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Sample records for reducing maternal mortality

  1. Strategies to reduce maternal mortality worldwide.

    PubMed

    Liljestrand, J

    2000-12-01

    The challenge of reducing maternal mortality is increasingly being addressed by area-based efforts to improve access to care of obstetric emergencies. Improving coverage and quality of skilled attendance at birth is also being increasingly emphasized. Post-abortion care, better reproductive health services for adolescents, and improved family planning care are important ingredients in maternal mortality reduction. New developments in malaria, nutrition, violence and HIV/AIDS in relation to maternal health are highlighted, as well as measurement issues. Maternal mortality reduction is also being promoted today by using a human rights approach.

  2. Measuring progress in reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Graham, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren B; Davidson, Lisa; Hauke, Elizabeth; Campbell, Oona M R

    2008-06-01

    The need to monitor progress in reducing maternal mortality has a long history, which can be traced back to the 1700s in some parts of the Western world. Today, however, this need is felt most acutely in developing countries, where the priority is to stimulate, evaluate and sustain action to prevent these essentially avoidable deaths. Over the last two decades, considerable efforts have been made to understand and overcome the measurement challenges of maternal mortality in the context of weak information systems, and new and enhanced methods and tools have emerged.

  3. Reducing maternal mortality in St Petersburg.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, P; Chalmers, B; Kirichenko, V F; Repina, M A; Wagner, M

    1997-01-01

    Following the entry of St Petersburg into Europe's Healthy Cities Project in 1991 it was decided that the highest priority should be given to reducing the city's maternal mortality ratio, then standing at approximately 70 deaths per 100,000 live births. Preventing deaths from unsafe, illegal abortion became the main focus of attention. The use of modern contraceptive methods was promoted, information was disseminated to improve the utilization of family planning services, special outreach services for teenagers were established, and providers were given opportunities for education and training. The maternal mortality ratio and the abortion rate have now declined and contraceptive use appears to be increasing. These achievements are attributable in large measure to the commitment of a broad spectrum of St Petersburg society as well as to outside support.

  4. A strategy for reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, A. B.; Mathews, A.; Jegasothy, R.; Ali, R.; Kandiah, N.

    1999-01-01

    A confidential system of enquiry into maternal mortality was introduced in Malaysia in 1991. The methods used and the findings obtained up to 1994 are reported below and an outline is given of the resulting recommendations and actions. PMID:10083722

  5. Reducing maternal mortality in Kigoma, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mbaruku, G; Bergström, S

    1995-03-01

    An intervention programme aiming at a reduction of maternal deaths in the Regional Hospital, Kigoma, Tanzania, is analyzed. A retrospective study was carried out from 1984-86 to constitute a background for an intervention programme in 1987-91. The retrospective study revealed gross under-registration of data and clarified a number of potentially useful issues regarding avoidable maternal mortality. An intervention programme comprising 22 items was launched and the maternal mortality ratio was carefully followed in 1987-91. The intervention programme paid attention to professional responsibilities with regular audit-oriented meeting, utilization of local material resources, schedules for regular maintenance of equipment, maintenance of working skills by regular on-the-job training of staff, norms for patient management, provision of blood, norms for referral of severely ill patients, use of antibiotics, regular staff evaluation, public complaints about patient management, travel distance of all essential staff to the hospital, supply of essential drugs, the need of a small infusion production unit, the creation of culture facilities for improved quality of microbiology findings, and to efforts to stimulate local fund-raising. The results indicate that the maternal mortality ratio fell from 933 to 186 per 100,000 live births over the period 1984-91. Thus it is underscored that the problem of maternal mortality can be successfully approached by a low-cost intervention programme aiming at identifying issues of avoidability and focusing upon locally available problem solutions.

  6. How did Nepal reduce the maternal mortality? A result from analysing the determinants of maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Karkee, R

    2012-01-01

    Nepal reportedly reduced the maternal mortality ratio by 48% within one decade between 1996-2005 and received the Millennium development goal award for this. However, there is debate regarding the accuracy of this figure. On the basis of framework of determinants of maternal mortality proposed by McCarthy and Maine in 1992 and successive data from Nepal demographic health survey of 1996, 2001 and 2006, a literature analysis was done to identify the important factors behind this decline. Although facility delivery and skilled birth attendants are acclaimed as best strategy of reducing maternal mortality, a proportionate increase in these factors was not found to account the maternal mortality rate reduction in Nepal. Alternatively, intermediate factors particularly women awareness, family planning and safe abortion might have played a significant role. Hence, Nepal as well as similar other developing countries should pay equal attention to such intermediate factors while concentrating on biomedical care strategy.

  7. The importance of family planning in reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Fortney, J A

    1987-01-01

    Maternal mortality in many developing countries remains at distressingly high levels despite improvements in hospital obstetrics. WHO estimates that 1/2 million maternal deaths occur each year, 99% of which are in developing countries. While many people expect that widespread acceptance of family planning will bring down levels of maternal mortality, some analyses have claimed disappointing reductions, though others were more encouraging. The primary reason for this discrepancy lies in the choice of measure of maternal mortality, compounded somewhat by a confusion in terminology. Maternal mortality can be measured by: 1) the number of maternal deaths; 2) the maternal mortality ratio; 3) the maternal mortality rate; or 4) the lifetime risk of death in childbirth. Family planning use influences the maternal mortality ratio only to the extent that it reduces the proportion of pregnancies to high-risk women. The maternal mortality rate can be substantially influenced by the prevalence of contraception, but it is primarily the reduction in the number of births, per se, that exerts the influence. The choice of measure should be determined by the issue being addressed, and which of the 2 determinants of maternal mortality (obstetric risk or prevalence of pregnancy) is the focus. Current levels of maternal mortality in the developed countries have been achieved only with both good obstetric care and with low fertility. In developing countries today, modern obstetric care is often available only in a few teaching hospitals, but family planning programs are feasible even in remote areas. While implementing family planning programs is not easy, it is more feasible than the implementation of significant improvements in the quality and availability of obstetric care. The contribution of family planning to lower maternal mortality and morbidity should not be underestimated.

  8. [Reducing maternal mortality in developing countries: theory and practice].

    PubMed

    Prual, A

    2004-01-01

    Chiefs of state attending the Millennium Summit (2000) set a goal of reducing maternal mortality by 75% before 2015. Based on knowledge of the epidemiology of maternal mortality/morbidity and on growing experience in the field, the international community defined a relatively low-cost program of evidence-based initiatives. However implementation of that program has been stymied by the reality that increasing geographical accessibility to a full range of quality emergency obstetric care of quality will require large investments of money and time. Increasing financial accessibility remains difficult given the low standard of living of populations and budget cutbacks by national governments. The problems facing women and health workers are mostly overlooked by public health policy. There is need for a multi-disciplinary approach with equal participation of specialists in public health, gyneco-obstetrics, anthropology, health care economics, political science and social and community mobilization.

  9. Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Shyama; Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jack, Susan; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-07-01

    Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women's and Children's Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula--fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women's and children's health towards 2015 and beyond.

  10. Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women’s and Children’s Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula – fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women’s and children’s health towards 2015 and beyond. PMID:25110379

  11. Success in reducing maternal and child mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Mohammad Hafiz; Govindasamy, Pav; Aqil, Anwer; Rutstein, Shea; Arnold, Fred; Noormal, Bashiruddin; Way, Ann; Brock, Susan; Shadoul, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the Taliban regime in 2002, Afghanistan adopted a new development path and billions of dollars were invested in rebuilding the country's economy and health systems with the help of donors. These investments have led to substantial improvements in maternal and child health in recent years and ultimately to a decrease in maternal and child mortality. The 2010 Afghanistan Mortality Survey (AMS) provides important new information on the levels and trends in these indicators. The AMS estimated that there are 327 maternal deaths for every 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval = 260-394) and 97 deaths before the age of five years for every 1000 children born. Decreases in these mortality rates are consistent with changes in key determinants of mortality, including an increasing age at marriage, higher contraceptive use, lower fertility, better immunisation coverage, improvements in the percentage of women delivering in health facilities and receiving antenatal and postnatal care, involvement of community health workers and increasing access to the Basic Package of Health Services. Despite the impressive gains in these areas, many challenges remain. Further improvements in health services in Afghanistan will require sustained efforts on the part of both the Government of Afghanistan and international donors.

  12. Sustainable Development Goals and the Ongoing Process of Reducing Maternal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Edwards, Joan E

    2017-03-09

    Innovative programs introduced in response to the Millennium Development Goals show promise to reduce the global rate of maternal mortality. The Sustainable Development Goals, introduced in 2015, were designed to build on this progress. In this article, we describe the global factors that contribute to maternal mortality rates, outcomes of the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals, and the new, related Sustainable Development Goals. Implications for clinical practice, health care systems, research, and health policy are provided.

  13. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    PubMed

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local

  14. Reducing maternal mortality: can we derive policy guidance from developing country experiences?

    PubMed

    Liljestrand, Jerker; Pathmanathan, Indra

    2004-01-01

    Developing countries are floundering in their efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015. Two issues are being debated. Is it doable within this time frame? And is it affordable? Malaysia and Sri Lanka have in the past 50 years repeatedly halved their maternal mortality ratio (MMR) every 7-10 years to reduce MMR from over 500 to below 50. Experience from four other developing countries--Bolivia, Yunan in China, Egypt, and Jamaica-confirms that each was able to halve MMR in less than 10 years beginning from levels of 200-300. Malaysia and Sri Lanka, invested modestly (but wisely)--less than 0.4% of GDP--on maternal health throughout the period of decline, although the large majority of women depended on publicly funded maternal health care. Analysis of their experience suggests that provision of access to and removal of barriers for the use of skilled birth attendance has been the key. This included professionalization of midwifery and phasing out of traditional birth attendants; monitoring births and maternal deaths and use of such information for high profile advocacy on the importance of reducing maternal death; and addressing critical gaps in the health system; and reducing disparities between different groups through special attention to the poor and disadvantaged populations.

  15. Systematic review of effect of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kidney, Elaine; Winter, Heather R; Khan, Khalid S; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Meads, Catherine A; Deeks, Jonathan J; MacArthur, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective was to provide a systematic review of the effectiveness of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We searched published papers using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, CINAHL, BNI, CAB ABSTRACTS, IBSS, Web of Science, LILACS and African Index Medicus from inception or at least 1982 to June 2006; searched unpublished works using National Research Register website, metaRegister and the WHO International Trial Registry portal. We hand searched major references. Selection criteria were maternity or childbearing age women, comparative study designs with concurrent controls, community-level interventions and maternal death as an outcome. We carried out study selection, data abstraction and quality assessment independently in duplicate. Results We found five cluster randomised controlled trials (RCT) and eight cohort studies of community-level interventions. We summarised results as odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), combined using the Peto method for meta-analysis. Two high quality cluster RCTs, aimed at improving perinatal care practices, showed a reduction in maternal mortality reaching statistical significance (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98). Three equivalence RCTs of minimal goal-oriented versus usual antenatal care showed no difference in maternal mortality (1.09, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.25). The cohort studies were of low quality and did not contribute further evidence. Conclusion Community-level interventions of improved perinatal care practices can bring about a reduction in maternal mortality. This challenges the view that investment in such interventions is not worthwhile. Programmes to improve maternal mortality should be evaluated using randomised controlled techniques to generate further evidence. PMID:19154588

  16. Reducing high maternal mortality rates in western China: a novel approach

    PubMed Central

    Gyaltsen, Kunchok; Jianzan, Gongque; Gyal, Lhusham; Xianjia, Li; Gipson, Jessica D; Kyi, Tsering; Rangji, Cai; Pebley, Anne R

    2015-01-01

    Among the Millennium Development Goals, maternal mortality reduction has proven especially difficult to achieve. Unlike many countries, China is on track to meeting these goals on a national level, through a programme of institutionalizing deliveries. Nonetheless, in rural, disadvantaged, and ethnically diverse areas of western China, maternal mortality rates remain high. To reduce maternal mortality in western China, we developed and implemented a three-level approach as part of a collaboration between a regional university, a non-profit organization, and local health authorities. Through formative research, we identified seven barriers to hospital delivery in a rural Tibetan county of Qinghai Province: (1) difficulty in travel to hospitals; (2) hospitals lack accommodation for accompanying families; (3) the cost of hospital delivery; (4) language and cultural barriers; (5) little confidence in western medicine; (6) discrepancy in views of childbirth; and (7) few trained community birth attendants. We implemented a three-level intervention: (a) an innovative Tibetan birth centre, (b) a community midwife programme, and (c) peer education of women. The programme appears to be reaching a broad cross-section of rural women. Multilevel, locally-tailored approaches may be essential to reduce maternal mortality in rural areas of western China and other countries with substantial regional, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity. PMID:25555773

  17. Innovations and Challenges in Reducing Maternal Mortality in Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, P.; Mavalankar, Dileep V.

    2009-01-01

    Although India has made slow progress in reducing maternal mortality, progress in Tamil Nadu has been rapid. This case study documents how Tamil Nadu has taken initiatives to improve maternal health services leading to reduction in maternal morality from 380 in 1993 to 90 in 2007. Various initiatives include establishment of maternal death registration and audit, establishment and certification of comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn-care centres, 24-hour x 7-day delivery services through posting of three staff nurses at the primary health centre level, and attracting medical officers to rural areas through incentives in terms of reserved seats in postgraduate studies and others. This is supported by the better management capacity at the state and district levels through dedicated public-health officers. Despite substantial progress, there is some scope for further improvement of quality of infrastructure and services. The paper draws out lessons for other states and countries in the region. PMID:19489416

  18. Lost opportunities for effective management of obstetric conditions to reduce maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Karolinski, Ariel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando; Bergel, Eduardo; Buekens, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the use of evidence-based practices in the care of mothers who died or had severe morbidity attending public hospitals in two Latin American countries. Methods This study is part of a multicenter intervention to increase the use of evidence-based obstetric practice. Data on maternal deaths and women admitted to intensive care units whose deliveries occurred in 24 hospitals in Argentina and Uruguay were analyzed. Primary outcomes were use rates of effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality (MM) and severe maternal morbidity (SMM). Results A total of 106 women were included: 26 maternal deaths and 80 women with SMM. Some effective interventions for severe acute hemorrhage had a high use rate, such as blood transfusion (91%) and timely cesarean delivery (75%), while active management of the third stage of labor (25%) showed a lower rate. The overall use rate of effective interventions was 58% (95% CI, 49%–67%). This implies that 42% of the women did not receive one of the effective interventions to reduce MM and SMM. Conclusion This study shows a low use of effective interventions to reduce MM and SMM in public hospitals in Argentina and Uruguay. Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices must be guaranteed to effectively achieve progress on maternal health. PMID:20605151

  19. Lost opportunities for effective management of obstetric conditions to reduce maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Argentina and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Karolinski, Ariel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando; Bergel, Eduardo; Buekens, Pierre

    2010-08-01

    To review the use of evidence-based practices in the care of mothers who died or had severe morbidity attending public hospitals in two Latin American countries. This study is part of a multicenter intervention to increase the use of evidence-based obstetric practice. Data on maternal deaths and women admitted to intensive care units whose deliveries occurred in 24 hospitals in Argentina and Uruguay were analyzed. Primary outcomes were use rates of effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality (MM) and severe maternal morbidity (SMM). A total of 106 women were included: 26 maternal deaths and 80 women with SMM. Some effective interventions for severe acute hemorrhage had a high use rate, such as blood transfusion (91%) and timely cesarean delivery (75%), while active management of the third stage of labor (25%) showed a lower rate. The overall use rate of effective interventions was 58% (95% CI, 49%-67%). This implies that 42% of the women did not receive one of the effective interventions to reduce MM and SMM. This study shows a low use of effective interventions to reduce MM and SMM in public hospitals in Argentina and Uruguay. Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices must be guaranteed to effectively achieve progress on maternal health. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing maternal mortality on a countrywide scale: The role of emergency obstetric training.

    PubMed

    Moran, Neil F; Naidoo, Mergan; Moodley, Jagidesa

    2015-11-01

    Training programmes to improve health worker skills in managing obstetric emergencies have been introduced in various countries with the aim of reducing maternal mortality through these interventions. In South Africa, based on an ongoing confidential enquiry system started in 1997, detailed information about maternal deaths is published in the form of regular 'Saving Mothers' reports. This article tracks the recommendations made in successive Saving Mothers reports with regard to emergency obstetric training, and it assesses the impact of these recommendations on reducing maternal mortality. Since 2009, South Africa has had its own training package, Essential Steps in the Management of Obstetric Emergencies (ESMOE), which the last three Saving Mothers reports have specifically recommended for all doctors and midwives working in maternity units. A special emphasis has been placed on the need for the simulation training component of ESMOE, also called obstetric 'fire drills', to be integrated into the clinical routines of all maternity units. The latest Saving Mothers report (2011-2013) suggests there has been little progress so far in improving emergency obstetric skills, indicating a need for further scale-up of ESMOE training in the country. The example of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa is used to illustrate the process of scale-up and factors likely to facilitate that scale-up, including the introduction of ESMOE into the undergraduate medical training curriculum. Additional factors in the health system that are required to convert improved skills levels into improved quality of care and a reduction in maternal mortality are discussed. These include intelligent government health policies, formulated with input from clinical experts; strong clinical leadership to ensure that doctors and nurses apply the skills they have learnt appropriately, and work professionally and ethically; and a culture of clinical governance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. [The role of maternal care in reducing perinatal and neonatal mortality in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, S; Teodoru, G; Popa, I; Nicolescu, S; Feldioreanu, E

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and perinatal mortality is directly linked to the health of the mother immediately after birth. Numerous international scientific meetings among them the 45th session of the Mixed Committee of WHO in January 1985, have dealt with this issue. Maternal mortality is defined as the death of the mother 42 days after delivery. Perinatal mortality includes delayed fetal death and early neonatal death. Delayed fetal death often occurs in newborns weighing under 1000 gm. Usually perinatal mortality is defined as the number of delayed fetal deaths and early neonatal deaths among those weighing over 1000 gm/1000 live births. The neonatal mortality level corresponds to the number of deaths of children born alive at 4 weeks/1000 live births. Postnatal mortality means the death of children born live up to 1 year of age. Infant death means death under age 1. Infant mortality level is defined as deaths of infants that survive for a whole year. The major problems of infant health include diarrheal diseases normally requiring vaccination and malnutrition during the first month of life. In Bangladesh, Lesotho, and Mexico, the mortality level ranges between 32.8 to 135/1000 live births. Neonatal mortality makes u 42-63% of infant mortality. The perinatal period comprises the period between 28th week of pregnancy and the 7th day of life. Diarrhea and respiratory infections contribute to perinatal mortality. In developing countries, maternal mortality related to pregnancy of women aged 15-45 occurs most often. 2-10 maternal deaths/1000 live births to as high as 20/1000 are current estimates. In Nigeria, among adolescents, the rate is 50-70 deaths/1000 live births. 124 perinatal deaths that occurred in 1970 and 1973 in India were analyzed yielding these percentages: insufficient birth weight 32%, asphyxia 19%, obstetrical trauma 18%, congenital anomalies 7%, tetanus of the newborn 3%, and others 21%. In Africa and Southeast Asia tetanus-related neonatal mortality amounts to 10

  2. Effective strategies for reducing maternal mortality in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nosraty, Somaye; Rahimi, Mojtaba; Kohan, Shahnaz; Beigei, Margan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maternal mortality rate is among the most important health indicators. This indicator is a function of factors that are related to pregnant women; these factors include economic status, social and family life of the pregnant woman, human resources, structure of the hospitals and health centers, and management factors. Strategic planning, with a comprehensive analysis and coverage of all causes of maternal mortality, can be helpful in improving this indicator. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive exploratory study. After needs assessment and review of the current situation through eight expert panel meetings and evaluating the organization's internal and external environment, the strengths, weaknesses, threats, and opportunities of maternal mortality reduction were determined. Then, through mutual comparison of strengths/opportunities, strengths/threats, weaknesses/opportunities, and weaknesses/threats, WT, WO, ST, and SO strategies and suggested activities of the researchers for reducing maternal mortality were developed and dedicated to the areas of education, research, treatment, and health, as well as food and drug administration to be implemented. Results: In the expert panel meetings, seven opportunity and strength strategies, eight strength and threat strategies, five weakness and threat strategies, and seven weakness and opportunity strategies were determined and a strategic plan was developed. Conclusions: Dedication of the developed strategies to the areas of education, research, treatment, and health, as well as food and drug administration has coordinated these areas to develop Ministry of Health indicators. In particular, it emphasizes the key role of university management in improving the processes related to maternal health. PMID:27186210

  3. Emergency obstetric care as the priority intervention to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, A K; Asimwe, J B; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Orinda, V

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) to provide baseline data for monitoring provision of obstetric care services in Uganda. The survey, covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities, assessed availability of EmOC signal functions. Following this, performance improvement process was implemented in 20 district hospitals to scale-up EmOC services. A maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 671/100,000 live births was recorded. Hemorrhage, 42.2%, was the leading direct cause of maternal deaths, and malaria accounted for 65.5% of the indirect causes. Among the obstetric complications, abortion accounted for 38.9% of direct and malaria 87.4% of indirect causes. Removal of retained products (OR 3.3, P<0.002), assisted vaginal delivery (OR 3.3, P<0.001) and blood transfusion (OR 13.7, P<0.001) were the missing signal functions contributing to maternal deaths. Most health facilities expected to offer basic EmOC, 349 (97.2%) were not offering them. Using the performance improvement process, availability of EmOC in the 20 hospitals improved significantly. An integrated programming approach aiming at increasing access to EmOC, malaria treatment and prevention services could reduce maternal mortality in Uganda.

