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Sample records for reducing ige levels

  1. Sex steroid hormones and circulating IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Mathur, R S; Goust, J M; Williamson, H O; Fudenberg, H H

    1977-12-01

    The possible influence of sex steroid hormones on circulating IgE levels in general and IgE anti-Candida antibodies in particular was studied by quantification of plasma levels of progesterone, estradiol and IgE (total and anti-Candida-specific) in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and during pregnancy. IgE levels during the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, although the mean values for the luteal phase were slightly lower. This trend was apparent in daily samples from two normal females during one menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, when the levels of circulating sex steroids were high, IgE levels were only slightly higher than in the follicular and luteal phases. In men and in gonadal dysgenetics, circulating progesterone levels were similar to those of women during the follicular phase (i.e., lower than in the luteal phase or in pregnancy), but the IgE levels were not different. The apparently low levels of IgE during the luteal phase may therefore be due to physiological factors other than fluctuations in the sex steroid hormones. From the present studies, it is apparent that sex steroid hormones have little or no effect on humoral IgE levels, in marked contrast to previously described correlations for other immunoglobulins, especially anti-Candida antibodies.

  2. Increased expression of the IgE Fc receptors on rat macrophages induced by elevated serum IgE levels.

    PubMed Central

    Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Plummer, J M; Spiegelberg, H L

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages (M phi) from rats with elevated serum IgE levels induced by (i) Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) infection, (ii) IgE-secreting plasmacytoma IR 162, or (iii) i.p. injection of purified rat IgE, and M phi from normal animals cultured in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml IgE were analysed for Fc IgE receptors (Fc epsilon R) expression. To detect Fc epsilon R-bearing cells, a rosette assay employing fixed ox erythrocytes coated with rat IgE was used. With undersensitized indicator cells a significantly (P less than 0.002) greater number of M phi from animals having elevated serum IgE levels or of M phi cultured in the presence of IgE formed IgE rosettes than M phi from normal donors. The IgE rosettes were IgE class-specific, since they were inhibited by rat IgE in a dose-dependent manner, but not by any other rat Ig class, heat-denatured rat IgE or human IgE. The modulating effect of Fc epsilon R expression on M phi was IgE specific, because neither rat IgG nor heated rat IgE induced increased IgE rosette formation. Furthermore, elevated serum IgE levels did not increase the expression of Fc receptors for IgG subclasses. Studies of 125I-IgE binding showed that alveolar macrophages (AM phi) from Nb-infected rats bind IgE with similar affinity (Ka 1.1 X 10(7) M-1) as AM phi from normal animals, but they have increased numbers of IgE binding sites. Collectively, the results demonstrate that in vivo and in vitro elevated serum IgE concentrations induce increased IgE rosette formation as a result of a marked increase in the number of Fc epsilon R per macrophage. PMID:6236146

  3. [Total serum IgE levels in children with enterobiasis.].

    PubMed

    Delıalıoğlu, Nuran; Aslan, Gönül; Oztürk, Candan; Camdevıren, Handan; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2005-01-01

    Enterobiasis is a helminthic disease which is very common especially in children. The IgE response has been associated with helminth infections and allergic diseases. Comparison of levels of total serum IgE of 36 children infected with Enterobius vermicularis and of 25 healthy children between 7 and 12 years of age was carried out The mean value of IgE in enterobiasis in children was 363.79+/-397.06 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) and 177.14+/-224.64 IU/ml (medium+/-SD) in the control group and it was found that there was no significant statistical difference (p=0.163).

  4. Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.

    PubMed

    Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

    2015-03-01

    Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (<25th, 25-75th, and >75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels.

  5. Serum IgE levels are increased in patients with generalized pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Yi, X; Yu, N

    2013-07-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by a T-helper (Th)1/Th17 immune response, and an increase in IgE levels is a prototypical marker of Th2 immunity. The aim of this retrospective case-control study was to analyse serum total IgE levels in generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), a rare and severe variant of psoriasis. The levels of IgE in patients with GPP and patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV) were compared with those of healthy controls. IgE levels were also compared with the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of systemic inflammation. The percentage of patients with GPP who had increased IgE levels was significantly higher than that of patients with PV and of healthy controls. The mean levels of IgE were also higher in the GPP group. The IgE levels in patients with GPP had a significant positive correlation with CRP levels. We hypothesize that serum IgE level is a general indicator for increased inflammation in GPP and PV. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Evidence for a locus regulating total serum IgE levels mapping to chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, D.A.; Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C.

    1994-09-15

    Genetic studies of total serum IgE levels were preformed since high IgE levels correlate with clinical expression of allergy and asthma. Families ascertained through a parent with asthma were genotyped for markers on 5q where there are multiple candidate genes that may influence the control of IgE and inflammation. Evidence for linkage of the IgE phenotype to 5q was obtained by both sib-pair and lod score analysis with evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels from segregation analysis. These findings represent a major step in mapping genes important in the regulation of allergic responses and the pathogenesis of asthma. 52 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  8. Correlation of serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations in patients with actinic prurigo*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Lievanos-Estrada, Zahide; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Hojyo-Tomoka, Maria Teresa; Dominguez-Soto, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has been hypothesized to involve subtype IV type b (Th2) hypersensitive response, whereby IL4, IL5, and IL13 are secreted and mediate the production of B cells, IgE, and IgG4. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of serum IgE levels and the clinical severity of injuries. METHODS: This case-control study comprised patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic prurigo, as well as clinically healthy subjects, from whom 3cc of peripheral blood was taken for immunoassay. Cases were classified by lesion severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, and chi-square test was performed. RESULTS: We included 21 actinic prurigo patients and 21 subjects without disease; 11 patients with actinic prurigo had elevated serum IgE levels, and 10 had low serum levels. Six actinic prurigo (AP) patients with elevated serum levels of IgE had moderate injuries, 4 had severe injuries, and 1 had minor injuries. Eight out of 10 patients with normal IgE levels presented with minor injuries in the clinical evaluation. The 21 controls did not have increased serum IgE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgE levels are associated with moderate to severe clinical lesions, suggesting that actinic prurigo entails a type IV subtype b hypersensitivity response in which Th2 cells predominate. PMID:26982774

  9. Serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 in bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, G. Di; Mansueto, P.; Melluso, M.; Morici, G.; Cigna, D.; Candore, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare, during the pollen season, serum levels of total IgE and soluble CD23 (sCD23) from patients with allergic bronchial asthma, with those from healthy subjects. Significantly higher levels of total IgE and sCD23 were found in patients with asthma compared to the control group. Both in normal controls and in asthmatic patients, a significant correlation was shown between the levels of these two molecules. In asthmatic patients, significant correlations were found for both total IgE and sCD23, with lung function measured as bronchial responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients, in addition to the study of total serum IgE levels, the assessment of sCD23 serum levels may be helpful in the evaluation of disease activity. PMID:18475696

  10. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM) cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml). Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007), and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003). A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P < 0.02). We detected specific IgE in 34 newborns (40 positive tests). A long-standing contact with a cat during pregnancy decreased the specific IgE level for wheat/grass (OR = 3.2; P < 0.07) and for children's food (OR = 5.0; P < 0.04), and the contact with a dog decreased the specific-IgE for wheat/grass (OR = 0.3; P < 0.05). Exposure to tobacco smoke correlated with the positive specific IgE toward house dust mite (OR = 4.7; P = 0.005). PMID:20156762

  11. IL-21 reduces immediate hypersensitivity reactions in mouse skin by suppressing mast cell activation or IgE production.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa-Mineoka, Risa; Kishida, Tsunao; Mazda, Osam; Katoh, Norito

    2011-07-01

    IL-21 regulates activation, proliferation, and differentiation of various immune cells. We have previously shown that exogenous IL-21 administration reduces allergic reactions in mouse models of anaphylaxis and allergic rhinitis. However, the effects of IL-21 in allergic cutaneous reactions remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of IL-21 in a mouse model of the IgE-mediated cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity reaction (IHR). We also investigated the mechanism of IL-21-induced regulation of allergic cutaneous reactions. Mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) injection and challenged by injecting OVA intradermally into the ears, with intraperitoneal administration of recombinant murine (rm)IL-21 during the sensitization period or after completion of sensitization. After challenge, IL-21-untreated allergic mice developed biphasic responses characterized by early-phase and late-phase reactions. The biphasic reactions were significantly reduced by rmIL-21 treatment during sensitization or after completion of sensitization. Administration of rmIL-21 during sensitization reduced the cutaneous IHR by suppressing allergen-specific IgE production. In contrast, administration of rmIL-21 after completion of sensitization did not decrease serum levels of allergen-specific IgE, but significantly suppressed mast cell degranulation in skin. These results suggest that the regulatory effects of IL-21 on the cutaneous IHR involve suppression of allergen-specific IgE production or mast cell degranulation.

  12. 473 Evaluating Total Serum IgE Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and C

    PubMed Central

    Köse, Sükran; Senger, Süheyla Serin; Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Cavdar, Gülsün; Atalay, Sabri; Ersan, Gürsel

    2012-01-01

    Background Liver disease has been considered a prominent cause of IgE elevation. Significant differences may be observed depending on the cause of liver damage. For viral hepatitis, increased IgE concentrations have been observed during acute hepatitis A and B. Chronic hepatitis B carriers may also have high IgE levels. But no data on serum IgE levels in chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B patients have been reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum IgE levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B and to corelate with atopic patients. Methods Serum IgE levels were determined in 568 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B, in 47 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 311 patients with atopic diseases. Results The averages of serum IgE levels were 103,9 IU/mL in chronic hepatitis C, 95,1 IU/mL in hepatits B patients, and 126,6 IU/mL in atopic patients. There was no statistically significant difference between hepatits B and hepatits C patients. Total serum IgE levels were lower in patients with either chronic hepatitis C or hepatitis B than the atopic group. Conclusions According to the results presented, chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B are not prominent causes of increased serum IgE values. Further studies are needed to clarify the differences and significance of IgE levels between hepatitis and atopic patients.

  13. Evaluation of IgE serum level by radial immunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Palma-Carlos, M L; Escaja, D; Palma-Carlos, A G

    1975-01-01

    Sensitive radioactive methods are usually required for assay of low or normal serum levels of IgE up to 1.000 I.U./ml. However radioimmunoassay or other radioactive techniques are not always available or practical in routine diagnosis of allergic patients. Therefore, some modifications of the conventional radial immunodiffusion techniques have been tried for IgE. We have studied the comparative results of radioimmunoassay (RIST) and a modified radial immunodiffusion for IgE evaluation in allergic diseases. In 18 subjects a solid phase radio-immunoassay for IgE has been done. In 14 no allergic subjects total IgE serum level determined by the RIST method was 248 +/- 210 (I.U./ml--m +/- 2SD). A double precipitation or a intensification method of immunodiffusion employing Partigen plates (Behring-Werke) has been applied for global IgE assay in routine laboratory work in the last months. Serum IgE levels were studied by this method in 20 normal subjects and 206 patients referred for diagnosis of allergic disease. A modification of the double precipitation technique allowed us to measure IgE levels above 260 I.U. In normal subjects IgE serum level was 355 +/- 182 I.U. (M +/- 2SD). In 120 extrinsic asthmas the range was 9.580--260 I.U. and mean value 2.120 +/- 627 I.I. and the range 1.760--300 I.U. 14 cases of pollinosis were studied during the grass pollen season. Mean values were 1.840 +/- 1.270 I.U. and range 2.760--600 I.U. 18 cases of perennial allergic rhinitis the mean value was 1.868 +/- 1.301 I.U. and the range 2.600--260 I.U. In 12 urticarias the mean value was 1.730 +/- 1.252 I.U. and the range 2.300--260 I.U. Highest IgE serum levels occurred in atopic asthmatics with mite sensitivity. A general positive relationship was observed between the intensity of skin reactivity and elevated serum IgE level. However some exceptions to this rule have been observed. A simultaneous assay of serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM by radial immunodiffusion has been done in

  14. [Influence of maternal smoking on cord serum IgE levels in newborns].

    PubMed

    Flores D'Arcais, A; De Biase, D; Riva, P; Tito, A; Crippa, L; Mariani, E

    1993-11-01

    Allergic diseases are among the most common diseases in childhood and their prevalence is 14%. One of the most important pathogenetic factors is the ability to produce IgE and the measurement of cord serum IgE seems to be very important for early detection of newborns at risk. Besides, cigarette smoke, among the environmental factors, has been demonstrated to influence the immunologic system, inducing an increase in IgE production. The aim of this study is to evaluate fetal production of IgE in newborns with a family history of atopy and whose mother has been smoking during pregnancy. The measurement of cord serum IgE has been performed in 215 at term newborns (weight at birth > 2500 g, Apgar score at 5' > 7). A careful history has been obtained with particular regard at the presence of familiarity for allergies and a cigarette smoking during pregnancy. According to the history, children have been divided in 3 groups: Group 1: 126 newborns without familiar history of allergy and born from no smoking mothers (control group); Group 2: 46 newborns with familiar history for allergy and born from no smoking mothers; Group 3: 43 newborns without familiar history for allergy born from smoking mothers. The II and III groups of newborns present total IgE levels on cord serum significantly higher than the control group. Besides a positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy and the value of cord serum IgE has been detected. It is well known that both genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns.

    PubMed

    Herr, Caroline E W; Ghosh, Rakesh; Dostal, Miroslav; Skokanova, Venuse; Ashwood, Paul; Lipsett, Michael; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Yap, Poh-Sin; Frost, Joshua D; Sram, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms by which exposure to ambient air pollutants influences respiratory health may include altered prenatal immune development. To analyze associations between elevated cord serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and maternal air pollution exposure during each month of gestation. Total cord serum IgE was determined by the CAP system and mothers' total IgE levels by nephelometry for 459 births in the Czech Republic from May 1994 to mid-January 1997. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter <2.5 microns in diameter (PM(2.5) ) were measured in ambient air, and arithmetic means were calculated for each gestational month. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for elevated cord serum IgE (≥0.9 IU/ml) adjusting for district of residence, year of birth, and in further models, for maternal IgE (a surrogate for atopy) and gestational season. Heterogeneity by maternal atopy status was evaluated for associations of air pollution and of cigarette smoke. In adjusted models, PAH and PM(2.5) exposures in the second month of gestation were each associated with a lower prevalence of elevated cord serum IgE. For an average increase of 100 ng/m(3) of PAHs, the PR was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.95); for 25 μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) , the PR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.07). Conversely, exposures later in gestation were associated with a higher prevalence of elevated cord IgE: in the fifth month, the PR for PAH exposure was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.08), while for PM(2.5) in the sixth month, it was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.13). In analyses stratified by maternal atopy, air pollutants were associated with altered cord serum IgE only among neonates with non-atopic mothers. Similarly, an association of cigarette smoke with elevated cord serum IgE was found only in non-atopic mothers. PAHs and PM(2.5) , constituents of both ambient air pollution and

  16. Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Amaral, André F S; Newson, Roger B; Abramson, Michael J; Antó, Josep M; Bono, Roberto; Corsico, Angelo G; de Marco, Roberto; Demoly, Pascal; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Heinrich, Joachim; Huerta, Ismael; Janson, Christer; Jõgi, Rain; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Maldonado, José; Martinez-Moratalla Rovira, Jesús; Neukirch, Catherine; Nowak, Dennis; Pin, Isabelle; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Raherison-Semjen, Chantal; Svanes, Cecilie; Urrutia Landa, Isabel; van Ree, Ronald; Versteeg, Serge A; Weyler, Joost; Zock, Jan-Paul; Burney, Peter G J; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2016-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [The serum level transformation of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IgE before and after SIT in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Li, Yujin; Li, Peizhong

    2013-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and the transformation of IFN-gamma, IL-4, total IgE and specific IgE before and after specific immune therapy(SIT) in patients with allergic rhinitis. The subjective symptom and levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, total IgE and specific IgE were observed in 40 patients with allergic rhinitis before and after SIT. Total effective rate in patients after SIT was 85%. There's no significant difference between the levels of specific IgE before and after SIT(P>0.05) ,while the levels of IL-4 and total IgE were significantly lower, the levels of IFN-gamma were significantly higher pre than that of post SIT. SIT is safe and effective,and can regulate the levels of IFN-gamma, IgE and IL-4. But the role of specific IgE in SIT is still unknown.

  18. Food aversion: a critical balance between allergen-specific IgE levels and taste preference.

    PubMed

    Mirotti, Luciana; Mucida, Daniel; de Sá-Rocha, Luis Carlos; Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Russo, Momtchilo

    2010-03-01

    Animals sensitized to allergens change their feeding behavior and avoid drinking the otherwise preferred sweetened solutions containing the allergens. This phenomenon, known as food aversion, appears to be mediated by allergen-specific IgE antibodies. Here we investigated food aversion in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, which differ in their allergic responses to the allergen ovalbumin as well as in their preference for sweet taste. BALB/c mice present higher levels of IgE and a natural lower preference for sweet flavors when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Specifically, we studied a conflicting situation in which animals simultaneously experienced the aversive contact with the allergen and the attractive sweet taste of increasing concentrations of sucrose. We found that BALB/c mice were more prone to develop food aversion than C57BL/6 mice and that this aversive behavior could be abolished in both strains by increasing the palatability of the solution containing the allergen. In both strains food aversion was positively correlated with the levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies and inversely correlated with their preference for sucrose sweetened solutions. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical modification of peanut conglutin reduces IgE reactivity but not T cell reactivity in peanut-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    van Hoffen, E; van der Kleij, H P M; den Hartog Jager, C F; van Doorn, W A; Knol, E F; Opstelten, D-J; Koppelman, S J; Knulst, A C

    2014-12-01

    Specific immunotherapy for peanut allergy is associated with significant side-effects. Chemically modified allergens may provide a safer alternative. This study aimed to analyse the immunogenicity and allergenicity of modified peanut conglutin. Native peanut conglutin and two modifications thereof were generated (RA and RAGA). Conglutin-specific T cell lines from 11 peanut-allergic patients were analysed for proliferation and cytokine production. Sera from 14 patients were analysed for IgE/IgG1/IgG4 binding by immunoblot and ELISA. IgE reactivity was analysed by direct and indirect basophil activation test (BAT), in presence and absence of patient plasma or CD32-blocking antibodies. T cell proliferation to RA was unchanged, and proliferation to RAGA was reduced compared to native conglutin. Cytokine profiles remained unchanged. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 binding to RA and RAGA was significantly reduced. In the direct BAT, the relative potency of modified conglutin was decreased in 67% and increased/similar in 33% of the patients. In the indirect BAT, RA and RAGA were 10-100 times less potent than native conglutin. Addition of plasma to the indirect BAT increased the relative potency of modified conglutin in patients with high peanut-specific IgG levels. This was mediated via blocking of the response to native conglutin, most likely by soluble IgG, and not via CD32. Chemical modification of peanut conglutin by RA retains immunogenicity and reduces allergenicity and may be a promising approach for development of a curative treatment for peanut allergy. In a subgroup of patients, where the reactivity of native conglutin is already partially blocked by IgG, the effect of the modification of conglutin is less pronounced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hypomorphic, homozygous mutations in Phosphoglucomutase 3 impair immunity and increase serum IgE levels

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, Atfa; Lazaroski, Sandra; Wu, Gang; Haslam, Stuart M.; Fliegauf, Manfred; Mellouli, Fethi; Patiroglu, Turkan; Unal, Ekrem; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Jouhadi, Zineb; Khadir, Khadija; Ben-Khemis, Leila; Ben-Ali, Meriem; Ben-Mustapha, Imen; Borchani, Lamia; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Jakob, Thilo; Khemiri, Monia; Asplund, A. Charlotta; Gustafsson, Manuela O.; Lundin, Karin E.; Falk-Sörqvist, Elin; Moens, Lotte N.; Gungor, Hatice Eke; Engelhardt, Karin R.; Dziadzio, Magdalena; Stauss, Hans; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Meier, Rebecca; Prayitno, Khairunnadiya; Maul-Pavicic, Andrea; Schaffer, Sandra; Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Henneke, Philipp; Kraus, Helene; Eibel, Hermann; Kölsch, Uwe; Nadifi, Sellama; Nilsson, Mats; Bejaoui, Mohamed; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Edvard Smith, C. I.; Dell, Anne; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent bacterial and fungal infections, eczema and elevated serum IgE levels characterize patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). Known genetic causes for HIES are mutations in STAT3 and DOCK8, involved in signal transduction pathways. However, glycosylation defects have not been described in HIES. One crucial enzyme in the glycosylation pathway is Phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3), which catalyzes a key step in the synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc which is required for the biosynthesis of N-glycans. Objective To elucidate the genetic cause in HIES patients who do not carry mutations in STAT3 or DOCK8. Methods After establishing a linkage interval by SNP-chip genotyping and homozygosity mapping in two HIES families from Tunisia, mutational analysis was performed with selector-based, high-throughput sequencing. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting and glycosylation was profiled by mass spectrometry. Results Mutational analysis of candidate genes in a 11.9 Mb linkage region on chromosome 6 shared by two multiplex families identified two homozygous mutations in PGM3 which segregated with the disease status and followed a recessive inheritance trait. The mutations predict amino acid changes in Phosphoglucomutase-3; PGM3 (p.Glu340del and p.Leu83Ser). A third homozygous mutation (p.Asp502Tyr) and the p.Leu83Ser variant were identified in two other affected families, respectively. These hypomorphic mutations have impact on the biosynthetic reactions involving UDP-GlcNAc. Glycomic analysis revealed an aberrant glycosylation pattern in leukocytes demonstrated by a reduced level of tri-/tetra-antennary N-glycans. T cell proliferation and differentiation was impaired in patients. Most patients showed developmental delay and many had psychomotor retardation. Conclusion Impairment of PGM3 function leads to a novel primary (inborn) error of development and immunity, as biallelic hypomorphic mutations are associated with impaired glycosylation and a hyper

  1. Fc epsilon R1-beta polymorphism and total serum IgE levels in endemically parasitized Australian aborigines.

    PubMed

    Palmer, L J; Paré, P D; Faux, J A; Moffatt, M F; Daniels, S E; LeSouëf, P N; Bremner, P R; Mockford, E; Gracey, M; Spargo, R; Musk, A W; Cookson, W O

    1997-07-01

    Endemic helminthic infection is a major public-health problem and affects a large proportion of the world's population. In Australia, helminthic infection is endemic in Aboriginal communities living in tropical northern regions of the continent. Such infection is associated with nonspecific (polyclonal) stimulation of IgE synthesis and highly elevated total serum IgE levels. There is evidence that worm-infection variance (i.e., human capacity of resistance) and total serum IgE levels may be related to the presence of a major codominant gene. The beta chain of the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon R1-beta, has been previously identified as a candidate for the close genetic linkage of the 11q13 region to IgE responses in several populations. We show a biallelic RsaI polymorphism in Fc epsilon R1-beta to be associated with total serum IgE levels (P = .0001) in a tropical population of endemically parasitized Australian Aborigines (n = 234 subjects). The polymorphism explained 12.4% of the total residual variation in serum total IgE and showed a significant (P = .0000) additive relationship with total serum IgE levels, across the three genotypes. These associations were independent of familial correlations, age, gender, racial admixture, or smoking status. Alleles of a microsatellite repeat in intron 5 of the same gene showed similar associations. The results suggest that variation in Fc epsilon R1-beta may regulate IgE-mediated immune responses in this population.

  2. Fc epsilon R1-beta polymorphism and total serum IgE levels in endemically parasitized Australian aborigines.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, L J; Paré, P D; Faux, J A; Moffatt, M F; Daniels, S E; LeSouëf, P N; Bremner, P R; Mockford, E; Gracey, M; Spargo, R; Musk, A W; Cookson, W O

    1997-01-01

    Endemic helminthic infection is a major public-health problem and affects a large proportion of the world's population. In Australia, helminthic infection is endemic in Aboriginal communities living in tropical northern regions of the continent. Such infection is associated with nonspecific (polyclonal) stimulation of IgE synthesis and highly elevated total serum IgE levels. There is evidence that worm-infection variance (i.e., human capacity of resistance) and total serum IgE levels may be related to the presence of a major codominant gene. The beta chain of the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilon R1-beta, has been previously identified as a candidate for the close genetic linkage of the 11q13 region to IgE responses in several populations. We show a biallelic RsaI polymorphism in Fc epsilon R1-beta to be associated with total serum IgE levels (P = .0001) in a tropical population of endemically parasitized Australian Aborigines (n = 234 subjects). The polymorphism explained 12.4% of the total residual variation in serum total IgE and showed a significant (P = .0000) additive relationship with total serum IgE levels, across the three genotypes. These associations were independent of familial correlations, age, gender, racial admixture, or smoking status. Alleles of a microsatellite repeat in intron 5 of the same gene showed similar associations. The results suggest that variation in Fc epsilon R1-beta may regulate IgE-mediated immune responses in this population. Images Figure 1 PMID:9245999

  3. Polyphenol-Rich Pomegranate Juice Reduces IgE Binding to Cashew Nut Allergens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yichen; Mattison, Christopher P

    2017-08-26

    Food allergy negatively impacts quality of life and can be life-threatening. Cashew nuts can cause severe reactions in very small amounts, and they are included in a group of foods most commonly responsible for causing food allergy. Polyphenols and polyphenol rich juices have been demonstrated to complex with peanut allergens. Here, the interaction between cashew nut allergens and polyphenol rich juices is evaluated biochemically and immunologically. Various juices, including pomegranate (POM), blueberry (BB), and concord grape (CG) juices, were evaluated for polyphenol content and formation of polyphenol-cashew allergen complexes. Among the various juices studied, POM juice showed a greater capacity to form complexes with cashew proteins. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrated a sharp increase in cashew protein extract particle size to around 3580 nm, and fewer cashew proteins were resolved by electrophoresis after treatment with POM juice. Immunoassays demonstrated reduced IgG and IgE binding to cashew allergens due to allergen precipitation by POM juice. These observations support the formation of complexes between polyphenol and cashew proteins that can prevent antibody recognition of cashew allergens through allergen precipitation. POM juice treatment of cashew extract effectively reduces antibody binding through allergen precipitation, and these findings could be applied to the development of less allergenic cashew nut products and oral immunotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. [Change in venom-specific IgE levels during 2-year follow-up in five cases with a history of Hymenoptera sting].

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Yoshida, M; Nakazono, N

    1997-11-01

    Levels of specific IgE antibodies to three kinds of venom (honeybee, wasp and yellow jacket) were followed up for two years in five male pest control operators (age: 24 to 50 years) with Hymenoptera sting within the latest six months. At the first examination, all subjects had a positive reaction for venom-specific IgE but their levels were varied in the range from class 2 to 5 (0.70 approximately 99.9 UA/ml), and a positive reaction was observed in the case of unoffending Hymenoptera. A subject who was re-stung during the two-year follow-up period showed increase in all of the venom-specific IgE levels. Of four subjects without re-stung during the two years, three subjects had a logarithmic decrease in all the specific IgE levels time-dependently, but one subject with a high total serum IgE level showed an increase and decrease alternately in the specific IgE The total serum IgE level may be a factor which influences the change in the venom-specific IgE level. In the four subjects without a high total serum IgE level, the biological half-life of venom-specific IgE was estimated to be 6 to 12 months based on the decreased level during the follow-up period.

  5. IL-1, IL-4 production and IgE levels in acute and chronic fasciolosis before and after triclabendazole treatment.

    PubMed

    Allam, A F; Osman, M M; el-Sayed, M H; Demian, S R

    2000-12-01

    IL-1 generation by mononuclear phagocytes, IL-4 production by Th2 lymphocytes and IgE levels in serum were measured in eight patients with acute fasciolosis and seven patients in the chronic stage of the disease before and after triclabendazole treatment. Results were compared with those of a control group of ten individuals. The monocytes and lymphocytes from patients with acute and chronic fasciolosis produced significantly lower levels of IL-1 and IL-4 respectively, particularly in the chronic phase of the disease, as compared to the control. A significant increase in IgE level in both acute and chronic fasciolosis was observed. The level was significantly higher in acute as compared to chronic cases. After treatment with triclabendazole IL-1, IL-4 and IgE levels moved towards the control indicating obvious improvement in the immunological responses of the patients.

  6. Correlations Between Allergen-Specific IgE Serum Levels in Patients With Ocular Allergy.

    PubMed

    Polido, Júlia Gomes Fernandes; Cabral, Thiago; Perini, Paula de Resende Campos; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Marcelos; de Freitas, Denise; dos Santos Araújo, Maria Emília Xavier; Serracarbassa, Pedro Durães

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate ocular allergies in patients at the Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (HSPE) and the correlations with serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels. We performed a longitudinal study of patients with ocular allergies who were treated at the Cornea and Immunology and Allergy Department. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 4 groups. We conducted the following laboratory tests and measurements: blood count, eosinophil count, total serum IgE, and specific IgE. Among 61 patients, 16 (26.2%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 23 (37.7%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 19 (31.1%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 3 (4.9%) had atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Mixed dust mites were positive in 94.9% of patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (df) antigens were positive in 93.2% of patients followed by Blattella germanica, Blomia tropicalis, and mixed animal epithelia (81%, 75.9%, and 25.8%, respectively). Perennial allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder and demonstrated higher positivity in class V/VI for specific antigens (mixed dust mites, dp, and df), indicating high antigenicity. Dust mites, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, B. germanica, and B. tropicalis were the primary triggers of the studied ocular allergies.

  7. Treatment of cashew extracts with Aspergillopepsin reduces IgE binding to cashew allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cashew nuts can cause serious and sometimes life threatening reactions in people that suffer from food allergies. These reactions are mediated by immunoglobulin E binding (IgE) to allergenic cashew proteins. Enzymes from Aspergillus fungal species are used in many industrial and pharmaceutical appli...

  8. Polyphenol-Rich Pomegranate Juice Reduces IgE Binding to Cashew Nut Allergens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cashew nut allergy is mediated by IgE binding to seed-storage proteins including Ana o 1, 2, and 3. Cashew nuts commonly cause severe reactions and only small amounts are needed. Polyphenol rich juices and polyphenol compounds have been demonstrated to complex with peanut allergens. The interacti...

  9. Influence of Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia on total IgE levels in Gabonese patients co-infected with Loa loa.

    PubMed

    Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Moussavou Boussougou, M N; Ovono-Abessolo, F; Owono-Medang, M; Kombila, M

    2014-03-01

    Mansonella (M.) perstans filariasis is widely found in Africa, including Gabon where Loa loa is also endemic. This study reports the total IgE titres according to different bioclinical forms of single or co-infection with L. loa and M. perstans in 138 patients and 20 healthy controls. The median parasite density was significantly higher in cases of loiasis. IgE titres were higher in patients with microscopic dual-infection and in the group of patients with occult loiasis plus M. perstans microfilaraemia (8425 [5292-20,679]KUI/L and 6304 [1045-10,326]KUI/L, respectively), compared to individuals with either microfilaraemic Loa loa (3368 [1414-7074]KUI/L) or Mansonella (4370 [1478-7334]KUI/L) single infections (p<0.01). IgE levels were positively correlated with M. perstans microfilaraemia (rho=0.27; p<0.01). Compared to single infections, dual M. perstans-L. loa infection induces very high total IgE titres. Studies correlating IgE titres and clinical symptoms are needed to confirm the involvement of this immunoglobulin in the pathological processes during filariasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-wide association study and admixture mapping reveal new loci associated with total IgE levels in Latinos.

    PubMed

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Gignoux, Christopher R; Galanter, Joshua M; Levin, Albert M; Campbell, Catarina D; Eng, Celeste; Huntsman, Scott; Nishimura, Katherine K; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Mohajeri, Kiana; O'Roak, Brian J; Hu, Donglei; Mathias, Rasika A; Nguyen, Elizabeth A; Roth, Lindsey A; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A; Lurmann, Fred; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C; Serebrisky, Denise; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G; Lenoir, Michael A; Thyne, Shannon M; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Borrell, Luisa N; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Sen, Saunak; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Bustamante, Carlos D; Martinez, Fernando D; Raby, Benjamin A; Weiss, Scott T; Nicolae, Dan L; Ober, Carole; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R; Mack, Steven J; Hernandez, Ryan D; Eichler, Evan E; Barnes, Kathleen C; Williams, L Keoki; Torgerson, Dara G; Burchard, Esteban G

    2015-06-01

    IgE is a key mediator of allergic inflammation, and its levels are frequently increased in patients with allergic disorders. We sought to identify genetic variants associated with IgE levels in Latinos. We performed a genome-wide association study and admixture mapping of total IgE levels in 3334 Latinos from the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study. Replication was evaluated in 454 Latinos, 1564 European Americans, and 3187 African Americans from independent studies. We confirmed associations of 6 genes identified by means of previous genome-wide association studies and identified a novel genome-wide significant association of a polymorphism in the zinc finger protein 365 gene (ZNF365) with total IgE levels (rs200076616, P = 2.3 × 10(-8)). We next identified 4 admixture mapping peaks (6p21.32-p22.1, 13p22-31, 14q23.2, and 22q13.1) at which local African, European, and/or Native American ancestry was significantly associated with IgE levels. The most significant peak was 6p21.32-p22.1, where Native American ancestry was associated with lower IgE levels (P = 4.95 × 10(-8)). All but 22q13.1 were replicated in an independent sample of Latinos, and 2 of the peaks were replicated in African Americans (6p21.32-p22.1 and 14q23.2). Fine mapping of 6p21.32-p22.1 identified 6 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in Latinos, 2 of which replicated in European Americans. Another single nucleotide polymorphism was peak-wide significant within 14q23.2 in African Americans (rs1741099, P = 3.7 × 10(-6)) and replicated in non-African American samples (P = .011). We confirmed genetic associations at 6 genes and identified novel associations within ZNF365, HLA-DQA1, and 14q23.2. Our results highlight the importance of studying diverse multiethnic populations to uncover novel loci associated with total IgE levels. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide Association Study and Admixture Mapping Reveal New Loci Associated with Total IgE Levels in Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Yanes, Maria; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Galanter, Joshua M.; Levin, Albert M.; Campbell, Catarina D.; Eng, Celeste; Huntsman, Scott; Nishimura, Katherine K.; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Mohajeri, Kiana; O'Roak, Brian J.; Hu, Donglei; Mathias, Rasika A.; Nguyen, Elizabeth A.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Sandoval, Karla; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Lurmann, Fred; Davis, Adam; Farber, Harold J.; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro C.; Serebrisky, Denise; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Lenoir, Michael A.; Thyne, Shannon M.; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Borrell, Luisa N.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Sen, Saunak; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Mack, Steven J.; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Eichler, Evan E.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Williams, L. Keoki; Torgerson, Dara G.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a key mediator of allergic inflammation and is frequently elevated in allergic disorders. Objective To identify genetic variants associated with IgE levels in Latinos. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and admixture mapping of total IgE levels in 3,334 Latinos from the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study. Replication was evaluated in 454 Latinos, 1,564 European Americans, and 3,187 African Americans from independent studies. Results We confirmed associations of six genes identified by previous GWAS and identified a novel genome-wide significant association of a polymorphism in ZNF365 with total IgE (rs200076616, p=2.3x10−8). We next identified four admixture mapping peaks (6p21.32-p22.1, 13p22-31, 14q23.2, and 22q13.1) where local African, European, and/or Native American ancestry was significantly associated with IgE levels. The most significant peak was 6p21.32-p22.1, where Native American ancestry was associated with lower levels of IgE (p=4.95x10−8). All but 22q13.1 were replicated in an independent sample of Latinos, and two of the peaks were replicated in African Americans (6p21.32-p22.1 and 14q23.2). Fine mapping of 6p21.32-p22.1 identified six genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms in Latinos, two of which replicated in European Americans. Another SNP was peak-wide significant within 14q23.2 in African Americans (rs1741099, p=3.7x10−6), and replicated in non-African American samples (p=0.011). Conclusion We confirmed genetic associations at six genes, and identified novel associations within ZNF365, HLA-DQA1, and 14q23.2. Our results highlight the importance of studying diverse, multi-ethnic populations to uncover novel loci associated with total IgE levels. PMID:25488688

  12. A Nonsynonymous FCER1B SNP is Associated with Risk of Developing Allergic Rhinitis and with IgE Levels.

    PubMed

    Amo, Gemma; García-Menaya, Jesús; Campo, Paloma; Cordobés, Concepción; Plaza Serón, M Carmen; Ayuso, Pedro; Esguevillas, Gara; Blanca, Miguel; Agúndez, Jose A G; García-Martín, Elena

    2016-01-21

    Allergic rhinitis is associated with elevated serum IgE levels. IgE response is mediated by the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI), which is polymorphic. Studies analyzing the association between allergic rhinitis and FcεRI variants have been conducted with controversial results. The objective of this study is to analyze, in 1,041 individuals, the putative clinical association of allergic rhinitis with common polymorphisms in FcεRI subunits genes. These SNPs included FECR1A rs2494262, rs2427837 and rs2251746; FECR1B rs1441586, rs569108 and rs512555; FCER1G rs11587213, rs2070901 and rs11421. Statistically significant differences were observed for the FCER1B rs569108 and rs512555 polymorphisms frequencies when comparing patients with allergic rhinitis without asthma and controls. The OR (95% CI) value for the 237Gly allele (rs569108) is equal to 0.26 (0.08-0.86, P = 0.017) and for the G allele (rs512555) it is equal to 0.27 (0.08-0.88, P = 0.020). These two SNPs are linked (D' = 1.0, LOD = 56.05). Also observed was a statistically significant trend towards lower IgE values among allergic rhinitis patients with variant alleles for both SNPs. In conclusion, in patients with allergic rhinitis without asthma, the FCER1B rs569108 and rs512555 polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of developing allergic rhinitis and with lower IgE levels.

  13. Asthma Symptoms and Specific IgE Levels among Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI) Exposed Workers in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Laleh; Karimi, Akram; Shokouhi Shoormasti, Raheleh; Miri, Sara; Heydar Nazhad, Hassan; Bokaie, Saied; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is an imperative chemical substance used in the production of polyurethane foams, elastomers, paints and coatings that cause a variety of health problems in workers who are exposed in work places. This study aimed to determine the asthma symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in TDI exposed workers and comparing the results with healthy control group. All the plants that use TDI in the manufacturing of paint and glue in the west of Tehran Province entered to the study and all the workers (550) completed modified initial questionnaire of the NIOSH, the questions were consisted of asthma symptoms. For each symptomatic exposed worker one healthy, sex and age matched control selected. Total IgE and Specific TDI IgE tests were done for each case and control groups. Among 550 TDI exposed workers, 26(4.7%) had asthma symptoms. Nine (34.6%) of symptomatic workers who were exposed to TDI were active cigarette consumer versus 3(11.5%) unexposed workers, P=0.049(CI= 0.953-17.29) OR=4.059. Nine (34.6%) workers had positive family history of atopy versus 1(3.8%) unexposed workers, P=0.0138 (CI= 1.45-305.41) OR=13.24. TDI specific IgE was found in 2 TDI exposed workers and 1 unexposed worker (P=0.5). Mean of total IgE was 339.05 in exposed workers (P=0.201). This study provides clinical and paraclinical data of workers exposed to TDI and points to a relation between atopy and smoking habit with asthma symptoms that offer preventing recommendations for TDI exposed workers and their heath administrators.

  14. Anti-Malassezia-Specific IgE Antibodies Production in Japanese Patients with Head and Neck Atopic Dermatitis: Relationship between the Level of Specific IgE Antibody and the Colonization Frequency of Cutaneous Malassezia Species and Clinical Severity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Enshi; Tanaka, Takafumi; Tajima, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Kato, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Akemi; Sugita, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis of the head and neck (HNAD) is recognized as a separate condition. Malassezia, the predominant skin microbiota fungus, is considered to exacerbate atopic dermatitis (AD), especially HNAD. In the present study, we investigated the relationships between the levels of specific IgE antibodies, colonization frequency of eight predominant Malassezia species, and clinical severity in 61 patients with HNAD (26 mild, 24 moderate, and 11 severe cases). As clinical severity increased, the levels of specific IgE antibodies against eight Malassezia species also increased. Species diversity of the Malassezia microbiota in scale samples from patients was analyzed by nested PCR using species-specific primers. The clinical severity of HNAD was correlated with the total level of specific IgE antibodies against Malassezia species and the number of Malassezia species detected. PMID:22253636

  15. 470 Relationship of Blood Lead Levels with Total Ige in Teenagers with Environmental Exposure in Torreon Coahuila, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Meza-Velazquez, Rocío; Goytia Acevedo, Raquel Concepción; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Calderon Aranda, Emma S.; Gonzalez, Manuel Rosales; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Maravilla-Domínguez, Aurora; Cebrian, Mariano Enrique; Rosado, Jorge Luis; Stoltzfus, Rebeca; García Vargas, Gonzalo Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Background There are precedents that suggest gender differences in the relationship of lead in blood with serum total IgE. The aim of this study was to evaluate in a population of teenagers attending 9 schools in Torreon, Coahuila, the relationship of lead in blood with total IgE and their dependence on gender. Methods We included 230 teenagers (105 females, 125 males) between 11 and 14 years of age, from a cohort of children evaluated for its history of lead exposure since 2000. Clinical diagnosis was performed to detect allergies; skin tests were applied for 47 common allergens in the region. IgE levels were quantified in serum by chemiluminescence and the blood lead levels by spectrophotometry AAS. Results The average blood lead levels in allergic group were of 4.86 ± 2.9 μg/dL and in the non-allergic group 5.1 ± 2.7 μg/dL. There were not gender differences between allergic group versus non allergic group, however, among the types of allergic diseases, a higher percentage of males had rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma, compared with the females. The blood lead level in males was significantly higher (5.61 ± 3.3 mg/dL) compared with females (4.22 ± 2.1 mg/dL) and the regression analysis between blood lead levels with total IgE was significant in males and not in females. Conclusions Gender differences observed appear to be explained by blood lead levels, however, we should consider the contribution of other variables in the model.

  16. Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Manijeh; Maiga, Bakary; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Troye-Blomberg, Marita

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of IL-4 -590 T/C polymorphism on the levels of malaria-specific IgE, IgG, IgG (1-4) subclasses as well as total IgE in the Fulani and their sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon, in Mali. Asymptomatic individuals, of the Fulani and the Dogon ethnic groups, were included in the study. IL-4 is involved in the regulation of IgE and IgG4 subclass. In line with this we found that within the Fulani, the T allele was associated with increased levels of total and anti-malarial IgE (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). The Fulani T allele carriers had slightly higher levels of malarial specific IgG4 as compared to those with the CC genotype (P=0.08). No such differences were observed amongst the Dogon individuals. Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions.

  17. Unique Inflammatory Mediators and Specific IgE Levels Distinguish Local from Systemic Reactions after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Muns, Emily E.; Velte, Cathy A.; Spooner, Christina E.; Munroe, Melissa E.; Farris, A. Darise; Nelson, Michael R.; Engler, Renata J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded that anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) has an adverse event (AE) profile similar to those of other adult vaccines, 30 to 70% of queried AVA vaccinees report AEs. AEs appear to be correlated with certain demographic factors, but the underlying immunologic pathways are poorly understood. We evaluated a cohort of 2,421 AVA vaccinees and found 153 (6.3%) reported an AE. Females were more likely to experience AEs (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 4.2 to 8.7]; P < 0.0001). Individuals 18 to 29 years of age were less likely to report an AE than individuals aged 30 years or older (OR = 0.31 [95% CI = 0.22 to 0.43]; P < 0.0001). No significant effects were observed for African, European, Hispanic, American Indian, or Asian ancestry after correcting for age and sex. Additionally, 103 AEs were large local reactions (LLRs), whereas 53 AEs were systemic reactions (SRs). In a subset of our cohort vaccinated 2 to 12 months prior to plasma sample collection (n = 75), individuals with LLRs (n = 33) had higher protective-antigen (PA)-specific IgE levels than matched, unaffected vaccinated individuals (n = 50; P < 0.01). Anti-PA IgE was not associated with total plasma IgE, hepatitis B-specific IgE, or anti-PA IgG in individuals who reported an AE or in matched, unaffected AVA-vaccinated individuals. IP-10 was also elevated in sera of individuals who developed LLRs (P < 0.05). Individuals reporting SRs had higher levels of systemic inflammation as measured from C-reactive protein (P < 0.01). Thus, LLRs and SRs are mediated by distinct pathways. LLRs are associated with a vaccine-specific IgE response and IP-10, whereas SRs demonstrate increased systemic inflammation without a skewed cytokine profile. PMID:27280620

  18. Increased levels of IgE and autoreactive, polyreactive IgG in wild rodents: implications for the hygiene hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devalapalli, A.P.; Lesher, A.; Shieh, K.; Solow, J.S.; Everett, M.L.; Edala, A.S.; Whitt, P.; Long, Renee R.; Newton, N.; Parker, W.

    2006-01-01

    To probe the potential role of Th1 versus Th2 reactivity underlying the hygiene hypothesis, intrinsic levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated antibodies in the serum of wild rodents were compared with that in various strains of laboratory rodents. Studies using rat lung antigens as a target indicated that wild rats have substantially greater levels of autoreactive, polyreactive immunoglobulin G (IgG), but not autoreactive, polyreactive IgM than do laboratory rats, both on a quantitative and qualitative basis. Increased levels of serum IgG and IgE were observed in both wild rats and wild mice relative to their laboratory-raised counterparts, with the effect being most pronounced for IgE levels. Further, wild rats had greater intrinsic levels of both Th1- and Th2-associated IgG subclasses than did lab rats. The habitat (wild versus laboratory raised) had a more substantial impact on immunoglobulin concentration than did age, strain or gender in the animals studied. The presence in wild rodents of increased intrinsic, presumably protective, non-pathogenic responses similar to both autoimmune (autoreactive IgG, Th1-associated) and allergic (IgE, Th2-associated) reactions as well as increased levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated IgG subclasses points toward a generally increased stimulation of the immune system in these animals rather than a shift in the nature of the immunoreactivity. It is concluded that, at least to the extent that feedback inhibition is a controlling element of immunoreactivity, an overly hygienic environment may affect the threshold of both types of immune responses more so than the balance between the different responses.

  19. Evidence for Mendelian inheritance of serum IgE levels in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white families

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, F.D.; Holberg, C.J.; Halonen, M.; Morgan, W.J.; Wright, A.L.; Taussig, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Considerable evidence is available suggesting a significant genetic component in the pathogenesis of asthma, but the mechanism of inheritance is not well understood. The main objective of this study was to assess if total serum IgE level, a known intermediate phenotype for asthma, is under the control of a major autosomal gene. The authors studied nuclear families participating in the Tucson Children`s Respiratory Study in Tucson and originally selected because they belonged to a health maintenance organization. One hundred twenty-five Hispanic and 673 non-Hispanic White nuclear families were eligible; 50 Hispanic families (with 191 subjects) and 241 non-Hispanic White families (with 886 subjects) were included. Prevalence of asthma, hay fever, and parental smoking was similar among eligible families who were included and those who were not. Segregation analyses using regressive models for continuous traits showed that the best fit to the data was given by a model of Mendelian codominant inheritance of a major autosomal gene associated with higher serum IgE level. Log-likelihood for this model was not significantly different from that of the best-fitting ({open_quotes}unrestricted{close_quotes}) model (P=.3) and was significantly better than log-likelihood for a dominant model (P<.0001) and a recessive model (<.0001). An environmental model showed significant departure (P<.0001) from the unrestricted model. Tests for genetic heterogeneity showed no significant difference between the two ethnic groups. The data strongly suggests that total serum IgE levels are controlled by a major autosomal codominant gene. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. [The comparative characteristic of level of histamine, IgE and IgG in blood and the lymph at the experimental anaphylactic shock and Artyus phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Alieva, T R; Allahverdieva, L I

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance changes of histamine and levels of immunoglobulin E and G in blood and lymph are studied at the ex- perimental anaphylactic and Artyus phenomenon. Experiments were conducted in two series on 27 rabbits of "Chinchilla" breed. As control are served the investigated indicators of concentration of histamine and levels of IgE and IgG in blood and lymph of intact animals. Results of research have shown that, at the experimental anaphylactic shock increase the level of IgE and decrease the level of IgG. At the Artyus phenomenon increase of level of IgG and the decrease in level of IgE more expressed in blood, than in lymph is marked. Concentration of histamine raises, both at the anaphylactic shock, and at the of Artyus phenomenon, but is more expressed at anaphylaxis, and also in blood, than in lymph. Key words: anaphylactic shock; Artyus phenomenon; histamine; immunoglobulin

  1. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, −173 G to C and −794 CATT5–8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The −173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF −794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the −173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the −794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen

  2. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, -173 G to C and -794 CATT5-8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The -173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF -794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the -173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the -794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen-specific IgE.

  3. Levels of house dust mite-specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) in different cat populations using a monoclonal based anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Bexley, Jennifer; Hogg, Janice E; Hammerberg, Bruce; Halliwell, Richard E W

    2009-10-01

    Levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for the house dust mites (HDMs) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) in 58 cats with clinical signs suggestive of atopic dermatitis (allergic dermatitis cats), 52 cats with no history of allergic or immunological disease (nonallergic cats) and 26 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats were measured using a monoclonal anti-IgE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reactivity to both native and reduced HDM allergens was compared. SPF cats had significantly lower levels of HDM-specific serum IgE than cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats. The difference in levels of HDM-specific IgE in the serum of cats with allergic dermatitis and nonallergic cats was significant for native DF allergen, but not for native DP allergen or reduced HDM allergens. The results suggest that DF in its native form may be a significant allergen in cats with allergic dermatitis. The clinical relevance of these reactions, however, remains to be proven.

  4. The correlation of serum eosinophil cationic protein level with eosinophil count, and total IgE level in Korean adult allergic rhinitis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhong; Wu, Rong; Tian, Yian; Bao, Tianping; Tian, Zhaofang

    2016-12-01

    Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is present in eosinophil granules. It has been associated with eosinophil-associated disorders. We compared serum ECP levels in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis patients and evaluated the association with the eosinophil count and the total IgE level. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and categorized enrolled patients into the allergic (AR) and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR) groups. ECP, eosinophil count, and total IgE levels were reviewed in both groups. The association between ECP and the eosinophil count and total IgE level was further evaluated according to commonly detected specific antigens. Six hundred and ten adults were included in the study. In the AR group (n=349), the median age was 27.0(23.0-42.0) years and the female:male ratio was 0.26:1. In the NAR group (n=261), the median age was 32.0(24.0-45.5) years and the female:male ratio was 0.33:1. We found that ECP (AR: 18.8(9.9-31.4), NAR: 14.8(8.2-24.9), p=0.003), eosinophil count (AR: 191.0(112.0-308.5), NAR: 149.0(91.0-249.0), p=0.002) and total IgE (AR: 166.0(58.4-422.5), NAR: 68.8(24.5-141.0), p<0.001) were higher in AR than in NAR patients. The ECP level was associated with the eosinophil count in both the AR (p<0.001) and NAR groups (p<0.001). A significant correlation between the ECP level and eosinophil count was demonstrated in AR patients who were skin test positive against house dust mite, animal and pollen allergens. We suggest that ECP could be an important mediator in the pathogenesis of AR. The level of serum ECP was positively correlated with eosinophilia in AR patients regardless of the type of allergen sensitization. However, further study is warranted to verify the role of ECP in the clinical management of allergic rhinitis.

  5. Association between the MHC gene region and variation of serum IgE levels against specific mould allergens in the horse

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene region influences the production of mould-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE), alleles of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA-A) locus and three microsatellite markers (UM-011, HTG-05 and HMS-42) located on the same chromosome as the equine MHC were determined in 448 Lipizzan horses. Statistical analyses based on composite models, showed significant associations of the ELA-A and UM-011 loci with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 antigen (rAsp f 7). UM-011 was also significantly associated with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 8 antigen (rAsp f 8). In addition to the loci mentioned above, the MHC class II DQA and DRA loci were determined in 76 Lipizzans from one stud. For IgE levels against rAsp f 7, the composite model showed the strongest association for DQA (P < 0.01) while for rAsp f 8 specific IgE levels, similarly to the results found with all 448 horses, the strongest association was found with UM-011 (P = 0.01), which is closely linked with the MHC class II DRB locus. These results suggest that the equine MHC gene region and possibly MHC class II loci, influence the specific IgE response in the horse. However, although the strongest associations were found with DQA and UM-011, this study did not distinguish if the observed effects were due to the MHC itself or to other tightly linked genes. PMID:12927090

  6. Reduced β-lactoglobulin IgE binding upon in vitro digestion as a result of the interaction of the protein with casein glycomacropeptide.

    PubMed

    Martinez, María J; Martos, Gustavo; Molina, Elena; Pilosof, Ana M R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the presence of casein glycomacropeptide (CMP) on the in vitro digestibility and potential allergenicity of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg)-CMP mixtures. The digestion products were analyzed by RP-HPLC and RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The potential allergenicity of the digestion products was studied by human IgE binding by inhibition ELISA with serum samples from children with clinical allergic symptoms to β-lg. No differences were observed by HPLC in the mixtures hydrolysates due to CMP-β-lg interactions. RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS results showed different peptides occurring in the mixtures hydrolysates. Additionally, it was observed a significant reduction of β-lg IgE binding in the presence of CMP. The disappearance of epitopes in the digested mixtures could explain the lower IgE binding observed in these systems compared to β-lg. It can be concluded that the presence of CMP in products containing β-lg may modify the digestion products that may reduce the potential allergenicity of β-lg.

  7. Targeting IgE in Severe Atopic Dermatitis with a Combination of Immunoadsorption and Omalizumab.

    PubMed

    Zink, Alexander; Gensbaur, Anna; Zirbs, Michael; Seifert, Florian; Suarez, Isabel Leon; Mourantchanian, Vagkan; Weidinger, Stephan; Mempel, Martin; Ring, Johannes; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) tend to have greatly elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). However, the role of IgE in the pathogenesis of AD is debated. This investigator-initiated open-label pilot study evaluates an anti-IgE-treatment approach by combining extracorporeal immunoadsorption and anti-IgE antibody omalizumab in 10 patients with severe, therapy-refractory AD. IgE levels decreased after immunoadsorption and decreased continuously in all patients during anti-IgE therapy. The reverse trend was observed during 6 months follow-up without treatment. In parallel with these observations, an improvement in AD was observed during the treatment period, with aggravation during follow-up. Further research is needed, based on the principle of reducing IgE levels in order to improve clinical symptoms, using a combination anti-IgE treatment approach, adjusted according to IgE levels.

  8. Allergen-specific IgE levels against crude mould and storage mite extracts and recombinant mould allergens in sera from horses affected with chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Eder, C; Crameri, R; Mayer, C; Eicher, R; Straub, R; Gerber, H; Lazary, S; Marti, E

    2000-03-15

    Immunoglobulin E antibody (IgE) levels against four recombinant (r) mould allergens (r-Aspergillus fumigatus [rAsp f] 7, 8 and 9; r-Alternaria alternata 1 [rAlta1]) and crude mould (Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium notatum) and storage mite extracts were determined by ELISA in sera from 24 pulmonary sound control horses and 26 horses suffering from chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis (CB), also called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Serum IgG and IgA titres were also determined against Aspergillus fumigatus extract and rAsp f 8.IgE against the crude extracts could be measured in all sera, but there was no significant difference between CB-affected and control horses. In contrast, only 8-30% of the horses, depending on the r-allergen tested, had detectable IgE levels in serum against the r-allergens. Horses with CB had significantly more often detectable IgE levels than controls against rAlt a 1 (10/26 and 3/24, respectively, p=0. 054), rAsp f 7 (13/26 and 2/24, respectively, p<0.01) and rAsp f 8 (11/26 and 1/24, respectively, p<0.01). Only four horses (three CB-affected and one healthy, p0.05) had detectable IgE levels against rAsp f 9. Furthermore, CB-affected horses were often sensitised against two or more r-allergens (13/26 of the CB-affected horses) while only one of the 24 healthy horses had positive IgE levels against more than one r-allergens. Similarly to IgE levels, no significant differences between CB-affected and healthy horses were found for IgG titres against the Aspergillus fumigatus extract. However, horses with CB had significantly higher serum IgG titres against rAsp f 8 than healthy controls (median=28 versus 10 relative ELISA units [REU], p<0.01). Additionally, horses with detectable IgE titres against rAsp f 8 had significantly higher IgG titres against this r-allergen than horses with undetectable IgE titres (median IgG titres=46 and 13 REU, respectively; p<0.01). For serum IgA titres, neither differences

  9. [Correlation between the magnitude of skin prick test reactivity and pollen-specific serum IgE levels in patients with respiratory allergy].

    PubMed

    Tlachi-Corona, Laura; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; López-García, Aída Inés; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Carcaño-Pérez, María Socorro Yolanda; Marín-Marín, Araceli; Garrido-Priego, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    For the etiological diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases skin tests or specific serum IgE determination are used. To determine the correlation between the extent of reactivity to cutaneous prick tests and the levels of pollen specific serum IgE in patients with respiratory allergy. A prolective, descriptive and transversal study was done with patients of both genders, aged 2 to 60 years, who attended for the first time at the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of University Hospital of Puebla, Mexico, with presumptive diagnosis of respiratory allergy. All patients underwent clinical history, skin prick tests with standardized allergenic extracts and quantification of pollen specific serum IgE by chemiluminescence method. We estimated the correlation index r using the statistical method Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; a value r equal to or higher than 0.70 was considered a significant relationship or a high correlation. Nine-one patients were included, of whom 58.2% were female. The diagnoses were: allergic rhinitis (79.1%), asthma and allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and only asthma (4.4%). Only significant correlation was found in patients with allergic rhinitis for Rumex crispus (r = 0.702) and in patients with asthma and rhinitis for Ambrosia trifida (r = 1). Only for Rumex crispus and Ambrosia trifida, the skin prick tests or the determination of specific serum IgE levels are comparable diagnostic methods of allergic respiratory diseases.

  10. [Influence of serum levels of vitamin D on IgE response in schoolchildren with asthma in poor communities].

    PubMed

    Egea, Eduardo; Garavito, Gloria; Fang, Luis; Mendoza, Dary Luz; Escamilla, José Miguel; De Los Ríos, Elsie; Dennis, Rodolfo; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: El asma es una enfermedad frecuente en el mundo y la vitamina D (Vit-D) se ha asociado con la presencia y severidad de esta enfermedad. Objetivo: Establecer la asociación entre los niveles de Vit-D y la respuesta IgE en escolares con asma residentes de cuatro ciudades colombiananas. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles en 1340 escolares (687 asmáticos y 653 controles) de comunidades en extrema pobreza de Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta y Montería. Se midieron las concentraciones séricas de Vit-D, IgE total e IgE específica anti Dermatofagoides farinae, Periplaneta americana y Ascaris lumbricoides (AL). Resultados: Los controles reportaron concentraciones mayores de Vit-D [61.9 ± 28.4 ng/mL] que los casos [53 ± 23.3 ng/mL] (p<0.05). La IgE total fue mayor en los casos (p<0.05). Solo IgE anti-AL mostró una diferencia clara: controles, densidad óptica 0.27 ± 0.25; casos 0.22 ± 0.24 (p<0.05). La Vit-D presentó diferencias entre casos y controles en cada población. Conclusiones: No se pudo demostrar la asociación entre deficiencia de Vit-D y asma, dado que la IgE total estuvo elevada en los pacientes y en los controles. Los resultados sugieren que la Vit-D influye en la respuesta IgE específica en niños asmáticos pobres en zonas endémicas para helmintiasis.

  11. Solid modeling and IGES

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.C.

    1985-09-01

    The current status of IGES as concerns solid modeling is described. Covered are the activities of the IGES Solids Committee, planned solids capability for IGES and IGES-PDES by December 1986. One of the key requirements of CIM is data integration. Data are entered once and then made available to all applications. IGES was developed to allow communication of CAD data between different vendor's systems. Originally the requirement was to communicate drawings. IGES Version 3.0 due in October 1985 contains no capability to communicate solids. But as industry moves toward the use of solids, the IGES Committee has been preparing to meet the foreseen need for solids.

