality of care and satisfaction of the ED patients with minimal additional resources, space, or staffing. PMID:24829802

  15. Economic Development Network (ED>Net): 1995-96 Report to the Governor and the Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The Economic Development Network (ED>Net) of the California Community Colleges was designed to advance the state's economic growth and competitiveness by coordinating and facilitating workforce improvement, technology deployment, and business development initiatives. This report reviews outcomes for ED>Net for 1995-96 based on reports…

  16. Project LOGgED ON: Advanced Science Online for Gifted Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Christine; Urquhart, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Gifted students are often underserved because they do not have access to highly challenging curriculum. In October, 2002, Project LOGgED ON (www.scrolldown.com/loggedon/) at University of Virginia received federal funding from the Jacob Javits Act to tackle this issue. Those who were part of the LOGgED ON project developed advanced science…

  17. Standalone engine simulator (SAES), Engine Dynamics simulator (EDS) Xerox Sigma 5 interface hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirshten, P. M.; Black, S.; Pearson, R.

    1979-01-01

    The ESS-EDS and EDS-Sigma interfaces within the standalone engine simulator are described. The operation of these interfaces, including the definition and use of special function signals and data flow paths within them during data transfers, is presented along with detailed schematics and circuit layouts of the described equipment.

  18. Content Analysis of the Ph.D vs. Ed.D. Dissertation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coorough, Calleen; Nelson, Jack

    Typically, the Ph.D. degree is said to be more research-oriented, whereas the Ed.D. degree is aimed more at the educational practitioner. The two degrees were compared with regard to research design, statistics, target populations for inference of findings, and other characteristics. A sample of 1,007 Ph.D. and 960 Ed.D dissertations was selected…

  19. ED-B fibronectin expression is a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in translational oncology.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Iacopo; Barachini, Serena; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Galimberti, Sara; Modeo, Letizia; Boni, Roberto; Sollini, Martina; Erba, Paola Anna

    2017-01-17

    Fibronectin is a component of the extracellular matrix that links collagen fibers to integrins on the cell's surface. The splicing isoforms, containing the ED-B domain, are not expressed in adult tissues but only in tumor stroma or during embryonic development. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells express ED-B fibronectin during angiogenesis. Also cancer cells can synthetize ED-B fibronectin, but its function in tumor growth needs to be further elucidated.We evaluated the expression of ED-B fibronectin in prostate cancer cell lines: PC3 and DU145. Using TGF-β, we induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in culture and observed an increase of ED-B fibronectin expression. Thereafter, we evaluated the expression of ED-B fibronectin in multipotent mesangiogenic progenitor cells, and in mesenchymal stromal cells. The expression of ED-B fibronectin was much higher in mesenchymal than prostate cancer cells even after the epithelial to mesenchymal transition.Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a key step for tumor progression contributing to the metastatic spread. Therefore, circulating cancer cells could seed into the metastatic niche taking advantage from the ED-B fibronectin that secrete their own.

  20. Unstandardized Responses to a "Standardized" Test: The edTPA as Gatekeeper and Curriculum Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledwell, Katherine; Oyler, Celia

    2016-01-01

    We examine edTPA (a teacher performance assessment) implementation at one private university during the first year that our state required this exam for initial teaching certification. Using data from semi-structured interviews with 19 teacher educators from 12 programs as well as public information on edTPA pass rates, we explore whether the…

  1. Emotional Disturbance and School Personnel's Interactions: Perspectives of Families of Youth with ED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Quinn, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Nearly eight percent of the six million students, ages 6 to 21 years, who are receiving special education or related services are identified as having Emotional Disturbance (ED). Students with ED have been identified among all students with disabilities as having the worst student outcomes such as lower grades, high failing rates, higher…

  2. Race to the Top District Competition: The Data Quality Campaign's Comments on ED's Proposed Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) submits these comments in response to the US Department of Education's (ED) draft requirements, priorities, selection criteria, and definitions for the Race to the Top District (RTT-D) competition. DQC applauds ED for including the following components of the proposal: (1) Data is acknowledged throughout the…

  3. A Review of "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Joan Mogul

    2010-01-01

    While virtually all sex ed curricula are designed to be used with children, teens and young adults, "Older, Wiser, Sexually Smarter: 30 Sex Ed Lessons for Adults Only" ([C] 2009, Planned Parenthood of Greater Northern New Jersey) offers lessons to help participants fully embrace the possibility of sexual pleasure and intimacy from mid-life through…

  4. Is There a Future for Teacher Ed Curriculum? An Answer from History and Moral Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, J. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Is there a future for teacher ed "curriculum"? The author contends that he is not sure if there is a future for teacher ed curriculum, but if such a future is to exist, the answer will come only from history and moral philosophy. In this article, the author opines that individuals cannot make good decisions about the future of teacher ed…

  5. Multiple Intelligence and Digital Learning Awareness of Prospective B.Ed Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracious, F. L. Antony; Shyla, F. L. Jasmine Anne

    2012-01-01

    The present study Multiple Intelligence and Digital Learning Awareness of prospective B.Ed teachers was probed to find the relationship between Multiple Intelligence and Digital Learning Awareness of Prospective B.Ed Teachers. Data for the study were collected using self made Multiple Intelligence Inventory and Digital Learning Awareness Scale.…

  6. Legitimacy, Differentiation, and the Promise of the Ed.D. in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toma, J. Douglas

    This paper discusses the Ed.D. and the Ph.D. in Education degrees. Both degrees socialize students into a profession based in service, that enjoys autonomy, and that is grounded in a knowledge base. However, the Ed.D. prepares administrators for professional practice through a practical curriculum, and the Ph.D. concentrates on training faculty…

  7. EdTrAc Teacher Education Program: First-Year Implementation Evaluation (2005-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Brian; Shelton, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The Educational Training Academy (EdTrAc) is an NSF-funded project of Normandale Community College to increase the number, diversity, and skills of students preparing to be elementary and middle school teachers with a specialty in math and science. Overall, this evaluation indicates that the EdTrAc implementation is on track after its first year…

  8. "What about Bilingualism?" A Critical Reflection on the edTPA with Teachers of Emergent Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleyn, Tatyana; López, Dina; Makar, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    Amidst the debates surrounding teacher quality and preparation programs, the edTPA (education Teaching Performance Assessment) has emerged to assess future teachers through a portfolio-based certification process. This study offers the perspective of three faculty members who participated in an experimental configuration of edTPA implementation…

  9. Comprehensive determinants of health service utilisation for mental health reasons in a canadian catchment area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study sought to identify factors associated with health service utilisation by individuals with mental disorders in a Canadian catchment area. Methods To be included in the study, participants had to be aged between 15 and 65 and reside in the study location. Data was collected randomly from June to December 2009 by specially trained interviewers. A comprehensive set of variables (including geospatial factors) was studied using the Andersen's behavioural health service model. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were carried out. Results Among 406 individuals diagnosed with mental disorders, 212 reported using a mental health service at least once in the 12 months preceding the interviews. Emotional problems and a history of violence victimisation were most strongly associated with such utilisation. Participants who were middle-aged or deemed their mental health to be poor were also more likely to seek mental healthcare. Individuals living in neighbourhoods where rental accommodations were the norm used significantly fewer health services than individuals residing in neighbourhoods where homeownership was preponderant; males were also less likely to use services than females. Conclusions Our study broke new ground by uncovering the impact of longstanding violence victimisation, and the proportion of homeownership on mental health service utilisation among this population. It also confirmed the prominence of some variables (gender, age, emotional problems and self-perceived mental health) as key enabling variables of health-seeking. There should be better promotion of strategies designed to change the attitudes of males and youths and to deal with violence victimisation. There is also a need for initiatives that are targeted to neighbourhoods where there is more rental housing. PMID:22469459

  10. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure

  11. L’utilisation d’objets comme outils: un développement continu

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Björn Alexander; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Le débat autour des origines développementales de la capacité humaine à utiliser des outils de manière souple reste ouvert. Alors que l’approche dominante se focalise sur un changement qualitatif cognitif vers la fin de la première année, la théorie perception-action fournit des indices importants sur la manière dont les comportements exploratoires plus précoces des nourrissons jettent les bases pour l’émergence de cette capacité. En particulier, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont les tentatives des nourrissons de mettre en rapport les objets et les surfaces leur permettent d’apprendre comment les objets peuvent servir d’extension de la main et fournissent l’occasion d’exercer des actions qui seront recrutées plus tard pour l’utilisation d’outils. Dans ce contexte, nous discutons des études comportementales et cinématiques portant sur la manipulation d’objets, qui montrent que les nourrissons font interagir les objets et les surfaces avec discernement et que leur contrôle de la frappe (banging) augmente au cours de leur première année. En conclusion, une perspective perception-action suggère que l’utilisation d’outils émerge de manière plus continue au cours du développement que ce qui a été traditionnellement envisagé. PMID:24511151

  12. Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents.

    PubMed

    Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

    2006-10-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid phase in a biphasic solvent system. This paper describes a previously unreported use of MIPs as solvent extraction reagents, their successful application to aqueous sample media and the opportunities for utilisation of this unique system in novel biosensing and separation procedures. This study demonstrates the development of a novel biphasic solvent system utilising MIP in the extracting phase to enhance both efficiency and selectivity of a simple two phase liquid extraction. Monodisperse propranolol imprinted polymer microspheres [p(divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid)] were prepared by precipitation polymerisation. Initially, the affinity of the polymers for (R,S)-propranolol was assessed by established techniques whereby the MIP demonstrated greater affinity for the template than did the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP). Importantly, MIP performance was also assessed using the novel dual solvent system. The depletion of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase into the polymer containing organic phase was determined. When compared to control extractions containing no polymer the presence of MIP in the extracting solvent phase resulted in an increased extraction of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase. Importantly, this extraction was significantly greater in the presence of MIP when compared to NIP. This unique principle generates opportunities for MIP based extractions and chemical enrichments in industrial applications, offering commercial, ecological and practical advantages to traditional solvent extraction techniques. The

  13. Urinary oncofetal ED-A fibronectin correlates with poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Shanna A; Loomans, Holli A; Ketova, Tatiana; Andl, Claudia D; Clark, Peter E; Zijlstra, Andries

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) contributes to the structural integrity of tissues as well as the adhesive and migratory functions of cells. While FN is abundantly expressed in adult tissues, the expression of several alternatively spliced FN isoforms is restricted to embryonic development, tissue remodeling and cancer. These FN isoforms, designated ED-A and ED-B, are frequently expressed by cancer cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts and newly forming blood vessels. Using a highly sensitive collagen-based indirect ELISA, we evaluated the correlation of urinary ED-A and ED-B at time of cystectomy with overall survival in patients with high-grade bladder cancer (BCa). Detectable levels of total FN as well as ED-A and ED-B were found in urine from 85, 73 and 51 % of BCa patients, respectively. The presence of urinary ED-A was a significant independent predictor of 2-year overall survival (OS) after adjusting for age, tumor stage, lymph node stage, and urinary creatinine by multivariable Logistic Regression (p = 0.029, OR = 4.26, 95 % CI 1.16-15.71) and improved accuracy by 3.6 %. Furthermore, detection of ED-A in the urine was a significant discriminator of survival specifically in BCa patients with negative lymph node status (Log-Rank, p = 0.006; HR = 5.78, 95 % CI 1.39-24.13). Lastly, multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that urinary ED-A was an independent prognostic indicator of 5-year OS rate for patients with BCa (p = 0.04, HR = 2.20, 95 % CI 1.04-4.69). Together, these data suggest that cancer-derived, alternatively spliced FN isoforms can act as prognostic indicators and that additional studies are warranted to assess the clinical utility of ED-A in BCa.

  14. Teaching and Assessing ED Handoffs: A Qualitative Study Exploring Resident, Attending, and Nurse Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, Moira; Heilman, James A.; Johnson, Tom; Yarris, Lalena M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that residency programs ensure resident competency in performing safe, effective handoffs. Understanding resident, attending, and nurse perceptions of the key elements of a safe and effective emergency department (ED) handoff is a crucial step to developing feasible, acceptable educational interventions to teach and assess this fundamental competency. The aim of our study was to identify the essential themes of ED-based handoffs and to explore the key cultural and interprofessional themes that may be barriers to developing and implementing successful ED-based educational handoff interventions. Methods Using a grounded theory approach and constructivist/interpretivist research paradigm, we analyzed data from three primary and one confirmatory focus groups (FGs) at an urban, academic ED. FG protocols were developed using open-ended questions that sought to understand what participants felt were the crucial elements of ED handoffs. ED residents, attendings, a physician assistant, and nurses participated in the FGs. FGs were observed, hand-transcribed, audio-recorded and subsequently transcribed. We analyzed data using an iterative process of theme and subtheme identification. Saturation was reached during the third FG, and the fourth confirmatory group reinforced the identified themes. Two team members analyzed the transcripts separately and identified the same major themes. Results ED providers identified that crucial elements of ED handoff include the following: 1) Culture (provider buy-in, openness to change, shared expectations of sign-out goals); 2) Time (brevity, interruptions, waiting); 3) Environment (physical location, ED factors); 4) Process (standardization, information order, tools). Conclusion Key participants in the ED handoff process perceive that the crucial elements of intershift handoffs involve the themes of culture, time, environment, and process. Attention to these

  15. Evaluation of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal-derived liquid as utility diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heater, W.R.; Froh, T.W.; Ariga, S.; Baker, Q.A.; Piispanen, W.; Webb, P.; Trayser, D.; Keane, W.J.

    1983-10-01

    The program consisted of three phases: (I) characterization of the physical and chemical properties of EDS, (II) evaluation of EDS in a laboratory medium-speed diesel engine, and (III) evaluation of EDS in a low-speed diesel engine operating at a utility. The characteristics of high aromatic content and low cetane number that were found during Phase I made it unlikely that EDS could be used as a direct substitute for diesel fuel without engine modification to provide ignition assistance. Phase II was conducted on a 12-cylinder General Electric Company 7FDL diesel engine. Blends of up to 30% EDS and 70% 0.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing engine fuel oil system and injecting DF-2 through an auxiliary nozzle as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 5 to 10% pilot oil heat input. Phase III was conducted on a 16-cylinder Cooper-Bessemer LSV-16-GDT diesel engine at an EUC plant in Easton, Maryland. Blends of up to 66.7% EDS and 33.3% DF-2 were successfully consumed. Dual fuel tests were also conducted on a single cylinder by injecting EDS through the existing fuel oil system and using a natural-gas-fueled precombustion chamber as an ignition source. Acceptable operation was achieved using 3 to 6% pilot gas heat input. The program confirmed that it is feasible to consume significant proportions of EDS in a diesel engine, but more development is needed before EDS can be considered a viable alternative liquid fuel for diesel engines, and an industrial hygiene program is needed to assure safe handling of the fuel.

  16. EdU induces DNA damage response and cell death in mESC in culture.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, Fanni; Maya-Mendoza, Apolinar; Jackson, Dean A

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a novel DNA replication precursor analogue called 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) has been widely used to monitor DNA synthesis as an alternative to bromodeoxyuridine. Use of EdU benefits from simplicity and reproducibility and the simple chemical detection systems allows excellent preservation of nuclear structure. However, the alkyne moiety is highly reactive, raising the possibility that incorporation might compromise genome stability. To assess the extent of possible DNA damage, we have analysed the effect of EdU incorporation into DNA during short- and long-term cell culture using a variety of cell lines. We show that EdU incorporation has no measurable impact on the rate of elongation of replication forks during synthesis. However, using different cell lines we find that during long-term cell culture variable responses to EdU incorporation are seen, which range from delayed cell cycle progression to complete cell cycle arrest. The most profound phenotypes were seen in mouse embryonic stem cells, which following incorporation of EdU accumulated in the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle before undergoing apoptosis. In long-term cell culture, EdU incorporation also triggered a DNA damage response in all cell types analysed. Our study shows that while EdU is extremely useful to tag sites of on-going replication, for long-term studies (i.e. beyond the cell cycle in which labelling is performed), a careful analysis of cell cycle perturbations must be performed in order to ensure that any conclusions made after EdU treatment are not a direct consequence of EdU-dependent activation of cell stress responses.

  17. Utilising Nonlinear Air Damping as a Soft Mechanical Stopper for MEMS Vibration Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Tuan; Du, Sijun; Arroyo, Emmanuelle; Jia, Yu; Seshia, Ashwin

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports on the theory and experimental verification of utilising air damping as a soft stopper mechanism for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting to enhance shock resistance. Experiments to characterise device responsiveness under various vibration conditions were performed at different air pressure levels, and a dimensionless model was constructed with nonlinear damping terms included to model PVEH response. The relationship between the quadratic damping coefficient ζ n and air pressure is empirically established, and an optimal pressure level is calculated to trade off harvestable energy and device robustness for specific environmental conditions.

  18. An algorithmic approach for static and dynamic gesture recognition utilising mechanical and biomechanical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Parvini, Farid; Shahabi, Cyrus

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for recognising static and dynamic hand gestures by analysing the raw data streams generated by the sensors attached to the human hands. We utilise the concept of 'range of motion' in the movement of fingers and exploit this characteristic to analyse the acquired data for recognising hand signs. Our approach for hand gesture recognition addresses two major problems: user-dependency and device-dependency. Furthermore, we show that our approach neither requires calibration nor involves training. We apply our approach for recognising American Sign Language (ASL) signs and show that more than 75% accuracy in sign recognition can be achieved.

  19. Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

  20. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  1. Utilisation of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus Is Strain-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Tailford, Louise E.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ≥90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease. PMID:24204617

  2. A laser induced fluorescence technique for quantifying transient liquid fuel films utilising total internal reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Mario; Kay, Peter J.; Bowen, Phil J.; Gilchrist, Robert; Sapsford, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique to quantify the thickness and spatial distribution of transient liquid fuel films formed as a result of spray-wall interaction. The LIF technique relies on the principle that upon excitation by laser radiation the intensity of the fluorescent signal from a tracer like 3-pentanone is proportional to the film thickness. A binary solution of 10% (v/v) of 3-pentanone in iso-octane is used as a test fuel with a Nd:YAG laser as the excitation light source (utilising the fourth harmonic at wavelength 266 nm) and an intensified CCD camera is used to record the results as fluorescent images. The propagation of the excitation laser beam through the optical piston is carefully controlled by total internal reflection so that only the fuel film is excited and not the airborne droplets above the film, which had been previously shown to induce significant error. Other known sources of error are also carefully minimised. Calibrated temporally resolved benchmark results of a transient spray from a gasoline direct injector impinging on a flat quartz crown under atmospheric conditions are presented, with observations and discussion of the transient development of the fuel film. The calibrated measurements are consistent with previous studies of this event and demonstrate the applicability of the technique particularly for appraisal of CFD predictions. The potential utilisation of the technique under typical elevated ambient conditions is commented upon.

  3. Reflective topical autobiography: an under utilised interpretive research method in nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, M J

    1999-01-01

    Reflective topical autobiography (an autobiographical method) belongs to the genre of testimonial research and is located within the postpositivist interpretive research paradigm. Despite the (reflective) topical autobiographical method enjoying a 'rebirth' in recent years and being utilised by a range of researchers in the human and literary disciplines, it remains largely unknown and under utilised in nursing research domains. In this article it is proposed that reflective topical autobiography is an important research method in its own right, and one which promises to make a substantive contribution to the overall project of advancing nursing inquiry and knowledge. This is particularly so where nursing research shares in the affirming projects of interpretive research generally and the relatively new sociology of the emotions in particular apropos: (i) increasing understanding of subjectivity and making subjective experiences more visible and intelligible, (ii) the search for meaning and increasing understanding of the commonality of existential human experience, and (iii) decentring the detached observer and his/her privileging the objectivist illusion in the hierarchy of research discourses, paving the way for the admission of multiple realities and interpretations of lived experience. In this article, a coherent reflective topical autobiographical research method is advanced for use in nursing education and research contexts.

  4. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides.

  5. Heating Has No Effect on the Net Protein Utilisation from Egg Whites in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yayoi; Kimura, Mamoru; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Egg whites (EW) are a good source of protein; however, they are typically heated prior to consumption. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different heating conditions on the protein utilisation rate of EW. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 36, 198 ± 1 g) were divided into six groups and fed American Institute of Nutrition-76 chow containing unheated EW, soft-boiled EW, boiled EW, milk whey protein, soybean protein, or no protein over a 10-day period using pair-feeding. Urine and faeces were sampled daily beginning on day 5 to measure nitrogen content and the net protein utilisation (NPU) rate. The soybean protein group had a significantly lower level of food intake and was thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The NPU value was similar among the unheated, soft-boiled, and boiled EW groups (97.5 ± 0.4, 96.5 ± 0.1, and 96.5 ± 0.7, resp.). The EW group values were significantly higher than the whey group values (90.5 ± 1.0). These results show that EW serve as a good source of protein, irrespective of heating. PMID:28337477

  6. Isolation of palm oil-utilising, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing bacteria by an enrichment technique.

    PubMed

    Alias, Zazali; Tan, Irene K P

    2005-07-01

    In early attempts to isolate palm oil-utilising bacteria from palm oil mill effluent (POME), diluted liquid samples of POME were spread on agar containing POME as primary nutrient. 45 purified colonies were screened for intracellular lipids by staining with Sudan Black B. Of these, 10 isolates were positively stained. The latter were grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium with palm olein (a triglyceride) or saponified palm olein (salts of fatty acids) as carbon source. None of the isolates grew in the palm olein medium but all grew well in the saponified palm olein medium. Of the latter however, only one isolate was positively stained with Nile Blue A, indicating the presence of PHA. This method did not successfully generate bacterial isolates which could metabolise palm olein to produce PHA. An enrichment technique was therefore developed whereby a selective medium was designed. The latter comprised minerals and palm olein (1% w/v) as sole carbon source to which POME (2.5% v/v) was added as the source of bacteria. The culture was incubated with shaking at 30 degrees C for 4 weeks. Out of seven isolates obtained from the selective medium, two isolates, FLP1 and FLP2, could utilise palm olein for growth and production of the homopolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). FLP1 is gram-negative and is identified (BIOLOG) to have 80% similarity to Burkholderia cepacia. When grown with propionate or valerate, FLP1 produced a copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).

  7. Allele Mining Strategies: Principles and Utilisation for Blast Resistance Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ashkani, Sadegh; Yusop, Mohd Rafii; Shabanimofrad, Mahmoodreza; Azady, Amin; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Azizi, Parisa; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Allele mining is a promising way to dissect naturally occurring allelic variants of candidate genes with essential agronomic qualities. With the identification, isolation and characterisation of blast resistance genes in rice, it is now possible to dissect the actual allelic variants of these genes within an array of rice cultivars via allele mining. Multiple alleles from the complex locus serve as a reservoir of variation to generate functional genes. The routine sequence exchange is one of the main mechanisms of R gene evolution and development. Allele mining for resistance genes can be an important method to identify additional resistance alleles and new haplotypes along with the development of allele-specific markers for use in marker-assisted selection. Allele mining can be visualised as a vital link between effective utilisation of genetic and genomic resources in genomics-driven modern plant breeding. This review studies the actual concepts and potential of mining approaches for the discovery of alleles and their utilisation for blast resistance genes in rice. The details provided here will be important to provide the rice breeder with a worthwhile introduction to allele mining and its methodology for breakthrough discovery of fresh alleles hidden in hereditary diversity, which is vital for crop improvement.