  4. Sepsis and maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Colleen D; Knight, Marian

    2013-04-01

    Despite global progress towards reducing maternal mortality, sepsis remains a leading cause of preventable maternal death. This review focuses on current measurement challenges, trends, causes and efforts to curb maternal death from sepsis in high and low-income countries. Under-reporting using routine registration data, compounded by misclassification and unreported deaths, results in significant underestimation of the burden of maternal death from sepsis. In the UK and the Netherlands the recent increase in maternal death from sepsis is mainly attributed to an increase in invasive group A streptococcal infections. Susceptibility to infection may be complicated by modulation of maternal immune response and increasing rates of risk factors such as caesarean section and obesity. Failure to recognize severity of infection is a major universal risk factor. Standardized Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) recommendations for management of severe maternal sepsis are continuing to be implemented worldwide; however, outcomes differ according to models of intensive care resourcing and use. The need for robust data with subsequent analyses is apparent. This will significantly increase our understanding of risk factors and their causal pathways, which are critical to informing effective treatment strategies in consideration of resource availability.

  5. How much are Ecuadorians Willing to Pay to Reduce Maternal Mortality? Results from a Pilot Study on Contingent Valuation

    PubMed Central

    Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra; Ingels, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Context: There is an established association between the provision of health care services and maternal mortality. In Ecuador, little is known if the societal value is greater than the resources expended in preventive medicine. Aims: The purpose of this research is to investigate Ecuadorians’ willingness to pay to prevent maternal death and disabilities due to complications of care during childbirth in the context of universal coverage. Methods and Materials: The study elicited a “contingent” market on morbidity and mortality outcomes, specific to Ecuador’s epidemiologic profiles between a hypothetical market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal mortality from 100 to 50 per 100,000, and a market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal morbidity from 4,000 to 2,000 per 100,000. Results: The average amount participants are willing to pay (WTP) to prevent maternal mortality in the context of universal coverage, was $176 a year (95% CI=$172, $179). The unadjusted mean WTP for a reduction in the maternal morbidity risk was $135 (95% CI=$132, $139). Translated into Value of statistical Life, participant´s from this study valued the prevention of one statistical maternal death at USD $352,000. Conclusion: Results suggest that the costs of maternal care do not outweigh the benefit of prevention, and that Ecuadorians are willing to pay a significant amount to reduce the risk of maternal mortality. Global Health Implications: Reduction of maternal mortality will remain an important global developmental goal in the upcoming years. Having a monetary approximation on the value of these losses may have important implications in the allotting financial and technical resources to reduce it. PMID:28058202

  6. How much are Ecuadorians Willing to Pay to Reduce Maternal Mortality? Results from a Pilot Study on Contingent Valuation.

    PubMed

    Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra; Ingels, Justin

    2017-01-01

    There is an established association between the provision of health care services and maternal mortality. In Ecuador, little is known if the societal value is greater than the resources expended in preventive medicine. The purpose of this research is to investigate Ecuadorians' willingness to pay to prevent maternal death and disabilities due to complications of care during childbirth in the context of universal coverage. The study elicited a "contingent" market on morbidity and mortality outcomes, specific to Ecuador's epidemiologic profiles between a hypothetical market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal mortality from 100 to 50 per 100,000, and a market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal morbidity from 4,000 to 2,000 per 100,000. The average amount participants are willing to pay (WTP) to prevent maternal mortality in the context of universal coverage, was $176 a year (95% CI=$172, $179). The unadjusted mean WTP for a reduction in the maternal morbidity risk was $135 (95% CI=$132, $139). Translated into Value of statistical Life, participant´s from this study valued the prevention of one statistical maternal death at USD $352,000. Results suggest that the costs of maternal care do not outweigh the benefit of prevention, and that Ecuadorians are willing to pay a significant amount to reduce the risk of maternal mortality. Reduction of maternal mortality will remain an important global developmental goal in the upcoming years. Having a monetary approximation on the value of these losses may have important implications in the allotting financial and technical resources to reduce it.

  7. Measuring maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Royston, E; AbouZahr, C

    1992-07-01

    There are various methods of measuring maternal mortality each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Most official maternal mortality statistics underestimate true maternal mortality levels. Major reasons for underestimates depend on death certification practices and the advancement of the vital registration system. Only 35% of the world's population routinely record cause of death. Misclassification of the cause of death accounts for much of the bias in areas with good vital registration. In France, clerks miscode maternal-related causes of death as something else, e.g., they misclassified cerebral hemorrhages as diseases of the circulatory system and not complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium. In countries with few maternal deaths, pregnant or puerperium women in life-threatening conditions are transferred from obstetric departments so cause of death on the certificate may not be the obstetric condition which precipitated the fatal series of events. Governments must determine the type of measurement method for maternal mortality by balancing precision against human and financial costs. Statisticians can measure the maternal mortality rate using several methods. They can include questions about maternal mortality such as maternal deaths of sisters of the adult women or of any women they know who had died from maternal causes in the last year in ongoing household surveys. These surveys tend to be expensive, however . A more cost-effective and successful method is reproductive age mortality surveys which consist of investigating the causes of all deaths of women of reproductive age. If civil registration or other population-based data do not exist, researchers can use hospital data despite their limitations. They can also use records at the primary care level. They can use incomplete data to estimate maternal mortality and to evaluate rates obtained from civil registers, studies, or other sources.

  8. Alternative strategies to reduce maternal mortality in India: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Sue J; Sweet, Steve; Carvalho, Natalie; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Hu, Delphine

    2010-04-20

    Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy (both planned and unintended) and pregnancy- and childbirth-associated complications in individual women; and considers delivery location, attendant, and facility level. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to urban and rural India using survey-based data (e.g., unmet need for birth spacing/limiting, facility births, skilled birth attendants). Model validation compared projected maternal indicators with empiric data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions that could be provided individually or packaged as integrated services, could reduce the incidence of a complication or its case fatality rate, and could include improved logistics such as reliable transport to an appropriate referral facility as well as recognition of referral need and quality of care. Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality. If over the next 5 y the unmet need for spacing and limiting births was met, more than 150,000 maternal deaths would be prevented; more than US$1 billion saved; and at least one of every two abortion-related deaths averted. Still, reductions in maternal mortality reached a threshold ( approximately 23%-35%) without including strategies that ensured reliable access to intrapartum and emergency obstetrical care (EmOC). An integrated and stepwise approach was identified that would ultimately prevent four of five

  9. Alternative Strategies to Reduce Maternal Mortality in India: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldie, Sue J.; Sweet, Steve; Carvalho, Natalie; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Hu, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. Methods and Findings Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy (both planned and unintended) and pregnancy- and childbirth-associated complications in individual women; and considers delivery location, attendant, and facility level. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to urban and rural India using survey-based data (e.g., unmet need for birth spacing/limiting, facility births, skilled birth attendants). Model validation compared projected maternal indicators with empiric data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions that could be provided individually or packaged as integrated services, could reduce the incidence of a complication or its case fatality rate, and could include improved logistics such as reliable transport to an appropriate referral facility as well as recognition of referral need and quality of care. Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality. If over the next 5 y the unmet need for spacing and limiting births was met, more than 150,000 maternal deaths would be prevented; more than US$1 billion saved; and at least one of every two abortion-related deaths averted. Still, reductions in maternal mortality reached a threshold (∼23%–35%) without including strategies that ensured reliable access to intrapartum and emergency obstetrical care (EmOC). An integrated and stepwise approach was identified that would ultimately

  10. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Reduce Maternal Mortality among HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Sara A.; Thetard, Rudi; Konopka, Sarah N.; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In high-prevalence populations, HIV-related maternal mortality is high with increased mortality found among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women compared to their uninfected peers. The scale-up of HIV-related treatment options and broader reach of programming for HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women is likely to have decreased maternal mortality. This systematic review synthesized evidence on interventions that have directly reduced mortality among this population. Methods: Studies published between January 1, 2003 and November 30, 2014 were searched using PubMed. Of the 1,373 records screened, 19 were included in the analysis. Results: Interventions identified through the review include antiretroviral therapy (ART), micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A, and selenium), and antibiotics. ART during pregnancy was shown to reduce mortality. Timing of ART initiation, duration of treatment, HIV disease status, and ART discontinuation after pregnancy influence mortality reduction. Incident pregnancy in women already on ART for their health appears not to have adverse consequences for the mother. Multivitamin use was shown to reduce disease progression while other micronutrients and antibiotics had no beneficial effect on maternal mortality. Conclusions: ART was the only intervention identified that decreased death in HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. The findings support global trends in encouraging initiation of lifelong ART for all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+), regardless of their CD4+ count, as an important step in ensuring appropriate care and treatment. Global Health Implications: Maternal mortality is a rare event that highlights challenges in measuring the impact of interventions on mortality. Developing effective patient-centered interventions to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as corresponding evaluation measures of their impact, requires further attention by policy makers

  11. The Costs, Benefits, and Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Delphine; Bertozzi, Stefano M.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Sweet, Steve; Goldie, Sue J.

    2007-01-01

    Background In Mexico, the lifetime risk of dying from maternal causes is 1 in 370 compared to 1 in 2,500 in the U.S. Although national efforts have been made to improve maternal services in the last decade, it is unclear if Millennium Development Goal 5 - to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters by 2015 - will be met. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an empirically calibrated model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy and pregnancy-related complications in a cohort of 15-year-old women followed over their lifetime. After synthesizing national and sub-national trends in maternal mortality, the model was calibrated to current intervention-specific coverage levels and validated by comparing model-projected life expectancy, total fertility rate, crude birth rate and maternal mortality ratio with Mexico-specific data. Using both published and primary data, we assessed the comparative health and economic outcomes of alternative strategies to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. A dual approach that increased coverage of family planning by 15%, and assured access to safe abortion for all women desiring elective termination of pregnancy, reduced mortality by 43% and was cost saving compared to current practice. The most effective strategy added a third component, enhanced access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care for at least 90% of women requiring referral. At a national level, this strategy reduced mortality by 75%, cost less than current practice, and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $300 per DALY relative to the next best strategy. Analyses conducted at the state level yielded similar results. Conclusions/Significance Increasing the provision of family planning and assuring access to safe abortion are feasible, complementary and cost-effective strategies that would provide the greatest benefit within a short-time frame. Incremental improvements in access to high-quality intrapartum and emergency obstetric care will

  12. Maternal mortality at Goroka Base Hospital.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G R

    1974-12-01

    Over the ten year period 1964-73, the causes of the high maternal mortality rate (21.6/1000) at the Goroka Base Hospital are reviewed. The leading causes of maternal mortality are sepsis and obstructed labour followed by ruptured uterus and abortion. Although it will be difficult to reduce the maternal mortality, some relevant recommendations are made.

  13. What you count is what you target: the implications of maternal death classification for tracking progress towards reducing maternal mortality in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jacqueline S; Graham, Wendy J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The first target of the fifth United Nations Millennium Development Goal is to reduce maternal mortality by 75% between 1990 and 2015. This target is critically off track. Despite difficulties inherent in measuring maternal mortality, interventions aimed at reducing it must be monitored and evaluated to determine the most effective strategies in different contexts. In some contexts, the direct causes of maternal death, such as haemorrhage and sepsis, predominate and can be tackled effectively through providing access to skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care. In others, indirect causes of maternal death, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria, make a significant contribution and require alternative interventions. Methods of planning and evaluating maternal health interventions that do not differentiate between direct and indirect maternal deaths may lead to unrealistic expectations of effectiveness or mask progress in tackling specific causes. Furthermore, the need for additional or alternative interventions to tackle the causes of indirect maternal death may not be recognized if all-cause maternal death is used as the sole outcome indicator. This article illustrates the importance of differentiating between direct and indirect maternal deaths by analysing historical data from England and Wales and contemporary data from Ghana, Rwanda and South Africa. The principal aim of the paper is to highlight the need to differentiate deaths in this way when evaluating maternal mortality, particularly when judging progress towards the fifth Millennium Development Goal. It is recommended that the potential effect of maternity services failing to take indirect maternal deaths into account should be modelled. PMID:20428372

  14. [Maternal mortality and perinatal mortality].

    PubMed

    Boutaleb, Y; Mesbahi, M; Lahlou, D; Aderdour, M

    1982-01-01

    94 maternal deaths and 1546 fetal and neonatal deaths were registered among 28,706 births at the CHU Averroes in Casablanca between 1978-80. 45% of women who deliver at the clinic are very poor and only 10% are relatively well off. Obstetrical antecedents were noted in 27% of the fetal deaths. 70% of the maternal deaths occurred in women aged 20-34. 32 maternal deaths occurred among 16,232 women with 1-2 children, 30 among 6514 women with 3-5 children, and 32 among 5960 women with 6-14 children. 11,027 of the 28,706 were primaparas. Perinatal mortality was 4.46% among primaparas, 8.24% among grand multiparas, and 4.1% among secondiparas. In 58 of the 94 cases of maternal mortality the woman was hospitalized after attempting delivery at home or in a village clinic. Among women with 1 or 2 children, hemorrhage was the cause of death in 8 cases, infection in 7 cases, eclampsia in 3 cases, thromboembolism in 2 cases, uterine inversion in 2 cases, pulmonary tuberculosis in 1 case, embolism in 5 cases, and other causes 1 case each. Among women with 3-5 children hemorrhage was the cause of death in 10 cases, septicemia in 3 cases, uterine rupture in 3 cases, eclampsia in 3 cases, uterine inversion in 2 cases, viral hepatitis in 2 cases, emboli in 2 cases, and other reasons 1 case each. Among grand multiparas hemorrhage was the cause of death in 11 cases, uterine rupture in 12 cases, peritonitis in 2 cases, eclampsia in 2 cases, emboli in 2 cases, and other causes 1 case each. 19 of the maternal deaths were judged to have been avoidable with better management. Prematurity and birth weight of 1000-2500 g associated or not with other pathology were found in 714 of 1546 perinatal deaths. Of 390 cases of death in utero with retention and maceration, 68 were caused by reno-vascular syndromes, 76 by maternal infections, 33 by maternal syphilis, 26 by fetal malformation, 18 by maternal diabetes, 10 by Rh incompatability, and 159 by indeterminate causes. In 795 cases of

  15. Implementation of multidisciplinary care reduces maternal mortality in women with sickle cell disease living in low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Asare, Eugenia Vicky; Olayemi, Edeghonghon; Boafor, Theodore; Dei-Adomakoh, Yvonne; Mensah, Enoch; Ghansah, Harriet; Osei-Bonsu, Yvonne; Crabbe, Selina; Musah, Latif; Hayfron-Benjamin, Charles; Covert, Brittany; Kassim, Adetola A; James, Andra; Rodeghier, Mark; DeBaun, Michael R; Oppong, Samuel A

    2017-09-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. In women with SCD living in low-resource settings, pregnancy is associated with significantly increased maternal and perinatal mortality rates. We tested the hypothesis that implementing a multidisciplinary obstetric and hematology care team in a low-resource setting would significantly reduce maternal and perinatal mortality rates. We conducted a before-and-after study, at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, to evaluate the effect of a multidisciplinary obstetric-hematology care team for women with SCD in a combined SCD-Obstetric Clinic. The pre-intervention period was assessed through a retrospective chart review to identify every death and the post-intervention period was assessed prospectively. Interventions consisted of joint obstetrician and hematologist outpatient and acute inpatient reviews, close maternal and fetal surveillance, and simple protocols for management of acute chest syndrome and acute pain episodes. Primary outcomes included maternal and perinatal mortality rates before and after the study period. A total of 158 and 90 pregnant women with SCD were evaluated in the pre- and post- intervention periods, respectively. The maternal mortality rate decreased from 10 791 per 100 000 live births at pre-intervention to 1176 per 100 000 at post-intervention, representing a risk reduction of 89.1% (P = 0.007). Perinatal mortality decreased from 60.8 per 1000 total births at pre-intervention to 23.0 per 1000 at post-intervention, representing a risk reduction of 62.2% (P = 0.20). A multidisciplinary obstetric and hematology team approach can dramatically reduce maternal and perinatal mortality in a low-resource setting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Maternal mortality--Pumwani Maternity Hospital--1975-1984.

    PubMed

    Ngoka, W M; Bansal, Y P

    1987-04-01

    The study is purpose was to identify the avoidable factors responsible for the high maternal mortality in the Pumwani Maternity Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya and to determine how the available facilities could be used to reduce the mortality. A retrospective study of maternal deaths was carried out at the hospital for the period 1975-1984. During this period, there were 223,111 births and 150 maternal deaths, giving an incidence of maternal mortality of 67.2/100,000 births. Eclampsia and severe preeclampsia, puerperal sepsis, ruptured uterus, and postpartum hemorrhage were among the leading causes of maternal deaths. The authors also concluded that the following factors contributed to the increased maternal mortality: high maternal age; primigravidy; grandmultiparity; lack of good antenatal, intranatal, and postnatal care; lack of investigations; lack of good transfusion services; lack of better skilled anesthetic staff; and lack of discipline among the medical personnel.

  17. Demonstrating programme impact on maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Graham, W J; Filippi, V A; Ronsmans, C

    1996-03-01

    Reducing maternal mortality if one of the primary goals of safe mother hood programmes in developing countries. Maternal mortality is not, however, a feasible outcome indicator with which to judge the success of these programmes. This is due to an unfortunate combination of obstacles to measurement--some general to assessing the mortality impact of health programmes and some peculiar to estimating maternal mortality. There is a need to promote alternative views and measures of programme success, and alternative uses for information on maternal deaths.

  18. The use of chlorhexidine to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    McClure, E M; Goldenberg, R L; Brandes, N; Darmstadt, G L; Wright, L L; Armbruster, Deborah; Biggar, Robert; Carpenter, Joyce; Free, Michael J; Mattison, Donald; Mathai, Matthews; Moss, Nancy; Mullany, Luke C; Schrag, Stephanie; Tielsch, James; Tolosa, Jorge; Wall, Stephen N; Schuchat, Anne; Smine, Abdelkrim

    2007-05-01

    Of the 4 million neonatal deaths and 500,000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide, almost 99% are in developing countries and one-third are associated with infections. Implementation of proven interventions and targeted research on a select number of promising high-impact preventative and curative interventions are essential to achieve Millennium Development Goals for reduction of child and maternal mortality. Feasible, simple, low-cost interventions have the potential to significantly reduce the mortality and severe morbidity associated with infection in these settings. Studies of chlorhexidine in developing countries have focused on three primary uses: 1) intrapartum vaginal and neonatal wiping, 2) neonatal wiping alone, and 3) umbilical cord cleansing. A study of vaginal wiping and neonatal skin cleansing with chlorhexidine, conducted in Malawi in the 1990s suggested that chlorhexidine has potential to reduce neonatal infectious morbidity and mortality. A recent trial of cord cleansing conducted in Nepal also demonstrated benefit. Although studies have shown promise, widespread acceptance and implementation of chlorhexidine use has not yet occurred. This paper is derived in part from data presented at a conference on the use of chlorhexidine in developing countries and reviews the available evidence related to chlorhexidine use to reduce mortality and severe morbidity due to infections in mothers and neonates in low-resource settings. It also summarizes issues related to programmatic implementation.

  19. The use of chlorhexidine to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L; Brandes, Neal; Darmstadt, Gary L; Wright, Linda L

    2009-01-01

    Of the 4 million neonatal deaths and 500,000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide, almost 99% are in developing countries and one-third are associated with infections. Implementation of proven interventions and targeted research on a select number of promising high-impact preventative and curative interventions are essential to achieve Millennium Development Goals for reduction of child and maternal mortality. Feasible, simple, low-cost interventions have the potential to significantly reduce the mortality and severe morbidity associated with infection in these settings. Studies of chlorhexidine in developing countries have focused on three primary uses: 1) intrapartum vaginal and neonatal wiping, 2) neonatal wiping alone, and 3) umbilical cord cleansing. A study of vaginal wiping and neonatal skin cleansing with chlorhexidine, conducted in Malawi in the 1990s suggested that chlorhexidine has potential to reduce neonatal infectious morbidity and mortality. A recent trial of cord cleansing conducted in Nepal also demonstrated benefit. Although studies have shown promise, widespread acceptance and implementation of chlorhexidine use has not yet occurred. This paper is derived in part from data presented at a conference on the use of chlorhexidine in developing countries and reviews the available evidence related to chlorhexidine use to reduce mortality and severe morbidity due to infections in mothers and neonates in low-resource settings. It also summarizes issues related to programmatic implementation. PMID:17399714

  20. Maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Thuriaux, M C; Lamotte, J M

    1986-09-01

    The author stresses that uncritical reliance on the institutional maternal mortality rates in developing countries will provide spurious indications of improvement in this area. There appears to bean an important, although imprecisely known, differential in coverage between deliveries and maternal deaths. In 1 area, the institutional maternal mortality rate was 10 times higher among unbooked than among booked deliveries. Moreover, caution should be used in transposing maternal mortality estimates based on life table data from Europe and North America from the early 20th century to present-day Africa. Health statistics should be used to monitor health status; analyzed reduction in maternal mortality should be analyzed carefully to ensure they are valid.

  1. Community-based intervention packages for reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and improving neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2015-03-23

    While maternal, infant and under-five child mortality rates in developing countries have declined significantly in the past two to three decades, newborn mortality rates have reduced much more slowly. While it is recognised that almost half of the newborn deaths can be prevented by scaling up evidence-based available interventions (such as tetanus toxoid immunisation to mothers, clean and skilled care at delivery, newborn resuscitation, exclusive breastfeeding, clean umbilical cord care, and/or management of infections in newborns), many require facility-based and outreach services. It has also been stated that a significant proportion of these mortalities and morbidities could also be potentially addressed by developing community-based packaged interventions which should also be supplemented by developing and strengthening linkages with the local health systems. Some of the recent community-based studies of interventions targeting women of reproductive age have shown variable impacts on maternal outcomes and hence it is uncertain if these strategies have consistent benefit across the continuum of maternal and newborn care. To assess the effectiveness of community-based intervention packages in reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality; and improving neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2014), World Bank's JOLIS (25 May 2014), BLDS at IDS and IDEAS database of unpublished working papers (25 May 2014), Google and Google Scholar (25 May 2014). All prospective randomised, cluster-randomised and quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effectiveness of community-based intervention packages in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidities, and improving neonatal outcomes. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Data were checked for accuracy. The review included 26 cluster-randomised/quasi-randomised trials

  2. Leveraging human capital to reduce maternal mortality in India: enhanced public health system or public-private partnership?