  12. African ancestry is a risk factor for asthma and high total IgE levels in African admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Candelaria; Murray, Tanda; Rafaels, Nicholas; Lewis, Rachel; Campbell, Monica; Foster, Cassandra; Gao, Li; Faruque, Mezbah; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Cruz, Alvaro A; Watson, Harold; Mercado, Dilia; Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia; Ford, Jean; Caraballo, Luis; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2013-05-01

    Characterization of genetic admixture of populations in the Americas and the Caribbean is of interest for anthropological, epidemiological, and historical reasons. Asthma has a higher prevalence and is more severe in populations with a high African component. Association of African ancestry with asthma has been demonstrated. We estimated admixture proportions of samples from six trihybrid populations of African descent and determined the relationship between African ancestry and asthma and total serum IgE levels (tIgE). We genotyped 237 ancestry informative markers in asthmatics and nonasthmatic controls from Barbados (190/277), Jamaica (177/529), Brazil (40/220), Colombia (508/625), African Americans from New York (207/171), and African Americans from Baltimore/Washington, D.C. (625/757). We estimated individual ancestries and evaluated genetic stratification using Structure and principal component analysis. Association of African ancestry and asthma and tIgE was evaluated by regression analysis. Mean ± SD African ancestry ranged from 0.76 ± 0.10 among Barbadians to 0.33 ± 0.13 in Colombians. The European component varied from 0.14 ± 0.05 among Jamaicans and Barbadians to 0.26 ± 0.08 among Colombians. African ancestry was associated with risk for asthma in Colombians (odds ratio (OR) = 4.5, P = 0.001) Brazilians (OR = 136.5, P = 0.003), and African Americans of New York (OR: 4.7; P = 0.040). African ancestry was also associated with higher tIgE levels among Colombians (β = 1.3, P = 0.04), Barbadians (β = 3.8, P = 0.03), and Brazilians (β = 1.6, P = 0.03). Our findings indicate that African ancestry can account for, at least in part, the association between asthma and its associated trait, tIgE levels. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. African Ancestry is a Risk Factor for Asthma and High Total IgE Levels in African Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Candelaria; Murray, Tanda; Rafaels, Nicholas; Lewis, Rachel; Campbell, Monica; Foster, Cassandra; Gao, Li; Faruque, Mezbah; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Watson, Harold; Mercado, Dilia; Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia; Ford, Jean; Caraballo, Luis; Beaty, Terri H.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of genetic admixture of populations in the Americas and the Caribbean is of interest for anthropological, epidemiological, and historical reasons. Asthma has a higher prevalence and is more severe in populations with a high African component. Association of African ancestry with asthma has been demonstrated. We estimated admixture proportions of samples from six trihybrid populations of African descent and determined the relationship between African ancestry and asthma and total serum IgE levels (tIgE). We genotyped 237 ancestry informative markers in asthmatics and nonasthmatic controls from Barbados (190/277), Jamaica (177/529), Brazil (40/220), Colombia (508/625), African Americans from New York (207/171), and African Americans from Baltimore/Washington, D.C. (625/757). We estimated individual ancestries and evaluated genetic stratification using Structure and principal component analysis. Association of African ancestry and asthma and tIgE was evaluated by regression analysis. Mean SD African ancestry ranged from 0.76 ± 0.10 among Barbadians to 0.33 ± 0.13 in Colombians. The European component varied from 0.14 ± 0.05 among Jamaicans and Barbadians to 0.26 ± 0.08 among Colombians. African ancestry was associated with risk for asthma in Colombians (odds ratio (OR) = 4.5, P = 0.001) Brazilians (OR = 136.5, P = 0.003), and African Americans of New York (OR: 4.7; P = 0.040). African ancestry was also associated with higher tIgE levels among Colombians (β = 1.3, P = 0.04), Barbadians (β = 3.8, P = 0.03), and Brazilians (β = 1.6, P = 0.03). Our findings indicate that African ancestry can account for, at least in part, the association between asthma and its associated trait, tIgE levels. PMID:23554133

  14. Total IgE as a serodiagnostic marker to aid murine fur mite detection.

    PubMed

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-03-01

    Mites of 3 genera-Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia -continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity.

  15. Total IgE as a Serodiagnostic Marker to Aid Murine Fur Mite Detection

    PubMed Central

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-01-01

    Mites of 3 genera—Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia—continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

  16. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Caulloo, Sillani; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xingqi

    2012-01-01

    Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA) remains unclear. To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  17. Comparisons of Serum Total IgE, IgG, and IgG1 Levels in Patients with and without Echinococcosis-Induced Anaphylactic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yimei; Zheng, Hong; Gu, Meilin; Cao, Xinghua; Wen, Hao; Liu, Zaoling; Liu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG, and IgG1 levels in patients with and without echinococcosis-induced anaphylactic shock. This was a case-control study of 11 patients with echinococcosis-induced anaphylactic shock and 22 echinococcosis patients with cyst rupture but without anaphylactic shock. Blood was collected before surgery (T0), at the time of cyst rupture (T1), and shock (Tx), 1 h (T2), 1 day (T3), and 1 week (T4) after cyst rupture. Serum IgE, IgG, and IgG1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum IgE, IgG, and IgG1 levels were significantly higher in patients who developed anaphylactic shock at all time points. Increased pre-surgical IgG and IgG1 levels were identified to be a significant risk factors for developing anaphylactic shock. The results showed that a serum IgG concentration of 312.25 μg/mL could be used as a cut-off point to predict whether an echinococcosis patient would develop anaphylactic shock. PMID:22764299

  18. Comparisons of serum total IgE, IgG, and IgG1 levels in patients with and without echinococcosis-induced anaphylactic shock.

    PubMed

    Li, Yimei; Zheng, Hong; Gu, Meilin; Cao, Xinghua; Wen, Hao; Liu, Zaoling; Liu, Tao

    2012-07-01

    We investigated serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG, and IgG1 levels in patients with and without echinococcosis-induced anaphylactic shock. This was a case-control study of 11 patients with echinococcosis-induced anaphylactic shock and 22 echinococcosis patients with cyst rupture but without anaphylactic shock. Blood was collected before surgery (T0), at the time of cyst rupture (T1), and shock (Tx), 1 h (T2), 1 day (T3), and 1 week (T4) after cyst rupture. Serum IgE, IgG, and IgG1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum IgE, IgG, and IgG1 levels were significantly higher in patients who developed anaphylactic shock at all time points. Increased pre-surgical IgG and IgG1 levels were identified to be a significant risk factors for developing anaphylactic shock. The results showed that a serum IgG concentration of 312.25 μg/mL could be used as a cut-off point to predict whether an echinococcosis patient would develop anaphylactic shock.

  19. Anti-allergic effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from seed mash used for brewing sake is not dependent on the total IgE levels.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Toshinari; Yoshida, Kazutoshi; Nishitani, Yosuke; Mizuno, Masashi; Mizoguchi, Haruhiko

    2012-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented foods have attracted considerable attention recently as treatment options for allergic diseases, the incidence of which has been increasing worldwide. Five strains of LAB isolated from kimoto, the traditional seed mash used for brewing sake, were screened for the ability to suppress IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus sakei, the normal microflora in kimoto, significantly suppressed the reaction, but the contaminant Lactobacillus curvatus did not. Next, we examined the effect of L. sakei LK-117 on atopic dermatitis in the NC/Nga mouse model. LK-117 supplementation significantly reduced the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in a manner independent of the IgE plasma levels. In the in vitro intestinal model constructed using the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 and murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, treatment with L. sakei LK-117, but not L. curvatus, significantly upregulated TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. This result indicated that L. sakei on the apical side affected the macrophages on the basolateral side, and this organism may have the ability to improve allergy symptoms mediated by the intestinal immune system.

  20. Hochu-ekki-to suppresses development of dermatitis and elevation of serum IgE level in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Mizuno, N; Kutsuna, H; Teramae, H; Ueoku, S; Onoyama, J; Yamanaka, K; Fujita, N; Ishii, M

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese herbal medicine Hochu-ekki-to (Chinese name: Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-tang) is composed of ten species of medical plants and is used for many therapeutic purposes such as recovery from weakness, dysfunction of the digestive system and fatigue. In certain groups of patients with intractable atopic dermatitis this prescription has shown clinical effectiveness. We examined the ability of Hochu-ekki-to to inhibit dermatitis and IgE production in atopic NC/Nga mice. Oral administration of Hochu-ekki-to suppressed spontaneous dermatitis and serum IgE levels in NC/Nga mice. This finding provides evidence that Hochu-ekki-to may have immunological effects in atopic dermatitis.

  1. [Investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific IgE levels in students' sera].

    PubMed

    Ovet, Habibe; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. Monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. Since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. This study was aimed to investigate the indoor air mold distribution of elementary schools in Denizli province (located in west Anatolia, Turkey) and to compare the allergen-specific IgE levels of children against the most frequently detected mold genus. A questionnaire (MM080) was distributed to the 4967 students (6-8 year-old) attending first and second degrees of 16 different elementary schools with scattered locations in city center. This questionnaire form included the questions related to the general information about the child, school environment, allergic complaints since last year, home environment and nutrition. Response rate to the questionnaire was 51.6% (2565/4967). Air samples were collected from 18 classrooms in March 2009, during which high rates of allergic symptoms were observed according to the questionnaire results. Mold fungi belonging to 10 different genera (Penicillium spp. 46%; Aspergillus spp. 18%; Cladosporium spp. 17%; Alternaria spp. 15%; Drechslera spp. 1%; Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Conidiobolus and Cladothecium species 0.5%; unidentified 1%) were isolated from indoor air of classrooms. Since the most frequently detected mold was Penicillium spp. (46%), the 48 children with atopic symptoms were called to the hospital for the determination of total IgE and Penicillium specific IgE in their sera. Twenty two students accepted the invitation and serum total IgE (Immulite 2000; Diagnostic Product Corporation, USA) and allergen-specific IgE (Penicillium brevicompactum

  2. Anti-rPru p 3 IgE levels are inversely related to the age at onset of peach-induced severe symptoms reported by peach-allergic adults.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, Elide Anna; Farioli, Laura; Stafylaraki, Chrysi; Mascheri, Ambra; Scibilia, Joseph; Pravettoni, Valerio; Primavesi, Laura; Piantanida, Marta; Nichelatti, Michele; Asero, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Sensitisation to peach lipid transfer protein (LTP; Pru p 3) is significantly associated with severe allergic symptoms in adults, but little is known about the age at onset of peach allergy. We investigated a possible correlation between specific IgE levels to Pru p 3 and the age at onset of peach allergy. One hundred and forty-eight patients allergic to peach were divided into 6 classes according to the age at onset. Sera were analyzed for IgE antibodies to peach, rPru p 3, rPru p 1, rPru p 4, rBet v 1, rBet v 2, total IgE titre, and tryptase; all collected data were statistically analysed. A significant inverse correlation was found between the age at onset of peach allergy and anti-rPru p 3 IgE levels at diagnosis (p < 0.0005; Spearman's ρ = -0.3833). In contrast, the age at onset was directly correlated with both anti-rPru p 1 IgE levels (p = 0.0001; Spearman's ρ = 0.3197) and anti-rBet v 1 IgE levels (p = 0.0006; Spearman's ρ = 0.2914) at diagnosis. No correlations were detected between the reported age at onset and anti-peach, anti-rPru p 4, anti-rBet v 2 IgE and total IgE values and serum tryptase levels. At diagnosis, when peach allergy starts at a younger age, it is likely associated with Pru p 3 sensitisation, and the younger the onset, the higher the IgE titres. When peach allergy starts at an older age, it is more likely the result of cross-reactivity to Bet v1.

  3. Influence of experimental alcohol administration on serum immunoglobulin levels: contrasting effects on IgE and other immunoglobulin classes.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M; Gomez-Rial, J; Gude, F; Vidal, C; Gonzalez-Quintela, A

    2012-01-01

    In humans, alcoholic liver disease is associated with hypergammaglobulinemia, particularly with high serum concentrations of IgA. Furthermore, alcohol consumption is associated with high concentrations of IgE and low concentrations of IgG. However, there is little experimental evidence to corroborate these observational findings. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential short-term effects of alcohol administration on serum immunoglobulin concentrations in mice, and the potential influence of sex and strain on these effects. Eight mouse groups were defined by strain (Swiss vs C57BL/6), sex (male vs female), and experimental procedure (alcohol administration vs control diet). Alcohol was administered in a semi-liquid diet (6.5%v/v); control animals received an isocaloric semi-liquid diet. Immunoglobulin concentrations (IgE, IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3) were measured at baseline and weekly thereafter for 4 weeks. Serum Th1 (interferon-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13) cytokines were measured at week 4. We found significant variations in baseline immunoglobulin concentrations depending upon mouse sex and strain. Alcohol administration was quickly followed by an increase in serum IgE concentrations in all experimental groups. IgE increase was correlated with serum IL-13 increase. In contrast, alcohol administration was not associated with significant changes in serum IgA and IgM concentration, and appeared to decrease IgG subclass concentrations. Alcohol effects on immunoglobulin concentrations were independent of mouse strain and sex. In conclusion, alcohol administration in mice had contrasting effects on IgE and other immunoglobulin classes. This experimental evidence confirms observational results in humans.

  4. Baseline specific IgE levels are useful to predict safety of oral immunotherapy in egg-allergic children.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, M; Alvaro, M; Piquer, M; Dominguez, O; Machinena, A; Martín-Mateos, M A; Plaza, A M

    2014-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising treatment for food allergy but dose-related reactions are common. To evaluate safety of egg-OIT. To identify predictors of dose-related reactions. Fifty children aged 5-18 underwent egg-OIT after confirming IgE-mediated egg allergy by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge (DBPCFC). All dose-related reactions over a median period of 18 months on-OIT (range: 12-28) were registered. Children were retrospectively divided into three subgroups: (1) children who stopped reacting to OIT-doses over time (RR, Resolved Reactions); (2) children with ongoing dose-related reactions over the whole period on-OIT (PR, Persistent Reactions); (3) children who discontinued OIT within induction phase due to frequent reactions not improved by protocol re-adaptation and medication (ED, Early Discontinuation). Baseline clinical/immunological parameters associated with subgroups were investigated. Reactions occurred in 7.6% of doses. Adrenaline was required in 26% of children. The three subgroups corresponded to three different safety phenotypes: (1) twenty-four children (48%, RR) experienced infrequent and mainly mild reactions that resolved over time. None required adrenaline; (2) seventeen children (34%, PR) experienced more frequent and severe ongoing reactions over time; (3) nine children (18%, ED) discontinued OIT due to very frequent and mainly moderate reactions. Early discontinuation was associated with underlying asthma, higher specific IgE (sIgE) and lower threshold at DBPCFC. In contrast, lower sIgE and less severe reactions at DBPCFC were associated with subgroup RR. sIgE showed excellent performance in predicting belonging to subgroup RR. Levels below the optimal cut-off (ovomucoid-sIgE 8.85 kU/L) indicated 77% probability of belonging to subgroup RR, whereas levels above it indicated 95% probability of early discontinuation or ongoing reactions over time. Egg-OIT involves substantial risks. However, baseline parameters

  5. Prenatal exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and perfluoroalkyl substances and cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP and IL-33.

    PubMed

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Levy, Adrian R; Platt, Robert W; Marshall, Jean S; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2015-07-01

    The fetal time period is a critical window of immune system development and resulting heightened susceptibility to the adverse effects of environmental exposures. Epidemiologists and toxicologists have hypothesized that phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA) and perfluoroalkyl substance have immunotoxic properties. Immunotoxic effects of chemicals may manifest in an altered immune system profile at birth. Immunoglobulin E, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and interleukin-33 (IL-33) are integral in the etiology of childhood allergy and detectable at birth. The objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal levels of phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and perfluoroalkyl substances and elevated umbilical cord blood levels of IgE, TSLP, and IL-33. This study utilized data collected in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a trans-Canada cohort study of 2001 pregnant women. Of these women, 1258 had a singleton, term birth and cord blood sample. A Bayesian hierarchical model was employed to determine associations between log-transformed continuous variables and immune system biomarkers while adjusting for potential confounding from correlated environmental contaminants. Inverse, nonlinear associations were observed between maternal urinary MCPP levels and elevated levels of both IL-33/TSLP and IgE and between maternal urinary BPA levels and elevated levels of IL-33/TSLP. In this primarily urban Canadian population of pregnant women and their newborns, maternal urinary and plasma concentrations of phthalate metabolites, BPA, and perfluoroalkyl substances were not associated with immunotoxic effects that manifest as increased odds of elevated levels of IgE, TSLP or IL-33. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential response in allergen-specific IgE, IgGs, and IgA levels for predicting outcome of oral immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mayumi; Kamemura, Norio; Nagao, Mizuho; Irahara, Makoto; Kagami, Shoji; Fujisawa, Takao; Kido, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) induces desensitization and/or tolerance in patients with persistent food allergy, but the biomarkers of clinical outcomes remain obscure. Although OIT-induced changes in serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 levels have been investigated, the response of other allergen-specific IgG subclasses and IgA during OIT remains obscure. A pilot study was conducted to investigate egg OIT-induced changes in allergen-specific IgE, IgG subclasses, and IgA levels and search for possible prediction biomarkers of desensitization. We measured serum levels of egg white-, ovomucoid-, and ovalbumin-specific IgE, IgA, and IgG subclasses by high-sensitivity allergen microarray in 26 children with egg allergy who received rush OIT. Allergen-specific IgE gradually decreased while IgG4 increased during 12-month OIT. Serum levels of IgG1, IgG3, and IgA increased significantly after the rush phase, then decreased during the maintenance phase. IgG2 levels changed in a manner similar to that of IgG4. In particular, significantly high fold increases in egg white-specific IgG1, relative to baseline, after the rush phase and high IgA levels before OIT were observed in responders, compared with low-responders to OIT. Patients who could not keep desensitization showed relatively small changes in all immunoglobulin levels during OIT. The response to OIT was associated with significant increases in serum allergen-specific IgG1 levels after rush phase and high baseline IgA levels, compared with small changes in immunoglobulin response in low-responders. The characteristic IgG1 changes and IgA levels in the responders could be potentially useful biomarkers for the prediction of positive clinical response to OIT. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. High IgE levels to α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and casein predict less successful cow's milk oral immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kuitunen, M; Englund, H; Remes, S; Movérare, R; Pelkonen, A; Borres, M P; Mäkelä, M J

    2015-08-01

    A new treatment option for persistent cow's milk allergy (CMA) is oral immunotherapy (OIT). Not all patients develop tolerance during therapy, and markers to identify those who will benefit from it are needed. The objective was to study the IgE and IgG4 antibody profiles to milk and milk proteins before and after OIT in relation to clinical outcome. Seventy-six children (5-17 years) with challenge-verified CMA were subjected to a 6-month OIT protocol. The treatment aimed at reaching a maintenance dose of 200 ml CM (high dose = HD). Those who did not reach target were analysed as a low-dose (LD) group. Sera were characterized before and after OIT regarding serum levels of IgE and IgG4 to milk and five milk allergen components evaluated together with clinical CMA symptoms and outcome of OIT. Fifty-five (72%) patients reached the maintenance dose (HD) during therapy. High specific IgE levels towards the milk allergens α-lactalbumin (P = 0.048), β-lactoglobulin (P = 0.006) and casein (P = 0.015) before OIT start were associated with lower maintenance dose reached. Patients who developed desensitization had a larger increase in IgG4 levels to α-lactalbumin (P = 0.034), β-lactoglobulin (P = 0.010), casein (P = 0.047) and lactoferrin (P = 0.030) during treatment than those who failed. Component-resolved diagnostics before OIT can help to identify children with lower probability of a successful OIT outcome, as high IgE levels to α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and casein are associated with lower maintenance dose reached. An increase in the IgG4 concentration to milk components during treatment indicated effective desensitization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 129/SvJ mice have mutated CD23 and hyper IgE

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jill W.; Sturgill, Jamie L.; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2009-01-01

    CD23, the low affinity IgE receptor, is hypothesized to function as a negative regulator of IgE production. Upon discovering reduced CD23 surface levels in 129/SvJ inbred mice, we sought to further investigate 129/SvJ CD23 and to examine its influence on IgE levels. Five amino acid substitutions were found in 129/SvJ CD23. Identical mutations were also observed in CD23 from New Zealand Black and 129P1/ReJ mice. 129/SvJ B cells proliferated more rapidly than those from BALB/c after stimulation with IL-4 and CD40 ligand trimer. However, in vitro IgE levels in supernatants from stimulated 129/SvJ B cells were significantly reduced. Contrary to the in vitro findings, the 129/SvJ CD23 mutations correlated with a hyper IgE phenotype in vivo and 129/SvJ were able to clear Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection more rapidly than either BALB/c or C57BL/6. Overall, this study further suggests that CD23 is an important regulatory factor for IgE production. PMID:18828998

  9. Serum free IgE guided dose reduction of omalizumab: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gon, Yasuhiro; Ito, Reiko; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Mizumura, Kenji; Kozu, Yutaka; Hiranuma, Hisato; Iida, Yuko; Shikano, Sotaro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab is a human IgG1 antibody against IgE used as a therapy for sever asthmatic patients with asthma. According to the guidelines of the Global Initiative for Asthma, omalizumab is an add-on drug at treatment step 5 that is used for severe asthma patients who are allergic to perennial allergens. The effects of omalizumab for severe asthma therapy have been validated in multiple clinical studies. However, the long-term effects of omalizumab on IgE production and possibility of resetting of administration dose of omalizumab remain unknown. The serum total and free IgE levels were measured over time in a 63-year-old female patient with allergic asthma who was administered 375 mg omalizumab biweekly for 36 months. Her symptoms did not worsen and clinical course remained favorable after reducing the dose to 375 mg per month. The serum free IgE levels temporarily increased following a dose reduction of omalizumab. The serum free IgE trough level temporarily increased at 4 weeks after capable to reduce the dosage; however, thereafter, the serum free IgE level decreased to desired levels (below 30 ng/mL). The present case shows the possibility of reducing the dose following the long-term use of omalizumab. Considering the high medical cost of omalizumab, the dose reduction may be a viable option. It may be useful to measure the serum free IgE level to appropriately identify patients in whom the dose can be reduced, and to carefully monitor the clinical course.

  10. Serum levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) versus immunoglobulins (IgG., IgM., and IgE.) in Egyptian scabietic children.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Alfy, M S; Arafa, M A; Salama, M M; Habib, K S

    1995-12-01

    The tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha or Cachectin) is a protein produced mainly by macrophages, with a wide range of biological activities and in inflammatory process. On the other hand, scabies is a skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei which is typified by severe itching (particularly at night), red papules and often secondary infection. The female mite tunnels in the skin to lay her eggs and the newly hatched mites pass easily from person to person by contact. Commonly the infested areas are the groin, penis, nipples and the skin between the fingers. In this paper, the serum levels of TNF-alpha versus IgG., IgM., and IgE. were estimated in parasitologically proven scabietic male children (8-13 years) with no secondary infection or other parasitic infection. The results showed high significant elevation of serum TNF-alpha in 94.1% (P = 7.763E-04) and IgE in 100% (P = 1.530E-07) in the scabietic patients than in the control group, and non significant increase in IgG in 47% (P = 0.0605) and in IgM in 5.9% (P = 0.9404). It was concluded that TNF-alpha plays a role in the pathogenesis of human scabies. Extensive study is ongoing to clarify the outcome of TNF-alpha in human scabies.

  11. IgE actions on CD4+ T cells, mast cells, and macrophages participate in the pathogenesis of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Lindholt, Jes S; Sukhova, Galina K; Shi, Michael A; Xia, Mingcan; Chen, Han; Xiang, Meixiang; He, Aina; Wang, Yi; Xiong, Na; Libby, Peter; Wang, Jian-An; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) activates mast cells (MCs). It remains unknown whether IgE also activates other inflammatory cells, and contributes to the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). This study demonstrates that CD4+ T cells express IgE receptor FcεR1, at much higher levels than do CD8+ T cells. IgE induces CD4+ T-cell production of IL6 and IFN-γ, but reduces their production of IL10. FcεR1 deficiency (Fcer1a−/−) protects apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe−/−) mice from angiotensin-II infusion-induced AAAs and reduces plasma IL6 levels. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells (but not CD8+ T cells), MCs, and macrophages from Apoe−/− mice, but not those from Apoe−/− Fcer1a−/− mice, increases AAA size and plasma IL6 in Apoe−/− Fcer1a−/− recipient mice. Biweekly intravenous administration of an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody ablated plasma IgE and reduced AAAs in Apoe−/− mice. Patients with AAAs had significantly higher plasma IgE levels than those without AAAs. This study establishes an important role of IgE in AAA pathogenesis by activating CD4+ T cells, MCs, and macrophages and supports consideration of neutralizing plasma IgE in the therapeutics of human AAAs. PMID:24963147

  12. Prediction of anaphylaxis during peanut food challenge: usefulness of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level.

    PubMed

    Wainstein, Brynn Kevin; Studdert, Jennie; Ziegler, Mary; Ziegler, John B

    2010-06-01

    Cutoffs (decision points) of the peanut skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE level for predicting peanut allergy have been proposed. It is not known whether decision points indicating a significant risk of severe reactions on challenge differ from those indicating probable allergy. We aimed at determining the usefulness of allergy tests for predicting the risk of anaphylaxis on challenge following the ingestion of up to 12 g of peanut in peanut-sensitized children. Children attending the Allergy Clinic who had a positive peanut SPT and completed open-label in-hospital peanut challenges were included. The challenge protocol provided for challenges to be continued beyond initial mild reactions. Eighty-nine in-hospital peanut challenges were performed. Thirty-four were excluded as the challenge was not completed, leaving 55 for analysis. Children who completed the challenge and did not react (n = 28) or reacted without anaphylaxis (n = 6) represented the comparison group (n = 34). The study group comprised 21 children whose challenge resulted in anaphylaxis. The mean peanut SPT wheal size and specific IgE level were associated with the severity of reactions on challenge. Among the 21 children, who developed anaphylaxis, in only 3 cases was anaphylaxis the initial reaction. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge. Anaphylaxis developed at cumulative doses of peanut ranging from 0.02 to 11.7 g. Provided that a fixed amount of peanut is ingested, available tests for peanut allergy may assist in predicting the risk of anaphylaxis during challenge in peanut-sensitized children.

  13. Elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during T lymphocyte-directed gene therapy for ADA deficiency: implication of Tc2-like cells after gene transduction procedure.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, N; Ariga, T; Ohtsu, M; Yamada, M; Tame, A; Furuta, H; Kobayashi, I; Okano, M; Yanagihara, Y; Sakiyama, Y

    1998-11-01

    We have successfully carried out T-cell-directed gene therapy for a boy with severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA SCID) and unexpectedly found an elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during the course. More than 90% of transduced cells cultured for 7-11 days before infusion into the patient were positive for CD8 and expressed Th2-type cytokine genes such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, CD4(+) T-depleted PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from the patient synthesized IgE in vitro by stimulation with IL-4. Collectively, these results suggested that Tc2-like cells in the transduced cells have distinct immunological functions to help IgE synthesis and activate eosinophils.

  14. Breast-feeding, maternal IgE, and total serum IgE in childhood.

    PubMed

    Wright, A L; Sherrill, D; Holberg, C J; Halonen, M; Martinez, F D

    1999-09-01

    There is controversy regarding the relationship of the effect of breast-feeding on markers of allergy such as total serum IgE in childhood. This study, using longitudinal data, tested the hypothesis that the relation of breast-feeding to IgE in childhood differs depending on maternal total IgE level. Total serum IgE was assessed with the paper radioimmunosorbent test at 4 ages in nonselected children enrolled at birth into the prospective Tucson Children's Respiratory Study. Children were classified as never breast-fed, breast-fed less than 4 months, or breast-fed 4 months or longer, on the basis of physician report or questionnaires completed by parents by the time the child was 18 months old. A longitudinal random effects model was used to test for group differences and temporal trends in IgE for children classified with reference to maternal IgE (high tertile vs all others) and breast-feeding history. A total of 664 children with 1457 observations were included. Among children whose mothers were in the 2 lower tertiles of IgE, breast-feeding was associated with lower total serum IgE at age 6 years (24.2 vs 44.3 IU/mL for never breast-fed children; P <.02); similar trends existed at age 11 years. In contrast, for children whose mothers were in the highest tertile of IgE, breast-feeding of 4 months or longer was associated with higher IgE levels in the child compared with those never breast-fed or breast-fed less than 4 months (97.0 vs 38.9 IU/mL; P <. 005). These cross-sectional analyses were confirmed with the longitudinal random effects model, which also showed no effect of confounders. Paternal IgE showed no similar relation with child IgE. Breast-feeding appears to have paradoxic relations with IgE in childhood, depending on maternal IgE level. These findings may help explain the contradictory results found in other investigations of the relation of breast-feeding to allergic symptoms and markers.

  15. CD23 surface density on B cells is associated with IgE levels and determines IgE-facilitated allergen uptake, as well as activation of allergen-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Selb, Regina; Eckl-Dorna, Julia; Neunkirchner, Alina; Schmetterer, Klaus; Marth, Katharina; Gamper, Jutta; Jahn-Schmid, Beatrice; Pickl, Winfried F.; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2017-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that the low-affinity receptor for IgE, CD23, plays an important role in controlling the activity of allergen-specific T cells through IgE-facilitated allergen presentation. Objective We sought to determine the number of CD23 molecules on immune cells in allergic patients and to investigate whether the number of CD23 molecules on antigen-presenting cells is associated with IgE levels and influences allergen uptake and allergen-specific T-cell activation. Methods Numbers of CD23 molecules on immune cells of allergic patients were quantified by using flow cytometry with QuantiBRITE beads and compared with total and allergen-specific IgE levels, as well as with allergen-induced immediate skin reactivity. Allergen uptake and allergen-specific T-cell activation in relation to CD23 surface density were determined by using flow cytometry in combination with confocal microscopy and T cells transfected with the T-cell receptor specific for the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, respectively. Defined IgE-allergen immune complexes were formed with human monoclonal allergen-specific IgE and Bet v 1. Results In allergic patients the vast majority of CD23 molecules were expressed on naive IgD+ B cells. The density of CD23 molecules on B cells but not the number of CD23+ cells correlated with total IgE levels (RS = 0.53, P = .03) and allergen-induced skin reactions (RS = 0.63, P = .008). Uptake of allergen-IgE complexes into B cells and activation of allergen-specific T cells depended on IgE binding to CD23 and were associated with CD23 surface density. Addition of monoclonal IgE to cultured PBMCs significantly (P = .04) increased CD23 expression on B cells. Conclusion CD23 surface density on B cells of allergic patients is correlated with allergen-specific IgE levels and determines allergen uptake and subsequent activation of T cells. PMID:27372566

  16. Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus suppress IgE production and prevent peanut-induced anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy is characterized by increased levels of peanut-specific IgE in the serum of most patients. Thus, the most logical therapy would be to inhibit the IgE production by committed B-cells. This study aims to investigate the unreported anti-IgE effects of Chinese herbal extracts of Rubia cordifolia (Qiancao) and Dianthus superbus (Qumai). Methods Seventy herbal extracts were tested for their ability to reduce IgE secretion by a human B-cell line. Those with the lowest inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values were tested in a mouse model of peanut-anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic scores, body temperature, plasma histamine and peanut-specific-immunoglobulins were determined. Results Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the in vitro IgE production by a human B-cell line in a dose-dependent manner and the in vivo IgE production in a murine model of peanut allergy without affecting peanut-specific-IgG1 levels. After challenge, all mice in the sham groups developed anaphylactic reactions and increased plasma histamine levels. The extract-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced peanut-triggered anaphylactic reactions and plasma histamine levels. Conclusion The extracts of Rubia cordifolia and Dianthus superbus inhibited the IgE production in vivo and in vitro as well as reduced anaphylactic reactions in peanut-allergic mice, suggesting potentials for allergy treatments. PMID:21961957

  17. Detection of auto-anti-idiotypic antibodies to Lol p I (rye I) IgE antibodies in human sera by the use of murine idiotypes: levels in atopic and non-atopic subjects and effects of immunotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, J; Bernier, D; Mourad, W

    1990-01-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id Abs) are involved in the regulation of a number of immune responses including the IgE antibody production. In atopic patients, the increased synthesis of IgE antibodies could be related to a defective production of regulatory anti-Id Abs. In the present study, we first developed a sensitive assay for measuring the levels of anti-Id Abs directed against antibodies specific for Lol p I, the major allergenic determinant of Lolium perenne (rye grass). In this assay, we used previously described murine monoclonal anti-Lol p I antibodies that were shown to share epitopic specificities with human anti-Lol p I IgE and IgG antibodies, thus short-cutting the need for purification of F(ab')2 fragments of human IgG Abs and insuring optimal specificity and sensitivity. Levels of anti-Id Abs against two anti-Lol p I monoclonal antibodies (290A-167, 348A-6) were higher in normal volunteers than in untreated atopic patients. Specific immunotherapy increased the levels of anti-Id Abs to those of normal volunteers. These observations suggest a role for the Id-anti-Id network in the regulation of IgE antibody production. PMID:2372990

  18. Detection of auto-anti-idiotypic antibodies to Lol p I (rye I) IgE antibodies in human sera by the use of murine idiotypes: levels in atopic and non-atopic subjects and effects of immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hébert, J; Bernier, D; Mourad, W

    1990-06-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id Abs) are involved in the regulation of a number of immune responses including the IgE antibody production. In atopic patients, the increased synthesis of IgE antibodies could be related to a defective production of regulatory anti-Id Abs. In the present study, we first developed a sensitive assay for measuring the levels of anti-Id Abs directed against antibodies specific for Lol p I, the major allergenic determinant of Lolium perenne (rye grass). In this assay, we used previously described murine monoclonal anti-Lol p I antibodies that were shown to share epitopic specificities with human anti-Lol p I IgE and IgG antibodies, thus short-cutting the need for purification of F(ab')2 fragments of human IgG Abs and insuring optimal specificity and sensitivity. Levels of anti-Id Abs against two anti-Lol p I monoclonal antibodies (290A-167, 348A-6) were higher in normal volunteers than in untreated atopic patients. Specific immunotherapy increased the levels of anti-Id Abs to those of normal volunteers. These observations suggest a role for the Id-anti-Id network in the regulation of IgE antibody production.

  19. Effectiveness of omalizumab in a patient with severe asthma, low serum IgE level, and lack of sensitized allergens induced by oral steroid therapy: the usefulness of impulse oscillation for assessment of omalizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Osamu; Komori, Chika; Hang, Yuki; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Minamoto, Seijiro

    2012-10-01

    Omalizumab is a humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody that was recently approved for the treatment of severe allergic asthma. However, omalizumab is not licensed for allergic asthma in patients with a low serum IgE level (<30 IU/mL) or negative results for specific allergen tests. We present a patient with severe asthma and low serum IgE levels who had negative results for specific allergens induced by oral steroid therapy. Omalizumab administration improved asthma exacerbated forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and respiratory resistance measurements based on the impulse oscillation technique (Mostgraph-01). The response to omalizumab therapy was evidenced by a decrease in airway resistance at 1 month. The findings of this case report indicate that omalizumab treatment had beneficial effects in a patient with severe asthma and low total serum IgE levels with negative results for specific IgE, which may have been induced by long-term corticosteroid administration.

  20. [The influence of Xuanfeijiedu granules on trace elements, IgE, ECP of allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiping

    2015-06-01

    To study the influence of Xuanfeijiedu granules on trace elements, immunoglobulin E (IgE), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) of allergic rhinitis. One hundred and ten cases of allergic rhinitis ere randomly divided into two groups, 55 cases of the observation group were treated with budesonide, 55 cases of the control group were treated with Xuanfeijiedu granules, the treatment efficacy and serum trace elements, IgE, ECP level were observed. The total effective rate of observation group and control group were 92. 7% and 96. 4%, there was no significant difference between two groups (P>0. 05). Before treatment, the serum zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and IgE, ECP levels of two groups were compared, there was no significant difference (P>0. 05); after treatment, the serum Zn level was significantly increased, the serum Cu, Mn, IgE, ECP levels were significantly reduced, and the observation group changed more significantly, there were significant differences between two groups (P<. 05). Xuanfeijiedu granules in the treatment of allergic rhinitis can significantly improve the patient's serum trace elements and IgE, ECP levels, improve the state of patient's disease, and promote the rehabilitation of patients.

  1. Inhibition of murine IgE and immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity responses to ovalbumin by the immunomodulatory agent leflunomide

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, E R; Kuba, A; Montermann, E; Bartlett, R R; Reske-Kunz, A B

    1999-01-01

    Leflunomide has been identified as an immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory compound. Allergic disease is characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, production of allergen-specific IgE and the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells and granulocytes. Here we demonstrate, using an in vivo murine model, the ability of leflunomide to down-regulate levels of total and allergen-specific serum IgE production. Mice receiving leflunomide (45 mg/kg) orally at the time of primary immunization with ovalbumin adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant, showed a reduction in total serum IgE levels of 95%, 41% and 32% following primary, secondary and tertiary immunizations, respectively (P < 0.05). When leflunomide was administered both at the time of primary and subsequent immunizations, reductions in total and specific serum IgE levels of > 80% and > 38%, respectively, were observed (P < 0.05). Administration of leflunomide to mice which had already developed an IgE response resulted in reductions in total and specific serum IgE levels of > 80% and > 45%, respectively (P < 0.05). Following leflunomide treatment, animals failed to develop immediate cutaneous hypersensitivity responses when challenged intradermally with allergen. Down-regulation of immunoglobulin production was not restricted to IgE, since levels of allergen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a in serum were also reduced. The finding of significant reductions in total and allergen-specific IgM suggests that the mechanism of action does not involve selective inhibition of immunoglobulin class switching. A loss in production of the T helper cell-derived B cell differentiation factor IL-5 may account for the reduction in immunoglobulin levels. In adoptive transfer experiments leflunomide did not induce tolerance in allergen-reactive Th2 populations, contrary to animal disease models of transplantation and autoimmunity, where leflunomide was shown to induce tolerance in the effector T cell population. PMID:9933446

  2. Effect of in vitro irradiation and cell cycle-inhibitory drugs on the spontaneous human IgE synthesis in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Del Prete, G.F.; Vercelli, D.; Tiri, A.; Maggi, E.; Rossi, O.; Romagnani, S.; Ricci, M.

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro effects of radiation, diterpine forskolin (FK), and hydrocortisone (HC) on the in vitro spontaneous IgE synthesis by peripheral blood B-lymphocytes from atopic patients were investigated. Without affecting cell viability, in vitro irradiation inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion de novo IgE synthesis in vitro by B cells from all patients examined with a mean 40% reduction of in vitro IgE product after treatment with 100 rads. In contrast, the in vitro IgE production by the U266 myeloma cell line was unaffected, even by irradiation with 1600 rads. The addition to B cell cultures from atopic patients of FK consistently resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the spontaneous IgE production in vitro. The addition to cultures of 10(-5) and 10(-6) molar concentrations of HC was also usually inhibitory, whereas lower HC concentrations were uneffective or even enhanced the spontaneous in vitro IgE synthesis. When 10(-6) molar concentrations of both HC and FK were combined in culture, a summation inhibitory effect on the spontaneous IgE synthesis was observed. In contrast, neither FK nor HC had inhibitory effect on the in vitro spontaneous IgE synthesis by the U266 myeloma cell line. The spontaneous in vitro IgE synthesis by B cells from patients with Hodgkin's disease, demonstrating high levels of serum IgE, was strongly reduced or virtually abolished after patients underwent total nodal irradiation to prevent the spread of the disease. In addition, the in vitro spontaneous IgE synthesis by B cells from atopic patients was markedly decreased or abolished by in vivo administration of betamethasone.

  3. Tear and serum IgE concentrations by Tandem-R IgE immunoradiometric assay in allergic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Insler, M.S.; Lim, J.M.; Queng, J.T.; Wanissorn, C.; McGovern, J.P.

    1987-08-01

    The authors studied a population of 39 allergic and 15 nonallergic patients, and determined their tear and serum IgE concentrations. Samples of tear and serum were tested for IgE by the Tandem-R immunoradiometric assay, which uses monoclonal antibody to produce a specific assay for IgE. The serum IgE levels in the study group showed a range from 23,280 to 16 IU/ml compared with controls of 72 to 2 IU/ml. Tear IgE in the study group varied from 159 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml compared with controls of 8 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml. A statistically significant correlation between tear and serum IgE exists in the allergic patients with eye symptoms. It also exists when serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml, the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml, or when both the serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml and the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml.

  4. 469 Levels of IL-4, INF-&GAMMA; Total IGE and IGG4 in Serum of Allergic Children within Areas of Risk of Lead Exposure in Torreon Coahuila, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Chavez Villarreal, Karen Giselle; Hernandez, Jahzeel Avila; Goytia Acevedo, Raquel Concepción; Velazquez, Rocio Meza; Guillen, Mario Rivera; Jurado, Michelle Gomez; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Maravilla-Domínguez, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    Background There are precedents to suggest that lead exposure may increase the severity of allergic disease in children. In Torreon Coahuila is known the problem of lead contamination and its association with the body burden in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and biochemical characteristics of allergic disease in children living in areas at risk of lead exposure. Methods We included children between 6 and 11 years old with clinical diagnosis of allergy, who were attending by allergic consultation in the Center of attention Heavy Metals in Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico. Medical evaluation was performed following the diagnostic criteria described by ARIA, Global Initiative for Asthma and the Hanifin and Rajka criteria for atopic dermatitis. Skin tests were applied to 47 common allergens in the region. Were quantified in serum, the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and IgG4 by ELISA, total IgE levels by chemiluminescence and lead in blood by spectrophotometry AA. Results We present the results of 33 patients (16 girls/17 boys) aged 8 ± 1.38. The main risk factors for allergy were current animal contact (66.7%), past animal exposure (60.6%) and passive smoking (51.5%). The predominant allergy diseases: rhinitis (97%), conjunctivitis (43.8%) and atopic dermatitis (33.3%). The allergens with the higher prevalence of responses were: thickets (91.2%) and grass (88.2%). The average blood lead level was 4.36 μg/dL ± 2.13 and median total IgE 660 IU/mL. We present the analysis of the levels of cytokines, total IgE and IgG4 according to the types of allergy, severity and frequency of the disease. Conclusions IgE levels according to the type of allergic disease, severity and frequency seem to be related to the balance IL-4/INF g. The IgG4 seems to be positively related to total IgE levels in rhinitis, conjunctivitis and dermatitis and negatively with Asthma and other allergies. No association was found between blood lead levels and total IgE.

  5. Efficacy and safety of oral desensitization in children with cow's milk allergy according to their serum specific IgE level.

    PubMed

    García-Ara, Carmen; Pedrosa, María; Belver, María Teresa; Martín-Muñoz, María Flor; Quirce, Santiago; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Oral desensitization in children allergic to cow's milk proteins is not risk free. The analysis of factors that may influence the outcome is of utmost importance. To analyze the efficacy and safety of the oral desensitization according to specific IgE (sIgE) level and adverse events during the maintenance phase. Thirty-six patients allergic to cow's milk (mean age, 7 years) were included in an oral desensitization protocol. Patients were grouped according to sIgE levels (ImmunoCAP) into groups 1 (sIgE <3.5 kU/L), 2 (3.5-17 kU/L), and 3 (>17-50 kU/L). Nineteen children were included as a control group. Serum sIgE levels to cow's milk and its proteins were determined at inclusion and 6 and 12 months after finishing the desensitization protocol. Thirty-three of 36 patients were successfully desensitized (200 mL): 100% of group 1 and 88% of groups 2 and 3. Desensitization was achieved in a median of 3 months (range, 1-12 months); 90% of the patients in group 1, 50% of the patients in group 2, and 30% of the patients in group 3 achieved tolerance in less than 3 months (P = .04). In the control group only 1 child tolerated milk in oral food challenge after 1 year. During the induction phase, there were 53 adverse events in 27 patients (75%). Patients of groups 2 and 3 had more severe adverse events compared with group 1. During the maintenance phase, 20 of 33 patients (60%) had an adverse event. Oral desensitization is efficacious. Tolerance is achieved earlier when sIgE is lower. Severe adverse events are frequent, especially in patients with higher sIgE levels. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. IgE immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Debra H; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gould, Hannah J; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of antibodies in activating immune responses against tumors is now better appreciated with the emergence of checkpoint blockade antibodies and with engineered antibody Fc domains featuring enhanced capacity to focus potent effector cells against cancer cells. Antibodies designed with Fc regions of the IgE class can confer natural, potent, long-lived immune surveillance in tissues through tenacious engagement of high-affinity cognate Fc receptors on distinct, often tumor-resident immune effector cells, and through ability to activate these cells under tumor-induced Th2-biased conditions. Here, we review the properties that make IgE a contributor to the allergic response and a critical player in the protection against parasites, which also support IgE as a novel anti-cancer modality. We discuss IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches in disparate in vitro and in vivo model systems, collectively suggesting the potential of IgE immunotherapies in oncology. Translation toward clinical application is now in progress. PMID:24423620

  7. [IgE antibodies in human Fasciola hepatica distomiasis].

    PubMed

    Sampaio Silva, M L; Vindimian, M; Wattré, P; Capron, A

    1985-09-01

    In patients infected by Fasciola hepatica, total IgE and specific IgE antibodies have been determined by radioimmunoassays, and IgG, IgA, IgM levels by radial immunodiffusion test (Mancini, 1965). Moreover, total and specific IgE levels have been related to parasite egg burden, age, clinical features and eosinophilia. Elevated total IgE and specific IgE antibodies levels have been found respectively in 76% and 48% of the patients whereas there was no significant variations in other immunoglobulins levels. However, though the amount of total and specific IgE was lower than in other helminthic diseases, it appears to be a significant data of the immune response to parasites as it has been reported and discussed previously. It has been shown a significant relationship between total and specific IgE levels, the number of lines by immunoelectrophoresis, and the results of the indirect haemagglutination and indirect fluorescent antibody techniques; each method appeared to be in equal value to perform the early diagnosis of human Fasciola hepatica. In addition, specific IgE antibodies levels were correlated with eosinophilia specially when it exceeds 15%. This results demonstrate the availability of their measurement in the diagnosis of fascioliasis versus other diseases with marked eosinophilia.

  8. The effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on the levels of albumin and the immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE in sputum.

    PubMed

    Turner, K J; Rebuck, A S

    1975-03-01

    Sputum samples from control subjects with cardiac disease and from patients with asthma were assayed for albumin content and immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE. The asthmatics were divided into three groups: one group had received disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) for at least 48 hr prior to sampling, another group was sampled daily after commencing DSCG therapy and the third group were not taking DSCG. Albumin and immunoglobulins accounted for approximately 8% of the total sputum proteins in each of the four groups of subjects. There was no significant difference in the mean sputum levels of albumin or the immunoglobulins, when expressed as a percentage of total sputum proteins, between the subjects in each group. However, the ratios of IgA/albumin and IgA/IgG in the asthmatic group receiving DSCG were significantly lower than the corresponding ratios in sputa from both asthmatics and control subjects with cardiac disease. The sputum IgE levels tended to be higher in the asthmatics than in the control group, but DSCG therapy had little effect upon sputum IgE levels.

  9. Targeted disruption of the mouse Npal3 gene leads to deficits in behavior, increased IgE levels, and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Grzmil, P; Konietzko, J; Boehm, D; Hölter, S M; Hoelter, S M; Aguilar-Pimentel, A; Aguilar, A; Javaheri, A; Kalaydjiev, S; Adler, T; Bolle, I; Adham, I; Dixkens, C; Wolf, S; Fuchs, H; Gailus-Durner, V; Gailus-Durne, V; Wurst, W; Ollert, M; Busch, D H; Busch, D; Schulz, H; de Angelis, M Hrabe; Burfeind, P

    2009-01-01

    The non-imprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome (NIPA) proteins are highly conserved receptors or transporters. Translocation of NIPA genes were found in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome, and loss-of-function of the NIPA1 gene was identified in hereditary spastic paraplegia. The family of NIPA-like domain containing (NPAL) proteins is closely related to the NIPA proteins, but to date nothing is known about their function. Here, we could demonstrate that both human NPAL3 and mouse NPAL3 are ubiquitously expressed and encode highly conserved proteins. To further elucidate the function of the Npal3 gene, knockout (Npal3(-/-)) mice were generated. Intensive phenotypic analyses revealed that disruption of the Npal3 gene results in a pleiotropic phenotype. The function of the nervous system was impaired in both mutant males and females which could be demonstrated in behavioral tests. In addition, in NPAL3 mutants the number of NK cells was decreased and changes in IgM, IgG(2), and IgA were observed, indicating that the immune system is also affected. Interestingly, increased IgE levels as well as impaired lung functions were observed in mutant males but not in mutant females. It should be noted that the human Npal3 gene is located at 1p36.12-->p35.1, and atopic diseases were previously linked to this genomic region. Thus, the Npal3(-/-) mice could serve as a valuable model system for studying atopic diseases. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Ara h 1 structure is retained after roasting and is important for enhanced binding to IgE.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, Jacqueline B; Hurlburt, Barry K; Schein, Catherine H; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Wei, Hui; Maleki, Soheila J

    2012-11-01

    Ara h 1 from roasted peanut binds higher levels of serum immunoglobulin E than raw peanuts and this is likely due to the Maillard reaction. While Ara h 1 linear IgE epitopes have been mapped, the presence and importance of structural epitopes is not clear. Mass spectrometry, immunoblot, ELISA, circular dichroism (CD), and structural analysis were used to compare structural and subsequent IgE-binding differences in Ara h 1 purified from raw (N) and roasted peanuts (R) and denatured Ara h 1 (D). Although N and R had similar CD spectra, the latter bound significantly more IgE. Decreased IgE binding was seen with the loss of secondary structure. This same IgE-binding pattern [R > N > D] was seen for the sera of ten peanut allergic patients. While the majority of linear epitopes are located on surface and structured regions of Ara h 1, our study shows that conformational epitopes of Ara h 1 bind better to IgE than linear epitopes. Enhanced IgE binding to roasted Ara h 1 could be due to alterations such as chemical modifications to individual amino acids or increased epitope exposure. IgE binding is significantly reduced with loss of structure. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The relative paucity of IgE in human milk.

    PubMed

    Underdown, B J; Knight, A; Papsin, F R

    1976-05-01

    The levels of IgE were determined in paired samples of serum and milk when whey obtained 3 to 8 days of postpartum, from 16 human lactating mothers who had reported a history of allergy to a variety of common allergens. Two assay procedures were employed to measure total IgE, a double-antibody assay and a commercially available solid phase assay (RIST). In addition, each sample of serum and whey was tested for specific IgE antibodies to a variety of allergens by the RAST test. The levels of total serum IgE were between 30 and 2300 I.U./ml and relatively good agreement was observed for both the double-antibody and RIST methods. In contrast, total IgE levels in milk whey were either undetectable (less than 3.0 I.U./ml in 14 of 16 subjects) or very low when analyzed by the double-antibody method, but were very high (400 to 1650 I.U./ml when analyzed by the RIST method. However, IgE added to milk whey could be measured by the double-antibody procedure indicating that the low levels detected in milk were not a fault of the double-antibody assay. It was assumed that the RIST test was subject to nonspecific interference by factors in milk whey which caused the determination of high, but incorrect, levels of IgE. Specific IgE antibodies were detected in the serum of 10 of 16 subjects but were not present in milk whey. A comparison of the whey/serum ratios of albumin, IgA, and IgE suggested that little, if any, IgE is selectively synthesized or secreted in the mammary gland.

  12. Skin prick test responses and allergen-specific IgE levels as predictors of peanut, egg, and sesame allergy in infants.

    PubMed

    Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lowe, Adrian J; Hill, David; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2013-10-01

    Ninety-five percent positive predictive values (PPVs) provide an invaluable tool for clinicians to avoid unnecessary oral food challenges. However, 95% PPVs specific to infants, the age group most likely to present for diagnosis of food allergy, are limited. We sought to develop skin prick test (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) thresholds with 95% PPVs for challenge-confirmed food allergy in a large population-based cohort of 1-year-old infants with challenges undertaken irrespective of SPT wheal size or previous history of ingestion. HealthNuts is a population-based, longitudinal food allergy study with baseline recruitment of 1-year-old infants. Infants were recruited from council-run immunization sessions during which they underwent SPTs to 4 allergens: egg, peanut, sesame, and cow's milk/shrimp. Any infant with a detectable SPT response was invited to undergo oral food challenge and sIgE testing. Five thousand two hundred seventy-six infants participated in the study. Peanut SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 7-9 mm), egg SPT responses of 4 mm or greater (95% CI, 3-5 mm), and sesame SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 5-9 mm) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Peanut sIgE levels of 34 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 14-48 kUA/L) and egg sIgE levels of 1.7 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 1-3 kUA/L) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Results were robust when stratified on established risk factors for food allergy. Egg SPT responses and sIgE levels were poor predictors of allergy to egg in baked goods. These 95% PPVs, which were generated from a unique dataset, are valuable for the diagnosis of food allergy in young infants and were robust when stratified across a number of different risk factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. IgE responses to exogenous and endogenous allergens in atopic dermatitis patients under long-term systemic cyclosporine A treatment.

    PubMed

    Lucae, S; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Wüthrich, B; Kraft, D; Valenta, R; Linhart, B

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) patients mount IgE antibody responses to a variety of environmental allergens and also to autoantigens. We analyzed serum samples from four AD patients who had received oral cyclosporine A (CyA) treatment for up to 17 months regarding IgE autoreactivity to nitrocellulose-blotted human epithelial cell extracts and IgE levels to environmental allergens by quantitative ImmunoCap measurements. Skin inflammation was assessed by SCORAD. During full-dose treatment, a strong reduction in T-cell-mediated skin symptoms was observed which reappeared when CyA treatment was reduced or stopped. The intensity of IgE autoreactivity seemed to follow skin inflammation as it was reduced during full-dose treatment and increased upon inflammation. Interestingly, IgE levels to exogenous allergens were boosted by allergen exposure, declined thereafter, and seemed to be unaffected by CyA. Our data thus indicate that allergen-specific IgE production is boosted by allergen contact and cannot be reduced by CyA-mediated T-cell suppression. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2).

  15. Antibodies specific for a segment of human membrane IgE deplete IgE-producing B cells in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Brightbill, Hans D.; Jeet, Surinder; Lin, Zhonghua; Yan, Donghong; Zhou, Meijuan; Tan, Martha; Nguyen, Allen; Yeh, Sherry; Delarosa, Donnie; Leong, Steven R.; Wong, Terence; Chen, Yvonne; Ultsch, Mark; Luis, Elizabeth; Ramani, Sree Ranjani; Jackman, Janet; Gonzalez, Lino; Dennis, Mark S.; Chuntharapai, Anan; DeForge, Laura; Meng, Y. Gloria; Xu, Min; Eigenbrot, Charles; Lee, Wyne P.; Refino, Canio J.; Balazs, Mercedesz; Wu, Lawren C.

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity is central to the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. Although neutralization of serum IgE with IgE-specific antibodies is in general an efficacious treatment for allergic asthma, one limitation of this approach is its lack of effect on IgE production. Here, we have developed a strategy to disrupt IgE production by generating monoclonal antibodies that target a segment of membrane IgE on human IgE-switched B cells that is not present in serum IgE. This segment is known as the M1′ domain, and using genetically modified mice that contain the human M1′ domain inserted into the mouse IgE locus, we demonstrated that M1′-specific antibodies reduced serum IgE and IgE-producing plasma cells in vivo, without affecting other immunoglobulin isotypes. M1′-specific antibodies were effective when delivered prophylactically and therapeutically in mouse models of immunization, allergic asthma, and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, likely by inducing apoptosis of IgE-producing B cells. In addition, we generated a humanized M1′-specific antibody that was active on primary human cells in vivo, as determined by its reduction of serum IgE levels and IgE plasma cell numbers in a human PBMC-SCID mouse model. Thus, targeting of human IgE-producing B cells with apoptosis-inducing M1′-specific antibodies may be a novel treatment for asthma and allergy. PMID:20458139

  16. Pediatric anaphylaxis and hyper IgE syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dosanjh, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Patients with autosomal-dominant (AD) hyper immunoglobulin E (IgE) syndrome (HIES) or Job syndrome develop frequent dermatologic and pulmonary infections. As patients have an extreme elevation of IgE levels, this database analysis study sought to study the association between AD HIES, Job syndrome, and anaphylaxis. HIES is a heterogeneous group of immune disorders characterized by extremely elevated levels of serum IgE. Although the molecular defects and clinical phenotypes found in association with Job syndrome are well characterized, the association with severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis is a subject of ongoing investigation. PMID:28280372

  17. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can increase the specific IgE level in some sensitized patients.

  18. Changes over Time in IgE Sensitization to Allergens of the Fish Parasite Anisakis spp.

    PubMed Central

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Rodríguez-Mahillo, Ana I.; Careche, Mercedes; Navas, Alfonso; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Sensitization to Anisakis spp. can produce allergic reactions after eating raw or undercooked parasitized fish. Specific IgE is detected long after the onset of symptoms, but the changes in specific IgE levels over a long follow-up period are unknown; furthermore, the influence of Anisakis spp. allergen exposure through consumption of fishery products is also unknown. Objective To analyse the changes in IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens over several years of follow-up and the influence of the consumption of fishery products in IgE sensitization. Methods Total IgE, Anisakis spp.-specific IgE, anti-Ani s 1 and anti-Ani s 4 IgE were repeatedly measured over a median follow-up duration of 49 months in 17 sensitized patients. Results Anisakis spp.-specific IgE was detected in 16/17 patients throughout the follow-up period. The comparison between baseline and last visit measurements showed significant decreases in both total IgE and specific IgE. The specific IgE values had an exponential or polynomial decay trend in 13/17 patients. In 4/17 patients, an increase in specific IgE level with the introduction of fish to the diet was observed. Three patients reported symptoms after eating aquaculture or previously frozen fish, and in two of those patients, symptom presentation was coincident with an increase in specific IgE level. Conclusions IgE sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens lasts for many years since specific IgE was detectable in some patients after more than 8 years from the allergic episode. Specific IgE monitoring showed that specific IgE titres increase in some allergic patients and that allergen contamination of fishery products can account for the observed increase in Anisakis spp.-specific IgE level. Clinical Relevance Following sensitization to Anisakis spp. allergens, the absence of additional exposure to those allergens does not result in the loss of IgE sensitization. Exposure to Anisakis spp. allergens in fishery products can

  19. Increased proportions of CCR4(+) cells among peripheral blood CD4(+) cells and serum levels of allergen-specific IgE antibody in canine chronic rhinitis and bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Yoshiki; Watari, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    Canine chronic rhinitis (CR) and bronchitis (CB) are suspected to be allergic diseases. The present study tested whether dogs diagnosed with CR or CB present an atopic predisposition based on the ratio of CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4)-positive cells among peripheral blood CD4-positive cells (CCR4/CD4) and the serum levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. We found that most dogs with CR and CB have a possibility of atopic predisposition, and macrolide therapy constitutes an alternative to corticosteroid therapy in controlling the clinical signs.

  20. Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in High IgE Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Monica G

    2015-12-01

    Dramatic elevations in the serum IgE level are seen both in polygenic allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and food allergy, and in a growing list of monogenic primary immune deficiencies (PIDs). Although the IgE produced in patients with PID has generally been considered to be driven by dysregulated IL-4 production and thus lack antigen specificity, in fact allergen-specific IgE can be detected by skin and serum testing in many of these patients. However, perhaps not surprisingly given the distinct immunologic pathways involved, the patterns of allergic disease and atopic sensitization vary widely between syndromes, leading to strikingly different clinical phenotypes.

  1. IgG and IgE circulating immune complexes, total serum IgE and parasite related IgE in patients with mono- or mixed infection with Schistosoma mansoni and/or S. haematobium. Influence of therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, W J; Feldmeir, H; Bridts, C H; Daffalla, A A

    1983-01-01

    IgG and IgE containing circulating immune complexes (CIC), total serum IgE and parasite related IgE were determined in monoinfected patients with Schistosoma mansoni or S.haematobium and in patients with a mixed infection. IgE- and IgG-CIC and total serum IgE were significantly higher in the mixed infection group. There is considerable cross-reactivity between the crude S.haematobium and S.mansoni antigen preparations. The level of IgE-CIC is correlated to the levels of total serum IgE and parasite related IgE respectively. Furthermore IgE-CIC levels were related to the intensity of infection. Twelve out of 21 patients suffering from a monoinfection were reinvestigated 1-4 months after specific chemotherapy. Parasitological cure is followed by a significant decrease of total serum IgE and IgE-CIC, whereas parasite related IgE did not change significantly. The importance of the disappearance of IgE-CIC is discussed. PMID:6861371

  2. Influence of Intrinsic and Lifestyle Factors on the Development of IgE Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Klinglmayr, Eva; Moser, Stephanie; Lang, Roland; Himly, Martin; Oostingh, Gertie J; Zumbach, Joerg; Bathke, Arne C; Hawranek, Thomas; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    IgE sensitization is a prerequisite for the development of allergic symptoms. The investigation of factors influencing the development of IgE is therefore crucial for understanding the onset of allergic diseases. This epidemiological study investigated personal, intrinsic, and lifestyle factors in a nonselected cohort of 501 Austrian adolescents (aged 12-21 years). IgE levels to 112 allergen molecules were analyzed in the serum of participants using the ImmunoCAP ISAC®. Allergic sensitization, IgE levels to single allergens, and ISAC score sums were correlated with results obtained from a questionnaire. In this adolescent cohort, male participants showed a higher sensitization frequency (56.8%) compared to females (50.9%) and significantly increased IgE levels to profilins. Underweight subjects demonstrated a stronger IgE sensitization. Family size inversely correlated with IgE levels to PR-10 allergens, and predominately paternal allergies were a predictive factor for IgE sensitization in the children. Vaccination, breastfeeding, and delivery mode showed no influence, while a highly protective effect was observed for growing up on a farm. Of all of the investigated lifestyle factors, only smoking significantly influenced the risk for IgE development. Participants with moderate frequencies of colds showed increased sensitization levels. A hereditary predisposition and lifestyle factors such as a farming environment, smoking, family size, body weight, or frequency of colds significantly influenced the development of allergen-specific IgE in this cohort of adolescents. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Nanotechnologies for In Vitro IgE Testing.