  8. Relative bio-availability and utilisation of phosphatic fertilisers as sources of phosphorus in broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Rama Rao, S V; Ramasubba Reddy, V

    2003-03-01

    1. Different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g/kg diet) were given to broilers (8 to 42 d of age) to establish regressions between dietary NPP concentration and body weight gain and tibia ash content. Second and third experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of utilisation of different phosphatic fertilisers [ammonium phosphate (AP), ammonium polyphosphate (APP), single super phosphate (SSP), NPK (17:17:17, NPK) and NP (28:28:0, NPK)] in commercial broilers (8 to 42 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). 2. Phosphatic fertilisers were incorporated both in broiler (10 g calcium and 4.5 g NPP/kg) and layer (35 g calcium and 3.5 g NPP/kg) diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) in toto. 3. The logarithmic curves obtained for predicting the body weight gain and tibia ash content at different levels of NPP used in experiment 1 were Y = 156.27 + 2,468.8 logX (r2= 0.958) and Y = 530.82 + 144.26 log X (r2 = 0.916), respectively. 4. Body weight gain and food intake in broilers given APP- or NP-supplemented diets were comparable to these in the DCP-fed group. Feeding of NPK, AP or SSP resulted in significant depression in weight gain and food intake and high excreta moisture content. Food/gain, Ca and P contents in tibia ash and serum were not influenced by the use of phosphatic fertilisers as P sources in broiler diets. 5. Tibia ash content in broilers fed on diets containing fertilisers was either similar to or significantly higher than that in the DCP-fed group. Broilers on AP or SSP retained more P and had higher tibia ash content than those on DCP. AP, SSP or NPK caused degenerative and necrotic changes in liver, kidney and intestine of broilers. 6. Relative bio-availability of P from APP or NP was better for body weight gain than AP, SSP or NPK, while the reverse was true for bone calcification. 7. APP and NP gave hen-d egg production similar to that of DCP-fed layers. Food intake was significantly reduced

  9. Beam-broadening effects in STEM/EDS measurement of radiation-induced segregation in high-purity 304L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, J.T.; Was, G.S.; Allen, T.R. |; Kenik, E.A.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1997-10-01

    Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) is the spatial redistribution of elements at defect sinks such as grain boundaries and free surfaces during irradiation. This phenomenon has been studied in a wide variety of alloys and has been linked to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of nuclear reactor core components. Therefore, accurate determination of the grain boundary composition is important in understanding its effects on environmental cracking. Radiation-induced segregation profiles are routinely measured by scanning-transmission electron microscopy using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Because of the narrow width of the segregation profile (typically less than 10-nm full width at half-maximum), the accuracy of grain boundary concentration measurements using STEM/EDS depends on the characteristics of the analyzing instrument, specifically, the excited volume in which x-rays are generated. This excited volume is determined by both electron beam diameter and the primary electron beam energy. Increasing the primary beam energy in STEM/EDS produces greater measured grain boundary segregation, as the reduced electron beam broadening a smaller excited volume. In this work, the effect of beam broadening is assessed on segregation measurements in a 304L stainless steel sample irradiated with 3.2 MeV protons at 400 C to doses of 3.0 and 0.1 dpa. The STEM/EDS measurements are also compared to measurements made using AES.

  10. New levitation scheme with AC superconducting magnet for EDS MAGLEV system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.K.; Hahn, S.Y.; Cha, G.

    1996-09-01

    This paper proposes a new magnetic levitation scheme which is able to generate levitation force for all speeds including a standstill. Auxiliary wheels which are needed in EDS MAGLEV vehicle can be eliminated. This scheme uses AC superconducting magnets to generate levitation force. In this paper, magnetic fields, forces and power dissipations generated by AC magnets moving above a conducting slab are calculated analytically. Results of calculation show characteristics of EDS system with AC magnet, such as levitation force and loss, are superior to those of EDS system with DC magnets for all speeds.

  11. SEM, EDS and vibrational spectroscopic study of dawsonite NaAl(CO3)(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Sampaio, Ney Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Fernando A. N.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we have studied the mineral dawsonite by using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with EDS and vibrational spectroscopy. Single crystals show an acicular habitus forming aggregates with a rosette shape. The chemical analysis shows a phase composed of C, Al, and Na. Two distinct Raman bands at 1091 and 1068 cm-1 are assigned to the CO32- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. Multiple bands are observed in both the Raman and infrared spectra in the antisymmetric stretching and bending regions showing that the symmetry of the carbonate anion is reduced and in all probability the carbonate anions are not equivalent in the dawsonite structure. Multiple OH deformation vibrations centred upon 950 cm-1 in both the Raman and infrared spectra show that the OH units in the dawsonite structure are non-equivalent. Raman bands observed at 3250, 3283 and 3295 cm-1 are assigned to OH stretching vibrations. The position of these bands indicates strong hydrogen bonding of the OH units in the dawsonite structure. The formation of the mineral dawsonite has the potential to offer a mechanism for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases.

  12. Utilisation of joint movement range in arboreal primates compared with human subjects: an evolutionary frame for primary osteoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, C J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an arboreal lifestyle required full use of movement ranges underutilised in nine joint groups in humans, because under-utilisation of available movement range may be associated with susceptibility to primary osteoarthritis. METHODS--Utilisation of the nine joint groups was studied in two species of primate exercising in a simulated arboreal environment, using 'focal animal' observation techniques supplemented by telephoto photography and by review of archival material from other sources. Fifteen apes were observed over a total observation period of 20.2 man-hours and 152 films were analysed for utilisation of movement range. RESULTS--With one exception, all the movement ranges reported to be under-utilised in humans were fully utilised by the apes in climbing activities. The exception, metacarpophalangeal extension, was an essential component of the chimpanzee ground progression mode of knuckle walking. CONCLUSIONS--The underused movement range in several human joints is explicable as residual capacity from a semiarboreal lifestyle. If the correlation with primary osteoarthritis is confirmed, it suggests that the disease may reflect a disparity between inherited capacity and current need. The significance of the result lies in its implication that primary osteoarthritis may be preventable. Images PMID:7826133

  13. The effect of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on health service utilisation of a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lam, Cindy L K; Fong, Daniel Y T; Lauder, Ian J; Lam, Tai-Pong D

    2002-11-01

    This study was designed to find out whether health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was an independent determinant of health service utilisation of a Chinese population and to determine whether the addition of HRQOL data to sociodemographic and morbidity factors could significantly increase the explanatory power of risk-adjustment models. A cross-sectional random telephone survey of the general adult Chinese population in Hong Kong was conducted among 2410 Chinese aged 18-88yr old, 52% were females and 38% had one or more chronic diseases. Health service utilisation was measured by annual consultation, monthly consultation and hospitalisation rates. HRQOL was measured by the SF-36. Multivariate regressions were used to test the dependence of service utilisation rates on sociodemographic factors, chronic morbidity and the SF-36 scores. Structured multiphase regression analyses were used to determine the magnitude of the effect of the SF-36 scores, in addition to those of sociodemographic and chronic morbidity factors, on service utilisation. Five of eight SF-36 scores were independent determinants of consultation rates. They doubled and tripled the percentages of variance explained for annual and monthly consultation rates, respectively. Role limitation by physical problems and bodily pain scores had a significant effect on hospitalisation rates. This was the first study showing a linear relationship between HRQOL and service utilisation on a Chinese population. It confirmed the clinical relevance of the SF-36 to a culture and health care system that is different from that of the United States where the instrument originated.

  14. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Aderonke A.; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A.

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t(630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t(630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t(580) = −641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. PMID:26839732

  15. Effect of glycine supplementation in low protein diets with amino acids from soy protein isolate or free amino acids on broiler growth and nitrogen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Siegert, W; Wild, K J; Schollenberger, M; Helmbrecht, A; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-06-01

    Here, it was investigated whether substitution of amino acids (AA) from soy protein isolate with free AA in low crude protein diets influences the growth performance and N utilisation in broilers, and whether interactions with dietary glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration exist. Birds were distributed in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of 48 floor pens containing 10 birds each, plus 48 metabolism cages containing two birds each. Experimental feed was provided for ad libitum consumption from d 7 to 22. Diets contained either a soy protein isolate at 79 g/kg or a mix of free AA, which supplied the same amount of 18 proteinogenic AA. A mix of free glycine and l-serine was used to obtain low and high (12.0 and 20.5 g/kg dry matter) levels of dietary Glyequi. Substitution of soy protein isolate with free AA reduced the average daily gain and feed efficiency, mainly due to reduced feed intake. Efficiency of N accretion was not influenced by the AA source or Glyequi concentration on d 21, possibly due to the lower AA digestibility of soy protein isolate and higher urinary excretion of nitrogenous substances in the treatments with the AA mix. The average daily weight gain of the treatments with high Glyequi concentration was higher for both AA sources. This increase was due to higher average daily feed intake by broilers in the treatments with soy protein isolate and due to the increased feed efficiency in the treatments with the AA mix. Broilers exhibited different growth responses to dietary Glyequi between the AA sources; however, these responses could not be attributed to the different utilisation of Glyequi for uric acid synthesis.

  16. Tracing diatom utilisation, and its fate, in Lake Baikal, Siberia: the application of silicon isotope geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panizzo, V. N.; Swann, G. E. A.; Mackay, A. W.; Roberts, S.; Vologina, E.; Sturm, M.; Horstwood, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The global biogeochemical cycling of silicon (Si) is intrinsically linked to the fate of CO2 in the earth's atmosphere. To date, most research has focused on the oceanic cycling of Si over glacial/interglacial timescales although, the importance of continental Si cycling (via abiotic and biotic processes) is now being addressed. Especially as the significant potential for Si sequestration in continental lake systems has been recently highlighted [1]. We present the first large-scale silicon isotope (δ30SiDSi) profiles of Lake Baikal's water column, where a comparison between both pre- and post-diatom growing season δ30SiDSi signatures are made. Samples were collected along a water profile (surface to 180 m) at numerous sites across Lake Baikal, with deep-water endmembers at 400 m and c. 1,500 m. All isotopic analyses were conducted on a Neptune + Multi-Collector ICP-MS at NIGL, UK, using wet plasma mode with Mg doping of samples and standard-sample-standard bracketing. Analytical reproducibility is 0.12‰ (2σ) and blanks are <1% of signal intensity. DSi concentrations of March water surface samples (South Basin only) range between c. 0.74 and 1.23 ppm while those collected in August are all <0.70 ppm, following seasonal biological utilisation. In turn Chlorophyll a values from South Basin profiles in August are greater (between c. 1.46 to 3.18 mg l-1) than March surface values (<0.70 mg l-1). Indeed, March δ30SiDSi surface values range between c. +2.16 and +2.45‰ while summer surface values range between c. +2.20 and +2.84‰, reflecting residual pool depletion after summer biological utilisation. δ30SiDSi values are >1‰ more enriched than dominant lake water inflows again reflecting diatom Si uptake. Annual open sediment traps deployed down Lake Baikal's water column yield δ30Sidiatom signatures of +1.25‰, which suggests that down-column diatom dissolution is minimal. Applying the diatom fractionation factor of -1.1‰[2] and adopting a closed system

  17. Design and utilisation of protocols to characterise dynamic PET uptake of two tracers using basis pursuit.

    PubMed

    Bell, Christopher Michael; Puttick, Simon; Rose, Stephen; Smith, Jye; Thomas, Paul; Dowson, Nicholas

    2017-04-04

    Imaging using more than one biological process using PET could be of great utility, but despite previously proposed approaches to dual-tracer imaging, it is seldom performed. The alternative of performing multiple scans is often infeasible for clinical practice or even in research studies. Dual-tracer PET scanning allows for multiple PET radiotracers to be imaged within the same imaging session. In this paper we describe our approach to utilise the basis pursuit method to aid in the R2.9 design of dual-tracer PET imaging experiments, and later in separation of the signals. The advantage of this approach is that it does not require a compartment model architecture to be specified or even that both signals are distinguishable in all cases. This means the R2.16 method for separating dual-tracer signals can be used for many feasible and useful combinations of biology or radiotracer, once an appropriate scanning protocol has been decided upon. Following a demonstration in separating the signals from two consecutively injected radionuclides in a controlled experiment, phantom and list-mode mouse experiments demonstrated the ability to test the R2.13feasibility of dual-tracer imaging protocols for multiple injection delays. Increases in variances predicted for kinetic macro-parameters VD and KI in brain and tumoral tissue were obtained when R2.14 separating the synthetically combined data. R2.2 These experiments confirmed previous work using other approaches that injections delays of 10-20 minutes ensured increases in variance were kept minimal for the test tracers used. On this basis, an actual dual-tracer experiment using a 20-minute delay was performed using these radio tracers, with the kinetic parameters (VD and KI) extracted for each tracer in agreement with the literature. This R2.4, 2.8 study supports previous work that dual-tracer PET imaging can be accomplished provided certain constraints are adhered to. The utilisation of basis pursuit techniques, with its

  18. Plant Growth/Plant Phototropism - Skylab Student Experiment ED-61/62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment ED-61, Plant Growth, and experiment ED-62, Plant Phototropism. Two similar proposals were submitted by Joel G. Wordekemper of West Point, Nebraska, and Donald W. Schlack of Downey, California. Wordekemper's experiment (ED-61) was to see how the lack of gravity would affect the growth of roots and stems of plants. Schlack's experiment (ED-62) was to study the effect of light on a seed developing in zero gravity. The growth container of the rice seeds for their experiment consisted of eight compartments arranged in two parallel rows of four. Each had two windowed surfaces to allow periodic photography of the developing seedlings. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  19. 48 CFR 3452.232-70 - Prohibition against the use of ED funds to influence legislation or appropriations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use of ED funds to influence legislation or appropriations. 3452.232-70 Section 3452.232-70 Federal... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 3452.232-70 Prohibition against the use of ED... 3432.770: Prohibition Against the Use of ED Funds To Influence Legislation or Appropriations (APR...

  20. 48 CFR 3432.770 - Prohibition against the use of ED funds to influence legislation or appropriations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use of ED funds to influence legislation or appropriations. 3432.770 Section 3432.770 Federal... CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 3432.770 Prohibition against the use of ED funds to influence... Against the Use of ED Funds to Influence Legislation or Appropriations, in contracts with...

  1. 20 CFR 641.360 - How does the State Plan relate to the equitable distribution (ED) report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... equitable distribution (ED) report? 641.360 Section 641.360 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... equitable distribution (ED) report? The two documents address some of the same areas, and are prepared at different points in time. The ED report is prepared by State agencies at the beginning of each fiscal...

  2. Test Review: Epstein, M. H., & Cullinan, D. (2010). "Scales for Assessing Emotional Disturbance" (2nd Ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Gordon D.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews "Scales for Assessing Emotional Disturbance-Second Edition" (SAED-2; Epstein & Cullinan, 2010), an assessment system primarily designed to assist in determining eligibility for special education services under the category of emotional disturbance (ED), as defined by the "Individuals with Disabilities…

  3. The use of secure anonymised data linkage to determine changes in healthcare utilisation following severe open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Page, Piers R J; Trickett, Ryan W; Rahman, Shakeel M; Walters, Angharad; Pinder, Leila M; Brooks, Caroline J; Hutchings, Hayley; Pallister, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Severe open fractures of the lower limbs are complex injuries requiring expert multidisciplinary management in appropriate orthoplastic centres. This study aimed to assess the impact of open fractures on healthcare utilisation and test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation between the year before and year after injury, and that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation in the year post-injury between patients admitted directly to an orthoplastic centre in keeping with the joint BOA/BAPRAS standards and those having initial surgery elsewhere. This retrospective cohort study utilising secure anonymised information linkage (SAIL), a novel databank of anonymised nationally pooled health records, recruited patients over 18 years of age sustaining severe open lower limb fractures managed primarily or secondarily at our centre and who had data available in the SAIL databank. 101 patients met inclusion criteria and 90 of these had records in the SAIL databank. The number of days in hospital, number of primary care attendances, number of outpatient attendances and number of emergency department attendances in the years prior and subsequent to injury were recorded. Patients sustaining open fractures had significantly different healthcare utilisation in the year after injury when compared with the year before, in terms of days spent in hospital (23.42 vs. 1.70, p=0.000), outpatient attendances (11.98 vs. 1.05, p=0.000), primary care attendances (29.48 vs. 11.99, p=0.000) and emergency department presentations (0.2 vs. 0.01, p=0.025). Patients admitted directly to orthoplastic centres had significantly fewer operations (1.78 vs. 3.31) and GP attendances (23.6 vs. 33.52) than those transferred in subsequent to initial management in other units. There is a significant increase in healthcare utilisation after open tibial fracture. Adherence to national standards minimises the impact of this on both patients and health services.

  4. Peer to Peer Education: OB Visits the ED.

    PubMed

    Homan, Nancy; Chichester, Melanie

    2016-03-01

    Ongoing education, an ever-present challenge in a hectic clinical environment, can be addressed by utilizing peer-to-peer education. Enhancing nurses' comfort level with specialty topics can reduce anxiety while enhancing core knowledge and skill proficiency for the provision of safe care. Increased self-confidence in a nurse's ability to detect a new or developing concern can lead to fewer delays in care. Critical problems identified and addressed promptly support better outcomes.

  5. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  6. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions

  7. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top

  8. Numerical system utilising a Monte Carlo calculation method for accurate dose assessment in radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Endo, A

    2007-01-01

    A system utilising radiation transport codes has been developed to derive accurate dose distributions in a human body for radiological accidents. A suitable model is quite essential for a numerical analysis. Therefore, two tools were developed to setup a 'problem-dependent' input file, defining a radiation source and an exposed person to simulate the radiation transport in an accident with the Monte Carlo calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. Necessary resources are defined by a dialogue method with a generally used personal computer for both the tools. The tools prepare human body and source models described in the input file format of the employed Monte Carlo codes. The tools were validated for dose assessment in comparison with a past criticality accident and a hypothesized exposure.

  9. The possibilities of utilisation of heat from Tattapani Geothermal field, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarolkar, P.B.; Pitale, U.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Tattapani Geothermal field produces + 1800 1pm thermal water of 100{degrees}C from five production wells. The hot water production can sustain electricity production of 300 kWe by using a binary cycle power plant. The heat energy of effluent water from power plant can be utilized for direct heat utilization on horticulture, aquaculture, cold storage, silviculture etc; to augment the economics of the power plant be spot can be developed as a centre for tourist attraction by constructing botanical park, greenhouse, geyser show and crocodile farm. The direct heat utilization shemes can be planned in cascading order to achieve maximum utility of thermal water. Additional deep drilling is essential for optimum commercial utilization of the Geothermal energy. The direct heat utilisation shemes along with binary cycle power plant may help in development of the geothermal energy and boosting the economy of this region.

  10. Investigating public perceptions of carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technology: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Jones, C R; Kaklamanou, D; Stuttard, W M; Radford, R L; Burley, J

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technologies hold promise for helping to limit atmospheric releases of CO2 while generating saleable products. However, while there is growing investment in the research and development required to bring CDU to the market, to date there has been very little systematic research into public perceptions of the technology. The current research reports upon the findings of a series of six qualitative focus groups (and an associated questionnaire) held with members of the UK public in order to discuss the perceived benefits and risks of CDU technology. The findings reveal that public awareness of CDU is currently very low and that there is a desire to learn more about the technology. While our participants did, on average, appear to develop an overall positive attitude towards CDU, this attitude was tentative and was associated with a number of caveats. The implications for the findings in terms of the development of communication and broader strategies of public engagements are outlined.

  11. Détermination du courant d'arc par utilisation de fibres optiques fluorescentes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melouki, B.; Lieutier, M.; Lefort, A.

    1997-02-01

    In this paper, we develop a method of determination of the arc current in a circuit breaker during the interruption. This method is based on the use of an optoelectronic system using a fluorescent optical fibre coupled with a photodetector. The current wave is obtained from the light wave detected by the detection system. Dans cet article, nous développons une méthode permettant de déterminer le courant traversant un disjoncteur lors d'une coupure. Cette méthode utilise un système optoélectronique constitué d'une fibre optique fluorescente couplée à un photodétecteur. L'onde du courant d'arc est obtenue à partir de l'onde lumineuse reçue par le système de détection.

  12. Inter-comparison of safety culture within selected practices in Ghana utilising ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Schandorf, C; Darko, E O; Boadu, M; Emi-Reynolds, G; Awudu, A R; Gyekye, P K; Kpeglo, D O

    2010-12-01

    The safety culture of selected practices and facilities in Ghana utilising radiation sources or radiation emitting devices has been assessed using a performance indicator, which provided status information on management and operating staff commitment to safety. The questionnaire was based on the following broad areas: general safety considerations, safety policy at the facility level, safety practices at the facility level, definition of responsibility, staff training, safety of the physical structure of the facility and the emergency plans. The analysis showed that the percentage levels of commitment to safety for the respective practices are as follows: conventional radiography, 23.3-90.0%; research reactor, 73.3%; gamma irradiation facility, 53.3%; radiotherapy, 76.7%; X-ray scanner, 80.0%; gamma scanner, 76.7%; industrial radiography 86.7% and nuclear density practice, 78%. None of the practices or facilities was able to satisfy all the requirements that will ensure a 100% level of safety culture.

  13. Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-05-01

    Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

  14. Stem cell survival is severely compromised by the thymidineanalog EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), an alternative to BrdU for proliferation assays and stem cell tracing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ditte C; Skovrind, Ida; Christensen, Marlene Louise; Jensen, Charlotte H; Sheikh, Søren P

    2013-11-01

    Stem cell therapy has opened up the possibility of treating numerous degenerating diseases. However, we are still merely at the stage of identifying appropriate sources of stem cells and exploring their full differentiation potential. Thus, tracking the stem cells upon in vivo engraftment and during in vitro co-culture is very important and is an area of research embracing many pitfalls. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), a rather new thymidine analog incorporated into DNA, has recently been suggested to be a novel highly valid alternative to other dyes for labeling of stem cells and subsequent tracing of their proliferation and differentiation ability. However, our results herein do not at any stage support this recommendation, since EdU severely reduces the viability of stem cells. Accordingly, we found that transplanted EdU-labeled stem cells hardly survive upon in vivo transplantation into regenerating muscle, whereas stem cells labeled in parallel with another dye survived very well and also participated in myofiber formation. Similar data were obtained upon in vitro myogenic culture, and further analysis showed that EdU reduced cell numbers by up to 88 % and increased the cell volume of remaining cells by as much as 91 %. Even at low EdU concentrations, cell survival and phenotype were substantially compromised, and the myogenic differentiation potential was inhibited. Since we examined both primary derived cells and cell lines from several species with the same result, this appears to be a common trait of EdU. We therefore suggest that EdU labeling should be avoided (or used with precaution) for stem cell tracing purposes.

  15. Utilisation of chemical signals by inquiline wasps in entering their host figs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ding; Yang, Da-Rong

    2013-10-01

    The fig tree, Ficus curtipes, hosts an obligate pollinating wasp, an undescribed Eupristina sp., but can also be pollinated by two inquiline (living in the burrow, nest, gall, or other habitation of another animal) wasps, Diaziella yangi and an undescribed Lipothymus sp. The two inquilines are unable to independently induce galls and depend on the galls induced by the obligate pollinator for reproduction and, therefore, normally enter receptive F. curtipes figs colonised by the obligate pollinators. However, sometimes the inquilines also enter figs that are not colonised by the pollinators, despite consequent reproductive failure. It is still unknown which signal(s) the inquilines use in entering the colonised and non-colonised figs. We conducted behavioural experiments to investigate several possible signals utilised by the inquilines in entering their host receptive figs. Our investigation showed that both inquiline species enter the receptive F. curtipes figs in response to the body odours of the obligate wasps and one of the main compounds emitted by the figs, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. The compound was not found in the pollinator body odours, suggesting that the two inquiline wasps can utilise two signals to enter their host figs, which is significant for the evolution of the fig-fig wasp system. These inquilines could evolve to become mutualists of the figs if they evolve the ability to independently gall fig flowers; there is, however, another possibility that a monoecious Ficus species hosting such inquilines may evolve into a dioecious one if these inquilines cannot evolve the above-mentioned ability. Additionally, this finding provides evidence for the evolution of chemical communication between plants and insects.

  16. A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

  17. How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Jason; Lim, Tow Keang

    2008-01-01

    Background In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA) and the online resource UpToDate. Methods This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Results Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3%) owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7%) used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Conclusion Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice. PMID:18625038

  18. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

  19. Extensive FE-SEM/EDS, HR-TEM/EDS and ToF-SIMS studies of micron- to nano-particles in anthracite fly ash.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joana; DaBoit, Kátia; Flores, Deolinda; Kronbauer, Marcio A; Silva, Luis F O

    2013-05-01

    The generation of anthropogenic carbonaceous matter and mixed crystalline/amorphous mineral ultrafine/nano-particles in the 1 to 100 nm size range by worldwide coal power plants represents serious environmental problems due to their potential hazards. Coal fly ash (CFA) that resulted from anthracite combustion in a Portuguese thermal power plant was studied in this work. The physico-chemical characterization of ultrafine/nano-particles present in the CFA samples and their interaction with environment are the aim of this study. The methodologies applied for this work were field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (HR-TEM/EDS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Some hazardous volatile elements, C, N, S and Hg contents were also determined in the studied samples. Generally, the CFA samples comprise carbonaceous, glassy and metallic solid spheres with some containing mixed amorphous/crystalline phases. The EDS analysis coupled with the FE-SEM and HR-TEM observations of the fly ash particles with 100 to 0.1 nm demonstrates that these materials contain a small but significant proportion of encapsulated HVEs. In addition, the presence of abundant multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amorphous carbon particles, both containing hazardous volatile elements (HVEs), was also evidenced by the FE-SEM/EDS and HR-TEM/EDS analysis. A wide range of organic and inorganic compounds was determined by chemical maps obtained in ToF-SIMS analysis.