    PubMed

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2009-02-27

    Developing countries are currently struggling to achieve the Millennium Development Goal Five of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. Many health systems are facing acute shortages of health workers needed to provide improved prenatal care, skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric services - interventions crucial to reducing maternal death. The World Health Organization estimates a current deficit of almost 2.4 million doctors, nurses and midwives. Complicating matters further, health workforces are typically concentrated in large cities, while maternal mortality is generally higher in rural areas. Additionally, health care systems are faced with shortages of specialists such as anaesthesiologists, surgeons and obstetricians; a maldistribution of health care infrastructure; and imbalances between the public and private health care sectors. Increasingly, policy-makers have been turning to human resource strategies to cope with staff shortages. These include enhancement of existing work roles; substitution of one type of worker for another; delegation of functions up or down the traditional role ladder; innovation in designing new jobs;transfer or relocation of particular roles or services from one health care sector to another. Innovations have been funded through state investment, public-private partnerships and collaborations with nongovernmental organizations and quasi-governmental organizations such as the World Bank. This paper focuses on how two large health systems in India--Gujarat and Tamil Nadu--have successfully applied human resources strategies in uniquely different contexts to the challenges of achieving Millennium Development Goal Five.

  3. [Applicability of lives saved tool in projecting effects of scaling up interventions on reducing maternal mortality rates in the rural area of Guangxi province in China].

    PubMed

    Luo, Da-sheng; Chen, Li-li; Wei, Ping; Jiang, Zhen; Guo, Yan

    2013-06-18

    To evaluate applicability of lives saved tool (LiST) in projecting effects of maternal health interventions on reducing maternal mortality in the rural area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in China, and provide evidence for promoting LiST in China. By using maternal intervention coverage and other information collected through the cross-sectional household survey, literature review and expert consultation, LiST projection was performed and modeled. The maternal mortality reduction and causes of death were measured and compared, and the differences were analyzed. SPSS 19.0 was used in the household survey data analysis. Coverage of calcium supplementation, MgSO4-management of pre-eclampsia and institutional delivery reached 51.9%, 99.0% and 98.4% respectively in rural Guangxi in 2011. The LiST captured the general trend of maternal mortality in rural Guangxi. The modeled maternal mortality rate was 4.71%, lower than the measured in 2009 and 10.43% higher in 2010. Maternal mortality rate would decreased to 18/100 000 in 2015 assuming all relevant interventions reached full coverage, and 90% of the maternal morality reduction was attributed to the labor and delivery management. LiST can be applied to project effects of maternal health interventions on reducing the maternal mortality in rural Guangxi, but its accuracy was limited by the fact that the effect of relevant interventions on some major causes of maternal death, such as amniotic embolism, was not calculated in LiST and maternal deaths caused by those causes varied by the year in the area. Based on the LiST projection, labor and delivery management was found to be the priority intervention in improving maternal health in rural Guangxi. Improving the quality of obstetric care in township hospitals and facilitating referral of high-risk pregnant women were highly recommended.

  4. Addressing the human resources crisis: a case study of Cambodia’s efforts to reduce maternal mortality (1980–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Noriko; Abe, Kimiko; Rotem, Arie; Tung, Rathavy; Keat, Phuong; Robins, Ann; Zwi, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors that have contributed to the systematic development of the Cambodian human resources for health (HRH) system with a focus on midwifery services in response to high maternal mortality in fragile resource-constrained countries. Design Qualitative case study. Review of the published and grey literature and in-depth interviews with key informants and stakeholders using an HRH system conceptual framework developed by the authors (‘House Model’; Fujita et al, 2011). Interviews focused on the perceptions of respondents regarding their contributions to strengthening midwifery services and the other external influences which may have influenced the HRH system and reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR). Setting Three rounds of interviews were conducted with senior and mid-level managers of the Ministries of Health (MoH) and Education, educational institutes and development partners. Participants A total of 49 interviewees, who were identified through a snowball sampling technique. Main outcome measures Scaling up the availability of 24 h maternal health services at all health centres contributing to MMR reduction. Results The incremental development of the Cambodian HRH system since 2005 focused on the production, deployment and retention of midwives in rural areas as part of a systematic strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The improved availability and access to midwifery services contributed to significant MMR reduction. Other contributing factors included improved mechanisms for decision-making and implementation; political commitment backed up with necessary resources; leadership from the top along with a growing capacity of mid-level managers; increased MoH capacity to plan and coordinate; and supportive development partners in the context of a conducive external environment. Conclusions Lessons from this case study point to the importance of a systemic and comprehensive approach to health and HRH system strengthening and

  5. Obstetric first aid in the community--partners in safe motherhood. A strategy for reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Sibley, L; Armbruster, D

    1997-01-01

    The unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality that are prevalent throughout the developing world are a product of many factors; most notably, these include nonexistent, inaccessible or inadequate facility-based emergency care, poorly developed referral linkages, predominance of home-based care by attendants and family members who are poorly equipped to respond to emergencies, and the complexities of problem recognition and decision making during emergencies leading to inappropriate or delayed action. This paper describes an innovative community-oriented strategy that has been designed to reduce maternal mortality and that targets women, families, and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) using two complimentary training interventions. The strategy reflects the authors' conviction that the training of professional and paraprofessional health workers in emergency care is essential, but that it must be complemented by the education and mobilization of families, communities, and TBAs who must, in turn, come to common perceptions on the need for and means of intervening to prevent a maternal death. Collaborating with partners in the US Agency for International Development-funded Primary Providers Training and Education in Reproductive Health Project. Special Project staff of the American College of Nurse-Midwives will lead development and testing of the strategy through operations research activities in selected countries.

  6. 'Big push' to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and Zambia enhanced health systems but lacked a sustainability plan.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Margaret E; Rabkin, Miriam; Grépin, Karen Ann; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Masvawure, Tsitsi Beatrice; Sacks, Emma Rose; Vail, Daniel; Galea, Sandro

    2014-06-01

    In the past decade, "big push" global health initiatives financed by international donors have aimed to rapidly reach ambitious health targets in low-income countries. The health system impacts of these efforts are infrequently assessed. Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a global public-private partnership that aims to reduce maternal mortality dramatically in one year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. We evaluated the first six to twelve months of the program's implementation, its ownership by national ministries of health, and its effects on health systems. The project's impact on maternal mortality is not reported here. We found that the Saving Mothers, Giving Life initiative delivered a large "dose" of intervention quickly by capitalizing on existing US international health assistance platforms, such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Early benefits to the broader health system included greater policy attention to maternal and child health, new health care infrastructure, and new models for collaborating with the private sector and communities. However, the rapid pace, external design, and lack of a long-term financing plan hindered integration into the health system and local ownership. Sustaining and scaling up early gains of similar big push initiatives requires longer-term commitments and a clear plan for transition to national control.

  7. Maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Thuriaux, M C; Lamotte, J M

    1985-09-01

    The authors of this letter respond to earlier letters prepared in response to their article on maternal mortality in developing countries. It is conceded that maternal mortality is high in India and Bangladesh; however, statistics from Gambia are based on small populations and are therefore inconclusive. It is noted that a 7-year survey of 4000 households in Machakos, Kenya, where 73% of deliveries occurred at home, yielded a maternal mortality rate of only 0.8/1000 deliveries. Finally, it is asserted that the measurement traditionally used in estimating maternal mortality for many African countries (ratio of recorded maternal deaths to recorded deliveries) is misleading. Maternal deaths are more likely than deliveries to be recorded. In Niger, the number of maternal deaths increased from 1980 (374) to 1982 (484). The ratio of maternal deaths to expected live births also increased from 135 to 166/100,000, whereas the traditionally calculated maternal mortality rate decreased from 519 to 420/100,000 due to changes in the denominators. It is recommended that health authorities of African countries such as Niger consider setting an absolute number of maternal deaths below which they would try to bring the current toll.

  8. Maternal mortality in rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Vork, F C; Kyanamina, S; van Roosmalen, J

    1997-08-01

    To assess maternal mortality. Sisterhood method survey and hospital data. Communities in Kalabo District, a very remote rural area in western Zambia; Kalabo District Hospital. The number of respondents in the sisterhood method survey was 1,978. The estimated maternal mortality ratio derived from this survey was 1,238 per 100,000 live births. The hospital study involved 2,474 deliveries of 2,374 live babies. The official number of maternal deaths was 13. Further investigation of files revealed an additional 15 maternal deaths, bringing the institutional maternal mortality rate from 548 to 1,179 per 100,000 live births. The major causes of direct maternal deaths were obstructed labor and sepsis. In 71% of all cases substandard care factors contributed. Maternal mortality in rural Zambia is among the highest as reported in the world. Official hospital data tend to underestimate maternal mortality in the community due to underreporting. The sisterhood method survey is an efficient indirect method to assess maternal mortality in rural areas of developing countries.

  9. Maternal mortality and Millennium Development Goal 5.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, N R; Falconer, A D

    2011-01-01

    The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is a key indicator for measurement of progress against Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5). For many countries, especially those with a presumed high number of maternal deaths, only estimates are available. Recent global estimates and the reasons for high maternal mortality are reviewed. There is international consensus that efforts to reduce maternal mortality globally need to be intensified. Many countries lack accurate data on number of deaths in women of reproductive age and number of births. Therefore, statistical modelling has been used to calculate estimates, which generally have wide confidence intervals and may be disputed by individual countries. There is renewed focus on MMR as 2015 approaches. There is a need to adapt and implement methods for measuring maternal mortality to generate more accurate estimates. More data on cause of death are needed.

  10. Maternal mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lang, Christopher T; King, Jeffrey C

    2008-06-01

    Despite a significant improvement in the US maternal mortality ratio since the early 1900s, it still represents a substantial and frustrating burden, particularly given the fact that - essentially - no progress has been made in most US States since 1982. Additionally, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has stated that most cases are probably preventable. Two disheartening issues within this topic include a gross underestimation of the magnitude of maternal mortality - particularly before 1987, but which likely persists to a lesser degree today - and the continued significant racial disparity in maternal mortality. Explanations for the plateau in maternal mortality include the recent trend of delayed childbearing, with the potential accompanying complications associated with older reproductive age (particularly over 35 years) and multiparity. The impressive increase in multifetal pregnancies related to delayed childbearing and assisted reproductive technology also plays a role. Finally, peripartum cardiomyopathy has become an increasingly recognized source of maternal mortality. Pregnancy-related mortality is largely accounted for by thromboembolic disease, hemorrhage, hypertension and its associated complications, and infection. However, since the inclusion of maternal deaths occurring after 42 days post-delivery as pregnancy related, traumatic injuries - including homicides and suicides - are an alarming source of maternal mortality. An especially important contemporary issue to consider within this topic is cesarean delivery "on maternal request", opponents of which cite concerns not only for immediate morbidity and mortality increased over that associated with a vaginal birth, but also for potential morbidity and mortality associated with future pregnancies. One particularly appealing opportunity to reduce maternal mortality is to recognize, examine, and learn from so-called "near-miss" cases.

  11. Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia: a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Meseret; Yaya, Yaliso; Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-11-04

    Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of south-west Ethiopia. We conducted a retrospective review of three hospitals and 63 health centres in Gamo Gofa. Using a retrospective review, we recorded obstetric services, documents, cards, and registration books of mothers treated and served in the Gamo Gofa Zone health facilities between July 2009 and June 2010. There were three basic and two comprehensive emergency obstetric care qualifying facilities for the 1,740,885 people living in Gamo Gofa. The proportion of births attended by skilled attendants in the health facilities was 6.6% of expected births, though the variation was large. Districts with a higher proportion of midwives per capita, hospitals and health centres capable of doing emergency caesarean sections had higher institutional delivery rates. There were 521 caesarean sections (0.8% of 64,413 expected deliveries and 12.3% of 4,231 facility deliveries). We recorded 79 (1.9%) maternal deaths out of 4,231 deliveries and pregnancy-related admissions at institutions, most often because of post-partum haemorrhage (42%), obstructed labour (15%) and puerperal sepsis (15%). Remote districts far from the capital of the Zone had a lower proportion of institutional deliveries (<2% of expected births compared to an overall average of 6.6%). Moreover, some remotely located institutions had very high maternal deaths (>4% of deliveries, much higher than the average 1.9%). Based on a population of 1.7 million people, there should be 14 basic and four comprehensive emergency obstetric care (Em

  12. Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia: a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of south-west Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of three hospitals and 63 health centres in Gamo Gofa. Using a retrospective review, we recorded obstetric services, documents, cards, and registration books of mothers treated and served in the Gamo Gofa Zone health facilities between July 2009 and June 2010. Results There were three basic and two comprehensive emergency obstetric care qualifying facilities for the 1,740,885 people living in Gamo Gofa. The proportion of births attended by skilled attendants in the health facilities was 6.6% of expected births, though the variation was large. Districts with a higher proportion of midwives per capita, hospitals and health centres capable of doing emergency caesarean sections had higher institutional delivery rates. There were 521 caesarean sections (0.8% of 64,413 expected deliveries and 12.3% of 4,231 facility deliveries). We recorded 79 (1.9%) maternal deaths out of 4,231 deliveries and pregnancy-related admissions at institutions, most often because of post-partum haemorrhage (42%), obstructed labour (15%) and puerperal sepsis (15%). Remote districts far from the capital of the Zone had a lower proportion of institutional deliveries (<2% of expected births compared to an overall average of 6.6%). Moreover, some remotely located institutions had very high maternal deaths (>4% of deliveries, much higher than the average 1.9%). Conclusion Based on a population of 1.7 million people, there should be 14 basic and four

  13. Maternal Mortality in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anne S.

    1977-01-01

    Figures from 1800 through 1973 are used to demonstrate that black women have had substantially higher rates of death in childbirth than white women. As mortality has declined, the relative difference between whites and blacks has actually increased. Factors affecting mortality and future prospects for reducing maternal deaths are discussed. (GC)

  14. Role of birth spacing, family planning services, safe abortion services and post-abortion care in reducing maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Ganatra, Bela; Faundes, Anibal

    2016-10-01

    Access to contraception reduces maternal deaths by preventing or delaying pregnancy in women who do not intend to be pregnant or those at higher risk of complications. However, not all unintended pregnancies can be prevented through increase in contraceptive use, and access to safe abortion is needed to prevent unsafe abortions. Despite not preventing the problem, provision of emergency care for complications can help prevent deaths from such unsafe abortions. Safe abortion in early pregnancy can be provided at primary care level and by non-physician providers, and the risks of mortality associated with such safe, legal abortions are minimal. Although entirely preventable, unsafe abortions continue to occur because of numerous barriers such as legal and policy restrictions, service delivery issues and provider attitudes to abortion stigma. Overall, the provision of contraception and safe abortion is important not just to prevent maternal deaths but as a measure of our ability to respect women's decisions and ensure that they have access to timely, evidence-based care that protects their health and human rights.

  15. A global social contract to reduce maternal mortality: the human rights arguments and the case of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Mulumba, Moses; Hammonds, Rachel; Latif Laila, Abdul; Waris, Attiya; Forman, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5a, reducing maternal deaths by 75% between 1990 and 2015, has been substantial; however, it has been too slow to hope for its achievement by 2015, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, including Uganda. This suggests that both the Government of Uganda and the international community are failing to comply with their right-to-health-related obligations towards the people of Uganda. This country case study explores some of the key issues raised when assessing national and international right-to-health-related obligations. We argue that to comply with their shared obligations, national and international actors will have to take steps to move forward together. The Government of Uganda should not expect additional international assistance if it does not live up to its own obligations; at the same time, the international community must provide assistance that is more reliable in the long run to create the 'fiscal space' that the Government of Uganda needs to increase recurrent expenditure for health - which is crucial to addressing maternal mortality. We propose that the 'Roadmap on Shared Responsibility and Global Solidarity for AIDS, TB and Malaria Response in Africa', adopted by the African Union in July 2012, should be seen as an invitation to the international community to conclude a global social contract for health.

  16. The Potential of Medical Abortion to Reduce Maternal Mortality in Africa: What Benefits for Tanzania and Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Burgin, Joanna; Campbell, Oona M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Unsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative. Methods By estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios) and contrasting situations regarding health care provision and abortion legislation. We focused on misoprostol-only regimens due to the drug's low cost and accessibility. We included the impact of medical abortion on women who would otherwise choose unsafe abortion and on women with unwanted/mistimed pregnancies who would otherwise carry to term. Results Thousands of lives could be saved each year in each country by implementing medical abortion using misoprostol (2122 in Tanzania and 2551 in Ethiopia assuming coverage equals family planning services levels: 56% for Tanzania, 31% for Ethiopia). Changes in MMRatios would be less pronounced because the intervention would also affect national birth rates. Conclusions This is the first analysis of impact of medical abortion provision which takes into account additional potential users other than those currently using unsafe abortion. Thousands of women's lives could be saved, but this may not be reflected in as substantial changes in MMRatios because of medical abortion's demographic impact. Therefore policy makers must be aware of the inability of some traditional measures of maternal mortality to detect the real benefits offered by such an intervention. PMID:20948995

  17. Understanding Global Trends in Maternal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Newby, Holly; Chou, Doris; Mizoguchi, Nobuko; Say, Lale; Suzuki, Emi; Wilmoth, John

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT Despite the fact that most maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality remains high in many developing countries. Target A of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 calls for a three-quarters reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between 1990 and 2015. METHODS We derived estimates of maternal mortality for 172 countries over the period 1990–2008. Trends in maternal mortality were estimated either directly from vital registration data or from a hierarchical or multilevel model, depending on the data available for a particular country. RESULTS The annual number of maternal deaths worldwide declined by 34% between 1990 and 2008, from approximately 546,000 to 358,000 deaths. The estimated MMR for the world as a whole also declined by 34% over this period, falling from 400 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Between 1990 and 2008, the majority of the global burden of maternal deaths shifted from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa. Differential trends in fertility, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic and access to reproductive health are associated with the shift in the burden of maternal deaths from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS Although the estimated annual rate of decline in the global MMR in 1990–2008 (2.3%) fell short of the level needed to meet the MDG 5 target, it was much faster than had been thought previously. Targeted efforts to improve access to quality maternal health care, as well as efforts to decrease unintended pregnancies through family planning, are necessary to further reduce the global burden of maternal mortality. PMID:23584466

  18. National and sub-national analysis of the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of strategies to reduce maternal mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Natalie; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Goldie, Sue J

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world. We assess the health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in Afghanistan. Using national and sub-national data, we adapted a previously validated model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy and pregnancy-related complications. We incorporated data on antenatal care, family planning, skilled birth attendance and information about access to transport, referral facilities and quality of care. We evaluated single interventions (e.g. family planning) and strategies that combined several interventions packaged as integrated services (transport, intrapartum care). Outcomes included pregnancy-related complications, maternal deaths, maternal mortality ratios, costs and cost-effectiveness ratios. Model-projected reduction in maternal deaths between 1999-2002 and 2007-08 approximated 20%. Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to further reduce maternal mortality; up to 1 in 3 pregnancy-related deaths could be prevented if contraception use approached 60%. Nevertheless, reductions in maternal mortality reached a threshold (∼30% to 40%) without strategies that assured women access to emergency obstetrical care. A stepwise approach that coupled improved family planning with incremental improvements in skilled attendance, transport, referral and appropriate intrapartum care and high-quality facilities prevented 3 of 4 maternal deaths. Such an approach would cost less than US$200 per year of life saved at the national level, well below Afghanistan's per capita gross domestic product (GDP), a common benchmark for cost-effectiveness. Similar results were noted sub-nationally. Our findings reinforce the importance of early intensive efforts to increase family planning for spacing and limiting births and to provide control of fertility choices. While significant improvements in health delivery

  19. A Longitudinal Analysis of Publications on Maternal Mortality.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Christianne J M; van Leeuwen, Thed; Mol, Ben Willem J; Waltman, Ludo

    2015-11-01

    The fifth Millennium Development Goal formulated by the WHO in 2000 aimed to reduce global maternal mortality by 75% in 2015. We studied the extent to which medical research has supported this by studying maternal mortality. We performed a bibliometric analysis of the literature on maternal mortality and of the development of this literature over time. We searched for publications on maternal mortality in the Web of Science database in the period 1994-2013. We visualised the subjects of these publications using a term map showing the most significant terms occurring in the titles and abstracts of publications on maternal mortality. We identified 3794 publications on maternal mortality in Web of Science. The annual number increased from 87 in 1994 to 397 in 2013. The largest number of maternal mortality publications was found in the field of Obstetrics and Gynecology, followed by the Public, Environmental, and Occupational Health field (increase from 1994 until 2013 of 300% and 700%, respectively). In both fields, the number of maternal mortality publications has increased at a much higher rate than the overall number of publications in the field. In line with the focus of the fifth Millennium Development Goal on reducing maternal mortality, during the past 20 years, there has been a steady increase in the amount of attention paid to maternal mortality in the medical literature. This is largely driven by an increase, mainly in recent years, in public health research on maternal mortality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Emergency obstetric care in Pakistan: potential for reduced maternal mortality through improved basic EmOC facilities, services, and access.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Hotta, M; Kuroiwa, C; Ushijima, H

    2005-10-01

    To ascertain and compare compliance with UN emergency obstetric care (EmOC) recommendations by public health care centers in Pakistan's Punjab and Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) provinces. Cross-sectional data were collected from July through September 2003 using UN process indicators. From each province, 30% of districts (n=19); were randomly selected; all public health facilities providing EmOC services (n=170) were included. The study found that out of 170 facilities only 22 were providing basic and 37 comprehensive EmOC services in the areas studied. Only 5.7% of births occurred in EmOC health facilities. Met need was 9% and 0.5% of women gave birth by cesarean section. The case fatality rate was a low 0.7%, probably due to poor record keeping. Access and several indicators were better in NWFP than in Punjab. Almost all indicators were below UN recommendations. Health policy makers and planners must take immediate, appropriate measures at district and hospital levels to reduce maternal mortality.