    PubMed

    Märki, Iwan; Rebeaud, Fabien

    2017-07-01

    This review discusses the recent advances in the development of IgE antibody assays based on nanotechnologies. IgE blood testing is an important part of the diagnostic workup of IgE-mediated hypersentivity. We also address the challenges in moving from an academic proof-of-concept to a product routinely used by allergy experts. Several nanotechnologies have been applied to the field of IgE testing: nanoparticles are used either as a support to capture analytes or as a detection tool to enhance the measurement signal. Nanofluidics allows to reduce assay time by enhancing molecular interaction. Nanotechnologies bring forth new methods for in vitro IgE testing. Substantial advantages such as lower sample volume, shorter assay time, simplified procedures, and lower analytic sensitivity, without affecting test precision and accuracy, can be achieved thanks to nanotechnologies.

  4. Establishing a cut-off for the serum levels of specific IgE to milk and its components for cow's milk allergy: results from a specific population.

    PubMed

    Castro, A P; Pastorino, A C; Gushken, A K F; Kokron, C M; Filho, U D; Jacob, C M A

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk allergy diagnosis many times requires double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), which presents high accuracy but involves risks, specifically in infants and anaphylactic patients. The identification of the cut-off values for specific IgE to milk or its components would contribute to cow's milk allergy (CMA) diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare discriminating concentration of a cow's milk specific IgE and its fractions (α-lactoalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, casein) in children for the CMA diagnosis. this study included 123 patients (M:F=1.3:1) median age at diagnosis=1.91 years, (3.5m to 13.21y) with CMA diagnosis via DBPCFC (n=26), proven anaphylaxis due to cow's milk (n=46) or a suggestive clinical history associated with a positive skin prick test (n=51) and open oral food challenge. The control group included 61 patients (1 male:1.1 female) ages ranging from 0.66 to 16.7 years (median=6.83 years). Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the best cut-offs that guarantees high specificity (>95%) for cow's milk and its components. considering 98% specificity, cut-off points were: 3.06 kU/L for cow's milk, 2.06 kU/L for α-lactalbumin, 1.85 kU/L for β-lactoglobulin and 1.47kU/L for casein. The best ROC curve (area under the curve=0.929) was obtained evaluating cow's milk. this study showed that the cut-off point detected for whole cow's milk revealed a better discriminatory capacity for CMA diagnosis without the necessity of the milk components testing. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased serum IgE in acute type A, B and delta hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, D; Guardia, P; Delgado, J; Gutiérrez, J; Monteseirin, F J; de la Calle, A; Lobatón, P; Senra, A; Conde, J

    1997-01-01

    Serum IgE levels have been documented in patients of acute type B hepatitis. There are very few studies on serum IgE in acute type A hepatitis and, to our knowledge, there are no data on serum IgE in acute delta hepatitis patients. The purpose of this study was to measure total IgE levels in 38 patients with acute A, B and delta hepatitis and in 181 controls in order to determine the possible existence of changes in this parameter in the course of these infections. Our results showed a relevant increase in IgE levels in the three groups (hepatitis A, B and delta) with respect to the control group. Moreover, the hepatitis B group showed increased total serum IgE levels with respect to the hepatitis delta group.

  6. Tetanus toxoid IgE may be useful in predicting allergy during childhood.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Quaglini, S; Labò, E; Castellazzi, A M; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Marseglia, A; Bianchi, L; Moratti, R; Marseglia, G L

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions after immunization with tetanus toxoid are occasionally observed in atopic and non-atopic individuals. High IgE levels in infancy may predict subsequent allergy. The aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the role of specific IgE to tetanus toxoid in children in response to tetanus immunization and the possible factors associated with specific IgE levels, and ii) to investigate the correlation between specific IgE levels to tetanus toxoid and the late development of allergy (up to 12 years). Initially, 278 healthy infants (152 males and 126 females, aged 12 months) living in an urban city were screened for serum total IgE and specific IgE to tetanus toxoid, after having obtained informed consent from parents. After 12 years, 151 children could be evaluated. Total IgE summed with tetanus specific IgE were significantly associated with allergy at 12 years. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that serum total IgE and tetanus specific IgE may be predictive of subsequent allergy onset.

  7. Anti-Folate Receptor-α IgE but not IgG Recruits Macrophages to Attack Tumors via TNFα/MCP-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Debra H; Bax, Heather J; Dodev, Tihomir; Georgouli, Mirella; Nakamura, Mano; Pellizzari, Giulia; Saul, Louise; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Cheung, Anthony; Herraiz, Cecilia; Ilieva, Kristina M; Correa, Isabel; Fittall, Matthew; Crescioli, Silvia; Gazinska, Patrycja; Woodman, Natalie; Mele, Silvia; Chiaruttini, Giulia; Gilbert, Amy E; Koers, Alexander; Bracher, Marguerite; Selkirk, Christopher; Lentfer, Heike; Barton, Claire; Lever, Elliott; Muirhead, Gareth; Tsoka, Sophia; Canevari, Silvana; Figini, Mariangela; Montes, Ana; Downes, Noel; Dombrowicz, David; Corrigan, Christopher J; Beavil, Andrew J; Nestle, Frank O; Jones, Paul S; Gould, Hannah J; Sanz-Moreno, Victoria; Blower, Philip J; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2017-03-01

    IgE antibodies are key mediators of antiparasitic immune responses, but their potential for cancer treatment via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been little studied. Recently, tumor antigen-specific IgEs were reported to restrict cancer cell growth by engaging high-affinity Fc receptors on monocytes and macrophages; however, the underlying therapeutic mechanisms were undefined and in vivo proof of concept was limited. Here, an immunocompetent rat model was designed to recapitulate the human IgE-Fcε receptor system for cancer studies. We also generated rat IgE and IgG mAbs specific for the folate receptor (FRα), which is expressed widely on human ovarian tumors, along with a syngeneic rat tumor model expressing human FRα. Compared with IgG, anti-FRα IgE reduced lung metastases. This effect was associated with increased intratumoral infiltration by TNFα(+) and CD80(+) macrophages plus elevated TNFα and the macrophage chemoattractant MCP-1 in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Increased levels of TNFα and MCP-1 correlated with IgE-mediated tumor cytotoxicity by human monocytes and with longer patient survival in clinical specimens of ovarian cancer. Monocytes responded to IgE but not IgG exposure by upregulating TNFα, which in turn induced MCP-1 production by monocytes and tumor cells to promote a monocyte chemotactic response. Conversely, blocking TNFα receptor signaling abrogated induction of MCP-1, implicating it in the antitumor effects of IgE. Overall, these findings show how antitumor IgE reprograms monocytes and macrophages in the tumor microenvironment, encouraging the clinical use of IgE antibody technology to attack cancer beyond the present exclusive reliance on IgG. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1127-41. ©2017 AACR.

  8. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Conclusion Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  10. Suppression of IgE B cells and IgE binding to Fc(epsilon)RI by gene therapy with single-chain anti-IgE.

    PubMed

    Ota, Takayuki; Aoki-Ota, Miyo; Duong, Bao Hoa; Nemazee, David

    2009-06-15

    IgE plays a pivotal role in allergic reactions and asthma through its ability to bind to the mast cell FcR for IgE (FcepsilonRI). Current therapies to suppress such reactions include passive treatment with neutralizing Abs to IgE that block its binding to FcepsilonRI. In theory, induction of immune tolerance in the B lymphocytes that carry IgE Ag receptors and give rise to IgE-secreting cells should provide longer term efficacy. However, recent data have suggested that such memory cells may lack cell surface IgE. Using a gene therapy approach, we show that a recombinant single-chain neutralizing anti-IgE could not only neutralize circulating IgE, but also reduce IgE(+) B cell numbers and H chain transcripts. Therapeutic anti-IgE stimulated a calcium response in primary B cells or in a B cell line expressing membrane IgE and suppressed IgE secretion in vitro, suggesting that active signaling through membrane IgE likely promoted tolerance. Interestingly, upon subsequent challenge of anti-IgE-treated mice with an IgE cross-linking reagent capable of inducing activation of IgE-decorated mast cells, an anaphylaxis reaction was induced, apparently via a FcgammaRIII pathway involving recognition of anti-IgE Ab itself. These studies have important implications for the optimal design of safe and effective anti-IgE therapies and suggest that the IgE memory B cells may be targeted by such genetic Ab therapies.

  11. Regulation of B cell fate by chronic activity of the IgE B cell receptor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Robinson, Marcus J; Chen, Xiangjun; Smith, Geoffrey A; Taunton, Jack; Liu, Wanli; Allen, Christopher D C

    2016-12-09

    IgE can trigger potent allergic responses, yet the mechanisms regulating IgE production are poorly understood. Here we reveal that IgE(+) B cells are constrained by chronic activity of the IgE B cell receptor (BCR). In the absence of cognate antigen, the IgE BCR promoted terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells (PCs) under cell culture conditions mimicking T cell help. This antigen-independent PC differentiation involved multiple IgE domains and Syk, CD19, BLNK, Btk, and IRF4. Disruption of BCR signaling in mice led to consistently exaggerated IgE(+) germinal center (GC) B cell but variably increased PC responses. We were unable to confirm reports that the IgE BCR directly promoted intrinsic apoptosis. Instead, IgE(+) GC B cells exhibited poor antigen presentation and prolonged cell cycles, suggesting reduced competition for T cell help. We propose that chronic BCR activity and access to T cell help play critical roles in regulating IgE responses.

  12. Regulation of B cell fate by chronic activity of the IgE B cell receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiyong; Robinson, Marcus J; Chen, Xiangjun; Smith, Geoffrey A; Taunton, Jack; Liu, Wanli; Allen, Christopher D C

    2016-01-01

    IgE can trigger potent allergic responses, yet the mechanisms regulating IgE production are poorly understood. Here we reveal that IgE+ B cells are constrained by chronic activity of the IgE B cell receptor (BCR). In the absence of cognate antigen, the IgE BCR promoted terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells (PCs) under cell culture conditions mimicking T cell help. This antigen-independent PC differentiation involved multiple IgE domains and Syk, CD19, BLNK, Btk, and IRF4. Disruption of BCR signaling in mice led to consistently exaggerated IgE+ germinal center (GC) B cell but variably increased PC responses. We were unable to confirm reports that the IgE BCR directly promoted intrinsic apoptosis. Instead, IgE+ GC B cells exhibited poor antigen presentation and prolonged cell cycles, suggesting reduced competition for T cell help. We propose that chronic BCR activity and access to T cell help play critical roles in regulating IgE responses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21238.001 PMID:27935477

  13. Immunoglobulin E in Immunologic Deficiency Diseases. I. RELATION OF IGE AND IGA TO RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE IN ISOLATED IGE DEFICIENCY, IGA DEFICIENCY, AND ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA

    PubMed Central

    Polmar, Stephen H.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Balestra, Suellen T.; Jost, Margaret C.; Terry, William D.

    1972-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin E concentration was studied in normal children and adults, in 25 patients with isolated IgA deficiency, and in 44 patients with ataxia telangiectasia using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. The geometric mean IgE level of the normal adult population studied was 105 ng/ml, with a broad 95% interval (5-2045 ng/ml). Individuals with concentrations less than 15 ng/ml were considered to be IgE deficient. IgE deficiency, defined in this way, was observed in 7 of 73 normal adults and was not found to be associated with respiratory tract disease. 80% (35 of 44) of patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) were IgE deficient, 66% were IgA deficient, and 57% had combined IgE and IgA deficiencies. Although 45% of the patients with AT had respiratory tract disease, there was no correlation found between IgE deficiency or combined IgE and IgA deficiency and respiratory tract disease in these patients. 11 of 25 individuals with isolated IgA deficiency were also IgE deficient. All 11 patients with both IgA and IgE deficiency were uniformly asymptomatic. However, there was an extremely high incidence (71%) of respiratory tract disease in IgA-deficient individuals who were not IgE deficient. These data fail to support the concept of a protective role for IgE in respiratory tract immunity. The possible role of IgE in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract disease in IgA-deficient patients is discussed. PMID:5009116

  14. Liver disease--a prominent cause of serum IgE elevation.

    PubMed Central

    Van Epps, E; Husby, G; Williams, R C; Strickland, R G

    1976-01-01

    Serum IgE concentrations were elevated in thirty-seven out of sixty-seven patients (55%) with acute or chronic liver disease of widely differing aetiology. The mean IgE concentrations in these patients showed an eight-fold increase above that observed in control subjects. Increased IgE levels in patients with liver disease occurred in the absence of eosinophilia, clinical evidence of atopy or other known causes of IgE elevation. No IgE-containing plasma cells were detected in the liver biopsies from thirty-two of the sixty-seven patients tested. Peripheral blood T cells were significantly decreased from normal in the patients with liver disease, but no correlation emerged between serum IgE levels and absolute peripheral blood T-cell numbers. These findings emphasize the importance of liver disease as a significant cause of serum IgE elevation. PMID:1084811

  15. Psoriasis in hyper IgE syndrome – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abedian- Kenari, Saeed; Ghasemi, Maryam; Gohardehi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immune deficiency, described as Job`s syndrome characterized by increased serum levels of IgE, eczema, recurrent cutaneous and pulmonary infections. In this paper, we presented a case of Hyper IgE syndrome. Case Presentation: A 16-year-old Iranian boy presented with a one year history of skin lesions in knees and elbows was diagnosed of psoriasis disease. He had a history of recurrent infections including otitis media, pneumonia, diarrea and skin infection. Laboratory results showed increased level of total IgE and normal in other immunoglobulin. Histologic finding showed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis of acanthotic epidermis with regular elongation of rete ridges diagnose psoriasis disorder. Conclusion: In conclusion, this is the first case of hyper IgE patient with psoriasis disorder. We addressed the important laboratory findings and actual theories explaining possible association between hyper IgE immunoglobulinemia and psoriasis disorder. PMID:24009971

  16. IgE screening in 1701 newborn infants and the development of atopic disease during infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Croner, S; Kjellman, N I; Eriksson, B; Roth, A

    1982-01-01

    IgE screening was done using the Phadebas IgE PRIST technique on the cord blood of 1701 newborn infants. Of these 8.3% developed obvious or probable atopic disease, predominantly atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma, during the first 18 months of life. Of infants with a family history of atopic disease 10.5% developed such illness; the corresponding figure for infants with an initially high IgE concentration was 70%. Atopic disease developed in 73% of infants with a high IgE concentration in cord blood and a family history, but in only 3% of infants with a low IgE and no family history. A high IgE concentration in cord blood was associated with a high IgE and a positive radioallergosorbent test at between ages 18 and 24 months more often than was a low initial IgE level, indicating that in man as in animals there are high and low IgE responders already genetically coded at birth. IgE screening in cord blood is recommended if there is obvious atopy in both parents or if severe atopic disease if present in a sibling or in one parent. PMID:7092292

  17. Increased malignancy incidence in IgE deficient patients not due to concomitant Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Ferastraoaru, Denisa; Gross, Rebecca; Rosenstreich, David

    2017-09-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) deficiency (<2.5 kU/L) has unclear clinical significance. Very little is known about the clinical characteristics of IgE deficiency in patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID). To evaluate the clinical and laboratory differences between patients with IgE deficiency and those with non-IgE deficiency with and without CVID diagnosis. This is a retrospective study of adult patients who had total serum IgE levels measured at our facility from 2010 through 2015. Patients with IgE levels lower than 2.5 kU/L composed the IgE deficiency group. We used Clinical Looking Glass software to identify laboratory results and comorbid conditions including CVID and malignancy. The IgE levels were measured in 2,339 patients and 63 (2.7%) had IgE deficiency. Of those with IgE deficiency, 14 of 63 (22%) had CVID diagnosis compared with only 62 of 2,276 patients (2.7%) with non-IgE deficiency and CVID. A significantly higher rate of prior malignancy was found in patients with IgE deficiency (21 of 63, 33%) compared with those with non-IgE deficiency (197 of 2,276, 8.7%; P = .001; odds ratio 5.51, 95% confidence interval 3.07-9.88). Six of 14 patients with CVID and IgE deficiency (43%) had a prior malignancy diagnosis compared with 8 of 62 patients (13%) with CVID and non-IgE deficiency (P = .009; odds ratio 10.65, 95% confidence interval 1.79-63.19). In addition to the higher rate of malignancy, patients with CVID and IgE deficiency did not have more severe disease than those with CVID and non-IgE deficiency. The rate of prior malignancy is significantly higher in patients with IgE deficiency than in those without IgE deficiency. Similarly, patients with CVID and IgE deficiency have a higher frequency of prior malignancy than those with CVID and non-IgE deficiency. However, patients with IgE deficiency have higher frequency of malignancy than patients with normal IgE levels even in the absence of CVID. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy

  18. Aerobic Exercise Decreases Lung Inflammation by IgE Decrement in an OVA Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Camargo Hizume-Kunzler, Deborah; Greiffo, Flavia R; Fortkamp, Bárbara; Ribeiro Freitas, Gabriel; Keller Nascimento, Juliana; Regina Bruggemann, Thayse; Melo Avila, Leonardo; Perini, Adenir; Bobinski, Franciane; Duarte Silva, Morgana; Rocha Lapa, Fernanda; Paula Vieira, Rodolfo; Vargas Horewicz, Verônica; Soares Dos Santos, Adair Roberto; Cattelan Bonorino, Kelly

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic exercise (AE) reduces lung function decline and risk of exacerbations in asthmatic patients. However, the inflammatory lung response involved in exercise during the sensitization remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of exercise for 2 weeks in an experimental model of sensitization and single ovalbumin-challenge. Mice were divided into 4 groups: mice non-sensitized and not submitted to exercise (Sedentary, n=10); mice non-sensitized and submitted to exercise (Exercise, n=10); mice sensitized and exposed to ovalbumin (OVA, n=10); and mice sensitized, submitted to exercise and exposed to OVA (OVA+Exercise, n=10). 24 h after the OVA/saline exposure, we counted inflammatory cells from bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), lung levels of total IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-1ra, measurements of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE, and VEGF and NOS-2 expression via western blotting. AE reduced cell counts from BALF in the OVA group (p<0.05), total IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 lung levels and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 titers (p<0.05). There was an increase of NOS-2 expression, IL-10 and IL-1ra lung levels in the OVA groups (p<0.05). Our results showed that AE attenuated the acute lung inflammation, suggesting immunomodulatory properties on the sensitization process in the early phases of antigen presentation in asthma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Van Ree, R; Van Leeuwen, W A; Dieges, P H; Van Wijk, R G; De Jong, N; Brewczyski, P Z; Kroon, A M; Schilte, P P; Tan, K Y; Simon-Licht, I F; Roberts, A M; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C

    1997-01-01

    IgE titres tend to rise early after the start of immunotherapy, followed by a decline to pre-immunotherapy levels or lower. We were interested to know whether the early increase in IgE antibodies includes new specificities of IgE, and whether these responses persist. Sera of 64 patients undergoing grass pollen immunotherapy were tested for IgE against four purified grass pollen allergens: Lol p 1, 2, 3, and 5. At least two serum samples were taken, one before the start of therapy and one between 5 and 18 months after the first immunization (mean: 10 months). The mean IgE responses to Lol p 1, 2 and 3 showed a moderate but not significant increase. In contrast, the mean IgE response to Lol p 5 showed a significant decrease of > 30%. IgE against total Lohum perenne pollen extract moderately increased (> 20%), showing that a RAST for total pollen is not always indicative for the development of IgE against its major allergens. For > 40% of the patients it was found that IgE against one or more of the four allergens increased, while IgE against the remaining allergen(s) decreased. For 10 sera the ratio of IgE titres against at least two allergens changed by at least a factor of 5. The changes in specific IgE also included conversions from negative (< 0.1 RU) to positive (0.6 to 5.0 RU) for five patients. For two patients, the induction of these 'new' IgE antibodies against major allergens was shown to result in a response that was persistent over several years. Although active induction of new IgE specificities by immunotherapy was not really proven, the observations in this study indicate that monitoring of IgE against purified (major) allergens is necessary to evaluate changes in specific IgE in a reliable way.

  20. Association of house dust mite-specific IgE with asthma control, medications and household pets

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, John Donnie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence is conflicting regarding the effectiveness of creating a low-allergen environment or reducing allergen exposure to control asthma exacerbations. Objective This study determined the association of house dust mite (HDM)-specific IgE levels with asthma symptom control, selected medications, family history of allergic disease, and exposure to second-hand smoke and household pets. Methods Serum samples from 102 doctor-diagnosed allergic asthma patients and 100 non-atopic controls were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the HDM species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) allergens. Point-biserial correlation coefficient, Pearson R correlation, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine association of HDM-specific IgE levels with the abovementioned variables. Results Of the 102 cases, 38.24%, 47.06%, and 33.33% were sensitized to Bt, Df, and Dp, respectively. Sensitized patients showed greater probability [Bt (OR = 1.21), Df (OR = 1.14), and Dp (OR = 1.35)] to manifest symptoms than those who were not. Obtained p-values [Bt (p = 0.73), Df (p = 0.83), and Dp (p = 0.59)], however, proved that HDM-specific IgE levels had no significant contribution in predicting or explaining occurrence of asthma symptoms. Bt- and Df-specific IgEs showed moderately weak but significant relationship with bambuterol HCl and expectorant, respectively. Patients currently on said medications registered higher HDM-specific IgE levels than those who were not. No significant correlation between IgE levels and family history of allergic disease or with exposure to second-hand smoke was seen. Dp-specific IgE levels of patients exposed to household pets were significantly lower compared to those without exposure. Conclusion This study proves that sensitization to Bt, Df, and Dp allergens is not significantly associated with asthma symptoms and control. Although cases were shown to be sensitized

  1. Local increase in IgE and class switch recombination to IgE in nasal polyps in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Baba, S; Kondo, K; Toma-Hirano, M; Kanaya, K; Suzukawa, K; Ushio, M; Suzukawa, M; Ohta, K; Yamasoba, T

    2014-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is generally characterized by local Th2 inflammation and is categorized into two subtypes in Japan: eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (similar to chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in western countries) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (characterized by Th1-dominant inflammation). To investigate local IgE production and class switch recombination to IgE in these two subtypes of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. The identity of IgE-positive cells was determined using double-immunofluorescent staining for IgE and cell-type-specific molecular markers. To investigate the local class switch recombination to IgE and IgE synthesis in the mucosa, we performed real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine the mRNA expression of Th2 cytokines and class-switch-related molecules, including IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, ε germline gene transcripts, IgE mature transcript, IgG mature transcript, RAG1, RAG2 and activation-induced cytidine deaminase in eosinophilic polyps, non-eosinophilic polyps and controls. The concentrations of total IgE and number of IgE-positive cells were significantly higher in the eosinophilic polyps compared with control and non-eosinophilic polyps. IgE-positive cells were predominantly mast cells in eosinophilic polyps and significantly correlated with the number of FcεR1-positive cells in the subepithelial layer. IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA and ε germline gene transcripts expression levels were significantly higher in eosinophilic polyps compared with control and non-eosinophilic polyps. In contrast, the number of plasma cells and the expression of IgG mature transcripts were increased in non-eosinophilic polyps compared with eosinophilic polyps. RAG2 mRNA was significantly increased in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic polyps compared with control mucosa. The current study suggests local class switching to IgE, production of IgE and IgE localization to the surface of mast cells in eosinophilic

  2. [Changes of Serum IgE and Tryptase in Anaphylactic Shock Rats].

    PubMed

    Mi, Li; Gao, Wei-min; Du, Zhong-bo; Cao, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Bao-li

    2015-06-01

    To explore the changes of serum IgE and tryptase caused by anaphylactic shock rats and discuss the relation to PMI and preservative environment of corpse and specimen. Rats were used for establishing anaphylactic shock models and randomly divided into room temperature group, refrigeration group, frozen group, manual hemolysis group, specimen preservation group. And the control group was also established. The blood samples were collected after rats were sacrificed. The degree of hemolysis was graded according to the color of the upper layer of the serum. The mass concentration of IgE and tryptase in each group was detected by ELISA. The levels of serum IgE and tryptase in anaphylactic shock dead rats were higher than that of the control group. Room temperature and frozen made obviously differences on the levels of serum IgE and tryptase with various PMI. The levels of serum IgE and tryptase in refrigeration group showed relatively stable. The levels of serum tryptase and IgE were elevated with differently increasing hemolysis. The levels of serum IgE and tryptase showed no obvious changes during the specimen kept under different temperature conditions for 25 days. Serum IgE and tryptase obviously increased in anaphylactic shock rats. However, the levels were influenced by PMI and environmental temperature, especially under the conditions of room temperature and frozen.

  3. The component-specific to total IgE ratios do not improve peanut and hazelnut allergy diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Grabenhenrich, Linus; Lange, Lars; Härtl, Magdalena; Kalb, Birgit; Ziegert, Mandy; Finger, Antje; Harandi, Neda; Schlags, Ruppert; Gappa, Monika; Puzzo, Letizia; Stephan, Volker; Heigele, Thomas; Büsing, Susanne; Ott, Hagen; Niggemann, Bodo; Beyer, Kirsten

    2016-06-01

    Specific IgE measurement predicts the outcome of oral food challenges with considerable uncertainty when evaluating food allergy. Our aim was to assess whether accounting for the ratio of component- or allergen-specific to total IgE can improve this prediction. This multicenter study collected blood samples from children with suspected peanut or hazelnut allergy referred to allergy specialist clinics for food challenges. Specific IgE to peanuts, hazelnuts, and their components (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 8, Cor a 1, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, and Cor a 14) and total IgE levels were determined by using the ImmunoCAP-FEIA. Specific to total IgE ratios were compared with raw IgE levels in terms of discrimination and prediction. Eighty-eight (43%) of 207 children with suspected peanut allergy and 44 (31%) of 142 children with suspected hazelnut allergy had symptoms during food challenge. Discrimination was similar for raw and ratio measures: areas under the curve of 0.93 for Ara h 2-specific IgE versus 0.92 for the Ara h 2-specific/total IgE ratio and 0.89 for Cor a 14-specific IgE versus 0.87 for the Cor a 14-specific/total IgE ratio. The probability for a positive peanut challenge with 0.35 kU/L Ara h 2-specific IgE was 16% when the total IgE level was greater than 500 kU/L compared with 51%/48% for low/medium total IgE levels (<100/100-500 kU/L). A positive hazelnut challenge with 0.35 kU/L Cor a 14-specific IgE was estimated in 7% when total IgE levels were high compared with 34%/32% with low/medium total IgE levels. Raw Ara h 2- and Cor a 14-specific IgE levels were the best single predictors for pediatric peanut and hazelnut allergies, suggesting the omission of challenges at very high levels. Calculating ratio measures did not improve prediction in this population. However, estimation of individual probabilities for challenge outcomes could be supported by total IgE levels because high levels might indicate lower probabilities at a given component-specific IgE

  4. High affinity targeting of CD23 inhibits IgE synthesis in human B cells.

    PubMed

    Fellmann, Marc; Buschor, Patrick; Röthlisberger, Silvan; Zellweger, Fabian; Vogel, Monique

    2015-12-01

    The low-affinity IgE receptor FcϵRII (CD23) is part of the regulatory system controlling IgE synthesis in human B cells and exists in membrane and soluble forms. Binding of IgE to CD23 has been described to have stabilizing effects and to prevent cleavage of CD23. Previous experiments using anti-CD23 antibodies reduced IgE synthesis but were difficult to interpret as the antibody Fc part might also mediate feedback mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulatory role of CD23, by using designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) that specifically recognize CD23. Anti-CD23 DARPins were isolated by ribosome display and were produced as monovalent and bivalent constructs. Affinities to CD23 were measured by surface plasmon resonance. IgE synthesis and up-regulation of CD23 in human peripheral B cells were induced by IL-4 and anti-CD40 antibody. We assessed CD23 expression and its stabilization by FACS and used an ELISA for detecting soluble CD23. IgE synthesis was measured by ELISA and real-time PCR. Surface plasmon resonance revealed affinities of the DARPins to CD23 in the pico-molar range. Anti-CD23 DARPins strongly inhibited binding of IgE to CD23 and share thus a similar binding epitope as IgE. The DARPins stabilized membrane CD23 and reduced IgE synthesis in an isotype specific manner. Furthermore, the anti-CD23 DARPins decreased IgE transcript through inhibition of mature Cϵ RNA synthesis suggesting a posttranscriptional control mechanism. This study demonstrates that targeting CD23 alone is sufficient to inhibit IgE synthesis and suggests that a negative signaling occurs directly through the CD23 molecule.

  5. IgE sequences in individuals living in an area of endemic parasitism show little mutational evidence of antigen selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jackson, K J L; Chen, Z; Gaëta, B A; Siba, P M; Pomat, W; Walpole, E; Rimmer, J; Sewell, W A; Collins, A M

    2011-05-01

    Patterns of somatic mutation in IgE genes from allergic individuals have been a focus of study for many years, but IgE sequences have never been reported from parasitized individuals. To study the role of antigen selection in the evolution of the anti-parasite response, we therefore generated 118 IgE sequences from donors living in Papua New Guinea (PNG), an area of endemic parasitism. For comparison, we also generated IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 sequences from these donors, as well as IgG1 sequences from Australian donors. IgE sequences had, on average, 23.0 mutations. PNG IgG sequences had average mutation levels that varied from 17.7 (IgG3) to 27.1 (IgG4). Mean mutation levels correlated significantly with the position of their genes in the constant region gene locus (IgG3 < IgG1 < IgG2 < IgG4). Interestingly, given the heavy, life-long antigen burden experienced by PNG villagers, average mutation levels in IgG sequences were little different to that seen in Australian IgG1 sequences (19.2). Patterns of mutation provide clear evidence of antigen selection in many IgG sequences. The percentage of IgG sequences that showed significant accumulations of replacement mutations in the complementarity determining regions ranged from 22% of IgG3 sequences to 39% of IgG2 sequences. By contrast, only 12% of IgE sequences had such evidence of antigen selection, and this was significantly less than in PNG IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 subclass sequences (P < 0.01). The anti-parasite IgE response therefore has the reduced evidence of antigen selection that has previously been reported in studies of IgE sequences from allergic individuals.

  6. Changes of IgE production in senescence-accelerated mice SAMP8.

    PubMed

    Oaki, K; Asano, K; Okamoto, K; Yoshida, T; Kuroiwa, Y

    1996-01-01

    The IgE production and proliferation activity of spleen B cells were studied in vivo in 2 approximately 3-month-old (designated as young) and 12 approximately 13-month-old (designated as old) senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) employing age-matched AKR mice, the origin of the SAM strain, as controls. After the secondary immunization with 2,4-dinitrophenylovalbumin conjugate (DNP-OVA) with aluminum hydroxide gel (alum) as an adjuvant, the serum IgE levels were significantly reduced in old SAMP8 compared to young SAMP8 mice, but there were no changes in AKR. However, old SAMP8 mice had a proliferative activity of spleen B cells comparable to that found in young SAMP8; proliferative activity was measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation into the spleen after stimulation with water extract from wood chips of coniferous splash pine (pine wood extract) as a mitogen. These data indicate that a decline in IgE production is a characteristic phenomenon of SAMP8 mice and was not due to the functional deficiency of B cells with aging.

  7. IgE antibodies produced in mice instrumental in analyses of antigenicity of cephalothin preparation.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, M; Tadokoro, K; Hirai, K; Koizumi, K; Fukuba, S; Suzuki, S

    1980-01-01

    IgE antibodies to a cephalothin preparation were produced in mice which had been immunized with cephalothin-Ascaris extract conjugate mixed with Al(OH)3 gel plus Bordetella pertussis. Mice which had been irradiated just before receiving the booster injection wtih the conjugate showed higher IgE antibody levels against the preparation in comparison with unirradiated mice. The specificities of IgE antibodies against the preparation were examined with an inhibition test of passive cutaneous anaphylactic (PCA) reaction. The intensity of the PCA reaction evoked by the cephalothin preparation in the rats was substantially or partially reduced by a pretreatment of the animals with an injection of a cephalothin preparation from another source or a cephaloridine preparation. Meanwhile, a prior injection of a cefazolin, a 7-aminocephalosporanic acid, a benzylpenicillin (PcG) preparation, or an aminobenzylpenicillin preparation into the animals showed only weak or no influence on the PCA reaction. These results suggest that the acyl side chain of cephalothin plays an important role as eliciting antigenic determinant in the PCA reaction. The difference in the antigenic specificity between the cephalothin and PcG preparation is also discussed.

  8. Association between egg and staphylococcal superantigen IgE sensitizations in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peck Y

    2014-01-01

    Patients with moderately severe atopic dermatitis (AD) suffer from significant morbidity including secondary infections and psychosocial disturbances. However, there is currently no laboratory test for identifying these patients to implement early treatments. Because IgE sensitization to foods is frequently an early manifestation in infants with AD, this study aims to examine if food IgE levels may identify AD patients with more severe disease, and whether IgE sensitization to food may predict IgE sensitization to staphylococcal superantigens. Fifty-one young children with AD were included in the study. Eczema severity was measured by objective scoring AD. The levels of food and staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE were measured by Phadia ImmunoCAP system. Of the five common food allergens (cow's milk, egg white, soybean, wheat, and peanut), only IgE levels to egg white correlated significantly with eczema severity in young children with AD. IgE sensitization to egg white was significantly associated with IgE sensitization to staphylococcal superantigens in older children.

  9. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition: estimating IGEs when interactions differ between kin and strangers.

    PubMed

    Alemu, S W; Berg, P; Janss, L; Bijma, P

    2014-02-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The traditional IGE model assumes that an individual interacts equally with all its partners, whether kin or strangers. There is abundant evidence, however, that individuals behave differently towards kin as compared with strangers, which agrees with predictions from kin-selection theory. With a mix of kin and strangers, therefore, IGEs estimated from a traditional model may be incorrect, and selection based on those estimates will be suboptimal. Here we investigate whether genetic parameters for IGEs are statistically identifiable in group-structured populations when IGEs differ between kin and strangers, and develop models to estimate such parameters. First, we extend the definition of total breeding value and total heritable variance to cases where IGEs depend on relatedness. Next, we show that the full set of genetic parameters is not identifiable when IGEs differ between kin and strangers. Subsequently, we present a reduced model that yields estimates of the total heritable effects on kin, on non-kin and on all social partners of an individual, as well as the total heritable variance for response to selection. Finally we discuss the consequences of analysing data in which IGEs depend on relatedness using a traditional IGE model, and investigate group structures that may allow estimation of the full set of genetic parameters when IGEs depend on kin.

  10. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  11. Quantitative measurement of serum allergen-specific IgE on protein chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Eun; Park, Seok-Won; Cho, Nam-Yun; Choi, Seung-Young; Yong, Tai-soon; Nahm, Baek-Hie; Lee, Sangsun; Noh, Geunwoong

    2002-05-31

    Type I allergy is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity disease inflicting more than quarter of the world population. In order to identify allergen sources, skin provocation test and IgE serology was performed using allergen extracts. Such process identifies allergen-containing sources but cannot identify the disease-eliciting allergenic molecules. Recently, microarray technology has been developed for allergen-specific IgE detection using rolling circle amplification. This study was carried out to evaluate protein chip technology for the quantitative measurement and limits of sensitivity of multiple allergen-specific IgE by an immunofluorescence assay. Significance of positive calibrators was tested using purified human IgE. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), egg white, milk, soybean, and wheat were used as allergens and human serum albumin as negative control. Sensitivity and clinical efficacy of protein chip were evaluated using allergy immune serum for Dp. The fluorescent intensities for purified human IgE as calibrator were well correlated with the concentrations of human IgE. Two-fold dilution of serum allowed an optimal reaction with Dp (1 mg/ml) at which serum Dp-specific IgE levels by protein chip were compatible with those by UniCap. The sensitivity of protein chip in this study was found at level of 1 IU/ml of IgE. Dp-specific IgE levels by protein chip correlated well with those of UniCap by comparing 10 atopic dermatitis. Additional 18 sera were tested for above multiple antigens other than Dp and significant results were obtained for many antigens as well as Dp. These results indicated that spotting of heterogeneous protein mixture on protein chip and the quantitative measurement of serum allergen-specific IgE levels using immunofluorescence assay can be successfully applied in the clinical laboratory for the diagnosis of allergy and could be applied to diagnosis of autoimmune and infectious diseases

  12. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  13. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  14. Effect of season of birth on cord blood IgE and IgE at birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Susanto, Nugroho Harry; Vicendese, Don; Salim, Agus; Lowe, Adrian J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tham, Rachel; Lodge, Caroline; Garden, Frances; Allen, Katie; Svanes, Cecilie; Heinrich, Joachim; Abramson, Michael J; Erbas, Bircan

    2017-08-01

    Elevated cord blood IgE is important on the pathway to allergic disease. The association between season of birth and infant cord blood IgE is not well-established. Study findings differ on which birth season is associated with higher cord blood IgE risk and its magnitude. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on season of birth and cord blood IgE. We searched Medline, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest Health databases, and reviewed reference lists of articles that met the inclusion criteria. All included studies measured IgE as a binary variable using various cut-off values. We performed multivariate-random-effects meta-analysis to handle an exposure with multiple categories of Season of Birth. Our search identified 275 records and 10 had sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis. Relative to summer, winter birth had the greatest odds of high IgE (≥ 0.1IU/ml), meta-analysis OR = 1.24 (95%CI: 1.01-1.52). A similar OR, was found for IgE ≥ 0.5 IU/ml, OR = 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99-1.71). A winter season of birth was associated with statistically significant higher odds of elevated cord blood IgE at cut-off ≥ 0.1IU/ml but borderline at cut-off ≥ 0.5IU/ml. This winter effect is likely to be a marker for a range of other environmental exposures during specific stages of pregnancy, such as aeroallergen exposures, maternal infections and vitamin D levels. Further research is required to support our finding and to identify the exact mechanisms that lead to the winter season of birth effect on circulating IgE levels, as this may have implications for allergic disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of serum IgE class anti-SSA antibodies in mothers with foetal loss.

    PubMed

    Sekigawa, Iwao; Kaneda, Kazuhiko; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Takamori, Kenji; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2008-05-01

    We previously reported a close relationship between serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and anti-SSA antibody levels in mothers with foetal loss. Here, we investigated the existence of IgE class anti-SSA antibodies (IgE anti-SSA antibody) and the relationship of such antibodies with foetal loss. Serum samples from 24 women who were positive for IgG class anti-SSA antibody (IgG anti-SSA antibody) were examined for IgE anti-SSA antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, a retrospective analysis of the relationship between the IgE anti-SSA antibody positivity and the frequency of foetal loss was performed. Using our ELISA system, IgE anti-SSA antibodies were detected in the serum samples, and the frequency of foetal loss was increased among the mothers with higher IgE anti-SSA antibody titers. Our results indicate that IgE anti-SSA antibodies may be a useful marker for the risk of foetal loss in mothers with anti-SSA antibodies.

  16. Maize IgE binding proteins: each plant a different profile?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergies are nearly always triggered by protein molecules and the majority of individuals with documented immunologic reactions to foods exhibit IgE hypersensitivity reactions. In this study we aimed to understand if natural differences, at proteomic level, between maize populations, may induce different IgE binding proteins profiles among maize-allergic individuals. We also intended to deepen our knowledge on maize IgE binding proteins. Results In order to accomplish this goal we have used proteomic tools (SDS-PAGE and 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by western blot) and tested plasma IgE reactivity from four maize-allergic individuals against four different protein fractions (albumins, globulins, glutelins and prolamins) of three different maize cultivars. We have observed that maize cultivars have different proteomes that result in different IgE binding proteins profiles when tested against plasma from maize-allergic individuals. We could identify 19 different maize IgE binding proteins, 11 of which were unknown to date. Moreover, we found that most (89.5%) of the 19 identified potential maize allergens could be related to plant stress. Conclusions These results lead us to conclude that, within each species, plant allergenic potential varies with genotype. Moreover, considering the stress-related IgE binding proteins identified, we hypothesise that the environment, particularly stress conditions, may alter IgE binding protein profiles of plant components. PMID:24650160

  17. IgE to penicillins with different specificities can be identified by a multiepitope macromolecule: Bihaptenic penicillin structures and IgE specificities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, A; Barrionuevo, E; Mayorga, C; Montañez, M I; Perez-Inestrosa, E; Ruiz-Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Guéant, R M; Fernández, T D; Guéant, J L; Torres, M J; Blanca, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitation of specific IgE by immunoassay is a recommended in vitro test for the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams (BLs), particularly when skin test results are negative. IgE antibodies that recognize the common nuclear structure of all BLs or the specific side chain structure can be mainly distinguished by immunoassays. The aim of this study was to develop an immunoassay system to detect IgE antibodies with different specificities. Cellulose discs conjugated with benzylpenicillin (BP), amoxicillin (AX) or both drugs, with poly-l-lysine (PLL) as carrier molecule, were used as solid phases in the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Direct and inhibition radioimmunoassay studies were made to verify the structures recognized by serum IgE antibodies from penicillin-allergic patients. Our results indicated that the addition of both haptens did not decrease the capacity to capture IgE when serum specific to either BP or AX was used, at least in terms of sensitivity. In addition, the inclusion of two haptens improved significantly the levels of IgE detection in patients who recognized both BP and AX. Therefore, the use of a solid phase with a carrier molecule conjugated with two determinants (AX and BP) is helpful to recognize IgE antibodies against either of these determinants and is useful for screening sera with different specificities.

  18. Downregulation of IL-8, ECP, and total IgE in the tears of patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis treated with rebamipide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Mayumi; Shoji, Jun; Sotozono, Chie; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Rebamipide eyedrops are approved in Japan for the treatment of dry eye disease. Some patients with allergic conjunctival diseases also manifest dry eye. Earlier we reported that rebamipide suppressed polyI:C-induced inflammatory cytokines in human conjunctival epithelial cells. In the current study we examined the effect of rebamipide eyedrops on the level of interleukin-8 (IL-8), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and total IgE on the ocular surface. We prescribed rebamipide eyedrops to patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) who presented with dry eye (6 eyes in 4 AKC patients) and measured the IL-8, ECP, and total IgE levels in their tears before- and 2, and 4-6 weeks after the start of rebamipide treatment. To measure the IL-8 and total IgE levels in their tears we used BD™ CBA Flex sets; ECP measurements were with ELISA. The level of IL-8, ECP, and total IgE in the tears of AKC patients was reduced significantly 4-6 weeks after the start of rebamipide treatment. We also recorded subjective symptoms associated with AKC, e.g. itching, foreign body sensation, and eye mucus discharge, by using a patient questionnaire. Their subjective symptoms associated with AKC were also significantly ameliorated at 2 and 4-6 weeks. Our observations suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of rebamipide eyedrops help to combat human ocular surface inflammation and that they may be a new effective therapy in patients with AKC.

  19. Total IgE in urban Black South African teenagers: the influence of atopy and helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Levin, M E; Le Souëf, P N; Motala, C

    2008-08-01

    Total IgE levels are usually elevated in allergic diseases, being highest in atopic eczema, followed by atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Genetic factors are believed to play a role in total IgE levels, with higher levels seen in Black African subjects. Total IgE is also raised in parasite infection. Thus, the higher total IgE levels in Black Africans could be because of environmental rather than genetic factors. Few studies have investigated the usefulness of total IgE levels in the evaluation of atopy in Black Africans. The objective of this study was to determine the total IgE levels in unselected urban Black African high school children and to correlate this with atopy and ascaris sensitization. Atopic status was assessed by means of specific allergen sensitization (skin prick tests to eight inhalant and four food allergens), self-reported asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness measured by methacholine challenge. Ascaris sensitization was assessed by means of ascaris IgE measured by CAP-RAST. Total IgE levels were markedly skewed toward the left and were not distributed in a Gaussian or a log-normal distribution. Skin prick tests were positive for aeroallergens in 32.3% of subjects. Thirty four percent had elevated ascaris IgE. Total IgE was higher in atopic vs. non-atopic subjects and correlated with the number of positive skin prick tests, self-reported asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Subjects without allergy (or) atopy had a median total IgE of 80-90 kU/I. In addition total IgE correlated with ascaris IgE. Subjects with no ascaris sensitization had median total IgE of 77.1 kU/l. Subjects with neither atopy/asthma nor ascaris sensitisation had a median total IgE of 69.9 kU/I, similar to the levels seen in people of other genetic origins. This study suggests that helminthic infection rather than genetic differences, may be the major determining factor of IgE levels in certain populations.

  20. Serum IgE concentrations in relation to anti-helminthic treatment in a Javanese population with hookworm

    PubMed Central

    Noerjasin, Biroum

    1973-01-01

    Serum IgE levels were high in a hookworm-infested Javanese population. Levels increased following treatment with anti-helminthics. Individuals who showed evidence of control of reinfestation after treatment had lower serum IgE levels than the remainder. PMID:4717095

  1. Using stand-level optimization to reduce crown fire hazard

    Treesearch

    David H. Graetz; John Sessions; Steven L. Garman

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability to generate prescriptions for a wide variety of stands when the goal is to reduce crown fire potential. Forest managers charged with reducing crown fire potential while providing for commodity and ecological production have been hampered by the complexity of possible management options. A program called Stand-Level Optimization with...

  2. Reducing Abstraction Level When Learning Abstract Algebra Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzan, Orit

    1999-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework based on interviews with undergraduate students and written questionnaires to study how undergraduate students cope with abstract algebra concepts. Indicates that students' responses can be interpreted as a result of reducing the level of abstraction. Examines the theme of reducing abstraction based on three…

  3. Exposure to Indoor Allergens in Different Residential Settings and Its Influence on IgE Sensitization in a Geographically Confined Austrian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Schweidler, Bettina; Doppler, Patrick; Klinglmayr, Eva; Moser, Stephanie; Lueftenegger, Lisa; Himly, Martin; Lang, Roland; Zumbach, Joerg; Oostingh, Gertie J.; Hawranek, Thomas; Bathke, Arne C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to indoor allergens is crucial for IgE sensitization and development of allergic symptoms. Residential settings influence the allergen amount in house dust and hence allergic sensitization. Within this study, we investigated allergen exposure and molecule-based IgE levels in a geographically confined region and evaluated the impact of housing, pets and cleaning. Methods 501 adolescents from Salzburg, Austria participated in this cross-sectional study. House dust samples were examined regarding major mite, cat, dog, and mold allergens using a multiplex assay. Serum samples of participants were analyzed for specific IgE to Der p 1, Der p 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1 and Alt a 1 using the multiplex array ImmunoCAP ISAC. Information on allergies, living areas, dwelling form (house, flat, farm), pets, and household cleanliness were obtained by a questionnaire. Results In investigated house dust samples, the concentration of cat allergen was highest while the prevalence of mold allergens was very low. Participants showed IgE sensitization to Der p 1 (13.2%), Der p 2 (18.2%), Fel d 1 (14.4%), Can f 1 (2.4%) and Alt a 1 (2.0%). In alpine regions, lower mite allergen concentrations were detected which correlated with reduced IgE levels. A trend for increased sensitization prevalence from rural to alpine to urban regions was noted. Living on farms resulted in lower sensitization prevalence to mite and cat allergens, even though exposure to mites was significantly elevated. The presence of cats was associated with a lower sensitization rate and IgE levels to cat and mite allergens, and less frequent allergic diseases. Cleaning did not impact allergen concentrations, while IgE reactivity to mites and allergic diseases were more pronounced when living in cleaner homes. Conclusion Allergen exposure to indoor allergens was influenced by setting of homes. Living in a farm environment and having a cat at home showed a protective effect for IgE sensitization and allergies

  4. IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 from German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Un, Sunjin; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-hee; Kim, Chung-ryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-09-01

    Bla g 6, a German cockroach allergen, shows homology to muscle protein troponin C. It contains four calcium-binding domains at amino acid (aa) residues 20-30, 56-67, 96-107, and 132-143, and its immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity is dependent upon calcium ion level. However, the IgE binding epitopes of Bla g 6 have not been investigated. This study aimed to analyze the IgE binding epitopes from the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. The full-length of three Bla g 6 isoallergens (Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301) and five peptide fragments (P1: aa 1-111, P2: aa 1-95, P3: aa 33-111, P4: aa 80-151, and P5: aa 33-151) of Bla g 6.0101 were generated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on 24 patients' sera that adjusted the final concentration 10 mM of CaCl(2) to determine the IgE activities of Bla g 6. Eight sera (33.3%), 9 sera (37.5%), and 11 sera (45.8%) showed IgE reactivity to Bla g 6.0101, Bla g 6.0201, and Bla g 6.0301, respectively. Among the sera from the positive IgE reactivity, three patients' sera were selected and the IgE reactivity was measured by ELISA with the five peptide fragments of Bla g 6. Based on IgE responses, one patient's serum exhibited the strongest IgE reactivity. We assumed that the aa between 96-151 residues, including the calcium binding domains III and IV, would be important for IgE binding. These results may provide information that will yield safe diagnostic methods and immunotherapeutics.

  5. Effects of maternal diet during late pregnancy and lactation on the development of IgE and egg- and milk-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in infants.

    PubMed

    Lilja, G; Dannaeus, A; Foucard, T; Graff-Lonnevig, V; Johansson, S G; Oman, H

    1991-03-01

    The IgE levels and food-allergen-specific IgE- and IgG-antibodies (Ab) to ovalbumin (OA), ovomucoid (OVO) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) were determined up to 18 months of age in 163 infants born to women who were atopic. A high (HIGH group) or a low (REDUCED group) intake of hen's egg and cow's milk by the mother during the third trimester gave no significant differences in the concentrations of IgE or in IgE-Ab (OVO, BLG) and IgG-Ab (OA, OVO, BLG). Similarly, a prolongation of the abstention diet to the early lactation period did not influence the immune response. The IgG-Ab levels to all three food allergens decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) in both study groups between birth and 2 months of age, but then increased significantly (P less than 0.001) between 6 and 18 months of age. The presence in serum of IgE-Ab to OVO (greater than or equal to 0.15 PRU/ml) was associated with significantly higher IgG-Ab levels to OVO at 6 months (P less than 0.001) and at 18 months (P less than 0.05). Infants with positive skin-prick tests (SPT) to OA and OVO showed higher IgG-Ab levels at 6 and 18 months of age than did infants with negative SPT reactions to the two egg allergens. This indicates a relation between the IgE- and IgG-Ab response and it also suggests that some individuals are 'high responders' to both types of immunoglobulin isotypes while others are 'low responders'.

  6. A Soluble Form of the High Affinity IgE Receptor, Fc-Epsilon-RI, Circulates in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Dehlink, Eleonora; Platzer, Barbara; Baker, Alexandra H.; LaRosa, Jessica; Pardo, Michael; Dwyer, Peter; Yen, Elizabeth H.; Szépfalusi, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    Soluble IgE receptors are potential in vivo modulators of IgE-mediated immune responses and are thus important for our basic understanding of allergic responses. We here characterize a novel soluble version of the IgE-binding alpha-chain of Fc-epsilon-RI (sFcεRI), the high affinity receptor for IgE. sFcεRI immunoprecipitates as a protein of ∼40 kDa and contains an intact IgE-binding site. In human serum, sFcεRI is found as a soluble free IgE receptor as well as a complex with IgE. Using a newly established ELISA, we show that serum sFcεRI levels correlate with serum IgE in patients with elevated IgE. We also show that serum of individuals with normal IgE levels can be found to contain high levels of sFcεRI. After IgE-antigen-mediated crosslinking of surface FcεRI, we detect sFcεRI in the exosome-depleted, soluble fraction of cell culture supernatants. We further show that sFcεRI can block binding of IgE to FcεRI expressed at the cell surface. In summary, we here describe the alpha-chain of FcεRI as a circulating soluble IgE receptor isoform in human serum. PMID:21544204

  7. Pholcodine exposure raises serum IgE in patients with previous anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents.

    PubMed

    Harboe, T; Johansson, S G O; Florvaag, E; Oman, H

    2007-12-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) can cause anaphylaxis through immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies that bind quaternary ammonium ion epitopes. These epitopes are present in numerous common chemicals and drugs, exposure to which, theoretically, could be of importance in the development and maintenance of the IgE sensitization promoting allergic reactions. Pholcodine is one such drug, which in a recent pilot study was shown to induce a remarkable increase in serum IgE levels in two IgE-sensitized individuals. The present study explores the effect of pholcodine exposure on IgE in a population with previously diagnosed IgE-mediated anaphylaxis towards NMBAs. Seventeen patients were randomized to 1 week's exposure with cough syrup containing either pholcodine or guaifenesin. The primary variables serum IgE and IgE antibodies towards pholcodine, morphine and suxamethonium were measured before and 4 and 8 weeks after start of exposure. Patients exposed to pholcodine had a sharp rise in levels of IgE antibodies towards pholcodine, morphine and suxamethonium, the median proportional increases 4 weeks after exposure reaching 39.0, 38.6 and 93.0 times that of the base levels respectively. Median proportional increase of IgE was 19.0. No changes were observed in the guaifenesin group. Serum levels of IgE antibodies associated with allergy towards NMBAs increase significantly in sensitized patients after exposure to cough syrup containing pholcodine. Availability of pholcodine should be restricted by medical authorities because of the potential risk of future allergic reactions to muscle relaxants.

  8. p110γ/δ Double-Deficiency Induces Eosinophilia and IgE Production but Protects from OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ammon-Treiber, Susanne; Schwab, Matthias; Piekorz, Roland P.; Hirsch, Emilio; Nürnberg, Bernd; Beer-Hammer, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The catalytical isoforms p110γ and p110δ of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) and PI3Kδ play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Two key elements in allergic asthma are increased levels of eosinophils and IgE. Dual pharmacological inhibition of p110γ and p110δ reduces asthma-associated eosinophilic lung infiltration and ameliorates disease symptoms, whereas the absence of enzymatic activity in p110γKOδD910A mice increases IgE and basal eosinophil counts. This suggests that long-term inhibition of p110γ and p110δ might exacerbate asthma. Here, we analysed mice genetically deficient for both catalytical subunits (p110γ/δ-/-) and determined basal IgE and eosinophil levels and the immune response to ovalbumin-induced asthma. Serum concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eosinophil numbers were significantly increased in p110γ/δ-/- mice compared to single knock-out and wildtype mice. However, p110γ/δ-/- mice were protected against OVA-induced infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, T and B cells into lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Moreover, p110γ/δ-/- mice, but not single knock-out mice, showed a reduced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conclude that increased levels of eosinophils and IgE in p110γ/δ-/- mice do not abolish the protective effect of p110γ/δ-deficiency against OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27442134

  9. p110γ/δ Double-Deficiency Induces Eosinophilia and IgE Production but Protects from OVA-Induced Airway Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mothes, Benedikt; Bucher, Kirsten; Ammon-Treiber, Susanne; Schwab, Matthias; Piekorz, Roland P; Hirsch, Emilio; Nürnberg, Bernd; Beer-Hammer, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The catalytical isoforms p110γ and p110δ of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) and PI3Kδ play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Two key elements in allergic asthma are increased levels of eosinophils and IgE. Dual pharmacological inhibition of p110γ and p110δ reduces asthma-associated eosinophilic lung infiltration and ameliorates disease symptoms, whereas the absence of enzymatic activity in p110γKOδD910A mice increases IgE and basal eosinophil counts. This suggests that long-term inhibition of p110γ and p110δ might exacerbate asthma. Here, we analysed mice genetically deficient for both catalytical subunits (p110γ/δ-/-) and determined basal IgE and eosinophil levels and the immune response to ovalbumin-induced asthma. Serum concentrations of IgE, IL-5 and eosinophil numbers were significantly increased in p110γ/δ-/- mice compared to single knock-out and wildtype mice. However, p110γ/δ-/- mice were protected against OVA-induced infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, T and B cells into lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Moreover, p110γ/δ-/- mice, but not single knock-out mice, showed a reduced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We conclude that increased levels of eosinophils and IgE in p110γ/δ-/- mice do not abolish the protective effect of p110γ/δ-deficiency against OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation.

  10. Unusual myelomas: a review of IgD and IgE variants.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shivlal; Kyle, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma (IgD MM) accounts for almost 2% of all myeloma cases. It is associated with an increased frequency of undetectable or small monoclonal (M)-protein levels on electrophoresis; osteolytic lesions; extramedullary involvement; amyloidosis; a lambda (lambda) light chain predilection; renal failure; hypercalcemia; and, often, advanced disease at diagnosis. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) MM is rare, with fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature. IgE MM presents with features similar to those of IgD MM, along with a higher incidence of plasma cell leukemia. The hallmark of IgE MM is t(11;14) (q13;q32). IgD and IgE levels are generally very low and hence may escape detection; thus, it is important that, when myeloma is suspected, patients be screened for the presence of IgD and IgE if they have an apparently free monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain in the serum. Although survival of patients with IgD MM or IgE MM is shorter in comparison to those with immunoglobulin G (IgG) MM or immunoglobulin A (IgA) MM, the outcome for patients with IgD and IgE subtypes is improving with the use of novel agents and autologous transplantation.

  11. [Behavior of serum IgE in patients with atopic extrinisic asthma. Studies with a modified radioimmunologic sorbent technic, Phadebas-IgEtest].

    PubMed

    Moor, H; Tachezy, H; Wichert, P

    1975-06-13

    Serum IgE levels were measured by radioimmunosorbent techniqueera from patients with atopic extrinsic asthma, from patients with chronic bronchitis and from healthy adults. 51 of 65 patients with atopic extrinsic asthma had IgE values above the mean normal. Patients who were hypersensitive to different allergens commonly showed higher IgE concentrations than those who were hypersensitive to a single allergen only. Compared with IgE values found in patients with chronic bronchitis the differences were statistically highly significant. However the measurement of serum IgE may be a valuable diagnostic tool but only in supplement to other clinical investigations.

  12. Specific IgE of common foods in Chinese children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam L E; Chan, Iris H-S; Chow, Chung-Mo; Wang, Shuxin S; Lam, Christopher W-K; Ng, Pak-Cheung; Leung, Ting-fan

    2011-02-01

    Food atopy is important but inadequately studied among children with atopic dermatitis (AD). We evaluated whether any association existed between AD severity, quality of life, total IgE, eosinophil counts, and the number of food items sensitized. Specific IgE of ten common food items was measured for a group of consecutive AD patients (n=85) enrolled during a randomized trial and correlated the findings with eczema severity. Twenty-four patients (28%) were negative for any of the ten common food items. The most commonly sensitized foods were shrimp (54%), egg white (43%), wheat (42%), and peanut (41%). Atopy to beef as a protein and orange as a fruit were least common among the food items studied, even among patients positive for 8-9 IgE items. Patients with severe AD (objective SCORAD>40) were more likely to be positive for at least one of the food items (Yates corrected p=0.024 for ≥1 food-specific IgE in severe vs. moderate AD, OR 3.42 and 95% CI 1.15-10.32); and for at least seven of the food items (p=0.001 for ≥7 food-specific IgE vs. nil with OR 11.67 and 95% CI 2.29-67.77), respectively. The Spearman coefficients between the number of positive food-specific IgE and total SCORAD, objective SCORAD, area of AD involvement, Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), total IgE levels, and eosinophil counts were 0.42 (p<0.001), 0.45 (p<0.001), 0.50 (p<0.001), 0.17 (p=0.116), 0.80 (p<0.001), and 0.22 (p=0.043), respectively. Specific IgE levels for beef correlated with all the other food-specific IgE levels, including cow's milk (ρ=0.061, p<0.001) and soy (ρ=0.70, p<0.001). The number of common food items sensitized correlated with disease severity, extent, and total IgE levels. IgE sensitization to beef protein is unlikely in the majority of children with AD, but its serum IgE level is associated with disease severity and risk of sensitization to other foods. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Don

    1991-01-01

    The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) exposed thin metallic foils in order to collect neutral particles from the interstellar gas. These particles were entrapped in the foils along with precipitating magnetospheric and ambient atmospheric particles. Seven of these foils collected particles arriving from seven different directions as seen from the spacecraft for the entire duration of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission. The authors' mass spectroscopy analysis of the noble gas component of these interstellar particles detected isotopes of helium and neon. These preliminary measurements suggest that the various isotopes are occurring in approximately the expected amounts and that their distribution in direction of arrival is close to what models predict. The analysis to subtract the background fluxes of magnetospheric and atmospheric particles is still in progress. The hope of this experiment is to investigate the noble gas isotopic ratios of this interstellar sample of matter which originated outside the solar system.