  20. Cell type specific applicability of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) for dynamic proliferation assessment in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Diermeier-Daucher, Simone; Clarke, Scott T; Hill, Dani; Vollmann-Zwerenz, Arabel; Bradford, Jolene A; Brockhoff, Gero

    2009-06-01

    Using the nucleoside analogue EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) for thymidine substitution instead of BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) in cell proliferation assays has recently been proposed. However, the effect of EdU on cell viability, DNA synthesis, and cell cycle progression and consequently its usability for dynamic cell proliferation analysis in vitro has not been explored. We compared the effect of EdU and BrdU incorporation into SK-BR-3 and BT474 breast cancer cells and the impact on cell cycle kinetics, cell viability, and DNA damage. We found that EdU can be used not only for pulse but also for continuous cell labeling and henceforth in high resolution EdU/Hoechst quenching assays. BrdU and EdU proliferation assays based on click chemistry revealed comparable results. However, cell viability of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells was highly affected by long term exposure to EdU. Both SK-BR-3 as well as BT474 cells show cell cycle arrests upon long term EdU treatment whereas only SK-BR-3 cells were driven into necrotic cell death by long term exposure to EdU. In contrast BT474 cells appeared essentially unharmed by EdU treatment in terms of viability. Consequently using EdU enables highly sensitive and quantitative detection of proliferating cells and facilitates even continuous cell cycle assessment. Nevertheless, potential cellular susceptibility needs to be individually evaluated.

  1. Flow cytometric analysis of T lymphocyte proliferation in vivo by EdU incorporation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojing; Zhang, Chunpan; Jin, Hua; Sun, Guangyong; Tian, Yue; Shi, Wen; Zhang, Dong

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring T lymphocyte proliferation, especially in vivo, is essential for the evaluation of adaptive immune reactions. Flow cytometry-based proliferation assays have advantages in measuring cell division of different T lymphocyte subsets at the same time by multicolor labelling. In this study, we aimed to establish the use of 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation in vivo to monitor T lymphocyte proliferation by flow cytometry with an adoptive transfer model. We found that fixation followed by permeabilization preserved T cell surface antigens and had no obvious effects on the fluorescence intensity of APC, PE, PE-Cy7, FITC and PerCP-Cy5.5 when the concentration of the permeabilization reagents was optimized. However, the click reaction resulted in a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of PE and PE-Cy7, and surface staining after the click reaction improved the fluorescence intensity. Thus, an extra step of blocking with PBS with 3% FBS between the click reaction and cell surface staining is needed. Furthermore, the percentage of EdU-positive cells increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the saturated dose of EdU was 20mg/kg. Intraperitoneal and intravenous injection had no differences in lymphocyte proliferation detection with EdU in vivo. In addition, T cell proliferation measured by EdU incorporation was comparable to BrdU but was lower than CFSE labelling. In conclusion, we optimized the protocols for EdU administration in vivo and staining in vitro, providing a feasible method for the measurement of T lymphocyte proliferation with EdU incorporation by flow cytometry in vivo.

  2. Modelling the growth of Populus species using Ecosystem Demography (ED) model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Lebauer, D. S.; Feng, X.; Dietze, M. C.

    2010-12-01

    Hybrid poplar plantations are an important source being evaluated for biomass production. Effective management of such plantations requires adequate growth and yield models. The Ecosystem Demography model (ED) makes predictions about the large scales of interest in above- and belowground ecosystem structure and the fluxes of carbon and water from a description of the fine-scale physiological processes. In this study, we used a workflow management tool, the Predictive Ecophysiological Carbon flux Analyzer (PECAn), to integrate literature data, field measurement and the ED model to provide predictions of ecosystem functioning. Parameters for the ED ensemble runs were sampled from the posterior distribution of ecophysiological traits of Populus species compiled from the literature using a Bayesian meta-analysis approach. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the parameters which contribute the most to the uncertainties of the ED model output. Model emulation techniques were used to update parameter posterior distributions using field-observed data in northern Wisconsin hybrid poplar plantations. Model results were evaluated with 5-year field-observed data in a hybrid poplar plantation at New Franklin, MO. ED was then used to predict the spatial variability of poplar yield in the coterminous United States (United States minus Alaska and Hawaii). Sensitivity analysis showed that root respiration, dark respiration, growth respiration, stomatal slope and specific leaf area contribute the most to the uncertainty, which suggests that our field measurements and data collection should focus on these parameters. The ED model successfully captured the inter-annual and spatial variability of the yield of poplar. Analyses in progress with the ED model focus on evaluating the ecosystem services of short-rotation woody plantations, such as impacts on soil carbon storage, water use, and nutrient retention.

  3. Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2014-01-14

    The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs.

  4. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  5. Utilisation and Satisfaction with Rehabilitation Services in Children with Primary Language Impairment Transitioning to School: Parents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Barbara; Dion, Karyne; Moryoussef, Aguy

    2017-01-01

    Children with disabilities require coordinated services to optimise transition into school. This study compared type, frequency and approach to service utilisation for children with primary language impairment transitioning from rehabilitation to the educational system, and examined parent satisfaction. Parents responded to a telephone…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of the Utilisation of Emotional Intelligence by Their School Principals to Manage Mandated Curriculum Change Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobler, Bennie; Moloi, Connie; Thakhordas, Sunita

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study investigates teachers' perceptions of how Emotional Intelligence (EI) was utilised by their school principals to manage mandated curriculum change processes in schools in the Johannesburg North district of Gauteng in South Africa. Research shows that EI consists of a range of fundamental skills that could enable school…

  7. The Effect of Children's Rights Training on Primary School Students' Utilisation and Knowledge Level about Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Suna Kaymak; Ocal, Tugba; Ozmen, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently, children's rights issue has taken attention. In this study, main purpose was to investigate the utilisation and knowledge level of 4th and 5th grade primary school students after children's rights training. The participants of this survey study were selected randomly from 10 schools. Results indicated that students had the chance to…

  8. Utilisation and Impact of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Database (TEEAL) on Library Services in a Nigerian University of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwole, A. A.; Sowole, A. O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the utilisation of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Library database (TEEAL) at the University of Agriculture Library, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection was by questionnaire following a purposive sampling technique. A total of 104 out 150 (69.3 per cent) responses were received and…

  9. Impediments to Effective Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology Tools in Selected Universities in the North-Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impediments to effective use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in Nigerian universities. Series of research conducted on the factors militating against computerisation indicated that, there were impediments to effective utilisation of ICT tools in most developing countries. In the light of this, the…

  10. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation: evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Design A population-based cross-sectional study. Setting and participants We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, which included 2987 women who provided information on maternal health insurance status. Primary outcomes Utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Statistical analyses Multivariable logistic regression was applied to determine the independent association between maternal health insurance and utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Results After adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic and obstetric factors, we observed that among insured women the likelihood of having antenatal care increased by 96% (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.52; p value<0.001) and of skilled delivery by 129% (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.92 to 2.74; p value<0.001), while postnatal care among insured women increased by 61% (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.21; p value<0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated that maternal health insurance status plays a significant role in the uptake of the maternal, neonatal and child health continuum of care service. PMID:26993621

  11. Site-specific modification of ED-B-targeting antibody using intein-fusion technology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A promising new approach in cancer therapy is the use of tumor specific antibodies coupled to cytotoxic agents. Currently these immunoconjugates are prepared by rather unspecific coupling chemistries, resulting in heterogeneous products. As the drug load is a key parameter for the antitumor activity, site-specific strategies are desired. Expressed protein ligation (EPL) and protein trans-splicing (PTS) are methods for the specific C-terminal modification of a target protein. Both include the expression as an intein fusion protein, followed by the exchange of the intein for a functionalized moiety. Results A full-length IgG specific for fibronectin ED-B was expressed as fusion protein with an intein (Mxe GyrA or Npu DnaE) attached to each heavy chain. In vitro protocols were established to site-specifically modify the antibodies in high yields by EPL or PTS, respectively. Although reducing conditions had to be employed during the process, the integrity or affinity of the antibody was not affected. The protocols were used to prepare immunoconjugates containing two biotin molecules per antibody, attached to the C-termini of the heavy chains. Conclusion Full-length antibodies can be efficiently and site-specifically modified at the C-termini of their heavy chains by intein-fusion technologies. The described protocols can be used to prepare immunoconjugates of high homogeneity and with a defined drug load of two. The attachment to the C-termini is expected to retain the affinity and effector functions of the antibodies. PMID:21777442

  12. Cardiac cell proliferation assessed by EdU, a novel analysis of cardiac regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bin; Tong, Suiyang; Ren, Xiaofeng; Xia, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that mammalian hearts maintain the capacity for cardiac regeneration. Rapid and sensitive identification of cardiac cellular proliferation is prerequisite for understanding the underlying mechanisms and strategies of cardiac regeneration. The following immunologically related markers of cardiac cells were analyzed: cardiac transcription factors Nkx2.5 and Gata 4; specific marker of cardiomyocytes TnT; endothelial cell marker CD31; vascular smooth muscle marker smooth muscle myosin IgG; cardiac resident stem cells markers IsL1, Tbx18, and Wt1. Markers were co-localized in cardiac tissues of embryonic, neonatal, adult, and pathological samples by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. EdU was also used to label isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro. EdU robustly labeled proliferating cells in vitro and in vivo, co-immunostaining with different cardiac cells markers. EdU can rapidly and sensitively label proliferating cardiac cells in developmental and pathological states. Cardiac cell proliferation assessed by EdU is a novel analytical tool for investigating the mechanism and strategies of cardiac regeneration in response to injury.

  13. ED-110, a novel indolocarbazole, prevents the growth of experimental tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, H; Iguchi, T; Yoshinari, T; Kojiri, K; Suda, H; Okura, A

    1993-05-01

    A new indolocarbazole compound, ED-110, which was obtained by glucosylating a microbial product (BE-13793C) and is a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor, showed characteristic inhibitory effects on the growth of 12 human tumor cell lines tested. The IC50 values of ED-110 against 9 of the 12 lines ranged from 11.5 micrograms/ml to 0.07 microgram/ml, while the remaining 3 lines were quite resistant (IC50, > 100 micrograms/ml). In in vivo experiments, i.p. treatment with ED-110 increased the survival period by more than two-fold in mice implanted i.p. with P388, L1210, L5178Y or EL4 murine leukemic cells. The minimum effective dose increasing the life-span of mice bearing P388 leukemia by 25% was < 2.5 mg/kg/day x 10 and the maximum tolerated dose was > 160 mg/kg/day x 10. ED-110 was also effective against the spontaneous metastasis of mouse Meth A fibrosarcoma cells and the growth of xenografted MKN-45 human stomach cancer cells as well as s.c. implanted mouse colon 26 and IMC carcinoma cells. These results indicated that ED-110 may have potential as a new antineoplastic agent with a large chemotherapeutic index and a wide range of effective doses.

  14. Treatment motivation of men with ED: what motivates men with ED to seek professional help and how can women support their partners?

    PubMed

    Gerster, S; Günzler, C; Roesler, C; Leiber, C; Berner, M M

    2013-01-01

    Although ED can impair sexual satisfaction as well as the quality of partnership and life, men affected often avoid seeking treatment. There is growing evidence that women have an influence on their partner's help-seeking behavior. This qualitative study examined men with ED and their female partners in order to detect motivational factors for men to seek treatment and motivational actions of the women to support their partners. Twelve couples took part in a semi-structured telephone interview, which was performed separately in men and women. Analysis was on the basis of the Grounded Theory. The identified motivational factors could be divided into extrinsic (for example, media, female partner) and intrinsic (for example, desire to clarify the cause of the ED, hope for improvement) factors. Women can support their partners in treatment-seeking through various motivational actions such as talking with each other, showing interest and dealing actively with the problem, appealing to the male self-esteem, supporting the doctor's visit, forcing the treatment, active cooperation and participation in the treatment or initiating sexual intercourse. On the basis of these findings, recommendations for women were developed to support their partners and increase the probability of help-seeking behavior.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Oxygen in Metal Oxides with SEM/EDS by Direct Measurement of all X-ray Peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Historically, conventional wisdom surrounding SEM/EDS elemental analysis has it that quantitative estimates for oxygen in oxides cannot be reliably arrived at by direct measurement of the oxygen peak. It is a difficult measurement and EDS detectors have historically been not efficient at measuring soft x-rays. Because EDS results are proportional to weight percent and since oxygen is a relatively light atom changes in atom percent of oxygen in a sample result in smaller weight percent changes raising the precision required of the measurement. Analysis used to be performed with so called Si(Li) style EDS detectors. These had sealed, thin entrance windows that allowed the detection of oxygen, but the detectors and electronics did not allow for high count rates. Typically, quantitative work was done with an overall count rate of about 3,000 cps for the entire spectrum. Assuming an upper limit to the acquisition time of a few minutes put a limit on the x-rays the number of x-rays acquired and, therefore, put a limit on the precision of the measurement. Since the middle of the 1990s a new EDS detector technology has been developed called the Silicon Drift Detector. This detector features improved soft x-ray measurement capabilities but most importantly it allows for very high count rates while maintaining good energy resolution. It is easy to count at rates of many tens of thousands of counts per second while collecting a clean spectrum. These changed capabilities, especially the ability to acquire large numbers of x-ray photons in a short time, present a good opportunity to revisit the old assumptions and see how much things have changed. The goal of this work is to analyze a number of different metal oxides, measuring both the metal and oxygen peaks, and look for consistency and precision in the result. While it is always gratifying if the results match the expected quantitative values, if the peaks can be measured precisely and consistently then it should always be

  16. Representation of the Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-08-01

    An important emerging issue is the estimation of renewables' contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly, effective load-carrying capacity (ELCC), are considered to be the most robust techniques for addressing this resource variability. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model and other long-term electricity capacity planning models require an approach to estimating CV for generalized PV and system configurations with low computational and data requirements. In this paper we validate treatment of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity value by ReEDS capacity expansion model by comparing model results to literature for a range of energy penetration levels. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons--despite not being resolved at an hourly scale.

  17. Enhanced Mental Health Interventions in the Emergency Department: Suicide and Suicide Attempt Prevention in the ED

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jennifer L.; Asarnow, Joan R.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents, and often youths with suicidal behavior or ideation present to the emergency department (ED) for care. Many suicidal youths do not receive mental health care after discharge from the ED, and interventions are needed to enhance linkage to outpatient intervention. This paper describes the Family Intervention for Suicide Prevention (FISP). Designed for use in emergency settings, the FISP is a family-based cognitive-behavior therapy session designed to increase motivation for follow-up treatment, support, coping, and safety, augmented by care linkage telephone contacts after discharge. In a randomized trial of the intervention, the FISP was shown to significantly increase the likelihood of youths receiving outpatient treatment, including psychotherapy and combined medication and psychotherapy. The FISP is a brief, focused, efficacious treatment that can be delivered in the ED to improve the probability of follow-up treatment for suicidal youths. PMID:25904825

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and erectile dysfunction (ED): Results of the BRED observational study.

    PubMed

    Lauretti, Stefano; Cardaci, Vittorio; Barrese, Francesco; Calzetta, Luigino

    2016-10-05

    Most patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) share many risk factors and similar aetiological agents with erectile dysfunction (ED). Both conditions also cause serious interference with quality of life and sexual relationships. In general, ageing and chronic illness decrease sexual interest, sexual function, and testosterone levels. This observational study included 66 male patients referred to our centre with different grades of COPD. We studied the different correlations between COPD and ED. The data collected from each patient regarded the following features: demographic and social condition; smoking status; clinical status; spirometric measurements. In this group, COPD was diagnosed in 78.8% and ED was present in 83.3% with increased severity in presence of LUTS and nicotinism.

  19. Bedside point of care toxicology screens in the ED: Utility and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to drugs and toxins is a major cause for patients’ visits to the emergency department (ED). For most drugs-of-abuse intoxication, ED physicians are skeptical to rely on results of urine drug testing for emergent management decisions. This is partially because immunoassays, although rapid, have limitations in sensitivity and specificity and chromatographic assays, which are more definitive, are more labor intensive. Testing for toxic alcohols is needed, but rapid commercial assays are not available. ED physicians need stat assays for acetaminophen, salicylates, co-oximetry, cholinesterase, iron, and some therapeutic drugs that could be used as agents of self-harm. In this review, we look at the potential limitations of these screening tests and suggest improvements and innovations needed for better clinical utilization. New drugs of abuse should be sought and assays should be developed to meet changing abuse patterns. PMID:25337490

  20. Antimicrobial effect of camphorated chloroxylenol (ED 84) in the treatment of infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, E; Bössmann, K

    1999-08-01

    During and after chemomechanical preparation, particularly before the definitive filling of an infected root canal, a temporary intracanal dressing with an antimicrobial activity is generally indicated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of ED 84, a liquid root canal disinfectant containing chloroxylenol (10%) and camphor (15%), against selected test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) both in vitro and under clinical conditions, using extracted teeth. With a contact time of 180 min between undiluted ED 84 and the four bacterial suspensions in the canal, there was a 2 to 3 log reduction in the number of organisms. Under in vitro conditions, the reduction was even greater than 3 logs. When using a liquid medication as a temporary root canal dressing for a duration of approximately 2 days, ED 84 can definitely be used.

  1. Dependence and physical exercise: Spanish validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R).

    PubMed

    Sicilia, Alvaro; González-Cutre, David

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R). To achieve this goal, a sample of 531 sport center users was used and the psychometric properties of the EDS-R were examined through different analyses. The results supported both the first-order seven-factor model and the higher-order model (seven first-order factors and one second-order factor). The structure of both models was invariant across age. Correlations among the subscales indicated a related factor model, supporting construct validity of the scale. Alpha values over .70 (except for Reduction in Other Activities) and suitable levels of temporal stability were obtained. Users practicing more than three days per week had higher scores in all subscales than the group practicing with a frequency of three days or fewer. The findings of this study provided reliability and validity for the EDS-R in a Spanish context.

  2. Harnessing the Power of Perception: Reducing Alcohol-Related Harm among Rural Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Clarissa; Julian, Roberta; Richman, Matthew; Mason, Ron; Long, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines early findings from the Tasmanian-based Social Norms Analysis Project (SNAP). The Social Norms model is presented as a theoretically informed, evidence-based model for reducing alcohol-related harm in youthful populations by utilising the complex and often positive contributions peer groups make to adolescent health and…

  3. Stroke Risk After Non-Stroke ED Dizziness Presentations: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kevin A.; Zahuranec, Darin B.; Brown, Devin L.; Meurer, William J.; Burke, James F.; Smith, Melinda A.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; Fendrick, A. Mark; McLaughlin, Thomas; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Acute stroke is a serious concern in Emergency Department (ED) dizziness presentations. Prior studies, however, suggest that stroke is actually an unlikely cause of these presentations. Lacking are data on short- and long-term follow-up from population-based studies to establish stroke risk after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations. Methods From 5/8/2011 to 5/7/2012, patients ≥ 45 years of age presenting to EDs in Nueces County, Texas, with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance were identified, excluding those with stroke as the initial diagnosis. Stroke events after the ED presentation up to 10/2/2012 were determined using the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) study, which uses rigorous surveillance and neurologist validation. Cumulative stroke risk was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results 1,245 patients were followed for a median of 347 days (IQR 230- 436 days). Median age was 61.9 years (IQR, 53.8-74.0 years). After the ED visit, fifteen patients (1.2%) had a stroke. Stroke risk was 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 2 days; 0.48% (95% CI, 0.22%-1.07%) at 7 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 30 days; 0.56% (95% CI, 0.27%-1.18%) at 90 days; and 1.42% (95% CI, 0.85%-2.36%) at 12 months. Interpretation Using rigorous case ascertainment and outcome assessment in a population-based design, we found that the risk of stroke after presumed non-stroke ED dizziness presentations is very low, supporting a non-stroke etiology to the overwhelming majority of original events. High-risk subgroups likely exist, however, because most of the 90-day stroke risk occurred within 2-days. Vascular risk stratification was insufficient to identify these cases. PMID:24788511

  4. SEM/EDS analysis for problem solving in the food industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, Wayne D.

    2015-10-01

    For forensic investigation in the food industry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) is a powerful, often non-destructive, instrumental analysis tool to provide information about: • Identification of inorganic (and some organic) materials found as foreign contaminants in food products returned by consumers or detected during quality control inspections in the production facilities • Identification of wear particles found in production lines • Distribution of materials within a matrix • Corrosion and failure analysis of production equipment The identification of materials by SEM/EDS is accomplished through a combination of morphology by SEM imaging and the elemental composition of the material by EDS. Typically, the EDS analysis provides a qualitative spectrum showing the elements present in the sample. Further analysis can be done to quantify the detected elements in order to further refine the material identification. Metal alloys can often be differentiated even within the same family such as 300 Series stainless steels. Glass types can be identified by the elemental composition where the detected elements are quantified as the oxides of each element. In this way, for example, common window glass is distinguishable from insulation glass used in many ovens. Wear particles or fragments from breakage can find their way into food products. SEM/EDS analysis of the materials is an important resource to utilize when trying to determine the original source. Suspected source materials can then be sampled for comparative analysis. EDS X-ray mapping is another tool that is available to provide information about the distribution of materials within a matrix. For example, the distribution of inorganic ingredients in a dried food helps to provide information about the grind and blend of the materials.

  5. MedEdPORTAL: a report on oral health resources for health professions educators.

    PubMed

    Chickmagalur, Nithya S; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Sandmeyer, Sue; Valachovic, Richard W; Candler, Christopher S; Saleh, Michael; Cahill, Emily; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2013-09-01

    MedEdPORTAL is a unique web-based peer-reviewed publication venue for clinical health educators sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). The open exchange of educational resources promotes professional collaboration across health professions. In 2008, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) collaborated with AAMC to allow dental educators to use the platform to publish dental curriculum resources. Oral health is integral to general health; hence, collaboration among health care professionals brings enormous value to patient-centered care. The aim of this study was to conduct a current survey of metrics and submission statistics of MedEdPORTAL resources. The data were collected using the MedEdPORTAL search engine and ADEA and AAMC staff. The data collected were categorized and reported in tables and charts. Results showed that at the time of this study there were over 2,000 medical and dental resources available to anyone worldwide. Oral health resources constituted approximately 30 percent of the total resources, which included cross-indexing with information relevant to both medical and dental audiences. There were several types of dental resources available; the most common were the ones focusing on critical thinking. The usage of MedEdPORTAL has been growing, with participation from over 190 countries and 10,000 educational institutions around the world. The findings of this report suggest that MedEdPORTAL is succeeding in its aim to foster global collaborative education, professional education, and educational scholarship. As such, MedEdPORTAL is providing a new forum for collaboration and opens venues for promising future work in professional education.

  6. Effect of Job Specialization on the Hospital Stay and Job Satisfaction of ED Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Vahid; Mahmoudi, Hosein; Sirati Nir, Masoud; Babatabar Darzi, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent decades, the increasing crowdedness of the emergency departments has posed various problems for patients and healthcare systems worldwide. These problems include prolonged hospital stay, patient dissatisfaction and nurse burnout or job dissatisfaction. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of emergency department (ED) nurses’ job specialization on their job satisfaction and the length of patient stay in the ED. Patients and Methods: This before-after quasi-experimental study was conducted from April to May 2014 at the Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Initially, 35 patients were recruited as controls and the length of their stay in the ED was measured in minutes via a chronometer; Moreover, nurses’ job satisfaction was evaluated using the Mohrman-Cooke-Mohrman job satisfaction scale. Then, a job specialization intervention was developed based on the stabilization model. After that, 35 new patients were recruited to the treatment group and received specialized care services. Accordingly, the length of their stay in the ED was measured. Moreover, the same nurses’ job satisfaction was re-evaluated after the study. The study intervention lasted one month. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20 and statistical tests such as the Kolmogrov-Smirnov, the paired and the independent t, and chi-square tests. Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups of patients concerning the length of their stay in the ED (P < 0.001). Moreover, compared with the pretest readings, nurses had greater job satisfaction after the study (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The job specialization intervention can improve nurses’ satisfaction and relieve the crowdedness of the EDs. PMID:27218054

  7. Space resource utilisation: a novel indicator to quantify species competitive ability for light

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Li, Junyong; Guo, Zhi; Du, Guozhen

    2015-01-01

    Species richness and productivity are two fundamental aspects of ecosystems. As a result, the relationship between species richness and productivity has been widely studied. A series of fertilisation experiments in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau were performed to study the relationship between species richness and productivity. In this paper, we present a novel indicator, i.e., space resource utilisation (SRU), which is calculated by a volume formula (Vi  =  hi · Si; hi = plant height of species i, Si = quadrat area × percent cover of species i). SRU more fully reflected species competitive ability for light in both horizontal and vertical dimensions compared with plant height and cover. We used this novel indicator to investigate the effects of SRU on the changes in species richness and productivity following fertilisation. We found that the SRU of the community was correlated with increasing productivity and decreasing species richness following fertilisation and was a better predictor of species richness than productivity. The changes in SRU following fertilisation vary among species. These results demonstrate that SRU can be a more useful tool in explaining plant biodiversity loss and predicting the fate of different species than each of height, cover and productivity. PMID:26593068

  8. Bismuth oxybromide-based photocatalysts for solar energy utilisation and environmental remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Liang

    This thesis reports the investigation of Bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) semiconductor material as an efficient photocatalyst for the sunlight harvesting as well as environmental cleanup. I have utilised different synthetic methodologies to obtain BiOBr and its derivatives, such as co-precipitation, ultrasonification, and photo-deposition; and have studied their structural and optical properties by X-ray diffraction and surface analysis techniques. I report the synthesis and characterisation of two new p-n heterojunction systems, AgBr-BiOBr and BiOBr-ZnFe2O4, and have performed initial studies on photocatalytic reaction and their catalytic decomposition mechanisms. I have also reported the surface modification method including the deposition of noble metal on BiOBr to investigate the role played by the noble metal and the interactions between semiconductor and metal using various characterisation measurements. Furthermore, a continuous series of BiOBr-BiOI solid solutions were synthesised, characterised and the photocatalytic degradation was performed on the as-obtained semiconductors, to study the band structure properties of the solid solutions..