  1. Scaling Up Family Planning to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality: The Potential Costs and Benefits of Modern Contraceptive Use in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chola, Lumbwe; McGee, Shelley; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Buchmann, Eckhart; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Family planning contributes significantly to the prevention of maternal and child mortality. However, many women still do not use modern contraception and the numbers of unintended pregnancies, abortions and subsequent deaths are high. In this paper, we estimate the service delivery costs of scaling up modern contraception, and the potential impact on maternal, newborn and child survival in South Africa. The Family Planning model in Spectrum was used to project the impact of modern contraception on pregnancies, abortions and births in South Africa (2015-2030). The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) was increased annually by 0.68 percentage points. The Lives Saved Tool was used to estimate maternal and child deaths, with coverage of essential maternal and child health interventions increasing by 5% annually. A scenario analysis was done to test impacts when: the change in CPR was 0.1% annually; and intervention coverage increased linearly to 99% in 2030. If CPR increased by 0.68% annually, the number of pregnancies would reduce from 1.3 million in 2014 to one million in 2030. Unintended pregnancies, abortions and births decrease by approximately 20%. Family planning can avert approximately 7,000 newborn and child and 600 maternal deaths. The total annual costs of providing modern contraception in 2030 are estimated to be US$33 million and the cost per user of modern contraception is US$7 per year. The incremental cost per life year gained is US$40 for children and US$1,000 for mothers. Maternal and child mortality remain high in South Africa, and scaling up family planning together with optimal maternal, newborn and child care is crucial. A huge impact can be made on maternal and child mortality, with a minimal investment per user of modern contraception.

  2. Scaling Up Family Planning to Reduce Maternal and Child Mortality: The Potential Costs and Benefits of Modern Contraceptive Use in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chola, Lumbwe; McGee, Shelley; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Buchmann, Eckhart; Hofman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Family planning contributes significantly to the prevention of maternal and child mortality. However, many women still do not use modern contraception and the numbers of unintended pregnancies, abortions and subsequent deaths are high. In this paper, we estimate the service delivery costs of scaling up modern contraception, and the potential impact on maternal, newborn and child survival in South Africa. Methods The Family Planning model in Spectrum was used to project the impact of modern contraception on pregnancies, abortions and births in South Africa (2015-2030). The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) was increased annually by 0.68 percentage points. The Lives Saved Tool was used to estimate maternal and child deaths, with coverage of essential maternal and child health interventions increasing by 5% annually. A scenario analysis was done to test impacts when: the change in CPR was 0.1% annually; and intervention coverage increased linearly to 99% in 2030. Results If CPR increased by 0.68% annually, the number of pregnancies would reduce from 1.3 million in 2014 to one million in 2030. Unintended pregnancies, abortions and births decrease by approximately 20%. Family planning can avert approximately 7,000 newborn and child and 600 maternal deaths. The total annual costs of providing modern contraception in 2030 are estimated to be US$33 million and the cost per user of modern contraception is US$7 per year. The incremental cost per life year gained is US$40 for children and US$1,000 for mothers. Conclusion Maternal and child mortality remain high in South Africa, and scaling up family planning together with optimal maternal, newborn and child care is crucial. A huge impact can be made on maternal and child mortality, with a minimal investment per user of modern contraception. PMID:26076482

  3. Activism: working to reduce maternal mortality through civil society and health professional alliances in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sunanda; Madzimbamuto, Farai; Fonn, Sharon

    2012-06-01

    Partnerships between civil society groups campaigning for reproductive and human rights, health professionals and others could contribute more to the strengthening of health systems needed to bring about declines in maternal deaths in Africa. The success of the HIV treatment literacy model developed by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa provides useful lessons for activism on maternal mortality, especially the combination of a right-to-health approach with learning and capacity building, community networking, popular mobilisation and legal action. This paper provides examples of these from South Africa, Botswana, Kenya and Uganda. Confidential enquiries into maternal deaths can be powerful instruments for change if pressure to act on their recommendations is brought to bear. Shadow reports presented during UN human rights country assessments can be used in a similar way. Public protests and demonstrations over avoidable deaths have succeeded in drawing attention to under-resourced services, shortages of supplies, including blood for transfusion, poor morale among staff, and lack of training and supervision. Activists could play a bigger role in holding health services, governments, and policy-makers accountable for poor maternity services, developing user-friendly information materials for women and their families, and motivating appropriate human resources strategies. Training and support for patients' groups, in how to use health facility complaints procedures is also a valuable strategy.

  4. The cost effectiveness of a quality improvement program to reduce maternal and fetal mortality in a regional referral hospital in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Goodman, David M; Ramaswamy, Rohit; Jeuland, Marc; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel K; Engmann, Cyril M; Olufolabi, Adeyemi J; Owen, Medge D

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a quality improvement intervention aimed at reducing maternal and fetal mortality in Accra, Ghana. Quasi-experimental, time-sequence intervention, retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis. Data were collected on the cost and outcomes of a 5-year Kybele-Ghana Health Service Quality Improvement (QI) intervention conducted at Ridge Regional Hospital, a tertiary referral center in Accra, Ghana, focused on systems, personnel, and communication. Maternal deaths prevented were estimated comparing observed rates with counterfactual projections of maternal mortality and case-fatality rates for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and obstetric hemorrhage. Stillbirths prevented were estimated based on counterfactual estimates of stillbirth rates. Cost-effectiveness was then calculated using estimated disability-adjusted life years averted and subjected to Monte Carlo and one-way sensitivity analyses to test the importance of assumptions inherent in the calculations. Incremental Cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which represents the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted by the intervention compared to a model counterfactual. From 2007-2011, 39,234 deliveries were affected by the QI intervention implemented at Ridge Regional Hospital. The total budget for the program was $2,363,100. Based on program estimates, 236 (±5) maternal deaths and 129 (±13) intrapartum stillbirths were averted (14,876 DALYs), implying an ICER of $158 ($129-$195) USD. This value is well below the highly cost-effective threshold of $1268 USD. Sensitivity analysis considered DALY calculation methods, and yearly prevalence of risk factors and case fatality rates. In each of these analyses, the program remained highly cost-effective with an ICER ranging from $97-$218. QI interventions to reduce maternal and fetal mortality in low resource settings can be highly cost effective. Cost-effectiveness analysis is feasible and should regularly be conducted to

  5. Maternal mortality in caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Mehtaji, S P; Loynmoon, S

    1970-06-01

    The maternal mortality rate for 2 hospitals dropped from 15.8 per 1000 in 1930 to 4.2 per 1000 in 1968, accompanied by a reduction in mortality from caesarean section from 5% to 0.8%. However, caesarean section rates were twice those of vaginal delivery rates. 340 cases were reviewed; sepsis, postoperative shock, hemorrhage and anesthetic mishaps caused two-thirds of all caesarean section deaths. The authors recommend more effective ante-natal care, improved blood transfusion facilities, and better anesthetic management.

  6. [Reflections on the measurement of maternal mortality].

    PubMed

    Laurenti, R; Mello-Jorge, M H; Gotlieb, S L

    2000-01-01

    The maternal mortality rate is a highly sensitive indicator for the health level of both women and the general population in a given geographical area. There is extensive variability among different countries, and rates are high in underdeveloped or developing areas, as in Brazil. Health authorities from various countries have launched programs aimed at reducing maternal deaths and have thus needed to estimate the actual rates to allow for a proper assessment and to control the programs' progress. However, there are many obstacles and difficulties in obtaining the real values of these measures, mainly because of incomplete data. The aim of this paper is to present some of the proposed methodologies for estimating maternal mortality rates and to call attention to the limits and biases of these methods. Based on the Brazilian case, the article also recommends an improvement in the quality and coverage of the Civil Registry, the official source of data on births and deaths.

  7. Antenatal Care as a Means of Increasing Birth in the Health Facility and Reducing Maternal Mortality: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is a general agreement on the importance of antenatal care to improve the maternal and perinatal health, little is known about its importance to improve health facility delivery in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the association of antenatal care with birth in health facility. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis of Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios was conducted by including seventeen small scale studies that compared antenatal care and health facility delivery between 2003 and 2013. Additionally, national survey data of African countries which included antenatal care, health facility delivery and maternal mortality in their report were included. Data were accessed via a computer based search from MEDLINE, African Journals Online, HINARI and Google Scholar databases. Results The regression analysis of antenatal care with health facility delivery revealed a positive correlation. The pooled analysis also demonstrated that woman attending antenatal care had more than 7 times increased chance of delivering in a health facility. The comparative descriptive analysis, however, demonstrated a big gap between the proportion of antenatal care and health facility delivery by the same individuals (27%–95% vs 4%–45%). Antenatal care and health facility delivery had negative correlation with maternal mortality. Conclusion The present regression and meta-analysis has identified the relative advantage of having antenatal care to give birth in health facilities. However, the majority of women who had antenatal care did not show up to a health facility for delivery. Therefore, future research needs to give emphasis to identifying barriers to health facility delivery despite having antenatal care follow up. PMID:25489186

  8. Maternal mortality following caesarean sections.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, K; Kundu, S; Mandal, G S

    1979-08-01

    A study of 26 maternal deaths following 3647 caesarean sections was conducted in Eden Hospital from 1974-1977. During the time period there were 35,544 births and 308 total maternal deaths (8.74/1000). Indications for Caesarean sections included: 1) abnormal presentation; 2) cephalopelvic disproportion; 3) toxemia; 4) prolonged labor; 5) fetal distress; and 6) post-caesarean pregnancies. Highest mortality rates were among cephalopelvic disproportion, toxemia, and prolonged labor patients. 38.4% of the patients died due to septicaemia and peritonitis, but other deaths were due to preclampsia, shock, and hemorrhage. Proper antenatal care may have prevented anemia and preclampsia and treated other pre-existing or superimposed diseases.

  9. [The Millennium project of the United Nations, focusing on adequate postpartum care to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality world-wide].

    PubMed

    Lagro, M G P; Stekelenburg, J

    2006-05-20

    One of the goals of the Millennium project of the United Nations is to reduce maternal and infant mortality. This includes adequate care for mothers and newborns during childbirth. Most maternal deaths occur during the post-partum period. Postpartum haemorrhage, eclampsia and sepsis are the main causes of maternal death. Preventive measures include active management of the third stage of labour, use of magnesium sulphate in pre-eclampsia, and implementing hygienic birth practices and the use of antibiotics, respectively. Major causes of neonatal mortality are pre- and dysmaturity, infections, congenital abnormalities and birth trauma, including asphyxia. The kangaroo-method can reduce morbidity in premature infants. The use of hygienic practices and antibiotics decreases the number of newborn deaths due to infection. Antiretroviral therapy is effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In many resource poor countries formula feeding is not feasible and the WHO advises exclusive breastfeeding for HIV positive women in these settings. A formula of 6 hours, 6 days, 6 weeks and 6 months after birth is recommended by the WHO to check the condition of mother and baby. This should be integrated in mother and child health clinics and also includes child vaccinations and counselling the mother on family planning and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

  10. Maternal mortality: a global overview.

    PubMed

    Choolani, M; Ratnam, S S

    1995-02-01

    Reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries is possible through elimination of unsafe abortion, active management of labor, appropriate management of pregnancy complications, and availability of adequate facilities. Prevention and early recognition are key factors in preventing maternal deaths due to ruptured uteri. A well equipped hospital is the appropriate place for delivery of mothers with a history of previous cesarean sections, a grossly contracted pelvis, previous myomectomies, previous multiple births, and previous abnormal births or complications during delivery. Complicated procedures, use of oxytocins, and administration of anesthesia should be performed with experienced, trained medical personnel. Surveillance of and correction for anemia should occur during the course of the pregnancy. Infections can be controlled with tetanus toxoid immunization and use of chest X-rays. The health care system should be tiered with primary health care services located in suburbs and rural districts. Services should be situated to account for population distribution, extent of maternal mortality in the region, transportation facilities, and the nearest secondary hospital. Birthing homes with sanitary facilities are an option for rural districts. A two-way referral system should be established between the primary, secondary, and tertiary level hospitals. Audits should be conducted as a means of checking for needed improvements in the system. Planning that includes proper roads, transportation, and communication facilities is important. Funding can come in the form of money, materials, and manpower. Safe motherhood requires the commitment of local people and local governments. The first step in a safe motherhood program is creating awareness among the political and economic elite. Governments are encouraged to shift resources from the military to housing, transportation, communications, education, and health during peace-times. Local professional associations

  11. A cluster randomised controlled trial of the community effectiveness of two interventions in rural Malawi to improve health care and to reduce maternal, newborn and infant mortality

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The UN Millennium Development Goals call for substantial reductions in maternal and child mortality, to be achieved through reductions in morbidity and mortality during pregnancy, delivery, postpartum and early childhood. The MaiMwana Project aims to test community-based interventions that tackle maternal and child health problems through increasing awareness and local action. Methods/Design This study uses a two-by-two factorial cluster-randomised controlled trial design to test the impact of two interventions. The impact of a community mobilisation intervention run through women's groups, on home care, health care-seeking behaviours and maternal and infant mortality, will be tested. The impact of a volunteer-led infant feeding and care support intervention, on rates of exclusive breastfeeding, uptake of HIV-prevention services and infant mortality, will also be tested. The women's group intervention will employ local female facilitators to guide women's groups through a four-phase cycle of problem identification and prioritisation, strategy identification, implementation and evaluation. Meetings will be held monthly at village level. The infant feeding intervention will select local volunteers to provide advice and support for breastfeeding, birth preparedness, newborn care and immunisation. They will visit pregnant and new mothers in their homes five times during and after pregnancy. The unit of intervention allocation will be clusters of rural villages of 2500-4000 population. 48 clusters have been defined and randomly allocated to either women's groups only, infant feeding support only, both interventions, or no intervention. Study villages are surrounded by 'buffer areas' of non-study villages to reduce contamination between intervention and control areas. Outcome indicators will be measured through a demographic surveillance system. Primary outcomes will be maternal, infant, neonatal and perinatal mortality for the women's group intervention, and

  12. Community level risk factors for maternal mortality in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Julio C; Moser, Christine M

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the effect of risk and socioeconomic factors on maternal mortality at the community level in Madagascar using a unique, nationwide panel of communes (i.e., counties). Previous work in this area uses individual or cross-country data to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community level is imperative because this is the level at which most policy is implemented. The results show that longer travel time from the community to the hospital leads to a high level of maternal mortality. The findings suggest that improvement to transportation systems and access to hospitals with surgery rooms are needed to deal with obstetric complications and reduce maternal mortality.

  13. Maternal mortality and unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Fawcus, Susan R

    2008-06-01

    Unsafe abortions refer to terminations of unintended pregnancies by persons lacking the necessary skills, or in an environment lacking the minimum medical standards, or both. Globally, unsafe abortions account for 67,900 maternal deaths annually (13% of total maternal mortality) and contribute to significant morbidity among women, especially in under-resourced settings. The determinants of unsafe abortion include restrictive abortion legislation, lack of female empowerment, poor social support, inadequate contraceptive services and poor health-service infrastructure. Deaths from unsafe abortion are preventable by addressing the above determinants and by the provision of safe, accessible abortion care. This includes safe medical or surgical methods for termination of pregnancy and management of incomplete abortion by skilled personnel. The service must also include provision of emergency medical or surgical care in women with severe abortion complications. Developing appropriate services at the primary level of care with a functioning referral system and the inclusion of post abortion contraceptive care with counseling are essential facets of abortion care.

  14. [Maternal mortality: levels, trends, and differentials].

    PubMed

    Langer, A; Lozano, R; Hernandez, B

    1993-01-01

    Maternal mortality in Mexico has declined significantly over the past half century. The maternal mortality rate was 53/10,000 live births in 1940 and 5.1 in 1990. The greatest and most rapid decline occurred in the 1940s. The maternal mortality rate is still too high, and in addition the differential between Mexican rates and those of the developed countries has increased. The average age at maternal death is 29 years, a full 40 years less than potential life expectancy. The risk of death from causes related to reproduction varies substantially by educational level. Of all maternal deaths between 1986 and 1991, 26% were in illiterate women, 33% in women with incomplete primary, and 24% in those with complete primary. In 1990, the average female school attainment was complete primary. The maternal mortality rate was eight times higher among illiterate women and five times higher in those not completing primary than in those finishing preparatory. Geographically, states with low maternal mortality rates of under 3.1 are mainly located in the north and those with high maternal mortality of over 6.0 are in the south. The central zone is an intermediate area. The 1991 maternal mortality rates of Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, and the state of Mexico are similar to those of Nuevo Leon 30 years ago or Aguascalientes, Sonora, and Baja California 20 years ago. 72% of maternal deaths in the 1980s occurred in rural areas. The rates were 6.5/10,000 in rural areas and 4.1/10,000 in urban areas. The maternal mortality rate also increases with marginalization. An index of marginalization constructed with census data using multivariate techniques showed that fertile aged women in very marginalized municipios had maternal mortality rates of 11.5/10,000, or a risk of death three times greater than women in municipios scoring low for marginalization. Maternal mortality continues to be a priority public health problem in Mexico. Because so many maternal deaths are preventable

  15. Maternal mortality and morbidity. Zimbabwe's birth force.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    . Disruptions in medical supplies handicap TBAs in carrying out their work. Some of the solutions are to utilize bicycles for transporting supplies to remote areas, or mobile clinics which provide supplies and training. If more countries followed Zimbabwe's lead, other countries would benefit from reduced birth rates and improved infant and maternal mortality in a cost effective and culturally compatible way.

  16. [Maternal mortality rates in the IMSS].

    PubMed

    Mojarro, O; Hernandez, D

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented on maternal mortality in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) system. World Health Organization recommendations for the definition and measurement of maternal mortality were followed. Death certificates were used to estimate mortality levels, data on the number of live births were used to calculate death rates, and reports of the Study Committees on Maternal Mortality were used to analyze causes of death. Maternal mortality rates declined during the 1980s from 59.9/100,000 live births in 1982-84 to 42.4 in 1987-89, a reduction of 29%. The overall maternal mortality rate in Mexico was estimated at 65/100,000 in 1986. The declining maternal mortality rate, in the context of deteriorating living conditions of the population, appears to be due primarily to the effect of greater coverage of prenatal care, prevention of pregnancies, and a greater relative number of pregnancies at younger ages. Maternal mortality in 1982-84 formed a J-shaped curve in which mortality of younger mothers was higher than that of mothers in intermediate age groups but not as high as that of mothers in the oldest groups. The J-shaped curve was no longer observed in 1987-89, probably because of application of the risk focus in obstetric services and the reproductive risk focus in family planning services. The 5 principal causes of maternal deaths, according to the Study Committees on Maternal Mortality, were toxemia, hemorrhages of pregnancy or delivery, puerperal sepsis, abortion complications, and other complications in the puerperium. These causes accounted for almost 80% of maternal deaths in 1984-86. The decline in the maternal mortality rate does not appear to be associated with reduction in any of the 5 main causes of death except abortion. Greater availability of family planning services contributed to a reduction in the rate of complications of abortion attended by IMSS facilities from 13.7 to 8.0 per 1000 fertile-aged women during the 1980's. Improved

  17. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy.

    PubMed

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  18. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    PubMed Central

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  19. [The reduction in maternal mortality in Chile, 1990-2000].

    PubMed

    Donoso Siña, Enrique

    2004-05-01

    To determine if Chile achieved the objective of reducing maternal mortality by 50% between 1990 and 2000, in line with the provisions of the Regional Plan of Action for the Reduction of Maternal Mortality in the Americas, which the governments of the Americas approved in 1990 at the 23rd Pan American Sanitary Conference. A descriptive, observational study was designed, making it possible to analyze the trend in maternal mortality in Chile from 1990 through 2000. The variables that were evaluated were the maternal mortality ratio, the causes of death, and the age of the mothers who died. The causes of death were classified according to the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9), and the raw data were obtained from the yearbooks of the National Institute of Statistics of Chile. The changes in the variables were estimated according to the percentage of cumulative change, and trends were analyzed with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The study found a 60.3% reduction in maternal mortality from 1990 to 2000. The lowest maternal mortality ratio, 18.7 per 100 000 live births, occurred in the year 2000. The five leading causes of maternal mortality were hypertension, miscarriage, other current conditions in the mother, puerperal sepsis, and postpartum hemorrhage. There was a significant downward trend in maternal mortality due to hypertension (r = -0.712; P = 0.014), abortion (r = -0.810; P = 0.003), and puerperal sepsis (r = -0.718; P = 0.013), but there were no statistically significant changes in mortality from other current conditions in the mother or from postpartum hemorrhage. The highest level of maternal mortality was found in women who were 40 years of age or older (100.2/100 000 live births), and the lowest level was in adolescents 15 to 19 years old (18.7/100 000 live births). Chile achieved the objective of the Regional Plan of Action for the Reduction of Maternal Mortality in the Americas, with a decrease of more than 50% in

  20. Quality of care, risk management, and technology in obstetrics to reduce hospital-based maternal mortality in Senegal and Mali (QUARITE): a cluster-randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Alexandre; Fournier, Pierre; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Traoré, Mamadou; Haddad, Slim; Fraser, William D

    2013-07-13

    -level referral (regional) hospitals outside the capitals (OR 1·02, 95% CI 0·79-1·31, p=0·89). No hospitals were lost to follow-up. Concrete actions were implemented comprehensively to improve quality of care in intervention hospitals. Regular visits by a trained external facilitator and onsite training can provide health-care professionals with the knowledge and confidence to make quality improvement suggestions during audit sessions. Maternal death reviews, combined with best practices implementation, are effective in reducing hospital-based mortality in first-level referral hospitals. Further studies are needed to determine whether the benefits of the intervention are generalisable to second-level referral hospitals. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels of maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Boerma, J T

    1987-01-01

    This paper is aimed at improving our ability to assess the magnitude of maternal mortality in developing countries, where reliable data on maternal deaths are scarce. First, the upper and lower limits of maternal mortality in a population are determined based on the general levels of mortality and fertility in a population. The relative importance of maternal deaths as a proportion of death among women of reproductive ages may, therefore, vary from less than 1 percent in low-mortality countries to about 25-30 percent in high-mortality countries. Second, the analysis and interpretation of maternal mortality data from health facilities and vital registration systems can be improved if a variety of other data sources are used, such as coverage of deliveries in hospitals and at home, and all causes of death among women of reproductive age. It is estimated that approximately 515,000 women died annually due to pregnancy-related causes in developing countries between 1980 and 1985. Ninety percent of these deaths took place in Africa and South Asia, where births are frequent and maternal mortality levels are high.