  14. Serum IgD and IgE in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Marcolongo, R; Marsili, C

    1975-02-01

    Serum immunoglobulins IgD and IgE have been determined by a single radial immunodiffusion technique and a radioimmunoassay method in serum samples from 95 rheumatoid patients, 5 subjects with Sjögren's syndrome and 50 healthy controls, and compared with levels of IgG, IgM and IgA fractions measured in the same subjects. The IgD and IgE serum content resulted similar in the rheumatoid, Sjögren's and control sera. No correlation of IgD and IgE values with changes of other immunoglobulins or with the activity and the duration of the rheumatoid disease was observed.

  15. Equine IgE responses to non-viral vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Netherwood, Kristina A; Norris, Meredith Somerville; Behrens, Nicole E; Shao, Matt X

    2012-12-14

    Vaccination of horses is performed annually or semi-annually with multiple viral antigens, either in a combination vaccine or as separate injections. While this practice undoubtedly prevents infection from such diseases as rabies, equine influenza, West Nile virus, and equine herpes virus, the procedure is not without repercussions. Hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal anaphylactic shock, after vaccination, although uncommon, have increased in incidence in recent years. Studies reported herein document the development of IgE antibodies against non-target antigen components of equine viral vaccines. We hypothesize that viral vaccines can induce an IgE response to non-target antigens, which could elicit an adverse response after vaccination with another viral vaccine containing the same component. In one study IgE responses to components of West Nile virus vaccine were evaluated by ELISA before and after vaccination in 30 horses. In a second five-year study 77 horses were similarly tested for IgE antibodies against bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component of most viral vaccines. Mast cell sensitization was evaluated in horses with high, moderate, and negative serum BSA specific IgE using an intradermal skin test with BSA. Over the five-year period high IgE responder horses showed gradually increasing BSA specific serum IgE levels and positive skin test reactivity, yet none had an adverse event. Sera from horses that had developed adverse vaccine reactions were also tested for IgE antibodies. Several of these horses had extremely high levels of BSA-specific IgE. These data suggest that non-essential protein components of vaccines may sensitize horses for future adverse responses to vaccination.

  16. R-Ras deficiency does not affect papain-induced IgE production in mice.

    PubMed

    Kummola, Laura; Ortutay, Zsuzsanna; Vähätupa, Maria; Prince, Stuart; Uusitalo-Järvinen, Hannele; Järvinen, Tero A H; Junttila, Ilkka S

    2017-09-01

    R-Ras GTPase has recently been implicated in the regulation of immune functions, particularly in dendritic cell (DC) maturation, immune synapse formation, and subsequent T cell responses. Here, we investigated the role of R-Ras in allergen-induced immune response (type 2 immune response) in Rras deficient (R-Ras KO) and wild type (WT) mice. Initially, we found that the number of conventional DC's in the lymph nodes (LNs) was reduced in R-Ras KO mice. The expression of co-stimulatory CD80 and CD86 molecules on these cells was also reduced on DC's from the R-Ras KO mice. However, there was no difference in papain-induced immune response between the R-Ras WT and KO as measured by serum IgE levels after the immunization. Interestingly, neither the DC number nor co-stimulatory molecule expression was different between WT and R-Ras KO animals after the immunization. Taken together, despite having reduced number of conventional DC's in the R-Ras KO mice and low expression of CD80 on DC's, the R-Ras KO mice are capable of mounting papain-induced IgE responses comparable to that of the WT mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing potential differences in in vivo allergen responses regulated by the R-Ras GTPase. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Protein carbonylation during electron beam irradiation may be responsible for changes in IgE binding to turbot parvalbumin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenxing; Lu, Zongchao; Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Lin, Hong; Zhang, Limin

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between protein carbonylation and changes of the IgE reactivity of turbot parvalbumin (PV) following electron beam (EB) irradiation. The concentration of protein carbonyls, specific IgE binding, and IgE binding inhibition between irradiated and oxidized PV were assessed. Irradiation resulted in a 3-fold enhancement in the protein carbonyl content. In purified PV irradiated with a 10-kGy dose, specific IgE binding was reduced by 91.2±6.2%. When raw PV was treated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), the protein carbonyl content increased 17.6-fold, with the specific IgE binding being reduced by 87.9±6.5% at an ROS concentration of 10 nmol/mL. The IgE binding inhibition between irradiated and oxidized PV was investigated using an inhibition ELISA. Results showed that oxidized PV can inhibit the binding between irradiated PV and specific IgE with an IC50 of 8.2-58 ng according to different doses of irradiation. These findings suggest that EB irradiation reduces specific IgE binding, probably by the induction of protein carbonylation.

  18. Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Reduces Immunoglobulin E Binding to Atlantic White Shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Shriver, Sandra; Yang, Wade; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa), and to attenuate immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to shrimp extract was examined. Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract was treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from light source) for 4 min. Tropomyosin was compared in the untreated, boiled, PUV-treated and [boiled+PUV]-treated samples, and changes in the tropomyosin levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE binding of the treated extract was analyzed via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using pooled human plasma containing IgE antibodies against shrimp allergens. Results showed that levels of tropomyosin and IgE binding were reduced following PUV treatment. However, boiling increased IgE binding, while PUV treatment could offset the increased allergen reactivity caused by boiling. In conclusion, PUV treatment reduced the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, and decreased the IgE binding capacity of the shrimp extract. PMID:21845146

  19. The NASA-IGES geometry data visualizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Jasinskyj, Lonhyn; Chou, Jin J.

    1992-01-01

    NIGESview, an interactive software tool for reading, viewing, and translating geometry data available in the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) format, is described. NIGESview is designed to read a variety of IGES entities, translate some of the entities, graphically view the data, and output a file in a specific IGES format. The software provides a modern graphical user interface and is designed in a modular fashion so developers can utilize all or part of the code in their grid generation software for computational fluid dynamics.

  20. Downstream class switching leads to IgE antibody production by B lymphocytes lacking IgM switch regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Franklin, Andrew; Boboila, Cristian; McQuay, Amy; Gallagher, Michael P.; Manis, John P.; Khamlichi, Ahmed Amine; Alt, Frederick W.

    2010-01-01

    Ig heavy chain (IgH) class-switch recombination (CSR) replaces the IgH Cμ constant region exons with one of several sets of downstream IgH constant region exons (e.g., Cγ, Cε, or Cα), which affects switching from IgM to another IgH class (e.g., IgG, IgE, or IgA). Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates CSR by promoting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within switch (S) regions flanking the donor Cμ (Sμ) and a downstream acceptor CH (e.g., Sγ, Sε, Sα) that are then joined to complete CSR. DSBs generated in Sμ frequently are joined within Sμ to form internal switch region deletions (ISD). AID-induced ISD and mutations have been considered rare in downstream S regions, suggesting that AID targeting to these S regions requires its prior recruitment to Sμ. We have now assayed for CSR and ISD in B cells lacking Sμ (Sμ−/− B cells). In Sμ−/− B cells activated for CSR to IgG1 and IgE, CSR to IgG1 was greatly reduced; but, surprisingly, CSR to IgE occurred at nearly normal levels. Moreover, normal B cells had substantial Sγ1 ISD and increased mutations in and near Sγ1, and levels of both were greatly increased in Sμ−/− B cells. Finally, Sμ−/− B cells underwent downstream CSR between Sγ1 and Sε on alleles that lacked Sμ CSR to these sequences. Our findings show that AID targets downstream S regions independently of CSR with Sμ and implicate an alternative pathway for IgE class switching that involves generation and joining of DSBs within two different downstream S regions before Sμ joining. PMID:20133637

  1. JSI-124 inhibits IgE production in an IgE B cell line.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lulu; Bi, Jiacheng; Yan, Dehong; Ye, Xiufeng; Zheng, Mingxing; Yu, Guang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-01-29

    IgE is a key effector molecule in atopic diseases; however, the regulation mechanisms of IgE production in IgE B cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that JSI-124 (cucurbitacin I), a selective STAT3 inhibitor, selectively inhibits production of IgE by a human IgE B cell line, CRL-8033 cells, while does not affect the IgG production by IgG B cell lines. In the aspect of molecular mechanism, we found that Igλ, but not Ighe, gene expression was suppressed by JSI-124. The above effects of JSI-124 were not mediated by affecting cellular proliferation or apoptosis. Furthermore, multiple B cell differentiation-related genes expression was not significantly affected by JSI-124. Taken together, we demonstrate a potential strategy of therapeutically suppressing IgE production without affecting IgG production in atopic patients.

  2. Atopy, IgE and eosinophilic cationic protein concentration, specific IgE positivity, eosinophil count in cutaneous T Cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kural, Yasemin Balsever; Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide; Uras, Ahmet Riza

    2010-04-01

    Even though several case studies have reported a relationship between Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) and atopic diathesis, this association is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the actual presence of atopic status in CTCL patients. A total of 78 patients with both clinical and histological features typical of CTCL and 77 control cases from our outpatient dermatology clinic were included in this study. After initial evaluation and staging, all patients were investigated for history of atopic disease, serum total IgE and eosinophil cationic protein concentration (ECP), eosinophil count, serum specific IgE, and skin prick test positivity. Personal atopy in CTCL group was 23,1% (n = 18) and familial atopy was 9.0% (n = 7) whereas in the control group, these values were 11.7% (n = 9) and 7.8% (n = 6), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference, however, the number of atopic patients were higher in CTCL group than the control group (p = 0.151). Serum total IgE levels were significantly increased in patients with CTCL when compared to control group (p = 0.04). Serum specific IgE panel and prick test positivity between patients and controls were significantly different, respectively (p = 0. 03) (p = 0. 00). Eosinophil counts and ECP levels were not significantly different, respectively (p = 0.10) (p = 0.885). In high stages of CTCL, patients were found to have elevated IgE, ECP levels and eosinophil count. These results were statistically significant (p = 0.011) (p = 0.009) (p = 0.007). Eventhough the number of patients with atopy in the CTCL group was higher than the control cases, there was no significant different. On the other hand high levels of serum IgE, elevated eosinophil count and specific IgE positivity may be found in CTCL patients with or without atopic disease, especially with high stages.

  3. Periodontal Treatment Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Localized Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Patricia Furtado; Huang, Hong; McAninley, Suzanna; Alfant, Barnett; Harrison, Peter; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Walker, Clay; Shaddox, Luciana Macchion

    2015-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived proteinases reported to mediate multiple functions associated with periodontal destruction and inflammation. We have previously reported high MMP levels in African-American children with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP). However, little is known about MMP reductions in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after therapy. This study aimed to evaluate MMP levels in the GCF following treatment of LAP and to correlate these levels with clinical response. Methods GCF samples were collected from 29 African-American individuals diagnosed with LAP. GCF was collected from one diseased site (pocket depth [PD]>4mm, bleeding on probing [BoP] and clinical attachment level [CAL] ≥2mm) and one healthy site (PD≤3mm, no BoP) from each individual at baseline, 3 and 6 months after periodontal treatment, which consisted of full-mouth SRP and systemic antibiotics. The volume of GCF was controlled using a calibrated gingival fluid meter and levels of MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 12 and 13 were assessed using fluorometric kits. Results MMP-1, 8, 9 12, and 13 levels were reduced significantly up to 6 months, at which point were comparable with healthy sites. Significant correlations were noted between MMP-2, 3, 8, 9, 12 and 13 levels and % of sites with PD>4mm. MMP-3, 12 and 13 levels also correlated with mean pocket depth of affected sites. Conclusion Treatment of LAP with SRP and systemic antibiotics was effective in reducing the local levels specific MMPs in African-American individuals, which correlated positively with some clinical parameters. PMID:23537121

  4. Rare association of hyper IgE syndrome with cervical rib and natal teeth.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Anupama S; Janaki, C; Parveen, B; Gomathy, N

    2009-01-01

    Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by a triad of cutaneous abscesses, mostly caused by Staphylococus aureus; pneumonia; and raised IgE levels. Nonimmunological associations include course facial features, multiple bone fractures, joint hyperextensibility, and retained primary dentition. Patients require long-term antibiotic therapy. We report here a classical case of HIES with rare associations of natal teeth, bilateral cervical ribs, and conductive deafness. The patient was being treated with monteleukast and dapsone.

  5. Reducing Indoor Noise Levels Using People's Perception on Greenery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediastika, Christina E.; Binarti, Floriberta

    2013-12-01

    Employees working in cubicles of open-plan offices in Indonesia were studied in regard to their perception on the ability of indoor greenery to reduce noise levels. Sansevieria trifasciata and Scindapsus sp were used. Each was placed in the cubicle and noise levels were measured without plants, with Sansevieria, and with Scindapsus in place. The meters showed very insignificant difference. However, responses to surveys indicated a perception of lower noise in the presence of greenery. This seemed to be supported by prior knowledge and preconception and may be useful in creating a "quieter" indoor environment.

  6. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  7. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siman, Isabella Lima; de Aquino, Lais Martins; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Miranda, Juliana Silva; Pajuaba, Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is to modulate humoral immune response against allergens with significant increases in allergen-specific IgG levels, commonly associated with blocking activity. The present study investigated in vitro blocking activity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies on IgE reactivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in sera from atopic patients. Dpt-specific IgG antibodies were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by protein-G affinity chromatography. Purity was checked by SDS-PAGE and immunoreactivity by slot-blot and immunoblot assays. The blocking activity was evaluated by inhibition ELISA. The electrophoretic profile of the ammonium sulfate precipitated fraction showed strongly stained bands in ligand fraction after chromatography, compatible with molecular weight of human whole IgG molecule. The purity degree was confirmed by detecting strong immunoreactivity to IgG, negligible to IgA, and no reactivity to IgE and IgM. Dpt-specific IgG fraction was capable of significantly reducing levels of IgE anti-Dpt, resulting in 35%-51% inhibition of IgE reactivity to Dpt in atopic patients sera. This study showed that allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. This approach reinforces that intermittent measurement of serum allergen-specific IgG antibodies will be an important objective laboratorial parameter that will help specialists to follow their patients under SIT.

  8. [Phytosterols: another way to reduce LDL cholesterol levels].

    PubMed

    Bitzur, Rafael; Cohen, Hofit; Kamari, Yehuda; Harats, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Phytosterols are sterols found naturally in various oils from plants. Phytosterols compete with cholesterol for a place in the mixed micelles, needed for cholesterol absorption by the small intestine. As a result, cholesterol absorption, either from food or from bile salts is lowered by about 50%, leading to a towering of about 10% of blood cholesterol level, despite an increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. This reduction is achieved when phytosterols are given both as monotherapy, and in addition to statin therapy. The average Western diet contains about 400-800 mg of phytosterols per day, while the dose needed for lowering the blood cholesterol level is about 2-3 grams per day. Therefore, for the purpose of reducing blood cholesterol, they should be given either as phytosterol-enriched food or as supplements. The reduction in the level of LDL-choLesterol achieved with phytosterols may reduce the risk of coronary disease by about 25%. Hence, the American Heart Association recommended the consumption of phytosterols, as part of a balanced diet, for towering blood cholesterol levels.

  9. IgE antibodies to tetanus toxoid in relation to atopy.

    PubMed

    Aalberse, R C; van Ree, R; Danneman, A; Wahn, U

    1995-01-01

    In approximately 25% of subjects receiving tetanus booster immunization (4 study groups A-D with n = 6, 25, 50 and 240, respectively; age 18-40 years for groups A-C, age 2 for group D), substantial IgE antibody levels were found. In groups A and B, sequential serum samples were available for analysis. The IgE response peaked before the IgG response and was often higher at week 1 than at week 2. The 6 subjects in group A (military recruits) received 2 booster injections. At the time of the second injection, 2 subjects had a very high IgE antibody titre (as well as a high IgG antibody titre), but no signs of an allergic reaction were noted. A significant association with atopy-related factors was found, but many apparently non-atopic subjects developed IgE antibodies.

  10. Low stimulus environments: reducing noise levels in continuing care

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; Shah, Amar; Joyce, Margaret; Holt, Genevieve; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Marange, Rosca; Shakes, Joy; Solomon-Ayeh, Kwesi

    2016-01-01

    In the low stimulus environment project, we aimed to reduce the levels of intrusive background noise on an older adult mental health ward, combining a very straightforward measure on decibel levels with a downstream measure of reduced distress and agitation as expressed in incidents of violence. This project on reducing background noise levels on older adult wards stemmed from work the team had done on reducing levels of violence and aggression. We approached the problem using quality improvement methods. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust and in our efforts we were supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training and support provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the trust's own Quality Improvement team. Prior to the project we were running a weekly multi-disciplinary quality improvement group on the ward. We established from this a sub-group to address the specific problem of noise levels and invited carers of people with dementia on our ward to the group. The project was led by nursing staff. We used a noise meter app readily downloadable from the internet to monitor background noise levels on the ward and establish a baseline measure. As a group we used a driver diagram to identify an overall aim and a clear understanding of the major factors that would drive improvements. We also used a staff and carer survey to identify further areas to work on. Change ideas that came from staff and carers included the use of the noise meter to track and report back on noise levels, the use of posters to remind staff about noise levels, the introduction of a visual indication of current noise levels (the Yacker Tracker), the addition of relaxing background music, and adaptations to furniture and environment. We tested many of these over the course of nine months in 2015, using the iterative learning gained from multiple PDSA cycles. The specific aim was a decrease from above 60dB to

  11. Immunosafety of recombinant human C1-inhibitor in hereditary angioedema: evaluation of ige antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hack, C Erik; Relan, Anurag; Baboeram, Aartie; Oortwijn, Beatrijs; Versteeg, Serge; van Ree, Ronald; Pijpstra, Rienk

    2013-04-01

    Recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) purified from milk of transgenic rabbits is used for the treatment of acute attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. The objective was to investigate the risk of rhC1INH inducing IgE antibodies or eliciting anaphylactic reactions. In subjects treated with rhC1INH, we retrospectively analysed the frequency and clinical relevance of pre-exposure and potentially newly induced IgE antibodies against rabbit and other animal allergens including cow's milk by the ImmunoCAP(®) Specific IgE blood test system. 130 HAE patients and 14 healthy subjects received 300 administrations of rhC1INH, 65 subjects (47.4 %) on one occasion; 72 (52.6 %) on at least two occasions (range 2-12; median 2). Five subjects had pre-existing anti-rabbit epithelium IgE; the subject with the highest levels and a previously undisclosed rabbit allergy developed an anaphylactic reaction upon first exposure to rhC1INH, whereas the other four subjects with lower pre-existing IgE levels (Class 1-3), did not. No other anaphylactic reactions were identified in any of the subjects exposed to rhC1INH. Analysis of post-exposure samples revealed that the risk of inducing new or boosting existing IgE responses to rabbit or cow's milk allergens was negligible. The propensity of rhC1INH to induce IgE antibodies following repeated administration of rhC1INH is low. Subjects with substantially elevated anti-rabbit epithelium IgE antibodies and/or clinical allergy to rabbits may have an increased risk for an allergic reaction. No other risk factors for allergic reactions to rhC1INH have been identified.

  12. Deficiency in lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 reduces plasma levels of lipids by reducing lipid absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Hui; Ding, Tingbo; Lou, Caixia; Bui, Hai H; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are structural and functional constituents of cell membranes. The activity of acyltransferase (lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase [LPCAT]) is required for addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the sn-2 position of PCs and is therefore required to maintain cell membrane structure and function. LPCAT3 is the most abundant isoform of LPCAT in the small intestine and liver, which are important sites of plasma lipoprotein metabolism. We investigated the effects of Lpcat3 disruption on lipid metabolism in mice. We disrupted the gene Lpcat3 in C57BL/6J mice to create LPCAT3 knockout (KO) mice. Livers and small intestinal tissues were collected from LPCAT3 KO and C57BL/6J parental strain (controls), and levels of LPCAT messenger RNAs and protein were measured. Levels of lipids and lipoproteins were measured in plasma samples. We isolated enterocytes from mice and measured levels of RNAs and proteins involved in lipid uptake by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot assays, respectively. We assessed lipid absorption and PC subspecies in the enterocyte plasma membrane using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectometry. LPCAT3 KO mice survived only 3 weeks after birth. Oil Red O staining showed that the control but not LPCAT3 KO mice accumulated lipids in the small intestine; levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4), which regulate lipid uptake, were greatly reduced in the small intestines of LPCAT3 KO mice. Oral administration of PC and olive oil allowed the LPCAT3 KO mice to survive with the same body weights as controls, but the KO mice had shorter and wider small-intestinal villi and longer and bigger small intestines. Plasma membranes of enterocytes from LPCAT3 KO mice also had significant reductions in the composition of polyunsaturated PCs and reduced levels of NPC1L1, CD36, and FATP4 proteins. These reductions were associated with reduced intestinal uptake of lipid by

  13. IgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly “maladaptive” immune response develop in evolution, and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms. PMID:27225312

  14. Soluble IgE receptors--elements of the IgE network.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Barbara; Ruiter, Floortje; van der Mee, John; Fiebiger, Edda

    2011-12-30

    Soluble isoforms of three human IgE Fc receptors, namely FcεRI, FcεRII, and galectin-3, can be found in serum. These soluble IgE receptors are a diverse family of proteins unified by the characteristic of interacting with IgE in the extracellular matrix. A truncated form of the alpha-chain of FcεRI, the high affinity IgE receptor, has recently been described as a soluble isoform (sFcεRI). Multiple soluble isoforms of CD23 (sCD23), the low affinity IgE receptor also known as FcεRII, are generated via different mechanisms of extracellular and intracellular proteolysis. The second low affinity IgE receptor, galectin-3, only exists as a secretory protein. We here discuss the physiological roles of these three soluble IgE receptors as elements of the human IgE network. Additionally, we review the potential and current use of sFcεRI, sCD23, and galectin-3 as biomarkers in human disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhalation of inactivated‑Mycobacterium phlei prevents asthma‑mediated airway hyperresponsiveness and airway eosinophilia in mice by reducing IL‑5 and IL‑13 levels.

    PubMed

    Ming, Moyu; Luo, Zhixi; Lv, Shengqiu; Li, Chaoqian

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether inhalation of inactivated‑Mycobacterium phlei could prevent airway hyperresponsiveness and airway eosinophilia. A total of 24 male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into three groups: Normal control group (group A), asthma model group (group B) and the intervention group (group C), (8 mice/group). Group A mice were sensitized and with challenged saline and group B with ovalbumin (OVA). Group C mice were administered with aerosol Mycobacterium phlei once daily prior to the allergen challenge. Airway responsiveness in each group was assessed. All the animals were sacrificed and lung tissues, blood samples and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were harvested. Cell fractionation and differential cells were counted in serum and BALF. HE staining and alcian blue/periodic acid Schiff staining were used to measure airway eosinophilic inflammation and mucus production. The levels of the cytokines IL‑5, IL‑13 and IgE were measured in lung and BALF as determined by ELISA and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The results indicated that inactivated‑Mycobacterium phlei suppressed the airway hyperresponsiveness and mitigated airway eosinophilia induced by a methacholine challenge, and significantly reduced the levels of cytokines IL‑5 and IL‑13 in lung tissue and IgE level in BALF when compared with the OVA‑sensitized mice. In conclusion, inhalation of inactivated‑Mycobacterium phlei could reduce OVA‑induced airway hyperresponsiveness and may be a potential alternative therapy for allergic airway diseases.

  16. Inhibitory effect of chaga mushroom extract on compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock and IgE production in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taek Joon; Lee, Sue Jung; Kim, Eun Young; Cho, Eun Hee; Kang, Tae Bong; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2013-04-01

    Chaga mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus) are hypothesised to exhibit general immune-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties, but their anti-allergic activities are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated whether a chaga mushroom extract (C-HE) might have anti-allergic activity. This activity was assessed through the levels of the IgE Ab produced in response to an allergen (OVA). The administration of C-HE prophylactically inhibited the systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in mice. The oral administration of C-HE significantly reduced the total IgE levels in mice and slightly affected the production of IgG1. Furthermore, spleen cell cultures harvested from OVA-sensitised mice that had received C-HE orally showed a significant increase in Th1-derived responses (IFN-γ production). Therefore, our results suggest that the chaga mushroom extract may be used as an anti-allergic functional food.

  17. Reduced serum levels of adiponectin in tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Renan B; Duarte, Halina; Rocha, Natália P; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2015-04-01

    Inflammatory mediators have been studied in tension type headache (TTH) pathophysiology; however, their role is not yet well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate adiponectin (ADP) and its association with clinical parameters and psychiatric comorbidities in TTH patients. This was a cross sectional study including TTH patients and controls. Beck Depression (BDI) and Anxiety (BAI) Inventories, and Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) were recorded. Serum levels of ADP were measured by ELISA. Forty-eight TTH patients and forty-eight controls without headache were enrolled in the study. ADP levels were significantly lower among patients with TTH [31.1 (20.4-69.20) versus 37.8 (24.9-71.4) ng/mL (P=0.008)]. ADP levels were not influenced by BDI and BAI scores, body mass index (BMI), or HIT-6. ADP levels were reduced in TTH, independently of psychiatric comorbidities, BMI, and headache impact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell-bound IgE and increased expression of Fc epsilon-receptors on dendritic cells in cutaneous infiltrates of mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed Central

    Preesman, A H; Van de Winkel, J G; Magnusson, C G; Toonstra, J; van der Putte, S C; van Vloten, W A

    1991-01-01

    Skin biopsies of 31 non-atopic patients, 20 with mycosis fungoides, six with psoriasis and five with contact dermatitis, and of five non-atopic healthy controls were compared for the presence of cell-bound IgE and vacant IgE binding sites. IgE+ cells were demonstrated in the cutaneous infiltrate of nine (45%) patients with mycosis fungoides, two (33%) with psoriasis and one (20%) with contact dermatitis. Following pre-incubation of skin sections with IgE myeloma protein to saturate vacant IgE-binding sites, 14 out of 16 patients (88%) with stage I mycosis fungoides, five (83%) patients with psoriasis and one (20%) with contact dermatitis showed an increase in the number of IgE+ cells. While cell-bound IgE was positively related to serum IgE levels the expression of IgE-binding sites was not. All IgE+ cells were HLA-DR+ dendritic cells identified as either macrophages (CD68+, CD14+) or Langerhans cells (CD1+). Skin biopsies of non-atopic healthy controls or clinically uninvolved skin in mycosis fungoides had neither any IgE+ cells nor any vacant binding sites. Inhibition studies with IgG1, IgG4 and IgE myeloma proteins as well as with several enzymatic fragments of IgE demonstrated that IgE interacted with Fc epsilon-receptors through isotype-specific structures on the Fc epsilon-fragment. Four anti-CD23 monoclonal antibodies, however, were unable to stain vacant Fc epsilon-receptors nor could they block IgE-binding. We hypothesize that locally-secreted lymphokines, like IL-4 or interferon-gamma, induce Fc epsilon-receptors on dendritic cells in the cutaneous infiltrate and that these receptors become occupied in parallel with elevated serum IgE levels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:1834378

  19. Microarray-based IgE detection in tears of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Andrea; Borghesan, Franco; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario

    2015-11-01

    A specific allergen sensitization can be demonstrated in approximately half of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients by conventional allergic tests. The measurement of specific IgE in tears using a multiplex allergen microarray may offer advantages to identify local sensitization to a specific allergen. In spring-summer 2011, serum and tears samples were collected from 10 active VKC patients (three females, seven males) and 10 age-matched normal subjects. Skin prick test, symptoms score and full ophthalmological examination were performed. Specific serum and tear IgE were assayed using ImmunoCAP ISAC, a microarray containing 103 components derived from 47 allergens. Normal subjects resulted negative for the presence of specific IgE both in serum and in tears. Of the 10 VKC patients, six resulted positive to specific IgE in serum and/or tears. In three of these six patients, specific IgE was found positive only in tears. Cross-reactivity between specific markers was found in three patients. Grass, tree, mites, animal but also food allergen-specific IgE were found in tears. Conjunctival provocation test performed out of season confirmed the specific local conjunctival reactivity. Multiple specific IgE measurements with single protein allergens using a microarray technique in tear samples are a useful, simple and non-invasive diagnostic tool. ImmunoCAP ISAC detects allergen sensitization at component level and adds important information by defining both cross- and co-sensitization to a large variety of allergen molecules. The presence of specific IgE only in tears of VKC patients reinforces the concept of possible local sensitization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796-0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707-0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L) predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history.

  1. Early life IgE responses in children living in the tropics: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Zakzuk, Josefina; Acevedo, Nathalie; Cifuentes, Liliana; Bornacelly, Adriana; Sánchez, Jorge; Ahumada, Velky; Ring, Johannes; Ollert, Markus; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-12-01

    There are few birth cohort studies analyzing IgE sensitization in the tropics. We aimed to describe the evolution of total IgE and specific IgE responses to house-dust mite (HDM) allergens and Ascaris in a birth cohort (Risk Factors for Asthma and Allergy in the Tropics, FRAAT), analyzing their relationships with wheezing. Total and specific IgE were measured by ImmunoCap in mothers and children at four different time points (S1-S4) between 0 and 42 months. Parasite infection was evaluated by stool examination. Maternal total IgE (aOR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.09-5.43; p = 0.03) and socio-demographic factors were associated with high cord blood (CB) total IgE. High CB total IgE was positively associated with higher Blomia tropicalis and Ascaris-specific IgE values during lifetime, but protected from recurrent wheezing (aOR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.08-0.88, p = 0.03). Prevalence rates of IgE sensitization were high; at around 3 yr old, they were 33.3, 18.6, and 26.5% for B. tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Ascaris, respectively. Indicators of unhygienic conditions were risk factors for HDM and Ascaris sensitization in children. A weak statistical association between B. tropicalis-specific IgE and ever wheezing was found (aOR: 1.47 95% CI: 1.00-2.28, p = 0.05). In a socioeconomically deprived community from the tropics, sensitization to HDM allergens was very frequent at early life, especially to B. tropicalis. In contrast to expected according to the hygiene hypothesis, unhygienic/poverty conditions were risk factors for allergen sensitization. High CB total IgE levels were a risk factor for allergen sensitization but protected from recurrent wheezing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quantitative measurement of IgE antibodies to purified allergens using streptavidin linked to a high-capacity solid phase.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Elizabeth A; Custis, Natalie J; Satinover, Shama M; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Woodfolk, Judith A; Crane, Julian; Wickens, Kristin; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2005-05-01

    Commercially available assays for IgE antibody provide results in international units per milliliter for many allergen extracts, but this is not easily achieved with purified or novel allergens. To develop assays for IgE antibody suitable for purified or novel allergens by using a commercially available immunosorbent. Streptavidin coupled to a high-capacity immunosorbent (CAP) was used to bind biotinylated purified allergens from mite (Der p 1 and Der p 2), cat (Fel d 1), and dog (Can f 1). Assays for IgE antibody to these allergens were performed on sera from children (asthma and control) as well as adults with atopic dermatitis. The results were validated by serial dilution of sera with high and low levels of IgE antibody and were quantitated in international units per milliliter by using a standard curve. Values for IgE antibody to Der p 1, Der p 2, and Fel d 1 correlated with values obtained with the allergen extracts (r2 = 0.80, 0.84, and 0.95, respectively; P < .001 in each case). Furthermore, the values for IgE antibody in sera from children with high exposure to mite and cat allergens demonstrated 10-fold higher levels of IgE antibody to Der p 1 and Der p 2 than to Fel d 1 (P < .001). The streptavidin immunosorbent technique provides a new method for quantifying IgE antibody to purified proteins. The results provide evidence about the high quantities of IgE antibody to purified inhalant allergens in patients with atopic dermatitis. In addition, the results demonstrate major differences in IgE antibodies specific for mite and cat allergens among children with high exposure to both allergens.

  3. Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio improves specificity for the diagnosis of Anisakis simplex sensitization in travellers and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, N; Rodríguez-Mahillo, A I; Puente, S; Gutiérrez, M T; Moneo, I; González-Muñoz, M

    2014-10-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite responsible for human infection and is able to induce IgE-mediated reactions with several clinical manifestations. Laboratory diagnosis of Anisakis allergy is based on the detection of specific IgE using parasite whole antigen. Unfortunately, these diagnostic tools detect cross-reactivities with other nematodes and micro-organisms leading to low specificity of the diagnostic tests. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic value of specific IgE to Anisakis for diagnosis of A. simplex-sensitization in native Spanish residents (IMM, n=766) and subjects coming from tropical and sub-tropical geographic areas (TRO, n=233). Since Ascaris is the human parasite most closely related to Anisakis, specific IgE to Ascaris was also determined to assess Anisakis cross-reaction with other nematodes and the diagnostic value of Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio for Anisakis allergy was examined. IMM and TRO groups showed similar specific IgE to Anisakis levels, while TRO had higher levels of specific IgE to Ascaris than IMM group (p=0.001). ROC curve analysis determined that an Anisakis specific IgE threshold of 0.71 kU/L yielded 93% and 82% specificities in IMM and TRO groups, respectively. A cut-off value ≥4.4 for Anisakis/Ascaris IgE ratio increased specificity to 95% for samples having IgE to Ascaris ≥0.35. In conclusion, the ratio of specific IgE to Anisakis and Ascaris improved remarkably the specificity and this parameter easily obtained from the commercially available system could be useful in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to A. simplex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients.

  5. Reduced levels of ATF-2 predispose mice to mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Toshio; Shinagawa, Toshie; Sano, Yuji; Sakuma, Takahiko; Nomura, Shintaro; Nagasaki, Koichi; Miki, Yoshio; Saito-Ohara, Fumiko; Inazawa, Johji; Kohno, Takashi; Yokota, Jun; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2007-03-01

    Transcription factor ATF-2 is a nuclear target of stress-activated protein kinases, such as p38, which are activated by various extracellular stresses, including UV light. Here, we show that ATF-2 plays a critical role in hypoxia- and high-cell-density-induced apoptosis and the development of mammary tumors. Compared to wild-type cells, Atf-2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were more resistant to hypoxia- and anisomycin-induced apoptosis but remained equally susceptible to other stresses, including UV. Atf-2(-/-) and Atf-2(+/-) MEFs could not express a group of genes, such as Gadd45alpha, whose overexpression can induce apoptosis, in response to hypoxia. Atf-2(-/-) MEFs also had a higher saturation density than wild-type cells and expressed lower levels of Maspin, the breast cancer tumor suppressor, which is also known to enhance cellular sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Atf-2(-/-) MEFs underwent a lower degree of apoptosis at high cell density than wild-type cells. Atf-2(+/-) mice were highly prone to mammary tumors that expressed reduced levels of Gadd45alpha and Maspin. The ATF-2 mRNA levels in human breast cancers were lower than those in normal breast tissue. Thus, ATF-2 acts as a tumor susceptibility gene of mammary tumors, at least partly, by activating a group of target genes, including Maspin and Gadd45alpha.

  6. Reduced levels of vasopressin and reduced behavioral modulation of oxytocin in psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Leah H; Carter, C Sue; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Drogos, Lauren L; Hill, S Kristian; Ruocco, Anthony C; Keedy, Sarah K; Reilly, James L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Tamminga, Carol A; Gershon, Elliot S; Sweeney, John A

    2014-11-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert robust influence on social affiliation and specific cognitive processes in healthy individuals. Abnormalities in these neuroendocrine systems have been observed in psychotic disorders, but their relation to impairments in behavioral domains that these endocrines modulate is not well understood. We compared abnormalities of OT and AVP serum concentrations in probands with schizophrenia (n = 57), schizoaffective disorder (n = 34), and psychotic bipolar disorder (n = 75); their first-degree relatives without a history of psychosis (n = 61, 43, 91, respectively); and healthy controls (n = 66) and examined their association with emotion processing and cognition. AVP levels were lower in schizophrenia (P = .002) and bipolar probands (P = .03) and in relatives of schizophrenia probands (P = .002) compared with controls. OT levels did not differ between groups. Familiality estimates were robust for OT (h(2) = 0.79, P = 3.97e-15) and AVP (h(2) = 0.78, P = 3.93e-11). Higher levels of OT were associated with better emotion recognition (β = 0.40, P < .001) and general neuropsychological function (β = 0.26, P = .04) in healthy controls as expected but not in any proband or relative group. In schizophrenia, higher OT levels were related to greater positive symptom severity. The dissociation of OT levels and behavioral function in all proband and relative groups suggests that risk and illness factors associated with psychotic disorders are not related to reduced OT levels but to a disruption in the ability of physiological levels of OT to modulate social cognition and neuropsychological function. Decreased AVP levels may be a marker of biological vulnerability in schizophrenia because alterations were seen in probands and relatives, and familiality was high. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Reduced Levels of Vasopressin and Reduced Behavioral Modulation of Oxytocin in Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Leah H.; Carter, C. Sue; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Drogos, Lauren L.; Hill, S. Kristian; Ruocco, Anthony C.; Keedy, Sarah K.; Reilly, James L.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Gershon, Elliot S.; Sweeney, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert robust influence on social affiliation and specific cognitive processes in healthy individuals. Abnormalities in these neuroendocrine systems have been observed in psychotic disorders, but their relation to impairments in behavioral domains that these endocrines modulate is not well understood. We compared abnormalities of OT and AVP serum concentrations in probands with schizophrenia (n = 57), schizoaffective disorder (n = 34), and psychotic bipolar disorder (n = 75); their first-degree relatives without a history of psychosis (n = 61, 43, 91, respectively); and healthy controls (n = 66) and examined their association with emotion processing and cognition. AVP levels were lower in schizophrenia (P = .002) and bipolar probands (P = .03) and in relatives of schizophrenia probands (P = .002) compared with controls. OT levels did not differ between groups. Familiality estimates were robust for OT (h 2 = 0.79, P = 3.97e−15) and AVP (h 2 = 0.78, P = 3.93e−11). Higher levels of OT were associated with better emotion recognition (β = 0.40, P < .001) and general neuropsychological function (β = 0.26, P = .04) in healthy controls as expected but not in any proband or relative group. In schizophrenia, higher OT levels were related to greater positive symptom severity. The dissociation of OT levels and behavioral function in all proband and relative groups suggests that risk and illness factors associated with psychotic disorders are not related to reduced OT levels but to a disruption in the ability of physiological levels of OT to modulate social cognition and neuropsychological function. Decreased AVP levels may be a marker of biological vulnerability in schizophrenia because alterations were seen in probands and relatives, and familiality was high. PMID:24619535

  8. Assessment of allergen-specific IgE by immunoblotting method in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonyadi, M R; Hassanzadeh, D; Seyfizadeh, N; Borzoueisileh, S

    2017-09-01

    Background and Objectives. Stimulating the immune system by exposure to various allergens to produce specific IgE has a significant role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Identifying disease-causing allergens, prevention of exposure to those allergens, and immunotherapy will play an important role in the treatment of Atopic Disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the common allergens of northwest of Iran in patients with atopic dermatitis that are resistant to treatment. Materials and methods. In this descriptive-analytical study, serum levels of total IgE and frequency of specific IgE were measured by Immunoblotting against 20 common allergens in 150 cases of patients with atopic dermatitis, attending to dermatology and asthma and allergy clinics from 2010 to 2011. The control group consisted of individuals who had been clinically healthy. Results. In the 90% of patients that were included in this study, total IgE levels were higher than in healthy people with mean serum levels of total IgE 227.51 ± 103 IU/ml. 136 patients (90.6%) had specific IgE for at least one allergen. The frequency of positive allergens among the patients who were included in this study were 53.34%, 26.8%, and 19.56% respectively in plants and fungus allergens group, animal allergens group and food allergens group. After avoiding of the allergens (which they had been sensitized to), 60% of patients were cured with immune therapy, and total IgE serum levels in the control group were not increased. Conclusion. Identifying the abundant allergens such as cultivated rye, Timothy grass, house dust mite, birch, cat, horse, potato, dog, egg white, cow milk, in order to advise patients to avoid them or to do immunotherapy and desensitization, is useful in this area.

  9. Induction of Fc epsilon receptors on normal murine T cells and IgE binding factor(s) by cross-linked IgE or IgE-pulsed adherent cells.

    PubMed Central

    Firer, M A; Eshhar, Z

    1986-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficiency and extent of induction by monomeric versus cross-linked IgE of specific receptors for IgE on normal murine splenic T cells (Fc epsilon R-T), and to study the ability of IgE-pulsed splenic adherent cells to induce receptors for IgE on T cells. Chemically cross-linked IgE was found to be both more effective and more efficient than monomeric IgE in inducing Fc epsilon R-T as measured by the ability of IgE-pulsed T cells to form specific rosettes with IgE-sensitized trinitrophenylated sheep red blood cells (TNP-SRBC). This phenomenon was dependent on both DNA and protein synthesis, suggesting that induction caused the production of new IgE receptors. It was also found that cross-linked but not monomeric IgE-pulsed normal murine adherent cells as well as their cell-free products could actively induce significant levels of specific Fc epsilon R-T. Both cross-linked IgE-pulsed T cells and adherent cells released IgE binding factor(s). These materials were capable of specifically inhibiting the binding of IgE to rat basophilic leukaemic cells (RBL) in vitro and to rat tissue mast cells in vivo. Collectively, these data provide further evidence to suggest that polymerized forms of IgE and adherent cells play important roles in the regulation of IgE responses. Images Figure 3 PMID:2937716

  10. IGES transformer and NURBS in grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.

    1993-01-01

    In the field of Grid Generation and the CAD/CAM, there are numerous geometry output formats which require the designer to spend a great deal of time manipulating geometrical entities in order to achieve a useful sculptured geometrical description for grid generation. Also in this process, there is a danger of losing fidelity of the geometry under consideration. This stresses the importance of a standard geometry definition for the communication link between varying CAD/CAM and grid system. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file is a widely used communication between CAD/CAM and the analysis tools. The scientists at NASA Research Centers - including NASA Ames, NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, NASA Marshall - have recognized this importance and, therefore, in 1992 they formed the committee of the 'NASA-IGES' which is the subset of the standard IGES. This committee stresses the importance and encourages the CFD community to use the standard IGES file for the interface between the CAD/CAM and CFD analysis. Also, two of the IGES entities -- the NURBS Curve (Entity 126) and NURBS Surface (Entity 128) -- which have many useful geometric properties -- like the convex hull property, local control property and affine invariance, also widely utilized analytical geometries can be accurately represented using NURBS. This is important in today grid generation tools because of the emphasis of the interactive design. To satisfy the geometry transformation between the CAD/CAM system and Grid Generation field, the CAGI (Computer Aided Geometry Design) developed, which include the Geometry Transformation, Geometry Manipulation and Geometry Generation as well as the user interface. This paper will present the successful development IGES file transformer and application of NURBS definition in the grid generation.

  11. Galactose-α-1,3-galactose-specific IgE is associated with anaphylaxis but not asthma.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P; Kelly, Libby A; Rönmark, Eva; James, Hayley R; Pochan, Shawna L; Peters, Edward J; Lundbäck, Bo; Nganga, Lucy W; Cooper, Philip J; Hoskins, Janelle M; Eapen, Saju S; Matos, Luis A; McBride, Dane C; Heymann, Peter W; Woodfolk, Judith A; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2012-04-01

    IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) are common in the southeastern United States. These antibodies, which are induced by ectoparasitic ticks, can give rise to positive skin tests or serum assays with cat extract. To evaluate the relationship between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma, and compare this with the relationship between asthma and IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 and other protein allergens. Patients being investigated for recurrent anaphylaxis, angioedema, or acute urticaria underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaires, and serum IgE antibody assays. The results were compared with control subjects and cohorts from the emergency department in Virginia (n = 130), northern Sweden (n = 963), and rural Kenya (n = 131). Patients in Virginia with high-titer IgE antibodies to α-gal had normal lung function, low levels of exhaled nitric oxide, and low prevalence of asthma symptoms. Among patients in the emergency department and children in Kenya, there was no association between IgE antibodies to α-gal and asthma (odds ratios, 1.04 and 0.75, respectively). In Sweden, IgE antibodies to cat were closely correlated with IgE antibodies to Fel d 1 (r = 0.83) and to asthma (P < 0.001). These results provide a model of an ectoparasite-induced specific IgE response that can increase total serum IgE without creating a risk for asthma, and further evidence that the main allergens that are causally related to asthma are those that are inhaled.

  12. Identification of IgE sequential epitopes of lentil (Len c 1) by peptide microarray immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Vereda, Andrea; Andreae, Doerthe A.; Lin, Jing; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Ibañez, Maria Dolores; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Bardina, Luda; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lentils are oftentimes responsible for allergic reactions to legumes in Mediterranean children. Though the primary sequence of the major allergen, Len c 1 is known, the location of the IgE binding epitopes remains undefined. Objective We sought to identify IgE-binding epitopes of Len c 1 and relate epitope binding to clinical characteristics. Methods 135 peptides corresponding to the primary sequence of Len c 1 were probed with sera from 33 lentil-allergic individuals and 15 non-atopic controls by means of microarray immunoassay. Lentil-specific IgE, Skin Prick Tests and clinical reactions to lentil were determined. Epitopes were defined as overlapping signal above inter- and intra-slide cut-offs and confirmed by inhibition assays using a peptide from the respective region. Hierarchical clustering of microarray data was used to correlate binding patterns with clinical findings. Results The lentil-allergic patients specifically recognized IgE-binding epitopes located in the C-terminal region, between peptide 107 and 135. Inhibition experiments confirmed the specificity of IgE binding in this region, identifying different epitopes. Linkage of cluster results with clinical data and lentil specific IgE levels displayed a positive correlation between lentil-specific IgE levels, epitope recognition and respiratory symptoms. Modeling based on the three-dimensional structure of a homologous soy vicilin suggests that the Len c 1 epitopes identified are exposed on the surface of the molecule. Conclusion Several IgE-binding sequential epitopes of Len c 1 have been identified. Epitopes are located in the C-terminal region, and are predicted to be exposed on the surface of the protein. Epitope diversity is positively correlated with IgE levels, pointing to a more polyclonal IgE response. PMID:20816193

  13. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis."

  14. Calcium Deficiency Reduces Circulating Levels of FGF23

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, María E.; Lopez, Ignacio; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M.; Ramírez, Alan Peralta; Pineda, Carmen; Canalejo, Antonio; Jaeger, Philippe; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Felsenfeld, Arnold; Almaden, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 inhibits calcitriol production, which could exacerbate calcium deficiency or hypocalcemia unless calcium itself modulates FGF23 in this setting. In Wistar rats with normal renal function fed a diet low in both calcium and vitamin D, the resulting hypocalcemia was associated with low FGF23 despite high parathyroid hormone (PTH) and high calcitriol levels. FGF23 correlated positively with calcium and negatively with PTH. Addition of high dietary phosphorus to this diet increased FGF23 except in rats with hypocalcemia despite high PTH levels. In parathyroidectomized rats, an increase in dietary calcium for 10 days increased serum calcium, with an associated increase in FGF23, decrease in calcitriol, and no change in phosphorus. Also in parathyroidectomized rats, FGF23 increased significantly 6 hours after administration of calcium gluconate. Taken together, these results suggest that hypocalcemia reduces the circulating concentrations of FGF23. This decrease in FGF23 could be a response to avoid a subsequent reduction in calcitriol, which could exacerbate hypocalcemia. PMID:22581996

  15. Population Characteristics May Reduce the Levels of Individual Call Identity

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, María del Mar; Caferri, Eleonora; Méndez, Maria; Godoy, José A.; Campioni, Letizia; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo), we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success) among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1) similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2) high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other’s vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network. PMID:24204869

  16. Human eosinophils express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, in bullous pemphigoid.

    PubMed

    Messingham, Kelly N; Holahan, Heather M; Frydman, Alexandra S; Fullenkamp, Colleen; Srikantha, Rupasree; Fairley, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering disease mediated by autoantibodies targeting BP180 (type XVII collagen). Patient sera and tissues typically have IgG and IgE autoantibodies and elevated eosinophil numbers. Although the pathogenicity of the IgE autoantibodies is established in BP, their contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Our aims were two-fold: 1) To establish the clinical relationships between total and BP180-specific IgE, eosinophilia and other markers of disease activity; and 2) To determine if eosinophils from BP patients express the high affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI, as a potential mechanism of action for IgE in BP. Our analysis of 48 untreated BP patients revealed a correlation between BP180 IgG and both BP180 IgE and peripheral eosinophil count. Additionally, we established a correlation between total IgE concentration and both BP180 IgE levels and eosinophil count. When only sera from patients (n = 16) with total IgE ≥ 400 IU/ml were analyzed, BP180 IgG levels correlated with disease severity, BP230 IgG, total circulating IgE and BP180 IgE. Finally, peripheral eosinophil count correlated more strongly with levels of BP180 IgE then with BP180 IgG. Next, eosinophil FcεRI expression was investigated in the blood and skin using several methods. Peripheral eosinophils from BP patients expressed mRNA for all three chains (α, β and γ) of the FcεRI. Surface expression of the FcεRIα was confirmed on both peripheral and tissue eosinophils from most BP patients by immunostaining. Furthermore, using a proximity ligation assay, interaction of the α- and β-chains of the FcεRI was observed in some biopsy specimens, suggesting tissue expression of the trimeric receptor form in some patients. These studies provide clinical support for the relevance of IgE in BP disease and provide one mechanism of action of these antibodies, via binding to the FcεRI on eosinophils.

  17. [IgE myeloma. Laboratory typing difficulties].

    PubMed

    Bovone, Nora S; Fuente, María Cristina; Gastiazoro, Ana María; Alfonso, Graciela; Freitas, María Josefina

    2014-01-01

    The IgE multiple myeloma is a rare neoplasm of plasma cell accounting for 0.01% of all plasma cell dyscrasias. They are generally of more aggressive development and to date there are no more than 50 cases published in current literature. Laboratory studies are, in these cases, essential for the classification of the monoclonal component in serum and urine. The aim of this presentation is to report a patient diagnosed with IgE myeloma and to point out that the laboratory difficulties noted in these rare cases can lead to an erroneous report.

  18. Lower levels of sodium intake and reduced cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Cook, Nancy R; Appel, Lawrence J; Whelton, Paul K

    2014-03-04

    Recent studies have raised the possibility of adverse effects of low sodium, particularly <2300 mg/d, on cardiovascular disease; however, these paradoxical findings might have resulted from suboptimal measurement of sodium and potential biases related to indication or reverse causation. Phases 1 and 2 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) collected multiple 24-hour urine specimens among prehypertensive individuals. During extended post-trial surveillance, 193 cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease deaths occurred among 2275 participants not in a sodium reduction intervention with 10 (TOHP II) or 15 (TOHP I) years of post-trial follow-up. Median sodium excretion was 3630 mg/d, with 1.4% of the participants having intake <1500 mg/d and 10% <2300 mg/d, consistent with national levels. Compared with those with sodium excretion of 3600 to <4800 mg/d, risk for those with sodium <2300 mg/d was 32% lower after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-1.37; P for trend=0.13). There was a linear 17% increase in risk per 1000 mg/d increase in sodium (P=0.05). Spline curves supported a linear association of sodium with cardiovascular events, which continued to decrease from 3600 to 2300 and 1500 mg/d, although the data were sparse at the lowest levels. Controlling for creatinine levels had little effect on these results. Results from the TOHP studies, which overcome the major methodological challenges of prior studies, are consistent with overall health benefits of reducing sodium intake to the 1500 to 2300 mg/d range in the majority of the population, in agreement with current dietary guidelines.

  19. Total IgE and Asthma Prevalence in the U.S. Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Gergen, Peter J.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Calatroni, Agustin; Mitchell, Herman E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2009-01-01

    Background The inability to measure IgE-based sensitivity to all allergens has limited our understanding of what portion of asthma is related to IgE. Total IgE can potentially overcome this limitation. Objective Determine the association between total IgE and asthma Methods The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 examined a representative sample of the U.S. population 6 years of age and older. Results The median total IgE was 40.8 kU/L (IQR 15.5 – 114). Total IgE levels varied with age, sex, race/ethnicity, serum cotinine, body size, and socioeconomic status. The prevalence of current asthma was 8.8%. The prevalence of atopy was 42.5% as defined by 15 specific IgEs. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for asthma with a 10-fold increase in total IgE was 2.18 (95% CI: 1.66–2.87). Total IgE predicted asthma only among atopics OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.62–3.60) not non-atopics OR = 1.11 (95% CI: 0.72–1.71) (interaction p=0.005). Among atopics, the association between total IgE and asthma became stronger as the number of positive specific IgE tests increased. Asthma was present at even the lowest levels of total IgE, regardless of atopic status. Approximately 92% of atopics were identified by six specific IgEs, but to increase the identification to over 99% required 11 specific IgEs. Conclusion Total IgE is associated with asthma only among persons who are positive to at least one allergen-specific IgEs. Asthma independent of IgE is not uncommon in the US populations. The complete identification of atopics in a population requires a large panel of allergen-specific IgEs. PMID:19647861

  20. Flagellin modulates IgE expression in B cells to initiate food allergy in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Jing; Ma, Na; Zeng, Lu; Mo, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of IgE expression has not been fully understood. Flagellin (FGN) is an important microbial factor in the regulation of immune responses in the intestine. This study tests a hypothesis that FGN plays a crucial role in the isotype switching of IgE in B cells and the initiation of food allergy. In this study, the expression of IgE in B cells was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A mouse model was developed to assess the role of Toll like receptor-5 in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that exposure to FGN suppressed the expression of Bcl6 in B cells via increasing the levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7; the latter up regulated the levels of methylated H3K9 and H3K27, down regulated RNA polymerase II and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at the Bcl6 promoter locus. Exposure to FGN and IL-4 markedly increased the expression of IgE in B cells via activating p300, H3K4, Pol II and STAT6 at the IgE promoter locus. As compared with the sensitized wild mice, the sensitized TLR5-deficient mice showed no detectable OVA-specific IgE in the serum; mast cells in the intestinal mucosa were not activated, no apparent allergic symptoms were evoked after the specific antigen challenge. In conclusion, FGN facilitates the initiation of food allergy in mice by triggering IgE transcription in B cells in a Th2 polarization environment via activating HDAC7 and suppressing Bcl6 expression.

  1. Low-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRII)-mediated activation of human monocytes by both monomeric IgE and IgE/anti-IgE immune complex.

    PubMed

    Ezeamuzie, Charles I; Al-Attiyah, Raja'a; Shihab, Puthiyaveetil K; Al-Radwan, Reem

    2009-08-01

    Monocytes and macrophages of individuals with allergic diseases express increased levels of the low-affinity IgE receptors (FcepsilonRII or CD23) on their surfaces. The cross-linking of CD23-bound IgE antibody by allergen activates the cells to release inflammatory mediators. In mast cells, the binding of IgE to the high-affinity IgE receptors (FcepsilonRI) has recently been shown to activate these cells independent of allergen. It has not been determined if such is true of the binding of IgE to the low-affinity receptors. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine whether monomeric IgE alone can activate CD23-bearing human monocytes and how this may relate to the activation by IgE/anti-IgE immune complex. Purified monocytes, cultured for 48 h with IL-4 to up-regulate CD23 were sensitized with human myeloma IgE and further cultured for 24 h with or without anti-human IgE antibody. The release of cytokines TNF-alpha and MIP-1alpha (as an index of activation) was determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results showed that in IL-4-treated/CD23-bearing monocytes, sensitization with IgE alone caused a release of TNF-alpha and MIP-1alpha. The addition of anti-IgE antibody to cross-link the bound IgE resulted in the enhancement of the response. Such activation by monomeric IgE and IgE/anti-IgE immune complex was blocked with an anti-CD23 antibody, confirming the specific involvement of CD23 molecules. Neither of the activation modalities elevated intracellular cAMP, contrary to previous report. These results show for the first time, that in CD23-bearing monocytes, IgE sensitization alone can activate monocytes, and that ligation of such IgE by anti-IgE antibody only enhances the response. These observations have implications for the understanding of the pathophysiology of IgE-dependent inflammation accompanying many allergic diseases.

  2. Heterogeneity in the IgE binding to a peptide derived from the house dust mite allergen Der p II indicates that the IgE response is highly polyclonal.

    PubMed

    van't Hof, W; van den Berg, M; Driedijk, P C; Aalberse, R C

    1993-01-01

    The fine specificity of IgE antibody binding to peptide 65-78 of the house dust mite major allergen Der p II was examined by comparison with binding to two peptides in which the cysteines corresponding to cys73 and cys78 in Der p II were substituted by serines and methionines. Differences in binding behavior indicated that at least three different subpopulations of IgE antibodies bound to peptide 65-78. Even at the level of such a small fragment the IgE response in individual donors proved to be polyclonal.

  3. Making IGES work for CAD/CAM data exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.; Fletcher, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    This report outlines Sandia National Laboratories effort to integrate the CAE/CAD/CAM capabilities of three laboratories and six production plants in the DOE weapons complex with the Initial Graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES). The problems with IGES are addressed and solutions are explained. The implementation of the IGES concept is also outlined.

  4. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro.

  5. Porcine allergy and IgE.

    PubMed

    Rupa, Prithy; Schmied, Julie; Wilkie, Bruce N

    2009-11-15

    Anaphylaxis was reported in 1963 in pigs experimentally sensitized with ovalbumin and was subsequently associated indirectly with IgE-related antibodies by functional assays to confirm heat-labile passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), reverse passive anaphylaxis (RPA) and Prausnitz-Küstner (PK) reactions to this and other allergens. The immunoglobulin mediating immediate hypersensitivity could be cross-adsorbed with anti-human IgE. Porcine IgE epsilon chain has been cloned and sequenced. Rabbit anti-pig IgE has been described by two groups, as has cross reactivity with pig IgE of various heterologous polyclonal and monoclonal anti-IgEs. Pigs develop transient post-weaning food allergy to soy allergens which can be prevented by pre-weaning feeding of soy proteins in sufficient quantity. Natural hypersensitivity also occurs to nematodes. Recently, experimental allergy has been induced in outbred pigs to peanut and to egg allergens which manifest as respiratory, cutaneous and enteric signs similar to those of human food allergy. These models are platforms for comparative allergy research as realistic alternatives to use of inbred mice or humans for investigation of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapy.

  6. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  7. BCR Ligation antagonizes the IL-21 enhancement of anti-CD40/IL-4 Plasma cell differentiation and IgE production found in low density human B cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Caven, Timothy H.; Sturgill, Jamie L.; Conrad, Daniel H.

    2007-01-01

    We sought to discover the mechanisms explaining increased IgE production seen at low cell densities when IL-21 is added to human B cell cultures activated with anti-CD40 and IL-4. When cells were cultured in the absence of BCR ligation, qPCR demonstrated dramatic increases in mRNA for the plasma cell transcription factors BLIMP1 and XBP1. Furthermore, a majority of viable cells expressed high levels of CD38 while losing expression of surface IgD. In contrast, in the presence of BCR stimulation, both the XBP1 mRNA levels and CD38 cell surface expression were markedly reduced, and a large population of cells retained IgD expression, indicating reduced plasma cell differentiation. IgE levels were reduced in the BCR stimulated cultures by 90%, while IgG4 levels remained unchanged. In summary, IL-21 enhances IgE production at low densities through stimulating cell division and plasma cell differentiation and this activity is reduced upon BCR crosslinking. PMID:17888893

  8. BCR ligation antagonizes the IL-21 enhancement of anti-CD40/IL-4 plasma cell differentiation and IgE production found in low density human B cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Caven, Timothy H; Sturgill, Jamie L; Conrad, Daniel H

    2007-05-01

    We sought to discover the mechanisms explaining increased IgE production seen at low cell densities when IL-21 is added to human B cell cultures activated with anti-CD40 and IL-4. When cells were cultured in the absence of BCR ligation, qPCR demonstrated dramatic increases in mRNA for the plasma cell transcription factors BLIMP1 and XBP1. Furthermore, a majority of viable cells expressed high levels of CD38 while losing expression of surface IgD. In contrast, in the presence of BCR stimulation, both the XBP1 mRNA levels and CD38 cell surface expression were markedly reduced, and a large population of cells retained IgD expression, indicating reduced plasma cell differentiation. IgE levels were reduced in the BCR stimulated cultures by 90%, while IgG4 levels remained unchanged. In summary, IL-21 enhances IgE production at low densities through stimulating cell division and plasma cell differentiation and this activity is reduced upon BCR cross-linking.

  9. Seasonal split influenza vaccine induced IgE sensitization against influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Kumagai, Takuji; Nishimura, Naoko; Ozaki, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Suzuki, Eitaro; Miyata, Akiko; Okada, Kenji; Ihara, Toshiaki

    2015-11-09

    Although anaphylaxis is an extremely rare vaccine-associated adverse event, it occurred in young children following administration of the 2011/12 seasonal split influenza vaccine, which contained 2-phenoxyethanol as the preservative. These children had high levels of IgE antibodies against influenza vaccine components. We herein investigated why these children were sensitized. One hundred and seventeen series of serum samples were obtained immediately before, and one month after the first and second immunizations with the HA split vaccine of 2011/12. Forty-two sequential serum samples were collected in the acute and convalescent phases (2 and 4 weeks) after natural infection with H1N1 Pdm in 2009. IgE antibodies developed following the vaccination of young children with seasonal split vaccines, whereas no significant IgE response was observed following natural infection with H1N1 Pdm 2009. The prevalence of IgE antibodies was not influenced by outbreaks of H1N1 Pdm. Repeated immunization with the HA split vaccine induced IgE sensitization against the influenza vaccine irrespective of the H1N1, H3N2, or B influenza subtypes. The reasons why anaphylaxis only occurred in recipients of the influenza vaccine containing 2-phenoxyethanol are still being investigated, and the size distribution of antigen particles may have shifted to a slightly larger size. Since the fundamental reason was IgE sensitization, current split formulation for the seasonal influenza vaccine needs to be reconsidered to prevent the induction of IgE sensitization.