  9. The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilisation in humans

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, Luc J C; Greenhaff, Paul L; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Saris, Wim H M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary stable isotope methodology was applied in combination with muscle biopsy sampling to accurately quantify substrate utilisation and study the regulation of muscle fuel selection during exercise.Eight cyclists were studied at rest and during three consecutive 30 min stages of exercise at intensities of 40, 55 and 75 % maximal workload (Wmax). A continuous infusion of [U-13C]palmitate and [6,6-2H2]glucose was administered to determine plasma free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation and estimate plasma glucose oxidation, respectively. Biopsy samples were collected before and after each exercise stage.Muscle glycogen and plasma glucose oxidation rates increased with every increment in exercise intensity. Whole-body fat oxidation increased to 32 ± 2 kJ min−1 at 55 % Wmax, but declined at 75 % Wmax (19 ± 2 kJ min−1). This decline involved a decrease in the oxidation rate of both plasma FFA and triacylglycerol fat sources (sum of intramuscular plus lipoprotein-derived triacylglycerol), and was accompanied by increases in muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activation and acetylation of the carnitine pool, resulting in a decline in muscle free carnitine concentration.We conclude that the most likely mechanism for the reduction in fat oxidation during high-intensity exercise is a downregulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, either by this marked decline in free carnitine availability or by a decrease in intracellular pH. PMID:11579177

  10. Utilisation of optimisation solutions to control active suspension for decreased braking distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edrén, Johannes; Jonasson, Mats; Jerrelind, Jenny; Stensson Trigell, Annika; Drugge, Lars

    2015-02-01

    This work deals with how to utilise active suspension on individual vehicle wheels in order to improve the vehicle performance during straight-line braking. Through numerical optimisation, solutions have been found as regards how active suspension should be controlled and coordinated with friction brakes to shorten the braking distance. The results show that, for the studied vehicle, the braking distance can be shortened by more than 1 m when braking from 100 km/h. The applicability of these results is studied by investigating the approach for different vehicle speeds and actuator stroke limitations. It is shown that substantial improvements in the braking distance can also be found for lower velocities, and that the actuator strokes are an important parameter. To investigate the potential of implementing these findings in a real vehicle, a validated detailed vehicle model equipped with active struts is analysed. Simplified control laws, appropriate for on-board implementation and based on knowledge of the optimised solution, are proposed and evaluated. The results show that substantial improvements of the braking ability, and thus safety, can be made using this simplified approach. Particle model simulations have been made to explain the underlying physical mechanisms and limitations of the approach. These results provide valuable guidance on how active suspension can be used to achieve significant improvements in vehicle performance with reasonable complexity and energy consumption.

  11. Relationship between Health Insurance Status and the Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilisation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance status and the pattern of traditional medicine (TRM) use among the general population in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled adults, aged ≥18 years (N = 324), was conducted. The results indicate that TRM use was high with prevalence of over 86%. The study found no statistically significant association between national health insurance status and TRM utilisation (P > 0.05). Paradoxically, major sources of TRM, frequency of TRM use, comedical administration, and disclosure of TRM use to health care professionals differed significantly between the insured and uninsured subgroups (P < 0.001). Whereas effectiveness of TRM predicted its use for both insured [odds ratio (OR) = 4.374 (confidence interval (CI): 1.753–10.913; P = 0.002)] and uninsured [OR = 3.383 CI: 0.869–13.170; P = 0.039)], work experience predicted TRM use for the insured [OR = 1.528 (95% CI: 1.309–1.900; P = 0.019)]. Cultural specific variables and health philosophies rather than health insurance status may influence health care-seeking behaviour and TRM use. The enrollment of herbal-based therapies on the national health insurance medicine plan is exigent to ensure monitoring and rational use of TRM towards intercultural health care system in Ghana. PMID:26347791

  12. Deposition of nano-hydroxyapatite particles utilising direct and transitional electrohydrodynamic processes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Z; Thian, E S; Huang, J; Edirisinghe, M J; Best, S M; Jayasinghe, S N; Bonfield, W; Brooks, R A; Rushton, N

    2008-09-01

    Electrohydrodynamic spraying is a well established process used to deposit, coat, analyse and synthesise materials within the biomedical remit. Recently, electrohydrodynamic printing has been developed to afford structures for potential applications in the biomedical and medical engineering fields. Both of these processes rely on the formation of an electrically-induced jet, however the resulting products can be made strikingly different and offer potential in broader applications. Here we show how spraying and printing are linked by elucidating the ease of transition between the processes. Changes in the deposition distance can result in either spray (>10 mm) or print formation (<3 mm), with an overlap of the two in between this range. For the optimal printing distance of 0.5 mm, gradual changes in the applied voltage (0-4.5 kV) encounters transitional printing modes (dripping, micro-dripping, rapid micro-dripping, unstable and stable jetting) which can be utilised for patterning. The results indicate the robustness of the electrohydrodynamic route in the nano-materials processing arena, with emphasis on biomedical materials.

  13. Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Gstrauntaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2010-10-15

    Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

  14. Learning preferences of first year nursing and midwifery students: utilising VARK.

    PubMed

    James, Santhamma; D'Amore, Angelo; Thomas, Theda

    2011-05-01

    The diversity of first year students is increasing with new schemes promoting access to higher education courses. It is important to assess the learning styles of students in order to cater for their differing learning needs. The aim of this study was to profile first year nursing/midwifery students at two campuses of Australian Catholic University, to investigate their learning preferences and the effect demographic background has on these preferences. We designed a survey to collect demographic data and incorporated the VARK (visual, aural, read-write and kinaesthetic) questionnaire to investigate the students' preferred learning modes. The kinaesthetic score of our students was the highest (7.34 ± 2.67), significantly differing from the other three modes (p<0.001). Demographic factors such as gender and age group did not influence mean scores of each sensory modality. The predominant preference was quadmodal utilising all four learning styles. The distribution of students preferring to learn by unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and quadmodal styles varied between demographic groupings. The rural students had significantly higher visual and kinaesthetic scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Students attending the rural campus had higher visual and read-write scores. Visual and aural scores were significantly lower for students from non-English speaking backgrounds. These findings have significant teaching and research implications.

  15. Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.

    PubMed

    Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  16. Sustainable management and utilisation of concrete slurry waste: A case study in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Uzzal; Xuan, Dongxing; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-03-01

    With the promotion of environmental protection in the construction industry, the mission to achieve more sustainable use of resources during the production process of concrete is also becoming important. This study was conducted to assess the environmental sustainability of concrete slurry waste (CSW) management by life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, with the aim of identifying a resource-efficient solution for utilisation of CSW in the production of partition wall blocks. CSW is the dewatered solid residues deposited in the sedimentation tank after washing out over-ordered/rejected fresh concrete and concrete trucks in concrete batching plants. The reuse of CSW as recycled aggregates or a cementitious binder for producing partition wall blocks, and the life cycle environmental impact of the blocks were assessed and compared with the conventional one designed with natural materials. The LCA results showed that the partition wall blocks prepared with fresh CSW and recycled concrete aggregates achieved higher sustainability as it consumed 59% lower energy, emitted 66% lower greenhouse gases, and produced lesser amount of other environmental impacts than that of the conventional one. When the mineral carbonation technology was further adopted for blocks curing using CO2, the global warming potential of the corresponding blocks production process was negligible, and hence the carbonated blocks may be considered as carbon neutral eco-product.

  17. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency.

  18. Utilising polymorphisms to achieve allele-specific genome editing in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Capon, Samuel J.; Baillie, Gregory J.; Bower, Neil I.; da Silva, Jason A.; Paterson, Scott; Hogan, Benjamin M.; Simons, Cas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The advent of genome editing has significantly altered genetic research, including research using the zebrafish model. To better understand the selectivity of the commonly used CRISPR/Cas9 system, we investigated single base pair mismatches in target sites and examined how they affect genome editing in the zebrafish model. Using two different zebrafish strains that have been deep sequenced, CRISPR/Cas9 target sites containing polymorphisms between the two strains were identified. These strains were crossed (creating heterozygotes at polymorphic sites) and CRISPR/Cas9 complexes that perfectly complement one strain injected. Sequencing of targeted sites showed biased, allele-specific editing for the perfectly complementary sequence in the majority of cases (14/19). To test utility, we examined whether phenotypes generated by F0 injection could be internally controlled with such polymorphisms. Targeting of genes bmp7a and chordin showed reduction in the frequency of phenotypes in injected ‘heterozygotes’ compared with injecting the strain with perfect complementarity. Next, injecting CRISPR/Cas9 complexes targeting two separate sites created deletions, but deletions were biased to selected chromosomes when one CRISPR/Cas9 target contained a polymorphism. Finally, integration of loxP sequences occurred preferentially in alleles with perfect complementarity. These experiments demonstrate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present throughout the genome can be utilised to increase the efficiency of in cis genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in the zebrafish model. PMID:27895053

  19. An immunoenzymatic assay for the diagnosis of hepatitis A utilising immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alexandre dos Santos da; Vasconcelos, Gentil Arthur Lins Bentes Mendonça de; Kappel, Livia Abud; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2012-11-01

    The detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody levels by diagnostic kits in the convalescent period of disease generally use immunoglobulin G (IgG), which is expensive. An alternative to IgG is immunoglobulin Y (IgY), an immunoglobulin antibody encountered in birds and reptiles. The aim of this study was to develop a competitive immunoenzymatic assay to measure total anti-HAV antibody levels using anti-HAV IgY as the capture and conjugated immunoglobulins. For this purpose, anti-HAV IgY was conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the optimal dilution of HRP-conjugated antibodies was evaluated to establish the competitive immuneenzymatic assay. The results obtained from our "in-house" assay were plotted on a receiver operator curve, which showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98.8%, demonstrating that a competitive anti-HAV IgY immunoenzymatic assay developed "in house" could be used as an alternative to commercial assays that utilise IgG.

  20. Utilising polymorphisms to achieve allele-specific genome editing in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Capon, Samuel J; Baillie, Gregory J; Bower, Neil I; da Silva, Jason A; Paterson, Scott; Hogan, Benjamin M; Simons, Cas; Smith, Kelly A

    2017-01-15

    The advent of genome editing has significantly altered genetic research, including research using the zebrafish model. To better understand the selectivity of the commonly used CRISPR/Cas9 system, we investigated single base pair mismatches in target sites and examined how they affect genome editing in the zebrafish model. Using two different zebrafish strains that have been deep sequenced, CRISPR/Cas9 target sites containing polymorphisms between the two strains were identified. These strains were crossed (creating heterozygotes at polymorphic sites) and CRISPR/Cas9 complexes that perfectly complement one strain injected. Sequencing of targeted sites showed biased, allele-specific editing for the perfectly complementary sequence in the majority of cases (14/19). To test utility, we examined whether phenotypes generated by F0 injection could be internally controlled with such polymorphisms. Targeting of genes bmp7a and chordin showed reduction in the frequency of phenotypes in injected 'heterozygotes' compared with injecting the strain with perfect complementarity. Next, injecting CRISPR/Cas9 complexes targeting two separate sites created deletions, but deletions were biased to selected chromosomes when one CRISPR/Cas9 target contained a polymorphism. Finally, integration of loxP sequences occurred preferentially in alleles with perfect complementarity. These experiments demonstrate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present throughout the genome can be utilised to increase the efficiency of in cis genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in the zebrafish model.

  1. High-throughput genotyping of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) utilising diversity arrays technology (DArT).

    PubMed

    Howard, E L; Whittock, S P; Jakše, J; Carling, J; Matthews, P D; Probasco, G; Henning, J A; Darby, P; Cerenak, A; Javornik, B; Kilian, A; Koutoulis, A

    2011-05-01

    Implementation of molecular methods in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) breeding is dependent on the availability of sizeable numbers of polymorphic markers and a comprehensive understanding of genetic variation. However, use of molecular marker technology is limited due to expense, time inefficiency, laborious methodology and dependence on DNA sequence information. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) is a high-throughput cost-effective method for the discovery of large numbers of quality polymorphic markers without reliance on DNA sequence information. This study is the first to utilise DArT for hop genotyping, identifying 730 polymorphic markers from 92 hop accessions. The marker quality was high and similar to the quality of DArT markers previously generated for other species; although percentage polymorphism and polymorphism information content (PIC) were lower than in previous studies deploying other marker systems in hop. Genetic relationships in hop illustrated by DArT in this study coincide with knowledge generated using alternate methods. Several statistical analyses separated the hop accessions into genetically differentiated North American and European groupings, with hybrids between the two groups clearly distinguishable. Levels of genetic diversity were similar in the North American and European groups, but higher in the hybrid group. The markers produced from this time and cost-efficient genotyping tool will be a valuable resource for numerous applications in hop breeding and genetics studies, such as mapping, marker-assisted selection, genetic identity testing, guidance in the maintenance of genetic diversity and the directed breeding of superior cultivars.

  2. Influence of phenolic substrates utilised by yeast Trichosporon cutaneum on the degradation kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gerginova, Maria; Zlateva, Plamena; Peneva, Nadejda; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2014-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of different phenolic substrates utilised by Trichosporon cutaneum R57 was studied. The following compounds were used as substrates: phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, 3-nitrophenol, 2,6-dinitrophenol, 3-chloro phenol and p-cresol. The specific degradation rates (Qs) were described by a Haldane kinetic model. The unknown model parameters were estimated using the mathematical optimisation procedure for direct search. The results obtained demonstrated that Qs varied greatly in the experiments carried out. The level of biodegradability depended on the different structure and toxicity of compounds used as carbon substrates. The highest Qs values were observed for less toxic hydroxylated phenols (0.77–0.85 h−1), while the most toxic chlorinated phenols were characterised with the lowest Qs values (0.224 h−1). The results obtained with different concentrations of resorcinol (from 0.2 to 0.8 g L−1) and 2,6-dinitrophenol (from 0.2 to 0.7 g L−1) demonstrated a growing inhibitory effect directly correlating with the extended time necessary for complete degradation of both compounds. PMID:26692781

  3. Morphometric study on the development of magnocellular neurons of the supraoptic nucleus utilising immunohistochemical methods.

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano, M A; Bentura, M L; Toledano, A

    1990-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)- and oxytocin (OXY)-producing neurons, components of the rat supraoptic nucleus, have been located with immunohistochemical methods, with the purpose of studying their morphofunctional characteristics during different phases of life (embryonic, juvenile, adult and senile). To carry out this study, an IBAS I (Kontron) computerised image analyser has been utilised. The hormone VP is first detected in the neuronal cytoplasm of 21 days old rat embryos and the hormone OXY appears in the neuronal cytoplasm later, in the newborn phase. The neuronal area with a positive reaction for the two neurohormones has been evaluated and it has been found that the quantity of reaction substance is proportional to the age. In the adult period, VP neurons possess a reaction area (198 microns 2) greater than that of OXY neurons (153 microns 2). In the SON, there are two neuronal shapes, fusiform and round; these shapes coexist in both hormonal types of neurons. Until Day 15 of postnatal development, the SON neurons are intermixed in the interior of the nucleus but in this period a neuronal redistribution is initiated. In the adult phase, OXY neurons are situated preferentially in the anterior, posterior and dorsal parts and VP neurons in the ventral and posterior parts, with both neurons being present in the intermediate part of the SON. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:2182586

  4. EdU, a new thymidine analogue for labelling proliferating cells in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Chehrehasa, Fatemah; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Dwyer, Patrick; Abrahamsen, Greger; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2009-02-15

    Labelling and identifying proliferating cells is central to understanding neurogenesis and neural lineages in vivo and in vitro. We present here a novel thymidine analogue, ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU) for labelling dividing cells, detected with a fluorescent azide which forms a covalent bond via the "click" chemistry reaction (the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of an organic azide to a terminal acetylene). Unlike the commonly used BrdU, EdU detection requires no heat or acid treatment. It is quick and easy and compatible with multiple probes for fluorescence immunochemistry, facilitating the characterisation of proliferating cells at high resolution.

  5. Health-related quality of life and healthcare utilisation in patients with Parkinson's disease: impact of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Dodel, R C; Berger, K; Oertel, W H

    2001-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common chronic progressive neuro-degenerative disorder associated with the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The natural course of the disease may lead to severe disability despite a variety of pharmacological and surgical treatment options. Levodopa is still the most effective symptomatic treatment for PD; however, long term use can cause a number of adverse effects including motor complications, nausea and vomiting, postural hypotension and changes in mental status. The onset of motor complications marks a crucial point in the management of PD. They may present as changes between akinetic and mobile phases (motor fluctuations) or as abnormal involuntary movements (dyskinesias). After levodopa treatment for 3 to 5 years, motor complications occur in approximately 50% of patients, and after 10 years in >80% of patients. Treatment options have recently expanded as new drugs have been licensed and surgical procedures refined. Patients with motor complications present a demanding task in disease management, and often multiple drugs and high dosages are necessary to achieve only suboptimal control, resulting in increased healthcare utilisation. Costs increase considerably in patients with motor fluctuations and dyskinesias compared with patients without these symptoms. In a French study, 6-month direct medical costs per patient increased from 1648 euros (EUR) to EUR3028 in patients without and with motor fluctuations, respectively. In a recent French study a significant difference in monthly direct medical costs was found in patients with and without dyskinesias (EUR560 vs 170). Unfortunately, no data are available on the effect of motor complications on indirect costs. Several studies have shown that health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) is reduced when motor fluctuations occur. This may also be true of dyskinesias, but because of the limited number of studies a definite conclusion is not yet

  6. Determinants of Healthcare Utilisation and Out-of-Pocket Payments in the Context of Free Public Primary Healthcare in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Masiye, Felix; Kaonga, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background: Access to appropriate and affordable healthcare is needed to achieve better health outcomes in Africa. However, access to healthcare remains low, especially among the poor. In Zambia, poor access exists despite the policy by the government to remove user fees in all primary healthcare facilities in the public sector. The paper has two main objectives: (i) to examine the factors associated with healthcare choices among sick people, and (ii) to assess the determinants of the magnitude of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments related to a visit to a health provider. Methods: This paper employs a multilevel multinomial logistic regression to model the determinants of an individual’s choice of healthcare options following an illness. Further, the study analyses the drivers of the magnitude of OOP expenditure related to a visit to a health provider using a two-part generalised linear model. The analysis is based on a nationally representative healthcare utilisation and expenditure survey that was conducted in 2014. Results: Household per capita consumption expenditure is significantly associated with increased odds of seeking formal care (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = .000). Living in a household in which the head has a higher level of education is associated with increased odds of seeking formal healthcare (OR = 1.54, P = .000) and (OR = 1.55, P = .01), for secondary and tertiary education, respectively. Rural residence is associated with reduced odds of seeking formal care (OR = 0.706, P = .002). The magnitude of OOP expenditure during a visit is significantly dependent on household economic well-being, distance from a health facility, among other factors. A 10% increase in per capita consumption expenditure was associated with a 0.2% increase in OOP health expenditure while every kilometre travelled was associated with a K0.51 increase in OOP health expenditure. Conclusion: Despite the removal of user fees on public primary healthcare in Zambia, access to

  7. An evaluation of the Kinect-Ed presentation, a motivating nutrition and cooking intervention for young adolescents in grades 6-8.

    PubMed

    Santarossa, Sara; Ciccone, Jillian; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2015-09-01

    Recently, public health messaging has included having more family meals and involving young adolescents (YAs) with meal preparation to improve healthful diets and family dinner frequency (FDF). Kinect-Ed, a motivational nutrition education presentation was created to encourage YAs (grades 6-8) to help with meal preparation and ultimately improve FDF. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Kinect-Ed presentation, with the goals of the presentation being to improve self-efficacy for cooking (SE), food preparation techniques (TECH), food preparation frequency (PREP), family meal attitudes and behaviours, and ultimately increase FDF. A sample of YAs (n = 219) from Southern Ontario, Canada, completed pre- and postpresentation surveys, measuring FDF, PREP, SE, and TECH. Kinect-Ed successfully improved participants' FDF (p < 0.01), PREP (p < 0.01), SE (p < 0.01), and TECH (<0.01). Overall, goals of the presentation were met. Encouraging YAs to help prepare meals and get involved in the kitchen may reduce the time needed from parents to prepare meals, and, in turn, allow more time for frequent family dinners.

  8. The removal of sulphate from mine water by precipitation as ettringite and the utilisation of the precipitate as a sorbent for arsenate removal.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate sulphate removal from mine water by precipitation as ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O) and the utilisation of the precipitate as a sorbent for arsenate removal. The mine water sulphate concentration was reduced by 85-90% from the initial 1400 mg/L during ettringite precipitation depending on the treatment method. The precipitation conditions were also simulated with MINEQL + software, and the computational results were compared with the experimental results. The precipitated solids were characterised with X-ray diffraction and a scanning electron microscope. The precipitated solids were tested as sorbents for arsenate removal from the model solution. The arsenic(V) model solution concentration reduced 86-96% from the initial 1.5 mg/L with a 1 g/L sorbent dosage. The effect of initial arsenate concentration on the sorption of arsenate on the precipitate was studied and Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich sorption isotherm models were fitted to the experimental data. The maximum arsenate sorption capacity (qm = 11.2 ± 4.7 mg/g) of the precipitate was obtained from the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. The results indicate that the precipitate produced during sulphate removal from mine water by precipitation as ettringite could be further used as a sorbent for arsenate removal.

  9. Investigation of Matlab® as platform in navigation and control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle utilising an omnivision sensor.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-08-25

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed.

  10. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.

  11. Developing Scientific Literacy Skills through Interdisciplinary, Technology-Based Global Simulations: GlobalEd 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Kimberly A.; Brown, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    GlobalEd 2 (GE2) is a set of technology-mediated, problem-based learning (PBL) simulations for middle-grade students, that capitalises on the multidisciplinary nature of the social sciences as an expanded curricular space for students to learn and apply scientific literacies and concepts, while simultaneously also enriching their understanding of…

  12. 34 CFR 110.17 - Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations. 110.17..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.17 Age distinctions contained in...

  13. Visualization of mitochondrial DNA replication in individual cells by EdU signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Haines, Kristine M; Feldman, Eva L; Lentz, Stephen I

    2010-11-15

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and mitochondrial biogenesis is an essential component of regulating mitochondria numbers in healthy cells. One approach for monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to label newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells in order to study mtDNA biogenesis. The technique combines the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) with a tyramide signal amplification (TSA) protocol to visualize mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. EdU is superior to other thymidine analogs, such as 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), because the initial click reaction to label EdU does not require the harsh acid treatments or enzyme digests that are required for exposing the BrdU epitope. The milder labeling of EdU allows for direct comparison of its incorporation with other cellular markers. The ability to visualize and quantify mtDNA biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating the mechanisms used to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and would provide insight into the pathogenesis associated with drug toxicity, aging, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Our technique is applicable to sensory neurons as well as other cell types. The use of this technique to measure mtDNA biogenesis has significant implications in furthering the understanding of both normal cellular physiology as well as impaired disease states.