  2. The Decline in Maternal Mortality in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    The maternal mortality rate in Sweden in the early 20th century was one third that in the United States. This rate was recognized by American visitors as an achievement of Swedish maternity care, in which highly competent midwives attend home deliveries. The 19th century decline in maternal mortality was largely caused by improvements in obstetric care, but was also helped along by the national health strategy of giving midwives and doctors complementary roles in maternity care, as well as equal involvement in setting public health policy. The 20th century decline in maternal mortality, seen in all Western countries, was made possible by the emergence of modern medicine. However, the contribution of the mobilization of human resources should not be underestimated, nor should key developments in public health policy. PMID:15284032

  3. Maternal mortality in Tamilnadu (Madras) state.

    PubMed

    Rao, K B

    1970-06-01

    Maternal mortality in Madras state declined from 4.97/1000 in 1956 to 2.87/1000 in 1967. Prolonged labors, ruptured uterus and hemorrhages accounted for 60-75% of the deaths and toxemias and sepsis for 15-30%. 826 maternal deaths in Madurai were due to obstetric trauma (ruptured uterus). 78-85% of the deaths were considered preventable.

  4. Light on maternal mortality in India.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, J C

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the degree and causes of maternal mortality in Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India, detailed enquiries were made at the grass roots and the records of health facilities were examined. The number of maternal deaths proved to be much higher than would have been revealed by a perusal of official data alone. Many women in a serious condition died on the way to hospital or soon after arrival because the means of transport were too slow or otherwise unsuitable. Maternal mortality rates varied substantially from place to place, reflecting differing levels of economic development and the presence or absence of primary health centres and subcentres.

  5. A framework for analyzing the determinants of maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J; Maine, D

    1992-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of women in developing countries die each year from complications of pregnancy, attempted abortion, and childbirth. This article presents a comprehensive and integrated framework for analyzing the cultural, social, economic, behavioral, and biological factors that influence maternal mortality. The development of a comprehensive framework was carried out by reviewing the widely accepted frameworks that have been developed for fertility and child survival, and by reviewing the existing literature on maternal mortality, including the results of research studies and accounts of intervention programs. The principal result of this exercise is the framework itself. One of the main conclusions is that all determinants of maternal mortality (and, hence, all efforts to reduce maternal mortality) must operate through a sequence of only three intermediate outcomes. These efforts must either (1) reduce the likelihood that a woman will become pregnant; (2) reduce the likelihood that a pregnant woman will experience a serious complication of pregnancy or childbirth; or (3) improve the outcomes for women with complications. Several types of interventions are most likely to have substantial and immediate effects on maternal mortality, including family planning programs to prevent pregnancies, safe abortion services to reduce the incidence of complications, and improvements in labor and delivery services to increase the survival of women who do experience complications.

  6. Maternal mortality in the United States, 1979-1986.

    PubMed

    Atrash, H K; Koonin, L M; Lawson, H W; Franks, A L; Smith, J C

    1990-12-01

    To understand better the epidemiology and to describe the causes of maternal death, we reviewed all identified maternal deaths in the United States and Puerto Rico for 1979-1986. The overall maternal mortality ratio for the period was 9.1 deaths per 100,000 live births. The ratios increased with age and were higher among women of black and other minority races than among white women for all age groups. The causes of death varied for different outcomes of pregnancy; pulmonary embolism was the leading cause of death after a live birth. Unmarried women had a higher risk of death than married women. The risk of death increased with increasing live-birth order, except for primiparas. In order to develop strategies to reduce the risk of maternal death in the United States, future studies should include expanded information about each death, which will allow better understanding of factors associated with maternal mortality.

  7. Increased Access to Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Reduced Maternal Mortality in Johannesburg, South Africa: An Audit from 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Black, Vivian; Black, Andrew D; Rees, Helen V; Guidozzi, Franco; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew F

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of expanded access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) on maternal mortality in Johannesburg, South Africa between 2003 and 2012. Audit of patient files, birth registers and death certificates at a tertiary level referral hospital. Cause of death was assigned independently, by two reviewers. We compared causes of deaths and the maternal mortality ratios (MMR, deaths/100,000 live births) over three periods corresponding to changes in government policy on ART provision: period one, 2003-2004 (pre-ART); period two, 2005-2009 (ART eligibility with CD4 count <200cells/μL or WHO stage 4 disease); and period three, 2010-2012 (eligibility with CD4 count <350 cells/μL). There were 232 deaths and 80,376 deliveries in the three periods. The proportion of pregnant women tested for HIV rose from 43.4% in 2003 to 94.6% in 2012. MMR was 301, 327 and 232 in the three periods, (p = 0.10). The third period MMR was lower than the first and second combined (p = 0.03). Among HIV-positive women, the MMR fell from 836 in the first time period to 431 in the third (p = 0.008) but among HIV negative women it remained unchanged over the three periods, averaging 148. Even in the third period, however, the MMR among HIV-infected women was 3-fold higher than in other women. Mortality from direct obstetric causes such as hemorrhage did not decline over time, but deaths from tuberculosis and HIV-associated malignancy did. In 38.3% of deaths, women had not attended antenatal care. Higher coverage of HIV testing and ART has substantially reduced MMR in this hospital setting. Though the gap in MMR between women with and without HIV narrowed, a third of deaths still remain attributable to HIV. Lowering overall MMR will require further strengthening of HIV services, increased antenatal care coverage, and improved care for obstetric emergencies at all levels of care.

  8. Increased Access to Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated with Reduced Maternal Mortality in Johannesburg, South Africa: An Audit from 2003-2012

    PubMed Central

    Black, Andrew D.; Rees, Helen V.; Guidozzi, Franco; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of expanded access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) on maternal mortality in Johannesburg, South Africa between 2003 and 2012. Methods Audit of patient files, birth registers and death certificates at a tertiary level referral hospital. Cause of death was assigned independently, by two reviewers. We compared causes of deaths and the maternal mortality ratios (MMR, deaths/100,000 live births) over three periods corresponding to changes in government policy on ART provision: period one, 2003–2004 (pre-ART); period two, 2005–2009 (ART eligibility with CD4 count <200cells/μL or WHO stage 4 disease); and period three, 2010–2012 (eligibility with CD4 count <350 cells/μL). Results There were 232 deaths and 80,376 deliveries in the three periods. The proportion of pregnant women tested for HIV rose from 43.4% in 2003 to 94.6% in 2012. MMR was 301, 327 and 232 in the three periods, (p = 0.10). The third period MMR was lower than the first and second combined (p = 0.03). Among HIV-positive women, the MMR fell from 836 in the first time period to 431 in the third (p = 0.008) but among HIV negative women it remained unchanged over the three periods, averaging 148. Even in the third period, however, the MMR among HIV-infected women was 3-fold higher than in other women. Mortality from direct obstetric causes such as hemorrhage did not decline over time, but deaths from tuberculosis and HIV-associated malignancy did. In 38.3% of deaths, women had not attended antenatal care. Conclusion Higher coverage of HIV testing and ART has substantially reduced MMR in this hospital setting. Though the gap in MMR between women with and without HIV narrowed, a third of deaths still remain attributable to HIV. Lowering overall MMR will require further strengthening of HIV services, increased antenatal care coverage, and improved care for obstetric emergencies at all levels of care. PMID:28033409

  9. Analysis of maternal mortality in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Cavalleru, M; Quintana, M; Ara, A

    1992-01-01

    The Women's Collective in Matagalpa, Nicaragua, Sanitaria VI region estimated maternal mortality rates for 1989 and 1990 to be 309 and 239/100,000 live births, respectively. The majority of births took place at home, assisted by untrained midwives, and in 68% of cases the place and attendant(s) were not listed. National figures for maternal mortality are 49.4 and 159/per 100,000 in 1989. Thus the proportion of unreported maternal mortality is probably high in Nicaragua. The Collective believers that health workers give substandard prenatal care and fail to refer high risk cases to higher levels of care. They recommend that women mount a permanent campaign, insist on training programs for health workers that focus on women's situation, that more data be collected, and that women themselves take action.

  10. On the assessment of maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Royston, E; Lopez, A D

    1987-01-01

    Well over 1/2 the maternal deaths in the world occur in 3 countries in southern Asia: India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. In general, the incidence of maternal death correlates with 2 factors: a high risk of dying during or just after pregnancy due to sepsis, inadequate facilities for dealing with complicated births or other health problems such as exacerbation of existing disease, poor nutrition, overwork, and/or closely spaced pregnancies; and a high fertility rate. This report outlines methods for measuring maternal mortality and presents data for developing nations in each continent, comparing it to developed nations and determing its contribution to overall mortality. The risk of dying as a result of a given pregnancy in a developed nation is at least 100-fold smaller than that in the poorest countries in Africa and Asia. Estimated mortality due to pregnancy is 460,000 more women in the undeveloped nations compared to the developed nations.

  11. Why perinatal mortality cannot be a proxy for maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Akalin, M Z; Maine, D; de Francisco, A; Vaughan, R

    1997-12-01

    In recent years, the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) has been proposed as a proxy measure of maternal mortality, because perinatal deaths are more frequent and potentially more easily measured. This report assesses evidence for an association between these two statistics. This study, based upon data from Matlab, Bangladesh, shows that the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and the PNMR do not vary together over time, and that the PNMR does not reliably indicate either the magnitude or the direction of change in the MMR from year to year. Statistical analysis shows that the correlation between the PNMR and the MMR is not significantly different from zero. An examination of the major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths indicates that the two measures cannot be expected to vary together. Almost half of perinatal deaths result from causes that do not pose a threat to the mother's life, and almost half of maternal deaths result from causes that do not lead to perinatal death. Monitoring of the PNMR can give an inaccurate picture of maternal mortality and should not be used as a proxy.

  12. Maternal mortality audit in a Zimbabwean province.

    PubMed

    De Muylder, X

    1990-01-01

    A maternal mortality audit was introduced in the Midlands Province (Zimbabwe) in order to identify which avoidable factors were involved most frequently. During the two-year study period, the maternal mortality rate was 137 per 100,000 total births. The main causes of death were uterine rupture, eclampsia, haemorrhage and caesarean section related accidents. An avoidable factor was identified among 87% of these deaths involving the health system in 57% of the cases and the patient in 33%. Access to the health facilities and transport problems only played a minor role.

  13. Maternal education is associated with reduced female disadvantages in under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia.

    PubMed

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Smits, Jeroen

    2013-02-01

    The male:female (M:F) mortality ratio for under-five mortality varies considerably across and within societies. Maternal education has been linked to better outcomes for girls, but the evidence is mixed. We examined how the M:F ratio for under-five mortality varies by maternal education in sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia. We used recent Demographic and Health Surveys from 31 sub-Saharan African and 4 southern Asian countries. M:F mortality ratios were determined using information on 49 769 deaths among 521 551 children. We estimate M:F ratios for under-five (month 0-59), neonatal (month 0), post-neonatal (month 1-11) and child mortality (month 12-59) by maternal education while controlling for demographic and household characteristics. M:F ratios for under-five mortality and child mortality are compared with more 'gender neutral' thresholds (of 1.25 and 1.17, respectively) estimated on the basis of the Human Mortality Database. In sub-Saharan Africa, the M:F ratio for under-five mortality is 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.13] among non-educated mothers, 1.14 (95% CI 1.09-1.19) among mothers with some primary education and 1.25 (95% CI 1.16-1.34) among mothers with some secondary or more education. For southern Asia, the ratios are 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.95), 1.10 (95% CI 0.97-1.25) and 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.26), respectively. The M:F ratio for child mortality also shows an educational gradient in both regions, with the M:F ratio being lower among non-educated mothers. In southern Asia, the M:F ratio for child mortality is particularly low among mothers with no education, M:F ratio = 0.54 (95% CI 0.41-0.72). Among mothers with more education, the difference in the mortality chances of boys and girls more closely resembles a 'gender neutral' situation than among women with no or little education. Girls benefit both in absolute and relative terms from having a more educated mother.

  14. Maternal mortality: a cross-sectional study in global health.

    PubMed

    Sajedinejad, Sima; Majdzadeh, Reza; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-02-12

    Although most of maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality reduction programs have not been completely successful. As targeting individuals alone does not seem to be an effective strategy to reduce maternal mortality (Millennium Development Goal 5), the present study sought to reveal the role of many distant macrostructural factors affecting maternal mortality at the global level. After preparing a global dataset, 439 indicators were selected from nearly 1800 indicators based on their relevance and the application of proper inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to assess the relationship between these indicators and maternal mortality. Only indicators with statistically significant correlation more than 0.2, and missing values less than 20% were maintained. Due to the high multicollinearity among the remaining indicators, after missing values analysis and imputation, factor analysis was performed with principal component analysis as the method of extraction. Ten factors were finally extracted and entered into a multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study not only consolidated the results of earlier studies about maternal mortality, but also added new evidence. Education (std. B = -0.442), private sector and trade (std. B = -0.316), and governance (std. B = -0.280) were found to be the most important macrostructural factors associated with maternal mortality. Employment and labor structure, economic policy and debt, agriculture and food production, private sector infrastructure investment, and health finance were also some other critical factors. These distal factors explained about 65% of the variability in maternal mortality between different countries. Decreasing maternal mortality requires dealing with various factors other than individual determinants including political will, reallocation of national resources (especially health resources) in the governmental sector, education

  15. Estimates of maternal mortality for 1995.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; AbouZhar, C; Wardlaw, T

    2001-01-01

    To present estimates of maternal mortality in 188 countries, areas, and territories for 1995 using methodologies that attempt to improve comparability. For countries having data directly relevant to the measurement of maternal mortality, a variety of adjustment procedures can be applied depending on the nature of the data used. Estimates for countries lacking relevant data may be made using a statistical model fitted to the information from countries that have data judged to be of good quality. Rather than estimate the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMRatio) directly, this model estimates the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age that are due to maternal causes. Estimates of the number of maternal deaths are then obtained by applying this proportion to the best available figure of the total number of deaths among women of reproductive age. On the basis of this exercise, we have obtained a global estimate of 515,000 maternal deaths in 1995, with a worldwide MMRatio of 397 per 100,000 live births. The differences, by region, were very great, with over half (273,000 maternal deaths) occurring in Africa (MMRatio: > 1000 per 100,000), compared with a total of only 2000 maternal deaths in Europe (MMRatio: 28 per 100,000). Lower and upper uncertainty bounds were also estimated, on the basis of which the global MMRatio was unlikely to be less than 234 or more than 635 per 100,000 live births. These uncertainty bounds and those of national estimates are so wide that comparisons between countries must be made with caution, and no valid conclusions can be drawn about trends over a period of time. The MMRatio is thus an imperfect indicator of reproductive health because it is hard to measure precisely. It is preferable to use process indicators for comparing reproductive health between countries or across time periods, and for monitoring and evaluation purposes.

  16. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit; Weber, Tom; Møller, Margrete; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2009-02-01

    In Denmark, maternal mortality has been reported over the last century, both locally through hospital reports and in national registries. The purpose of this study was to analyze data from national medical registries of pregnancy-related deaths in Denmark 1985-1994 and to classify them according to the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD). All deaths of women with a registered pregnancy within 12 months prior to the death were identified by comparing the Danish medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). All cases were classified using the UK CEMD classification. Cases of maternal death were further evaluated by an audit group. 311 cases were classified. 92 deaths (29.6%) occurred 42 days), 1 woman died from a direct obstetric cause, 46 from indirect causes, and 172 from fortuitous causes. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the major cause of direct maternal deaths. The rate of maternal deaths constituted 9.8/100,000 maternities (i.e. the number of women delivering registrable live births at any gestation or stillbirths at 24 weeks of gestation or later). This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification methods differ between countries. Prospective registration and registry linkage seem to be a way to ensure completion. This retrospective study has provided the background for a prospective study on registration and evaluation of maternal mortality in Denmark.

  17. Estimates of maternal mortality for 1995.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, K.; AbouZhar, C.; Wardlaw, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present estimates of maternal mortality in 188 countries, areas, and territories for 1995 using methodologies that attempt to improve comparability. METHODS: For countries having data directly relevant to the measurement of maternal mortality, a variety of adjustment procedures can be applied depending on the nature of the data used. Estimates for countries lacking relevant data may be made using a statistical model fitted to the information from countries that have data judged to be of good quality. Rather than estimate the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMRatio) directly, this model estimates the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age that are due to maternal causes. Estimates of the number of maternal deaths are then obtained by applying this proportion to the best available figure of the total number of deaths among women of reproductive age. FINDINGS: On the basis of this exercise, we have obtained a global estimate of 515,000 maternal deaths in 1995, with a worldwide MMRatio of 397 per 100,000 live births. The differences, by region, were very great, with over half (273,000 maternal deaths) occurring in Africa (MMRatio: > 1000 per 100,000), compared with a total of only 2000 maternal deaths in Europe (MMRatio: 28 per 100,000). Lower and upper uncertainty bounds were also estimated, on the basis of which the global MMRatio was unlikely to be less than 234 or more than 635 per 100,000 live births. These uncertainty bounds and those of national estimates are so wide that comparisons between countries must be made with caution, and no valid conclusions can be drawn about trends over a period of time. CONCLUSION: The MMRatio is thus an imperfect indicator of reproductive health because it is hard to measure precisely. It is preferable to use process indicators for comparing reproductive health between countries or across time periods, and for monitoring and evaluation purposes. PMID:11285661

  18. [Maternal mortality in Mexico: measurement based on vital statistics].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    "Vital statistics are the most comprehensive source of information on maternal mortality in Mexico.... It is clear that maternal mortality has decreased throughout the twentieth century and will continue to do so. There are signs of a higher underestimation of mortality [due to] abortion. And there are regional differentials of maternal mortality.... Professional and/or institutional attention during childbirth has a great impact on maternal mortality decline. There are also socio-economic differentials by marital status, milieu, and schooling...." (EXCERPT)

  19. DO SONS REDUCE PARENTAL MORTALITY?

    PubMed Central

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although sons are thought to impose greater physiological costs on mothers than daughters, sons may be advantageous for parental survival in some social contexts. We examined the relationship between the sex composition of offspring and parental survival in contemporary China and Taiwan. Because of the importance of sons for the provision of support to elderly parents in these populations, we hypothesized that sons would have a beneficial effect on parental survival relative to daughters. METHODS We used data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA). Our CLHLS sample consisted of 4132 individuals ages 65+ in 2002. Our TLSA sample comprised two cohorts: 3409 persons aged 60+ in 1989 and 2193 persons aged 50–66 in 1996.These cohorts were followed for 3, 18, and 11 years, respectively. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the relationship between the sex composition of offspring and parental mortality. RESULTS Based on 7 measures of sex composition, we find no protective effect of sons in either China or Taiwan. For example, in the 1989 Taiwan sample, the hazard ratio for maternal mortality associated with having an eldest son is 0.979 (95% CI (0.863, 1.111)). In Taiwan, daughters may have been more beneficial than sons in reducing mortality in recent years. CONCLUSION We offer several explanations for these findings, including possible benefits associated with emotional and interpersonal forms of support provided by daughters and negative impacts of conflicts arising between parents and resident daughters-in-law. PMID:21551178

  20. Intergenerational impacts of maternal mortality: Qualitative findings from rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality, although largely preventable, remains unacceptably high in developing countries such as Malawi and creates a number of intergenerational impacts. Few studies have investigated the far-reaching impacts of maternal death beyond infant survival. This study demonstrates the short- and long-term impacts of maternal death on children, families, and the community in order to raise awareness of the true costs of maternal mortality and poor maternal health care in Neno, a rural and remote district in Malawi. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted to assess the impact of maternal mortality on child, family, and community well-being. We conducted 20 key informant interviews, 20 stakeholder interviews, and six sex-stratified focus group discussions in the seven health centers that cover the district. Transcripts were translated, coded, and analyzed in NVivo 10. Results Participants noted a number of far-reaching impacts on orphaned children, their new caretakers, and extended families following a maternal death. Female relatives typically took on caregiving responsibilities for orphaned children, regardless of the accompanying financial hardship and frequent lack of familial or governmental support. Maternal death exacerbated children’s vulnerabilities to long-term health and social impacts related to nutrition, education, employment, early partnership, pregnancy, and caretaking. Impacts were particularly salient for female children who were often forced to take on the majority of the household responsibilities. Participants cited a number of barriers to accessing quality child health care or support services, and many were unaware of programming available to assist them in raising orphaned children or how to access these services. Conclusions In order to both reduce preventable maternal mortality and diminish the impacts on children, extended families, and communities, our findings highlight the importance of financing and

  1. Maternal mortality in Malawi, 1977–2012

    PubMed Central

    Colbourn, Tim; Lewycka, Sonia; Nambiar, Bejoy; Anwar, Iqbal; Phoya, Ann; Mhango, Chisale

    2013-01-01

    Background Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5) targets a 75% reduction in maternal mortality from 1990 to 2015, yet accurate information on trends in maternal mortality and what drives them is sparse. We aimed to fill this gap for Malawi, a country in sub-Saharan Africa with high maternal mortality. Methods We reviewed the literature for population-based studies that provide estimates of the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Malawi, and for studies that list and justify variables potentially associated with trends in MMR. We used all population-based estimates of MMR representative of the whole of Malawi to construct a best-fit trend-line for the range of years with available data, calculated the proportion attributable to HIV and qualitatively analysed trends and evidence related to other covariates to logically assess likely candidate drivers of the observed trend in MMR. Results 14 suitable estimates of MMR were found, covering the years 1977–2010. The resulting best-fit line predicted MMR in Malawi to have increased from 317 maternal deaths/100 000 live-births in 1980 to 748 in 1990, before peaking at 971 in 1999, and falling to 846 in 2005 and 484 in 2010. Concurrent deteriorations and improvements in HIV and health system investment and provisions are the most plausible explanations for the trend. Female literacy and education, family planning and poverty reduction could play more of a role if thresholds are passed in the coming years. Conclusions The decrease in MMR in Malawi is encouraging as it appears that recent efforts to control HIV and improve the health system are bearing fruit. Sustained efforts to prevent and treat maternal complications are required if Malawi is to attain the MDG 5 target and save the lives of more of its mothers in years to come. PMID:24353257

  2. Maternal mortality due to violence.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, R G; Córdoba, R R; Maguna, J J

    1998-12-01

    The objectives were to investigate the death of women by violent injuries, including induced abortion, in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, 1992-1996 and to perform a bibliographic review on maternal death due to violence. Reports of autopsies of all violent deaths in women aged 12-44 years were reviewed to determine the cause of death for cases of suicide, homicide, accident or induced abortion and a bibliographic review was performed through MEDLINE. Two hundred and seventy two women died due to violence, including 22 which were due to complications of induced abortion. The remaining 250 deaths were: 44 (17.6%) by suicide, 51 (20.4%) by homicide and 155 (62%) by traffic accidents, including 6 pregnant women (2 died by suicide, 1 by homicide and 3 by accidents). Violence against women and pregnant women is a growing problem in developing countries. The implication of a simplified screening has been proposed to identify abuses against women, searching for frequency of abuse, its severity and to determine who provokes it.