  10. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    PubMed

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  11. Differential induction of total IgE by two Salmonella enterica serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ktsoyan, Zhanna A.; Mkrtchyan, Mkhitar S.; Zakharyan, Magdalina K.; Mnatsakanyan, Armine A.; Arakelova, Karine A.; Gevorgyan, Zaruhi U.; Ktsoyan, Lusntag A.; Sedrakyan, Anahit Ì.; Hovhannisyan, Alvard I.; Ghazaryan1, Karine A.; Boyajyan, Anna S.; Aminov, Rustam I.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to establish how the inflammation caused by infection with two different Salmonella enterica serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, may lead to the predisposition to allergy as measured by total IgE level in the blood. Infection by S. Typhimurium did not affect the systemic IgE concentration while in S. Enteritidis-infected patients there was a significant 3.5-fold increase. This effect was especially profound in patients >4 years old, with up to the 8-fold increase above the norm. The degree of dysbiosis in these two infections measured with the comparative counts of cultivated bacteria showed an inverse relationship with the IgE concentration. Earlier we reported the elevated level of IL-17 in patients infected by S. Enteritidis. In the current study a significant correlation was found between the concentrations of IL-17 and IgE suggesting a possible role played by this cytokine in triggering the production of IgE in response to S. Enteritidis infection. PMID:26075186

  12. Reduced serum hepcidin levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Girelli, Domenico; Pasino, Michela; Goodnough, Julia B.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Guido, Maria; Castagna, Annalisa; Busti, Fabiana; Campostrini, Natascia; Martinelli, Nicola; Vantini, Italo; Corrocher, Roberto; Ganz, Tomas; Fattovich, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) often have increased liver iron, a condition associated with reduced sustained response to antiviral therapy, more rapid progression to cirrhosis, and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The hepatic hormone hepcidin is the major regulator of iron metabolism and inhibits iron absorption and recycling from erythrophagocytosis. Hepcidin decrease is a possible pathophysiological mechanism of iron overload in CHC, but studies in humans have been hampered so far by the lack of reliable quantitative assays for the 25-amino acid bioactive peptide in serum (s-hepcidin). Methods Using a recently validated immunoassay, we measured s-hepcidin levels in 81 untreated CHC patients and 57 controls with rigorous definition of normal iron status. All CHC patients underwent liver biopsy with histological iron score. Results S-hepcidin was significantly lower in CHC patients than in controls (geometric means with 95% confidence intervals: 33.7, 21.5–52.9 vs. 90.9, 76.1–108.4 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001). In CHC patients, s-hepcidin significantly correlated with serum ferritin and histological total iron score, but not with s-interleukin-6. After stratification for ferritin quartiles, s-hepcidin increased significantly across quartiles in both controls and CHC patients (chi for trend, p < 0.001). However, in CHC patients, s-hepcidin was significantly lower than in controls for each corresponding quartile (analysis of variance, p < 0.001). Conclusions These results, together with very recent studies in animal and cellular models, indicate that although hepcidin regulation by iron stores is maintained in CHC, the suppression of this hormone by hepatitis C virus is likely an important factor in liver iron accumulation in this condition. PMID:19729219

  13. Long term persistence of IgE anti-influenza virus antibodies in pediatric and adult serum post vaccination with influenza virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Wong, Darrin; Kusonruksa, Melanie; Norowitz, Kevin B; Joks, Rauno; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

    2011-03-18

    The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, Parainfluenza virus, Varicella Zoster Virus), and the ability of IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the presence and persistence of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies has not been studied. Total serum IgE and specific IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies were studied in children (N = 3) (m/f 14-16 y/o) and adults (N = 3) (m/f, 41-49 y/o) 2-20 months after vaccination with Influenza virus (Flumist(®) or Fluzone(®)), as well as in non-vaccinated children (N = 2). (UniCAP total IgE Fluoroenzymeimmunoassay, ELISA, Immunoblot). We found that serum of vaccinated children and adults contained IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies approaching two years post vaccination. Non-vaccinated children did not make either IgE or IgG anti-Influenza antibodies. Similar levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokines were detected in serum of vaccinated compared with non vaccinated subjects (p > 0.05), as well as between vaccinated adults compared with vaccinated children and non vaccinated subjects (p > 0.05). Vaccinated children and adults continue to produce IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies long term post vaccination. The long term production of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies induced by vaccination may contribute to protective immunity against Influenza.

  14. Quantum-Dot-Based Immunochromatographic Assay for Total IgE in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Berlina, Anna N.; Taranova, Nadezhda A.; Zherdev, Anatoly V.; Sankov, Mikhail N.; Andreev, Igor V.; Martynov, Alexandr I.; Dzantiev, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    To rapidly quantify total immunoglobulin E levels in human serum, we developed a novel quantum-dot-based immunochromatographic assay that employs digital recording of fluorescence. It can detect IgE levels of 5–1000 kU/L, with a coefficient of variation ranging from 2.0 to 9.5%. The assay can be processed in 10 min. The developed assay was tested on 95 serum samples. The correlation coefficient between the IgE values obtained by the proposed assay and those obtained by a commercial ELISA kit was 0.9884. Our assay thus shows promise as a new diagnostic tool for IgE detection. PMID:24204841

  15. Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mediaty, Anja; Neuber, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330). Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD), 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE < 300 kU/l a reduction of total serum IgE was significantly correlated with age. In contrast, patients with IgE levels > 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis. PMID:15927080

  16. The 3rd International Standard for serum IgE: international collaborative study to evaluate a candidate preparation.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Susan J; Heath, Alan; Fox, Bernard; Patel, Dina; Egner, William

    2014-09-01

    The measurement of serum IgE aids in the diagnosis and management of atopic allergic disease and hyper-IgE immunodeficiency syndromes. The 2nd World Health Organization (WHO) International Reference Reagent (IRR) for serum IgE (75/502; 5000 IU/ampoule), is widely used to calibrate assays for serum IgE. Exhaustion of stocks of the 2nd IRR necessitated the production of a replacement preparation and its evaluation in an international collaborative study to determine its suitability to serve as the 3rd International Standard (IS) for serum IgE. Sera and defibrinated plasma with elevated IgE levels were pooled and lyophilised in ampoules. This preparation, coded 11/234, was assayed by 18 laboratories in 11 countries using commercial assay methodology for IgE, along with the 2nd IRR, 75/502, and two lyophilised serum samples. Overall, there were no consistent differences in the way that the candidate IS (11/234), the IRR (75/502), and the two serum samples behaved in the assays with respect to linearity and parallelism. The mean IgE value of the candidate IS, 11/234, relative to the IRR, 75/502, was 13,411 IU/mL based on parallel line analysis of raw assay data at NIBSC, and 13,551 IU/mL based on the laboratories' own estimates after correcting for the values obtained for 75/502. The use of 11/234 will ensure that assays for serum IgE continue to be well standardised. The preparation was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization as the 3rd IS for serum IgE with an assigned value of 13,500 IU/mL, corresponding to 6750 IU/ampoule.

  17. House Dust Mite-induced Allergic Airway Disease is Independent of IgE and FcɛRIα.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Christopher G; Jude, Joseph A; Zhu, Zhenqi; Panettieri, Reynold A; Finkelman, Fred D

    2017-07-12

    IgE contributes to disease exacerbations but not to baseline airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in human asthma. In rodent allergic airway disease (AAD), mast cell and IgE dependence for the induction of AHR has only been observed when mice are immunized with a relatively weak allergen without adjuvant. To evaluate the role of IgE in murine AAD that is induced by a potent allergen, we inoculated BALB/c and FVB/N background wild-type, and IgE- or FcεRIα-deficient mice intratracheally with large or limiting doses of house dust mite extract (HDM) and evaluated AHR, pulmonary eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia, serum IgE, and lung mastocytosis. We found that neither IgE nor FcεRIα contributed to AAD, even in mice inoculated with the lowest dose of HDM, which readily induced detectable disease but did not increase serum IgE or pulmonary mast cell levels. In contrast, high doses of HDM strikingly increased serum IgE and pulmonary mast cells, although both AHR and airway mast cell degranulation were equally elevated in wild-type and IgE-deficient mice. Surprisingly, allergen challenge of mice with severe AAD and pulmonary mastocytosis failed to acutely increase airway resistance, lung Newtonian resistance or hysteresis. Overall, this study shows that while mice may not reliably model acute asthma exacerbations, mechanisms that are IgE- and FcεRIα-independent are responsible for AHR and airway inflammation when low doses of a potent allergen are inhaled repetitively.

  18. Natural clinical tolerance to peanut in African patients is caused by poor allergenic activity of peanut IgE.

    PubMed

    Wollmann, E; Hamsten, C; Sibanda, E; Ochome, M; Focke-Tejkl, M; Asarnoj, A; Önell, A; Lilja, G; Gallerano, D; Lupinek, C; Thalhamer, T; Weiss, R; Thalhamer, J; Wickman, M; Valenta, R; van Hage, M

    2015-06-01

    In Africa, peanuts are frequently consumed, but severe allergic reactions are rare. We investigated immunological patterns of clinical tolerance to peanut in peanut-sensitized but asymptomatic patients from central Africa compared to peanut-allergic and peanut-sensitized but asymptomatic patients from Sweden. Sera from allergic patients (n = 54) from Zimbabwe sensitized to peanut but without allergic symptoms to peanut, and sera from peanut-allergic (n = 25) and peanut-sensitized but asymptomatic (n = 25) patients from Sweden were analyzed toward peanut allergen components (Ara h 1-3, 6, 8-9) and other allergen molecules from important allergen sources using microarray. IgE to Ara h 2 peptide epitopes was analyzed, and allergenic activity was assessed by basophil activation assay. Forty-six percent of the African and all peanut-allergic Swedish patients showed IgE toward one of the highly allergenic peanut allergens (Ara h 1-3, 6, 9). However, 48% of the African patients had IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) with low allergenic activity and 60% of the Swedish asymptomatic patients had IgE against the PR protein Ara h 8. IgG and IgG4 specificities and levels could not discriminate between the African asymptomatic and Swedish peanut-allergic patients. Asymptomatic patients almost lacked IgE to Ara h 2 peptides, which were recognized by peanut-allergic patients. Peanut IgE from peanut asymptomatic patients showed poor allergenic activity compared with IgE from peanut-allergic patients. Natural clinical tolerance to peanut in the African patients can be caused by IgE to low allergenic peanut components and by poor allergenic activity of peanut-specific IgE. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. IgE antibodies and skin tests in immediate hypersensitivity reactions to infliximab in inflammatory bowel disease: impact on infliximab retreatment.

    PubMed

    Fréling, Estelle; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Poreaux, Claire; Morali, Alain; Waton, Julie; Schmutz, Jean-Luc; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Barbaud, Annick

    2015-10-01

    Infliximab (IFX) is used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Immediate hypersensitivity reactions (HR) to IFX are frequently reported. We investigated immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated mechanisms underlying immediate HR to IFX. We also evaluated the clinical utility of allergological tests as well as the tolerability of IFX retreatment in these patients. This was a prospective single-center study including IBD patients with previous immediate HR to IFX. Skin tests to IFX, including prick tests and intradermal tests, and measurement of anti-IFX IgE antibodies were performed at least 4 weeks after HR. In case of negative skin tests and absence of IgE antibodies, readministration of IFX was performed with a twice-reduced infusion rate. In case of positive tests or recurrence of HR during readministration of IFX, a 12-step desensitization or induction of tolerance protocol was proposed. A total of 24 IBD patients were included (Crohn's disease: n=20). Prick tests to IFX were all negative. Intradermal test was positive in one patient. Anti-IFX IgE antibodies were not detected in 21 patients and were detected in three patients (significant level in one patient and intermediate level in two patients). No relationship was observed between positive skin tests and the presence of anti-IFX IgE antibodies. Switch to adalimumab was well tolerated in 10/11 patients. The readministration of IFX was well tolerated in 4/11 patients. Desensitization to IFX was successful in three out of four patients. The vast majority of immediate HR to IFX is not IgE-mediated. Allergological tests are of poor clinical utility. Desensitization or induction of tolerance protocol may allow continuation of IFX therapy in IBD patients with a history of immediate HR.

  20. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on IgE antibody responses in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Terr, A.I.; Moss, R.B.; Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies.

  1. High-resolution crystal structure and IgE recognition of the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 3.

    PubMed

    Devanaboyina, S C; Cornelius, C; Lupinek, C; Fauland, K; Dall'Antonia, F; Nandy, A; Hagen, S; Flicker, S; Valenta, R; Keller, W

    2014-12-01

    Group 2 and 3 grass pollen allergens are major allergens with high allergenic activity and exhibit structural similarity with the C-terminal portion of major group 1 allergens. In this study, we aimed to determine the crystal structure of timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 3, and to study its IgE recognition and cross-reactivity with group 2 and group 1 allergens. The three-dimensional structure of Phl p 3 was solved by X-ray crystallography and compared with the structures of group 1 and 2 grass pollen allergens. Cross-reactivity was studied using a human monoclonal antibody which inhibits allergic patients' IgE binding and by IgE inhibition experiments with patients' sera. Conformational Phl p 3 IgE epitopes were predicted with the algorithm SPADE, and Phl p 3 variants containing single point mutations in the predicted IgE binding sites were produced to analyze allergic patients' IgE binding. Phl p 3 is a globular β-sandwich protein showing structural similarity to Phl p 2 and the Phl p 1-C-terminal domain. Phl p 3 showed IgE cross-reactivity with group 2 allergens but not with group 1 allergens. SPADE identified two conformational IgE epitope-containing areas, of which one overlaps with the epitope defined by the monoclonal antibody. The mutation of arginine 68 to alanine completely abolished binding of the blocking antibody. This mutation and a mutation of D13 in the predicted second IgE epitope area also reduced allergic patients' IgE binding. Group 3 and group 2 grass pollen allergens are cross-reactive allergens containing conformational IgE epitopes. They lack relevant IgE cross-reactivity with group 1 allergens and therefore need to be included in diagnostic tests and allergen-specific treatments in addition to group 1 allergens. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Salo, Päivi M; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J; Hoppin, Jane A; Sever, Michelle L; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2011-05-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific IgE in the general US population. We estimated the prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005-2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (n = 8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgE levels against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins, and selected foods (egg white, cow's milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgE by using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. In NHANES 2005-2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever, and 23.5% had current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE levels (adjusted odds ratios for a 10-fold increase in total IgE level of 1.86 [95% CI, 1.44-2.41] for hay fever and 1.64 [95% CI, 1.41-1.91] for allergies). Increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgE (adjusted odds ratio, 4.75; 95% CI, 3.83-5.88). In the US population self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with increased levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgE. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. Clinical evaluation of total IgE in tears of patients with allergic conjunctivitis disease using a novel application of the immunochromatography method.

    PubMed

    Inada, Noriko; Shoji, Jun; Kato, Hiroshi; Kiely, Surayah; Mulyanto; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The determination of total IgE in tears is useful as a diagnostic tool in allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). We evaluated the efficacy of this diagnostic tool for ACD, which is a clinically applicable novel immunochromagraphic method to determine total IgE in tears. The subjects comprised 4 groups: 15 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC group), 8 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC group), 18 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC group), and 7 normal healthy volunteers as a control (control group). Tears were sampled using filter paper, and the total IgE in tears was determined by immunochromatography assay. Semiquantitative determination was carried out by examining the intensity of the colored line using an immunochromatoreader (IgE index). The relationship between IgE indices in tears and total IgE levels in serum or between IgE indices and the clinical scores of ACD was examined. The positive ratio obtained by this novel application of the immunochromatography assay was 38 of the 41 in the patients with ACD and none in the 7 controls. IgE indices for the VKC group, AKC group and AC group were 27.5 +/- 15.6, 19.8 +/- 15.8, and 4.0 +/- 3.1 (mean +/- SD), respectively. IgE indices in tears showed significant correlation with both total IgE levels in serum (P < 0.001, r = 0.76) and clinical scores of ACD (P < 0.001, r = 0.57). The novel application of the immunochromatography assay to assess the total IgE in tears is a useful clinical tool to investigate ACD.

  4. Determinants of total and specific IgE in infants with atopic dermatitis. ETAC Study Group. Early Treatment of the Atopic Child.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    ETAC (Early Treatment of the Atopic Child), a multi-centre predominantly European study to investigate the potential for cetirizine to prevent the development of asthma in infants with atopic dermatitis has completed enrollment: 817 children have been randomised to 18 months' treatment with either active or placebo and a subsequent 18 months of post-treatment follow-up. Results of the therapeutic effects will not be available for some time, but the study has provided an opportunity to investigate influences on sensitization to allergens in a large cohort of 1-2 years olds with already established atopic dermatitis, resident in different countries and in different environments. The study shows that in infants with atopic dermatitis, raised serum total IgE has significantly different determinants from that a specific allergen sensitization. In infancy, increased total IgE is more affected by factors increasing risk of intercurrent infection and non-specific airway inflammation, such as environmental tobacco smoke exposure (p < 0.001) and the use of gas cookers (p = 0.02). Specific allergen sensitization as represented by detectable IgE antibodies is influenced primarily by allergen exposure. In Sweden, low level exposure to allergens is associated with reduced specific allergen sensitization rates even though the infants already have atopic dermatitis.

  5. Intrinsic transcriptional heterogeneity in B cells controls early class switching to IgE.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yee Ling; Stubbington, Michael J T; Daly, Maria; Teichmann, Sarah A; Rada, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Noncoding transcripts originating upstream of the immunoglobulin constant region (I transcripts) are required to direct activation-induced deaminase to initiate class switching in B cells. Differential regulation of Iε and Iγ1 transcription in response to interleukin 4 (IL-4), hence class switching to IgE and IgG1, is not fully understood. In this study, we combine novel mouse reporters and single-cell RNA sequencing to reveal the heterogeneity in IL-4-induced I transcription. We identify an early population of cells expressing Iε but not Iγ1 and demonstrate that early Iε transcription leads to switching to IgE and occurs at lower activation levels than Iγ1. Our results reveal how probabilistic transcription with a lower activation threshold for Iε directs the early choice of IgE versus IgG1, a key physiological response against parasitic infestations and a mediator of allergy and asthma. © 2017 Wu et al.

  6. Reduced ING1 levels in breast cancer promotes metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Tran, Uyen; Yang, Yang; Salazar, Carolina; Magliocco, Anthony; Klimowicz, Alexander; Jirik, Frank R.; Riabowol, Karl

    2014-01-01

    INhibitor of Growth 1 (ING1) expression is repressed in breast carcinomas, but its role in breast cancer development and metastasis is unknown. ING1 levels were quantified in >500 patient samples using automated quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and data were analysed for correlations to patient outcome. Effects of altering ING levels were examined in microarrays and metastasis assays in vitro, and in a mouse metastasis model in vivo. ING1 levels were lower in tumors compared to adjacent normal breast tissue and correlated with tumor size (p=0.019) and distant recurrence (p=0.001) in ER- or Her2+ patients. In these patients ING1 predicted disease-specific and distant metastasis-free survival. Transcriptome analysis showed that the pathway most affected by ING1 was breast cancer (p = 0.0008). Decreasing levels of ING1 increased, and increasing levels decreased, migration and invasion of MDA-MB231 cells in vitro. ING1 overexpression also blocked cancer cell metastasis in vivo and eliminated tumor-induced mortality in mouse models. Our data show that ING1 protein levels are downregulated in breast cancer and for the first time, we show that altering their levels regulates metastasis in vitro and in vivo, which indicates that ING1 may have a therapeutic role for inhibiting metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:24962136

  7. LLMapReduce: Multi-Level Map-Reduce for High Performance Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-23

    Lexington, MA, U.S.A Abstract— The map-reduce parallel programming model has become extremely popular in the big data community. Many big data ...to big data users running on a supercomputer. LLMapReduce dramatically simplifies map-reduce programming by providing simple parallel programming...SLURM; LSF I. INTRODUCTION Large scale computing is currently dominated by four ecosystems: supercomputing, database, enterprise, and big data [1

  8. Techniques for Reducing Gun Blast Noise Levels: An Experimental Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    gun muzzle blast noise level were in- vestigated experimentally to determine potential effectiveness and utility for existing major-caliber guns...impact on training and testing operations was to be minimized. Most of the noise reduction techniques that were investigated involve the use of some type ...shock noise level at the earth’s surface varies according to a complicated dependence upon projectile trajectory, projectile speed along the trajectory

  9. Dendritic cell-bound IgE functions to restrain allergic inflammation at mucosal sites

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Baker, Kristi; Vera, Miguel Pinilla; Singer, Kathleen; Panduro, Marisella; Lexmond, Willem S.; Turner, Devin; Vargas, Sara O.; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Maurer, Dieter; Baron, Rebecca M.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-mediated crosslinking of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to mast cells/basophils via FcεRI, the high affinity IgE Fc-receptor, is a well-known trigger of allergy. In humans, but not mice, dendritic cells (DCs) also express FcεRI that is constitutively occupied with IgE. In contrast to mast cells/basophils, the consequences of IgE/FcεRI signals for DC function remain poorly understood. We show that humanized mice that express FcεRI on DCs carry IgE like non-allergic humans and do not develop spontaneous allergies. Antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking fails to induce maturation or production of inflammatory mediators in human DCs and FcεRI-humanized DCs. Furthermore, conferring expression of FcεRI to DCs decreases the severity of food allergy and asthma in disease-relevant models suggesting anti-inflammatory IgE/FcεRI signals. Consistent with the improved clinical parameters in vivo, antigen-specific IgE/FcεRI crosslinking on papain or LPS-stimulated DCs inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Migration assays confirm that the IgE-dependent decrease in cytokine production results in diminished recruitment of mast cell progenitors; providing a mechanistic explanation for the reduced mast cell-dependent allergic phenotype observed in FcεRI-humanized mice. Our study demonstrates a novel immune regulatory function of IgE and proposes that DC-intrinsic IgE signals serve as a feedback mechanism to restrain allergic tissue inflammation. PMID:25227985

  10. IgE enhances Fc epsilon RI expression and IgE-dependent TNF-alpha release from canine skin mast cells.

    PubMed

    Brazís, P; De Mora, F; Ferrer, L; Puigdemont, A

    2002-03-01

    The role of IgE on mast cell (MC) activation is well known. Recent studies have demonstrated that IgE also has the ability to up-regulate the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI) on the surface of human and murine MC, leading to an increased production of cytokines and chemokines. In the present study, we have examined the influence of IgE levels on Fc epsilon RI expression, and its consequences on TNF-alpha production from canine skin MC. Mature MC were enzymatically dispersed from the skin biopsies of 6-8 dogs and were cultured for up to 5 days in medium supplemented with recombinant canine stem cell factor (SCF) (6 ng/ml), in the presence of increasing serum IgE concentrations (ranging from 0 to 80 microg/ml). Subsequently, skin MC were activated with anti-IgE, and TNF-alpha concentration was assessed 5h post-activation by a cytotoxic bioassay. Fc epsilon RI receptors were identified in MC surface by flow cytometry. MC cultured for up to 5 days in the presence of high serum IgE concentration (8 microg/ml) produced twice the quantity of TNF-alpha than MC cultured in the absence of serum IgE, in response to stimulation with anti-IgE. Moreover, the percentage of Fc epsilon RI-positive skin cells was found to be approximately double in cells cultured with serum IgE compared to that cultured in the absence of IgE, following saturation of IgE receptors. These results suggest that, as found in human and murine MC, IgE may induce an up-regulation of the Fc epsilon RI density and an enhancement in the secretory activity of canine skin MC. This study could be of great interest in designing new therapeutic strategies for controlling MC activation in inflammatory and allergic processes.

  11. Dissociating speech perception and comprehension at reduced levels of awareness.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew H; Coleman, Martin R; Absalom, Anthony R; Rodd, Jennifer M; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Matta, Basil F; Owen, Adrian M; Menon, David K

    2007-10-09

    We used functional MRI and the anesthetic agent propofol to assess the relationship among neural responses to speech, successful comprehension, and conscious awareness. Volunteers were scanned while listening to sentences containing ambiguous words, matched sentences without ambiguous words, and signal-correlated noise (SCN). During three scanning sessions, participants were nonsedated (awake), lightly sedated (a slowed response to conversation), and deeply sedated (no conversational response, rousable by loud command). Bilateral temporal-lobe responses for sentences compared with signal-correlated noise were observed at all three levels of sedation, although prefrontal and premotor responses to speech were absent at the deepest level of sedation. Additional inferior frontal and posterior temporal responses to ambiguous sentences provide a neural correlate of semantic processes critical for comprehending sentences containing ambiguous words. However, this additional response was absent during light sedation, suggesting a marked impairment of sentence comprehension. A significant decline in postscan recognition memory for sentences also suggests that sedation impaired encoding of sentences into memory, with left inferior frontal and temporal lobe responses during light sedation predicting subsequent recognition memory. These findings suggest a graded degradation of cognitive function in response to sedation such that "higher-level" semantic and mnemonic processes can be impaired at relatively low levels of sedation, whereas perceptual processing of speech remains resilient even during deep sedation. These results have important implications for understanding the relationship between speech comprehension and awareness in the healthy brain in patients receiving sedation and in patients with disorders of consciousness.

  12. Health Promotion to Reduce Blood Pressure Level among Older Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    1986-01-01

    Low-income Black elders completed a 10-week health promotion program for the purpose of lowering or stabilizing blood pressure levels. Comparisons were made between classes that met weekly versus three times a week, and between yoga and aerobics formats. A peer-led program was developed that continued for 10 months after the professionally-led…

  13. Health Promotion to Reduce Blood Pressure Level among Older Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    1986-01-01

    Low-income Black elders completed a 10-week health promotion program for the purpose of lowering or stabilizing blood pressure levels. Comparisons were made between classes that met weekly versus three times a week, and between yoga and aerobics formats. A peer-led program was developed that continued for 10 months after the professionally-led…

  14. IgE Abs to Der p 1 and Der p 2 as diagnostic markers of house dust mite allergy as defined by a bronchoprovocation test.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takafumi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Lidholm, Jonas; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Maeda, Yuji; Mori, Akio; Taniguchi, Masami; Hasegawa, Maki; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to allergen components from house dust mites (HDMs) in the diagnosis of genuine HDM allergy. To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of measuring levels of serum IgE antibodies (Abs) to allergen components from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) as a predictor of immediate asthmatic response (IAR) to bronchoprovocation, we studied 55 DP-sensitized asthmatic patients who underwent a bronchoprovocation test using crude DP extract. The levels of IgE Abs to crude DP, nDer p 1, rDer p 2, and rDer p 10 in patients who showed IAR (n = 41) were compared with those in patients who showed no IAR (n = 14). While the frequencies of positivity for IgE Abs to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 among the entire study population were 89 and 86%, respectively, all patients with IAR tested positive for both of them with high IgE concentrations. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as predictors of IAR were 0.913 and 0.906, respectively. The specificity of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 was higher than IgE to crude DP even at low cut-off points. IgE to nDer p 1 and/or rDer p 2 was highly predictive of allergen-induced IAR. These findings validate the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as a diagnostic tool for genuine HDM allergy. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissociating speech perception and comprehension at reduced levels of awareness

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew H.; Coleman, Martin R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Rodd, Jennifer M.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Matta, Basil F.; Owen, Adrian M.; Menon, David K.

    2007-01-01

    We used functional MRI and the anesthetic agent propofol to assess the relationship among neural responses to speech, successful comprehension, and conscious awareness. Volunteers were scanned while listening to sentences containing ambiguous words, matched sentences without ambiguous words, and signal-correlated noise (SCN). During three scanning sessions, participants were nonsedated (awake), lightly sedated (a slowed response to conversation), and deeply sedated (no conversational response, rousable by loud command). Bilateral temporal-lobe responses for sentences compared with signal-correlated noise were observed at all three levels of sedation, although prefrontal and premotor responses to speech were absent at the deepest level of sedation. Additional inferior frontal and posterior temporal responses to ambiguous sentences provide a neural correlate of semantic processes critical for comprehending sentences containing ambiguous words. However, this additional response was absent during light sedation, suggesting a marked impairment of sentence comprehension. A significant decline in postscan recognition memory for sentences also suggests that sedation impaired encoding of sentences into memory, with left inferior frontal and temporal lobe responses during light sedation predicting subsequent recognition memory. These findings suggest a graded degradation of cognitive function in response to sedation such that “higher-level” semantic and mnemonic processes can be impaired at relatively low levels of sedation, whereas perceptual processing of speech remains resilient even during deep sedation. These results have important implications for understanding the relationship between speech comprehension and awareness in the healthy brain in patients receiving sedation and in patients with disorders of consciousness. PMID:17938125

  16. [Oral or trandsdermanl hormone replacement therapy reduces interleukine-6 levels].

    PubMed

    Saucedo García, Renata; Basurto Acevedo, Lourdes; Rico Rosillo, Guadalupe; Galván, Rosa E; Zárate Treviño, Arturo

    2006-03-01

    To compare the effect of oral and transdermal estrogen replacement therapy (ET) on circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) in post-menopausal women. Prospective open trial study in 55 healthy hysterectomized postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52 years. Twenty-seven women received oral conjugated equine estrogens (0.625 mg daily) and the remaining 28 received transdermal estrogen replacement therapy (50 microg/day) during 6 months. At baseline both groups were similar as to age, body weight, and body mass index as well as serum levels of LH, FSH, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and IL-6. Baseline elevated IL-6 levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) after both oral and transdermal estrogen replacement therapy; this decrement showed no difference between the two groups. After the follow-up there were no differences in body weight and body mass index between groups; however, in the oral group there was a trend to increment this parameters. Serum levels of E2 and IL-6 were negatively correlated in the two groups and IL-6 was positively correlated with body mass index in untreated women and this correlation was the same in women with estrogen replacement therapy. The decrement of IL-6 after estrogen replacement therapy was similar for both routes of administration; in addition IL-6 had a negative correlation with E2 and a positive correlation with body mass index.

  17. Specific IgE for wheat in tear fluid of patients with allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Yamagami, Satoru; Noma, Hidetaka; Kamei, Yuko; Goto, Mari; Kondo, Aki; Matsubara, Masao

    2015-03-01

    Allergy to hydrolyzed wheat protein in facial soap has become a major social issue in Japan. It has been reported that the most frequent early symptoms of allergy to hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap are allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis, while wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis can be induced by long-term use. We evaluated the relation between tear fluid levels of specific IgE for wheat and the features of allergic conjunctivitis. A prospective, non-randomized, cross-sectional study was conducted in 103 patients with moderate to severe allergic conjunctivitis (allergic group) and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (control group). Specific IgE for wheat was measured in tear fluid with an immunochromatography assay, and a skin prick test (SPT) was also performed. Symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, ocular itching, and lacrimation) were assessed in each subject along with the activities of daily living (ADL) score and the total ocular symptom score for allergic conjunctivitis. A severity score (0, 1, 2, or 3) was assigned for various changes of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, as well as for limbal and corneal lesions associated with allergic conjunctivitis. The IgE positive rate and specific IgE score were both higher in the allergic group than in the control group (71.8% versus 40.0% and 1.9 ± 0.7 versus 1.4 ± 0.5). A positive SPT for wheat was also more frequent in the allergic group than in the control group (6.8% versus 0.0%). Within the allergic group, patients with a positive SPT had higher specific IgE scores than patients with a negative SPT (3.3 ± 0.5 versus 1.8 ± 0.6, p < 0.001). In the allergic group, the wheat IgE level in tear fluid was correlated with the severity of allergic conjunctivitis symptoms, including ocular itching (r = 0.665), tearing (r = 0.672), and the total ocular symptom score (r = 0.204). Wheat IgE in tear fluid was also correlated with the severity of rhinitis symptoms, including

  18. Nanocrystalline diamond impedimetric aptasensor for the label-free detection of human IgE.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dinh T; Vermeeren, Veronique; Grieten, Lars; Wenmackers, Sylvia; Wagner, Patrick; Pollet, Jeroen; Janssen, Kris P F; Michiels, Luc; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2011-02-15

    Like antibodies, aptamers are highly valuable as bioreceptor molecules for protein biomarkers because of their excellent selectivity, specificity and stability. The integration of aptamers with semiconducting materials offers great potential for the development of reliable aptasensors. In this paper we present an aptamer-based impedimetric biosensor using a nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) film as a working electrode for the direct and label-free detection of human immunoglobulin E (IgE). Amino (NH(2))-terminated IgE aptamers were covalently attached to carboxyl (COOH)-modified NCD surfaces using carbodiimide chemistry. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to measure the changes in interfacial electrical properties that arise when the aptamer-functionalized diamond surface was exposed to IgE solutions. During incubation, the formation of aptamer-IgE complexes caused a significant change in the capacitance of the double-layer, in good correspondence with the IgE concentration. The linear dynamic range of IgE detection was from 0.03 μg/mL to 42.8 μg/mL. The detection limit of the aptasensor reached physiologically relevant concentrations (0.03 μg/mL). The NCD-based aptasensor was demonstrated to be highly selective even in the presence of a large excess of IgG. In addition, the aptasensor provided reproducible signals during six regeneration cycles. The impedimetric aptasensor was successfully tested on human serum samples, which opens up the potential of using EIS for direct and label-free detection of IgE levels in blood serum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Red meat allergic patients have a selective IgE response to the α-Gal glycan.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, D; Tran, T A T; Sánchez-Vidaurre, S; Cirkovic Velickovic, T; Starkhammar, M; Hamsten, C; van Hage, M

    2015-11-01

    Galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) is a mammalian carbohydrate with significance in a novel type of food allergy. Patients with IgE against α-Gal report severe allergic symptoms 3-6 h after consumption of red meat. We investigated whether IgE from red meat allergic patients recognizes other mammalian glycans than α-Gal or glycans from the plant kingdom and insects of importance in allergy. We found that none of the 24 red meat allergic patients investigated had an IgE antibody response against the other abundant mammalian glycan N-glycolylneuraminic acid or against cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants from plant or venom sources (nCup a 1, nArt v 1, and MUXF3). Deglycosylation of an α-Gal-containing protein, bovine thyroglobulin, significantly reduced the IgE response. In conclusion, we show that red meat allergic patients have a selective IgE response to the α-Gal glycan found in red meat. Other common glycans reactive in allergic disease are not targets of red meat allergic patients' IgE.

  20. Effect of Proteolysis with Alkaline Protease Following High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment on IgE Binding of Buckwheat Protein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chaeyoon; Lee, Wonhui; Han, Youngshin; Oh, Sangsuk

    2017-03-01

    Buckwheat is a popular food material in many Asian countries and it contains major allergenic proteins. This study was performed to analyze the effects of hydrolysis with alkaline protease following high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on the IgE binding of buckwheat protein. Extracted buckwheat protein was treated with HHP at 600 MPa for 30 min and hydrolyzed with alkaline protease for 240 min. IgE binding was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with serum samples from 14 patients who were allergic to buckwheat. Depending on the serum samples, HHP treatment of buckwheat protein without enzymatic hydrolysis decreased the IgE binding by 8.9% to 73.2% or increased by 31% to 78%. The IgE binding of buckwheat protein hydrolyzed with alkaline protease decreased by 73.8% to 100%. The IgE binding of buckwheat protein hydrolyzed with alkaline protease following HHP treatment decreased by 83.8% to 100%. This suggested that hydrolysis with alkaline protease following HHP treatment could be applied to reduce the IgE binding of buckwheat protein. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Tracing antigen signatures in the human IgE repertoire.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Novatchkova, Maria; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Jenisch, Stefan; Jäger, Siegfried; Kabelitz, Dieter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-08-01

    Allergen recognition by IgE antibodies is a key event in allergic inflammation. In this study, the IgE IGHV repertoires of individuals with allergy to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, were analyzed over a four years period of allergen exposure by RT-PCR and sequencing of cDNA. Approximately half of the IgE transcripts represented non-redundant sequences, which belonged to seventeen different IGHV genes. Most variable regions contained somatic mutations but also non-mutated sequences were identified. There was no evidence for relevant increases of somatic mutations over time of allergen exposure. Highly similar IgE variable regions were found after four years of allergen exposure in the same and in genetically non-related individuals. Our results indicate that allergens select and shape a limited number of similar IgE variable regions in the human IgE repertoire.

  2. Tracing antigen signatures in the human IgE repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Marth, Katharina; Novatchkova, Maria; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Jenisch, Stefan; Jäger, Siegfried; Kabelitz, Dieter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Allergen recognition by IgE antibodies is a key event in allergic inflammation. In this study, the IgE IGHV repertoires of individuals with allergy to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, were analyzed over a four years period of allergen exposure by RT-PCR and sequencing of cDNA. Approximately half of the IgE transcripts represented non-redundant sequences, which belonged to seventeen different IGHV genes. Most variable regions contained somatic mutations but also non-mutated sequences were identified. There was no evidence for relevant increases of somatic mutations over time of allergen exposure. Highly similar IgE variable regions were found after four years of allergen exposure in the same and in genetically non-related individuals. Our results indicate that allergens select and shape a limited number of similar IgE variable regions in the human IgE repertoire. PMID:20573403

  3. Sensitivity of the skin prick test and specificity of the serum-specific IgE test for airway responsiveness to house dust mites in asthma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inseon S; Koh, Youngil I; Koh, Jeom-seok; Lee, Min-Gu

    2005-04-01

    The concept that asthma diagnosis based on allergen-specific IgE levels in serum is more accurate than diagnosis based on skin test reactivity is controversial. To determine the atopy parameter that correlates most closely with airway reactivity to house dust mites in asthma. Forty-three asthma cases were examined retrospectively for data on Dermatophagoides farinae-specific bronchoprovocation, serum-specific IgE, and skin prick tests. The maximal decreases in FEV1 following bronchoprovocation were correlated significantly with both the IgE levels and skin test scores. The accuracies of the tests were highest at a cutoff value of class 4 or higher for the IgE and of 3+ or higher for the skin test. At the cutoff values, the accuracies of both tests were similar (70% vs. 70%). The sensitivity of the skin test (81%) was higher than that of the IgE test (67%), whereas the specificity of the IgE test (71%) was higher than that of the skin test (52%). The sensitivity of the skin test was 91% at 2+ or higher, and the specificity of the IgE test was 95% at class 6 or higher. These results suggest that both the specific IgE level and the skin test reactivity are useful parameters in the prediction of positive airway responses to house dust mites in asthma. However, the skin test is more sensitive, whereas the IgE test is more specific. Therefore, these tests can be used in a complementary fashion (i.e., the skin test for screening and the specific IgE test for confirmation of the relevant allergen).

  4. Mast cell lines HMC-1 and LAD2 in comparison with mature human skin mast cells--drastically reduced levels of tryptase and chymase in mast cell lines.

    PubMed

    Guhl, Sven; Babina, Magda; Neou, Angelos; Zuberbier, Torsten; Artuc, Metin

    2010-09-01

    To circumvent the costly isolation procedure associated with tissue mast cells (MC), two human MC lines, i.e. HMC-1 and LAD2, are frequently employed, but their relation to mature MC is unknown. Here, we quantitatively assessed their expression of MC markers in direct comparison to skin MC (sMC). sMC expressed all lineage markers at highest and HMC-1 cells at lowest levels. LAD2 cells expressed comparable high-affinity IgE receptor alpha (FcepsilonRIalpha) and FcepsilonRIgamma but less FcepsilonRIbeta than sMC and displayed slightly reduced, but robust FcepsilonRI-mediated histamine release. Only minor differences were found for total histamine content and c-Kit expression. Huge, and to this level unexpected, differences were found for MC tryptase and chymase, with sMC > LAD2 > HMC-1. Taken together, HMC-1 cells represent very immature malignantly transformed MC, whereas LAD2 cells can be considered intermediately differentiated. Because of the minute levels of MC proteases, MC lines can serve as surrogates of tissue MC to a limited degree only.

  5. Combined effect of smoking habits and occupational exposure to hard metal on total IgE antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Morimoto, K. )

    1992-06-01

    A survey was made within a population of workers (n = 706) exposed to hard metal dust (an alloy including cobalt), an agent known to cause occupational allergy. Twenty-seven (4 percent) of 733 workers were eliminated from consideration in this study because of atopic status identified prior to starting work in the plant. Using a Phadebas PRIST, the subjects' total IgE levels were determined and related to their smoking and exposure status. Nonexposed male smokers (n = 135) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (39.7 IU/ml) than did nonexposed subjects who had never smoked (33.1 IU/ml; n = 99); those with a higher Brinkman index (greater than 300), a smoking index obtained by multiplying the number of cigarettes per day by the duration of smoking in years, had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased IgE levels. Although ex-smokers (n = 72) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (73.3 IU/ml) than did those who had never smoked, their serum IgE level declined with age since the time they quit smoking, regardless of their hard metal exposure status. Hard metal (cobalt) exposure may play a significant role as an adjuvant in the production of total IgE. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that hard metal exposure and a smoking habit together arithmetically (p less than 0.05) increased total IgE levels. These two factors may be preventable risk factors for occupational allergy in hard metal workers.

  6. [DNA aptamer based sorbents for binding human IgE].

    PubMed

    Spiridonova, V A; Levashov, P A; Ovchinnikova, E D; Afanas'eva, O I; Glinkina, K A; Adamova, I Iu; Pokrovskiĭ, S N

    2014-01-01

    DNA aptamer based sorbents are synthesized for binding human IgE. Sorbents effectively removed IgE from human blood plasma. The experimental values of IgE desorption constants were from 11 x 10(-l0) to 1.7 x 10(-10) M depending on the orientation of the aptamer, an insoluble matrix. The sorbents were stable during multiple use. Conditions for sorbent regeneration were picked up. These chromatographic materials can be used for medical and biotechnological applications.

  7. A locus regulating total serum IgE maps to chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Amelung, P.J.; Panhuysen, C.I.M.; Postma, D.S. |

    1994-09-01

    Familial aggregation of allergy has been demonstrated in numerous past studies. However, allergy is a complex disorder which is not inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. Total serum IgE levels correlate with the clinical expression of allergy and asthma and can be utilized as a quantitative measure of the allergic phenotype. We studied 92 families from Northern Holland ascertained through a parent with asthma who were originally studied between 1962-1970. Since there is a large number of candidate genes on chromosome 5q, families were genotyped for markers in this region. These genes either directly or indirectly regulate IgE production and the activation and proliferation of cellular elements that are involved in inflammation associated with allergy and asthma. They include IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and GM-CSF. Segregation analyses revealed recessive inheritance of `high` levels with a mean for the `low` phenotype of 1.51 (32 IU) and 2.52 (331 IU) for the `high` phenotype. Linkage of log IgE with markers on 5q was tested using the sib-pair and the LOD score methods with the genetic model obtained from the segregation analyses. These results provide evidence for a locus controlling IgE levels near the cytokine gene cluster on 5q. This region appears critical in susceptibility to allergy and asthma.

  8. IgE isotype suppression in anti-epsilon-treated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bozelka, B E; McCants, M L; Salvaggio, J E; Lehrer, S B

    1982-01-01

    Two groups of CBA/J mice received a total of eight intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of heavy-chain-specific rabbit anti-IgE or rabbit gammaglobulin within 48 hr of birth through day 38. A third group of animals was untreated. All mice were subsequently immunized with four i.p. injections of castor allergen plus aluminum hydroxide. Results indicate that anti-treatments severely suppressed murine serum IgE levels as compared with control mice. In addition anti-epsilon-treated mice were initially unable to produce detectable reaginic antibody upon immunization with castor bean allergens (CA). Upon further CA immunization, these animals did produce an IgE antibody response, but this was still lower than that detected in control immunized mice. Other immunoglobulin levels in the anti-epsilon-treated mice were not suppressed as compared with those in the control mice. These results suggest that neonatally administered anti-epsilon antisera selectively diminished total IgE levels as well as antigen-induced IgE antibodies in mice. PMID:6807838

  9. An epigenome-wide association study of total serum IgE in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Ting; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Forno, Erick; Liang, Liming; Yan, Qi; Hu, Donglei; Weeks, Daniel E; Baccarelli, Andrea; Acosta-Perez, Edna; Eng, Celeste; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Laprise, Catherine; Davies, Gwyneth A; Hopkin, Julian M; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C M; Canino, Glorisa; Burchard, Esteban G; Celedón, Juan C

    2017-08-01

    Total IgE is a therapeutic target in patients with allergic diseases. DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBCs) was associated with total IgE levels in an epigenome-wide association study of white subjects. Whether DNA methylation of eosinophils explains these findings is insufficiently understood. We tested for association between genome-wide DNA methylation in WBCs and total IgE levels in 2 studies of Hispanic children: the Puerto Rico Genetics of Asthma and Lifestyle Study (PR-GOAL; n = 306) and the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study (n = 573). Whole-genome methylation of DNA from WBCs was measured by using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Total IgE levels were measured by using the UniCAP 100 system. In PR-GOAL WBC types (ie, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes) in peripheral blood were measured by using Coulter Counter techniques. In the GALA II study WBC types were imputed. Multivariable linear regression was used for the analysis of DNA methylation and total IgE levels, which was first conducted separately for each cohort, and then results from the 2 cohorts were combined in a meta-analysis. CpG sites in multiple genes, including novel findings and results previously reported in white subjects, were significantly associated with total IgE levels. However, adjustment for WBC types resulted in markedly fewer significant sites. Top findings from this adjusted meta-analysis were in the genes ZFPM1 (P = 1.5 × 10(-12)), ACOT7 (P = 2.5 × 10(-11)), and MND1 (P = 1.4 × 10(-9)). In an epigenome-wide association study adjusted for WBC types (including eosinophils), methylation changes in genes enriched in pathways relevant to asthma and immune responses were associated with total IgE levels among Hispanic children. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermoinactivation of human IgE: antigenic and functional modifications.

    PubMed Central

    Demeulemester, C; Weyer, A; Peltre, G; Laurent, M; Marchand, F; David, B

    1986-01-01

    The thermoinactivation kinetics of IgE were studied in experimental models revealing the antigenic properties and the basophil-sensitizing capacity of these immunoglobulins. A pool of human sera containing anti-Dactylis glomerata (Dg) IgE was heated from 5 min up to 4 hr at 56 degrees. The IgE antigenicity was tested by two polyclonal 125I-labelled anti-IgE antibodies; one anti-IgE was specific of the whole Fc epsilon region, while the other had a specificity restricted to the D epsilon 2 domain. Radioimmunoassays showed that the D epsilon 2 epitopes were more rapidly altered than the D epsilon 1 epitopes. The capacity of IgE to bind to basophil Fc epsilon receptors was assayed by passive sensitization experiments. Basophil sensitivity towards the Dg pollen extract was tested by histamine release experiments in the presence of this allergen. A progressive decrease in cell sensitivity was observed when IgE samples used for cell sensitization were heated for longer than 5 min. Thermoinactivation kinetics of IgE revealed an unexpected increase in the apparent quantity and biological activity of IgE heated for 5 min at 56 degrees. This fact could be due to auto-anti-IgE antibodies linked to the unheated IgE and which interfere with the biological activities of IgE and their quantification. Images Figure 2 PMID:2420711

  11. An optimized assay of specific IgE antibodies to reactive dyes and studies of immunologic responses in exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Wass, U; Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Belin, L

    1990-03-01

    Methods of assaying reactive dye-specific IgE antibodies were investigated with a RAST. Sera from three patients, occupationally exposed to a reactive dye, Remazol black B (Chemical Abstract registry number 17095-24-8), were used. Directly dyed disks, that is, disks without any carrier protein, resulted in poor and unreliable measures of specific IgE. In contrast, optimized preparation of conjugates between the dye and human serum albumin resulted in efficient binding of specific IgE. The patients' RAST results were strongly positive, whereas sera from 36 exposed workers but without symptoms and sera from unexposed subjects with high levels of total IgE were negative. The hapten and carrier specificity of the IgE antibodies was studied by direct RAST and RAST inhibition. In one patient, the antibodies were principally hapten specific, whereas another patient was found to have antibodies with a high degree of specificity to the carrier. The third patient's antibodies were intermediate between the other two patients' antibodies in this respect, suggesting that antibody specificity is dependent not only on the nature of the hapten but also on individual immune response factors. The study demonstrates that it is important to use an optimized preparation of dye-protein conjugates to elicit reliable results and a high degree of specific IgE binding in the RAST.

  12. Serum IgE reactivity to Malassezia furfur extract and recombinant M. furfur allergens in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Zargari, A; Eshaghi, H; Bäck, O; Johansson, S; Scheynius, A

    2001-01-01

    IgE reactivity to the opportunistic yeast Malassezia furfur can be found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). We have previously cloned and expressed 6 recombinant allergens (rMal f 1, rMal f 5-9) from M. furfur. In the present study, we used ImmunoCAP to investigate whether these rMal f allergens can be useful in the diagnosis of M. furfur-associated AD compared with the M. furfur extract. A total of 156 adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD participated in the study. Sixty-four percent had increased total serum IgE levels, 79% had specific IgE antibodies to common inhalant allergens and 47% had IgE antibodies to M. furfur extract. IgE antibodies to any of the rMal f allergens were detected among 86 (55%) of the patients, 14 (16%) of whom did not react to the M. furfur extract. Any individual rMal f allergen detected between 32% and 89% of the patients ImmunoCAP-positive to the M. furfur extract, with the highest sensitivity for rMal f 9. Therefore, a couple of individual rMal f allergens can improve the diagnosis of M. furfur-associated IgE allergies in patients with AD.

  13. A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum total IgE in diverse study populations.

    PubMed

    Levin, Albert M; Mathias, Rasika A; Huang, Lili; Roth, Lindsey A; Daley, Denise; Myers, Rachel A; Himes, Blanca E; Romieu, Isabelle; Yang, Mao; Eng, Celeste; Park, Julie E; Zoratti, Karla; Gignoux, Christopher R; Torgerson, Dara G; Galanter, Joshua M; Huntsman, Scott; Nguyen, Elizabeth A; Becker, Allan B; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Gilliland, Frank D; Gauderman, W James; Bleecker, Eugene R; Raby, Benjamin A; Meyers, Deborah A; London, Stephanie J; Martinez, Fernando D; Weiss, Scott T; Burchard, Esteban G; Nicolae, Dan L; Ober, Carole; Barnes, Kathleen C; Williams, L Keoki

    2013-04-01

    IgE is both a marker and mediator of allergic inflammation. Despite reported differences in serum total IgE levels by race-ethnicity, African American and Latino subjects have not been well represented in genetic studies of total IgE. We sought to identify the genetic predictors of serum total IgE levels. We used genome-wide association data from 4292 subjects (2469 African Americans, 1564 European Americans, and 259 Latinos) in the EVE Asthma Genetics Consortium. Tests for association were performed within each cohort by race-ethnic group (ie, African American, Latino, and European American) and asthma status. The resulting P values were meta-analyzed, accounting for sample size and direction of effect. Top single nucleotide polymorphism associations from the meta-analysis were reassessed in 6 additional cohorts comprising 5767 subjects. We identified 10 unique regions in which the combined association statistic was associated with total serum IgE levels (P<5.0×10(-6)) and the minor allele frequency was 5% or greater in 2 or more population groups. Variant rs9469220, corresponding to HLA-DQB1, was the single nucleotide polymorphism most significantly associated with serum total IgE levels when assessed in both the replication cohorts and the discovery and replication sets combined (P=.007 and 2.45×10(-7), respectively). In addition, findings from earlier genome-wide association studies were also validated in the current meta-analysis. This meta-analysis independently identified a variant near HLA-DQB1 as a predictor of total serum IgE levels in multiple race-ethnic groups. This study also extends and confirms the findings of earlier genome-wide association analyses in African American and Latino subjects. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High Serum β-Lactams Specific/Total IgE Ratio Is Associated with Immediate Reactions to β-Lactams Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Vultaggio, Alessandra; Virgili, Gianni; Gaeta, Francesco; Romano, Antonino; Maggi, Enrico; Matucci, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Total serum IgE result from the combination of specific and non-specific pools. High specific/total IgE ratio may reflect high level of allergen-specific IgE on mast cells. No data regarding its applications to drug allergies is available. One hundred seventy-one patients with a history of immediate reactions to β-lactams, confirmed by positive skin testing, and 122 control subjects tolerant to β-lactams, were studied. CAP System was used for the detection of serum total and specific IgE antibodies. The specific/total IgE ratio was tested for diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional criteria. We finally performed a simulation study to expand our investigation of the performance of the specific/total IgE ratio index in a scenario in which the new CAP detection threshold is lowered further. Specific/total IgE ratio values ≥0.002 were observed more frequently in reactive than in controls. Seventy-four of 80 subjects with values ≥0.002 were allergic to β-lactams, yielding a positive predictive value of 92.5%. The application of specific/total IgE ratio significantly improves the positive likelihood ratio and the overall diagnostic performance. In addition, we showed the capability of this new criterion to identify true reactive patients even among subjects with high levels of total IgE (>200 kU/L). Significant increase in both receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and sensitivity were observed in imputed case of the simulation study. The β-lactams-specific/total IgE ratio may be an additional index compared to the common criterion of positivity to a single hapten in the allergological work-up of patients with β-lactams immediate adverse reactions. PMID:25880869

  15. High serum β-lactams specific/total IgE ratio is associated with immediate reactions to β-lactams antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Vultaggio, Alessandra; Virgili, Gianni; Gaeta, Francesco; Romano, Antonino; Maggi, Enrico; Matucci, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Total serum IgE result from the combination of specific and non-specific pools. High specific/total IgE ratio may reflect high level of allergen-specific IgE on mast cells. No data regarding its applications to drug allergies is available. One hundred seventy-one patients with a history of immediate reactions to β-lactams, confirmed by positive skin testing, and 122 control subjects tolerant to β-lactams, were studied. CAP System was used for the detection of serum total and specific IgE antibodies. The specific/total IgE ratio was tested for diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional criteria. We finally performed a simulation study to expand our investigation of the performance of the specific/total IgE ratio index in a scenario in which the new CAP detection threshold is lowered further. Specific/total IgE ratio values ≥0.002 were observed more frequently in reactive than in controls. Seventy-four of 80 subjects with values ≥0.002 were allergic to β-lactams, yielding a positive predictive value of 92.5%. The application of specific/total IgE ratio significantly improves the positive likelihood ratio and the overall diagnostic performance. In addition, we showed the capability of this new criterion to identify true reactive patients even among subjects with high levels of total IgE (>200 kU/L). Significant increase in both receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and sensitivity were observed in imputed case of the simulation study. The β-lactams-specific/total IgE ratio may be an additional index compared to the common criterion of positivity to a single hapten in the allergological work-up of patients with β-lactams immediate adverse reactions.

  16. Detection of Fungi in Indoor Environments and Fungus-Specific IgE Sensitization in Allergic Children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate relationships between fungal colonization in the house and IgE sensitization to fungi, and to clarify the effects of house care in relation to fungi. Materials and Methods We measured levels of fungi in the houses of 52 allergic children. Of these, 32 children displayed detectable levels of IgE (≥ 0.35 UA/ml) to a combination of fungi (positive group). The remaining 20 children were not sensitized to fungi (negative group). Each fungus-specific IgE level was also measured in sera of the positive group, and a questionnaire-based survey was conducted for daily lifestyles. Results Cladosporium was the most prevalent in the houses. From the 32 sera of the positive group, specific IgE levels ≥ 0.70 UA/ml were most frequently detected in 21 sera for Alternaria. Children in whose houses Alternaria was found displayed higher levels of Alternaria-IgE than those in whose houses where Alternaria was not found. In addition, Alternaria-IgE level was lower for children using an air purifier than for children who were not. Windows were more frequently opened for ventilation in negative-group houses than in positive-group houses. Conclusions The existence of Alternaria might strongly induce IgE sensitization for Alternaria. Using an air purifier and frequently opening windows may minimize fungal sensitization of allergic children. PMID:23283150

  17. Spline transfer through IGES: CADCAM-001

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, S.K.

    1983-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has been assigned Lead Lab responsibility for integrating CAD/CAM activities throughout the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). Pilot projects involving exchange of actual or artificial data are being used to assess our current capabilities in the areas of electronic data transmission, translations between different CAD/CAM systems, etc. This report is the final report for one pilot project. It assesses the effectiveness of IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification, defined in ANSIY14.26M-1981) in transferring interpolating splines between various CAD/CAM systems used in the NWC. The results are generally encouraging.

  18. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  19. The impact of age on Pru p 3 IgE production in Italy

    PubMed Central

    De Amici, Mara; Di Martino, Maria Luisa; Barocci, Fiorella; Comite, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Background Pollen allergy may be frequently associated with fruit-vegetables: the so-called pollen food syndrome. Pru p 3 is the most relevant peach allergen. Previously, it has been reported that serum specific IgE level to Pru p 3 depends on age in a limited geographic area. Objective This study aimed to to test the hypothesis about the differences of Pru p 3 sensitization across Italy, mainly concerning the impact of age. Methods The current study was retrospective and multicentre, involving 2 labs in Northern Italy (709 subjects), 1 in Genoa (1,040 subjects), and 1 in Southern Italy (2,188 subjects). All of them referred to labs for IgE testing because of suspected food allergy. Serum IgE to Pru p 3 was assessed in all subjects. Results Sixteen point seven percent (16.7%) of subjects were sensitized to Pru p 3. Sensitization percentage sigificantly decreased over time. The serum IgE levels increased up to young adulthood and then decreased until aging. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that Pru p 3 sensitization and production are closely age-dependent phenomena. PMID:28154805

  20. What are the main environmental exposures associated with elevated IgE in Cuban infants? A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venero-Fernández, Silvia J; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Mora-Faife, Esperanza de la C; García-García, Gladys; del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-05-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a key role in allergy disease pathogenesis, but little is known about the environmental factors associated with higher IgE levels in infants. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for elevated serum total IgE infants living in Havana. Eight hundred and seventy-seven infants provided blood samples. Data on allergic disease symptoms and a wide range of exposures were collected. The median IgE was 35 IU/ml (interquartile range 13-96). The risk of having an IgE level above the median was higher for children who had been breastfed for 4 months or more (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.61) and for children who reported cockroaches in their home (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03-1.63). The risk was lower for children whose mother was in paid employment (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54-0.97 compared with those who did not), for children living in homes where gas and electricity were used for cooking (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.32-0.62 compared with electricity only) and for children with domestic pets at birth (OR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-1.00). There was no association between paracetamol use and serum IgE levels. Associations between gas fuel use and maternal employment indicate that IgE levels in early life are lower in children who may be living in relative affluence. The discrepancy in the effect of early exposure to pets or cockroaches may reflect differences in these allergens, or be confounded by relative affluence. Further investigation of this cohort will determine how these effects translate into the expression of allergic disease in later life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens.

  2. Quantitative estimation of IgE and IgD by laser nephelometry.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, K C; Crisci, C D; Jinnouchi, H; Oehling, A

    1979-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of Laser Nephelometry (LN) in the determination of IgD and IgE are reported. Two laser nephelometer models (Behringwerke/Marburg), different batches of LN cuvettes, WHO reference standard sera, rabbit anti-human antisera and randomly selected allergic patients' sera were used for the standardization of the method. Cuvette blank values were significantly lower in the new model of laser nephelometer and the precision of these measurements was very high when two different cuvette charges were compared. In the determination of IgE by LN, it was possible to detect levels down to 125 IU/ml, the accuracy of the estimations varying between 4.8 and 8.2% and the repeatability between 3.2 and 24.4%, the highest variation coefficient being obtained in low level samples. The overall agreement between LN and RIST in 55 serum samples was 71%, and at concentrations below 200 IU/ml (normal) and above 400 IU/ml (increased) 80% and 85% respectively. In the determination of IgD by LN, the accuracy of the estimations was also very good (2.4 to 7.8%) and the variation coefficient varied between 2.8 and 13.3%. In the comparison of IgD estimations with LN and radial immunodiffusion in 27 samples a correlation coefficient of r = 0.82 was obtained. Although normal adult IgE values cannot be analysed, the clinically important increased IgE levels are correctly determined by LN. The method is more sensitive than the Mancini technique for IgE determination and in comparison with RIST, though low values are not obtained, LN is quicker, simpler and cheaper.

  3. Modulation of the allergen-induced human IgE response in Hu-SCID mice: inhibitory effect of human recombinant IFN-gamma and allergen-derived lipopeptide.