  14. Where Practicum Meets Test Preparation: Supporting Teacher Candidates through EdTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Gareca, Beth

    2015-01-01

    A strong focus on teacher performance is resurfacing in teacher-preparation programs across the US. EdTPA, a teacher-performance assessment designed to determine K-12 teacher candidates' readiness for the classroom, has become central in teacher-preparation programs in several states and promises to be implemented in more states in the coming…

  15. Choice of Instructional Media of B.Ed. Students of Ignou from Two Indian Metropolises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Sutapa; Sharma, Parveen

    2010-01-01

    Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) of India uses multiple media and modes for reaching out to its distant learners. For most of the programmes offered to these learners, print is the master medium and other media supplement it. Instructions for the Bachelor in Education (B.Ed.), one of the popular programmes of IGNOU, are also…

  16. 34 CFR 110.17 - Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations. 110.17..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.17 Age distinctions contained in...

  17. 34 CFR 110.17 - Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations. 110.17..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.17 Age distinctions contained in...

  18. 34 CFR 110.17 - Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age distinctions contained in ED's regulations. 110.17..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.17 Age distinctions contained in...

  19. Effect of weather on the number and the nature of visits to a pediatric ED.

    PubMed

    Attia, M W; Edward, R

    1998-07-01

    To determine whether unfavorable weather conditions affect the number and acuity of visits to a pediatric emergency department (ED), a retrospective analysis was conducted of children's hospital ED visits and weather conditions utilizing an ED log book and local climatological data during the year 1993. Visits, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, non-ICU admissions, time periods with favorable weather (TPF), and time periods with unfavorable weather (TPUF) were measured. Each day of the year was divided into two time periods. The time periods were labeled TPF or TPUF based on certain weather conditions. There were 632 (86%) TPF and 98 (14%) TPUF. The number of visits, non-ICU admissions, and ICU admissions during TPF were 13,008 (88%), 1,031 (87%) and 121 (86%), respectively. The number of visits, non-ICU admissions, and ICU admissions during TPUF were 1,720 (12%), 148 (13%), and 19 (14%), respectively. No significant differences in visits and admissions during TPF and TPUF were identified. Also, there was no difference identified when the distribution of visits and admissions was examined during TPUF due to different weather factors, eg, low temperature, precipitation, etc. The results show that unfavorable weather due to the types of weather factors discussed does not affect the number or the nature of visits to a pediatric ED.

  20. Towards Understanding the DO-178C / ED-12C Assurance Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes initial work towards building an explicit assurance case for DO-178C / ED-12C. Two specific questions are explored: (1) What are some of the assumptions upon which the guidance in the document relies, and (2) What claims are made concerning test coverage analysis?

  1. Promoting Social Inclusion Counting with Everyone: Learning Communities and INCLUD-ED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatt, Suzanne; Ojala, Mikko; Soler, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The scientific community has provided a wide range of evidence that family and community involvement in schools benefits not only students' learning but also their surrounding community. The INCLUD-ED project has conducted case studies of successful schools around Europe that have strong community participation. Some of them are engaged in the…

  2. Community-Engaged Faculty: A Must for Preparing Impactful Ed.D. Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Deborah; Perry, Jill Alexa; Dostilio, Lina; Zambo, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Since its inception nine years ago, CPED members have re-envisioned and implemented a new purpose for the professional practice doctorate in education, or Ed.D. This new purpose is grounded in the goal of preparing doctoral students to serve as scholarly practitioners, those who engage community as stakeholders in the process of improving problems…

  3. Inside the Sex Ed Studio: An Interview with Susan N. Wilson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taverner, William J.

    2007-01-01

    "Inside the Sex Ed Studio" profiles leaders in the field of sexuality education. Susan N. Wilson, former Executive Coordinator of the Network for Family Life Education, long-time advocate for sexuality education, and the driving force behind New Jersey's K-12 mandate for comprehensive sexuality education was the first such leader to be…

  4. Breakers, Benders, and Obeyers: Inquiring into Teacher Educators' Mediation of edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratner, Andrew R.; Kolman, Joni S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects a qualitative exploratory inquiry into the lived experiences of faculty members working within a system of urban schools of education as they supported diverse teacher candidates in completing the Educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) during its first semesters of high-stakes implementation. Drawing upon…

  5. On-Going Dialogue: Degrees of Difference: The Ph.D. and the Ed.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1987-01-01

    The controversy over Ph.D. vs. Ed.D. programs in higher education is examined, including discussion of differential research requirements and the ways in which traditional disciplines dominate thinking about the study of higher education. It is concluded that each field must define its own standards for each degree. (MSE)

  6. Bike Ed '77: A Conference Report (Washington, D.C., May 4-6, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson (Lawrence) and Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    As a result of intensified need for sound safety education programs for both young and mature bicyclists due to the dramatic increase in bicycling as a form of transportation and recreation, the first national conference on bicyclist safety education was held--Bike Ed '77. Major purposes of the conference were to stimulate communication among…

  7. WORK-ED. (World of Related Knowledge and Educational Development). A Manual for Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraleigh, Virginia A.

    This manual is designed to assist personnel responsible for training teachers in the implementation of the World of Related Knowledge and Educational Development (WORK-ED). (The program is a career education course for ninth graders developed to enable students who have not chosen the traditional college-prep high school course to make career…

  8. Meeting the Needs of Distance Learners of M.Ed Program: Bangladesh Open University Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Amirul; Ferdowsi, Sakiba

    2014-01-01

    This study draws on the experience of a cohort of 22 students from 09 tutorial centers enrolled in a Master of Education (M Ed) distance learning program administered by the Bangladesh Open University (BOU). It's purpose is to locate the aims and philosophies of distance learning within the experiences of actual distance learners in order to see…

  9. An Analysis of Professional Practice Ed.D. Dissertations in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Kara; Kumar, Swapna

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida offers an online professional practice Ed.D. focused on Educational Technology. Twenty-three students have completed professional practice dissertations and graduated since the program's inception in 2008. The purpose of this article is to share what these dissertations have looked like and to begin a dialogue about…

  10. Next Generation Science Standards and edTPA: Evidence of Science and Engineering Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Erica M.; Horvath, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Science teacher educators in the United States are currently preparing future science teachers to effectively implement the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and, in thirteen states, to successfully pass a content-specific high stakes teacher performance assessment, the edTPA. Science education and teacher performance assessment…

  11. Developing a Culture of Learning around the edTPA: One University's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew; Carroll, David; Jancic, Mitchell; Markworth, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how an interdisciplinary faculty team at a midsized public university created supports for the Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA), a high-stakes performance assessment for preservice candidates being adopted by many states. We provide a general description of our work in contending with the challenge of developing a…

  12. ExpandED Schools National Demonstration: Lessons for Scale and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Christina A.; Hildreth, Jeanine L.; Stevens, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The ExpandED Schools model for expanded learning is designed to transform schools by changing the use of time, both as experienced by students in learning and by teachers in instruction. The model is grounded in the belief that strategically adding time to the school day can enhance skills and knowledge and broaden horizons by engaging students in…

  13. Chemical Quantification of Atomic-Scale EDS Maps under Thin Specimen Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Ping; Romero, Eric; Lee, Shinbuhm; ...

    2014-10-13

    We report our effort to quantify atomic-scale chemical maps obtained by collecting energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) (STEM-EDS). Under a thin specimen condition and when the EDS scattering potential is localized, the X-ray counts from atomic columns can be properly counted by fitting Gaussian peaks at the atomic columns, and can then be used for site-by-site chemical quantification. The effects of specimen thickness and X-ray energy on the Gaussian peak-width are investigated by using SrTiO3 (STO) as a model specimen. The relationship between the peak-width and spatial-resolution of an EDS map is also studied. Furthermore,more » the method developed by this work is applied to study a Sm-doped STO thin film and antiphase boundaries present within the STO film. We find that Sm atoms occupy both Sr and Ti sites but preferably the Sr sites, and Sm atoms are relatively depleted at the antiphase boundaries likely due to the effect of strain.« less

  14. Content Analysis of PhD and EdD Dissertations in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David W.; Haley-Mize, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Previous research conducted by Nelson and Coorough (1994) found support for the statement that PhD programs were more research oriented, whereas doctorate of education (EdD) programs were more oriented to the educational practitioner. This previous study, however, had grouped all dissertations in education and had not looked at dissertations by…

  15. Studying Learning in the Worldwide Classroom Research into edX's First MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Lori; Pritchard, David E.; DeBoer, Jennifer; Stump, Glenda S.; Ho, Andrew D.; Seaton, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    "Circuits and Electronics" (6.002x), which began in March 2012, was the first MOOC developed by edX, the consortium led by MIT and Harvard. Over 155,000 students initially registered for 6.002x, which was composed of video lectures, interactive problems, online laboratories, and a discussion forum. As the course ended in June 2012,…

  16. Chemical Quantification of Atomic-Scale EDS Maps under Thin Specimen Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ping; Romero, Eric; Lee, Shinbuhm; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Jia, Quanxi

    2014-10-13

    We report our effort to quantify atomic-scale chemical maps obtained by collecting energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) (STEM-EDS). Under a thin specimen condition and when the EDS scattering potential is localized, the X-ray counts from atomic columns can be properly counted by fitting Gaussian peaks at the atomic columns, and can then be used for site-by-site chemical quantification. The effects of specimen thickness and X-ray energy on the Gaussian peak-width are investigated by using SrTiO3 (STO) as a model specimen. The relationship between the peak-width and spatial-resolution of an EDS map is also studied. Furthermore, the method developed by this work is applied to study a Sm-doped STO thin film and antiphase boundaries present within the STO film. We find that Sm atoms occupy both Sr and Ti sites but preferably the Sr sites, and Sm atoms are relatively depleted at the antiphase boundaries likely due to the effect of strain.

  17. GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS) ALTERS DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANE DIMETHANESULFONATE (EDS) ALTERS DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUSE TESTIS. D.K. Tarka*1,2, J.D. Suarez*2, N.L. Roberts*2, J.M. Rogers*1,2, M.P. Hardy3, and G.R. Klinefelter1,2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC; 2USEPA,...

  18. PROJECT RE-ED, A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR THE REEDUCATION OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Mental Health, Raleigh.

    THE PROJECT FOR THE REEDUCATION OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN (PROJECT RE-ED), A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT (1961-1968) TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS (SUNDAY THROUGH FRIDAY) FOR DISTURBED CHILDREN, IS DESCRIBED. THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AT GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE, TENNESSEE, AND USE OF CAREFULLY SELECTED…

  19. ED's Proposed Changes to SFSF Data Collection and Reporting Requirements: DQC's Submitted Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This letter is submitted to comment on the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) proposed revisions to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's (ARRA) State Fiscal Stabilization Fund (SFSF), as published in the September 23, 2011, Federal Register. Overall, the Data Quality Campaign believes the proposed changes strike a sensible balance: they…

  20. Sex Ed for Caring Schools: Creating an Ethics-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    While arguments for and against teaching abstinence, the use of contraceptives, and sexual identity are becoming more and more polarized, most people agree that students must learn to navigate an increasingly sexual world. "Sex Ed for Caring Schools" presents a curriculum that goes beyond the typical health education most students receive today.…

  1. Ed Bullins/Stage One: Everybody Wants to Know Why I Sing the Blues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smitherman, Geneva

    1974-01-01

    Both as director/playwright of New York's New Lafayette Theater and as a writer seriously committed to the forging of a black aesthetic, Ed Bullins brings to the community an artistic synthesis of the Folk-Oral and Formal-Literate Traditions. (Author/JM)

  2. Measuring relative performance of an EDS detector using a NiO standard.

    SciTech Connect

    Sugar, Joshua Daniel; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2013-09-01

    A method for measuring the relative performance of energy dispersive spectrometers (EDS) on a TEM is discussed. A NiO thin-film standard fabricated at Sandia CA is used. A performance parameter,, is measured and compared to values on several TEM systems.

  3. Buyer Beware: Lessons Learned from EdTPA Implementation in New York State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Deborah; O'Hara, Kate E.

    2015-01-01

    As states across the country continue their implementation of the Teacher Performance Assessment Portfolio (edTPA), a complex and high-stakes certification requirement for teacher certification, there are important lessons for educators and education advocates to learn from New York State's implementation. As Linda Darling-Hammond, developer and…

  4. The NASA Exoplanet Science Institute Archives: KOA and NStED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. B.; Ciardi, D.; Abajian, M.; Barlow, T.; Bryden, G.; von Braun, K.; Good, J.; Kane, S.; Kong, M.; Laity, A.; Lynn, M.; Elroy, D. M.; Plavchan, P.; Ramirez, S.; Schmitz, M.; Stauffer, J.; Wyatt, P.; Zhang, A.; Goodrich, R.; Mader, J.; Tran, H.; Tsubota, M.; Beekley, A.; Berukoff, S.; Chan, B.; Lau, C.; Regelson, M.; Saucedo, M.; Swain, M.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) maintains a series of archival services in support of NASA’s planet finding and characterization goals. Two of the larger archival services at NExScI are the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) and the NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED). KOA, a collaboration between the W. M. Keck Observatory and NExScI, serves raw data from the High Resolution Echelle Spectrograph (HIRES) and extracted spectral browse products. As of June 2009, KOA hosts over 28 million files (4.7 TB) from over 2,000 nights. In Spring 2010, it will begin to serve data from the Near-Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (NIRSPEC). NStED is a general purpose archive with the aim of providing support for NASA’s planet finding and characterization goals, and stellar astrophysics. There are two principal components of NStED: a database of (currently) all known exoplanets, and images; and an archive dedicated to high precision photometric surveys for transiting exoplanets. NStED is the US portal to the CNES mission CoRoT, the first space mission dedicated to the discovery and characterization of exoplanets. These archives share a common software and hardware architecture with the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA). The software architecture consists of standalone utilities that perform generic query and retrieval functions. They are called through program interfaces and plugged together to form applications through a simple executive library.

  5. Racist Ordering, Settler Colonialism, and EdTPA: A Participatory Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Eve; Gorlewski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This article tells the story of an intervention by a collective of teacher educators on New York State's adoption of edTPA. Too often in education policy analysis, issues of race are discussed briefly, if at all. This article argues that attending to constructions of race specific to settler colonialism is an important approach to education policy…

  6. Learning the Attachment Theory with the CM-ED Concept Map Editor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, U.; Arruarte, A.; Elorriaga, J. A.; Herran, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study carried out at the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU with the aim of evaluating the CM-ED (concept map editor) with social education students. Concept mapping is a widely accepted technique that promotes meaningful learning. Graphically representing concepts of the learning domain and relationships between them…

  7. Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems: Contribution, Impact and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the ontology engineering methodology discussed by the paper entitled "Using Ontological Engineering to Overcome AI-ED Problems" published in this journal in 2000. We discuss the achievements obtained in the last 10 years, the impact of our work as well as recent trends and perspectives in ontology engineering for…

  8. APA Reporting Standards in Quantitative Research Dissertations from an Online EdD Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgado, Griselle

    2013-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the reporting practices in dissertations with quantitative research designs produced by students enrolled in an online Doctor of Education (EdD) program, one that follows the American Psychological Association (APA) standards for reporting research. Limited, empirical information exists about the competencies in…

  9. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  10. Massively Open Online Course for Educators (MOOC-Ed) Network Dataset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Shaun; Edelmann, Achim

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the Massively Open Online Course for Educators (MOOC-Ed) network dataset. It entails information on two online communication networks resulting from two consecutive offerings of the MOOC called "The Digital Learning Transition in K-12 Schools" in spring and fall 2013. The courses were offered to educators from the USA…

  11. The Ed.D. in Educational Leadership and Administration: The Students' and Alumni's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Edith B.

    2012-01-01

    The doctoral experience unfolds many complexities and challenges for students, faculty, and institutions that contribute toward degree completion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the students' and alumni's experiences afforded by the Ed.D. in Educational Leadership and Administration at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). The…

  12. Impact of Curricular Reforms on Educational Philosophy Courses in M.Ed Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Remia, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of Vision of Teacher Education envisaged in National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, this study probes "Do M.Ed programmes provide for the prerequisites of educational philosophy for teacher educators?" and "whether the syllabi following credit and non credit pattern vary in their coverage of content of…

  13. Xu Bing, Ed Pien and Gu Xiong: Lost and Found in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The works of contemporary artists Xu Bing, Ed Pien and Gu Xiong are involved in bringing to light some of the factors inherent in social, cultural and linguistic translation. In doing so, each artist is also engaged in the nuanced activity of moving between historical and contemporary aesthetic strategies in order to interrogate the way meaning is…

  14. Time to Grow: Year Two Report on ExpandED Schools. A TASC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of data from the second year of The After-School Corporation's (TASC's) national demonstration of an expanded school day for elementary and middle school students shows that ExpandED Schools improved school culture, decreased rates of students' chronic absenteeism and helped students develop positive learning habits and attitudes.…

  15. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

  16. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT) in rural Indian medical institute

    PubMed Central

    BHAISARE, ROSHAN; KAMBLE, BHAVNA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue.  To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B.  For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter.  At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture.  It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts, PMID:27382583

  17. Hepatic glucose utilisation in hepatic steatosis and obesity.

    PubMed

    Keramida, Georgia; Hunter, James; Peters, Adrien Michael

    2016-09-21

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether hepatic glucose utilisation rate (glucose phosphorylation rate; MRglu) is increased in steatosis and/or obesity is uncertain. Our aim was to determine the separate relationships of steatosis and obesity with MRglu. Sixty patients referred for routine PET/CT had dynamic PET imaging over the abdomen for 30 min post-injection of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), followed by Patlak-Rutland graphical analysis of the liver using abdominal aorta for arterial input signal. The plot gradient was divided by the intercept to give hepatic FDG clearance normalised to hepatic FDG distribution volume (ml/min/100 ml) and multiplied by blood glucose to give hepatic MRglu (mmol/min/100 ml). Hepatic steatosis was defined as CT density of ≤40 HU measured from the 60 min whole body routine PET/CT and obesity as body mass index of ≥30 kg/m(2) Hepatic MRglu was higher in patients with steatosis (3.3 ± 1.3 mmol/min/100 ml) than those without (1.7 ± 1.2 mmol/min/100 ml; p<0.001) but there was no significant difference between obese (2.5 ± 1.6 mmol/min/100 ml) and non-obese patients (2.1 ± 1.3 mmol/min/100 ml). MRglu was increased in obese patients only if they had steatosis. Non-obese patients with steatosis still had increased MRglu. There was no association between MRglu and chemotherapy history. We conclude that MRglu is increased in hepatic steatosis probably through insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and upregulation of hepatic hexokinase, irrespective of obesity.

  18. Utilising reinforcement learning to develop strategies for driving auditory neural implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geoffrey W.; Zambetta, Fabio; Li, Xiaodong; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In this paper we propose a novel application of reinforcement learning to the area of auditory neural stimulation. We aim to develop a simulation environment which is based off real neurological responses to auditory and electrical stimulation in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and inferior colliculus (IC) of an animal model. Using this simulator we implement closed loop reinforcement learning algorithms to determine which methods are most effective at learning effective acoustic neural stimulation strategies. Approach. By recording a comprehensive set of acoustic frequency presentations and neural responses from a set of animals we created a large database of neural responses to acoustic stimulation. Extensive electrical stimulation in the CN and the recording of neural responses in the IC provides a mapping of how the auditory system responds to electrical stimuli. The combined dataset is used as the foundation for the simulator, which is used to implement and test learning algorithms. Main results. Reinforcement learning, utilising a modified n-Armed Bandit solution, is implemented to demonstrate the model’s function. We show the ability to effectively learn stimulation patterns which mimic the cochlea’s ability to covert acoustic frequencies to neural activity. Time taken to learn effective replication using neural stimulation takes less than 20 min under continuous testing. Significance. These results show the utility of reinforcement learning in the field of neural stimulation. These results can be coupled with existing sound processing technologies to develop new auditory prosthetics that are adaptable to the recipients current auditory pathway. The same process can theoretically be abstracted to other sensory and motor systems to develop similar electrical replication of neural signals.

  19. Increased utilisation of PEPFAR-supported laboratory services by non-HIV patents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McNairy, Margaret L.; Gwynn, Charon; Rabkin, Miriam; Antelman, Gretchen; Wu, Yingfeng; Alemayehu, Bereket; Lim, Travis; Imtiaz, Rubina; Mosha, Fausta; Mwasekaga, Michael; Othman, Asha A.; Justman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown to what extent the non-HIV population utilises laboratories supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Objectives We aimed to describe the number and proportion of laboratory tests performed in 2009 and 2011 for patients referred from HIV and non-HIV services (NHSs) in a convenience sample collected from 127 laboratories supported by PEPFAR in Tanzania. We then compared changes in the proportions of tests performed for patients referred from NHSs in 2009 vs 2011. Methods Haematology, chemistry, tuberculosis and syphilis test data were collected from available laboratory registers. Referral sources, including HIV services, NHSs, or lack of a documented referral source, were recorded. A generalised linear mixed model reported the odds that a test was from a NHS. Results A total of 94 132 tests from 94 laboratories in 2009 and 157 343 tests from 101 laboratories in 2011 were recorded. Half of all tests lacked a documented referral source. Tests from NHSs constituted 42% (66 084) of all tests in 2011, compared with 31% (29 181) in 2009. A test in 2011 was twice as likely to have been referred from a NHS as in 2009 (adjusted odds ratio: 2.0 [95% confidence interval: 2.0–2.1]). Conclusion Between 2009 and 2011, the number and proportion of tests from NHSs increased across all types of test. This finding may reflect increased documentation of NHS referrals or that the laboratory scale-up originally intended to service the HIV-positive population in Tanzania may be associated with a ‘spillover effect’ amongst the general population. PMID:26962475

  20. Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Top, Y

    2015-01-01

    The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system.

  1. Working with Persistent Pain: An Exploration of Strategies Utilised to Stay Productive at Work.

    PubMed

    Oakman, Jodi; Kinsman, Natasha; Briggs, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Maintaining productive employment for people with persistent pain conditions is challenging. This study aims to explore supports-work and non-work- used by employees to assist them in maintaining productive employment. Methods An exploratory, mixed-methods study comprising a questionnaire battery followed by semi-structured interviews to collect in-depth qualitative data was undertaken. The questionnaires measured descriptive variables used to select participants for interviews based on maximum heterogeneity sampling. Thirty-five semi-structured interviews were undertaken (14 males; 21 females). The interview schedule covered: employment situation, workplace challenges, workplace supports, coping strategies, motivations, future employment options and any other resources utilised. Inductive content analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory approach to systematically explore the data. Results Three key themes were identified: barriers to working productively, enablers to working productively, disclosing my condition at work. A key determinant of maintaining productive employment was a supportive employer. In addition, flexibility in the work organisation was also pivotal in maintaining sustainable, productive employment. An important issue emerged with regard to disclosure of one's condition to an employer. For some, this was a significant barrier to employment. Conclusions To ensure sustainable employment is attainable for those with persistent pain conditions, a good match is required between an employee and their work. Workplace accommodations may assist with improving job fit but this requires disclosure of a condition to an employer. Weighing up the risks and benefits of disclosure is difficult, and may be assisted by knowledge of available supports to assist with maintaining ongoing employment.

  2. Can silicon isotopes be used to assess anthropogenic impacts and nutrient utilisation in Lake Baikal, Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G. E. A.; Panizzo, V. N.; Mackay, A. W.; Roberts, S.; Vologina, E.; Horstwood, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Silicon isotope geochemistry (28Si, 29Si, 30Si) represents a growing field in Earth Sciences providing information to constrain and understand biogeochemical cycling on land and in oceans. Here we present records of δ30Si (30Si/28Si) from the Lake Baikal drainage basin in central Siberia to understand silicon cycling through the dominant river tributaries and into Lake Baikal itself, the world's deepest and most voluminous lake containing one fifth of all freshwater not stored in glaciers and ice caps.Waters were collected along an upstream transect for the five dominant Lake Baikal inflows as well as from the Selenga Delta which account for >50% of the annual riverine flow to the lake. Samples for dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations and silicon isotopic signatures (δ30SiDSi) were filtered and acidified in the field with isotopic analyses conducted on a Neptune + Multi-Collector ICP-MS using wet plasma mode with Mg doping of samples and standard-sample-standard bracketing. Analytical reproducibility is 0.11‰ (2σ) and blanks are <1% of signal intensity. The DSi concentration of all river inflow samples varies from c. 2.5-6.3 ppm, which contrasts with concentrations of < 1ppm from the Angara River, the lake's only outflow. Combined with river δ30SiDSi values of c. + 0.94 to +1.52‰ and lake water and outflow values of c. +2.50‰, the results show significant (up to 60%) biological utilisation of silicon entering the lake.With the Lake Baikal having been designated a World Heritage Site since 1996, due to its high level of biological endemicity, the work in combination with sediment cores from the lake provides an insight into the transportation and fate of silicon in the basin and an assessment of how climate change and expanding anthropogenic activities in the region including urbanisation, deforestation, agriculture and mining have impacted biogeochemical cycling.