  3. Use of Maternal Early Warning Trigger tool reduces maternal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Shields, Laurence E; Wiesner, Suzanne; Klein, Catherine; Pelletreau, Barbara; Hedriana, Herman L

    2016-04-01

    Maternal mortality in the United States has increased unabated for the past 20 years. Maternal morbidity is also affecting an increasingly large number of women in the United States. A number of national and state organizations have recommend the use of maternal early warning tools as a method to combat this problem. There are limited data suggesting that the use of these types of clinical assessment tools can reduce maternal morbidity. We sought to determine if maternal morbidity could be reduced with the implementation of a clinical pathway-specific Maternal Early Warning Trigger (MEWT) tool. The tool was developed internally and prospectively implemented as a pilot project in 6 of 29 hospitals within a large hospital system. The primary goal was early assessment and treatment of patients suspected of clinical deterioration. The tool addressed the 4 most common areas of maternal morbidity: sepsis, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, preeclampsia-hypertension, and hemorrhage. To be considered positive, triggers needed to be sustained for >20 minutes and were defined as severe (single abnormal value): maternal heart rate (HR) >130 beats/min (bpm), respiratory rate >30/min, mean arterial pressure <55 mm Hg, oxygen saturation <90%, or nurse concern; or nonsevere (required 2 abnormal values): temperature >38 or <36°C, blood pressure >160/110 or <85/45 mm Hg, HR >110 or <50 bpm, respiratory rate >24 or <10/min, oxygen saturation <93%, fetal HR >160 bpm, altered mental status, or disproportionate pain. Within each group, recommended management or assessment was also provided. Outcome measures were Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined severe maternal morbidity, composite maternal morbidity, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Two time intervals were used to analyze the effect of the MEWT tool: a 24-month baseline control period and a 13-month MEWT study period. To determine that the findings noted were not simply changes that would have occurred

  4. WHO claims maternal mortality has been underestimated.

    PubMed

    Court, C

    1996-02-17

    New data produced by the WHO and Unicef demonstrated that maternal mortality has been underestimated by a third, with nearly 80,000 more pregnancy-related deaths than previously reported. About 585,000 maternal deaths occur every year, 99% of them in developing countries. 55% of the deaths occur in Asia, which is responsible for 61% of the world's births, while Africa accounts for 40% of deaths and 20% of the world's births. Developed countries account for only 1% of maternal deaths and 11% of all births. Specific statistical models were used to assess the amount of underreporting that is common in developing countries, but can also occur in developed countries. When a pregnant woman is moved from the obstetrics department because of complications and subsequently dies, the original cause of the complication often is missing from the death certificate. A representative of WHO's maternal health and safe motherhood program remarked that these estimates are a great improvement over previous data. They also should encourage action to expand access to quality care for all women during pregnancy and childbirth. In North Africa, southern Africa, eastern Asia, Central America, and South America the estimates of maternal mortality were slightly lower than those available from earlier studies. The situation was particularly worrisome in eastern, middle, and western Africa, where the earlier estimates had been underestimated by almost one-third.

  5. Maternal mortality at the Women's and Children's Hospital, South Okkalapa (1978-1982).

    PubMed

    Khin Kyi, M

    1988-02-01

    The maternal deaths between the years 1978 and 1982 were studied. There were 22,468 maternities and 10,623 abortion patients treated at the hospital. There were 44 maternal deaths; 22 due to abortion and 22 due to other causes. The maternal mortality rate including abortions was 1.33 per 1,000 maternities and that excluding abortions 0.98 per 1,000. The abortion was 2.0 per 1,000 abortions treated at the hospital. To reduce maternal mortality, ways and means should be found to reduce the abortion deaths, most of which were avoidable.

  6. [Maternal mortality at the Hospital Central Militar].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Moreno, J A; Rodríguez Enríquez, C; Márquez Tavares, J F; Rosales Pérez, P; Coronado Ugalde, C A

    1982-02-01

    71 maternal deaths at the Hospital Central Militar (Central Military Hospital) over the 12-year period 1968-1979 were reviewed. Maternal mortality rate was 23.07% which is higher than for the rest of the population. The most frequent type of mortality was due to obstetrical causes (69.01%) and here it was infection, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and hemorrhage which were most frequent. Among nonobstetrical causes, viral hepatitis was the most frequent. Death occurred more often among young women ages 21-25 with 2-4 previous deliveries. Death was considered evitable and probably evitable in 50 cases (70.42%). Of these, 62% were the responsibility of physicians and hospitals, while the rest were attributable to the patient and the community. (author's modified)

  7. Factors influencing maternal mortality among rural communities in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azuh, Dominic Ezinwa; Azuh, Akunna Ebere; Iweala, Emeka Joshua; Adeloye, Davies; Akanbi, Moses; Mordi, Raphael C

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity reflect the status of population health and quality of life across nations. Poor understanding of the interplay of many antecedent factors, including sociocultural, economic and logistic factors, combined with an overwhelming poor health services delivery, is a basic challenge in several countries, particularly in rural settings where functional health care services are relatively scarce. There are still uncertainties as to the extent of this burden, owing to current challenges with information and data collation. This study aimed at identifying nonmedical factors associated with maternal mortality in rural and semiurban communities of southwestern Nigeria. Methodology The study was carried out in Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage sampling technique and an informant survey approach were used in the study. A total sample of 360 eligible respondents were selected randomly from 11 out of 16 political wards in the study area and interviewed through the administration of questionnaires. The data were processed using descriptive statistics and regression analyses. Results Place of consultation (P=0.000), who pays the treatment costs (P=0.000), awareness of pregnancy complications (P=0.002) and knowledge of the place of antenatal care treatment (P=0.000) significantly influenced maternal mortality (proxy by place of delivery of last birth). The F-statistic (15.100) confirmed the hypothesis that nonmedical factors influence maternal mortality. The correlation of predictor variables was significant at both the 0.01 level and the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Conclusion Our findings suggest that in a rural community setting with a depleted health care system, health education tailored toward community culture, subsidized maternal health care services by the government and operators of private clinics, as well as empowering and improving the status of women may reduce maternal mortality and prompt better

  8. Signal functions for emergency obstetric care as an intervention for reducing maternal mortality: a survey of public and private health facilities in Lusaka District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Tannia; Chongwe, Gershom; Vwalika, Bellington; Sitali, Lungowe

    2017-09-06

    Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 398/100,000 live births in 2014. Successful aversion of deaths is dependent on availability and usability of signal functions for emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Evidence of availability, usability and quality of signal functions in urban settings in Zambia is minimal as previous research has evaluated their distribution in rural settings. This survey evaluated the availability and usability of signal functions in private and public health facilities in Lusaka District of Zambia. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 at 35 public and private health facilities. The Service Availability and Readiness Assessment tool was adapted and administered to overall in-charges, hospital administrators or maternity ward supervisors at health facilities providing maternal and newborn health services. The survey quantified infrastructure, human resources, equipment, essential drugs and supplies and used the UN process indicators to determine availability, accessibility and quality of signal functions. Data on deliveries and complications were collected from registers for periods between June 2013 and May 2014. Of the 35 (25.7% private and 74.2% public) health facilities assessed, only 22 (62.8%) were staffed 24 h a day, 7 days a week and had provided obstetric care 3 months prior to the survey. Pre-eclampsia/ eclampsia and obstructed labor accounted for most direct complications while postpartum hemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal deaths. Overall, 3 (8.6%) and 5 (14.3%) of the health facilities had provided Basic and Comprehensive EmONC services, respectively. All facilities obtained blood products from the only blood bank at a government referral hospital. The UN process indicators can be adequately used to monitor progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Lusaka district had an unmet need for BEmONC as health facilities fell below the minimum UN standard

  9. Maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

    PubMed Central

    Gurina, Natalia A.; Vangen, Siri; Forsén, Lisa; Sundby, Johanne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the levels and causes of maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. METHODS: We collected data about all pregnancy-related deaths in St. Petersburg over the period 1992-2003 using several sources of information. An independent research group reviewed and classified all cases according to ICD-10 and the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. We tested trends of overall and cause specific ratios (deaths per 100,000 births) for four 3-year intervals using the chi2 test. FINDINGS: The maternal mortality ratio for the study period was 43 per 100,000 live births. A sharp decline of direct obstetric deaths was observed from the first to fourth 3-year interval (49.8 for 1992-94 versus 18.5 for 2001-03). Sepsis and haemorrhage were the main causes of direct obstetric deaths. Among the total deaths from sepsis, 63.8% were due to abortion. Death ratios from sepsis declined significantly from the first to second study interval. In the last study interval (2001-03), 50% of deaths due to haemorrhage were secondary to ectopic pregnancies. The death ratio from thromboembolism remained low (2.9%) and stable throughout the study period. Among indirect obstetric deaths a non-significant decrease was observed for deaths from cardiac disease. Death ratios from infectious causes and suicides increased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality levels in St. Petersburg still exceed European levels by a factor of five. Improved management of abortion, emergency care for sepsis and haemorrhage, and better identification and control of infectious diseases in pregnancy, are needed. PMID:16628301

  10. Maternal education and child mortality in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Grépin, Karen A; Bharadwaj, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    In 1980, Zimbabwe rapidly expanded access to secondary schools, providing a natural experiment to estimate the impact of increased maternal secondary education on child mortality. Exploiting age specific exposure to these reforms, we find that children born to mothers most likely to have benefited from the policies were about 21% less likely to die than children born to slightly older mothers. We also find that increased education leads to delayed age at marriage, sexual debut, and first birth and that increased education leads to better economic opportunities for women. We find little evidence supporting other channels through which increased education might affect child mortality. Expanding access to secondary schools may greatly accelerate declines in child mortality in the developing world today.

  11. Maternal mortality studies in Ethiopia--magnitude, causes and trends.

    PubMed

    Gaym, Asheber

    2009-01-01

    Reduction of maternal mortality is a global public health priority. Periodic maternal mortality studies are required to monitor changing trends. Both direct and indirect methods of maternal mortality measurement are used in different settings. To study the geographic coverage, study base, type, maternal mortality ratio level and proportion of different causes of maternal deaths identified by maternal mortality studies conducted in Ethiopia. Electronic databases search coupled with search in local journals of health as well as interview with relevant university departments for unpublished literatures on maternal mortality studies was conducted. Structured questionnaire was used to extract relevant data which was analyzed using SPSS 13 statistical package. Twelve maternal mortality studies were identified from 1980 to 2008. Eight were hospital based and four community based studies. Only two were based on a national sample. Maternal mortality ratios ranged from 567 to 2600 per hundred thousand live births. Hospital studies had nearly double ratios compared to community studies. Maternal mortality ratios from hospitals outside Addis were nearly double or more compared to Addis hospital ratios. Abortion complications, ruptured uterus, puerperal sepsis, postpartum hemorrhage and preeclampsia/ eclampsia were the five major causes of maternal mortality. The only study conducted since 2000 has shown a marked reduction in abortion related mortality; compared to findings of earlier studies. Only four of the country's nine regions were covered by the hospital studies. The large pastoralist community has not been adequately addressed by any of the studies. There is a need to conduct national health facility based studies to gather representative data on the proportion of different causes of maternal deaths and their predisposing factors. Inclusion of verbal autopsy techniques to demographic and health surveys and the decennial census can increase the power of these studies to

  12. Changing trends of maternal mortality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, R D

    1987-12-01

    An in-depth study of maternal mortality was carried out from 1929-83 at Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital, Bombay, India. Results have shown that maternal mortality dropped from 1920/100,000 livebirths during 1929-39 to 80/100,000 livebirths between 1980-83. The direct obstetric death rate for the period 1929-39 which was 670/100,000 livebirths declined to 40/100,000 for the period 1980-83, while the indirect obstetric death rate has declined from 690/100,000 livebirths during 1929-39 to 30/100,000 for the 1980-83 period. Multiple factors are responsible. It is emphasized that ideal antenatal, intranatal, and postnatal care is a contributing factor to the declining maternal mortality. Confidential maternal mortality committees in various hospitals and institutions, as well as periodic reviews of maternal mortality on a national and international level will help aid and further reductions in maternal mortality.

  13. Maternal mortality in Benghazi: a clinicoepidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Legnain, M; Singh, R; Busarira, M O

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of 14 maternal deaths out of 79,981 live births at Al-Jamahiriya Hospital, Benghazi between 1993 and 1997. The maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births was 17.5. The reproductive profile of these women was: mean age 31.5 +/- 6.9 years, mean parity 4.5, mean birth interval 14.6 +/- 7.0 months, mean gestation 27.7 +/- 14.6 weeks and mean haemoglobin 9.3 +/- 2.1 g/dL. None of the women had prebooked their delivery, 50% had preconceptional medical or obstetric risk factors, around 70% were anaemic, almost all were admitted with serious medical conditions and > 50% required surgical intervention. The main underlying medical causes of death were: hypertensive disease of pregnancy (28.6%), haemorrhage (14.3%), pulmonary embolism (14.3%) and brain tumour (14.3%).

  14. Reflections on the maternal mortality millennium goal.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Gerald W; Keirse, Marc J N C

    2013-06-01

    Nearly every 2 minutes, somewhere in the world, a woman dies because of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Every such death is an overwhelming catastrophe for everyone confronted with it. Most deaths occur in developing countries, especially in Africa and southern Asia, but a significant number also occur in the developed world. We examined the available data on the progress and the challenges to the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal of achieving a 75 percent worldwide reduction in the maternal mortality by 2015 from what it was in 1990. Some countries, such as Belarus, Egypt, Estonia, Honduras, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Romania, Sri Lanka and Thailand, are likely to meet the target by 2015. Many poor countries with weak health infrastructures and high fertility rates are unlikely to meet the goal. Some, such as Botswana, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Guyana, Lesotho, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, had worse maternal mortality ratios in 2010 than in 1990, partially because of wars and civil strife. Worldwide, the leading causes of maternal death are still hemorrhage, hypertension, sepsis, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortions, while indirect causes are gaining in importance in developed countries. Maternal death is especially distressing if it was potentially preventable. However, as there is no single cause, there is no silver bullet to correct the problem. Many countries also face new challenges as their childbearing population is growing in age and in weight. Much remains to be done to make safe motherhood a reality. © 2013, Copyright the Authors, Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Maternal mortality in developing countries: what strategies to adopt?].

    PubMed

    de Bernis, L

    2003-01-01

    Despite an international consensus on the strategies necessary to achieve a massive reduction of maternal mortality and related neonatal mortality, many countries have made no progress in these areas. The main reason for this failure is that this aspect of public health and the basic human right to bear children under acceptably safe and respectable conditions have received neither sufficient attention from governments in developing countries nor long-term technical and financial support from rich countries. Yet a sound health care system that is accessible to the poorest classes is prerequisite for durable socio-economic development. Implementation of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) provides an excellent opportunity to reaffirm the need for massive support of programs undertaken in this domain by developing countries and for implementation of an effective strategy to enhance access to quality care for the poorest classes. The purpose of this article is to review the main points in a strategy to reduce maternal mortality, i.e., use of practices with documented effectiveness; access to qualified personal during pregnancy and delivery; availability of health services and underlying facilities; the role of individuals, families, and communities; and the political and legal framework. This article also stresses the fact that programs designed to enhance maternal and newborn health can significantly strengthen the health care system for the community as a whole: maternal health offers a gateway for strengthening health care services in general.

  16. [Situation of maternal mortality in Peru, 2000 - 2012].

    PubMed

    dl Carpio Ancaya, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    We perform an analysis concerning the situation of maternal mortality in Peru, based on the information of the System of Epidemiologic Surveillance of Maternal Mortality of the General Directorate of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health and the Family and Health Demographic Survey. We can see a decrease in the rates of maternal mortality between 2000 and 2012. The direct causes are the same but in different proportions according to the natural regions, being the hemorrhage the first cause of maternal mortality. The coverage of birth attention in health establishments has increased in the last years but it is still necessary to improve the capacity of quick response and the quality of the health services. Maternal mortality in Peru is related to inequity and lack of women empowerment to excerpt their rights, specially the sexual and reproductive rights. It is necessary to strengthen the strategies that have been implemented in order to accomplish of the reduction in maternal mortality in Peru.

  17. Safer Muslim motherhood: Social conditions and maternal mortality in the Muslim world.

    PubMed

    Liese, Kylea Laina; Maeder, Angela B

    2017-09-20

    The greatest variation in maternal mortality is among poor countries and wealthy countries that rely on emergency obstetric technology to save a woman's life during childbirth. However, substantial variation in maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) exists within and among poor countries with uneven access to advanced obstetric services. This article examines MMRs across the Muslim world and compares the impact of national wealth, female education, and skilled birth attendants on maternal mortality. Understanding how poor countries have lowered MMRs without access to expensive obstetric technologies suggests that certain social variables may act protectively to reduce the maternal risk for life-threatening obstetric complications that would require emergency obstetric care.

  18. Effects of maternal mortality on gross domestic product (GDP) in the WHO African region.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, Joses M; Oluwole, Doyin; Mwabu, Germano M; Gatwiri, Doris; Kainyu, Lenity H

    2006-01-01

    WHO African region has got the highest maternal mortality rate compared to the other five regions. Maternal mortality is hypothesized to have significantly negative effect on the gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of the current study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to maternal mortality in the WHO African Region. The burden of maternal mortality on GDP was estimated using a double-log econometric model. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data for 45 of the 46 Member States in the WHO African Region. Data were obtained from UNDP and the World Bank publications. All the explanatory variables included in the double-log model were found to have statistically significant effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at 5 % level in a t-distribution test. The coefficients for land (D), capital (K), educational enrollment (EN) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while labor (L), imports (M) and maternal mortality rate (MMR) were found to impact negatively on GDP. Maternal mortality of a single person was found to reduce per capita GDP by US $ 0.36 per year. The study has demonstrated that maternal mortality has a statistically significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through land reform programs, capital investments, export promotion and increase in educational enrollment, they should always remember that investment in maternal mortality-reducing interventions promises significant economic returns.