    PubMed

    Duez, C; Gras-Masse, H; Hammad, H; Akoum, H; Didierlaurent, A; André, C; Tonnel, A B; Pestel, J

    2001-01-01

    We have previously established a model to study the in vivo human IgE response using humanized SCID mice. Allergic SCID mice were obtained following intraperitoneal injection with mononuclear cells from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt)-sensitive patients, and sensitization by Dpt allergen intraperitoneal injection (immunization) or Dpt aerosol (inhalation). Human serum IgE was measured in allergic SCID mice after administration of human recombinant IFN-gamma or the lipopeptide LP 52-71 (derived from peptide p52-71 from Der p 1, Dpt major allergen, coupled to a lipophilic moiety), during the immunization or the inhalation phase. IFN-gamma inhibited human IgE production when given at the time of immunization, but not during inhalation. This effect was long-lasting as Dpt aerosol, given one month after immunization and IFN-gamma administration, failed to increase IgE levels. Unlike Dpt or p52-71, LP 52-71 failed to induce human IgE production at day 14 and 21 after its injection, but did inhibit the development of the IgE response after a secondary Dpt-challenge. Moreover, LP 52-71 administration 14 days after Dpt inhalation decreased IgE levels, in contrast to peptide 52-71, which increased IgE levels. Thus, taken together these results indicate that the development of the human IgE response in allergic SCID mice can be modulated by modified allergen and a Th1 cytokine.

  4. Making Standardized Tests Work For Your IGE School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, Edwin

    A technique is described which uses the standardized tests to evaluate an Individually Guided Education Curriculum (IGE). A technique was devised so that an evaluation of each test question could be made. The teaching staff at Port Edwards, Wisconsin, where this study was conducted, was asked to rate questions for relevancy to the IGE curriculum…

  5. Study of Using Excess Stock to Reduce Naval Aviation Depot-Level Repairable Piece Part Backorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT STUDY OF USING EXCESS STOCK TO REDUCE NAVAL AVIATION... STUDY OF USING EXCESS STOCK TO REDUCE NAVAL AVIATION DEPOT-LEVEL REPAIRABLE PIECE PART BACKORDERS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jennifer L...unlimited. STUDY OF USING EXCESS STOCK TO REDUCE NAVAL AVIATION DEPOT-LEVEL REPAIRABLE PIECE PART BACKORDERS Jennifer L. Custard, Lieutenant

  6. Effects of Nasal Corticosteroids on Boosts of Systemic Allergen-Specific IgE Production Induced by Nasal Allergen Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Cornelia; Lupinek, Christian; Ristl, Robin; Lemell, Patrick; Horak, Friedrich; Zieglmayer, Petra; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergen exposure via the respiratory tract and in particular via the nasal mucosa boosts systemic allergen-specific IgE production. Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) represent a first line treatment of allergic rhinitis but their effects on this boost of allergen-specific IgE production are unclear. Aim Here we aimed to determine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study whether therapeutic doses of an INCS preparation, i.e., nasal fluticasone propionate, have effects on boosts of allergen-specific IgE following nasal allergen exposure. Methods Subjects (n = 48) suffering from grass and birch pollen allergy were treated with daily fluticasone propionate or placebo nasal spray for four weeks. After two weeks of treatment, subjects underwent nasal provocation with either birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 or grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Bet v 1 and Phl p 5-specific IgE, IgG1–4, IgM and IgA levels were measured in serum samples obtained at the time of provocation and one, two, four, six and eight weeks thereafter. Results Nasal allergen provocation induced a median increase to 141.1% of serum IgE levels to allergens used for provocation but not to control allergens 4 weeks after provocation. There were no significant differences regarding the boosts of allergen-specific IgE between INCS- and placebo-treated subjects. Conclusion In conclusion, the application of fluticasone propionate had no significant effects on the boosts of systemic allergen-specific IgE production following nasal allergen exposure. Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ NCT00755066 PMID:25705889

  7. Screening for mast cell tryptase and serum IgE antibodies in 18 patients with anaphylactic shock during general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Dybendal, T; Guttormsen, A B; Elsayed, S; Askeland, B; Harboe, T; Florvaag, E

    2003-11-01

    In the perioperative setting multiple agents can cause anaphylaxis. Often the reactions are dramatic, and due to their lifethreatening potential it is crucial that the responsible agent is identified in order to avoid future adverse reactions. The aim of the present study was to measure the concentration of serum mast cell tryptase (MCT), to investigate the prevalence of serum IgE antibodies against ammonium groups, choline, morphine, suxamethonium, thiopentone and latex and to perform skin prick tests (SPTs) in 18 patients experiencing an anaphylactic reaction during induction of general anaesthesia. Serum samples from 18 patients with an anaphylactic reaction during general anaesthesia were analyzed for MCT and specific IgE against ammonium groups, choline, morphine, suxamethonium, thiopentone and latex. Skin prick tests were performed in 11 out of 18 patients. Ten patients had elevated MCT levels and specific IgE against ammonium ion, morphine and (with the exception of patient nos 3, 9 and 10) suxamethonium. Seven of these patients had positive SPTs to suxamethonium. One of the patients tested positive to latex in addition to suxamethonium. Two patients showed elevated MCT, while specific IgE against the drugs tested was not detected. Three patients tested positive to ammonium ion, morphine and suxamethonium, but negative to MCT. Three patients tested negative to both MCT and specific IgE. Fifteen out of 18 sera tested positive for MCT and/or specific IgE against neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs). Ten of the 18 patients experienced an IgE-mediated anaphylactic reaction to NMBDs during anaesthesia, verified by detection of specific IgE and elevated levels of MCT.

  8. ELISA method for monitoring human serum IgE specific for Cry1Ab introduced into genetically modified corn.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Osamu; Teshima, Reiko; Takagi, Kayoko; Okunuki, Haruyo; Sawada, Jun-ichi

    2007-02-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most convenient method of monitoring the occurrence of IgE antibodies specific for novel proteins in genetically modified (GM) foods. The levels of IgE specific for a recombinant protein, Cry1Ab, were determined using an ELISA method. A soluble form of the Cry1Ab protein purified from pCold1 vector-transformed Escherichia coli pTf16/BL21 was used as the ELISA coating antigen, and 1M NaCl was used as the washing buffer to remove IgE non-specifically bound to the coated antigen. Sera from 44 patients allergic to major food allergens were obtained, diluted 20-fold, tested, and found no identifiable IgE above background levels. We also tested sera from patients with corn allergy against whole extracts of non-GM and GM-corn (MON 810) using immunoblotting. The staining patterns were similar for the two types of corn. These results indicate that significant levels of IgE antibodies specific to Cry1Ab were not found in the sera of Japanese patients with food allergies.

  9. Hypersensitivity testing for Aspergillus fumigatus IgE is significantly more sensitive than testing for Aspergillus niger IgE.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Thomas A; Walco, Jeremy P; Parikh, Sujal; Walco, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine if sufficient redundancy exists between specific IgE testing for Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger to eliminate one of the assays in determining Aspergillus hypersensitivity. We reviewed regional laboratory results comparing A fumigatus-specific IgE with A niger-specific IgE using the Pharmacia UniCAP system (Pharmacia, Kalamazoo, MI). By using the Fisher exact test as an index of concordance among paired results, we showed a significant difference between 109 paired samples for the presence of specific IgE to A fumigatus and A niger (P < .0001). Of these specimens, 94 were negative for IgE to both species, 10 were positive for A fumigatus and negative for A niger; no specimen was positive for A niger and negative for A fumigatus. We conclude that A fumigatus-specific IgE is sufficient to detect Aspergillus hypersensitivity. The assay for A niger-specific IgE is redundant, less sensitive, and unnecessary if the assay for specific IgE for A fumigatus is performed.

  10. The Social Structure of School and Reform: A Case Study of IGE/S. Technical Report No. 400.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas

    This paper is concerned with the impact of the Individually Guided Education/Secondary Project (IGE/S) in a middle school. Participation observation is used to understand how the intervention process is incorporated into everyday patterns and norms of the school. No individualization of instruction occurred. The findings suggest that basic…

  11. IgE Immunotherapy Against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leoh, Lai Sum

    2015-01-01

    The success of antibody therapy in cancer is consistent with the ability of these molecules to activate immune responses against tumors. Experience in clinical applications, antibody design, and advancement in technology have enabled antibodies to be engineered with enhanced efficacy against cancer cells. This allows re-evaluation of current antibody approaches dominated by antibodies of the IgG class with a new light. Antibodies of the IgE class play a central role in allergic reactions and have many properties that may be advantageous for cancer therapy. IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to be effective in both in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, suggesting the potential use of these approaches in humans. Further studies on the anticancer efficacy and safety profile of these IgE-based approaches are warranted in preparation for translation toward clinical application. PMID:25553797

  12. Macrophage triggering by aggregated immunoglobulins. II. Comparison of IgE and IgG aggregates or immune complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Pestel, J; Dessaint, J P; Joseph, M; Bazin, H; Capron, A

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages incubated with complexed or aggregated IgE released beta-glucuronidase (beta-G) within 30 min. In contrast in the presence of aggregated or complexed IgG, macrophages liberated equivalent amount of beta-G only after 6 h incubation. In addition the rapid macrophage stimulation induced by aggregated IgE was also followed by a faster 3H-glucosamine incorporation when compared to the delayed activation caused by aggregated IgG. However, macrophages stimulated either by IgG or by IgE oligomers produced the same percentage of plasminogen activator at 24 h. In contrast, while the interaction between macrophages and aggregated IgE was only followed by a peak of cyclic GMP and a beta-G release during the first 30 min of incubation, the interaction between macrophages and IgG oligomers was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cyclic GMP and AMP nucleotides and by an absence of beta-G exocytosis. Moreover, the beta-G release induced by aggregated IgE was increased when macrophages were preincubated with aggregated IgG. This additive effect was not observed in the reverse situation. Finally macrophages activated by IgG oligomers were demonstrated to exert a cytotoxic effect on tumour cells and to kill schistosomula in the presence of a low level of complement. Taken together these results underline the peculiar ability of aggregated or complexed IgE to trigger rapidly the macrophage activation compared to aggregated IgG and can explain the important role of complexed IgE in some macrophage dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms (i.e. in parasitic diseases). PMID:6088135

  13. Predictive values of component-specific IgE for the outcome of peanut and hazelnut food challenges in children.

    PubMed

    Beyer, K; Grabenhenrich, L; Härtl, M; Beder, A; Kalb, B; Ziegert, M; Finger, A; Harandi, N; Schlags, R; Gappa, M; Puzzo, L; Röblitz, H; Millner-Uhlemann, M; Büsing, S; Ott, H; Lange, L; Niggemann, B

    2015-01-01

    Oral challenges are the gold standard in food allergy diagnostic, but time-consuming. Aim of the study was to investigate the role of peanut- and hazelnut-component-specific IgE in the diagnostics of peanut and hazelnut allergy and to identify cutoff levels to make some challenges superfluous. In a prospective and multicenter study, children with suspected peanut or hazelnut allergy underwent oral challenges. Specific IgE to peanut, hazelnut, and their components (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, and Ara h 8, Cor a 1, Cor a 8, Cor a 9, and Cor a 14) were determined by ImmunoCAP-FEIA. A total of 210 children were challenged orally with peanut and 143 with hazelnut. 43% of the patients had a positive peanut and 31% a positive hazelnut challenge. With an area under the curve of 0.92 and 0.89, respectively, Ara h 2 and Cor a 14-specific IgE discriminated between allergic and tolerant children better than peanut- or hazelnut-specific IgE. For the first time, probability curves for peanut and hazelnut components have been calculated. A 90% probability for a positive peanut or hazelnut challenge was estimated for Ara h 2-specific IgE at 14.4 kU/l and for Cor a 14-specific IgE at 47.8 kU/l. A 95% probability could only be estimated for Ara h 2 at 42.2 kU/l. Ara h 2- and Cor a 14-specific IgE are useful to estimate the probability for a positive challenge outcome in the diagnostic work-up of peanut or hazelnut allergy making some food challenges superfluous. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Revisiting the roles of mast cells in allergic rhinitis and its relation to local IgE synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pawankar, R; Yamagishi, S; Yagi, T

    2000-01-01

    Mast cells are important effector cells in the immediate-phase allergic reaction. However, in recent years much evidence has accumulated on the versatile role of mast cells in allergic inflammation. The present article is an overview of the roles of mast cells in allergic inflammation, especially in light of the local production of IgE and the IgE-IgE receptor network. Although both nasal mast cells (NMC) and T cells in allergic rhinitics are important sources of Th2-type cytokines like IL-4 and IL-13, and can induce IgE synthesis, we report here that antigen-activated NMC can secrete greater levels of IL-4/IL-13 and induce increased levels of IgE synthesis than antigen-activated nasal T cells. Furthermore, IgE production can occur locally in the nasal mucosa (target organ) and IgE itself can enhance the Fc epsilon RI expression and subsequent mediator release from NMC, thus contributing to the perpetuation of on-going allergic inflammation. Again, mast cells can contribute to the late-phase allergic reaction not only via the upregulation of adhesion molecules like VCAM-1, but also through the interactions of NMC with the extracellular matrix proteins, and interaction of NMC with nasal epithelial cells (NEC). Thus, it is increasingly evident that mast cells are not only important for the genesis of the allergic reaction, but also contribute to the late-phase allergic reaction and on-going allergic inflammation.

  15. [A study of occupational asthma and specific IgE in sericulture workers].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Zheng, S; Zhang, H

    1994-10-01

    Clinical investigation revealed that 75.6% (68/90) of sericulture workers examined had allergic respiratory symptoms. Of the 90 workers, 14 (15.6%) suffered from occupational asthma. Work-related allergens including silkworm cocoon (SC), silkworm urine (SU), moth excrete (ME) and moth scales (MS) were collected and prepared. Serum specific IgE levels were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the level of sIgE in asthmatic workers was significantly higher than that in the "common symptom" group, asymptomatic group and control group. No significant difference in total IgE was found between the workers and controls. The anti-SU-sIgE positive rate was significantly higher than those of sIgE to the other three allergens. These results indicate that the high levels of sIgE are responsible for occupational asthma in sericulture workers and that SU is an important allergen in these patients.

  16. Cost of reducing aromatics and sulfur levels in motor-vehicle fuels. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Felten, J.R.; McCarthy, K.M.

    1988-08-01

    Linear-programming (LP) models were developed for five refineries representative of the California refining industry and validated against historic operation. Process options to reduce gasoline and diesel contaminants were selected and represented in the LP models. Costs were estimated to separately reduce aromatics levels in automotive gasoline, aromatics in diesel, and sulfur in diesel for 1991 and 1995. Cost impacts were scaled up to obtain the overall cost impact in California. Estimates were made of total aromatics and benzene levels in gasoline and of sulfur, aromatics, and cetane levels in diesel. Estimates were made of the impact on refinery emissions, automotive emissions, and automotive performance. The cost to reduce diesel sulfur level to .05% was 6.3 cents/gallon. The cost to reduce diesel aromatics level to 10% was 27.6 cents/gallon. The cost to reduce gasoline aromatics levels by 18% was 7.0 cents/gallon.

  17. The correlation between anti phospholipase A2 specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Joanna; Bręborowicz, Anna; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beekeepers are a group of people with high exposure to honeybee stings and with a very high risk of allergy to bee venom. Therefore, they are a proper population to study the correlations between clinical symptoms and results of diagnostic tests. Aim The primary aim of our study was to assess the correlations between total IgE, venom- and phospholipase A2-specific IgE and clinical symptoms after a bee sting in beekeepers. The secondary aim was to compare the results of diagnostic tests in beekeepers and in individuals with standard exposure to bees. Material and methods Fifty-four individuals were divided into two groups: beekeepers and control group. The levels of total IgE (tIgE), venom-specific IgE (venom sIgE), and phospholipase A2-specific IgE (phospholipase A2 sIgE) were analyzed. Results Our study showed no statistically significant correlation between the clinical symptoms after a sting and tIgE in the entire analyzed group. There was also no correlation between venom sIgE level and clinical symptoms either in beekeepers or in the group with standard exposure to bees. We observed a statistically significant correlation between phospholipase A2 sIgE level and clinical signs after a sting in the group of beekeepers, whereas no such correlation was detected in the control group. Significantly higher venom-specific IgE levels in the beekeepers, as compared to control individuals were shown. Conclusions In beekeepers, the severity of clinical symptoms after a bee sting correlated better with phospholipase A2 sIgE than with venom sIgE levels. PMID:27512356

  18. Comparison between sensitivity of autologous skin serum test and autologous plasma skin test in patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria for detection of antibody against IgE or IgE receptor (FcεRIα).

    PubMed

    Sajedi, Vahid; Movahedi, Masoud; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Ghareguzlou, Mohammad; Shafiei, Alireza; Soheili, Habib; Sanajian, Nahal

    2011-06-01

    Intradermal injection of autologous serum and plasma elicit a cutaneous reactivity in almost 45-60% of patients with Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU). This reactivity is associated with the presence of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptors. This study was carried out to compare the cutaneous reactivity of autologous serum and plasma skin tests in a series of patients with CIU for diagnosis of auto antibodies against IgE or IgE receptor. Fifty eight patients with CIU were injected intradermally with autologous serum and plasma (anticoagulated by citrate). Histamine was used as positive control and normal saline as negative control. The study group was checked by routine laboratory tests (CBC, U/A etc), allergens with skin prick tests, and serum IgE level, and auto antibodies against thyroid as well. Duration of urticaria was another factor which was assessed.There was no significant difference between positive ASST and positive APST patients for the above mentioned tests. 77.6% of the patients were Positive for APST and 65.5% were ASST positive. Duration of urticaria was longer in patients with positive ASST and APST than ASST and APST negative patients, although the difference was not statistically significant.Autologus serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) could be used for estimation of duration and severity of urticaria and planning for the treatment.

  19. [Serological tests of functional activity of the digestive system (gastrin, pepsinogen-I, trypsin), general IgE and serum cortisol levels in children with hepatitis A and B].

    PubMed

    Kalagina, L S; Pavlov, Ch S; Fomin, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The mild form of hepatitis A and B with children is attended by a functional activity of pancreatic gland (tripsin), mucous coats of stomach and duodenum (gastrin) which permits to consider them as a factor of the risk of digestive organs combined pathology starting with the disease acuity. Differences in gastrin levels with children depending on hepatitis etiology were specified. Highest levels of gastrin were observed with persons suffering from hepatitis B.

  20. Identification of IgE sequential epitopes of lentil (Len c 1) by means of peptide microarray immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Vereda, Andrea; Andreae, Doerthe A; Lin, Jing; Shreffler, Wayne G; Ibañez, Maria Dolores; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Bardina, Ludmilla; Sampson, Hugh A

    2010-09-01

    Lentils are often responsible for allergic reactions to legumes in Mediterranean children. Although the primary sequence of the major allergen Len c 1 is known, the location of the IgE-binding epitopes remains undefined. We sought to identify IgE-binding epitopes of Len c 1 and relate epitope binding to clinical characteristics. One hundred thirty-five peptides corresponding to the primary sequence of Len c 1 were probed with sera from 33 patients with lentil allergy and 15 nonatopic control subjects by means of microarray immunoassay. Lentil-specific IgE levels, skin prick test responses, and clinical reactions to lentil were determined. Epitopes were defined as overlapping signal above interslide and intraslide cutoffs and confirmed by using inhibition assays with a peptide from the respective region. Hierarchic clustering of microarray data was used to correlate binding patterns with clinical findings. The patients with lentil allergy specifically recognized IgE-binding epitopes located in the C-terminal region between peptides 107 and 135. Inhibition experiments confirmed the specificity of IgE binding in this region, identifying different epitopes. Linkage of cluster results with clinical data and lentil-specific IgE levels displayed a positive correlation between lentil-specific IgE levels, epitope recognition, and respiratory symptoms. Modeling based on the 3-dimensional structure of a homologous soy vicilin suggests that the Len c 1 epitopes identified are exposed on the surface of the molecule. Several IgE-binding sequential epitopes of Len c 1 have been identified. Epitopes are located in the C-terminal region and are predicted to be exposed on the surface of the protein. Epitope diversity is positively correlated with IgE levels, pointing to a more polyclonal IgE response. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional study of a monoclonal antibody to IgE Fc receptor (Fc epsilon R2) of eosinophils, platelets, and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    An IgM mAb (BB10) was produced by immunization of mice with human eosinophils purified according to their abnormal low density ("hypodense" cells), and previously shown to exhibit increased IgE- dependent antiparasite cytotoxicity. This BB10 antibody, selected for positive fluorescence staining of hypodense blood or lung eosinophils and low or negative staining of normodense eosinophils or neutrophils, could strongly inhibit IgE-dependent cytotoxicity of human eosinophils and platelets. The specificity for the IgE Fc receptor was suggested by the high levels of inhibition of IgE rosettes formed by eosinophils after incubation with the purified IgM fraction of BB10, whereas other receptors (Fc gamma R, CR1) were not affected. On the other hand, BB10, able to inhibit rat eosinophil Fc epsilon R, did not react with the IgE Fc receptor on mast cells or basophils. A technique using radioiodinated BB10 allowed us to quantify the specific binding of BB10 to human eosinophils and platelets. Competition experiments revealed a crossinhibition between the binding of BB10 and IgE, suggesting the specificity of BB10 for the IgE binding site of eosinophil, platelet, and monocyte Fc epsilon R. Three proteins having extrapolated Mr of 32,000, 43,000-45,000, and 97,000 were found in the platelet extract eluted from a BB10 or from an IgE immunosorbent column. These findings confirm the similarities between IgE Fc receptors on human eosinophils, platelets, and macrophages, already observed with polyclonal antibodies directed against the B lymphocyte Fc epsilon receptor. They suggest, moreover, that the mAb BB10 can represent a good reagent for further investigations on the structure and the functions of this IgE Fc receptor (Fc epsilon R2). PMID:2425032

  2. [Application of serum total IgE, tryptase and chymase in the identification of death caused by drug anaphylactic shock].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-jie; Song, Wei-ping; Yang, Yu; Huang, Jing-lu; Hao, Bo; Gao, Di; Tang, Da-wang; Wang, Xiao-guang; Liu, Shui-ping; Quan, Li; Luo, Bin

    2012-06-01

    To explore the application value of serum total IgE, tryptase and chymase in the identification of death caused by drug anaphylactic shock. The general information from 235 cases of non-drug anaphylactic shock and 32 cases of drug anaphylactic shock were analyzed. The serum IgE level had been detected in the cases. Ten cases caused by coronary disease and 10 cases caused by sudden manhood death syndrome were selected from non-drug anaphylactic shock cases for the control group. Expressions of tryptase and chymase in the lung and heart were detected using immunohistochemistry method. The number and IOD of positive mast cells were counted. In the drug anaphylactic shock group, the IgE value of 18 samples (56.25%) was significantly higher than the normal upper limit of 120 IU/mL. In the non-drug anaphylactic shock group, the IgE value of 67 samples (28.51%) was higher than 120 IU/mL. The expressions of tryptase and chymase were significantly increased in lung and myocardial tissue in drug anaphylactic shock group (P < 0.05). Tryptase and chymase are more superior than that of the serum total IgE in the diagnosis of death caused by drug anaphylactic shock, and are more suitable in forensic practice.

  3. Ara h 2: crystal structure and IgE binding distinguish two subpopulations of peanut allergic patients by epitope diversity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, G A; Gosavi, R A; Pomés, A; Wünschmann, S; Moon, A F; London, R E; Pedersen, L C

    2011-07-01

    Peanut allergy affects 1% of the population and causes the most fatal food-related anaphylactic reactions. The protein Ara h 2 is the most potent peanut allergen recognized by 80-90% of peanut allergic patients. The crystal structure of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 was determined for the first time at 2.7 Å resolution using a customized maltose-binding protein (MBP)-fusion system. IgE antibody binding to the MBP fusion construct vs the natural allergen was compared by ELISA using sera from peanut allergic patients. The structure of Ara h 2 is a five-helix bundle held together by four disulfide bonds and related to the prolamin protein superfamily. The fold is most similar to other amylase and trypsin inhibitors. The MBP--Ara h 2 fusion construct was positively recognized by IgE from 76% of allergic patients (25/33). Two populations of patients could be identified. Subpopulation 1 (n = 14) showed an excellent correlation of IgE antibody binding to natural vs recombinant Ara h 2. Subpopulation 2 (n = 15) showed significantly reduced IgE binding to the MBP fusion protein. Interestingly, about 20% of the IgE binding in subpopulation 2 could be recovered by increasing the distance between MBP and Ara h 2 in a second construct. The reduced IgE binding to the MBP--Ara h 2 of subpopulation 2 indicates that the MBP molecule protects an immunodominant epitope region near the first helix of Ara h 2. Residues involved in the epitope(s) are suggested by the crystal structure. The MBP--Ara h 2 fusion constructs will be useful to further elucidate the relevance of certain epitopes to peanut allergy. © Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Serum IgE and eosinophil count in allergic rhinitis--analysis using a modified Bayes' theorem.

    PubMed

    Demirjian, M; Rumbyrt, J S; Gowda, V C; Klaustermeyer, W B

    2012-01-01

    To use probability theory to establish threshold values for total serum IgE and eosinophil counts that support a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and to compare our results with previously published data. Prospective study of rhinitis patients using a modified version of Bayes' theorem. Study included 125 patients at the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center diagnosed with rhinitis who completed allergy consultation and immediate hypersensitivity skin testing. Eighty-nine of 125 patients were atopic by prick and/or intradermal skin testing. Using a modified version of Bayes' theorem and positive and negative probability weights, calculations for different thresholds of serum IgE and eosinophil counts were summated and a posttest probability for atopy was calculated. Calculated posttest probabilities varied according to the threshold used to determine a positive or negative test; however, IgE thresholds greater than 140IU/ml and eosinophil counts greater that 80cells/ml were found to have a high probability of predicting atopy in patients with rhinitis. Moreover, IgE had a greater influence than eosinophil count in determining posttest probability of allergy in this population. Considerable differences were noted in the IgE levels of atopic and non-atopic patients, including those with asthma or a history of smoking. However, these differences were not observed with eosinophil levels. Using a modified version of Bayes' theorem to determine posttest probability, IgE threshold levels greater than 140IU/ml and eosinophil counts greater than 80cells/ml in an individual with clinical signs and symptoms of rhinitis are likely to correlate with an atopic aetiology. This model of probability may be helpful in evaluating individuals for diagnostic skin testing and certain types of allergy-modifying treatment. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on the immunological basis of the dissociation between type I-hypersensitivity skin reactions to Blomia tropicalis antigens and serum anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ponte, João Cm; Junqueira, Samuel B; Veiga, Rafael V; Barreto, Mauricio L; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain C; Alcântara-Neves, Neuza M

    2011-06-01

    Two conditions are used as markers of atopy: the presence of circulating anti-allergen IgE antibodies and the presence of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions to allergenic extracts. The correlation between these conditions is not absolute. This study aimed at investigating immunological parameters that may mediate this lack of correlation. Individuals whose sera contained anti-B. tropicalis extract IgE antibodies (α-BtE IgE) were divided into two groups, according to the presence or absence of skin reactivity to B. tropicalis extract (BtE). The following parameters were investigated: total IgE levels; α-BtE IgE levels; an arbitrary α-BtE IgE/total IgE ratio; the proportion of carbohydrate-reactive α-BtE IgE; the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with Ascaris lumbricoides extract (AlE); the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). Total IgE levels were similar in the two groups, but α-BtE IgE was significantly higher in the SPT-positive group (SPT+). A large overlap of α-BtE IgE levels was found in individuals of both groups, indicating that these levels alone cannot account for the differences in SPT outcome. Individuals of the two groups did not differ, statistically, in the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with carbohydrate and in the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated PBMC. Both groups had part of α-BtE IgE activity absorbed out by AlE, indicating the existence of cross-reactive IgE antibodies. However, the α-BtE IgE from the SPT-negative individuals (SPT-) was more absorbed with AlE than the α-BtE IgE from the SPT+ individuals. This finding may be ascribed to avidity differences of the α-BtE IgE that is present in the two groups of individuals, and could occur if at least part of the α-BtE IgE from the SPT- individuals were elicited by A. lumbricoides infection. The present results suggest that a low ratio of specific IgE to total IgE levels (in a minority of individuals), and differences

  6. A study on the immunological basis of the dissociation between type I-hypersensitivity skin reactions to Blomia tropicalis antigens and serum anti-B. tropicalis IgE antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Two conditions are used as markers of atopy: the presence of circulating anti-allergen IgE antibodies and the presence of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions to allergenic extracts. The correlation between these conditions is not absolute. This study aimed at investigating immunological parameters that may mediate this lack of correlation. Individuals whose sera contained anti-B. tropicalis extract IgE antibodies (α-BtE IgE) were divided into two groups, according to the presence or absence of skin reactivity to B. tropicalis extract (BtE). The following parameters were investigated: total IgE levels; α-BtE IgE levels; an arbitrary α-BtE IgE/total IgE ratio; the proportion of carbohydrate-reactive α-BtE IgE; the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with Ascaris lumbricoides extract (AlE); the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). Results Total IgE levels were similar in the two groups, but α-BtE IgE was significantly higher in the SPT-positive group (SPT+). A large overlap of α-BtE IgE levels was found in individuals of both groups, indicating that these levels alone cannot account for the differences in SPT outcome. Individuals of the two groups did not differ, statistically, in the proportion of α-BtE IgE that reacted with carbohydrate and in the production of IL-10 by BtE- and AlE-stimulated PBMC. Both groups had part of α-BtE IgE activity absorbed out by AlE, indicating the existence of cross-reactive IgE antibodies. However, the α-BtE IgE from the SPT-negative individuals (SPT-) was more absorbed with AlE than the α-BtE IgE from the SPT+ individuals. This finding may be ascribed to avidity differences of the α-BtE IgE that is present in the two groups of individuals, and could occur if at least part of the α-BtE IgE from the SPT- individuals were elicited by A. lumbricoides infection. Conclusion The present results suggest that a low ratio of specific IgE to total IgE levels (in a minority of

  7. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy.

  8. IgE Epitope Mapping Using Peptide Microarray Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing; Sampson, Hugh A

    2017-01-01

    IgE epitope mapping has the potential to become an additional tool for food allergy diagnosis/prognosis and to lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and tolerance induction of food allergy. Due to its ability to screen thousands of targets in parallel using small volumes of sample, peptide microarray has greatly facilitated large-scale IgE epitope mapping. In the past 10 years, we have developed and optimized a reliable and sensitive peptide microarray immunoassay, which has been successfully applied for IgE epitope mapping of many food allergens in our lab. Here, we describe the method of performing the peptide microarray immunoassay for IgE epitope mapping. In addition, we have upgraded the microarray platform to measure antibody affinity by adding one additional competition step, which is also described in this chapter.

  9. IGES Interface for Medical 3-D Volume Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Yi, Hong; Ni, Zhonghua

    2005-01-01

    Although there are many medical image processing and virtual surgery systems that provide rather consummate 3D-visualization and data manipulation techniques, few of them can export the volume data for engineering analyze. The thesis presents an interface implementing IGES (initial graphics exchange specification). Volume data such as bones, skins and other tissues can be exported as IGES files to be directly used for engineering analysis.

  10. Mechanisms of Anaphylaxis Beyond IgE.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cano, R; Picado, C; Valero, A; Bartra, J

    2016-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening, multisystem syndrome resulting from the sudden release of mediators derived from mast cells and basophils. Food allergens are the main triggers of anaphylaxis, accounting for 33%-56% of all cases and up to 81% of cases of anaphylaxis in children. Human anaphylaxis is generally thought to be mediated by IgE, with mast cells and basophils as key players, although alternative mechanisms have been proposed. Neutrophils and macrophages have also been implicated in anaphylactic reactions, as have IgG-dependent, complement, and contact system activation. Not all allergic reactions are anaphylactic, and the presence of the so-called accompanying factors (cofactors or augmenting factors) may explain why some conditions lead to anaphylaxis, while in other cases the allergen elicits a milder reaction or is even tolerated. In the presence of these factors, allergic reactions may be induced at lower doses of allergen or become more severe. Cofactors are reported to be relevant in up to 30% of anaphylactic episodes. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and exercise are the best-documented cofactors, although estrogens, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, lipid-lowering drugs, and alcohol have also been involved. The mechanisms underlying anaphylaxis are complex and involve several interrelated pathways. Some of these pathways may be key to the development of anaphylaxis, while others may only modulate the severity of the reaction. An understanding of predisposing and augmenting factors could lead to the development of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches.

  11. Specific IgE response in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Lulu, A. R.; Khateeb, M. I.; Haj, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search to find discriminative serological markers to differentiate between patients with acute brucellosis and those with chronic brucellosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine and compare the brucella-specific IgE response in 80 sera from patients with acute brucellosis, 37 sera from patients with chronic brucellosis, 26 sera from patients with positive blood cultures for bacteria other than brucella and 51 sera from healthy controls. The IgE findings were compared to brucella-specific IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG1-4 demonstrated by ELISA, and to microagglutination test (MAT) results. Elevated (positive) antibrucella IgE titres were detected in 89 and 81% of sera from patients with acute and chronic brucellosis respectively. The predominant antibodies found in patients with acute brucellosis were of the IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG3 types while in chronic brucellosis IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG4 were found. Although IgE can be detected in patients with brucellosis, it does not discriminate between the acute and chronic stages of the disease. PMID:2249721

  12. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  13. Anaphylaxis to pork kidney is related to IgE antibodies specific for galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose.

    PubMed

    Morisset, M; Richard, C; Astier, C; Jacquenet, S; Croizier, A; Beaudouin, E; Cordebar, V; Morel-Codreanu, F; Petit, N; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    2012-05-01

    Carbohydrate-specific IgE antibodies present on nonprimate mammalian proteins were incriminated recently in delayed meat anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to explore whether anaphylaxis to mammalian kidney is also associated with galactose-α-1,3-galactose (αGal)-specific IgE. Fourteen patients with anaphylaxis to pork or beef kidney underwent prick tests to meat and kidney. Some patients also underwent skin tests to Erbitux(®) (cetuximab). IgE antibodies to αGal, swine urine proteins, beef and pork meat, serum albumin proteins, cat, and rFel d 1 were measured by ImmunoCAP(®). The αGal levels were estimated in meats and kidney by ELISA inhibition assay. Cross-reactivity between αGal and pork kidney was studied with the ImmunoCAP(®) inhibition assay. Among the 14 patients, 12 presented with anaphylactic shock. Reactions occurred within 2 h from exposure in 67% of patients. Associated risk factors were observed in 10 cases, and alcohol was the main cofactor. Three patients underwent an oral challenge to pork kidney, and anaphylaxis occurred after ingestion of small quantities (1-2 g). Prick tests to kidney were positive in 54% of patients. All tested patients showed positive skin tests to Erbitux(®). All patients tested positive for IgE to αGal, with levels ranging from 0.4 to 294 kU/l. IgE binding to αGal was inhibited by raw pork kidney extract (mean, 77%; range, 55-87%), which showed a high amount of αGal determinants. Pork or beef kidney anaphylaxis is related to αGal IgE. Its peculiar severity could be due to an elevated content of αGal epitopes in kidney. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…

  15. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…

  16. Serum IgE concentration and other immune manifestations of treatment with gold salts are linked to the MHC and IL4 regions in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kermarrec, N.; Blanpied, C.; Druet, P.

    1996-01-01

    A subset of patients with rheumatoid arthritis occasionally develops skin reactions and glomerulonephritis and exhibits an increase in serum IgE concentration when treated with gold salts. Brown-Norway (BN) rats injected with aurothiopropanolsulfonate (ATPS) also manifest an autoimmune glomerulonephritis and increased serum IgE concentration, whereas Lewis (LEW) rats are resistant to complications. Here, we show linkage between responses to ATPS in a (BN x LEW) F2 cohort and the major histocompatibility complex (RT1) on rat chromosome 20 and between markers in the region of IL4 and other candidate genes on rat chromosome 10. Recently, human serum IgE concentration has been reported to be linked to the IL-4 region. Taken together, these findings raise the possibility that homologous genes could be implicated in ATPS manifestations in the rat and in the regulation of IgE levels in the human. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Production of a mouse/human chimeric IgE monoclonal antibody to the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 and its use for the absolute quantification of allergen-specific IgE.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, J; Perdok, G J; Lourens, T E; Parren, P W; Chapman, M D; Aalberse, R C

    1997-04-01

    A chimeric human IgE monoclonal antibody was developed against the house dust mite allergen Der p 2. This chimeric antibody (hIgE-Dp2A) was composed of the heavy-chain variable domains and light chains of the original murine monoclonal antibody retaining its binding characteristics, whereas the heavy-chain constant domains were exchanged with the human IgE heavy chain. The chimeric IgE expression level was IgE 600 IU/ml (1 IU = 2.4 ng/ml). The binding of the chimeric hIgE-Dp2A to mite extract was indistinguishable from that of the original mouse monoclonal antibody. Parallel dose-response curves were found when the binding of hIgE-Dp2A to mite extract and anti-IgE coupled to sepharose were compared. Binding levels were not identical; however, hIgE-Dp2A bound significantly better to the mite-extract sepharose. This result indicates that the commonly used anti-IgE on solid phase calibration systems may lead to an overestimation of the amount of allergen-specific IgE present in the serum sample. The less efficient binding of the detector anti-IgE in case of the anti-IgE sepharose is likely to be because of the occupation of epitopes of the IgE by the sepharose-bound anti-IgE. Dose-response curves of serial dilutions of patient samples were parallel with the hIgE-Dp2A dose-response curve, which indicates that hIgE-Dp2A behaves like natural IgE antibodies in binding to allergen coupled to solid phase. This antibody is well suited for use as a reference reagent in the RAST and enables the expression of the amount of allergen-specific IgE present in a patient sample in absolute amounts.

  18. Free 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are normal in subjects with liver disease and reduced total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

    PubMed

    Bikle, D D; Halloran, B P; Gee, E; Ryzen, E; Haddad, J G

    1986-09-01

    We determined the free fraction of 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in the serum of subjects with clinical evidence of liver disease and correlated these measurements to the levels of vitamin D binding protein and albumin. These subjects when compared to normal individuals had lower total 25OHD levels, higher percent free 25OHD levels, but equivalent free 25OHD levels. These subjects also had reduced vitamin D binding protein and albumin concentrations. The total concentration of 25OHD correlated positively with both vitamin D binding protein and albumin, whereas the percent free 25OHD correlated negatively with vitamin D binding protein and albumin. The free 25OHD levels did not correlate with either vitamin D binding protein or albumin. We conclude that total vitamin D metabolite measurements may be misleading in the evaluation of the vitamin D status of patients with liver disease, and recommend that free 25OHD levels also be determined before making a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency.

  19. Reduced progesterone levels explain the reduced risk of breast cancer in obese premenopausal women: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Mitch; Folkerd, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between obesity and breast cancer is fundamental to our knowledge of the etiology of this malignancy; changes in the composition of the hormonal milieu are implicit in this process. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by aromatase in the gonads and in peripheral tissues, principally, adipose tissue. Obesity in women, regardless of their age, leads to more aromatase and more extra-glandular estrogen production. In postmenopausal women, in whom ovarian estrogen production is absent, the increased incidence of breast cancer in women with high body mass index has been attributed to the relatively high plasma levels of estradiol from subcutaneous fat. In contrast, obesity in premenopausal women is associated with a previously unexplained reduced incidence of breast cancer. In obese premenopausal women, the cumulative effect of higher levels of estrogens synthesized in the peripheral tissues, together with ovarian estrogen production, results in a negative feedback on the hypothalamic pituitary controlled release of gonadotrophins and a resultant diminution in ovarian steroid production. As a consequence, the normal balance of estrogen and progesterone levels is disrupted: while estrogen levels are normalized, progesterone production is markedly decreased. Progesterone is a promoter of proliferation in the breast. The low levels of progesterone in obese premenopausal women are consistent with, and we propose, are responsible for, the reduction in breast cancer incidence in these women.

  20. Epidemiology: allergy history, IgE, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michelle C

    2012-09-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated potential associations between allergy history and cancer risk with strong inverse associations reported in studies of pancreatic cancer, glioma, and childhood leukemia. Recently, there has been a rapid expansion of the epidemiological literature both of studies evaluating self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk and of studies evaluating biological indicators of allergy history and immune function including levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) E. However, there are several potential methodological limitations associated with prior studies, and further research is required to clarify associations observed. This paper summarizes the recent epidemiological literature examining associations between allergy history and cancer risk. From 2008, a total of 55 epidemiological studies were identified that examined some aspect of the association between allergy and cancer. Although the majority of studies examined self-reported allergy history in relation to cancer risk, there were also studies examining allergy diagnoses or discharges as captured in existing administrative databases, levels of IgE, polymorphisms of allergy, inflammatory- or allergy-related cytokine genes, and concentrations of immune regulatory proteins. The most frequently studied cancer sites included brain and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. Potential methodological sources of bias are discussed as well as recommendations for future work.

  1. SHIP represses mast cell activation and reveals that IgE alone triggers signaling pathways which enhance normal mast cell survival.

    PubMed

    Kalesnikoff, Janet; Lam, Vivian; Krystal, Gerald

    2002-09-01

    The hemopoietic specific, Src homology 2-containing inositol 5' phosphatase (SHIP) hydrolyzes the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-3-kinase generated second messenger, PI-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)), to PI-3,4-bisphosphate (PI-3,4-P(2)) in normal bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs). As a consequence, SHIP negatively regulates IgE+antigen (Ag)-induced degranulation as well as leukotriene and inflammatory cytokine production. Interestingly, in the absence of SHIP, BMMCs degranulate extensively with IgE alone, i.e. without Ag, suggesting that IgE alone is capable of stimulating signaling in normal BMMCs and that SHIP prevents this signaling from progressing to degranulation. To test this, we compared signaling events triggered by monomeric IgE versus IgE+Ag in normal BMMCs and found that multiple pathways are triggered by monomeric IgE alone and, while they are in general weaker than those stimulated by IgE+Ag, they are more prolonged. Moreover, while SHIP prevents this IgE-induced signalling from progressing to degranulation or leukotriene production it allows sufficient production of autocrine acting cytokines, in part by activation of NFkappaB, to enhance BMMC survival. Interestingly, the activation of NFkappaB and the level of cytokines produced are far higher with IgE than with IgE+Ag. Moreover, IgE alone maintains Bcl-X(L) levels and enhances the adhesion of BMMCs to fibronectin and this likely enhances their survival still further.

  2. Reading Instruction in IGE and Non-IGE Schools. Report from the Program on Student Diversity and School Processes. Working Paper No. 318.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    As part of a larger evaluation of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) system in Wisconsin elementary schools, a comparative study was conducted of the effectiveness of reading instruction and the Wisconsin Design for Reading Skill Development (WDRSD) program in IGE and non-IGE settings. Data on students in grades five and two in 11 different…

  3. Purification of Recombinant Peanut Allergen Ara h 1 and Comparison of IgE Binding to the Natural Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hurlburt, Barry K.; McBride, Jane K.; Nesbit, Jacqueline B.; Ruan, Sanbao; Maleki, Soheila J.

    2014-01-01

    Allergic reactions to food are on the rise worldwide and there is a corresponding increase in interest to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible. Peanut allergies are the most problematic because the reaction often persists into adulthood and can be as severe as anaphylaxis and death. The purpose of the work presented here was to develop a reproducible method to produce large quantities of pure recombinant Ara h 1(rAra h 1) that will enable standardization of immunological tests for patients and allow structural and immunological studies on the wild type and mutagenized forms of the protein. Ara h 1 is initially a pre-pro-protein which, following two endoproteolytic cleavages, becomes the mature form found in peanut. The mature form however has flexible regions that make it refractory to some structural studies including crystallography. Therefore, independent purification of the mature and core regions was desirable. Expression constructs were synthesized cDNA clones for each in a pET plasmid vector without tags. Codons were optimized for expression in E. coli. High-level expression was achieved in BL21 strains. Purification to near homogeneity was achieved by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. The purified rAra h 1 was then compared with natural Ara h 1 for IgE binding. All patients recognized both the folded natural and rAra h 1, but the IgE binding to the rArah1 was significantly reduced in comparison to the natural allergen, which could potentially make it useful for immunotherapeutic purposes. PMID:28234343

  4. Component-resolved IgE profiles in Austrian patients with a convincing history of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Ackerbauer, Daniela; Bublin, Merima; Radauer, Christian; Varga, Eva-Maria; Hafner, Christine; Ebner, Christof; Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Fröschl, Renate; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2015-01-01

    Peanut allergy develops after primary sensitization to peanut allergens and/or IgE cross-sensitization with homologous allergens from various plants. Therefore, heterogeneous patterns of sensitization to individual peanut allergens are observed in different countries. The aim of this study was to examine the IgE sensitization patterns of Austrian peanut-allergic patients. Sera from 65 peanut-allergic patients and 20 peanut-tolerant atopics were obtained in four Austrian allergy clinics. Sensitization patterns against peanut allergens Ara h 1-3, 6, 8 and 9 were identified by ImmunoCAP and ImmunoCAP ISAC. Austrian peanut-allergic patients were sensitized to Ara h 2 and 6 (71%), followed by Ara h 1 (62%), Ara h 8 (45%), Ara h 3 (35%) and Ara h 9 (11%). All sera containing Ara h 2-specific IgE were also positive for Ara h 6, with Ara h 6-specific IgE levels significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared with Ara h 2. Twelve percent displayed IgE reactivity exclusively to Ara h 8. Peanut extract and Ara h 8 showed low diagnostic specificities of 25 and 10%, respectively. The other peanut allergens showed 100% specificity. Diagnostic sensitivities determined by ImmunoCAP ISAC and ImmunoCAP were highly similar for Ara h 2, 3 and 8. The majority of symptomatic peanut-allergic patients are sensitized to Ara h 2 and Ara h 6. In peanut-symptomatic patients with additional birch pollen allergy, other peanut allergens, especially Ara h 8, should be tested when IgE reactivity to Ara h 2 is absent. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Accuracy of serum IgE concentrations and papule diameter in the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Franco, Jackeline M; Pinheiro, Ana Paula S G; Vieira, Sarah C F; Barreto, Íkaro Daniel C; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Cocco, Renata R; Solé, Dirceu

    2017-09-27

    To compare serum concentrations of specific IgE and mean papule diameters induced in the immediate skin reactivity test with cow's milk (CM) and its fractions with results of the oral challenge test (OCT), and to establish cutoff points capable of predicting clinical reactivity to CM in patients treated at a referral service. One hundred and twenty-two children (median of 17 months) with a history of immediate reactions to CM and presence of specific IgE for CM and/or its fractions (positive skin and/or IgE serum tests) were submitted to open OCT with CM. The OCT was positive in 59.8% of the children, 49% of whom were males. Serum levels of specific IgE, as well as mean CM papule diameters, were significantly higher in allergic patients (medians: 3.39kUA/L vs. 1.16kUA/L, 2.5mm vs. 0mm). The optimal cutoff points (Youden's index) of serum IgE specific for CM and its fractions capable of predicting CM reactivity (positive OCT) were: 5.17kUA/L for CM, 0.95kUA/L for α-lactalbumin, 0.82kUA/L for β-lactoglobulin, and 0.72kUA/L for casein, whereas for papule diameters the cutoff points were 3.5mm for CM and 6.5mm, 9.0mm, and 3.0mm for the α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and casein fractions, respectively. The cutoff points capable of predicting clinical reactivity to CM were: 5.17kUA/L for serum-specific IgE and 3.5mm for papule diameter measurement, values considered discriminatory for the diagnosis of CM allergy. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  7. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J.; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. Objectives We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. Methods C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti–2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl–human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Results Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Conclusions Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23810240

  8. Influence of protein expression system on elicitation of IgE antibody responses: experience with lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Almond, Rachael J; Flanagan, Brian F; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2012-11-15

    With increased interest in genetically modified (GM) crop plants there is an important need to understand the properties that contribute to the ability of such novel proteins to provoke immune and/or allergic responses. One characteristic that may be relevant is glycosylation, particularly as novel expression systems (e.g. bacterial to plant) will impact on the protein glycoprofile. The allergenicity (IgE inducing) and immunogenicity (IgG inducing) properties of wild type native human lactoferrin (NLF) from human milk (hm) and neutrophil granules (n) and a recombinant molecule produced in rice (RLF) have been assessed. These forms of lactoferrin have identical amino acid sequences, but different glycosylation patterns: hmNLF and nNLF have complex glycoprofiles including Lewis (Le)(x) structures, with particularly high levels of Le(x) expressed by nNLF, whereas RLF is simpler and rich in mannose residues. Antibody responses induced in BALB/c strain mice by intraperitoneal exposure to the different forms of lactoferrin were characterised. Immunisation with both forms of NLF stimulated substantial IgG and IgE antibody responses. In contrast, the recombinant molecule was considerably less immunogenic and failed to stimulate detectable IgE, irrespective of endotoxin and iron content. The glycans did not contribute to epitope formation, with equivalent IgE and IgG binding recorded for high titre anti-NLF antisera regardless of whether the immunising NLF or the recombinant molecule were used substrates in the analyses. These data demonstrate that differential glycosylation profiles can have a profound impact on protein allergenicity and immunogenicity, with mannose and Le(x) exhibiting opposing effects. These results have clear relevance for characterising the allergenic hazards of novel proteins in GM crops.

  9. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells.

    PubMed

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti-2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased Plasma IgE Accelerate Atherosclerosis in Secreted IgM Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Bot, Ilze; Ozsvar-Kozma, Maria; Göderle, Laura; Perkmann, Thomas; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Conrad, Daniel H; Kuiper, Johan; Mallat, Ziad; Binder, Christoph J

    2017-01-06

    Deficiency of secreted IgM (sIgM(-/-)) accelerates atherosclerosis in Ldlr(-/-)mice. Several atheroprotective effects of increased levels of IgM antibodies have been suggested, including preventing inflammation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein and promoting apoptotic cell clearance. However, the mechanisms by which the lack of sIgM promotes lesion formation remain unknown. To identify the mechanisms by which sIgM deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. We here show that both sIgM(-/-) and Ldlr(-/-)sIgM(-/-) mice develop increased plasma IgE titers because of impaired generation of B cells expressing the low-affinity IgE receptor CD23, which mediates the clearance of IgE antibodies. We further report that Ldlr(-/-)sIgM(-/-) mice exhibit increased numbers of activated mast cells and neutrophils in the perivascular area of atherosclerotic plaques. Treatment with an anti-IgE-neutralizing antibody fully reversed vascular inflammation and accelerated atherosclerotic lesion formation in cholesterol-fed Ldlr(-/-)sIgM(-/-) mice. Thus, our data identify a previously unsuspected mechanism by which sIgM deficiency aggravates atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Chitin enhances serum IgE in Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Schlosser, Anders; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Holmskov, Uffe

    2015-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is a ubiquitous fungus that activates, suppresses or modulates the immune response by changing its cell wall structure and by secreting proteases. In this study, we show that chitin acts as an adjuvant in a murine model of A. fumigatus protease induced allergy. The mice were immunised intraperitoneally with A. fumigatus culture filtrate antigen either with or without chitin and were subsequently challenged with the culture filtrate antigen intranasally. Alum was used as an adjuvant control. Compared to alum, chitin induced a weaker inflammatory response in the lungs, measured as the total cell efflux in BAL, EPO and chitinase production. However, chitin enhanced the total IgE, specific IgE and specific IgG1 production as efficiently as alum. Pre-treatment with chitin but not with alum depressed the concentration of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 in BAL fluid. These results shows that chitin, in spite of a reduction of the Th2 cytokine levels in the lungs, enhanced the total and specific IgE production in A. fumigatus culture filtrate induced allergy.

  12. Mouse anti-benzylpenicilloyl IgE monoclonal antibody: preparation, characterization and cross-reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, H; Misaki, R; Takeuchi, M; Niinomi, Y; Harada, M

    1987-01-01

    Anti-benzylpenicilloyl (BPO-) monoclonal antibody of the IgE class was prepared from spleens of immune C57BL/6 mice whose sera reacted with BPO-hapten, penicillin G(PCG) polymer, cephalothin (CET)-hapten and CET polymer. Affinity chromatography experiments showed that the haptenic specificity of the IgE monoclonal antibody (designated BIE-13CE) was directed mainly to phenylacetyl portion of BPO group. BIE-13CE antibody reacted on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay with BPO-hapten, CET-hapten, cephaloridine-hapten and CET polymer, but did not react with PCG polymer, ampicillin-hapten, or cefazolin-hapten. These results indicated that the sera of the immune C57BL/6 mice contained IgE antibodies capable of cross-reacting at the monoclonal antibody level with various forms of eliciting antigens and that the cross-reactivity of the antibody could be ascribed essentially to the structural similarity of acyl side chains of the antibiotics. The structure of the CET polymer is also discussed in terms of its PCA reactivity with the monoclonal antibody and analytical and spectral data of the polymer. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3652521

  13. High IgE sensitization to maize and rice pollen in the highlands of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Ramavovololona; Sénéchal, Hélène; Andrianarisoa, Ange; Rakotoarimanana, Vololona; Godfrin, Dominique; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Maize and rice are two crops constituting the main food supply in many under-developed and developing countries. Despite the large area devoted to the culture, the sensitization to the pollen from these plants is reported to be low and often considered as an occupational allergy. Sixty five Malagasy pollen allergic patients were clinically and immunochemically investigated with regard to maize and rice pollen allergens. Pollen extracts were electrophoretically separated in 1 and 2 dimensions and IgE and IgG reactivities detected upon immunoblotting. When exploring the sensitization profile of Malagasy allergic patients to maize and rice pollen, it appears that a high proportion of these patients consulting during grass pollinating season were sensitized to both pollen as revealed by skin prick testing (62 vs. 59%) and IgE immunoblotting (85 vs. 40%). Several clinically relevant allergens were recognized by patients' serum IgE in maize and rice pollen extracts. The high levels of maize and rice pollen sensitization should be related, in this tropical region, to a specific environmental exposure including i) a proximity of the population to the allergenic sources and ii) a putative exacerbating effect of a highly polluted urban atmosphere on pollen allergenicity. Cross-reactivities between wild and cultivated grasses and also between rice and maize pollen are involved as well as some specific maize sensitizations. The presence of dense urban and peri-urban agriculture, in various African regions and worldwide, could be a high environmental risk factor for people sensitive to maize pollen.

  14. Characterisation of an engineered trastuzumab IgE antibody and effector cell mechanisms targeting HER2/neu-positive tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Singer, Josef; Hunt, James; Gan, Samuel K E; Rudman, Sarah M; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Knittelfelder, Regina; Daniels, Tracy R; Hobson, Philip S; Beavil, Andrew J; Spicer, James; Nestle, Frank O; Penichet, Manuel L; Gould, Hannah J; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2009-06-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a humanized IgG1 antibody raised against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), is the main antibody in clinical use against breast cancer. Pre-clinical evidence and clinical studies indicate that trastuzumab employs several anti-tumour mechanisms that most likely contribute to enhanced survival of patients with HER2/neu-positive breast carcinomas. New strategies are aimed at improving antibody-based therapeutics like trastuzumab, e.g. by enhancing antibody-mediated effector function mechanisms. Based on our previous findings that a chimaeric ovarian tumour antigen-specific IgE antibody showed greater efficacy in tumour cell killing, compared to the corresponding IgG1 antibody, we have produced an IgE homologue of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab IgE was engineered with the same light- and heavy-chain variable-regions as trastuzumab, but with an epsilon in place of the gamma-1 heavy-chain constant region. We describe the physical characterisation and ligand binding properties of the trastuzumab IgE and elucidate its potential anti-tumour activities in functional assays. Both trastuzumab and trastuzumab IgE can activate monocytic cells to kill tumour cells, but they operate by different mechanisms: trastuzumab functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), whereas trastuzumab IgE functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Trastuzumab IgE, incubated with mast cells and HER2/neu-expressing tumour cells, triggers mast cell degranulation, recruiting against cancer cells a potent immune response, characteristic of allergic reactions. Finally, in viability assays both antibodies mediate comparable levels of tumour cell growth arrest. These functional characteristics of trastuzumab IgE, some distinct from those of trastuzumab, indicate its potential to complement or improve upon the existing clinical benefits of trastuzumab.

  15. Tension between reducing sea-level rise and global warming through solar-radiation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Sriver, R. L.; Keller, K.

    2012-02-01

    Geoengineering using solar-radiation management (SRM) is gaining interest as a potential strategy to reduce future climate change impacts. Basic physics and past observations suggest that reducing insolation will, on average, cool the Earth. It is uncertain, however, whether SRM can reduce climate change stressors such as sea-level rise or rates of surface air temperature change. Here we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantify the possible response of sea levels and surface air temperatures to projected climate forcings and SRM strategies. We find that SRM strategies introduce a potentially strong tension between the objectives to reduce (1) the rate of temperature change and (2) sea-level rise. This tension arises primarily because surface air temperatures respond faster to radiative forcings than sea levels. Our results show that the forcing required to stop sea-level rise could cause a rapid cooling with a rate similar to the peak business-as-usual warming rate. Furthermore, termination of SRM was found to produce warming rates up to five times greater than the maximum rates under the business-as-usual CO2 scenario, whereas sea-level rise rates were only 30% higher. Reducing these risks requires a slow phase-out of many decades and thus commits future generations.

  16. Serum IgE levels in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Hahalis, George

    2016-08-01

    The development and progression of atherosclerosis and its predisposition for unstable angina, myocardial infarction and stroke is associated with traditional risk factors such as family history, cigarette smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, imbalance of the hemostatic/fibrinolytic system and sedentary lifestyle. However, much of the variability in atherosclerosis and its manifestations still remains unexplained. Nowadays, there is increasing evidence that immunologic mechanisms play a major role in etiology, prediction of coronary plaque instability and foreseeing severe reaction leading to an actual coronary event. Cells of the immune system such as macrophages, mast cells and T-lymphocytes are major components of human atheromatous plaque. These cells participate in a vicious immune cycle and activate each others via bidirectional stimuli. For example, mast cells can activate macrophages and may enhance T-cell activation. Inducible macrophage protein 1a may activate mast cells, while CD169+ macrophages activate CD8 T cells. T cells may mediate mast-cell activation and proliferation and regulate macrophage activity. Mediators secreted by these cells, including histamine, neutral proteases, arachidonic acid products, platelet activating factor and a variety of cytokines and chemokines, can induce coronary artery spasm and atheromatous plaque erosion and rupture, culminating in the development of acute coronary syndromes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and reduced suppression of Th2-mediated inflammation in hyperreactive human onchocerciasis

    PubMed Central

    KORTEN, S.; HOERAUF, A.; KAIFI, J. T.; BÜTTNER, D. W.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Th2-biased inflammation with eosinophilia and IgE production is a hallmark of helminth infections. It is pronounced in hyperreactive onchocerciasis patients (‘sowda’ or ‘local form’), who efficiently kill microfilariae resulting in severe dermatitis and lymphadenitis. In contrast, hyporeactive patients (‘generalised form’) tolerate high microfilarial loads. This is thought to be mediated by regulatory CD4+ T cells and macrophages producing suppressive cytokines such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). We investigated whether hyperreactivity was reflected by lower local TGF-β production, analysing stable latent TGF-β1 expression in onchocercomas, lymph nodes and skin from hyperreactive and hyporeactive patients by immunohistochemistry. TGF-β expression was compared with that of IgE, IgG1, IgG4, and the antigen-presenting, CD4+ T cell-inducing MHC class II molecule HLA-DR. TGF-β was weakly and less frequently expressed by various cell types in onchocercomas, skin and lymph nodes from hyperreactive compared to hyporeactive patients. This applied to reactions around living and dead adult worms as well as dead microfilariae. Antigen-presenting cells strongly expressed HLA-DR in both forms, but their numbers were reduced in hyperreactive nodules. Plasma cells produced more IgE and IgG1, but less of the anti-inflammatory antibody IgG4 in hyperreactive onchocercomas. In conclusion, hyperreactivity is linked with reduced local expression of TGF-β, HLA-DR and IgG4, which might contribute to the insufficient down-regulation of inflammation via TGF-β- and HLA-DR-induced regulatory lymphocytes. PMID:20619070

  18. Allergy-related outcomes in relation to serum IgE: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Calatroni, Agustin; Gergen, Peter J.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sever, Michelle L.; Jaramillo, Renee; Arbes, Samuel J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 was the first population-based study to investigate levels of serum total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the general US population. Objective We estimated prevalence of allergy-related outcomes and examined relationships between serum IgE levels and these outcomes in a representative sample of the US population. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from the NHANES 2005–2006. Study subjects aged 6 years and older (N=8086) had blood taken for measurement of total IgE and 19 specific IgEs against common aeroallergens, including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Bermuda grass, birch, oak, ragweed, Russian thistle, rye grass, cat dander, cockroach, dog dander, dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus), mouse and rat urine proteins; and selected foods (egg white, cow’s milk, peanut, and shrimp). Serum samples were analyzed for total and allergen-specific IgEs using the Pharmacia CAP System. Information on allergy-related outcomes and demographics was collected by questionnaire. Results In the NHANES 2005–2006, 6.6% reported current hay fever and 23.5% suffered from current allergies. Allergy-related outcomes increased with increasing total IgE (adjusted ORs for a 10-fold increase in total IgE =1.86, 95% CI:1.44–2.41 for hay fever and 1.64, 95% CI: 1.41–1.91 for allergies). Elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs contributed independently to allergy-related symptoms. The greatest increase in odds was observed for hay fever and plant-specific IgEs (adjusted OR=4.75, 95% CI:3.83–5.88). Conclusion In the US population, self-reported allergy symptoms are most consistently associated with elevated levels of plant-, pet-, and mold-specific IgEs. PMID:21320720

  19. The sequential appearance of IgG subclasses and IgE during the course of Trichinella spiralis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ljungström, I; Hammarström, L; Kociecka, W; Smith, C I

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that IgG1 and IgG4 are the dominant IgG subclasses in the specific response during a chronic helminthic infection. It has also been suggested that IgG4 production results from chronic or repetitive antigenic stimulation and a correlation between IgG4 and IgE levels exists. An outbreak of Trichinella spiralis infection in Poland provided the opportunity to follow the sequential appearance of the IgG subclass and IgE responses in 15 patients during the early stage of Trichinella infection and to compare these observations in sera obtained one year later from the same patients. The results show that the sequential appearance of the IgG subclasses were IgG1 before IgG3 and IgG3 before IgG4. IgG1 antibodies dominated the immune response in all patients. A statistically significant increase in the number of IgG4 positive sera was observed in patients during the chronic stage compared to the findings during the early stage of infection (13% vs 73%; p less than 0.001), supporting the view that IgG4 results from a chronic antigenic stimulation. A correlation between the appearance of IgG4 and IgE was not found. The highest levels of IgE were seen in the first serum samples obtained, with a decrease during the course of infection. PMID:3224442

  20. The Interaction Between Prenatal Exposure to Home Renovation and Reactive Oxygen Species Genes in Cord Blood IgE Response is Modified by Maternal Atopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kangmo; Shin, Youn Ho; Kim, Kyung Won; Suh, Dong In; Yu, Ho Sung; Kang, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Shin; Hong, Seo Ah; Choi, Kil Yong; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song I; Seo, Ju Hee; Kim, Byoung Ju; Kim, Hyo Bin; Lee, So Yeon; Choi, Suk Joo; Oh, Soo Young; Kwon, Ja Young; Lee, Kyung Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye Sung; Hong, Soo Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although home renovation exposure during childhood has been identified as a risk factor for the development of allergy, there is limited information on the association between prenatal exposure to home renovation and cord blood (CB) IgE response. The aims of this study were to identify the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on CB IgE levels, and to investigate whether this exposure interacts with neonatal genes and whether the effect can be modified by maternal atopy. This study included 1,002 mother-neonate pairs from the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). Prenatal environmental factors were collected using a questionnaire. The levels of CB IgE were measured by the ImmunoCAP system, and DNA was extracted from CB. Exposure to home renovation during the prenatal period was associated with significantly higher levels of CB IgE only in neonates from atopic mothers, and the effect of renovation exposure on CB IgE levels persisted from 31 months before birth. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to home renovation increased the risk of CB IgE response interacting with polymorphisms of NRF2 and GSTP1 genes only in neonates from atopic mothers. Maternal atopy modified the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on CB serum IgE response as well as the interaction between the exposure and neonatal genes involved in the oxidative stress pathway. These findings suggest that the genetically susceptible offspring of atopic mothers may be more vulnerable to the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on the development of allergy.