  3. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  4. The POPPY Research Programme protocol: investigating opioid utilisation, costs and patterns of extramedical use in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Blanch, Bianca; Gisev, Natasa; Larance, Briony; Pearson, Sallie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Opioid prescribing is increasing in many countries. In Australia, there is limited research on patterns of prescribing and access, or the outcomes associated with this use. The aim of this research programme is to use national dispensing data to estimate opioid use and costs, including problematic or extramedical use in the Australian population. Methods and analysis In a cohort of persons dispensed at least one opioid in 2013, we will estimate monthly utilisation and costs of prescribed opioids, overall and according to individual opioid formulations and strengths. In a cohort of new opioid users, commencing therapy between 1 July 2009 and 31 December 2013, we will examine patterns of opioid use including initiation of therapy, duration of treatment and concomitant use of opioids and other prescribed medicines. We will also examine patterns of extramedical opioid use based on indicators including excess dosing, use of more than one opioid concomitantly, doctor/pharmacy shopping and accelerated time to prescription refill. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the NSW Population and Health Services Ethics Committee (March 2014) and data access approved by the Department of Human Services External Review Evaluation Committee (June 2014). This will be one of the first comprehensive Australian studies with the capability to investigate individual patterns of use and track extramedical use. In the first instance our analysis will be based on 5 years of dispensing data but will be expanded with ongoing annual data updates. This research has the capability to contribute significantly to pharmaceutical policy within Australia and globally. In particular, the trajectory of extramedical prescription-opioid use has been the subject of limited research to date. The results of this research will be published widely in general medical, pharmacoepidemiology, addiction and psychiatry journals. PMID:25631315

  5. Missing the boat: odds for the patients who leave ED without being seen

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A patient left without being seen is a well-recognized indicator of Emergency Department overcrowding. The aim of this study was to define the characteristics of LWBS patients, their rates and associated factors from a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Methods A retrospective patient record review was undertaken. All patients presenting to the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between April and December of the year 2010, were included in the study. Information was collected on age, sex, presenting complaints, ED capacity, month, time, shift, day of the week, and waiting times in the ED. A basic descriptive analysis was made and the rates of LWBS patients were determined among the patient subgroups. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk factors associated with a patient not being seen in the ED. Results A total of 38,762 patients visited ED during the study period. Among them 5,086 (13%) patients left without being seen. Percentage of leaving was highest in the night shift (20%). The percentage was twice as high when the ED was on diversion (19.8%) compared to regular periods of operation (9.8%). Mean waiting time before leaving the ED in pediatric patients was 154 minutes while for adults it was 171 minutes. More than 32% of patients had waited for more than 180 minutes before they left without being seen, compared to the patients who were seen in ED. Important predictors for LWBS included; Triage category P4 i.e. walk –in-patients had an OR of 13.62(8.72-21.3), Diversion status, OR 1.49(1.26-1.76), night shift , OR 2.44(1.95-3.05) and Pediatric age, OR 0.57(0.48-0.66). Conclusions Our study elucidates the LWBS population characteristics and identifies the risk factors for this phenomenon. Targeted interventions should be planned and implemented to decrease the waiting time and alternate services should be provided for high-risk patients (for LWBS) to minimize their number. PMID:23324162

  6. Inhibition of chorismate-utilising enzymes by 2-amino-4-carboxypyridine and 4-carboxypyridone and 5-carboxypyridone analogues.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard J; Bulloch, Esther M M; Kerbarh, Olivier; Abell, Chris

    2010-08-07

    Several 2-amino-4-carboxypyridine, 4- and 5-carboxypyridone-based compounds were prepared and tested against three members of the chorismate-utilising enzyme family, anthranilate synthase, isochorismate synthase and salicylate synthase. Most compounds exhibited low micromolar inhibition of these three enzymes. The most potent inhibitor was a 4-carboxypyridone analogue bearing a lactate side chain on the pyridyl nitrogen which exhibited inhibition constants of 5, 91 and 54 muM against anthranilate synthase, isochorismate synthase and salicylate synthase respectively.

  7. Accessibility to and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services in a rural area of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Dener Carlos dos; Kloos, Helmut; King, Charles; Quites, Humberto Ferreira Oliveira; Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Coelho, Kellen Rosa; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the present paper was to compare accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis diagnostic and treatment services in a small village and the surrounding rural area in northern part of the state of Minas Gerais Brazil. The study included 1,228 individuals: 935 central village residents and 293 rural residents of São Pedro do Jequitinhonha. Schistosoma mansoni infection rates were significantly higher in the central village than in the rural area during a survey in 2007 (44.3% and 23.5%, respectively) and during the 2002 schistosomiasis case-finding campaign (33.1% and 26.5%, respectively) (p < 0.001). However, during the 2002-2006 period, only 23.7% of the villagers and 27% of the rural residents obtained tests on their own from health centres, hospitals and private clinics in various nearby towns. In 2007, 63% of the villagers and 70.5% of the rural residents reported never having received treatment for schistosomiasis. This paper reveals considerable variation in the accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services between the central village and the rural area. A combination of low utilisation rates between 2002-2006 and persistently high S. mansoni infection rates suggest that the schistosomiasis control program must be more rapidly incorporated into the primary health services.

  8. Co-Morbid Erectile Dysfunction (Ed) and Antidepressant Treatment in a Patient - A Management Challenge?

    PubMed

    Zainol, Maszaidi; Sidi, Hatta; Kumar, Jaya; Das, Srijit; Ismail, Shaiful; Hatta, Muhammad Hizri; Baharudin, Najwa; Ravindran, Arun

    2017-03-15

    Across the globe, antidepressants (AD) and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are commonly prescribed psychopharmacological agents for patients with co-morbid mental-health problem and sexual dysfunction (SD). The serotonergic and/or noradrenergic ADs, although is an effective agent are not without SD side-effects, especially erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is an inability to achieve, or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse during the phases of male's sexual arousal. It is recognized as an important reason why non-adherence to treatment was observed in patients who are on AD. AD intervention caused remission to some of the pre-treatment psychopathology of ED, but to many patients, AD potentially magnified the unwanted sexual side-effects. This made this situation a challenging task for the mental health professional. These challenges are based on the complexity of ED - its etiology, and the associated risk factors, which further compounded with AD side-effect. The neuro-psychopharmacological basis for AD treatment selection used was deliberated. Biopsychosocial interventions are recommended at a two pivotal stage. First, a step should be taken for proper assessment (e.g. detailed history, psychosocial and laboratory investigations); and identifying some modifiable risk factors for ED and associated mental health issue. Secondly, with guidance of an algorithm pathway, a practical intervention should include steps like dose reduction, augmentation or changing to an AD with lesser/ no sexual side-effects like bupropion and mirtazepine. Some achievable suggestions, e.g. revising sexual scripts and improving sexual techniques, life-style modifications, psychotherapy and other non-pharmacological approaches will be beneficial for both patients and his partner.

  9. The Phosphodiesterase 5-Inhibitors (PDE-5i) for ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION (ED): A Therapeutic Challenge For Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Koon, Chong Siew; Sidi, Hatta; Kumar, Jaya; Das, Srijit; Xi, Ong Wan; Hatta, Muhammad Hizri; Alfonso, Cesar

    2017-02-15

    Erectile function (EF) is a prerequisite for satisfactory sexual intercourse (SI) and central to male sexual functioning. Satisfactory SI eventually leads to orgasm - a biopsychophysiological state of euphoria - leading to a sense of bliss, enjoyment and positive mental well being. For a psychiatrist, treating ED is self-propelled to harmonize these pleasurable experiences alongside with encouragement of physical wellness and sensuality. Hence, the role of PDE-5i is pivotal in the context of treating ED constitutes a therapeutic challenge. PDE-5i work via the dopaminergic-oxytocin-nitric oxide pathway by increasing the availability of endothelial's guanosine monophosphate (GMP), immediately causing relaxation of the penile smooth muscle and an erection. The PDE-5i, like sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, are effective in the treatment of ED with some benefits and disadvantages compared to other treatment modalities. Prescribed PDE-5i exclusively improve EF, fostering male's self-confidence and self-esteem. Treatment failures are associated with factors such as absent (or insufficient) sexual stimulation, psychosexual conflicts and the co-existence of medical disorders. Managing ED requires dealing with underlying medical diseases, addressing other co-morbid sexual dysfunctions like premature ejaculation (PE), and educating the patient on healthy life-styles beside being cautious with the potential side-effects and drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, by dealing with interpersonal dynamics within the couple and embracing adequate lifestyles (managing stress and revising one's sexual scripts), PDE-5i treatment benefits may be enhanced. In this review, we propose a holistic conceptual framework approach for psychiatric management of patients with ED.

  10. Commodity Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2013-01-01

    With schools and students now able to secure high-quality online courses from beyond the ivy-covered walls, faculty--and institutions themselves--are weighing whether their stock is rising or falling. Increasingly, online courses and their content--previously the jealously guarded domain of professors--are being offered as out-of-the-box solutions…

  11. Staphylococcus aureus Leukocidin LukED and HIV-1 gp120 Target Different Sequence Determinants on CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Kayan; Schultz, Megan; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Vanwalscappel, Bénédicte; Horton, Joshua; Alonzo, Francis; Wu, Beili

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leukocidin ED (LukED) is a bicomponent pore-forming toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus that lyses host cells by targeting the chemokine receptors CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), CXCR1, CXCR2, and DARC. In addition to its role as a receptor for LukED, CCR5 is the major coreceptor for primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and has been extensively studied. To compare how LukED and HIV-1 target CCR5, we analyzed their respective abilities to use CCR5/CCR2b chimeras to mediate cytotoxicity and virus entry. These analyses showed that the second and third extracellular loops (ECL) of CCR5 are necessary and sufficient for LukED to target the receptor and promote cell lysis. In contrast, the second ECL of CCR5 is necessary but not sufficient for HIV-1 infectivity. The analysis of CCR5 point mutations showed that glycine-163 is critical for HIV-1 infectivity, while arginine-274 and aspartic acid-276 are critical for LukED cytotoxicity. Point mutations in ECL2 diminished both HIV-1 infectivity and LukED cytotoxicity. Treatment of cells with LukED did not interfere with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infectivity, demonstrating that LukED and the viral envelope glycoprotein use nonoverlapping sites on CCR5. Analysis of point mutations in LukE showed that amino acids 64 to 69 in the rim domain are required for CCR5 targeting and cytotoxicity. Taking the results together, this study identified the molecular basis by which LukED targets CCR5, highlighting the divergent molecular interactions evolved by HIV-1 and LukED to interact with CCR5. PMID:27965453

  12. Staphylococcus aureus Leukocidin LukED and HIV-1 gp120 Target Different Sequence Determinants on CCR5.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kayan; Schultz, Megan; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Vanwalscappel, Bénédicte; Horton, Joshua; Alonzo, Francis; Wu, Beili; Landau, Nathaniel R; Torres, Victor J

    2016-12-13

    Leukocidin ED (LukED) is a bicomponent pore-forming toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus that lyses host cells by targeting the chemokine receptors CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), CXCR1, CXCR2, and DARC. In addition to its role as a receptor for LukED, CCR5 is the major coreceptor for primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and has been extensively studied. To compare how LukED and HIV-1 target CCR5, we analyzed their respective abilities to use CCR5/CCR2b chimeras to mediate cytotoxicity and virus entry. These analyses showed that the second and third extracellular loops (ECL) of CCR5 are necessary and sufficient for LukED to target the receptor and promote cell lysis. In contrast, the second ECL of CCR5 is necessary but not sufficient for HIV-1 infectivity. The analysis of CCR5 point mutations showed that glycine-163 is critical for HIV-1 infectivity, while arginine-274 and aspartic acid-276 are critical for LukED cytotoxicity. Point mutations in ECL2 diminished both HIV-1 infectivity and LukED cytotoxicity. Treatment of cells with LukED did not interfere with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infectivity, demonstrating that LukED and the viral envelope glycoprotein use nonoverlapping sites on CCR5. Analysis of point mutations in LukE showed that amino acids 64 to 69 in the rim domain are required for CCR5 targeting and cytotoxicity. Taking the results together, this study identified the molecular basis by which LukED targets CCR5, highlighting the divergent molecular interactions evolved by HIV-1 and LukED to interact with CCR5.

  13. The Customers' Perspective: The EdNET 98 Survey of Buyers and Managers of Educational Technology. Constructive Input for the Educational Technology Industry from the EdNET 98 Education Executives Advisory Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craighead, Donna; Bigham, Vicki Smith; Heller, Nelson B.

    The EdNET 98 Education Executives Advisory Board, also known as Partners in Education Program (PEP), is a featured activity of the EdNET 98 Conference. Its focus is to bring educators and vendors together to share their perspectives about technology in education and discussion technology-related concerns and issues. This report presents results…

  14. Short Duration Reduced Gravity Drop Tower Design and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, B.; Welch, C.

    The industrial and commercial development of space-related activities is intimately linked to the ability to conduct reduced gravity research. Reduced gravity experimentation is important to many diverse fields of research in the understanding of fundamental and applied aspects of physical phenomena. Both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial experimental facilities are currently available to allow researchers access to reduced gravity environments. This paper discusses two drop tower designs, a 2.0 second facility built in Australia and a proposed 2.2 second facility in the United Kingdom. Both drop towers utilise a drag shield for isolating the falling experiment from the drag forces of the air during the test. The design and development of The University of Queensland's (Australia) 2.0 second drop tower, including its specifications and operational procedures is discussed first. Sensitive aspects of the design process are examined. Future plans are then presented for a new short duration (2.2 sec) ground-based reduced gravity drop tower. The new drop tower has been designed for Kingston University (United Kingdom) to support teaching and research in the field of reduced gravity physics. The design has been informed by the previous UQ drop tower design process and utilises a catapult mechanism to increase test time and also incorporates features to allow participants for a variety of backgrounds (from high school students through to university researchers) to learn and experiment in reduced gravity. Operational performance expectations for this new facility are also discussed.

  15. Higher Ed Meets Public Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olenick, Mary Jo

    1996-01-01

    The University of Connecticut is revitalizing the Avery Point campus with two new buildings. A Marine Sciences and Technology Center will serve graduate and undergraduate students. A separate Marine Sciences Field Station/Hostel will house Project Oceanology: a science program for students in grades 5-12. (MLF)

  16. Effectiveness of Mathematics Teaching and Learning Experiences through Wireless Technology as Recent Style to Enhance B.Ed. Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joan, D. R. Robert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to find out the effect of learning through Wireless technologies and the traditional method in teaching and learning Mathematics. The investigator adopted experimental research to find the effectiveness of implementing Wireless technologies in the population of B.Ed. trainees. The investigator selected 32 B.Ed.…

  17. Multicolor flow cytometry analysis of the proliferations of T-lymphocyte subsets in vitro by EdU incorporation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanli; Sun, Yu; Lin, Guigao; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kuo; Xie, Jiehong; Wang, Lunan; Li, Jinming

    2012-10-01

    EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) incorporation has proved advantageous in the studies of cell kinetics, DNA synthesis, and cellular proliferation in vitro and in vivo compared to [(3) H]thymidine incorporation and BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) incorporation. Here, we describe a method that combines EdU incorporation and immunostaining with flow cytometric analysis to detect the proliferations of T lymphocyte subsets in vitro and optimized the assay's conditions. We found that the number of EdU(+) cells were associated with EdU concentration, incubation time, and the volume of Click reaction solution, the best EdU concentration 10-50 μM, the optimal incubation time 8-12 h and the proper volume of Click volume 100 μl for labeling 1 × 10(6) lymphocytes. Fixation was better to be performed before permeabilization, not together with. Furthermore, the permeabilization detergent reagent, PBS with 0.05% saponin was better than Tris buffer saline (TBS) with 0.1% Triton X-100. In addition, sufficient wash with PBS with 0.05% saponin has no influence on the staining of EdU(+) cells. Also, the lymphocytes incorporating EdU could be stored at 4°C, -80°C, and in liquid nitrogen up to 21 days. The present study will aid in optimization of flow cytometry assay to detect the proliferations of T cell subsets by EdU incorporation and the labeling of cell surface antigens.

  18. The Environmental Deprivation Scale (EDS): The Role of Environmental Factors in the Analysis and Prediction of Criminal Behavior and Recidivism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVine, M. D.; And Others

    This report deals with the further validation of the Environmental Deprivation Scale (EDS) as a predictor of criminal behavior and recidivism. The EDS measures the degree of supportive environmental input through 16 items assessing occupation, organizational activities, and interpersonal relationships. The data were obtained in behavioral…

  19. Detection of Soluble ED-A(+) Fibronectin and Evaluation as Novel Serum Biomarker for Cardiac Tissue Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ziffels, Barbara; Ospel, Johanna; Grün, Katja; Neri, Dario; Pfeil, Alexander; Fritzenwanger, Michael; Figulla, Hans R; Jung, Christian; Berndt, Alexander; Franz, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Fibronectin containing the extra domain A (ED-A(+) Fn) was proven to serve as a valuable biomarker for cardiac remodeling. The study was aimed at establishing an ELISA to determine ED-A(+) Fn in serum of heart failure patients. Methods. ED-A(+) Fn was quantified in serum samples from 114 heart failure patients due to ischemic (ICM, n = 44) and dilated (DCM, n = 39) cardiomyopathy as well as hypertensive heart disease (HHD, n = 31) compared to healthy controls (n = 12). Results. In comparison to healthy volunteers, heart failure patients showed significantly increased levels of ED-A(+) Fn (p < 0.001). In particular in ICM patients there were significant associations between ED-A(+) Fn serum levels and clinical parameters, for example, increased levels with rising NYHA class (p = 0.013), a negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.026, r: -0.353), a positive correlation with left atrial diameter (p = 0.008, r: 0.431), and a strong positive correlation with systolic pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.002, r: 0.485). In multivariate analysis, ED-A(+) Fn was identified as an independent predictor of an ischemic heart failure etiology. Conclusions. The current study could clearly show that ED-A(+) Fn is a promising biomarker in cardiovascular diseases, especially in heart failure patients due to an ICM. We presented a valid ELISA method, which could be applied for further studies investigating the value of ED-A(+) Fn.

  20. Disruption of the Arabidopsis Defense Regulator Genes SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 Confers Enhanced Freezing Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin-Fang; Xu, Le; Tan, Wei-Juan; Chen, Liang; Qi, Hua; Xie, Li-Juan; Chen, Mo-Xian; Liu, Bin-Yi; Yu, Lu-Jun; Yao, Nan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Shu, Wensheng; Xiao, Shi

    2017-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, three lipase-like regulators, SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4, act downstream of resistance protein-associated defense signaling. Although the roles of SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 in biotic stress have been extensively studied, little is known about their functions in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we show that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in the regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. With or without cold acclimation, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 single mutants, as well as their double mutants exhibited similarly enhanced tolerance to freezing temperatures. Upon cold exposure, the sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants showed increased transcript levels of C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTORs and their regulons, compared with wild type. Moreover, freezing-induced cell death and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide were ameliorated in sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants. The sag101, eds1, and pad4 mutants had much lower salicylic acid (SA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) contents than wild type and exogenous application of SA and DAG compromised the freezing tolerance of the mutants. Furthermore, SA suppressed the cold-induced expression of DGATs and DGKs in wild-type leaves. These findings indicate that SAG101, EDS1, and PAD4 are involved in freezing response in Arabidopsis, at least in part, by modulating the homeostasis of SA and DAG. PMID:26149542

  1. Effectiveness of Mutual Learning Approach in the Academic Achievement of B.Ed Students in Learning Optional II English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arulselvi, Evangelin

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims at finding out the effectiveness of Mutual learning approach over the conventional method in learning English optional II among B.Ed students. The randomized pre-test, post test, control group and experimental group design was employed. The B.Ed students of the same college formed the control and experimental groups. Each…

  2. Competencies for Effective School Leadership: To What Extent Are They Included in Ed.D. Leadership Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Jody; Li, Jinyi; Kladifko, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: With the increasing need for well-­-prepared and leading practitioners in the field of education as well as the renewed efforts to further distinguish the EdD from the PhD in higher education in recent years, the curriculum of EdD programs nationwide has been questioned and criticized for its disconnection from the needs of leading…

  3. Effectiveness of Organizational Interventions to Reduce Emergency Department Utilization: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Violan-Fors, Concepción; Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Peiró, Salvador; Argimon, Josep-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergency department (ED) utilization has dramatically increased in developed countries over the last twenty years. Because it has been associated with adverse outcomes, increased costs, and an overload on the hospital organization, several policies have tried to curb this growing trend. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effectiveness of organizational interventions designed to reduce ED utilization. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted electronic searches using free text and Medical Subject Headings on PubMed and The Cochrane Library to identify studies of ED visits, re-visits and mortality. We performed complementary searches of grey literature, manual searches and direct contacts with experts. We included studies that investigated the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce ED visits and the following study designs: time series, cross-sectional, repeated cross-sectional, longitudinal, quasi-experimental studies, and randomized trial. We excluded studies on specific conditions, children and with no relevant outcomes (ED visits, re-visits or adverse events). From 2,348 potentially useful references, 48 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We classified the interventions in mutually exclusive categories: 1) Interventions addressing the supply and accessibility of services: 25 studies examined efforts to increase primary care physicians, centers, or hours of service; 2) Interventions addressing the demand for services: 6 studies examined educational interventions and 17 examined barrier interventions (gatekeeping or cost). Conclusions/Significance The evidence suggests that interventions aimed at increasing primary care accessibility and ED cost-sharing are effective in reducing ED use. However, the rest of the interventions aimed at decreasing ED utilization showed contradictory results. Changes in health care policies require rigorous evaluation before being implemented since these can have a high impact on individual

  4. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The wide-ranging utilisation of Rapakivi Granite in St Petersburg is typified by the the famous Alexander Column, and 114 stone columns of St Isaac's Cathedralas well as the pedestal of the Nicholas I monument, and portals and basements of buildings of the Admiralty, General Staff, Senate and Synod. The stone is also frequently seen among pavement slabs and in parapets of embankments and bridges around the city. This list of examples where Rapakivi Granite has been used could be expanded further. All Rapakivi Granites used in the buildings of St.Petersburg were quarried from the so-called Vyborg massif. At present it has been found that the massif occupies an area of about 18 000 km2. In the past granite of the Vyborg massif was worked from several quarries in the vicinity of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) in Finland for use in St Peterburg. The best known granite quarries are at Piterlaks (Piuterlahti) and Gimmekyul (Hämeenkylä). Sometimes Rapakivi Granite form Finland differs in appearance from typical varieties. Thus columns of a classical portal in the house at N 7 in Pochtamtskaya Street are hewn from this greyish variety. Other examples are the plinth of the General Staff and Trade Store buildings. After the 1960s varieties from the Leningrad district, and Korosten (Ukraine) massifs were used in St Petersburg. Today it is possible to find examples of Rapakivi Granite from Finland in cities in the USA, South Africa, United Kingdom and Germany. It is a long used stone as demonstrated by its cultural heritage. It is also used as an ornamental or decorative stone in modern architecture. References: 1) Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English). 2) Tutakova, A.Ya., Romanovskiy, A.Z., Bulakh, A.G., and Leer, V.I. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p

  5. Silages containing buckwheat and chicory: quality, digestibility and nitrogen utilisation by lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2012-02-01

    The suitability of silages containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) for the nutrition of dairy cows was determined. Buckwheat and chicory were sown in mixture with ryegrass (Lolium multilorum), and a pure ryegrass culture served as a control forage. Swards were harvested 55 d after sowing and were ensiled after wilting, without additives in small round bales. Finally, buckwheat and chicory made up the dietary dry matter (DM) proportions of 0.46 and 0.34, respectively. Concentrates were restricted to 2 kg/d. Diets were fed to 3 x 6 late-lactating cows for 15 d at ad libitum access. During the collection period (days 10-15) amounts of feed intake and faeces, urine and milk were recorded and samples were taken. Ensilability was good for buckwheat and ryegrass swards, but was so less for the chicory sward, which was rich in total ash. The buckwheat silage was rich in acid detergent fibre (445 g/kg DM) and lignin (75.7 g/kg DM) and contained less crude protein (135 g/kg DM) and ether extract (15.8 g/kg DM) than the other silages. Consistent with that, the apparent digestibility of the organic matter and fibre were lowest when feeding this silage. The potassium concentrations in the chicory and ryegrass silages were high (61 g/ kg) and lower in buckwheat (47 g/kg). No significant treatment effects on intake, body weight, milk yield or milk composition as well as plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids occurred. Being lowest in nitrogen (N) content, the buckwheat silage resulted in the lowest urine N losses and the most efficient N utilisation for milk protein synthesis, but this at cost of body N retention. The results show that silages containing buckwheat and chicory may be used as components of the forage part of dairy cows' diets even though they were found to have a lower feeding value than ryegrass silage.