  19. State Medicaid Coverage of Medically Necessary Abortions and Severe Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Jarlenski, Marian; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Simhan, Hyagriv N

    2017-05-01

    To estimate the association between state Medicaid coverage of medically necessary abortion and severe maternal morbidity and in-hospital maternal mortality in the United States. We used data on pregnancy-related hospitalizations from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000 to 2011 (weighted n=38,016,845). State-level Medicaid coverage of medically necessary abortion for each year was determined from Guttmacher Institute reports. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between state Medicaid coverage of abortion and severe maternal morbidity and in-hospital maternal mortality, overall and stratified by payer. The unadjusted rate of severe maternal morbidity was lower among Medicaid-paid hospitalizations in states with Medicaid coverage of medically necessary abortion relative to those in states without such coverage (62.4 compared with 69.3 per 10,000). Among Medicaid-paid hospitalizations in states with Medicaid coverage of medically necessary abortion, there were 8.5 per 10,000 fewer cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0-16.5) of severe maternal morbidity in adjusted analyses relative to those in states without such Medicaid coverage. Similarly, there were 10.3 per 10,000 fewer cases (95% CI 3.5-17.2) of severe maternal morbidity in adjusted analyses among private insurance-paid hospitalizations in states with Medicaid coverage of medically necessary abortion relative to those in states without such Medicaid coverage. The adjusted rate of in-hospital maternal mortality was not different for Medicaid-paid hospitalizations in states with and without Medicaid coverage of medically necessary abortion (9.2 and 9.0 per 100,000, respectively) nor for private insurance-paid hospitalizations (5.6 and 6.1 per 100,000, respectively). State Medicaid coverage of medically necessary abortion was associated with an average 16% decreased risk of severe maternal morbidity. An association between state Medicaid coverage of medically necessary

  20. Maternal mortality, fetal death, congenital anomalies and infant mortality at an advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Czeizel, A

    1988-01-01

    Recent economic, technological, and social changes in Hungary have altered the role of women and thus patterns of childbearing. In 1986, 65.9% of births in Hungary involved mothers in the 20-29-year age group--generally regarded as the optimal period for childbearing. The distribution of the remaining births by age group was as follows: 19 years or under, 13.6%; 30-34 years, 15.3%; 35-39 years, 4.5%; and 40-49 years, 0.7%. Advanced maternal age has been a significant risk factor in maternal mortality in Hungary: of the 281 maternal deaths in 1977-86, 41 (14.6%) occurred in the 35-39-year age group and 24 (8.5%) involved women 40-49 years of age. Women in the 30-49-year age group have a 1.4-1.5 times higher risk of stillbirth, a 2.0-2.4 times greater risk of perinatal mortality, and a 2.6-4.3 times higher risk of infant mortality than women 20-29 years old. The risk of spontaneous abortion is 1.7 times higher for those 30-34 years old, 2.8 times higher for mothers 35-39 years of age, and 16.4 times higher for those 40-49 years old than for those in the optimal 20-29-year age range. The distribution of mean birthweight according to maternal age again indicates a detrimental effect of advanced maternal age. Finally, congenital anomalies such as neural tube defect, cleft lip or palate, congenital inguinal hernia, and especially Down's syndrome are more prevalent with increasing maternal age. On the other hand, the majority of these documented risks of birth defects at advanced maternal ages are now preventable through fetal diagnosis and other high-technology prenatal care measures. Most of the deleterious effect of advanced maternal age is a result of social factors (especially educational status) rather than biological factors. As the status of women in Hungary continues to improve, it should become obvious that the 20-29-year age range no longer constitutes the sole period for successful reproduction.

  1. Strengthening health systems capacity to monitor and evaluate programmes targeted at reducing abortion-related maternal mortality in Jessore district, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Ford, Evelyn Rebecca; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2015-09-28

    Abortion related deaths as a proportion of maternal mortality appears to have fallen dramatically in Bangladesh from 5 % in 2001 to 1 % in 2010. Yet complications from menstrual regulation (MR) and unsafe abortion continue to cause deleterious health, economic and social consequences for women in the country. This quasi experimental design study with a baseline (January to December 2008) and an endline survey (August to October 2009) was conducted in 69 public, private, and NGO sector health facilities in Jessore district of Bangladesh with the objective of adapting and implementing a set of process indicators, specifically to supplement the indicators for monitoring emergency obstetric care interventions. At the baseline, we collected retrospective data from all 69 health facilities that provided MR, legal abortion or post-abortion care (PAC), by reviewing their last one year's records. Three months after introducing the safe menstrual regulation and abortion care (SMRAC) model, endline data was collected. Signal function (critical services that facilities must perform in order to prevent and treat abortion complications) analysis was used to characterize facilities as providing basic care, comprehensive care, or neither. Facility mapping, and records on services provided and complications treated were used to further characterize service availability and to describe service use and quality. No facilities fulfilled criteria for 'comprehensive' care at either the baseline or end line while only one met the 'basic' criteria during the endline of the project. Recommended uterine evacuation technology, manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) was used for 100.0 % of MR clients but only for 8.0 % or fewer PAC patients. MR clients were 37.5 times more likely than PAC patients to leave facilities with a contraceptive method (75.0 % vs. 2.0 %). Persistent use of older uterine evacuation technologies was observed when recommended techniques were widely available in the facilities

  2. Maternal mortality: new strategies for measurement and prevention.

    PubMed

    Main, Elliott K

    2010-12-01

    Maternal mortality has recently been featured in both lay and professional literature often with a high degree of passion. This review will provide the obstetrician with a background of the current issues with maternal mortality. Current international data suggest significant improvement in maternal mortality in most countries with the exception of the United States. US data are confounded by changes in data definitions and data collection techniques but the best estimate is that we have seen an actual increase in US maternal mortality over the last 8 years. Importantly, maternal mortality is not a single diagnosis, and each underlying cause has its own pathophysiology, drivers, contributing factors and possibilities for prevention. Current leading causes include cardiac disease and cardiomyopathy, venous thromboembolism, obstetric hemorrhage and pre-eclampsia. The majority of deaths from these causes have reasonable degrees of preventability. The African-American maternal mortality disparity (three to four times white) is among the worst of any health outcome measure and needs further attention although current evidence indicates a combination of social, behavioral and medical care factors. Maternal mortality has re-emerged as an important measure for assessing maternity care and the United States has significant opportunities for improvement.

  3. Maternal Mortality in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A 10-year Review

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Bhaskar K; Murthy, Mangala B; Prabhu, Priya M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological data pertaining to maternal mortality is valuable in each set up to design interventional programs to favourably reduce the ratio. This study was done to evaluate the maternal mortality rate in our hospital, to assess the epidemiological aspects and causes of maternal mortality, and to suggest recommendations for improvement. Methods: This was a 10 year retrospective study. Epidemiological data was collected from the hospital register and maternal mortality ratio, epidemiological factors and causes affecting maternal mortality were assessed. Results: A total of 120 maternal deaths occurred. Most maternal deaths occurred in the age group of 20–24 years, multiparous women (56.66%), women from rural areas (69.16%), illiterate women (65%), unbooked patients (83.33%), and patients of low socioeconomic status (83.33%). Direct causes accounted for 72.5% of maternal deaths where as 27.5% of maternal deaths were due to indirect causes. Conclusion: There is a wide scope for improvement as a large proportion of the observed deaths are preventable. PMID:23411635

  4. Maternal mortality inquiry in a rural community of north India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, A K; Barik, S; Kumar, V

    1989-08-01

    Community inquiry on maternal mortality was conducted in a rural area of North India. Maternal deaths were identified by multiple informants and investigated by doctors. Amongst 257 deaths registered in women in the 15-44 year age group, 55(21.4%) were maternal deaths. Maternal mortality ratio was 230 per 100,000 live births. Major causes were antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage (18.2%), puerperal sepsis (16.4%), severe anemia (16.4%), abortion (9.1%) and obstructed labor (7.3%). This rapid, simple and low cost method is recommended for application in areas where vital registration system is unsatisfactory.

  5. Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia--an interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Julián A; Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Herrera-Escobar, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Díaz, Aníbal

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006). An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Five years after (2002 - 2006) its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR=0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82).The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22% (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88), as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25% (OR=0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90) associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112); however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042). General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations.

  6. Reduction of maternal mortality due to preeclampsia in Colombia-an interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Herrera-Escobar, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Díaz, Aníbal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preeclampsia is the most important cause of maternal mortality in developing countries. A comprehensive prenatal care program including bio-psychosocial components was developed and introduced at a national level in Colombia. We report on the trends in maternal mortality rates and their related causes before and after implementation of this program. Methods: General and specific maternal mortality rates were monitored for nine years (1998-2006). An interrupted time-series analysis was performed with monthly data on cases of maternal mortality that compared trends and changes in national mortality rates and the impact of these changes attributable to the introduction of a bio-psychosocial model. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate correlations between the interventions. Results: Five years after (2002 - 2006) its introduction the general maternal mortality rate was significantly reduced to 23% (OR=0.77, CI 95% 0.71-0.82).The implementation of BPSM also reduced the incidence of preeclampsia in 22% (OR= 0.78, CI 95% 0.67-0.88), as also the labor complications by hemorrhage in 25% (OR=0.75, CI 95% 0.59-0.90) associated with the implementation of red code. The other causes of maternal mortality did not reveal significant changes. Biomedical, nutritional, psychosocial assessments, and other individual interventions in prenatal care were not correlated to maternal mortality (p= 0.112); however, together as a model we observed a significant association (p= 0.042). Conclusions: General maternal mortality was reduced after the implementation of a comprehensive national prenatal care program. Is important the evaluation of this program in others populations. PMID:24970956

  7. Costs of Inaction on Maternal Mortality: Qualitative Evidence of the Impacts of Maternal Deaths on Living Children in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Boulanger, Vanessa M.; Falb, Kathryn L.; Shuma, Jane; Leaning, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the interconnectedness of maternal deaths and impacts on children, beyond infants, or the mechanisms through which this interconnectedness is established. A study was conducted in rural Tanzania to provide qualitative insight regarding how maternal mortality affects index as well as other living children and to identify shared structural and social factors that foster high levels of maternal mortality and child vulnerabilities. Methods and Findings Adult family members of women who died due to maternal causes (N = 45) and key stakeholders (N = 35) participated in in-depth interviews. Twelve focus group discussions were also conducted (N = 83) among community leaders in three rural regions of Tanzania. Findings highlight the widespread impact of a woman’s death on her children’s health, education, and economic status, and, by inference, the roles that women play within their families in rural Tanzanian communities. Conclusions The full costs of failing to address preventable maternal mortality include intergenerational impacts on the nutritional status, health, and education of children, as well as the economic capacity of families. When setting priorities in a resource-poor, high maternal mortality country, such as Tanzania, the far-reaching effects that reducing maternal deaths can have on families and communities, as well as women’s own lives, should be considered. PMID:23990971

  8. How Communication Among Members of the Health Care Team Affects Maternal Morbidity and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Rita Allen; Keohane, Carol Ann

    In the United States, rates of severe maternal morbidity and mortality have escalated in the past decade. Communication failure among members of the health care team is one associated factor that can be modified. Nurses can promote effective communication. We provide strategies that incorporate team training principles and structured communication processes for use by providers and health care systems to improve the quality and safety of patient care and reduce the incidence of maternal mortality and morbidity.

  9. Improving the measurement of maternal mortality: the sisterhood method revisited.

    PubMed

    Merdad, Leena; Hill, Kenneth; Graham, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several decades the efforts to improve maternal survival and the consequent demand for accurate estimates of maternal mortality have increased. However, measuring maternal mortality remains a difficult task especially in developing countries with weak information systems. Sibling histories included in household surveys (most notably the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)) have emerged as an important source of maternal mortality data. Data have been mainly collected from women and have not been widely collected from men due to concerns about data quality. We assess data quality of histories obtained from men and the potential to improve the efficiency of surveys measuring maternal mortality by collecting such data. We used data from 10 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) that have included a full sibling history in both their women's and men's questionnaires. We estimated adult and maternal mortality indicators from histories obtained from men and women. We assessed the completeness and accuracy of these histories using several indicators of data quality. Our study finds that mortality estimates based on sibling histories obtained from men do not systematically or significantly differ from those obtained from women. Quality indicators were similar when comparing data from men and women. Pooling data obtained from men and women produced narrower confidence intervals. From experience across nine developing countries, sibling history data obtained from men appear to be a reliable source of information on adult and maternal mortality. Given that there are no significant differences between mortality estimates based on data obtained from men and women, data can be pooled to increase efficiency. This finding improves the feasibility for countries to generate robust empirical estimates of adult and maternal mortality from surveys. Further we recommend that male sibling histories be collected from all sample households rather than from a subsample.

  10. Improving the Measurement of Maternal Mortality: The Sisterhood Method Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Merdad, Leena; Hill, Kenneth; Graham, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past several decades the efforts to improve maternal survival and the consequent demand for accurate estimates of maternal mortality have increased. However, measuring maternal mortality remains a difficult task especially in developing countries with weak information systems. Sibling histories included in household surveys (most notably the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)) have emerged as an important source of maternal mortality data. Data have been mainly collected from women and have not been widely collected from men due to concerns about data quality. We assess data quality of histories obtained from men and the potential to improve the efficiency of surveys measuring maternal mortality by collecting such data. Methods and Findings We used data from 10 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) that have included a full sibling history in both their women’s and men’s questionnaires. We estimated adult and maternal mortality indicators from histories obtained from men and women. We assessed the completeness and accuracy of these histories using several indicators of data quality. Our study finds that mortality estimates based on sibling histories obtained from men do not systematically or significantly differ from those obtained from women. Quality indicators were similar when comparing data from men and women. Pooling data obtained from men and women produced narrower confidence intervals. Conclusion From experience across nine developing countries, sibling history data obtained from men appear to be a reliable source of information on adult and maternal mortality. Given that there are no significant differences between mortality estimates based on data obtained from men and women, data can be pooled to increase efficiency. This finding improves the feasibility for countries to generate robust empirical estimates of adult and maternal mortality from surveys. Further we recommend that male sibling histories be collected from all sample

  11. A review of cultural influence on maternal mortality in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Evans, Emily C

    2013-05-01

    identify research examining the effect of culture on maternal mortality rates. literature review of CINAHL, Cochrane, PsychInfo, OVID Medline and Web of Science databases. developing countries with typically higher rates of maternal mortality. women, birth attendants, family members, nurse midwives, health-care workers, and community members. reviews, qualitative and mixed-methods research have identified components of culture that have a direct impact on maternal mortality. Examples of culture are given in the text and categorised according to the way in which they impact maternal mortality. cultural customs, practices, beliefs and values profoundly influence women's behaviours during the perinatal period and in some cases increase the likelihood of maternal death in childbirth. The four ways in which culture may increase MMR are as follows: directly harmful acts, inaction, use of care and social status. understanding the specifics of how the culture surrounding childbirth contributes to maternal mortality can assist nurses, midwives and other health-care workers in providing culturally competent care and designing effective programs to help decrease MMR, especially in the developing world. Interventions designed without accounting for these cultural factors are likely to be less effective in reducing maternal mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Review of Maternal Mortality in Ethiopia: A Story of the Past 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six countries which have contributed to more than 50% of all maternal deaths across the world. This country has adopted the millennium development goals (MDGs) including reducing the maternal mortality by three-quarter, and put improvement in maternal health as one of the health sector development program (HSDP) performance indicators. The purpose of this study was to review the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Ethiopia in the past 30 years using available literature. Methods A computer based literature search in the databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, HINARI, EBASE, MEASURE DHS, The Cochrane Library, Google Search and Google Scholar was carried out. Manual search for local articles that are not available electronically in full document were also conducted. Eighteen data sources (3 nationally representative surveys, 2 secondary data analyses, 5 small scale community based studies, and 8 hospital based studies) were included in the review. The results of this review are presented in the form of line and stock graphs. Results The national maternal mortality trend estimated by the central statistics agency of Ethiopia, The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, WHO and other UN agencies showed inconsistent results. Similarly, although there were marked variations in the 95% confidence intervals among individual studies, the small scale community based and hospital based studies have shown that there has been no significant change in maternal mortality over the last three decades. A 22-year cohort analysis from Atat Hospital is the only evidence that demonstrated a very significant drop in maternal mortality among mothers who were kept in the maternity waiting area before the onset of labor. Conclusion Although the MDG and HSDP envisaged significant improvement in maternal health by this time, this review has shown that the performances are still far from the target. The multisectoral huge investment by the Ethiopian Government is a

  13. Evaluation of Millennium Development Goals in Reduction of Maternal and Child Mortality in Narok County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koini, Stellah Malaso

    2017-01-01

    Background: Millennium Development Goals are the 21st Century worlds' concern to improve human way of life by 2015. In Kenya the Millennium Development Goals for reduction of maternal and child mortality has been recently powered by the beyond zero initiative which started in the year 2014 with the aim of reducing mortality as well as contributing…

  14. Praying until Death: Apostolicism, Delays and Maternal Mortality in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Religion affects people’s daily lives by solving social problems, although it creates others. Female sexual and reproductive health are among the issues most affected by religion. Apostolic sect members in Zimbabwe have been associated with higher maternal mortality. We explored apostolic beliefs and practices on maternal health using 15 key informant interviews in 5 purposively selected districts of Zimbabwe. Results show that apostolicism promotes high fertility, early marriage, non-use of contraceptives and low or non-use of hospital care. It causes delays in recognizing danger signs, deciding to seek care, reaching and receiving appropriate health care. The existence of a customized spiritual maternal health system demonstrates a huge desire for positive maternal health outcomes among apostolics. We conclude that apostolic beliefs and practices exacerbate delays between onset of maternal complications and receiving help, thus increasing maternal risk. We recommend complementary and adaptive approaches that address the maternal health needs of apostolics in a religiously sensitive manner. PMID:27509018

  15. Action plan to reduce perinatal mortality.

    PubMed

    Bhakoo, O N; Kumar, R

    1990-01-01

    The government of India has set a goal of reducing perinatal mortality from its current rate of 48/1000 to 30-35/1000 by the year 2000. Perinatal deaths result from maternal malnutrition, inadequate prenatal care, complications of delivery, and infections in the postpartum period. Since reductions in perinatal mortality require attention to social, economic, and behavioral factors, as well as improvements in the health care delivery system, a comprehensive strategy is required. Social measures, such as raising the age at marriage to 18 years for females, improving the nutritional status of adolescent girls, reducing the strenuousness of work during pregnancy, improving female literacy, raising women's status in the society and thus in the family, and poverty alleviation programs, would all help eliminate the extent of complications of pregnancy. Measures required to enhance infant survival include improved prenatal care, prenatal tetanus toxoid immunization, use of sterile disposable cord care kits, the provision of mucus extractors and resuscitation materials to birth attendants, the creation of neonatal care units in health facilities, and more efficient referral of high-risk newborns and mothers. Since 90% of births in rural India take place at home priority must be given to training traditional birth attendants in the identification of high risk factors during pregnancy, delivery, and the newborn period.

  16. Reducing morbidity and mortality among pregnant obese.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ann

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is increasing; in the UK, almost 20% of pregnant women have a body mass index (BMI) of ≥30 kg/m(2). Obese mothers have increased risks of pregnancy complications including miscarriage, congenital anomaly, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, macrosomia, induction of labour, caesarean section, anaesthetic and surgical complications, post-partum haemorrhage, infection and venous thromboembolism. Complications tend to be greater in those with the highest BMIs. In recent triennia, obesity (27-29%) was over-represented in maternal mortality figures. Strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality include calculating BMI at booking visit to identify obese mothers and plan their antenatal care and delivery. This should include nutritional and lifestyle advice, screening for gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, thromboembolism risk assessment, antenatal anaesthetic review if BMI is ≥ 40 kg/m(2), ensuring availability of robust theatre tables and other equipment and involving senior doctors, especially in the labour ward. Afterwards, continuing weight reduction should be encouraged to reduce future pregnancy and health risks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of pregnancy outcomes in the maternal mortality rates of two areas in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mizanur; DaVanzo, Julie; Razzaque, Abdur

    2010-12-01

    The Matlab Maternal Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) project provides maternity care as part of its reproductive health services. It is important to assess whether this project has reduced maternal mortality and, if so, whether this was due to differences between the MCH-FP area (which received project services) and the comparison area (which did not) in pregnancy rates, pregnancy outcomes or case-fatality rates. Data from the Matlab Demographic Surveillance System on 165,894 pregnancies over the period 1982-2005 were used to calculate four measures of maternal mortality for the MCH-FP and comparison areas. Mortality risk was examined by type of pregnancy outcome and by area, and bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to generate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, respectively. The maternal mortality rate of 35 deaths per 100,000 women of reproductive age in the MCH-FP area was 37% lower than that in the comparison area (56 deaths per 100,000). In both areas, the maternal mortality risk was considerably higher for pregnancies that ended in induced abortion, miscarriage or stillbirth than for those that resulted in live birth (odds ratios, 4.2, 2.0 and 17.4, respectively). The difference in maternal mortality rates between the two areas was mainly a result of the MCH-FP area's lower pregnancy rate and its lower case-fatality rates for induced abortions, miscarriages and stillbirths. Interventions to increase contraceptive use; to reduce the incidence of induced abortion, miscarriage and stillbirth; to improve the management of such outcomes; and to strengthen antenatal care could substantially reduce maternal mortality in Bangladesh and similar countries.

  18. Maternal mortality in the government hospitals, West Malaysia 1967-1969.

    PubMed

    Ariffin Bin Marzuki; Thambu, J A

    1973-03-01

    The attempt was made to determine the factors responsible for the maternal deaths in the government hospitals of West Malaysia over the 1967-1969 period. The study covered all maternal deaths in the government hospitals during this 2-year period. Despite an increase in the number of deliveries in government hospitals from 83,654 in 1964 to 92,583 in 1969, the maternal mortality had declined from 27/10,000 to 22/10,000. The maternal mortality rate in government hospitals was higher than the national maternal mortality rate because of the practice of referring all abnormal obstetric cases to hospitals for management. Hemorrhage continued as the primary cause of maternal deaths with toxemia as the 2nd important cause and infection as the 3rd. In the rural areas midwives found postpartum hemorrhage a major problem because of the coexistence of anemia in pregnancy. Other complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium included obstructed and neglected labors due to cephalo-pelvic disproportion, abnormal lie, and presentation and ruptured uterus referred from the rural areas to the hospitals. Hypertension was the most important cause in the associated maternal diseases. The following are included among the steps taken by the government to reduce maternal mortality: 1) development of an excellent infrastructure of health units; 2) a training program for midwives; and 3) a plan to integrate the family planning services with the health services.