  1. The Interaction Between Prenatal Exposure to Home Renovation and Reactive Oxygen Species Genes in Cord Blood IgE Response is Modified by Maternal Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinho; Shin, Youn Ho; Kim, Kyung Won; Suh, Dong In; Yu, Ho-Sung; Kang, Mi-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Shin; Hong, Seo Ah; Choi, Kil Yong; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although home renovation exposure during childhood has been identified as a risk factor for the development of allergy, there is limited information on the association between prenatal exposure to home renovation and cord blood (CB) IgE response. The aims of this study were to identify the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on CB IgE levels, and to investigate whether this exposure interacts with neonatal genes and whether the effect can be modified by maternal atopy. Methods This study included 1,002 mother-neonate pairs from the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). Prenatal environmental factors were collected using a questionnaire. The levels of CB IgE were measured by the ImmunoCAP system, and DNA was extracted from CB. Results Exposure to home renovation during the prenatal period was associated with significantly higher levels of CB IgE only in neonates from atopic mothers, and the effect of renovation exposure on CB IgE levels persisted from 31 months before birth. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to home renovation increased the risk of CB IgE response interacting with polymorphisms of NRF2 and GSTP1 genes only in neonates from atopic mothers. Conclusions Maternal atopy modified the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on CB serum IgE response as well as the interaction between the exposure and neonatal genes involved in the oxidative stress pathway. These findings suggest that the genetically susceptible offspring of atopic mothers may be more vulnerable to the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on the development of allergy. PMID:26540500

  2. Enhanced expression of neuropeptide S (NPS) receptor in eosinophils from severe asthmatics and subjects with total IgE above 100IU/ml.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Pinja; James, Anna; Moilanen, Eeva; Pulkkinen, Ville; Daham, Kameran; Saarelainen, Seppo; Laitinen, Tarja; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Kere, Juha; Dahlén, Barbro; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are inflammatory cells of particular relevance to asthma exacerbations. Neuropeptide S (NPS) receptor was identified in a search for asthma susceptibility genes, where the risk haplotypes of the NPS receptor gene associated with total serum IgE above 100IU/ml and asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare expression of NPS receptor in human peripheral blood eosinophils derived from subjects with total serum IgE above and below 100IU/ml and patients with different phenotypes of asthma. Additionally, we aimed to study the function of NPS receptor in human eosinophils. We found higher NPS receptor protein expression in eosinophils derived from subjects with high IgE when compared to those from subjects with low IgE and the level of NPS receptor positively correlated with serum IgE. NPS receptor expression was also higher in eosinophils from patients with severe asthma than in cells from mild asthmatics or healthy controls. The receptor agonist NPS was a chemotactic agent for eosinophils. NPS also increased N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated CD11b integrin levels in eosinophils from subjects with high IgE. Furthermore, eosinophils from those subjects exhibited Ca(2+) mobilization but not cAMP rise in response to NPS. Altogether, NPS receptor may have a pathological role in individuals with severe asthma and/or elevated serum IgE levels as eosinophils from these patients express higher levels of NPS receptor protein and respond to NPS by enhanced migration and adhesion molecule expression.

  3. Reduced maternal and cord nerve growth factor levels in preterm deliveries.

    PubMed

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Mehendale, Savita; Pisal, Hemlata; Nimbargi, Vandana; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin, which exerts an important role in the development and function of the central and peripheral nervous system. There is limited information regarding the levels of NGF during pregnancy and its role in fetal development. We have earlier reported increased oxidative stress in pregnancy complications. The present study examines the levels of NGF in maternal and cord samples in preterm deliveries and its association with oxidative stress marker. A total number of 96 women delivering preterm (<37 weeks gestation) and 94 women delivering at term (control group) (≥37 weeks gestation) were recruited. Plasma NGF levels were measured in both mother and cord plasma using the Emax Immuno Assay System Promega kit. Maternal and cord plasma NGF levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05 for both) in women delivering preterm as compared to term. There was a positive association between maternal and cord plasma NGF levels (p=0.022). Maternal NGF levels were negatively (p=0.017) associated with maternal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Reduced cord NGF levels may affect fetal growth in preterm deliveries which may have implications for the neurodevelopmental pathologies in later life. Circulating maternal NGF levels in preterm pregnancies may be a useful marker to predict NGF levels in the neonate.

  4. Increased local IgE production induced by common aeroallergens and phenotypic alteration of mast cells in Chinese eosinophilic, but not non-eosinophilic, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Na; Liao, Bo; Ma, Jin; Wang, Bao-Feng; Wang, Heng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Wei-Hong; Schleimer, Robert P.; Liu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) display distinct patterns of inflammation. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of CRSwNP need further investigation. Objective To investigate local immunoglobulin E (IgE) production and phenotype of mast cells in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP in Chinese. Methods Total and specific IgE levels were analyzed by means of the ImmunoCAP system. The molecular steps involved in class switch recombination to IgE were investigated using RT-PCR assays. Mast cell phenotypes, IgE- and high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI)-positive cells, and allergen binding to specific IgE in sinonasal mucosa were determined by means of immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with controls and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP, local total IgE levels were increased, and local specific IgE to common aeroallergens was more frequently found, in Chinese eosinophilic CRSwNP independent of atopy and without significant association with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins. The ε germline gene transcript was also more frequently detected in eosinophilic CRSwNP. The number of IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP. Most IgE- and FcεRI-positive cells were mast cells. Dust mite antigens could bind to IgE on mast cells in situ. The number of mast cells positive for both tryptase and chymase and activated mast cells was increased in eosinophilic CRSwNP and the number of activated mast cells positively correlated with local IgE level, eotaxin-1 level, and eosinophil count in CRSwNP. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The local IgE induced by common aeroallergens may mediate mast cell activation and contribute to subsequent eosinophilic inflammation in Chinese CRSwNP. This study offers a rationale for considering intervention strategies designed to target “local allergy” in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PMID:24597471

  5. Evaluation report on the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-05

    IGES is a communication file structure for data produced on and used by computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems in widespread use today. It is intended to provide a means for data interchange between CAD/CAM systems of different brand name, and to allow the transfer of geometric data to and from external applications programs. IGES represents an initial organized attempt to address and resolve the interface problems that arise as a result of the introduction of the computer into the design and manufacturing environment by introducing a set of specifications where none presently exists. This report gives an overview of IGES progress as of April 1980. 5 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  6. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    SciTech Connect

    Theilen, D.F.; Jones, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL), and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometric model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchanged data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the three-dimensional geometric model of points, lines, and arcs.

  7. IGES data exchange between dissimilar CAD-CAM systems

    SciTech Connect

    Theilen, D.F.

    1982-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Bendix Kansas City have successfully transferred geometrical model data by using a neutral graphics format, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Data was exchanged between two dissimilar CAD-CAM systems without the need for special translators. The exchanged data was used to fabricate a mechanical part. Design information developed on a CAD-CAM system was translated to IGES with a commercial preprocessor at Sandia. A second vendor's postprocessor translated the design information from IGES to the CAD-CAM system at Bendix. The Bendix CAD-CAM system was used to generate the numerical control tape from the exchange data. The tape was used to fabricate the part. A production print from Sandia was used during final inspection to verify part accuracy. Project results indicated that both vendor-furnished translators correctly transferred the geometric model of points, lines and arcs.

  8. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, John A; Jongbloed, Age W; Verstegen, Martin W A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may prevent interprandial feelings of hunger and, consequently, increased activity. Catheterized sows (n = 10) were fed twice daily (0700 and 1900 h) 900 g of a diet with either a low (L-sows) or a high level of fermentable dietary fiber (H-sows; sugarbeet pulp). Blood samples, taken between feeding times, were analyzed for glucose and insulin levels (basal and area under the curve) and stability of levels (variance and sum of absolute differences between levels in consecutive samples). The main focus was on samples taken after the postprandial peak. Behavior was videotaped for analysis of postures and posture changes. Basal glucose and insulin levels did not differ between treatments. H-sows had more stable levels than L-sows. Interprandial levels of H-sows were higher than or equal to basal levels. L-sows showed a decline in glucose below basal levels at 1400 h (P < 0.05). Before 1400 h, no difference in the frequency of posture changes was observed between treatments. After 1400 h, the frequency of posture changes increased more in L-sows than in H-sows. We concluded that sugarbeet pulp as a source of fermentable dietary fiber stabilizes glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in limited-fed sows several hours after feeding. This may indicate a prolonged feeling of satiety.

  9. Free 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are normal in subjects with liver disease and reduced total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

    PubMed Central

    Bikle, D D; Halloran, B P; Gee, E; Ryzen, E; Haddad, J G

    1986-01-01

    We determined the free fraction of 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in the serum of subjects with clinical evidence of liver disease and correlated these measurements to the levels of vitamin D binding protein and albumin. These subjects when compared to normal individuals had lower total 25OHD levels, higher percent free 25OHD levels, but equivalent free 25OHD levels. These subjects also had reduced vitamin D binding protein and albumin concentrations. The total concentration of 25OHD correlated positively with both vitamin D binding protein and albumin, whereas the percent free 25OHD correlated negatively with vitamin D binding protein and albumin. The free 25OHD levels did not correlate with either vitamin D binding protein or albumin. We conclude that total vitamin D metabolite measurements may be misleading in the evaluation of the vitamin D status of patients with liver disease, and recommend that free 25OHD levels also be determined before making a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:3745436

  10. Creating a Culture of Safety by Reducing Noise Levels in the OR.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Lisa J; Harvey, Renee L

    2015-10-01

    We implemented a quality improvement project to reduce noise levels in the OR in response to complaints from the anesthesia staff members at two community hospitals. Excessive noise has been shown to increase staff member stress, fatigue, distraction, and ineffective communication, which can lead to medical errors. We measured noise levels during anesthesia induction and emergence for 118 different surgical procedures and compared noise levels before and after the improvement project intervention. Staff member education and noise reduction strategies, which included signage, prominent noise meters, and specific suggestions to staff members, helped to significantly reduce the noise level during the anesthetic induction and emergence phases of OR procedures. Copyright © 2015 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The NASA-IGES geometry data exchange standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Chou, Jin J.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    Described here are the data exchange efforts and plans supported by the NASA Steering Committee for Surface Modeling and Grid Generation. Current methods for geometry data exchange between computer aided design (CAD) systems and NASA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis systems are tedious and induce errors. A Geometry Data Exchange Standard is proposed, utilizing a subset of an existing national standard titled Initial Graphic Exchange Standard (IGES). Future plans for data exchange standardization include all aspects of CFD data. Software systems to utilize this NASA-IGES Geometry Data Exchange Specification are under development.

  12. Sound-Level Measurements of a Light Airplane Modified to Reduce Noise Reaching the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogeley, A W

    1949-01-01

    An Army liaison-type airplane, representative of personal airplanes in the 150 to 200 horsepower class, has been modified to reduce propeller and engine noise according to known principles of airplane-noise reduction. Noise-level measurements demonstrate that, with reference to an observer on the ground, a noisy airplane of this class can be made quiet -- perhaps more quiet than necessary. In order to avoid extreme and unnecessary modifications, acceptable noise levels must be determined.

  13. Relationship between helminthic infection and IgE response in atopic and nonatopic children in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Lynch, N R; Hagel, I A; Palenque, M E; Di Prisco, M C; Escudero, J E; Corao, L A; Sandia, J A; Ferreira, L J; Botto, C; Perez, M; Le Souef, P N

    1998-02-01

    Although IgE antibody is clearly involved in allergic reactions to environmental allergens, this immunoglobulin is an important component of host-protective immune responses against the helminthic parasites that are endemic in the majority of the world population. However, these infections not only stimulate the production of antiparasite IgE antibody but can nonspecifically induce polyclonal IgE synthesis that results in highly elevated total serum IgE levels. Such polyclonal stimulation can diminish specific IgE antibody responses and cause saturation of mast cell Fc epsilon receptors, thus inhibiting allergic reactivity. This may represent a mechanism of immune evasion by the parasite. Because an atopic disposition is generally recognized to be associated with elevated IgE synthesis against environmental allergens, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of atopy on the antiparasite response. To this end, we examined two groups of Venezuelan children in whom the intestinal helminth Ascaris lumbricoides is endemic but that differ greatly in their level of atopy. One group was from an island population (Coche Island) that has a very strong atopic background and in which the prevalence of allergic disease is extremely high. The other was a group of nonatopic children belonging to a mainland population (Barrio Los Erasos) that is of comparable socioeconomic level and has an exposure to helminthic infection similar to that of the island group but a relatively low expression of allergic diseases. Although the living conditions and the prevalence of Ascaris infection of the two groups were comparable, the intensity of the parasitic infection was considerably higher in the nonatopic mainland children (geometric mean values of eggs per gram of feces: Barrio Los Erasos, 7621; Coche Island, 1435; p < 0.001). In addition, their total serum IgE levels were significantly more elevated than in the atopic island group (geometric mean: Barrio Los Erasos, 2172; Coche

  14. Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) with Reduced Levels of ω5-Gliadins, the Major Sensitizing Allergen in Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Susan B; Tanaka, Charlene K; Pineau, Florence; Lupi, Roberta; Drouet, Martine; Beaudouin, Etienne; Morisset, Martine; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-10-28

    The ω5-gliadins are the major sensitizing allergens in wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In this study, two-dimensional immunoblot analysis was used to assess the allergenic potential of two transgenic wheat lines in which ω5-gliadin genes were silenced by RNA interference. Sera from 7 of 11 WDEIA patients showed greatly reduced levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity to ω5-gliadins in both transgenic lines. However, these sera also showed low levels of reactivity to other gluten proteins. Sera from three patients showed the greatest reactivity to proteins other than ω5-gliadins, either high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), α-gliadins, or non-gluten proteins. The complexity of immunological responses among these patients suggests that flour from the transgenic lines would not be suitable for individuals already diagnosed with WDEIA. However, the introduction of wheat lacking ω5-gliadins could reduce the number of people sensitized to these proteins and thereby decrease the overall incidence of this serious food allergy.

  15. Cathepsin D levels are reduced in patients with preeclampsia in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho Yeon; Lee, Maria; Kang, Hye Won; Moon, ChongSoo

    2013-12-01

    To compare the circulating levels of cathepsin D in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies. Fifty pregnant and 20 healthy non-pregnant patients were enrolled in this study. Of the 50 pregnant patients, 15 were preeclamptic and 35 patients were normotensive. Serum levels of soluble cathepsin D were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Cathepsin D levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic patients than normotensive pregnant patients (p=0.033). The serum levels of cathepsin D in preeclamptic and non-pregnant healthy patients showed similar results. The serum levels of cathepsin D were not positively correlated with preeclampsia severity or the incidence of delivery of small for gestational age infants. We conclude that a reduced cathepsin D level is an important factor that may contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, possibly by inhibiting normal trophoblastic invasion. These results contribute to the understanding of this serious obstetric problem. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Roles for the High Affinity IgE Receptor, FcεRI, of Human Basophils in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Allergic Asthma: Disease Promotion, Protection or Both?

    PubMed

    Youssef, Lama A; Schuyler, Mark; Wilson, Bridget S; Oliver, Janet M

    2010-01-01

    The role of basophils, the rarest of blood granulocytes, in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma is still incompletely understood. Indirect evidence generated over many decades is consistent with a role for basophils in disease promotion. Recent improvements in procedures to purify and analyze very small numbers of human cells have generally supported this view, but have also revealed new complexities. This chapter focuses on our analyses of Fcε R1 function in basophils in the context of understanding and treating human allergic asthma. In long-term studies, we demonstrated that asthmatic subjects have higher circulating numbers of basophils than non-atopic non-asthmatic subjects and that their basophils show higher rates of both basal and anti-IgE or antigen-stimulated histamine release. These results hint at a direct role for basophils in promoting asthma. Supporting this interpretation, the non-releaser phenotype that we linked to the excessive proteolysis of Syk via the ubiquitin/proteasomal pathway is less common in basophils from asthmatic than non-asthmatic donors. The discovery of a basophil-specific pathway regulating Syk levels presents a clear opportunity for therapy. Another route to therapy was revealed by evidence that basophil FcεRI signaling can be downregulated by co-crosslinking the ITAM-containing IgE receptor, FcγRI, to the ITIM-containing IgG receptor, FcγRIIB. Based on this discovery, hybrid co-crosslinking fusion proteins are being engineered as potential therapies targeting basophils. A third distinguishing property of human basophils is their high dependence on IgE binding to stabilize membrane FcεRI. The circulating IgE scavenging mAb, Omalizumab, reduces FcεRI expression in basophils from asthmatics by over 95% and produces a substantial impairment of IL-4, IL-8 and IL-13 production in response to the crosslinking of residual cell surface IgE-FcεRI. A search for small molecule inhibitors that similarly impair high affinity IgE

  17. The value of specific IgE to peanut and its component Ara h 2 in the diagnosis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Lopes de Oliveira, Lucila C; Aderhold, Martina; Brill, Marianne; Schulz, Gabriele; Rolinck-Werninghaus, Claudia; Clare Mills, E N; Niggemann, Bodo; Naspitz, Charles Kirov; Wahn, Ulrich; Beyer, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    To avoid unnecessary oral food challenges, which are time consuming, stressful, and risky, improved in vitro diagnostic methods for food allergy such as component resolved diagnostics are still under investigation. To investigate the role of whole peanut- and peanut-component (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 6 and Ara h 8)-specific IgE levels in the diagnostic procedure of peanut allergy as well as the diagnostic properties of peanut-specific IgG and IgG4. Sixty-one children underwent oral peanut challenge tests for diagnostic purposes irrespective of their peanut-specific IgE levels. Peanut-specific serum IgE, IgG, and IgG4 levels were determined by ImmunoCAP FEIA and specific IgE against individual peanut proteins by Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip. Thirty-four of 61 patients (56%) had a peanut allergy. No significant difference was observed for peanut-specific IgG or peanut-specific IgG4 levels between patients who were allergic and tolerant patients, whereas peanut-specific IgE was significant higher in patients who were allergic than in tolerant patients (P < .005). Twenty-five of 61 children had peanut-specific IgE above a previously proposed cutoff level of 15 kUA/L; however, 7 of these 25 children (28%) were clinically tolerant. Ara h 2-specific IgE was significantly lower in tolerant than in patients with allergies (P < .0001). Interestingly, 94% of the patients with peanut allergies showed IgE-binding to Ara h 2. Unfortunately, 26% of the sensitized but tolerant patients have shown IgE binding to Ara h 2 too. Neither the level of specific IgE to peanut nor to Ara h 2 was able to clearly distinguish patients with clinical relevant peanut allergy from those who were clinical tolerant in our population. As expected, peanut-specific IgG and IgG4 did not improve the diagnostic procedure. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Schoolwide Intervention to Reduce Chronic Tardiness at the Middle and High School Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyre, Ashli; Feuerborn, Laura; Pierce, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    When many students are tardy at the secondary level, teachers must continually restart instruction or delay beginning instructional periods throughout the school day. To address the considerable amount of instructional time lost caused by high rates of tardiness, the authors investigated the results of schoolwide intervention to reduce student…

  19. Inquiry Based Method: A Case Study to Reduce Levels of Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthethwa-Sommers, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a case study exploring the effectiveness of inquiry-based method of teaching to reduce levels of student resistance to diversity issues and increase students' willingness to become activists. The case study draws from a one-year action research conducted in a Foundations of Education class. Data were collected through…

  20. Schoolwide Intervention to Reduce Chronic Tardiness at the Middle and High School Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyre, Ashli; Feuerborn, Laura; Pierce, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    When many students are tardy at the secondary level, teachers must continually restart instruction or delay beginning instructional periods throughout the school day. To address the considerable amount of instructional time lost caused by high rates of tardiness, the authors investigated the results of schoolwide intervention to reduce student…

  1. Reduced heme levels underlie the exponential growth defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq mutant.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Christopher M; Mazzucca, Nicholas Q; Mezoian, Taylor; Hunt, Taylor M; Keane, Meaghan L; Leonard, Jessica N; Scola, Shelby E; Beer, Emma N; Perdue, Sarah; Pellock, Brett J

    2014-01-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA) function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step.

  2. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  3. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  4. Reduced Heme Levels Underlie the Exponential Growth Defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Mezoian, Taylor; Hunt, Taylor M.; Keane, Meaghan L.; Leonard, Jessica N.; Scola, Shelby E.; Beer, Emma N.; Perdue, Sarah; Pellock, Brett J.

    2014-01-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA) function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step. PMID:25356668

  5. Staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies: degree of sensitization and association with severity of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Elabras, José; Mello, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz; Lupi, Omar; Bica, Blanca Elena Rios Gomes; Papi, José Angelo de Souza; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the presence of staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE antibodies and degree of IgE-mediated sensitization, as well as whether or not those are associated with the severity of asthma in adult patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving outpatients with asthma under treatment at a tertiary care university hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of asthma based on the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria: mild asthma (MA), comprising patients with mild intermittent or persistent asthma; and moderate or severe asthma (MSA). We determined the serum levels of staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies, comparing the results and performing a statistical analysis. Results: The study included 142 patients: 72 in the MA group (median age = 46 years; 59 females) and 70 in the MSA group (median age = 56 years; 60 females). In the sample as a whole, 62 patients (43.7%) presented positive results for staphylococcal toxin-specific IgE antibodies: staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), in 29 (20.4%); SEB, in 35 (24.6%); SEC, in 33 (23.2%); and toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), in 45 (31.7%). The mean serum levels of IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were 0.96 U/L, 1.09 U/L, 1.21 U/L, and 1.18 U/L, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of the qualitative or quantitative results. Conclusions: Serum IgE antibodies to SEA, SEB, SEC, and TSST were detected in 43.7% of the patients in our sample. However, neither the qualitative nor quantitative results showed a statistically significant association with the clinical severity of asthma. PMID:27812635

  6. Offshore suspension relaying to reduce levels of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed Central

    Motes, M L; DePaola, A

    1996-01-01

    Oysters naturally contaminated with 10(3) to 10(4) most probable numbers (MPN) of Vibrio vulnificus per g were relayed to offshore waters (salinity, 30 to 34 ppt), where they were suspended in racks at a depth of 7.6 m. V. vulnificus counts in oysters were reduced to < 10 MPN/g within 7 to 17 days in five of the six studies. At the end of the studies (17 to 49 days), V. vulnificus levels were reduced further and ranged from a mean of 0.23 to 2.6 MPN/g. Oyster mortalities during relaying were < 6%. The reduction of V. vulnificus in relayed oysters is associated with exposure to high-salinity environments essentially devoid of V. vulnificus. Offshore suspension relaying may be a method that industry can employ to reduce V. vulnificus levels in raw Gulf Coast oysters. PMID:8837445

  7. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 response to specific allergens in sensitized subjects showing different clinical reactivity to Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Ventura, M T; Rodriguez-Perez, R; Caballero, M L; Garcia-Alonso, M; Antonicelli, L; Asero, R

    2017-03-01

    Background. Anisakis simplex hypersensitive subjects may be sensitized without clinical allergy, or experience acute symptoms or chronic urticaria induced by raw fish. We studied whether the 3 subgroups differ in IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to specific Anisakis simplex allergens. Methods. 28 Anisakis simplex-hypersensitive adults, 11 with acute symptoms, 9 with chronic urticaria, and 8 sensitized were studied. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 to rAni s 1, 5, 9 and 10 were sought by ELISA. IgE and IgG4 to nAni s 4 were determined by WB. Results. IgE to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were found in 8, 3, 2, 5, and 9 sera, respectively. Nine sera did not react to any allergen. IgG1 to Ani s 1, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 5, 16, 14, and 4 sera, respectively. Four sera did not react to any of the 4 allergens. IgG4 to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 10, 0, 2, 6 and 1 sera, respectively. Fifteen subjects did not react to any of the 5 allergens. On ELISA sensitized subjects showed lower IgE and IgG1 levels than patients. IgG4 levels were highest in the sensitized group. The prevalence of IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to any of the studied allergens did not differ between the 3 subgroups. Conclusion. The clinical expression of Anisakis simplex sensitization does not seem to depend on IgE reactivity to a specific allergen of the parasite, nor on the presence of IgG antibodies possibly related with blocking activity.

  8. Fucoidan prevents C{epsilon} germline transcription and NF{kappa}B p52 translocation for IgE production in B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oomizu, Souichi; Yanase, Yuhki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kameyoshi, Yoshikazu; Hide, Michihiro . E-mail: mhide@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2006-11-24

    Fucoidan, a dietary fiber contained in seaweed, reduces the increase of antigen-specific IgE in mice exposed to ovalbumin. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on IgE production and intracellular events in B cells in vitro. Fucoidan inhibited the production of IgE and C{epsilon} germline transcription in murine B cells induced by IL-4 (100 ng/ml) and anti-CD40 antibodies (10 {mu}g/ml), whereas it stimulated cell proliferation. A significant effect of fucoidan on IgE production was observed when B cells were stimulated with a higher dose (5 {mu}g/ml) of anti-CD40 antibodies, but not when stimulated with lower doses (1.25, 2.5 {mu}g/ml), regardless of the IL-4 concentrations. Moreover, nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B p52, but neither that of NF{kappa}B p65, nor the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT6 was reduced by fucoidan. These results suggest that fucoidan inhibited IgE production by preventing the NF{kappa}B p52-mediated pathways activated by CD40.

  9. Dissociation between skin test reactivity and anti-aeroallergen IgE: Determinants among urban Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Veiga, Rafael V; Ponte, João C M; da Cunha, Sérgio S; Simões, Silvia M; Cruz, Álvaro A; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Matos, Sheila M; Silva, Thiago Magalhães; Figueiredo, Camila A; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain C; Rodrigues, Laura C; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L

    2017-01-01

    The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene. Of 1445 children from low income communities, investigated for risk factors of allergies, we studied 481 with specific IgE antibodies to any of Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica allergens. Data on demographic, environmental and social exposures were collected by questionnaire; serum IgG and stool examinations were done to detect current or past infections with viral, bacterial, protozoan and intestinal helminth pathogens. We measured atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to aerollergens in serum (by ImmunoCAP). SIgE reactivity to B. tropicalis extract depleted of carbohydrates was measured by an in-house ELISA. Total IgE was measured by in house capture ELISA. SNPs were typed using Illumina Omni 2.5. Negative skin prick tests in the presence of specific IgE antibodies were frequent. Factors independently associated with a reduced frequency of positive skin prick tests were large number of siblings, the presence of IgG to herpes simplex virus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections, living in neighborhoods with infrequent garbage collection, presence of rodents and cats in the household and sIgE reactivity to glycosylated B. tropicalis allergens. Also, SNP on IGHE (rs61737468) was negatively associated with SPT reactivity. A variety of factors were found to be associated with decreased frequency of SPT such as unhygienic living conditions, infections, total IgE, IgE

  10. Dissociation between skin test reactivity and anti-aeroallergen IgE: Determinants among urban Brazilian children

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Rafael V.; Ponte, João C. M.; da Cunha, Sérgio S.; Simões, Silvia M.; Cruz, Álvaro A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Matos, Sheila M.; Silva, Thiago Magalhães; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L.; Cooper, Philip J.; Barreto, Maurício L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene. Methods Of 1445 children from low income communities, investigated for risk factors of allergies, we studied 481 with specific IgE antibodies to any of Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica allergens. Data on demographic, environmental and social exposures were collected by questionnaire; serum IgG and stool examinations were done to detect current or past infections with viral, bacterial, protozoan and intestinal helminth pathogens. We measured atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to aerollergens in serum (by ImmunoCAP). SIgE reactivity to B. tropicalis extract depleted of carbohydrates was measured by an in-house ELISA. Total IgE was measured by in house capture ELISA. SNPs were typed using Illumina Omni 2.5. Results Negative skin prick tests in the presence of specific IgE antibodies were frequent. Factors independently associated with a reduced frequency of positive skin prick tests were large number of siblings, the presence of IgG to herpes simplex virus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections, living in neighborhoods with infrequent garbage collection, presence of rodents and cats in the household and sIgE reactivity to glycosylated B. tropicalis allergens. Also, SNP on IGHE (rs61737468) was negatively associated with SPT reactivity. Conclusions A variety of factors were found to be associated with decreased frequency of SPT such as unhygienic

  11. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-Level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals.

    PubMed

    Day, Sophia E; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G; Konty, Kevin J

    2016-03-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Using the New York City (NYC) 2009 YRBS, we created school-level poverty quartiles to append to individual YRBS records by ranking schools by %FRPM. We compared this with 2 other school-level poverty measures using students' home and school neighborhood-level poverty and measured the association of these 3 school-level proxies with individual's household income. Last, we evaluated health outcomes by race/ethnicity and poverty to demonstrate the importance of accounting for poverty. The school-level measure that used %FRPM had the strongest association with household income. When the school-level individual poverty proxy was included in illustrative analyses using YRBS data, patterns by poverty within race/ethnicity emerged that were not seen when looking at race/ethnicity alone. Using a poverty measure to analyze school-based data will provide a better understanding of the impact of SES on health outcomes. Based on our evaluation, when individual-level information is not available, we propose using school-level %FRPM, which are publicly available throughout the United States. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  12. Predicting bone remodeling around tissue- and bone-level dental implants used in reduced bone width.

    PubMed

    Eser, Atilim; Tonuk, Ergin; Akca, Kivanc; Dard, Michel M; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2013-09-03

    The objective of this study was to predict time-dependent bone remodeling around tissue- and bone-level dental implants used in patients with reduced bone width. The remodeling of bone around titanium tissue-level, and titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy bone-level implants was studied under 100 N oblique load for one month by implementing the Stanford theory into three-dimensional finite element models. Maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress, and strain energy density in peri-implant bone and displacement in x- and y- axes of the implant were evaluated. Maximum and minimum principal stresses around tissue-level implant were higher than bone-level implants and both bone-level implants experienced comparable stresses. Total strain energy density in bone around titanium implants slightly decreased during the first two weeks of loading followed by a recovery, and the titanium-zirconium implant showed minor changes in the axial plane. Total strain energy density changes in the loading and contralateral sides were higher in tissue-level implant than other implants in the cortical bone at the horizontal plane. The displacement values of the implants were almost constant over time. Tissue-level implants were associated with higher stresses than bone-level implants. The time-dependent biomechanical outcome of titanium-zirconium alloy bone-level implant was comparable to the titanium implant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human IgE against the major allergen Bet v 1 – defining an epitope with limited cross-reactivity between different PR-10 family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Levin, M; Davies, A M; Liljekvist, M; Carlsson, F; Gould, H J; Sutton, B J; Ohlin, M

    2014-01-01

    Background The interaction between IgE and allergen is a key event at the initiation of an allergic response, and its characteristics have substantial effects on the clinical manifestation. Despite this, the molecular details of the interaction between human IgE and the major birch allergen Bet v 1, one of the most potent tree allergens, still remain poorly investigated. Objective To isolate Bet v 1-specific human monoclonal IgE and characterize their interaction with the allergen. Methods Recombinant human IgE were isolated from a combinatorial antibody fragment library and their interaction with Bet v 1 assessed using various immunological assays. The structure of one such IgE in the single-chain fragment variable format was determined using X-ray crystallography. Results We present four novel Bet v 1-specific IgE, for one of which we solve the structure, all with their genetic origin in the IGHV5 germline gene, and demonstrate that they target two non-overlapping epitopes on the surface of Bet v 1, thereby fulfilling the basic criteria for FcεRI cross-linkage. We further define these epitopes and for one epitope pinpoint single amino acid residues important for the interaction with human IgE. This provides a potential explanation, at the molecular level, for the differences in recognition of isoforms of Bet v 1 and other allergens in the PR-10 protein family displayed by IgE targeting this epitope. Finally, we present the first high-resolution structure of a human allergen-specific IgE fragment in the single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance We here display the usefulness of allergen-specific human monoclonal IgE as a tool in studies of the crucial molecular interaction taking place at the initiation of an allergic response. Such studies may aid us in development of better diagnostic tools and guide us in the development of new therapeutic compounds. PMID:24447087

  14. [Serum IgE in Guinea Pigs Died of Anaphylactic Shock and Its Forensic Signifi- cance When the Guinea Pig Cannot be Timely Refrigerated].

    PubMed

    Su, Jun; Yu, Jian; Liu, Yong

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the serum IgE with various postmortem intervals (PMI) in guinea pigs due to sudden death from anaphylactic shock and to explore the effect of refrigeration of corpse on serum IgE level and its application value in forensic medicine. The animal death models of anaphylactic shock were established. The corpses were preserved at room temperature (20 °C ) for 6 h and then refrigerated at 4 °C. The serum was sampled at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after death. The IgE level of serum was detected with ELISA. The control group was also established. The serum IgE level had significant. difference between the experimental group and the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference among the experimental groups at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours post- mortem (P > 0.05). If the corpses were placed in 4 °C conditions 6 hours after anaphylactic death, the serum IgE still shows a good marker within 48 h for forensic investigation.

  15. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuo; Wu, Bolin

    2011-12-30

    Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm(3); compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) is obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud.

  16. Restricted cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls is associated with a reduced average pectin esterification level

    PubMed Central

    Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C; Roberts, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Background Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. Results We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Conclusion Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth. PMID:17572910

  17. Maintaining reduced noise levels in a resource-constrained neonatal intensive care unit by operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, A; Denzil, S B; Linda, R; Josephine, P K; Nagapoornima, M; Suman Rao, P N; Swarna Rekha, A

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of operant conditioning in sustaining reduced noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Quasi-experimental study on quality of care. Level III NICU of a teaching hospital in south India. 26 staff employed in the NICU. (7 Doctors, 13 Nursing staff and 6 Nursing assistants). Operant conditioning of staff activity for 6 months. This method involves positive and negative reinforcement to condition the staff to modify noise generating activities. Comparing noise levels in decibel: A weighted [dB (A)] before conditioning with levels at 18 and 24 months after conditioning. Decibel: A weighted accounts for noise that is audible to human ears. Operant conditioning for 6 months sustains the reduced noise levels to within 62 dB in ventilator room 95% CI: 60.4 - 62.2 and isolation room (95% CI: 55.8 - 61.5). In the preterm room, noise can be maintained within 52 dB (95% CI: 50.8 - 52.6). This effect is statistically significant in all the rooms at 18 months (P = 0.001). At 24 months post conditioning there is a significant rebound of noise levels by 8.6, 6.7 and 9.9 dB in the ventilator, isolation and preterm room, respectively (P =0.001). Operant conditioning for 6 months was effective in sustaining reduced noise levels. At 18 months post conditioning, the noise levels were maintained within 62 dB (A), 60 dB (A) and 52 dB (A) in the ventilator, isolation and pre-term room, respectively. Conditioning needs to be repeated at 12 months in the ventilator room and at 18 months in the other rooms.

  18. IgE cross-reactivity between the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 and the nonhomologous allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 3.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Kostadinova, Maria; Radauer, Christian; Hafner, Christine; Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Varga, Eva-Maria; Maleki, Soheila J; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2013-07-01

    Ara h 1, a vicilin; Ara h 2, a 2S albumin; and Ara h 3, a legumin, are major peanut allergens. Ara h 2 is an important predictor of clinical reactivity to peanut, but cosensitization to all 3 allergens is correlated with the severity of patients' symptoms. We investigated whether cosensitization to these 3 allergens is caused by IgE cross-reactivity, despite the fact that they do not display obvious structural or sequence similarities. IgE cross-inhibitions were performed with purified Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 3 and IgG-depleted sera from 10 patients with peanut allergy. After an in silico search for similar peptides, IgE ELISA inhibition assays with synthetic peptides were performed. Ara h 2 inhibited IgE binding to Ara h 1 (average, 86% ± 13%) and Ara h 3 (average, 96% ± 6%). IgE binding to Ara h 2 was inhibited by Ara h 1 by 78% ± 15% and by Ara h 3 by 80% ± 6%. A subsequent sequence comparison showed that these nonhomologous allergens contained several similar surface-exposed peptides. IgE binding to Ara h 2-derived peptides was completely inhibited by Ara h 1 and Ara h 3. A mixture of these peptides reduced IgE binding to Ara h 1 and Ara h 3 by 20% to 60% and to Ara h 2 by 49% to 89%. Occurrence of similar sequences in the 3 major peanut allergens accounts for the high extent of cross-reactivity among them. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Progress Report on the Development of the Minnesota State IGE Network 1973-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loritz, Daniel B.

    This is a progress report on the development of the Minnesota State Individually Guided Education (IGE) Network. The foreword states that the state IGE network came into being in July of 1973 in response to a need for the continuing awareness, implementation, and refinement of IGE on a statewide basis. Section 1 is an introduction which explains…

  20. A single glycan on IgE is indispensable for initiation of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shade, Kai-Ting C; Platzer, Barbara; Washburn, Nathaniel; Mani, Vinidhra; Bartsch, Yannic C; Conroy, Michelle; Pagan, Jose D; Bosques, Carlos; Mempel, Thorsten R; Fiebiger, Edda; Anthony, Robert M

    2015-04-06

    Immunoglobulin ε (IgE) antibodies are the primary mediators of allergic diseases, which affect more than 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. IgE specific for innocuous environmental antigens, or allergens, binds and sensitizes tissue-resident mast cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Subsequent allergen exposure cross-links mast cell-bound IgE, resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and initiation of the allergic cascade. It is well established that precise glycosylation patterns exert profound effects on the biological activity of IgG. However, the contribution of glycosylation to IgE biology is less clear. Here, we demonstrate an absolute requirement for IgE glycosylation in allergic reactions. The obligatory glycan was mapped to a single N-linked oligomannose structure in the constant domain 3 (Cε3) of IgE, at asparagine-394 (N394) in human IgE and N384 in mouse. Genetic disruption of the site or enzymatic removal of the oligomannose glycan altered IgE secondary structure and abrogated IgE binding to FcεRI, rendering IgE incapable of eliciting mast cell degranulation, thereby preventing anaphylaxis. These results underscore an unappreciated and essential requirement of glycosylation in IgE biology. © 2015 Shade et al.

  1. A single glycan on IgE is indispensable for initiation of anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Kai-Ting C.; Platzer, Barbara; Washburn, Nathaniel; Mani, Vinidhra; Bartsch, Yannic C.; Conroy, Michelle; Pagan, Jose D.; Bosques, Carlos; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Fiebiger, Edda

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin ε (IgE) antibodies are the primary mediators of allergic diseases, which affect more than 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. IgE specific for innocuous environmental antigens, or allergens, binds and sensitizes tissue-resident mast cells expressing the high-affinity IgE receptor, FcεRI. Subsequent allergen exposure cross-links mast cell–bound IgE, resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators and initiation of the allergic cascade. It is well established that precise glycosylation patterns exert profound effects on the biological activity of IgG. However, the contribution of glycosylation to IgE biology is less clear. Here, we demonstrate an absolute requirement for IgE glycosylation in allergic reactions. The obligatory glycan was mapped to a single N-linked oligomannose structure in the constant domain 3 (Cε3) of IgE, at asparagine-394 (N394) in human IgE and N384 in mouse. Genetic disruption of the site or enzymatic removal of the oligomannose glycan altered IgE secondary structure and abrogated IgE binding to FcεRI, rendering IgE incapable of eliciting mast cell degranulation, thereby preventing anaphylaxis. These results underscore an unappreciated and essential requirement of glycosylation in IgE biology. PMID:25824821

  2. IgE Mediated Autoallergy against Thyroid Peroxidase – A Novel Pathomechanism of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria?

    PubMed Central

    Pisarevskaja, Dina; Metz, Martin; Martus, Peter; Maurer, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic spontaneous urticaria (csU), which is characterized by recurrent episodes of mast cell-driven wheal and flare-type skin reactions, is often associated with elevated total IgE levels and thyroid autoimmunity. We speculate that some csU patients express IgE autoantibodies against thyroid antigens such as thyroid peroxidase (TPO), which could bind to skin mast cells and induce their activation. Methods We developed and used a site-directed human IgE capture ELISA to quantify IgE-anti-TPO. We used this assay and investigated csU patients (n = 478) and healthy control subjects (n = 127) for IgE-anti-TPO and then assessed IgE-anti-TPO-positive and -negative csU patients for clinical and serological differences. Principal Findings CsU patients were found to express more than 2fold higher IgE-anti-TPO serum levels as compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.001). 54% of csU patients had serum levels higher than the cut off ( = 5 IU/ml). By distribution analyses we identified two distinct subpopulations of csU patients: 1) IgE-anti-TPOlow ( = 39%, IgE-anti-TPO: median 2.17 interquartile range 0.86–5.44,  =  comparable to healthy controls) and 2) IgE-anti-TPOhigh ( = 61%, IgE-anti-TPO: median 6.67, interquartile range 5.39–8.24). IgE-anti-TPO-positive and -negative csU patients had very similar distributions of age and gender as well as disease activity and duration. IgE-anti-TPO-positive csU patients exhibited significantly higher IgG-anti-TPO levels and lymphocyte counts as well as decreased C4 complement levels. Conclusion Our findings show that a sizeable subgroup of csU patients expresses IgE antibodies against thyroid peroxidase. These autoantibodies could cause “autoallergic” mast cell activation, a novel pathomechanism of chronic spontaneous urticaria. PMID:21532759

  3. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  4. Local IgE in non-allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, P; Rondón, C; Gould, H J; Barrionuevo, E; Gevaert, P; Blanca, M

    2015-05-01

    Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is characterized by the presence of a nasal Th2 inflammatory response with local production of specific IgE antibodies and a positive response to a nasal allergen provocation test (NAPT) without evidence of systemic atopy. The prevalence has been shown to be up to 25% in subjects affected with rhinitis with persistence, comorbidity and evolution similar to allergic rhinitis. LAR is a consistent entity that does not evolve to allergic rhinitis with systemic atopy over time although patients have significant impairment in quality of life and increase in the severity of nasal symptoms over time. Lower airways can be also involved. The diagnosis of LAR is based mostly on demonstration of positive response to NAPT and/or local synthesis of specific IgE. Allergens involved include seasonal or perennial such as house dusts mites, pollens, animal epithelia, moulds (alternaria) and others. Basophils from peripheral blood may be activated by the involved allergens suggesting the spill over of locally synthesized specific IgE to the circulation. LAR patients will benefit from the same treatment as allergic patients using antihistamines, inhaled corticosteroids and IgE antagonists. Studies on immunotherapy are ongoing and will determine its efficacy in LAR in terms of symptoms improvement and evolution of the natural course of the disease.

  5. Mast cells and IgE: from history to today.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hirohisa; Ishizaka, Teruko; Ishizaka, Kimishige

    2013-03-01

    Role of mast cells in allergy had remained undetermined until the discovery of IgE in 1966. Then, IgE purified from many Liters of plasma, which had been donated from a patient with fatal myeloma, was distributed to researchers all over the world, and thus accelerated exploring the mechanisms involved in allergic reactions, particularly about the role of mast cells and basophils in the IgE-mediated reactions. Identification of mast cells as a progeny of a bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell in 1977 led us to successful in vitro culture of human mast cells. Along with the development of molecular biological techniques, the structure of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) was determined in 1989. These findings and subsequent investigations brought deeper understanding of IgE-mediated allergic diseases in the past half century, especially where mast cells are involved. We have now even obtained the information about whole genome expression of FcεRI-dependently activated mast cells. In sharp contrast to our comprehension of allergic diseases where IgE and mast cells are involved, the mechanisms involved in non-IgE-mediated allergic diseases or non-IgE-mediated phase of IgE-mediated diseases are almost left unsolved and are waiting for devoted investigators to reveal it.

  6. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  7. Anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate reduces hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Jonas; Kindlundh, Anna M S; Nyberg, Fred; Bergström, Lena; Wikberg, Jarl E S

    2003-10-03

    Supratherapeutical doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have dramatic effects on metabolism in humans, and also inhibit feeding and reduce the rate of body weight gain in rats. In order to test the hypothesis that the AAS metabolic syndrome is accompanied by alterations in the central melanocortin system, we evaluated body weight, food intake and hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AgRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels following administration of different doses of the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate. In order to distinguish changes induced by the steroid treatment per se from those resulting from the reduced food intake and growth rate, we also compared the effect of nandrolone decanoate on AgRP and POMC mRNA expression with both normally fed, and food restricted control groups. We here report that administration of nandrolone specifically reduces arcuate nucleus POMC mRNA levels while not affecting the expression level of AgRP. The effect on POMC expression was not observed in the food restricted controls, excluding the possibility that the observed effect was a mere response to the reduced food intake and body weight. These results raise the possibility that some of the metabolic and behavioural consequences of AAS abuse may be the result of alterations in the melanocortin system.

  8. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  9. Mouth-level intake of benzo[a]pyrene from reduced nicotine cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan S; Ward, Jennye; Hammond, David; Watson, Clifford H

    2014-11-18

    Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI) of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure.

  10. Mouth-Level Intake of Benzo[a]pyrene from Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yan S.; Ward, Jennye; Hammond, David; Watson, Clifford H.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a known source of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Exposure to BaP in cigarette smoke is influenced by how a person smokes and factors, such as tobacco blend. To determine whether sustained use of reduced-nicotine cigarettes is associated with changes in exposure to nicotine and BaP, levels of BaP in spent cigarette filter butts were correlated with levels of BaP in cigarette smoke to estimate mouth-level intake (MLI) of BaP for 72 daily smokers given three progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes. Urinary cotinine, a marker of nicotine exposure, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP), a marker of PAH exposure, were measured throughout the study. Median daily BaP MLI and urine cotinine decreased in a similar manner as smokers switched to progressively lower nicotine cigarettes, despite relatively constant daily cigarette consumption. 1-HOP levels were less responsive to the use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes. We demonstrate that spent cigarette filter butt analysis is a promising tool to estimate MLI of harmful chemicals on a per cigarette or per-day basis, which partially addresses the concerns of the temporal influence of smoking behavior or differences in cigarette design on exposure. PMID:25411724

  11. Oxidative stress reduces levels of dysbindin-1A via its PEST domain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Mei-Yi Alicia; Lo, Yew-Long; Talbot, Konrad; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species has been proposed as an etiological factor in schizophrenia. The present study tests the hypothesis that oxidative stress can affect levels of dysbindin-1A, encoded by Dtnbp1, a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, via its PEST domain. In vitro studies on SH-SY5Y cells indicate that oxidative stress triggers proteasomal degradation of dysbindin-1A, and that this requires interactions with its PEST domain, which may be a TRIM32 target. We specifically found (a) that oxidative stress induced in SH-SY5Y cells by 500 µM hydrogen peroxide reduced levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but did not reduce levels of that protein lacking its PEST domain and (b) that levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but not dysbindin-1 lacking its PEST domain, were higher in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oxidative stress thus emerges as the first known cellular factor regulating dysbindin-1 isoforms with PEST domains. These findings are consistent with the previously noted fact that phosphorylation of PEST domains often marks proteins for proteasomal degradation, and raises the possibility that treatments reducing oxidative stress in the brain, especially during development, may lower schizophrenia risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Azilsartan is associated with increased circulating angiotensin-(1-7) levels and reduced renovascular 20-HETE levels.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mairéad A; Kang, YounJung; Chander, Praveen N; Stier, Charles T

    2015-05-01

    Activation of angiotensin (ANG) II type 1 receptors (AT1R) promotes vasoconstriction, inflammation, and renal dysfunction. In this study, we addressed the ability of azilsartan (AZL), a new AT1R antagonist, to modulate levels of plasma ANG-(1-7) and renal epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE). Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with ANG II (125 ng/min) or vehicle (VEH). AZL (3 mg/kg/day) or VEH was administered starting 1 day prior to ANG II or VEH infusion. On day 10, plasma was obtained for measurement of ANG-(1-7) and kidneys for isolation of microvessels for EET and 20-HETE determination and histological evaluation. Mean 24-hour blood pressure (BP) was not different between VEH and AZL treatment groups, whereas the BP elevation with ANG II infusion (121 ± 5 mm Hg) was completely normalized with AZL cotreatment (86 ± 3 mm Hg). The ANG II-induced renal damage was attenuated and cardiac hypertrophy prevented with AZL cotreatment. Plasma ANG-(1-7) levels (pg/ml) were increased with AZL treatment (219 ± 22) and AZL + ANG II infusion (264 ± 93) compared to VEH controls (74.62 ± 8). AZL treatment increased the ratio of EETs to their dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET) metabolites and reduced 20-HETE levels. Treatment with AZL completely antagonized the elevation of BP induced by ANG II, prevented cardiac hypertrophy, attenuated renal damage, and increased ANG-(1-7) and EET/DHET ratio while diminishing 20-HETE levels. Increased ANG-(1-7) and EETs levels may emerge as novel therapeutic mechanisms contributing to the antihypertensive and antihypertrophic actions of AZL treatment and their relative role compared to AT1R blockade may depend on the etiology of the hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Down-modulation of antigen-induced activation of murine cultured mast cells sensitized with a highly cytokinergic IgE clone.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Mariko; Kurimune, Yuki; Yamada, Keiko; Hyodo, Nao; Natsuhara, Mayuko; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that several IgE clones can activate mast cells during the sensitization phase even in the absence of antigen. They were found to induce pro-inflammatory cytokine release, histamine synthesis, chemotaxis, adhesion, and accelerated maturation of mast cells, although it remains unknown whether antigen-induced responses can be affected by differences of IgE clones. We compared two IgE clones, which were different in the capacity to activate mast cells during sensitization, in terms of potentials to affect antigen-induced degranulation and cytokine releases using IL-3-dependent murine bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs). Antigen-induced degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release were augmented, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone IgE-3, which did not induce phosphorylation of JNK and cytokine release in the absence of antigen, whereas those were significantly rather decreased, when BMMCs were sensitized with elevated concentrations of a clone SPE-7, one of the most potent cytokinergic IgE clones, which intensively induced phosphorylation of JNK. This attenuated response with SPE-7 was accompanied by decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of the cellular proteins including Syk upon antigen stimulation. SP600125, which is known to inhibit JNK, restored the levels of antigen-induced degranulation and phosphorylation of Syk in BMMCs sensitized with higher concentrations of a clone SPE-7 when it was added before sensitization. Treatment with anisomycin, a potent activator of JNK, before IgE sensitization significantly suppressed antigen-induced degranulation. These findings suggest that differences of sensitizing IgE clones can affect antigen-induced responses and activation of JNK during sensitization might suppress antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

  14. Effect of walnut (Juglans regia) polyphenolic compounds on ovalbumin-specific IgE induction in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Gershwin, Laurel J; Teuber, Suzanne S

    2010-03-01

    English walnuts are implicated in severe, IgE-mediated food allergy in humans. We sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote IgE production to a coadministered allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) with or without alum (AL) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. Serum was analyzed for total IgE and OVA-specific IgE, IgG(1,) and IgG(2a/2b). Coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antigen and AL increased serum concentrations of antigen-specific IgE and IgG(1). When AL was excluded from the injections, polyphenolic extract tended to enhance OVA-specific IgE and IgG(1) over levels induced by OVA alone, but the increase did not reach significance. Serum IgG(2a/2b) levels were similar between mice receiving OVA/AL and OVA/AL with polyphenolics. Thus, walnut polyphenolic extract enhanced the Th2-skewing effect of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. This indicates that walnut polyphenolic compounds may play a role in allergic sensitization of genetically predisposed individuals.

  15. Suppression of IgE production in mice treated with a traditional Chinese medicine, bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: hochu-ekki-to).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, M; Kishihara, K; Kawakita, T; Nakamura, T; Takimoto, H; Nomoto, K

    1997-04-01

    The ability of a traditional herbal medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Japanese name: Hochu-ekki-to, HOT), to suppress IgE production was investigated. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally immunized with aluminium hydroxide adsorbed with DNP-KLH (DNP-KLH + alum). When oral administration of HOT was begun just after immunization, the serum level of antigen-specific IgE was significantly decreased, although those of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a were not influenced. In the culture of spleen cells obtained 14 days after immunization with DNP-KLH, antigen-specific IgE and IgG1 production by the cells of the HOT-treated mice was significantly suppressed compared to that in immunized mice. Furthermore, in the combination culture with CD4+ T cells and B cells separated from spleen cells, IgE production by the cells from immunized mice was inhibited by replacement of their corresponding cell population with either CD4+ T cells or B cells of HOT-treated mice. Additionally, production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4 was significantly suppressed in HOT-treated mice but not that of IFN-gamma in comparison to the immunized mice. These results suggested that HOT decreased the IgE level in serum by inhibiting the development of IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells.

  16. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-05-27

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Inhibition of Hyaluronan Synthesis Reduces Versican and Fibronectin Levels in Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Kate E.; Sun, Ying Ying; Vranka, Janice A.; Hayashi, Lauren; Acott, Ted S.

    2012-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is synthesized by three HA synthases (HAS). Similarities between the HAS2 knockout mouse and the hdf mutant mouse, which has a mutation in the versican gene, suggest that HA and versican expression may be linked. In this study, the relationship between HA synthesis and levels of versican, fibronectin and several other ECM components in trabecular meshwork cells from the anterior segment of the eye was investigated. HA synthesis was inhibited using 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU), or reduced by RNAi silencing of each individual HAS gene. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated a reduction in mRNA and protein levels of versican and fibronectin. Hyaluronidase treatment also reduced versican and fibronectin levels. These effects could not be reversed by addition of excess glucose or glucosamine or exogenous HA to the culture medium. CD44, tenascin C and fibrillin-1 mRNA levels were reduced by 4MU treatment, but SPARC and CSPG6 mRNA levels were unaffected. Immunostaining of trabecular meshwork tissue after exposure to 4MU showed an altered localization pattern of HA-binding protein, versican and fibronectin. Reduction of versican by RNAi silencing did not affect HA concentration as assessed by ELISA. Together, these data imply that HA concentration affects synthesis of certain ECM components. Since precise regulation of the trabecular meshwork ECM composition and organization is required to maintain the aqueous humor outflow resistance and intraocular pressure homeostasis in the eye, coordinated coupling of HA levels and several of its ECM binding partners should facilitate this process. PMID:23139787

  18. Plasma Levels of Soluble Interleukin 1 Receptor Accessory Protein Are Reduced in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Chantal; Kulkarni, Hemant; Cummings, Nik; Diego, Vincent P.; Carless, Melanie A.; Shields, Katherine A.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Dyer, Thomas D.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Almasy, Laura; Zimmet, Paul; Moses, Eric K.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John; Jowett, Jeremy B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adipokines actuate chronic, low-grade inflammation through a complex network of immune markers, but the current understanding of these networks is incomplete. The soluble isoform of the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (sIL1RAP) occupies an important position in the inflammatory pathways involved in obesity. The pathogenetic and clinical influences of sIL1RAP are unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to elucidate whether plasma levels of sIL1RAP are reduced in obesity, using affluent clinical, biochemical, and genetic data from two diverse cohorts. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was conducted in two cohorts: the San Antonio Family Heart Study (n = 1397 individuals from 42 families) and South Asians living in Mauritius, n = 230). Main Outcome Measures: Plasma sIL1RAP levels were measured using an ELISA. The genetic basis of sIL1RAP levels were investigated using both a large-scale gene expression profiling study and a genome-wide association study. Results: A significant decrease in plasma sIL1RAP levels were observed in obese subjects, even after adjustment for age and sex. The sIL1RAP levels demonstrated a strong inverse association with obesity measures in both populations. All associations were more significant in females. Plasma sIL1RAP levels were significantly heritable, correlated with IL1RAP transcript levels (NM_134470), showed evidence for shared genetic influences with obesity measures and were significantly associated with the rs2885373 single-nucleotide polymorphism (P = 6.7 × 10−23) within the IL1RAP gene. Conclusions: Plasma sIL1RAP levels are reduced in obesity and can potentially act as biomarkers of obesity. Mechanistic studies are required to understand the exact contribution of sIL1RAP to the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:24915116

  19. Plasma levels of soluble interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein are reduced in obesity.

    PubMed

    Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Attard, Chantal; Kulkarni, Hemant; Cummings, Nik; Diego, Vincent P; Carless, Melanie A; Shields, Katherine A; Johnson, Matthew P; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Dyer, Thomas D; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Almasy, Laura; Zimmet, Paul; Moses, Eric K; Göring, Harald H H; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Jowett, Jeremy B M

    2014-09-01

    Adipokines actuate chronic, low-grade inflammation through a complex network of immune markers, but the current understanding of these networks is incomplete. The soluble isoform of the IL-1 receptor accessory protein (sIL1RAP) occupies an important position in the inflammatory pathways involved in obesity. The pathogenetic and clinical influences of sIL1RAP are unknown. The objective of the study was to elucidate whether plasma levels of sIL1RAP are reduced in obesity, using affluent clinical, biochemical, and genetic data from two diverse cohorts. The study was conducted in two cohorts: the San Antonio Family Heart Study (n = 1397 individuals from 42 families) and South Asians living in Mauritius, n = 230). Plasma sIL1RAP levels were measured using an ELISA. The genetic basis of sIL1RAP levels were investigated using both a large-scale gene expression profiling study and a genome-wide association study. A significant decrease in plasma sIL1RAP levels were observed in obese subjects, even after adjustment for age and sex. The sIL1RAP levels demonstrated a strong inverse association with obesity measures in both populations. All associations were more significant in females. Plasma sIL1RAP levels were significantly heritable, correlated with IL1RAP transcript levels (NM_134470), showed evidence for shared genetic influences with obesity measures and were significantly associated with the rs2885373 single-nucleotide polymorphism (P = 6.7 × 10(-23)) within the IL1RAP gene. Plasma sIL1RAP levels are reduced in obesity and can potentially act as biomarkers of obesity. Mechanistic studies are required to understand the exact contribution of sIL1RAP to the pathogenesis of obesity.