  6. Mise à jour sur l’utilisation clinique de la buprénorphine

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Examiner les données scientifiques actuelles sur la buprénorphine-naloxone pour le traitement des troubles liés aux opioïdes, en insistant sur le contexte des soins primaires. Qualité des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE et la base de données Cochrane des synthèses critiques. Les données probantes sont surtout de niveau I. Message principal La buprénorphine est un agoniste partiel des récepteurs μ des opioïdes et un antagoniste des récepteurs κ des opioïdes ayant une longue demi-vie et un potentiel moins grand que la méthadone d’entraîner un usage abusif. Pour une désintoxication, la buprénorphine est au moins équivalente à la méthadone et supérieure à la clonidine. Comme thérapie de substitution, la buprénorphine est clairement supérieure au placebo. La méthadone comporte de légers avantages en ce qui a trait à la rétention en thérapie, mais une approche par étape en utilisant initialement la buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi efficace. Il est possible, sécuritaire et efficace de recourir à la buprénorphine en milieu de soins primaires. On peut obtenir l’autorisation de prescrire de la buprénorphine après avoir suivi une formation en ligne. Conclusion La buprénorphine est un agent sécuritaire et efficace pour la désintoxication en cas de dépendance aux opioïdes. Elle peut servir d’agent de première intention dans les programmes de thérapie de substitution, en raison de son potentiel plus faible d’usage abusif en comparaison d’autres opioïdes. Son efficacité en milieux de soins primaires en fait un outil thérapeutique utile pour les médecins de famille.

  7. New 'patent accelerated care environment' aims to facilitate work flow, free up ED for acute care needs.

    PubMed

    2012-02-01

    Faced with rising acuity levels and surging demand, Virginia Mason Medical Center modified the Clinical Decision Unit concept used in many EDs, and developed a new Patient Accelerated Care Environment (PACE) to care for observation patients, process patients for discharge, and to prepare patients for admission.The approach is designed to utilize ED beds for initial processing of patients, allowing resuscitative care if needed, and treating and releasing the patients with quick care needs. Using the Virginia Mason Production System, a methodology that is modeled after Toyota production techniques, developers designed an optimal work flow pattern and then built infrastructure to facilitate that process. All patients who present to the ED for care are seen by the ED team through a "team greet" approach. Approximately 35% to 40% of patients who come to the ED for care are transferred to the PACE unit. Patients assigned to the PACE unit typically remain there for 4 to 48 hours, depending on their care needs.

  8. Male sexuality and regulation of emotions: a study on the association between alexithymia and erectile dysfunction (ED).

    PubMed

    Michetti, P M; Rossi, R; Bonanno, D; Tiesi, A; Simonelli, C

    2006-01-01

    Alexithymia is a multidimensional construct that describes a constellation of personality features characterised by difficulties in differentiating, identifying and communicating emotions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate prevalence of alexithymia in outpatients with erectile dysfunction (ED), both in the psychogenic lifelong type (PLED) and in the acquired one (PAED). ED severity was evaluated with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and alexithymia was measured using the Italian version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). The results suggest a high incidence of alexithymic characteristics in patients with psychogenic ED, a positive correlation between the alexithymia level and ED severity in patients with PAED and statistically significant differences in the alexithymia level between the two subgroups PLED and PAED. We assumed that alexithymia contributes to the origin of the PLED, and to a more severe manifestation of ED, once it appears in the acquired form.

  9. Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p < 0.01) for the biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers.

  10. Reduced resting skeletal muscle protein synthesis is rescued by resistance exercise and protein ingestion following short-term energy deficit.

    PubMed

    Areta, José L; Burke, Louise M; Camera, Donny M; West, Daniel W D; Crawshay, Siobhan; Moore, Daniel R; Stellingwerff, Trent; Phillips, Stuart M; Hawley, John A; Coffey, Vernon G

    2014-04-15

    The myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) response to resistance exercise (REX) and protein ingestion during energy deficit (ED) is unknown. In young men (n = 8) and women (n = 7), we determined protein signaling and resting postabsorptive MPS during energy balance [EB; 45 kcal·kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1)·day(-1)] and after 5 days of ED (30 kcal·kg FFM(-1)·day(-1)) as well as MPS while in ED after acute REX in the fasted state and with the ingestion of whey protein (15 and 30 g). Postabsorptive rates of MPS were 27% lower in ED than EB (P < 0.001), but REX stimulated MPS to rates equal to EB. Ingestion of 15 and 30 g of protein after REX in ED increased MPS ~16 and ~34% above resting EB (P < 0.02). p70 S6K Thr(389) phosphorylation increased above EB only with combined exercise and protein intake (~2-7 fold, P < 0.05). In conclusion, short-term ED reduces postabsorptive MPS; however, a bout of REX in ED restores MPS to values observed at rest in EB. The ingestion of protein after REX further increases MPS above resting EB in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that combining REX with increased protein availability after exercise enhances rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during short-term ED and could in the long term preserve muscle mass.

  11. Cell Proliferation Analysis Using EdU Labeling in Whole Plant and Histological Samples of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kazda, Anita; Akimcheva, Svetlana; Watson, J Matthew; Riha, Karel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to analyze cell division in both spatial and temporal dimensions within an organism is a key requirement in developmental biology. Specialized cell types within individual organs, such as those within shoot and root apical meristems, have often been identified by differences in their rates of proliferation prior to the characterization of distinguishing molecular markers. Replication-dependent labeling of DNA is a widely used method for assaying cell proliferation. The earliest approaches used radioactive labeling with tritiated thymidine, which were later followed by immunodetection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). A major advance in DNA labeling came with the use of 5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine (EdU) which has proven to have multiple advantages over BrdU. Here we describe the methodology for analyzing EdU labeling and retention in whole plants and histological sections of Arabidopsis.

  12. EdU Incorporation for FACS and Microscopy Analysis of DNA Replication in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Talarek, Nicolas; Petit, Julie; Gueydon, Elisabeth; Schwob, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication is a key determinant of chromosome segregation and stability in eukaryotes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used for cell cycle studies, yet simple but key parameters such as the fraction of cells in S phase in a population or the subnuclear localization of DNA synthesis have been difficult to gather for this organism. 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) is a thymidine analogue that can be incorporated in vivo and later detected using copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (Click reaction) without prior DNA denaturation. This chapter describes a budding yeast strain and conditions that allow rapid EdU incorporation at moderate extracellular concentrations, followed by its efficient detection for the analysis of DNA replication in single cells by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.

  13. Analysis of Cell Proliferation and Homeostasis Using EdU Labeling.

    PubMed

    Flomerfelt, Francis A; Gress, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    Determination of cellular proliferation and population turnover is an important tool for research on lymphoid cell function. Historically this has been done using radiolabeled nucleotides or nucleoside analogs, such as BrdU (5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine), that are incorporated into nascent DNA during S-phase. Recently, a new procedure was developed to label nascent DNA using EdU (5-Ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine). This new method overcomes limitations imposed by the procedure used to detect BrdU because EdU detection is based on an easily performed chemical reaction that does not require DNA denaturation, is quick and reproducible, and has a superior signal-to-noise ratio. This technique offers a wide range of opportunities to analyze cellular proliferation, population homeostasis, and cell marking procedures.

  14. Segregation Behavior of Sulfur and Other Impurities Onto the Free Surfaces of ED-Ni Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Binayak; Jerman, Gregory; Gentz, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Most researchers attribute grain boundary embrittlement in electro-deposited Nickel (ED-Ni) to the presence of small quantities of Sulfur as an impurity. It occurs in a highly mobile form that segregates to the grain boundaries. Evaluation of Sulfur segregation requires that a sample be fractured through the grain boundaries. However, this action may not always be possible. ED-Ni is inherently tough at ambient temperature, especially if a low level of Sulfur was intentionally maintained. A new method was developed to study Sulfur and other migrant species to the grain boundaries, which also migrate to free surfaces. A test specimen is heated by a quartz lamp within the sample preparation chamber, allowing the mobile species to migrate to polished free surfaces. There the mobile species are analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA).

  15. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: NYU Ada/ED, Version 19.7 V-001.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-11

    SCz25 C~z37 EC85 C37304A- ABADA P SCa22 CTs63 1.7.10.9 £7.38 Validation Summary Report for NYU Ada/ED April 11, 1983 A-6 A CMplete Li3t Of Tst3 and...9 NOa 352002E- ABADA PM SWaS CT*23 ECz2 B520021-8. ADA P SCs5 CTs11 EC.1 55202- ABADA P SC85 CT89 ECul Validation Summary Report for M! Ad a/ ED April... ABADA , P SCx17 C7.16 M~al B9710OA.AB.ADA P4 SC.18 CTx18 ECal C97101AADA PH SCu13 CT.66 1..1.6£75 C9711GA-A.ADi PM SCs1 CTx17 LT.13. 76 B97115A-B.ADA

  16. The impact of inpatient boarding on ED efficiency: a discrete-event simulation study.

    PubMed

    Bair, Aaron E; Song, Wheyming T; Chen, Yi-Chun; Morris, Beth A

    2010-10-01

    In this study, a discrete-event simulation approach was used to model Emergency Department's (ED) patient flow to investigate the effect of inpatient boarding on the ED efficiency in terms of the National Emergency Department Crowding Scale (NEDOCS) score and the rate of patients who leave without being seen (LWBS). The decision variable in this model was the boarder-released-ratio defined as the ratio of admitted patients whose boarding time is zero to all admitted patients. Our analysis shows that the Overcrowded(+) (a NEDOCS score over 100) ratio decreased from 88.4% to 50.4%, and the rate of LWBS patients decreased from 10.8% to 8.4% when the boarder-released-ratio changed from 0% to 100%. These results show that inpatient boarding significantly impacts both the NEDOCS score and the rate of LWBS patient and this analysis provides a quantification of the impact of boarding on emergency department patient crowding.

  17. Segregation Behavior of Sulfur and Other Impurities onto the Free Surfaces of ED-NI Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, B.; Jerman, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most researchers attribute grain boundary embrittlement in electro-deposited nickel (ED-Ni) to the presence of small quantities of sulfur as an impurity. It occurs in a highly mobile form that segregates to the grain boundaries. Evaluation of sulfur segregation requires that a sample be fractured through the grain boundaries. However, this action may not always be possible. ED-Ni is inherently tough at ambient temperature, especially if a low level of sulfur was intentionally maintained. A new method was developed to study sulfur and other migrant species to the grain boundaries, which also migrate to free surfaces. A test specimen is heated by a quartz lamp within the sample preparation chamber, allowing the mobile species to migrate to polished free surfaces. There the mobile species are analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA).

  18. Isolation and characterization of endophytic Bacillus subtilis Jaas ed1 antagonist of eggplant Verticillium wilt.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Qiao, Yong-Sheng; Ju, Zheng-Ying; Ma, Chang-Wen; Liu, Ying-Hao; Zhou, Yi-Jun; Dong, Han-Song

    2009-07-01

    An endophytic bacterial strain, Jaas ed1, was isolated from the interior of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) stems in Jiangsu Province, China. According to the morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the 16s rDNA sequence, it was identified as Bacillius subtilis. Strain Jaas ed1 and its cell-free filtrate had strong antifungal activity against Verticillium dahliae. The strain was an internal colonizer within the eggplant without any harmful side effects to the plant. In greenhouse experiments, the strain cell suspension effectively controlled Verticillium wilt of eggplant, and its control efficiency was far more significant than that of the cell-free filtrate after inoculation of V. dahliae.

  19. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-11-14

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  20. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sigrin, B.; Sullivan, P.; Ibanez, E.; Margolis, R.

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  1. Postdischarge Secobarbital After ED Migraine Treatment Decreases Pain and Improves Resolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    barbiturate hypnotic agent. It lost favor due largely to its narrow therapeutic index, addiction potential, and deleterious interaction with ethanol [8...durations, particularly when compared with other more common hypnotic agents such as zolpidem or temazepam. It is noteworthy that we encountered no...of headache resolution in the secobarbital group. We conclude that postdischarge hypnotic therapy for migraine patients treated in the ED is

  2. Low-dose Ketamine Versus Morphine for Acute Pain In the ED: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Original Contribution Low-dose ketamine vs morphine for acute pain in the ED: a randomized controlled trial☆,☆☆ Joshua P. Miller, MD a,b,⁎, Steven G...numeric rating scale (NRS) pain scores, in patients receiving low-dose ketamine (LDK) or morphine (MOR) for acute pain in the emergency department...convenience sample of patients aged 18 to 59 years with acute abdominal, flank, low back, or extremity pain were enrolled. Subjects were consented and

  3. Improvement in student science proficiency through InSciEd out.

    PubMed

    Pierret, Chris; Sonju, James D; Leicester, Jean E; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R; Ekker, Stephen C

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K-8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5(th) and 8(th) grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools.

  4. Improvement in Student Science Proficiency Through InSciEd Out

    PubMed Central

    Sonju, James D.; Leicester, Jean E.; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J.; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K–8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5th and 8th grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools. PMID:23244687

  5. ISCCP-D2like-Day Terra Ed3A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-15

    ISCCP-D2like-Day Terra Ed3A Project Title:  CERES Discipline:  ... Earthdata Search Guide Documents:  Day/Nit Description/Abstract Detailed CERES ISCCP-D2like Product ... Data Products Catalog:  DPC_ISCCP-D2like-Day-Nit_R5V3  (PDF) Readme Files:  Readme Day-Nit ...

  6. Emergency Doses (ED) - Revision 3: A calculator code for environmental dose computations

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1990-12-01

    The calculator program ED (Emergency Doses) was developed from several HP-41CV calculator programs documented in the report Seven Health Physics Calculator Programs for the HP-41CV, RHO-HS-ST-5P (Rittman 1984). The program was developed to enable estimates of offsite impacts more rapidly and reliably than was possible with the software available for emergency response at that time. The ED - Revision 3, documented in this report, revises the inhalation dose model to match that of ICRP 30, and adds the simple estimates for air concentration downwind from a chemical release. In addition, the method for calculating the Pasquill dispersion parameters was revised to match the GENII code within the limitations of a hand-held calculator (e.g., plume rise and building wake effects are not included). The summary report generator for printed output, which had been present in the code from the original version, was eliminated in Revision 3 to make room for the dispersion model, the chemical release portion, and the methods of looping back to an input menu until there is no further no change. This program runs on the Hewlett-Packard programmable calculators known as the HP-41CV and the HP-41CX. The documentation for ED - Revision 3 includes a guide for users, sample problems, detailed verification tests and results, model descriptions, code description (with program listing), and independent peer review. This software is intended to be used by individuals with some training in the use of air transport models. There are some user inputs that require intelligent application of the model to the actual conditions of the accident. The results calculated using ED - Revision 3 are only correct to the extent allowed by the mathematical models. 9 refs., 36 tabs.

  7. Proliferation assays (BrdU and EdU) on skeletal tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Mead, Timothy J; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Assessing cell proliferation in situ is an important phenotyping component of skeletal tissues from development to adult stages and disease. Various methods exist including immunostaining for proteins and protein modifications associated with specific steps of the cell cycle, but the gold standard is to quantify the percentage of DNA-synthesizing cells. The thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has been widely used in the last decades for this purpose, with the inconvenience that its detection is lengthy and requires harsh treatment of tissue sections to give access of anti-BrdU antibody to nucleosides in genomic DNA. In 2008, Salic and Mitchison developed a new method and proved it to be quicker, simpler, and highly sensitive in non-skeletal tissues. This method relies on incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into de novo DNA. This other thymidine analog is readily detected by click chemistry, i.e., covalent cross-linking of its ethynyl group with a fluorescent azide, a molecule small enough to diffuse freely through native tissues and DNA. Here, we describe and compare the BrdU and EdU approaches in skeletal tissues and conclude that in these tissues too EdU provides an easy and very sensitive alternative to BrdU.

  8. Ultrasound detection of obstructive pyelonephritis due to urolithiasis in the ED.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Jennifer; Fischer, Jason; Nagdev, Arun

    2011-09-01

    Identifying acute pyelonephritis (APN) with early obstructive uropathy is clinically important in the emergency department (ED) because obstructive urolithiasis is an independent risk factor for inpatient death, prolonged hospitalization, and failure of outpatient APN therapy. Furthermore, diagnosis of an early obstructive uropathy can be difficult when based solely on clinical findings. Clinicians may assume the cause of the patient's symptoms to be APN alone, without considering the concurrent presence of an obstructing stone. A feasible screening test to detect early obstructive uropathy in cases of APN has not been previously identified. Plain film radiographs are insensitive in locating a suspected calcified stone. Computed tomography is readily available in most EDs and clearly defines urologic anatomy, but delivers unnecessary ionizing radiation, can prolong ED length of stay, and is not cost-effective as a screening test for all patients diagnosed with APN. We report a case in which a bedside ultrasound identifying hydronephrosis prompted confirmatory computed tomography imaging and emergency consultation of a patient with APN. In this case, hydronephrosis on bedside ultrasound examination was an indirect marker of a distal ureteral obstruction. By detecting the presence of hydronephrosis in patients with APN, emergency physicians may dramatically increase their ability to identify those patients that need further radiographic investigation and ultimately decrease the rate of outpatient treatment failure. Further surveillance data are needed to determine the statistical characteristics of this novel screening test and if routine renal evaluation of all patients with APN is warranted.

  9. Undergraduate orthodontic & paediatric dentistry education in Europe--the DentEd project.

    PubMed

    Harzer, W; Oliver, R; Chadwick, B; Paganelli, C

    2001-03-01

    As a result of a European Union funded project (DentEd), a programme of visits to dental schools throughout Europe has been underway since 1998. This report describes the philosophy behind DentEd, gives a brief description of the features of a visitation, and covers the orthodontic and paediatric dentistry teaching as reported in 26 different dental schools in 16 different countries. It is based on a report submitted to DentEd from a small working group that looked at various aspects of educational provision within the two disciplines across Europe. The value of this information to teachers within the two disciplines and to the wider dental community is briefly discussed. The report recommends the adoption of an integrated course for orthodontics and paediatric dentistry. The main objectives are that the student should be able to understand orofacial and psychosocial growth and development of the child, recognize aberrant growth and development, and manage the behaviour of the child, their straightforward preventive, restorative and occlusal needs, and to make appropriate and timely referral.

  10. A new e-learning platform for radiology education (RadEd).

    PubMed

    Xiberta, Pau; Boada, Imma

    2016-04-01

    One of the key elements of e-learning platforms is the content provided to the students. Content creation is a time demanding task that requires teachers to prepare material taking into account that it will be accessed on-line. Moreover, the teacher is restricted by the functionalities provided by the e-learning platforms. In contexts such as radiology where images have a key role, the required functionalities are still more specific and difficult to be provided by these platforms. Our purpose is to create a framework to make teacher's tasks easier, specially when he has to deal with contents where images have a main role. In this paper, we present RadEd, a new web-based teaching framework that integrates a smart editor to create case-based exercises that support image interaction such as changing the window width and the grey scale used to render the image, taking measurements on the image, attaching labels to images and selecting parts of the images, amongst others. It also provides functionalities to prepare courses with different topics, exercises and theory material, and also functionalities to control students' work. Different experts have used RadEd and all of them have considered it a very useful and valuable tool to prepare courses where radiological images are the main component. RadEd provides teachers functionalities to prepare more realistic cases and students the ability to make a more specific diagnosis.

  11. An electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics (ED-LD) approach to simulate metal nanoparticle interactions and motion.

    PubMed

    Sule, N; Rice, S A; Gray, S K; Scherer, N F

    2015-11-16

    Understanding the formation of electrodynamically interacting assemblies of metal nanoparticles requires accurate computational methods for determining the forces and propagating trajectories. However, since computation of electromagnetic forces occurs on attosecond to femtosecond timescales, simulating the motion of colloidal nanoparticles on milliseconds to seconds timescales is a challenging multi-scale computational problem. Here, we present a computational technique for performing accurate simulations of laser-illuminated metal nanoparticles. In the simulation, we self-consistently combine the finite-difference time-domain method for electrodynamics (ED) with Langevin dynamics (LD) for the particle motions. We demonstrate the ED-LD method by calculating the 3D trajectories of a single 100-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticle and optical trapping and optical binding of two and three 150-nm-diameter Ag nanoparticles in simulated optical tweezers. We show that surface charge on the colloidal metal nanoparticles plays an important role in their optically driven self-organization. In fact, these simulations provide a more complete understanding of the assembly of different structures of two and three Ag nanoparticles that have been observed experimentally, demonstrating that the ED-LD method will be a very useful tool for understanding the self-organization of optical matter.

  12. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    This report is the twenty-first Quarterly Technical Progress Report for US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-77ET10069 for EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development Phase V. A detailed comparison of RCLU, CLPP, and ECLP yields has been initiated. This study builds off previous yield modeling results, which found that RCLU, CLPP, and ECLP yields were generally consistent given the scatter of the data, although some differences were noted. These pilot unit yield differences have now been quantified, and operating/configurational differences which account for some of them have been identified. Preliminary yield comparison results after correcting for these known process differences between the pilot plants indicate that: RCLU and CLPP yields are generally consistent; ECLP's conversion is about 5 lb/100 lb DAF coal lower than RCLU/CLPP at comparable operating conditions; and work has been initiated to define the EDS slurry preheater feed system design (based on slurry distributor manifold guidelines and coking correlation predictions, which influence furnace pass control issues such as slurry flow measurement). EDS hydrotreated naphtha showed a low level of systemic toxicity to rats exposed to the vapor six hours per day, five days per week for thirteen weeks.

  13. Characterization of low alloy ferritic steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interface by SPM techniques, SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS and SVET

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Siyan; Ding, Jie; Ming, Hongliang; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Jianqiu

    2015-02-15

    The interface region of welded A508–Alloy 52 M is characterized by scanning probe microscope (SPM) techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning vibrate electrode technique (SVET). The regions along the welded A508–Alloy 52 M interface can be categorized into two types according to their different microstructures. In the type-I interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by the fusion boundary, while in the type-II interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by a martensite zone. A508, martensite zone and grain boundaries in Alloy 52 M are ferromagnetic while the Alloy 52 M matrix is paramagnetic. The Volta potentials measured by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) of A508, martensite zone and Alloy 52 M follow the order: V{sub 52} {sub M} > V{sub A508} > V{sub martensite}. The corrosion behavior of A508–Alloy 52 M interface region is galvanic corrosion, in which Alloy 52 M is cathode while A508 is anode. The martensite dissolves faster than Alloy 52 M, but slower than A508 in the test solution. - Highlights: • The A508–Alloy 52 M interface regions can be categorized into two types. • The chromium depleted region is observed along the Alloy 52 M grain boundary. • The Alloy 52 M grain boundaries which are close to the interface are ferromagnetic. • Martensite zone has lower Volta potential but higher corrosion resistance than A508.

  14. The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

  15. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  16. Utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services in the early medical response to major incidents: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Anne Siri; Fattah, Sabina; Sollid, Stephen J M; Rehn, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review identifies, describes and appraises the literature describing the utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the early medical response to major incidents. Setting Early prehospital phase of a major incident. Design Systematic literature review performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cinahl, Bibsys Ask, Norart, Svemed and UpToDate were searched using phrases that combined HEMS and ‘major incidents’ to identify when and how HEMS was utilised. The identified studies were subjected to data extraction and appraisal. Results The database search identified 4948 articles. Based on the title and abstract, the full text of 96 articles was obtained; of these, 37 articles were included in the review, and an additional five were identified by searching the reference lists of the 37 articles. HEMS was used to transport medical and rescue personnel to the incident and to transport patients to the hospital, especially when the infrastructure was damaged. Insufficient air traffic control, weather conditions, inadequate landing sites and failing communication were described as challenging in some incidents. Conclusions HEMS was used mainly for patient treatment and to transport patients, personnel and equipment in the early medical management of major incidents, but the optimal utilisation of this specialised resource remains unclear. This review identified operational areas with improvement potential. A lack of systematic indexing, heterogeneous data reporting and weak methodological design, complicated the identification and comparison of incidents, and more systematic reporting is needed. Trial registration number CRD42013004473. PMID:26861938

  17. Health Care Utilisation and Transitions between Health Care Settings in the Last 6 Months of Life in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Bähler, Caroline; Signorell, Andri; Reich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Many efforts are undertaken in Switzerland to enable older and/or chronically ill patients to stay home longer at the end-of-life. One of the consequences might be an increased need for hospitalisations at the end-of-life, which goes along with burdensome transitions for patients and higher health care costs for the society. Aim We aimed to examine the health care utilisation in the last six months of life, including transitions between health care settings, in a Swiss adult population. Methods The study population consisted of 11'310 decedents of 2014 who were insured at the Helsana Group, the leading health insurance in Switzerland. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the health care utilisation by age group, taking into account individual and regional factors. Zero-inflated Poisson regression model was used to predict the number of transitions. Results Mean age was 78.1 in men and 83.8 in women. In the last six months of life, 94.7% of the decedents had at least one consultation; 61.6% were hospitalised at least once, with a mean length of stay of 28.3 days; and nursing home stays were seen in 47.4% of the decedents. Over the same time period, 64.5% were transferred at least once, and 12.9% experienced at least one burdensome transition. Main predictors for transitions were age, sex and chronic conditions. A high density of home care nurses was associated with a decrease, whereas a high density of ambulatory care physicians was associated with an increase in the number of transitions. Conclusions Health care utilisation was high in the last six months of life and a considerable number of decedents were being transferred. Advance care planning might prevent patients from numerous and particularly from burdensome transitions. PMID:27598939

  18. Analysis of the diversity of substrate utilisation of soil bacteria exposed to Cd and earthworm activity using generalised additive models.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd.

  19. Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

  20. Trends in a decade of drug abuse presentation to an inner city ED.

    PubMed

    Leikin, J B; Morris, R W; Warren, M; Erickson, T

    2001-01-01

    Temporal factors on the periodic presentations has been described for many diseased states (ie, asthma, seizures, coronary attacks). We now report an analysis of factors that could affect the periodic character regarding emergency department (ED) presentation of drugs of abuse. All drugs presentations consistent with the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) reporting program from January 1988 through December 1997 were categorized. Data collection was based on daily chart review of ED medical records from Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Hospital (Chicago, IL). Data were computer analyzed using SPSS and Pharmfit programs and analyzed for time, age, disposition, sex, and reasons for presentation and taking the drugs. During the above period, the Rush ED saw 369,770 patients of which 2,561 (0.7%) presented with a drug-related problem. The average age of men was 33. 7 + 0.29 and women 30.5 + 0.37 years. One hundred thirty-nine patients (5.4%) were under 17 years of age whereas only 72 patients (2.8%) were over 55 years of age. Cocaine was the most common drug presentation with a total of 859 visits. Seven hundred sixty-one (29. 7%) presented with an unexpected reaction, 754 (29.4%) experienced an over dosage, 135 (5.3%) had a drug withdrawal, 546 (21.3%) experienced chronic effects, 1,380 (53.9%) were drug dependent, 218 (8.5%) were suicide attempts, and the remaining 2.7% were unknown. There were 1,078 (42.2%) patients who were treated and released, 1, 394 (54.6%) who were admitted into the hospital, 74 (2.9%) left against medical advice whereas 9 patients (0.4%) died. Peak time for presentation was 5:03 PM (P =.00002). Suicide intent presentations were more likely to be women (P <.0001), older (P <.001), and present at a later time that of recreational drug use (acrophase 18:49 versus 16:39; P =.00011). Almost 90% of patients presenting to our urban ED over past 10 years with drug-related problems arrive because of drug abuse or dependency issues. ED staff should be most

  1. The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    samples show that even after 10 years, amended topsoils were significantly enriched in compost-derived organic matter, confirming that the utilisation of such organic inputs in land reclamation activities has the potential to enhance the C stocks of degraded areas. The addition of compost to the superficial layer also resulted in a significant input of soluble organic compounds subject to leaching along the soil profile. Sorption isotherms for compost-derived water-extractable organic matter onto mineral materials used for landfill covering suggest that sorptive preservation was primarily responsible for the increase in C content and the shift in the C isotopic signature to values similar to that of the applied compost, in the deeper soil horizons over the 10 year experimental period. This was also confirmed by the accumulation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, analysis for non-cellulosic carbohydrates in soils samples and their respective water-extractable fractions suggest that a proportion of compost-derived, labile organic matter fraction is leached through the soil profile and potentially lost from the soil system, particularly in the years immediately after compost application.

  2. Utilisation of Healthcare and Associated Services in Huntington’s disease: a data mining study

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Monica; Al-Madfai, Dr. Hasan; Kenkre, Joyce; Landwehrmeyer, G. Bernhard; Bentivoglio, AnnaRita; Rosser, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with Huntington’s disease (HD) often require tailored healthcare and support packages that develop as the disease progresses. The Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI) gathers retrospective information on service utilization. This study investigated the use of formal services and informal care as measured by the CSRI and explored associations between informal care, disease severity and functional ability as measured by the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS) and functional scales. Methods: All monitored longitudinal data from annual clinical assessments of UHDRS-TMS and functional assessments and CSRI collected under the auspices of the European Huntington’s Disease Network (EHDN) REGISTRY study between the years 2004 and 2009 were utilised in the analyses. Disease severity was reflected by UHDRS-TMS. Functional ability was measured using the UHDRS functional scales. CSRI data were analysed according to percentage use of individual formal services and total estimated hours per week of informal care. Regression analyses were conducted to identify any associations between disease severity, functional ability and hours of informal care. Results: 451 HD patients (212 female; 239 male) completed one visit; 105 patients (54 females; 51 males) completed two visits and 47 patients (20 females; 27 males) completed three visits in total over the 5 year period. The mean time between visits was 1.2 years. At visit one, 74% of the participants reported being in receipt of at least one formal hospital-based service in the previous six months, and 89% reported receipt of formal primary and community care services. In contrast, at the third visit, 62% of people had used hospital based services and 94% formal community based services in the previous six months. Fifty % of individuals required some form of informal care in the home at visit 1; this increased to 68% at visits 2 and 3. The mean (SD) estimated weekly total

  3. ED flow facilitators make throughput center stage, achieve decreases in LWBS, LOS, and door-to-bed times.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    With volume and the left-without-being-seen (LWBS) rate on the increase, Mercy Hospital in Springfield, MO, created a new ED flow facilitator position to take charge of throughput.The ED flow facilitator is a nurse who assigns patients to the east and west zones of the department, and also handles all ambulance calls. The approach has helped the ED bring the LWBS rate from 8% to the 3% to 5% range, and it has also made a dent in length-of-stay and door-to-bed times, but rising volume continues to be a challenge. When the flow facilitators were first implemented in late 2010, yearly volume in the ED was 93,000. This year the ED is on track to see 97,000 to 100,000 patients, which is still very high compared to other EDs. Good flow facilitators are nurses with supervisor potential who typically prefer to stay involved with nursing care. They need to be able to multi-task and handle high levels of stress. Hospital administrators note that patient flow patterns need to be under constant review in order to fashion solutions that make sense for the ED.

  4. A numerical model for thermal energy storage systems utilising encapsulated phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Rhys; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank

    2016-05-01

    In an effort to reduce the cost of thermal energy storage for concentrated solar power plants, a thermocline storage concept was investigated. Two systems were investigated being a sensible-only and an encapsulated phase change system. Both systems have the potential to reduce the storage tank volume and/or reduce the cost of the filler material, thereby reducing the cost of the system when compared to current two-tank molten salt systems. The objective of the current paper is to create a numerical model capable of designing and simulating the aforementioned thermocline storage concepts in the open source programming language known as Python. The results of the current study are compared to previous numerical results and are found to be in good agreement.

  5. Differences in carbon source utilisation by orchid mycorrhizal fungi from common and endangered species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Mehra, S; Morrison, P D; Coates, F; Lawrie, A C

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced during litter degradation by growth with different carbon sources in liquid medium to measure the degree of OMF variation with host conservation status or taxonomy. On simple carbon sources, fungal growth was assessed by biomass. On insoluble substrates, ergosterol content was assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The OMF grew on all natural materials and complex carbon sources, but produced the greatest biomass on xylan and starch and the least on bark and chitin. On simple carbon sources, the greatest OMF biomass was measured on most hexoses and disaccharides and the least on galactose and arabinose. Only some OMF used sucrose, the most common sugar in green plants, with possible implications for symbiosis. OMF from common orchids produced more ergosterol and biomass than those from endangered orchids in the Dilatata and Reticulata groups but not in the Patersonii and Finger orchids. This suggests that differences in carbon source utilisation may contribute to differences in the distribution of some orchids, if these differences are retained on site.

  6. Utilising E-on Vue and Unity 3D scenes to generate synthetic images and videos for visible signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Christopher S.; Richards, Noel J.; Culpepper, Joanne B.

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the ability to develop synthetic scenes in an image generation tool, E-on Vue, and a gaming engine, Unity 3D, which can be used to generate synthetic imagery of target objects across a variety of conditions in land environments. Developments within these tools and gaming engines have allowed the computer gaming industry to dramatically enhance the realism of the games they develop; however they utilise short cuts to ensure that the games run smoothly in real-time to create an immersive effect. Whilst these short cuts may have an impact upon the realism of the synthetic imagery, they do promise a much more time efficient method of developing imagery of different environmental conditions and to investigate the dynamic aspect of military operations that is currently not evaluated in signature analysis. The results presented investigate how some of the common image metrics used in target acquisition modelling, namely the Δμ1, Δμ2, Δμ3, RSS, and Doyle metrics, perform on the synthetic scenes generated by E-on Vue and Unity 3D compared to real imagery of similar scenes. An exploration of the time required to develop the various aspects of the scene to enhance its realism are included, along with an overview of the difficulties associated with trying to recreate specific locations as a virtual scene. This work is an important start towards utilising virtual worlds for visible signature evaluation, and evaluating how equivalent synthetic imagery is to real photographs.

  7. Discovery, utilisation and analysis of credible threats for 2×2 incomplete information games in the Theory of Moves framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jolie; Sen, Sandip

    2014-04-01

    Steven Brams's [(1994). Theory of moves. Cambridge University Press] Theory of Moves (TOM) is an alternative to traditional game theoretic treatment of real-life interactions, in which players choose strategies based on analysis of future moves and counter-moves that arise if game play commences at a specified start state and either player can choose to move first. In repeated play, players using TOM rationality arrive at nonmyopic equilibria. One advantage of TOM is its ability to model scenarios in which power asymmetries exist between players. In particular, threat power, i.e. the ability of one player to threaten and sustain immediate, globally disadvantageous outcomes to force a desirable result long term, can be utilised to induce Pareto optimal states in games such as Prisoner's Dilemma which result in Pareto-dominated outcomes using traditional methods. Unfortunately, prior work on TOM is limited by an assumption of complete information. This paper presents a mechanism that can be used by a player to utilise threat power when playing a strict, ordinal 2×2 game under incomplete information. We also analyse the benefits of threat power and support in this analysis with empirical evidence.

  8. Reconnaissance optique des formes en parallele utilisant des reseaux de neurones et une mire de reduction de dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Philippe

    Cette recherche vise à la mise en OEuvre optique de la reconnaissance des images en utilisant une mire d'anneaux afin de générer des vecteurs caractéristiques qui seront ensuite classifiés par un réseau de neurones. On proposera deux architectures originales: une qui permettra la reconnaissance invariante sous rotation en utilisant un corrélateur conjoint; l'autre montage permettra une classification en parallèle de plusieurs images grâce à la capacité des mires d'anneaux de compresser l'information. Ce dernier montage est basé sur un corrélateur 4F. On présentera des résultats optiques expérimentaux pour ces deux montages. Pour arriver à des résultats concluants on analysera le comportement des vecteurs obtenus à partir d'une mire d'anneaux, on introduira une règle d'apprentissage optimisant le pic de corrélation en réduisant les pics parasites et on corrigera à l'aide d'un algorithme génétique les modulations de phases générées par le modulateur spatial à cristaux liquides.

  9. Utilisation of health services and geography: deconstructing regional differences in barriers to facility-based delivery in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Andrew; Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-03-01

    While established that geographical inaccessibility is a key barrier to the utilisation of health services, it remains unknown whether disparities are driven only by limited access to these services, or are also attributable to health behaviour. Significant disparities exist in health outcomes and the coverage of many critical health services between the mountains region of Nepal and the rest of the country, yet the principal factors driving these regional disparities are not well understood. Using national representative data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the extent to which observable factors explain the overall differences in the utilisation of maternal health services. We apply nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca-type decomposition methods to quantify the effect that differences in measurable characteristics have on the regional coverage gap in facility-based delivery. The mean coverage of facility-based deliveries was 18.6 and 36.3 % in the mountains region and the rest of Nepal, respectively. Between 54.8 and 74.1 % of the regional coverage gap was explained by differences in observed characteristics. Factors influencing health behaviours (proxied by mothers' education, TV viewership and tobacco use, and household wealth) and subjective distance to the health facility were the major factors, contributing between 52.9 and 62.5 % of the disparity. Mothers' birth history was also noteworthy. Policies simultaneously addressing access and health behaviours appear necessary to achieve greater coverage and better health outcomes for women and children in isolated areas.

  10. Bedding, not boarding. Psychiatric patients boarded in hospital EDs create crisis for patient care and hospital finances.

    PubMed

    Kutscher, Beth

    2013-11-18

    As the supply of psychiatric beds dwindles, hospitals are devising innovative ways handle psych patients who come through the emergency department. Some collaborate with other hospitals, use separate pysch EDs or refer patients to residential treatment centers.

  11. Patients' self-treatment with alternative treatment before presenting to the ED.

    PubMed

    Zun, Leslie S; Gossman, William; Lilienstein, David; Downey, LaVonne

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the frequency of patients using alternative medicine to treat their condition before presenting to an emergency department (ED). This was a prospective randomized, consecutive survey conducted at a level I 24-bed inner-city trauma center. Patients were eligible for enrollment if they were at least 18 years old and able to consent. Exclusion criteria included patients delivered by an ambulance and patients unable or unwilling to consent. The questionnaire collected information about sociodemographic variables, alternative treatment used, why was it used, who prescribed the treatment, route, treatment satisfaction, and past history of alternative treatment and medication use. A total of 189 patients were surveyed. Of these, 10.6% of the surveyed patients used alternative treatment. The most common reason for using alternative medicine was "I wanted to try the simplest treatment first" (55%). These treatment options were self-prescribed by 55%, advice from a friend or family member by 40% and other health professional in 5%. The alternative medicines included massage (35%), home remedies (20%), prayer (20%), chiropractor (15%), herbal medicines (5%) and other methods (5%). The treatment was administered orally (20%) or topically (80%). Most said that the alternative therapy was helpful (60%). The use of alternative therapy versus no use of alternative therapy was correlated with gender (P =.05), treatment (P =.025) and how it was administered (P =.021). A small but significant number of inner-city patients use alternative treatments before presenting to an ED. Emergency physicians need to consider the use of alternative treatment and medicine by patients presenting to the ED for treatment.

  12. Health, ED use, and early identification of young children exposed to trauma

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Huang, Cindy Y.; Crusto, Cindy A.; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood trauma is an important public health problem with financial, physical health, and mental health repercussions. Emergency Departments are often the first point of contact for many young children affected by emotionally or psychologically traumatic events (e.g., neglect, separation from primary caregiver, maltreatment, witness to domestic violence within the family, natural disasters). Study Objectives Describe the prevalence of physical health symptoms, ED use and health related problems in young children (birth through 5 years) affected by trauma, and to predict whether or not children experiencing trauma are more likely to be affected by health related problems. Methods Community-based, cross-sectional survey of 208 young children. Traumatic events were assessed by the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory – Parent Report Revised. Child health symptoms and health related problems were measured using the Caregiver Information Questionnaire, developed by ORC Macro. Results Seventy-two percent of children had experienced at least one type of traumatic event. Children exposed to trauma were also experiencing recent health related events, including visits to the ED (32.2%) and the doctor (76.9%) for physical health symptoms, and recurring physical health problems (40.4%). Children previously exposed to high levels of trauma (4 or more types of events) were 2.9 times more likely to report having had recently visited the ED for health purposes. Conclusions Preventing recurrent trauma or recognizing early trauma exposure is difficult but essential if long-term negative consequences are to be mitigated or prevented. Within emergency departments, there are missed opportunities for identification and intervention for trauma-exposed children, as well as great potential for expanding primary and secondary prevention of maltreatment-associated illness, injury and mortality. PMID:24565881

  13. Study of a patient population investigated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).

    PubMed

    Laffont, F; Mallet, A; Mayer, G; Meunier, S; Minz, M; N'Doye, S; Quilfen-Buzare, M A

    2002-12-01

    This study included all patients referred to the out-patient department of our sleep disorders centre from 1993 to 1999 on account of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). As a first step, patients in whom a diagnosis was established following appropriate polysomnography were excluded: this included sleep apnea syndrome, increased upper airway resistance syndrome, narcolepsy, periodic movements during sleep or other parasomnia, and epilepsy. Patients regularly taking psychotropic substances or with psychiatric disorders were also excluded. Finally, 128 patients remained in whom no clear diagnosis had been established for EDS, 70 women and 58 men, their ages ranging from 16 to 77 years. They underwent a 48-h recording (night 1-MSLT-night 2-continuous day). The aim of the study was to establish, define and characterise different groups of undiagnosed EDS patients using clinical, electrophysiological and immunological data with the help of hierarchical cluster analysis. Eight groups were characterised: group 1: mild hypersomnia type 1 (n = 11); group 2: hypersomnia frequently associated with HLA type DR2-DQw1 (n = 11); group 3: mild hypersomnia type 2 (n = 28); group 4: morning recovery from disrupted sleep (n = 19); group 5: young "long sleepers with difficulty at waking up" (n = 17); group 6: idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 15); group 7: poor or short sleepers since childhood (n = 8); group 8: older poor sleepers with a late onset of symptoms (n = 19). Characteristic features of these different groups provided consistent and objective arguments leading to a more precise diagnosis for these patients, and helped the initiation of appropriate management and treatment.

  14. Enhancing the ED Approach to Pediatric Sexual Assault Care: Implementation of a Pediatric SART Program

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, MK; Mollen, CJ; Hayes, KL; Molnar, J; Christian, CW; Scribano, PV; Lavelle, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the experience of a novel pediatric Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) program in the first three years of implementation, and compare patient characteristics, evaluation, and treatment among subpopulations of patients. Methods Retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients evaluated at a pediatric ED who met institutional criteria for a SART evaluation. Associations of evaluation and treatment with gender, menarchal status, and presence of injuries were measured using logistic regression. Results One hundred and eighty-four patients met criteria for SART evaluation, of whom 87.5% were female; mean age was 10.1 years (+/− 4.6 years). The majority of patients underwent forensic evidence collection (89.1%), which varied by menarchal status among females (p<0.01), but not by gender. Evidence of acute anogenital injury on physical exam was found in 20.6% of patients. As per the Center for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for acute sexual assault evaluations in pediatric patients, menarchal females were more likely to undergo testing for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pregnancy (p<0.01) and to be offered pregnancy, STI, and HIV prophylaxis (p<0.01). Conclusions In an effort to improve quality and consistency of acute sexual assault examinations in a pediatric ED, development of a SART program supported the majority of eligible patients undergoing forensic evidence collection. Furthermore, a substantial number of patients had evidence of injury on exam. These findings underscore the importance of having properly trained personnel to support ED care for pediatric victims of acute sexual assault. PMID:23974714

  15. What Do We Really Know about the EdTPA? Research, PACT, and Packaging a Local Teacher Performance Assessment for National Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hébert, Cristyne

    2017-01-01

    This article calls attention to the overreliance on research about the Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT)--often labeled edTPA's predecessor--as justification for the edTPA. The article argues that the distinctions between the assessments are too vast to rely on PACT data to support the edTPA, given the localized nature of PACT…

  16. Elementary and Secondary Education: Ed-Flex States Vary in Implementation of Waiver Process. Report to the Chairman, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    Under the Education Flexibility Partnership Demonstration Act (Ed-Flex), the state--rather than the federal Department of Education (DOE)--is allowed to make decisions about whether particular school districts should be granted waivers of certain federal requirements. This document explains the Ed-Flex program. To be selected as an Ed-Flex state,…

  17. The vitamin D analog ED-71 is a potent regulator of intestinal phosphate absorption and NaPi-IIb.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alex J; Zhang, Fanjie; Ritter, Cynthia S

    2012-11-01

    The vitamin D analog ED-71 [1α,25-dihydroxy-2β-(3-hydroxypropyloxy)vitamin D(3)] has been approved for treatment of osteoporosis in Japan, but its effects on mineral metabolism have not been fully explored. We investigated the actions of ED-71 on phosphate (Pi) absorption and induction of the intestinal sodium/phosphate cotransporters. Oral treatment of vitamin D-deficient rats with ED-71 (20 pmol every other day for 8 d) produced a maximal 8-fold increase in duodenal Pi absorption, measured by the in situ loop method, whereas 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3]), at doses up to 150 pmol, had no effect. This action of ED-71 was attributable to a dramatic 24-fold induction of sodium-dependent Pi transporter type IIb (NaPi-IIb) mRNA in the duodenum; Pit-1 and Pit-2 mRNA levels were not increased. In vitamin D-replete rats, ED-71 treatment (50 pmol) at 72 and 24 h before death increased NaPi-IIb mRNA in the duodenum and jejunum, but not the ileum, whereas 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) at 1000 pmol was ineffective in all segments. Single oral doses of ED-71 increased mouse intestinal NaPi-IIb mRNA and protein between 6 and 24 h. Surprisingly, rat lung NaPi-IIb was not increased by ED-71, despite its coexpression with the vitamin D receptor in alveolar type II cells. However, ED-71 did not induce intestinal NaPi-IIb in vitamin D receptor-ablated mice. The greater potency of ED-71 than 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on NaPi-IIb appears to be due to much higher and more prolonged levels of ED-71 in the circulation. In summary, ED-71, due to its disparate pharmacokinetics, is a much more potent inducer of intestinal Pi absorption and NaPi-IIb than 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), suggesting a role for this analog in the treatment of Pi-wasting disorders.

  18. ESSEA On-Line Courses and the WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognier, E.

    2001-12-01

    The WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC) is in its second year of offering two Earth Systems Science On-line Graduate courses from IGES - one for High School teachers, and one for Middle School teachers. These high-quality courses support WERC's commitment to "supporting increased scientific and mathematical literacy among our nation's youth through services and other support aimed at enhancing the efforts of those who provide K-12 science and mathematics education." WERC has been able to use its EdGateway online community network to offer these courses to environmental education and science teachers nationwide. Through partnerships with the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), the National Environmental Education Advancement Project (NEEAP), and other regional, state and local science and environmental education organizations, WERC has a broad reach in connecting with science educators nationwide. WERC manages several state and national listservs, which enable us to reach thousands of educators with information about the courses. EdGateway also provides a private online community in which we offer the courses. WERC partners with two Master Teachers from Utah, who facilitate the courses, and with the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at Weber State University, who provides low-cost graduate credit for the courses. Our students have included classroom teachers from upper elementary through high school, community college science teachers, and environmental science center staff who provide inservice for teachers. Educators from Hawaii to New Jersey have provided diverse personal experiences of Earth Systems Science events, and add richness to the online discussions. Two Earth Science Experts, Dr. Rick Ford from Weber State University, and Dr. Art Sussman from WestEd also contribute to the high caliber of learning the students experience in the courses. (Dr. Sussman's book, Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth, is used as one of

  19. Chemical Characterization of Bed Material Coatingsby LA-ICP-MS and SEM-EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piispanen, M. H.; Mustonen, A. J.; Tiainen, M. S.; Laitinen, R. S.

    Bed material coatings and the consequent agglomeration of bed material are main ash-related problems in FB-boilers. The bed agglomeration is a particular problem when combusting biofuels and waste materials. Whereas SEM-EDS together with automated image processing has proven to be a convenient method to study compositional distribution in coating layers and agglomerates, it is a relatively expensive technique and is not necessarily widely available. In this contribution, we explore the suitability of LA-ICP-MS to provide analogous information of the bed.

  20. Dr. Ray Gause examines student Skylab experiment ED-52 Web Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Dr. Ray Gause of the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) places dinner, in the form of a housefly, in the web of Arabella - the prime spider for the ED-52 Web Formation Experiment. Arabella can be delineated near the end of the black pen in Dr. Gause's hand. The experiment is one of 25 student experiments accepted for the Skylab program and will be performed during the Skylab 3 mission. Judy Miles, a 17-year-old high school student from Lexington, Massachusetts, is the student experimenter and Dr. Gause is the NASA student advisor.