  20. Live music reduces stress levels in very low-birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Schwilling, Diana; Vogeser, Michael; Kirchhoff, Fabian; Schwaiblmair, Frauke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Schulze, Andreas; Flemmer, Andreas W

    2015-04-01

    Music might benefit preterm infants in stressful, intensive care environments. However, data on stress level indicators, determined by salivary cortisol levels, are scarce. We evaluated the effect of live harp music on the stress level indicators of preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We exposed 20 stable preterm infants to music for 15 min on three consecutive days. Saliva was collected before the music was played and 25 min and 4 h after it ended. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and vital signs, oxygen saturation, bradycardia, apnoeas and oxygen desaturations were recorded. Pain levels were assessed by the Bernese Pain Scale for Neonates. Salivary cortisol was significantly lower 25 min (18.9 nmol/L [3.9-35.6] p = 0.001) and 4 h after music (17.4 nmol/L [3.9-35.3] p = 0.003) than at baseline 4 h before exposure (19.5 nmol/L [7.2-51.1]). After music, the number of apnoeas and oxygen desaturations was significantly reduced on all three, days and the number of bradycardia episodes on day one. Pain scores significantly improved after music on all 3 days. Exposure to live music reduced salivary cortisol and had beneficial effects on the physiologic parameters of stable preterm infants in a NICU. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reducing bullying and victimization: student- and classroom-level mechanisms of change.

    PubMed

    Saarento, Silja; Boulton, Aaron J; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the mediating mechanisms by which the KiVa antibullying program, based on the Participant Role approach, reduces bullying and victimization among elementary school students. Both student-level mechanisms leading to reduced perpetration of bullying and classroom-level mechanisms leading to reductions in bullying and victimization are considered. Analyses are based on a sample of 7,491 students (49.5% boys) nested within 421 classrooms within 77 schools. At the beginning of program implementation, the children were in Grades 4, 5, and 6 (mean age 11.3 years). Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to analyze whether changes in the hypothesized mediators accounted for later reductions in the outcomes. At the student level, antibullying attitudes and perceptions regarding peers' defending behaviors and teacher attitudes toward bullying mediated the effects of KiVa on self-reported bullying perpetration. The effects on peer-reported bullying were only mediated by antibullying attitudes. At the classroom level, the program effects on both self- and peer-reported bullying were mediated by students' collective perceptions of teacher attitudes toward bullying. Also, perceived reinforcing behaviors predicted bullying but did not emerge as a significant mediator. Finally, bullying mediated the effects of the classroom-level factors on victimization. These findings enhance knowledge of the psychosocial developmental processes contributing to bullying and victimization and shed light on the key mechanisms by which school bullying can successfully be counteracted.

  2. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  3. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice. PMID:25559957

  4. Modulation of GDP-fucose level for generating proteins with reduced rate of fucosylation (WO2010141855).

    PubMed

    Taupin, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The application (WO2010141855) is in the field of glycobiology, and involves the control of the rate of fucosylation of proteins by exogenous factors. It aims at controlling the rate of protein fucosylation with inhibitors (drugs or nucleic acid antagonists) of enzymes involved in the synthesis of GDP-fucose. Mammalian cell lines were cultured in the presence of inhibitors, for example, siRNA. The rates of GDP-fucose in cells and during protein fucosylation were characterized. The level of protein fucosylation decreases rapidly in response to a decrease in GDP-fucose level. The relationship between the rate of fucosylation of proteins and the level of GDP-fucose in a cell is non-linear. Reduction in the rate of protein fucosylation can be achieved with a minimal reduction of the level of GDP-fucose in cells. The paradigm may be used to synthesize proteins and antibodies, with a reduced rate of fucosylation. The application claims that the use of drugs or nucleic acid antagonists that inhibit the enzymes involved in GDP-fucose biosynthesis optimizes the level of GDP-fucose present in cells, and reduces the rate of fucosylation of glycoproteins.

  5. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest. The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.

  6. Induction of early meconium evacuation: is it effective in reducing the level of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia?

    PubMed

    Bader, David; Yanir, Yoav; Kugelman, Amir; Wilhelm-Kafil, Mira; Riskin, Arieh

    2005-08-01

    This prospective randomized trial evaluated the effect of induction of early meconium evacuation on neonatal jaundice in healthy term neonates. The study group was given glycerin suppository immediately after birth and every 4 hours thereafter, until evacuation of first stool. Glycerin suppository caused faster meconium evacuation but had no effect on mean bilirubin levels at 48 hours. However, males had significantly lower mean bilirubin levels, especially if they also had type A blood group. Glycerin suppository cannot be routinely recommended as a means for reducing the severity of neonatal jaundice. Nonetheless, male newborn with type A blood group may benefit from such a therapy.

  7. Membrane of Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoplates with Angstrom-Level Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeongho; Li, Kunzhou; Yoon, Hong Sik; Yoon, Jeyong; Mok, Yeongbong; Lee, Yan; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Membranes with atomic level pores or constrictions are valuable for separation and catalysis. We report a graphene-based membrane with an interlayer spacing of 3.7 angstrom (Å). When graphene oxide nanoplates are functionalized and then reduced, the laminated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates or functionalized rGO membrane is little affected by an intercalated fluid, and the interlayer spacing of 3.7 Å increases only to 4.4 Å in wetted state, in contrast to the graphene oxide (GO) membrane whose interlayer spacing increases from 9 Å to 13 Å in wetted state. When applied to ion separation, this membrane reduced the permeation rate of small ions such as K+ and Na+ by three orders of magnitude compared to the GO membrane. PMID:27306853

  8. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Miranda da Silva, Cristiane; Peres Leal, Mayara; Brochetti, Robson Alexandre; Braga, Tárcio; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Saraiva Câmara, Niels Olsen; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Ligeiro-de-Oliveira, Ana Paula; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA), an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1%) or vehicle (distillated water) during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure). Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant. PMID:26569396

  9. Genetic Variants in CHIA and CHI3L1 Are Associated with the IgE Response to the Ascaris Resistance Marker ABA-1 and the Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Bornacelly, Adriana; Mercado, Dilia; Unneberg, Per; Mittermann, Irene; Valenta, Rudolf; Kennedy, Malcolm; Scheynius, Annika; Caraballo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. We aimed to explore this and other genomic regions to identify genetic variants associated with the IgE responsiveness in humans. Forty-eight subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, with extreme values of specific IgE to Ascaris and ABA-1, a resistance marker of this nematode, were selected for targeted resequencing. Burden analyses were done comparing extreme groups for IgE values. One-hundred one SNPs were genotyped in 1258 individuals of two well-characterized populations from Colombia and Sweden. Two low-frequency coding variants in the gene encoding the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (CHIA rs79500525, rs139812869, tagged by rs10494133) were found enriched in high IgE responders to ABA-1 and confirmed by genetic association analyses. The SNP rs4950928 in the Chitinase 3 Like 1 gene (CHI3L1) was associated with high IgE to ABA-1 in Colombians and with high IgE to Bet v 1 in the Swedish population. CHIA rs10494133 and ABDH13 rs3783118 were associated with IgE responses to Ascaris. SNPs in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 13b gene (TNFSF13B) encoding the cytokine B cell activating Factor were associated with high levels of total IgE in both populations. This is the first report on the association between low-frequency and common variants in the chitinases-related genes CHIA and CHI3L1 with the intensity of specific IgE to ABA-1 in a population naturally exposed to Ascaris and with Bet v 1 in a Swedish population. Our results add new information about the genetic influences of human IgE responsiveness; since the genes encode for enzymes involved in the immune response to parasitic infections, they could be helpful for understanding helminth immunity and allergic responses. We also

  10. Genetic Variants in CHIA and CHI3L1 Are Associated with the IgE Response to the Ascaris Resistance Marker ABA-1 and the Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Bornacelly, Adriana; Mercado, Dilia; Unneberg, Per; Mittermann, Irene; Valenta, Rudolf; Kennedy, Malcolm; Scheynius, Annika; Caraballo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. We aimed to explore this and other genomic regions to identify genetic variants associated with the IgE responsiveness in humans. Forty-eight subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, with extreme values of specific IgE to Ascaris and ABA-1, a resistance marker of this nematode, were selected for targeted resequencing. Burden analyses were done comparing extreme groups for IgE values. One-hundred one SNPs were genotyped in 1258 individuals of two well-characterized populations from Colombia and Sweden. Two low-frequency coding variants in the gene encoding the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (CHIA rs79500525, rs139812869, tagged by rs10494133) were found enriched in high IgE responders to ABA-1 and confirmed by genetic association analyses. The SNP rs4950928 in the Chitinase 3 Like 1 gene (CHI3L1) was associated with high IgE to ABA-1 in Colombians and with high IgE to Bet v 1 in the Swedish population. CHIA rs10494133 and ABDH13 rs3783118 were associated with IgE responses to Ascaris. SNPs in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 13b gene (TNFSF13B) encoding the cytokine B cell activating Factor were associated with high levels of total IgE in both populations. This is the first report on the association between low-frequency and common variants in the chitinases-related genes CHIA and CHI3L1 with the intensity of specific IgE to ABA-1 in a population naturally exposed to Ascaris and with Bet v 1 in a Swedish population. Our results add new information about the genetic influences of human IgE responsiveness; since the genes encode for enzymes involved in the immune response to parasitic infections, they could be helpful for understanding helminth immunity and allergic responses. We also

  11. IL-21 dependent IgE production in human and mouse in vitro culture systems is cell density and cell division dependent and is augmented by IL-10.

    PubMed

    Caven, Timothy H; Shelburne, Anne; Sato, Jun; Chan-Li, Yee; Becker, Steve; Conrad, Daniel H

    2005-12-01

    IL-21 is known to enhance immunoglobulin production using human in vitro models. Using either PBMC or purified tonsilar B cells both stimulated with anti-CD40, IL-4+/-IL-21, this enhancement was shown to correlate with increased cell division especially for IgE and to a lesser extent for IgM and total IgG. Cell division was monitored by CFSE staining and maximum cell division was found at low initial cell plating densities. A correlation between increased cell division and IL-10-mediated enhancement of IgE production was also seen; however, increased cell division plays a smaller role with IL-10 than IL-21. This is further emphasized in that when IL-10 and IL-21 were added together there was a further synergistic increase in IgE seen, but no accompanying further increase in cell division. The mouse system was also examined for IL-21 effects as a function of cell concentration, and as in humans, IL-21 added to murine cells increased IgE production over IL-4/CD40 stimulated cells at lower cell concentrations; however, IL-21 significantly reduced IgE at higher plated cell concentrations.

  12. Assessment of IgE binding to native and hydrolyzed soy protein in serum obtained from dogs with experimentally induced soy protein hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Serra, Montserrat; Brazís, Pilar; Fondati, Alessandra; Puigdemont, Anna

    2006-11-01

    To assess binding of IgE to native, whole hydrolyzed, and separated hydrolyzed fractions of soy protein in serum obtained from dogs with experimentally induced soy protein hypersensitivity. 8 naïve Beagles (6 experimentally sensitized to native soy protein and 2 control dogs). 6 dogs were sensitized against soy protein by administration of allergens during a 90-day period. After the sensitization protocol was completed, serum concentrations of soy-specific IgE were measured and intradermal skin tests were performed in all 6 dogs to confirm that the dogs were sensitized against soy protein. Serum samples from each sensitized and control dog underwent western blot analysis to assess the molecular mass band pattern of the different allergenic soy fractions and evaluate reactivities to native and hydrolyzed soy protein. In sera from sensitized dogs, a characteristic band pattern with 2 major bands (approx 75 and 50 kd) and 2 minor bands (approx 31 and 20 kd) was detected, whereas only a diffuse band pattern associated with whole hydrolyzed soy protein was detected in the most reactive dog. Reactivity was evident only for the higher molecular mass peptide fraction. In control dogs, no IgE reaction to native or hydrolyzed soy protein was detected. Data suggest that the binding of soy-specific IgE to the hydrolyzed soy protein used in the study was significantly reduced, compared with binding of soy-specific IgE to the native soy protein, in dogs with experimentally induced soy hypersensitivity.

  13. Structural Basis of IgE Binding to α- and γ-Gliadins: Contribution of Disulfide Bonds and Repetitive and Nonrepetitive Domains.

    PubMed

    Mameri, Hamza; Brossard, Chantal; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Gohon, Yann; Paty, Evelyne; Beaudouin, Etienne; Moneret-Vautrin, Denise-Anne; Drouet, Martine; Solé, Véronique; Wien, Frank; Lupi, Roberta; Larré, Colette; Snégaroff, Jacques; Denery-Papini, Sandra

    2015-07-29

    Wheat products cause IgE-mediated allergies. The present study aimed to decipher the molecular basis of α- and γ-gliadin allergenicity. Gliadins and their domains, the repetitive N-terminal and the nonrepetitive C-terminal domains, were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Their secondary structures and their IgE binding capacity were compared with those of natural proteins before and after reduction/alkylation. Allergenicity was evaluated with sera from patients who had a wheat food allergy or baker's asthma. The secondary structures of natural and recombinant proteins were slightly different. Compared with natural gliadins, recombinant proteins retained IgE binding but with reduced reactivity. Reduction/alkylation decreased IgE binding for both natural and recombinant gliadins. Although more continuous epitopes were identified in the N-terminal domains of α- and γ-gliadins, both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains contributed to IgE binding. As for other members of the prolamin superfamily, disulfide bonds appear to be of high importance for IgE binding.

  14. [The comparative study of LUMIWARD immunoassay system and CAP RAST system for determination of specific IgE antibody against mite in infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, M; Sakurai, T; Kodama, S

    1998-08-01

    We determined the levels of specific IgE antibody against mite in 91 infants with atopic dermatitis by CAP RAST system and LUMIWARD immunoassay system, and observed them for about two years. The correlation between CAP RAST and LUMIWARD was weak. The cut off point was set up at 0.06 IU/ml, most of the patients who had asthma attack or whose atopic dermatitis were poorly controlled during two years judged to be positive. In conclusion, the determination of low levels of specific IgE antibody against mite in infants with atopic dermatitis was reliable to prediction of allergy.

  15. Reducing Benzene and Cresol Levels in National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Pilot-Scale Biorefinergy Scrubber Water

    SciTech Connect

    Buzek, M.L.; Phillips, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory converts biomass into energy by gasification or pyrolysis. The aqueous effluent generated in these processes must be disposed of as hazardous waste according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act because certain components exceed the regulatory concentration limit. Gas stripping of the scrubber water was investigated as a method of reducing benzene and cresol levels. A custom-designed packed-bed column was built and a half-factorial experimental design was implemented to determine the effects of gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, and column packing height on the final benzene concentration in the liquid. The experimental results show that packing height had a significant effect on final benzene concentration; gas flow rate and liquid flow rate had little effect. The effects of each design variable on final cresol concentration were not determined. Although the current column design did significantly reduce the benzene and cresol levels in the scrubber water, it did not reduce the concentrations below the regulatory limits. A full-factorial experimental design will be implemented with an increased packing height. Other variables, including column diameter and packing type, will be investigated to determine their effects on final benzene and cresol concentrations. Once the packed-bed column is determined to be effective in reducing contaminant concentrations below the regulatory limit, photocatalytic oxidation will be explored for remediating the benzene and cresol from the gas stream.

  16. Is it possible to reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with hiking poles?

    PubMed

    Jensen, S B; Henriksen, M; Aaboe, J; Hansen, L; Simonsen, E B; Alkjaer, T

    2011-12-01

    Walking with hiking poles has become a popular way of exercising. Walking with poles is advocated as a physical activity that significantly reduces the loading of the hip, knee and ankle joints. We have previously observed that pole walking does not lead to a reduction of the load on the knee joint. However, it is unclear whether an increased force transmitted through the poles can reduce the load on the knee joint. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if an increased load transmitted through the arms to the poles could reduce the knee joint compression force during level walking with poles. We hypothesized that an increased pole force would result in a reduction of the knee joint compression force. Gait analyses from 10 healthy subjects walking with poles were obtained. The pole force was measured simultaneously during the gait analyses. The knee joint compression forces were estimated by using a biomechanical knee joint model. The results showed that the subjects were able to increase the pole force by 2.4 times the normal pole force. However, this did not lead to a reduction in the knee joint compressive force and we rejected our hypothesis. In conclusion, the use of poles during level walking does not seem to reduce knee joint compressive loads. However, it is possible that the use of poles in other populations (e.g. osteoarthritis patients) and in terrain would unload the knee joint. This should be investigated in the future.

  17. Hydrogen gas alleviates oxygen toxicity by reducing hydroxyl radical levels in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junchao; Yu, Qiuhong; Liu, Yaling; Zhang, Ruiyun; Xue, Lianbi

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy through breathing oxygen at the pressure of above 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA) is useful for varieties of clinical conditions, especially hypoxic-ischemic diseases. Because of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), breathing oxygen gas at high pressures can cause oxygen toxicity in the central nervous system, leading to multiple neurological dysfunction, which limits the use of HBO therapy. Studies have shown that Hydrogen gas (H2) can diminish oxidative stress and effectively reduce active ROS associated with diseases. However, the effect of H2 on ROS generated from HBO therapy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 on ROS during HBO therapy using PC12 cells. PC12 cells cultured in medium were exposed to oxygen gas or mixed oxygen gas and H2 at 1 ATA or 5 ATA. Cells viability and oxidation products and ROS were determined. The data showed that H2 promoted the cell viability and inhibited the damage in the cell and mitochondria membrane, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation, and selectively decreased the levels of •OH but not disturbing the levels of O2•-, H2O2, or NO• in PC12 cells during HBO therapy. These results indicated that H2 effectively reduced •OH, protected cells against oxygen toxicity resulting from HBO therapy, and had no effect on other ROS. Our data supported that H2 could be potentially used as an antioxidant during HBO therapy. PMID:28362819

  18. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  19. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E

    2016-06-06

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds.

  20. Hydrogen gas alleviates oxygen toxicity by reducing hydroxyl radical levels in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junchao; Yu, Qiuhong; Liu, Yaling; Zhang, Ruiyun; Xue, Lianbi

    2017-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy through breathing oxygen at the pressure of above 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA) is useful for varieties of clinical conditions, especially hypoxic-ischemic diseases. Because of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), breathing oxygen gas at high pressures can cause oxygen toxicity in the central nervous system, leading to multiple neurological dysfunction, which limits the use of HBO therapy. Studies have shown that Hydrogen gas (H2) can diminish oxidative stress and effectively reduce active ROS associated with diseases. However, the effect of H2 on ROS generated from HBO therapy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 on ROS during HBO therapy using PC12 cells. PC12 cells cultured in medium were exposed to oxygen gas or mixed oxygen gas and H2 at 1 ATA or 5 ATA. Cells viability and oxidation products and ROS were determined. The data showed that H2 promoted the cell viability and inhibited the damage in the cell and mitochondria membrane, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation, and selectively decreased the levels of •OH but not disturbing the levels of O2•-, H2O2, or NO• in PC12 cells during HBO therapy. These results indicated that H2 effectively reduced •OH, protected cells against oxygen toxicity resulting from HBO therapy, and had no effect on other ROS. Our data supported that H2 could be potentially used as an antioxidant during HBO therapy.

  1. Reduced Activity-Dependent Protein Levels in a Mouse Model of the Fragile X Premutation

    PubMed Central

    von Leden, Ramona E.; Curley, Lindsey C.; Greenberg, Gian D.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation. PMID:24462720

  2. Reduced activity-dependent protein levels in a mouse model of the fragile X premutation.

    PubMed

    von Leden, Ramona E; Curley, Lindsey C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hunsaker, Michael R; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation.

  3. Methoxychlor reduces estradiol levels by altering steroidogenesis and metabolism in mouse antral follicles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S; Craig, Zelieann R; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Paulose, Tessie; Leslie, Traci C; Flaws, Jodi A

    2011-06-15

    The organochlorine pesticide methoxychlor (MXC) is a known endocrine disruptor that affects adult rodent females by causing reduced fertility, persistent estrus, and ovarian atrophy. Since MXC is also known to target antral follicles, the major producer of sex steroids in the ovary, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that MXC decreases estradiol (E₂) levels by altering steroidogenic and metabolic enzymes in the antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mouse ovaries and cultured with either dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or MXC. Follicle growth was measured every 24 h for 96 h. In addition, sex steroid hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes as well as the E₂ metabolic enzyme Cyp1b1 were measured using qPCR. The results indicate that MXC decreased E₂, testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone (P₄) levels compared to DMSO. In addition, MXC decreased expression of aromatase (Cyp19a1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (Cyp17a1), 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd3b1), cholesterol side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1), steroid acute regulatory protein (Star), and increased expression of Cyp1b1 enzyme levels. Thus, these data suggest that MXC decreases steroidogenic enzyme levels, increases metabolic enzyme expression and this in turn leads to decreased sex steroid hormone levels.

  4. Reduced striatal adenosine A2A receptor levels define a molecular subgroup in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Villar-Menéndez, Izaskun; Díaz-Sánchez, Sara; Blanch, Marta; Albasanz, José Luis; Pereira-Veiga, Thais; Monje, Alfonso; Planchat, Luis Maria; Ferrer, Isidre; Martín, Mairena; Barrachina, Marta

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a mental disorder of unknown origin. Some scientific evidence seems to indicate that SZ is not a single disease entity, since there are patient groups with clear symptomatic, course and biomarker differences. SZ is characterized by a hyperdopaminergic state related to high dopamine D2 receptor activity. It has also been proposed that there is a hypoadenosynergic state. Adenosine is a nucleoside widely distributed in the organism with neuromodulative and neuroprotective activity in the central nervous system. In the brain, the most abundant adenosine receptors are A1R and A2AR. In the present report, we characterize the presence of both receptors in human postmortem putamens of patients suffering SZ with real time TaqMan PCR, western blotting and radioligand binding assay. We show that A1R levels remain unchanged with respect to age-matched controls, whereas nearly fifty percent of patients have reduced A2AR, at the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, we describe how DNA methylation plays a role in the pathological A2AR levels with the bisulfite-sequencing technique. In fact, an increase in 5-methylcytosine percentage in the 5' UTR region of ADORA2A was found in those SZ patients with reduced A2AR levels. Interestingly, there was a relationship between the A2A/β-actin ratio and motor disturbances as assessed with some items of the PANSS, AIMS and SAS scales. Therefore, there may be a subgroup of SZ patients with reduced striatal A2AR levels accompanied by an altered motor phenotype.

  5. QMix® irrigant reduces lipopolysacharide (LPS) levels in an in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    GRÜNDLING, Grasiela Longhi; de MELO, Tiago André Fontoura; MONTAGNER, Francisco; SCARPARO, Roberta Kochenborger; VIER-PELISSER, Fabiana Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endotoxin inside the root canal has been associated with periapical inflammation, bone resorption and symptomatic conditions. Objectives To determine, in vitro, the effect of QMix® and other three root canal irrigants in reducing the endotoxin content in root canals. Material and Methods Root canals of single-rooted teeth were prepared. Samples were detoxified with Co-60 irradiation and inoculated with E. coli LPS (24 h, at 37°C). After that period, samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the irrigation solution tested: QMix®, 17% EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX), and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). LPS quantification was determined by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. The initial counting of endotoxins for all samples, and the determination of LPS levels in non-contaminated teeth and in contaminated teeth exposed only to non-pyrogenic water, were used as controls. Results QMix® reduced LPS levels, with a median value of 1.11 endotoxins units (EU)/mL (p<0.001). NaOCl (25.50 EU/mL), chlorhexidine (44.10 EU/mL) and positive control group (26.80 EU/mL) samples had similar results. Higher levels were found with EDTA (176.00 EU/mL) when compared to positive control (p<0.001). There was no significant difference among EDTA, NaOCl and CHX groups. Negative control group (0.005 EU/mL) had statistically significant lower levels of endotoxins when compared to all test groups (p<0.001). Conclusion QMix® decreased LPS levels when compared to the other groups (p<0.001). 3% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 17% EDTA were not able to significantly reduce the root canal endotoxins load. PMID:26398517

  6. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated.

  7. Reduced Hepatic Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Level in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Garrett; Muturi, Harrison T.; Rezaei, Khadijeh; Al-Share, Qusai Y.; DeAngelis, Anthony M.; Bowman, Thomas A.; Ghadieh, Hilda E.; Ghanem, Simona S.; Zhang, Deqiang; Garofalo, Robert S.; Yin, Lei; Najjar, Sonia M.

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of insulin clearance is being increasingly recognized as a critical step in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Null deletion or liver-specific inactivation of Ceacam1 in mice causes a defect in insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, and visceral obesity. Immunohistological analysis revealed reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obese subjects with fatty liver disease. Thus, we aimed to determine whether this occurs at the hepatocyte level in response to systemic extrahepatic factors and whether this holds across species. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrate that CEACAM1 mRNA and protein levels are reduced in liver tissues of obese individuals compared to their lean age-matched counterparts. Furthermore, Western analysis reveals a comparable reduction of CEACAM1 protein in primary hepatocytes derived from the same obese subjects. Similar to humans, Ceacam1 mRNA level, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis, is significantly reduced in the livers of obese Zucker (fa/fa, ZDF) and Koletsky (f/f) rats relative to their age-matched lean counterparts. These studies demonstrate that the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obesity occurs at the level of hepatocytes and identify the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 as a common denominator of obesity across multiple species. PMID:28396653

  8. Apathy and APOE4 are associated with reduced BDNF levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Antón; Aleixandre, Manuel; Linares, Carlos; Masliah, Eliezer; Moessler, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is considered as a pathogenic event in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of apathy and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4) on serum BDNF values was not previously investigated in AD. We evaluated serum BDNF levels in AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and control subjects. Baseline BDNF levels were similar in AD, MCI, and controls. AD patients having apathy showed lower BDNF values than patients without apathy (p < 0.05). After correction for the influence of apathy, APOE4 carriers showed lower BDNF levels (p < 0.01) and MMSE scores (p < 0.01) than non-APOE4 carriers in the subgroup of AD females, but not in males. Significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations between BDNF values and MMSE scores were only observed in subgroups of AD males and of AD patients without apathy. These results are showing the association of apathy and APOE4 with reduced serum BDNF levels in AD, and are suggesting that BDNF reductions might contribute to the worse cognitive performance exhibited by AD apathetic patients and female APOE4 carriers.

  9. Preventing and reducing violence against women: innovation in community-level studies.

    PubMed

    Taft, Angela; Small, Rhonda

    2014-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious global problem that damages the health and prosperity of individuals, their families, community, and society. WHO endorses an 'ecological model,' which states that there are multi-level intersecting factors enabling perpetration and victimization of violence. Intervention science to prevent or reduce the problem is in its infancy, and the few existing intervention studies have been targeted at the individual level. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, Abramsky et al. bring innovation to the field, targeting their intervention trial "SASA!" in Kampala Uganda at all ecological levels, but particularly at the community level. Recruiting and training both male and female community leaders and activists who enabled group and media discussions, the authors focused on the beneficial and abusive detrimental uses of power rather than commencing with the central issue of gender inequality. SASA! successfully reduced community attitudes to tolerance of violence and inequality, men's sexual risk behaviors, and women's experience of physical violence. The study also improved the communities' response to victimized women. SASA! has promise for adaptation and replication in low, middle and high income countries. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/122.

  10. Reduced Hepatic Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Level in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Garrett; Muturi, Harrison T; Rezaei, Khadijeh; Al-Share, Qusai Y; DeAngelis, Anthony M; Bowman, Thomas A; Ghadieh, Hilda E; Ghanem, Simona S; Zhang, Deqiang; Garofalo, Robert S; Yin, Lei; Najjar, Sonia M

    2017-01-01

    Impairment of insulin clearance is being increasingly recognized as a critical step in the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Null deletion or liver-specific inactivation of Ceacam1 in mice causes a defect in insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, and visceral obesity. Immunohistological analysis revealed reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obese subjects with fatty liver disease. Thus, we aimed to determine whether this occurs at the hepatocyte level in response to systemic extrahepatic factors and whether this holds across species. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrate that CEACAM1 mRNA and protein levels are reduced in liver tissues of obese individuals compared to their lean age-matched counterparts. Furthermore, Western analysis reveals a comparable reduction of CEACAM1 protein in primary hepatocytes derived from the same obese subjects. Similar to humans, Ceacam1 mRNA level, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis, is significantly reduced in the livers of obese Zucker (fa/fa, ZDF) and Koletsky (f/f) rats relative to their age-matched lean counterparts. These studies demonstrate that the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 in obesity occurs at the level of hepatocytes and identify the reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 as a common denominator of obesity across multiple species.

  11. Dependence of the guinea pig IgE and IgG1 immune responses on the inclusion of potassium in the preparation of alum adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Marretta, J; Casey, F B

    1979-01-01

    Primary immunization with alum prepared using AlK(SO4)2 and adjuvant enhanced IgE production in the guinea pig. Alum prepared from Al2 (SO4)3 showed greatly reduced IgE and IgG1 anti-EA titers. This variance in immunoglobulin titer was observed only in the guinea pig. Both rats and mice respond to alum preparations prepared from either AlK(SO4)2 or Al2(SO4)3 equally as well.

  12. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom.

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J

    1979-01-01

    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase. PMID:511810

  13. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J

    1979-01-01

    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase.

  14. Dual-Level LVDS Technique for Reducing Data Transmission Lines by Half in LCD Driver IC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Doo-Hwan; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Cho, Kyoung-Rok

    This paper proposes a dual-level low voltage differential signaling (DLVDS) circuit aimed at low power consumption and reducing transmission lines for LCD driver IC's. We apply two-bit binary data to the DLVDS circuit as inputs, and then the circuit converts these two inputs into two kinds of fully differential signal levels. In the DLVDS circuit, two transmission lines are sufficient to transfer two-bit binary inputs while keeping the conventional LVDS features. The receiver recovers the original two-bit binary data through a level decoding circuit. The proposed circuit was fabricated using a commercial 0.25μm CMOS technology. Under a 2.5V supply voltage, the circuit shows a data rate of 1-Gbps/2-line and power consumption of 35mW.

  15. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis inhibition: evidence for heterogeneity in IgE mast cell interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, S B; McCants, M L; Farris, P N; Bazin, H

    1981-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that IgE molecules are heterogeneous with respect to ability to compete with IgE myeloma for sensitization of histamine release from chopped human lung and ability to passively sensitize human basophils for antigen-induced histamine release. These observations prompted further investigation of the possibility that there exists a functional heterogeneity in the IgE molecules with respect to mast-cell binding properties. Using eight different purified rat IgE myeloma proteins, we found that they differ in their ability to inhibit the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction of mouse reaginic antisera. This suggests that IgE molecules differ in their ability to bind to mast cell receptors. Since maximal inhibition of different mouse reaginic antisera and mouse IgE hybridomas is achieved with different IgE myelomas, there may exist a functional heterogeneity in mast-cell binding receptors as well. PMID:7319556

  16. Demonstrating Reduced Environmental and Genetic Diversity in Human Isolates by Analysis of Blood Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Polašek, Ozren; Kolčić, Ivana; Smoljanović, Ankica; Stojanović, Dražen; Grgić, Matijana; Ebling, Barbara; Klarić, Maja; Milas, Josip; Puntarić, Dinko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that phenotypic diversity in isolated human populations is decreased in comparison with general outbred population because of reduced genetic and environmental diversity. To demonstrate this in populations for which reduced genetic and environmental diversity had already been established, by studying the amount of variation in plasma lipid levels. Methods Fasting plasma lipid levels (cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein [LDL], and high density lipoprotein [HDL]) were measured in randomly selected 300 inhabitants from 2 isolated human populations, the island of Rab and the neighboring islands of Vis and Lastovo, Croatia. The populations were chosen based on previous analyses of genetic diversity and lifestyle patterns, which were shown to be both less diverse and more uniform than the general Croatian population. We studied whether the 25’-75’ and 5′-95’ interpercentile ranges in observed values were consistently smaller in 2 samples of 300 examinees from isolated populations in comparison with nearly 6000 examinees from an earlier study who were demographically targeted to represent the larger Croatian population. Results General population had much wider range of observed values of triglycerides and HDL than both isolated populations. However, both isolated populations exhibited greater extent of variation in the levels of LDL, while the ranges of cholesterol values were similar. Conclusion Although reduced genetic and environmental diversity in isolated human populations should necessarily reduce the variance in observed phenotypic values, it appears that specific population genetic processes in isolated populations could be acting to maintain the variation. Departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to consanguinity, sub-structuring and differentiation within the isolates, and increased rate of new mutations could theoretically explain this paradox. PMID:16909463

  17. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dias, Irundika H K; Chapple, Ian L C; Milward, Mike; Grant, Melissa M; Hill, Eric; Brown, James; Griffiths, Helen R

    2013-01-01

    The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. -) by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC), and modifier (GCLM) subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. -) production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  18. Reduced ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-1 expression levels in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Barrachina, Marta; Castaño, Esther; Dalfó, Esther; Maes, Tamara; Buesa, Carlos; Ferrer, Isidro

    2006-05-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin in protein aggregates conforming Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-1 (UCHL-1) disassembles polyubiquitin chains to increase the availability of free monomeric ubiquitin to the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) thus favoring protein degradation. Since mutations in the UCHL-1 gene, reducing UPS activity by 50%, have been reported in autosomal dominant PD, and UCHL-1 inhibition results in the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates in mesencephalic cultured neurons, the present study was initiated to test UCHL-1 mRNA and protein levels in post-mortem frontal cortex (area 8) of PD and DLB cases, compared with age-matched controls. TaqMan PCR assays, and Western blots demonstrated down-regulation of UCHL-1 mRNA and UCHL-1 protein in the cerebral cortex in DLB (either in pure forms, not associated with Alzheimer disease: AD, and in common forms, with accompanying AD changes), but not in PD, when compared with age-matched controls. Interestingly, UCHL-1 mRNA and protein expressions were reduced in the medulla oblongata in the same PD cases. Moreover, UCHL-1 protein was decreased in the substantia nigra in cases with Lewy body pathology. UCHL-1 down-regulation was not associated with reduced protein levels of several proteasomal subunits, including 20SX, 20SY, 19S and 11Salpha. Yet UCHL-3 expression was reduced in the cerebral cortex of PD and DLB patients. Together, these observations show reduced UCHL-1 expression as a contributory factor in the abnormal protein aggregation in DLB, and points UCHL-1 as a putative therapeutic target in the treatment of DLB.

  19. Oral midazolam reduces cortisol levels during local anaesthesia in children: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Heloisa Sousa; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Paiva, Saul Martins; Costa, Paulo Sérgio Sucasas; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether midazolam sedation can reduce salivary cortisol levels and consequently influence children's behaviour during dental treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of midazolam sedation on salivary cortisol and its correlation with children's behaviour during restorative dental treatment. Eighteen healthy children, aged two to five years, were randomly assigned to two dental treatment appointments, both with physical restraint: oral midazolam 1 mg/kg (MS) and placebo (PS). An observer assessed the children's behaviour (videos) using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS). The children's saliva was collected just after waking up, on arrival at the dental school, 25 minutes after local anaesthesia, and 25 minutes after the end of the procedure. Salivary cortisol levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The data were analysed by bivariate tests and multivariate analysis of variance (5% level). Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the MS group than in the PS group at the time of anaesthesia (p = 0.004), but did not vary during the appointment within sedation (p = 0.319) or placebo (p = 0.080) groups. Children's behaviour was negative most of the time and did not differ between MS and PS; however, the behaviour (OSUBRS) did not correlate with salivary cortisol levels. Oral midazolam is able to control salivary cortisol levels during dental treatment of pre-schoolers, which might not lead to better clinical behaviour.

  20. Two-Level Incremental Checkpoint Recovery Scheme for Reducing System Total Overheads

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huixian; Pang, Liaojun; Wang, Zhangquan

    2014-01-01

    Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which directly impacts the system total overheads. Motivated by these concerns, this paper presents a new model by introducing i-checkpoints into the existing two-level checkpoint recovery scheme to deal with the more probable failures with the smaller cost and the faster speed. The proposed scheme is independent of the specific failure distribution type and can be applied to different failure distribution types. We respectively make analyses between the two-level incremental and two-level checkpoint recovery schemes with the Weibull distribution and exponential distribution, both of which fit with the actual failure distribution best. The comparison results show that the total overheads of setting checkpoints, the total re-computing time and the system total overheads in the two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme are all significantly smaller than those in the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme. At last, limitations of our study are discussed, and at the same time, open questions and possible future work are given. PMID:25111048

  1. Maintain levels of nicotine but reduce other smoke constituents: a formula for ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.C.; Young, J.C.; Rickert, W.S.

    1984-09-01

    Twenty-two volunteers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes with ''high'' nicotine yields (0.8 to 1.2 mg) per day participated in an 8-week study designed to test the hypothesis that smoking cigarettes with a constant level of nicotine but reduced deliveries of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide leads to a decrease in smoke absorption. All subjects smoked their usual high-nicotine brand for the first 3 weeks (P1), and the absorption of smoke constituents was determined from levels of thiocyanate and cotinine in saliva and serum, levels of carbon monoxide in expired air, and levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. During the final 5 weeks (P2), the treatment group (16 subjects) switched to the ''light'' version of their usual brands (similar yields of nicotine but with reduced yields of tar, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen cyanide); the control group (6 subjects) smoked their usual brands for the duration of the study. Average levels of cotinine for the subjects who switched during P2 were not significantly different from those of the control group as was expected. Slight reductions were noted in average expired-air carbon monoxide levels, blood carboxyhemoglobin, and saliva thiocyanate, but these reductions were smaller than anticipated based on brand characteristics. The results suggest that the ratio of smoke constituents is different when individuals, rather than machines, smoke cigarettes. Yields determined under subject-defined conditions are necessary in order to properly evaluate the role of nicotine in the design of ''less-hazardous'' cigarettes.

  2. Mice lacking Mrp1 have reduced testicular steroid hormone levels and alterations in steroid biosynthetic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    SIVILS, JEFFREY C.; GONZALEZ, IVEN; BAIN, LISA J.

    2010-01-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is a member of the ABC active transporter family that can transport several steroid hormone conjugates, including 17β-estradiol glucuronide, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and estrone 3-sulfate. The present study investigated the role that MRP1 plays in maintaining proper hormone levels in the serum and testes. Serum and testicular steroid hormone levels were examined in both wild-type mice and Mrp1 null mice. Serum testosterone levels were reduced 5-fold in mice lacking Mrp1, while testicular androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were significantly reduced by 1.7- to 4.5-fold in Mrp1 knockout mice. Investigating the mechanisms responsible for the reduction in steroid hormones in Mrp1-/- mice revealed no differences in the expression or activity of enzymes that inactivate steroids, the sulfotransferases or glucuronosyltransferases. However, steroid biosynthetic enzyme levels in the testes were altered. Cyp17 protein levels were increased by 1.6-fold, while Cyp17 activity using progesterone as a substrate was also increased by 1.4-2.0-fold in mice lacking Mrp1. Additionally, the ratio of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and steroidogenic factor 1 to 3βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were significantly increased in the testes of Mrp1-/- mice. These results indicate that Mrp1-/- mice have lowered steroid hormones levels, and suggests that upregulation of steroid biosynthetic enzymes may be an attempt to maintain proper steroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:20178799

  3. Very low protein diet reduces indoxyl sulfate levels in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Marzocco, Stefania; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Di Micco, Lucia; Torraca, Serena; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Tartaglia, Domenico; Autore, Giuseppina; Di Iorio, Biagio

    2013-01-01

    High levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS) are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and increased mortality in CKD patients. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether a very low protein diet (VLPD; 0.3 g/kg bw/day), with a consequent low phosphorus intake, would reduce IS serum levels compared to a low protein diet (LPD; 0.6 g/kg bw/day) in CKD patients not yet on dialysis. This is a post hoc analysis of a preceding cross-over study aimed to analyze FGF23 during VLPD. Here we performed a prospective randomized controlled crossover study in which 32 patients were randomized to receive either a VLPD (0.3 g/kg bw/day) supplemented with ketoanalogues during the first week and an LPD during the second week (group A, n = 16), or an LPD during the first week and a VLPD during the second week (group B, n = 16 patients). IS serum levels were measured at baseline and at the end of each study period. We compared them to 24 hemodialysis patients (HD) and 14 healthy subjects (control). IS serum concentration was significantly higher in the HD (43.4 ± 12.3 µM) and CKD (11.1 ± 6.6 µM) groups compared to the control group (2.9 ± 1.1 µM; p < 0.001). IS levels also correlated with creatinine values in CKD patients (R(2) = 0.42; p < 0.0001). After only 1 week of a VLPD, even preceded by an LPD, CKD patients showed a significant reduction of IS serum levels (37%). VLPD supplemented with ketoanalogues reduced IS serum levels in CKD patients not yet on dialysis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Reduced Levels of Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid Are Associated with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Chinedu J.; Saville, William J. A.; Reed, Stephen M.; Oglesbee, Michael J.; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J.; Stich, Roger W.

    2002-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a disease of horses that is primarily associated with infection with the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona. Infection with this parasite alone is not sufficient to induce the disease, and the mechanism of neuropathogenesis associated with EPM has not been reported. Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a neurotransmitter, a vasodilator, and an immune effector and is produced in response to several parasitic protozoa. The purpose of this work was to determine if the concentration of NO metabolites (NOx−) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is correlated with the development of EPM. CSF NOx− levels were measured before and after transport-stressed, acclimated, or dexamethasone-treated horses (n = 3 per group) were experimentally infected with S. neurona sporocysts. CSF NOx− levels were also compared between horses that were diagnosed with EPM after natural infection with S. neurona and horses that did not have clinical signs of disease or that showed no evidence of infection with the parasite (n = 105). Among the experimentally infected animals, the mean CSF NOx− levels of the transport-stressed group, which had the most severe clinical signs, was reduced after infection, while these values were found to increase after infection in the remaining groups that had less severe signs of EPM. Under natural conditions, horses with EPM (n = 65) had a lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than clinically normal horses with antibodies (Abs) against S. neurona (n = 15) in CSF, and horses that developed ataxia (n = 81) had a significantly lower mean CSF NOx− concentration than horses that did not have neurologic signs (n = 24). In conclusion, lower CSF NOx− levels were associated with clinical EPM, suggesting that measurement of CSF NOx− levels could improve the accuracy of diagnostic tests that are based upon detection of S. neurona-specific Abs in CSF alone and that reduced NO levels could be causatively related to the development

  5. Brassica vegetable consumption reduces urinary F2-isoprostane levels independent of micronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; Morrow, Jason D; Motley, Saundra; Bostick, Roberd M; Ness, Reid M

    2006-10-01

    Isothiocyanates and indoles (e.g. indole-3-carbinol) from Brassica vegetables (e.g. broccoli) induce Phase I and Phase II enzymes responsible for the oxidation, reduction and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous carcinogens. Brassica vegetables also contain micronutrients that may provide additional DNA protection from reactive oxygen species. This randomized crossover trial (n = 20) compares the effects of a Brassica Vegetable (BV) intervention against a Micronutrient and Fiber Supplementation (M+F) intervention on urinary F2-isoprostane levels (F2-iP), a stable biomarker of systemic oxidative stress. Brassica intake was monitored by repeated 24 h recalls, urinary ITC levels and questionnaire. Urinary F2-iP levels were measured by mass spectrometry from first-morning urine samples collected at Baseline and after each intervention, and change in natural log transformed urinary F2-iP levels were analyzed using repeated measures regression. Brassica consumption increased from 2 grams/day (g/d) during the Baseline or M+F intervention periods to 218 g/d during the BV intervention, whereas exposure to most antioxidant vitamins and minerals was greatest during the M+F intervention. F2-iP levels significantly decreased by 22.0 or 21.8% during the BV intervention compared with Baseline or the M+F intervention (P = 0.05, P = 0.05, respectively). Urinary F2-iP levels did not significantly differ between Baseline and the M+F intervention (difference = 0.2%; P = 0.98). Brassica intake has been associated with reduced risk of colon, lung, bladder, breast, prostate and other cancers. Our results suggest that Brassica consumption reduces systemic oxidative stress independent of the vitamin and mineral content of these vegetables.

  6. Increases in IgE, Eosinophils, and Mast Cells Can be Used in Diagnosis and to Predict Relapse of IgG4-Related Disease.

    PubMed

    Culver, Emma L; Sadler, Ross; Bateman, Adrian C; Makuch, Mateusz; Cargill, Tamsin; Ferry, Berne; Aalberse, Rob; Barnes, Eleanor; Rispens, Theo

    2017-09-01

    IgG subclass 4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by increased serum levels of IgG4 and infiltration of biliary, pancreatic, and other tissues by IgG4-positive plasma cells. We assessed the prevalence of allergy and/or atopy, serum, and tissue IgE antibodies, and blood and tissue eosinophils in patients with IgG4-RD. We investigated the association between serum IgE and diagnosis and relapse of this disease. We performed a prospective study of 48 patients with IgG4-RD, 42 patients with an increased serum level of IgG4 with other inflammatory and autoimmune conditions (disease control subjects), and 51 healthy individuals (healthy control subjects) recruited from Oxford, United Kingdom from March 2010 through March 2014, and followed for a median of 41 months (range, 3-73 months). Serum levels of immunoglobulin were measured at diagnosis, during steroid treatment, and at disease relapse for patients with IgG4-RD; levels at diagnosis were compared with baseline levels of control subjects. Allergen-specific IgEs were measured using the IgE ImmunoCAP. Levels and distribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies in lymphoid, biliary, and pancreatic tissues from patients with IgG4-RD and disease control subjects were measured by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed data using the Spearman rank correlation and receiver operating characteristic curves. Serum levels of IgG4 increased to 1.4 g/L or more, and IgE increased to 125 kIU/L or more, in 81% and 54% of patients with IgG4-RD, respectively, compared with 6% and 16% of healthy control subjects (P < .0001). Peripheral blood eosinophilia was detected in 38% of patients with IgG4-RD versus 9% of healthy control subjects (P = .004). Of patients with IgG4-RD, 63% had a history of allergy and 40% had a history of atopy with an IgE-specific response; these values were 60% and 53% in patients with increased serum levels of IgE (P < .05). Level of IgE at diagnosis >480 kIU/L distinguished patients with IgG4-RD from disease control

  7. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR.

  8. Salmonella in chicken: current and developing strategies to reduce contamination at farm level.

    PubMed

    Vandeplas, S; Dubois Dauphin, R; Beckers, Y; Thonart, P; Théwis, A

    2010-04-01

    Salmonella is a human pathogen that frequently infects poultry flocks. Consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated poultry products can induce acute gastroenteritis in humans. Faced with the public health concerns associated with salmonellosis, the European Union has established a European regulation forcing member states to implement control programs aimed at reducing Salmonella prevalence in poultry production, especially at the primary production level. The purpose of the present review article is to summarize the current research and to suggest future developments in the area of Salmonella control in poultry, which may be of value to the industry in the coming years. The review will focus especially on preventive strategies that have been developed and that aim at reducing the incidence of Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens at the farm level. In addition to the usual preventive hygienic measures, other strategies have been investigated, such as feed and drinking water acidification with organic acids and immune strategies based on passive and active immunity. Modification of the diet by changing ingredients and nutrient composition with the intent of reducing a bird's susceptibility to Salmonella infection also has been examined. Because in ovo feeding accelerates small intestine development and enhances epithelial cell function, this approach could be an efficient tool for controlling enteric pathogens. Feed additives such as antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics that modify the intestinal microflora are part of another field of investigation, and their success depends on the additive used. Other control methods such as the use of chlorate products and bacteriophages also are under study.

  9. Enterovirus 71 Disrupts Interferon Signaling by Reducing the Level of Interferon Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Yi, Lina; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Jun; Chen, Ying; Lin, Marie C.; Kung, Hsiang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    The recent outbreak of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infected millions of children and caused over 1,000 deaths. To date, neither an effective vaccine nor antiviral treatment is available for EV71 infection. Interferons (IFNs) have been successfully applied to treat patients with hepatitis B and C viral infections for decades but have failed to treat EV71 infections. Here, we provide the evidence that EV71 antagonizes type I IFN signaling by reducing the level of interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1). We show that the host cells could sense EV71 infection and stimulate IFN-β production. However, the induction of downstream IFN-stimulated genes is inhibited by EV71. Also, only a slight interferon response and antiviral effects could be detected in cells treated with recombinant type I IFNs after EV71 infection. Further studies reveal that EV71 blocks the IFN-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2, Jak1, and Tyk2 by reducing IFNAR1. Finally, we identified the 2A protease encoded by EV71 as an antagonist of IFNs and show that the protease activity is required for reducing IFNAR1 levels. Taken together, our study for the first time uncovers a mechanism used by EV71 to antagonize type I IFN signaling and provides new targets for future antiviral strategies. PMID:22258259

  10. High IgE sensitization to maize and rice pollen in the highlands of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ramavovololona; Sénéchal, Hélène; Andrianarisoa, Ange; Rakotoarimanana, Vololona; Godfrin, Dominique; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maize and rice are two crops constituting the main food supply in many under-developed and developing countries. Despite the large area devoted to the culture, the sensitization to the pollen from these plants is reported to be low and often considered as an occupational allergy. Methods Sixty five Malagasy pollen allergic patients were clinically and immunochemically investigated with regard to maize and rice pollen allergens. Pollen extracts were electrophoretically separated in 1 and 2 dimensions and IgE and IgG reactivities detected upon immunoblotting. Results When exploring the sensitization profile of Malagasy allergic patients to maize and rice pollen, it appears that a high proportion of these patients consulting during grass pollinating season were sensitized to both pollen as revealed by skin prick testing (62 vs. 59%) and IgE immunoblotting (85 vs. 40%). Several clinically relevant allergens were recognized by patients’ serum IgE in maize and rice pollen extracts. Conclusion The high levels of maize and rice pollen sensitization should be related, in this tropical region, to a specific environmental exposure including i) a proximity of the population to the allergenic sources and ii) a putative exacerbating effect of a highly polluted urban atmosphere on pollen allergenicity. Cross-reactivities between wild and cultivated grasses and also between rice and maize pollen are involved as well as some specific maize sensitizations. The presence of dense urban and peri-urban agriculture, in various African regions and worldwide, could be a high environmental risk factor for people sensitive to maize pollen. PMID:25870739

  11. Ara h 2: crystal structure and IgE binding distinguish two sub-populations of peanut allergic patients by epitope diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Geoffrey A.; Gosavi, Rajendrakumar A.; Pomés, Anna; Wünschmann, Sabina; Moon, Andrea F.; London, Robert E.; Pedersen, Lars C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Peanut allergy affects 1% of the population and causes the most fatal food-related anaphylactic reactions. The protein Ara h 2 is the most potent peanut allergen recognized by 80–90% of peanut allergic patients. Methods The crystal structure of the major peanut allergen Ara h 2 was determined for the first time at 2.7 Å resolution using a customized MBP-fusion system. IgE antibody binding to the MBP fusion construct versus the natural allergen was compared by ELISA using sera from peanut allergic patients. Results The structure of Ara h 2 is a five helix bundle held together by four disulfide bonds and related to the prolamin protein superfamily. The fold is most similar to other amylase and trypsin inhibitors. The MBP-Ara h 2 fusion construct was positively recognized by IgE from 76% of allergic patients (25/33). Two populations of patients could be identified. Sub-population 1 (n=14) showed an excellent correlation of IgE antibody binding to natural versus recombinant Ara h 2. Sub-population 2 (n=15) showed significantly reduced IgE binding to the MBP fusion protein. Interestingly, about 20% of the IgE binding in sub-population 2 could be recovered by increasing the distance between MBP and Ara h 2 in a second construct. Discussion The reduced IgE binding to the MBP-Ara h 2 of sub-population 2 indicates that the MBP molecule protects an immunodominant epitope region near the first helix of Ara h 2. Residues involved in the epitope(s) are suggested by the crystal structure. The MBP-Ara h 2 fusion constructs will be useful to further elucidate the relevance of certain epitopes to peanut allergy. PMID:21255036

  12. Endurance Exercise Reduces Hepatic Fat Content and Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Levels in Elderly Men.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Sun, Xiaomin; Kubo, Takafumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hepatic fat accumulation increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21-resistant state caused by fatty liver underlies the pathogenesis of these diseases. Previous studies suggested that a higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with both lower hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels; however, the effect of endurance exercise on hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 concentration has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate whether endurance exercise reduced hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels. This is a randomized crossover trial. The study setting was an institutional practice. Thirty-three elderly Japanese men participated in the study. The intervention was a 5-week endurance exercise program comprising three cycle ergometer sessions per week. Hepatic fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and serum FGF21 level was determined by ELISA. A 5-week endurance exercise program decreased the hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss, and the changes were higher in the exercise period than in the control period (P = .021 and P = .026, respectively). Correlation analysis demonstrated that only the change in hepatic fat content was significantly and positively correlated with change in serum FGF21 levels (r = 0.366, P = .006). A 5-week endurance exercise program decreased hepatic fat content and serum FGF21 levels without weight loss in elderly men, and exercise-induced hepatic fat reduction mediated the reduction in serum FGF21 levels. These findings suggest that endurance exercise modulates hepatic fat content and FGF21 resistance, regardless of obesity status.

  13. Intradermal Delivery of Antigens Enhances Specific IgG and Diminishes IgE Production: Potential Use for Vaccination and Allergy Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Takuwa; Ura, Takehiro; Taniguchi, Masaru; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2016-01-01

    Skin is protected by a tough but flexible multilayered barrier and is a front line for immune responses against invading particles. For many years now, skin has been a tissue where certain vaccines are injected for the prevention of infectious disease, however, the detailed mechanisms of the skin immune response are not yet well understood. Using thin and small injection needles, we carefully injected OVA into a restricted region of mouse skin, i.e., intradermal (ID), and examined the antibody response in comparison with subcutaneous (SC) injection or epicutaneous patch administration of OVA. Epicutaneous patches induced a high IgE response against OVA, but IgG production was low. High IgG production was induced by both ID and SC injection, moreover, ID injection induced higher IgG production without any adjutants. Furthermore, OVA-specific IgE production was diminished by ID injection. We found that ID injection could efficiently stimulate skin resident DCs, drive Th1-biased conditions and diminish IgE production. The ID injection response was regulated by Langerin+ dermal DCs, because OVA was taken up mainly by these cells and, after transiently deleting them, the IgE response was no longer diminished and IgG1 production was enhanced. We also tested whether ID injection might be an effective allergy treatment by attempting to inhibit ongoing IgE production in mice with experimentally induced high serum IgE levels. Multiple ID injections of OVA were shown to prevent elevation of serum OVA-specific IgE after repeated allergen challenge. In contrast, SC OVA injection could only transiently inhibit the OVA-specific IgE production. These findings indicated that ID injection results in higher induction of antigen-specific IgG, and thus may be useful for vaccine delivery with little or no adjuvant components. Moreover, the observed diminishment of IgE and induction of Th1-biased immune responses suggest that ID may be a useful injection route for allergy immunotherapy

  14. In vitro synthesis of IgE by human lymphocytes. I. The spontaneous secretion of IgE by B lymphocytes from allergic individuals: a model to investigate the regulation of human IgE synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sarfati, M; Rubio-Trujillo, M; Wong, K; Rector, E; Sehon, A H; Delespesse, G

    1984-01-01

    In view of the controversial data in the literature regarding the in vitro IgE synthesis by human lymphocytes, the conditions for culture of lymphocytes and the methodology for measurement of the IgE produced are described in detail. In the absence of any added mitogen, enriched B cell preparations derived from 70% of allergic donors actively secreted 100 to 3200 pg/ml of IgE after culture for 7 days, at which time the cell viability was higher than 85%. In comparable B cell cultures derived from non-allergic donors, only trace amounts of de novo synthesized IgE were detected in 20% of the cases. All B cell cultures actively secreted IgG, IgA, IgM and there was no apparent relationship between the secretion of IgE and that of the other classes of Ig. By contrast, the synthesis of IgE by unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of allergic individuals, which were stimulated with pokeweed mitogen (PWM) under several experimental conditions, was not consistently reproducible, i.e. the spontaneous synthesis of IgE in such cultures was either suppressed or enhanced by PWM. The most important finding was that the secretion of IgE was selectively enhanced by supplementing the B cell cultures with cell-free supernatants (CFS) of cultures of neonatal lymphocytes which had been preincubated with 10 micrograms/ml IgE. It is, therefore, concluded that B cell cultures from allergic individuals constitute an appropriate model for investigations of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of human IgE synthesis. PMID:6333381

  15. Global 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Levels Are Profoundly Reduced in Multiple Genitourinary Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Munari, Enrico; Chaux, Alcides; Vaghasia, Ajay M.; Taheri, Diana; Karram, Sarah; Bezerra, Stephania M.; Gonzalez Roibon, Nilda; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Netto, George J.; Haffner, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumors are characterized by a plethora of epigenetic changes. In particular, patterns methylation of cytosines at the 5-position (5mC) in the context of CpGs are frequently altered in tumors. Recent evidence suggests that 5mC can get converted to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC) in an enzymatic process involving ten eleven translocation (TET) protein family members, and this process appears to be important in facilitating plasticity of cytosine methylation. Here we evaluated the global levels of 5hmC using a validated immunohistochemical staining method in a large series of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n = 111), urothelial cell carcinoma (n = 55) and testicular germ cell tumors (n = 84) and matched adjacent benign tissues. Whereas tumor-adjacent benign tissues were mostly characterized by high levels of 5hmC, renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma showed dramatically reduced staining for 5hmC. 5hmC levels were low in both primary tumors and metastases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and showed no association with disease outcomes. In normal testis, robust 5hmC staining was only observed in stroma and Sertoli cells. Seminoma showed greatly reduced 5hmC immunolabeling, whereas differentiated teratoma, embryonal and yolk sack tumors exhibited high 5hmC levels. The substantial tumor specific loss of 5hmC, particularly in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma, suggests that alterations in pathways involved in establishing and maintaining 5hmC levels might be very common in cancer and could potentially be exploited for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26785262

  16. Global 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Levels Are Profoundly Reduced in Multiple Genitourinary Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Munari, Enrico; Chaux, Alcides; Vaghasia, Ajay M; Taheri, Diana; Karram, Sarah; Bezerra, Stephania M; Gonzalez Roibon, Nilda; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Netto, George J; Haffner, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumors are characterized by a plethora of epigenetic changes. In particular, patterns methylation of cytosines at the 5-position (5mC) in the context of CpGs are frequently altered in tumors. Recent evidence suggests that 5mC can get converted to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC) in an enzymatic process involving ten eleven translocation (TET) protein family members, and this process appears to be important in facilitating plasticity of cytosine methylation. Here we evaluated the global levels of 5hmC using a validated immunohistochemical staining method in a large series of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (n = 111), urothelial cell carcinoma (n = 55) and testicular germ cell tumors (n = 84) and matched adjacent benign tissues. Whereas tumor-adjacent benign tissues were mostly characterized by high levels of 5hmC, renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma showed dramatically reduced staining for 5hmC. 5hmC levels were low in both primary tumors and metastases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and showed no association with disease outcomes. In normal testis, robust 5hmC staining was only observed in stroma and Sertoli cells. Seminoma showed greatly reduced 5hmC immunolabeling, whereas differentiated teratoma, embryonal and yolk sack tumors exhibited high 5hmC levels. The substantial tumor specific loss of 5hmC, particularly in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and urothelial cell carcinoma, suggests that alterations in pathways involved in establishing and maintaining 5hmC levels might be very common in cancer and could potentially be exploited for diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Reducing levels of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke: a new Healthy People 2010 objective.

    PubMed

    Richter, Patricia; Pechacek, Terry; Swahn, Monica; Wagman, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    We developed and implemented a national surveillance system to monitor and reduce the levels of toxicchemicals in tobacco smoke. A developmental Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010) objective was revised to report on levels of three categories of chemicals--tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds--in the smoke of leading U.S. cigarette brands. Unit-based sales-weighted average levels were calculated for each chemical category. The target for the new HP 2010 objective is a 10% reduction in unit-based sales-weighted average levels of each chemical category. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided the baseline, target data, and laboratory analyses. A national data source, national baseline data, and target were presented to the Healthy People Steering Committee during 2005 Midcourse Review. Approval of the revised objective initiated the surveillance of three major classes of toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. The approved objective provides a feasible, innovative approach for monitoring and supporting measurable population-based reductions in levels of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco smoke.

  18. [Association analysis of sIgE, IgE, EOS and the occurrence of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Kong, Hui; Wang, Hui; Ge, Ying

    2013-10-01

    To discuss the relation between total IgE, special IgE and Eosinophils of serum in blood and the occurrence of nasal polyps (NP) of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients, and then to get the best clinic index. One hundred and fifty two cases of CRS patients were divided into two groups (CRSsNP, CRSwNP). Allergen in vitro were screened, and then. the acidophilic granulocyte percentage and the total IgE of serum in blood were determined. (1) The IgE concentration of CRSsNP was mainly at one level while the IgE concentration of (CRSwNP was mainly at two or three levels (Z = 0.906, P > 0.05). There was no significant difference of sIgE serum between the two groups. (2) The EOS percentage of CRSwNP was distinctly higher than that of CRSsNP(F = 4.337, P = 0.039 t = 3.315, P < 0.01). The 95% confidential interval (CI) of EOS of CRSwNP was 3.90%-5.260, 5% TM value was 4.3, which were higher than the concentration of CRSsNP and normal val ue. There was no significant d