  19. Caesarean sections and maternal mortality in Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Kilsztajn, Samuel; Carmo, Manuela S N do; Machado, Luis C; Lopes, Erika S; Lima, Luciana Z

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate caesarean section in both public and private sectors; maternal mortality associated with mode of delivery in the public sector (Sistema Unico de Saude, SUS) in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. 610,630 births in both public and private sectors for 2003; 1,153,034 deliveries and 314 maternal deaths in the public sector for 2001-2003. The study estimated caesarean section rates and odds ratios for caesarean section in association with maternal characteristics in both public and private sectors; maternal mortality associated with mode of delivery in the public sector, adjusted for hypertension, other disorders, problems and complications, as well as maternal age. The caesarean section rate was 32.9% in the public sector, and 80.4% in the private sector. The odd ratio for caesarean section was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.6-2.7) for women with 12 or more years of education. The odd ratio for maternal mortality associated with caesarean section in the public sector was 3.3 (95% CI: 2.6-4.3). Sao Paulo presented high caesarean section rates. Caesarean section compared to vaginal delivery in the public sector presented higher risk for mortality even when adjusted for hypertension, other disorders, problems and complications, as well as maternal age.

  20. Estimation of maternal and neonatal mortality at the subnational level in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Moseson, Heidi; Massaquoi, Moses; Bawo, Luke; Birch, Linda; Dahn, Bernice; Zolia, Yah; Barreix, Maria; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2014-11-01

    To establish representative local-area baseline estimates of maternal and neonatal mortality using a novel adjusted sisterhood method. The status of maternal and neonatal health in Bomi County, Liberia, was investigated in June 2013 using a population-based survey (n=1985). The standard direct sisterhood method was modified to account for place and time of maternal death to enable calculation of subnational estimates. The modified method of measuring maternal mortality successfully enabled the calculation of area-specific estimates. Of 71 reported deaths of sisters, 18 (25.4%) were due to pregnancy-related causes and had occurred in the past 3 years in Bomi County. The estimated maternal mortality ratio was 890 maternal deaths for every 100 000 live births (95% CI, 497-1301]. The neonatal mortality rate was estimated to be 47 deaths for every 1000 live births (95% CI, 42-52). In total, 322 (16.9%) of 1900 women with accurate age data reported having had a stillbirth. The modified direct sisterhood method may be useful to other countries seeking a more regionally nuanced understanding of areas in which neonatal and maternal mortality levels still need to be reduced to meet Millennium Development Goals. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of maternal and neonatal mortality at the subnational level in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    Moseson, Heidi; Massaquoi, Moses; Bawo, Luke; Birch, Linda; Dahn, Bernice; Zolia, Yah; Barreix, Maria; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish representative local-area baseline estimates of maternal and neonatal mortality using a novel adjusted sisterhood method. Methods The status of maternal and neonatal health in Bomi County, Liberia, was investigated in June 2013 using a population-based survey (n=1985). The standard direct sisterhood method was modified to account for place and time of maternal death to enable calculation of subnational estimates. Results The modified method of measuring maternal mortality successfully enabled the calculation of area-specific estimates. Of 71 reported deaths of sisters, 18 (25.4%) were due to pregnancy-related causes and had occurred in the past 3 years in Bomi County. The estimated maternal mortality ratio was 890 maternal deaths for every 100 000 live births (95% CI, 497–1301]. The neonatal mortality rate was estimated to be 47 deaths for every 1000 live births (95% CI, 42–52). In total, 322 (16.9%) of 1900 women with accurate age data reported having had a stillbirth. Conclusion The modified direct sisterhood method may be useful to other countries seeking a more regionally nuanced understanding of areas in which neonatal and maternal mortality levels still need to be reduced to meet Millennium Development Goals. PMID:25012917

  2. Maternal mortality in Giza, Egypt: magnitude, causes, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Kane, T T; el-Kady, A A; Saleh, S; Hage, M; Stanback, J; Potter, L

    1992-01-01

    This article presents results from a population-based study of the magnitude and causes of maternal mortality in the Giza governorate of Egypt in 1985-86. Deaths to women in the reproductive ages were identified through the death registration system. Family members of the deceased were interviewed using the "verbal autopsy" approach. Immediate and underlying causes of death were then assessed by a medical panel. This methodology allows for the classification of multiple causes of death and is appropriate when registration of adult deaths is nearly complete, but reporting on cause of death on death certificates is poor. Of all reproductive-age deaths, 19 percent were maternal deaths. The maternal mortality ratio for Giza is estimated to be, at minimum, 126 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate is estimated to be, at minimum, 22 maternal deaths per 100,000 women aged 15-49, over 100 times the rate in Sweden. An average of 2.3 causes per maternal death were reported; the most common causes were postpartum hemorrhage (31 percent of cases) and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, such as toxemia and eclampsia (28 percent of cases). Women experiencing hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, or other serious complications must have easy access to hospital and maternity centers equipped for handling these conditions. Since most deliveries occur at home, many with the help of traditional birth attendants, TBAs will need training in early diagnosis, treatment, and/or effective referral of problem pregnancies.

  3. Maternal mortality in Ramathibodi Hospital: a 14-year review.

    PubMed

    Phuapradit, W; Sirivongs, B; Chaturachinda, K

    1985-12-01

    A retrospective review of maternal mortality in the obstetric unit of Bangkok's Ramathibodi Hospital in 1969-82 was conducted. In this 14-year period, there were 72,872 live births and 26 maternal deaths, yielding a maternal mortality rate of 0.4/1000. Direct obstetric causes accounted for 77% of these deaths. The distribution of the 20 direct obstetric deaths was as follws: septic abortion (10 cases), puerperal infection (3 cases), pre-eclampsia (1 case), eclampsia (2 cases), amniotic fluid embolism (3 cases), and placenta percreta with uterine rupture (1 case). Among the 6 deaths attributable to indirect causes, viral hepatitis was responsible for 3, systemic lupus erythematosus was the cause in 2 cases, and cardiac failure occurred in the final case. The maternal mortality rate was 0.8/1000 amond women 19 years of age and below and 0.6/1000 among women 35 years of age and above compared with 0.2/1000 among those 20-34 years of age. Maternal mortality was 0.6/1000 for cesarean section delivery compared with 0.1 for normal delivery. Ongoing statistical analyses of maternal mortality are urged to serve as the basis for preventive measures.

  4. Changing perspectives of infectious causes of maternal mortality

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Vijayselvi, Reeta; Jose, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infections significantly contribute to maternal mortality. There is a perceived change in the spectrum of such infections. This study aims to estimate the contribution of various types of infections to maternal mortality. Material and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of maternal death cases that took place between 2003 and 2012 in the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. The International Classification of Diseases-Maternal Mortality was used to classify the causes of deaths and World Health Organization near-miss criteria were used to identify organ dysfunction that occurred before death. Infections during pregnancy were divided into three groups, i.e., pregnancy-related infections, pregnancy-unrelated infections, and nosocomial infections. Results In this study, 32.53% of maternal deaths were because of some type of infection as the primary cause. The contribution of pregnancy-related infections was comparable with that of pregnancy-unrelated infections (16.03% vs. 16.50%). Metritis with pelvic cellulitis, septic abortions, tuberculosis, malaria, scrub typhus, and H1N1 influenza (influenza A virus subtype) were among the most commonly encountered causes of maternal death due to infections. Another 7.07% of cases developed severe systemic infection during the course of illness as nosocomial infection. A significant majority of mothers were below 30 years of age, were primiparae, had advanced gestational age, and had operative delivery. Cardiovascular and respiratory system dysfunctions were the most common organ dysfunctions encountered. Conclusion The contribution of pregnancy-unrelated infections to maternal deaths is significant. Control of these diverse community-acquired infections holds the key to a reduction in maternal mortality along with the promotion of clean birthing practices. Nosocomial infections should not be underestimated as a contributor to maternal mortality. PMID:26692770

  5. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report.

    PubMed

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Pierre-Marie, Tebeu; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Gregory, Halle-Ekane; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Maxwell, Da Itambi; Enow Mbu, Robinson; Robinson, Enow Mbu; Mawamba, Yvette; Yvette, Mawamba; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson; Nelson, Fomulu Joseph

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon.

  6. Maternal mortality in Cameroon: a university teaching hospital report

    PubMed Central

    Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Da Itambi, Maxwell; Mbu, Robinson Enow; Mawamba, Yvette; Fomulu, Joseph Nelson

    2015-01-01

    More than 550,000 women die yearly from pregnancy-related causes. Fifty percent (50%) of the world estimate of maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa alone. There is insufficient information on the risk factors of maternal mortality in Cameroon. This study aimed at establishing causes and risk factors of maternal mortality. This was a case-control study from 1st January, 2006 to 31st December, 2010 after National Ethical Committee Approval. Cases were maternal deaths; controls were women who delivered normally. Maternal deaths were obtained from the delivery room registers and in-patient registers. Controls for each case were two normal deliveries following identified maternal deaths on the same day. Variables considered were socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics. Epi Info 3.5.1 was used for analysis. The mean MMR was 287.5/100,000 live births. Causes of deaths were: postpartum hemorrhage (229.2%), unsafe abortion (25%), ectopic pregnancy (12.5%), hypertension in pregnancy (8.3%), malaria (8.3%), anemia (8.3%), heart disease (4.2%), and pneumonia (4.2%), and placenta praevia (4.2%). Ages ranged from 18 to 41 years, with a mean of 27.7 ± 5.14 years. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal death (OR=78.33; CI: (8.66- 1802.51)). The mean MMR from 2006 to 2010 was 287.5/100,000 live births. Most of the causes of maternal deaths were preventable. Lack of antenatal care was a risk factor for maternal mortality. Key words: Maternal mortality, causes, risk factors, Cameroon. PMID:26401210

  7. Trends in maternal and neonatal mortality in South Africa: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Damian, Damian J; Njau, Bernard; Lisasi, Ester; Msuya, Sia E; Boulle, Andrew

    2017-08-17

    Measuring and monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 and 5 requires valid and reliable estimates of maternal and neonatal mortality. In South Africa, there are conflicting reports on the estimates of maternal and neonatal mortality, derived from both direct and indirect estimation techniques. This study aims to systematically review the estimates made of maternal and neonatal mortality in the period from 1990 to 2015 in South Africa and determine trends over this period. For the purpose of this review, searches for eligible studies will be conducted in MEDLINE, Africa-Wide Information, African Index Medicus, African Journals Online, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL databases. Searches will be restricted to articles written in English and presenting data covering the period between 1990 and 2015. Reference lists of retrieved articles will also be screened for additional publications. Three independent reviewers will be involved in the study selection, data extractions and achieving consensus. Study quality and risk of bias will thereafter be assessed by two authors. The results will be presented as rates/ratio with their corresponding 95% confidence/uncertainty intervals. Identifying trends in maternal and neonatal mortality will help to track progress in MDGs 4 and 5 and will serve in evaluating interventions focusing on reducing maternal and child mortality in the country. This study will, in particular, provide the context for understanding inconsistencies in reported estimates of maternal and neonatal mortality by considering estimation methods, data sources and definitions used. PROSPERO CRD42016042769.

  8. The lifetime risk of maternal mortality: concept and measurement.

    PubMed

    Wilmoth, John

    2009-04-01

    The lifetime risk of maternal mortality, which describes the cumulative loss of life due to maternal deaths over the female life course, is an important summary measure of population health. However, despite its interpretive appeal, the lifetime risk of dying from maternal causes can be defined and calculated in various ways. A clear and concise discussion of both its underlying concept and methods of measurement is badly needed. I define and compare a variety of procedures for calculating the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. I use detailed survey data from Bangladesh in 2001 to illustrate these calculations and compare the properties of the various risk measures. Using official UN estimates of maternal mortality for 2005, I document the differences in lifetime risk derived with the various measures. Taking sub-Saharan Africa as an example, the range of estimates for the 2005 lifetime risk extends from 3.41% to 5.76%, or from 1 in 29 to 1 in 17. The highest value resulted from the method used for producing official UN estimates for the year 2000. The measure recommended here has an intermediate value of 4.47%, or 1 in 22. There are strong reasons to consider the calculation method proposed here more accurate and appropriate than earlier procedures. Accordingly, it was adopted for use in producing the 2005 UN estimates of the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. By comparison, the method used for the 2000 UN estimates appears to overestimate this important measure of population health by around 20%.

  9. Maternal obesity and infant mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Sean; Beck, Charles R; Mair-Jenkins, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Puleston, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Despite numerous studies reporting an elevated risk of infant mortality among women who are obese, the magnitude of the association is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to assess the association between maternal overweight or obesity and infant mortality. Four health care databases and gray literature sources were searched and screened against the protocol eligibility criteria. Observational studies reporting on the relationship between maternal overweight and obesity and infant mortality were included. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed. Twenty-four records were included from 783 screened. Obese mothers (BMI ≥30) had greater odds of having an infant death (odds ratio 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-1.63; P < .001; 11 studies); these odds were greatest for the most obese (BMI >35) (odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.61-2.56; P < .001; 3 studies). Our results suggest that the odds of having an infant death are greater for obese mothers and that this risk may increase with greater maternal BMI or weight; however, residual confounding may explain these findings. Given the rising prevalence of maternal obesity, additional high-quality epidemiologic studies to elucidate the actual influence of elevated maternal mass or weight on infant mortality are needed. If a causal link is determined and the biological basis explained, public health strategies to address the issue of maternal obesity will be needed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. The sisterhood method of estimating maternal mortality: the Matlab experience.

    PubMed

    Shahidullah, M

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the results of a test of validation of the sisterhood method of measuring the level of maternal mortality using data from a Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) operating since 1966 in Matlab, Bangladesh. The records of maternal deaths that occurred during 1976-90 in the Matlab DSS area were used. One of the deceased woman's surviving brothers or sisters, aged 15 or older and born to the same mother, was asked if the deceased sister had died of maternity-related causes. Of the 384 maternal deaths for which siblings were interviewed, 305 deaths were correctly reported, 16 deaths were underreported, and the remaining 63 were misreported as nonmaternal deaths. Information on maternity-related deaths obtained in a sisterhood survey conducted in the Matlab DSS area was compared with the information recorded in the DSS. Results suggest that in places similar to Matlab, the sisterhood method can be used to provide an indication of the level of maternal mortality if no other data exist, though the method will produce negative bias in maternal mortality estimates.

  11. Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.

    PubMed

    Stanton, C; Hobcraft, J; Hill, K; Kodjogbé, N; Mapeta, W T; Munene, F; Naghavi, M; Rabeza, V; Sisouphanthong, B; Campbell, O

    2001-01-01

    Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies.

  12. Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, C.; Hobcraft, J.; Hill, K.; Kodjogbé, N.; Mapeta, W. T.; Munene, F.; Naghavi, M.; Rabeza, V.; Sisouphanthong, B.; Campbell, O.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies. PMID:11477969

  13. Decline in maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Ronsmans, C; Vanneste, A M; Chakraborty, J; van Ginneken, J

    This study examines the impact of the Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning (MCH-FP) program in the Matlab, Bangladesh. Data were obtained from the Matlab surveillance system for treatment and comparison areas. This study reports the trends in maternal mortality since 1976. The MCH-FP area received extensive services in health and family planning since 1977. Services included trained traditional birth attendants and essential obstetric care from government district hospitals and a large number of private clinics. Geographic ease of access to essential obstetric care varied across the study area. Access was most difficult in the northern sector of the MCH-FP area. Contraception was made available through family welfare centers. Tetanus immunization was introduced in 1979. Door-to-door contraceptive services were provided by 80 female community health workers on a twice-monthly basis. In 1987, a community-based maternity care program was added to existing MCH-FP services in the northern treatment area. The demographic surveillance system began collecting data in 1966. During 1976-93 there were 624 maternal deaths among women aged 15-44 years in Matlab (510/100,000 live births). 72.8% of deaths were due to direct obstetric causes: postpartum hemorrhage, induced abortion, eclampsia, dystocia, and postpartum sepsis. Maternal mortality declined in a fluctuating fashion in both treatment and comparison areas. Direct obstetric mortality declined at about 3% per year. After 1987, direct obstetric mortality declined in the north by almost 50%. After the 1990 program expansion in the south, maternal mortality declined, though not significantly, in the south. Maternal mortality declined in the south comparison area during 1987-89 and stabilized. The comparison area of the north showed no decline.

  14. Global Reduction in HIV-related Maternal Mortality: ART as a Key Strategy.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Holtz and colleagues present a synthesis of evidence from published studies over the previous decade on the collective impact of HIV-targeted interventions on maternal mortality. Amongst an assortment of interventions [that include antiretroviral therapy (ART), micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A and selenium), and antibiotics], only ART reduced maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum mothers. These findings have fundamental and global strategic implications. They are also timely since they provide the evidence that ART reduces HIV-related maternal mortality, and by further enhancing access to ART in HIV-challenged and poor regions of the world, significant improvement in maternal morbidity and mortality indices could be attained. The paper bears good tidings and sound scientific proof that the financial investment made globally by government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to reduce the global burden of HIV/AIDS primarily by making ART more accessible to regions of the world most affected by the epidemic is beginning to show beneficial effects not only in terms of numerical reductions in the rates of new cases of HIV/AIDS among women, but also in maternal mortality levels.

  15. Measuring maternal mortality: an overview of opportunities and options for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Graham, W J; Ahmed, S; Stanton, C; Abou-Zahr, Cl; Campbell, O M R

    2008-05-26

    There is currently an unprecedented expressed need and demand for estimates of maternal mortality in developing countries. This has been stimulated in part by the creation of a Millennium Development Goal that will be judged partly on the basis of reductions in maternal mortality by 2015. Since the launch of the Safe Motherhood Initiative in 1987, new opportunities for data capture have arisen and new methods have been developed, tested and used. This paper provides a pragmatic overview of these methods and the optimal measurement strategies for different developing country contexts. There are significant recent advances in the measurement of maternal mortality, yet also room for further improvement, particularly in assessing the magnitude and direction of biases and their implications for different data uses. Some of the innovations in measurement provide efficient mechanisms for gathering the requisite primary data at a reasonably low cost. No method, however, has zero costs. Investment is needed in measurement strategies for maternal mortality suited to the needs and resources of a country, and which also strengthen the technical capacity to generate and use credible estimates. Ownership of information is necessary for it to be acted upon: what you count is what you do. Difficulties with measurement must not be allowed to discourage efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Countries must be encouraged and enabled to count maternal deaths and act.

  16. Measuring maternal mortality: An overview of opportunities and options for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Graham, WJ; Ahmed, S; Stanton, C; Abou-Zahr, CL; Campbell, OMR

    2008-01-01

    Background There is currently an unprecedented expressed need and demand for estimates of maternal mortality in developing countries. This has been stimulated in part by the creation of a Millennium Development Goal that will be judged partly on the basis of reductions in maternal mortality by 2015. Methods Since the launch of the Safe Motherhood Initiative in 1987, new opportunities for data capture have arisen and new methods have been developed, tested and used. This paper provides a pragmatic overview of these methods and the optimal measurement strategies for different developing country contexts. Results There are significant recent advances in the measurement of maternal mortality, yet also room for further improvement, particularly in assessing the magnitude and direction of biases and their implications for different data uses. Some of the innovations in measurement provide efficient mechanisms for gathering the requisite primary data at a reasonably low cost. No method, however, has zero costs. Investment is needed in measurement strategies for maternal mortality suited to the needs and resources of a country, and which also strengthen the technical capacity to generate and use credible estimates. Conclusion Ownership of information is necessary for it to be acted upon: what you count is what you do. Difficulties with measurement must not be allowed to discourage efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Countries must be encouraged and enabled to count maternal deaths and act. PMID:18503716

  17. Maternal mortality in Indonesia and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fortney, J A; Susanti, I; Gadalla, S; Saleh, S; Feldblum, P J; Potts, M

    1988-02-01

    Twenty-three percent of deaths to women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Bali, Indonesia and Menoufia, Egypt were due to maternal causes. Among the younger women, the percentage was even higher. In both areas complications of pregnancy and childbirth were a leading cause of death (the first cause in Bali, the second in Menoufia). In both sites, postpartum hemorrhage was the most common cause of maternal death. Relative to the United States, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births was 20 times higher in Menoufia and 78 times higher in Bali. Families of women of reproductive age who died were interviewed about the conditions leading to death and other characteristics of the deceased. Completed histories were reviewed by a Medical Panel who were able to assign a cause of death in more than 90% of cases. Two-thirds of the maternal deaths occurred to women who were over 30 and/or who had 3 children--the usual targets of family planning programs. Other possible intervention strategies include antenatal outreach programs, training of traditional birth attendants, and better hospital management of obstetric emergencies.

  18. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kwast, B E; Liff, J M

    1988-03-01

    A housing probability survey in which 9315 women were interviewed was conducted in 1983 to detect the incidence and aetiology of maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Maternal mortality for the two-year period from 11 September 1981 was 350/100,000 livebirths (excluding abortions). A logistic regression analysis selected antenatal care, occupation and income as risk factors for maternal mortality, after adjusting for age, parity, education and marital status. Odds ratios were 2.5 for unbooked women compared to those receiving antenatal care, about 3 for students, and maids/janitresses compared to housewives, and between 3 and 5 for those earning less than US$25 monthly, compared to those earning US$150 or more.

  19. Underreporting and misclassification of maternal mortality in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kao, S; Chen, L M; Shi, L; Weinrich, M C

    1997-08-01

    Underreporting and misclassification of maternal deaths are universal. The purposes of this study were to quantify the level of underestimation of maternal mortality and to analyze possible factors that contribute to underreporting and misclassification of maternal mortality. An interview census of all registered deaths that occurred during 1984-1988 in women of reproductive age was undertaken in Taiwan. Pregnancy-related deaths were screened from all collected questionnaires and death certificates by the researchers. The screened pregnancy-related deaths were then reviewed and evaluated by obstetrician-gynecologists; a cause of each death was assigned. For the five years, on average, the rate of underreporting of maternal mortality is 58.38% and the correct/confirmed rate of classification is 53.28%. Underreported and misclassified maternal deaths are more likely for women aged 20-24, with stillbirth and fetal death, care sought for non-obstetric reasons, care received in private hospitals and clinics, occurrence in the home, certification by non-obstetrician-gynecologists and court doctors, and death from non-obstetric causes. This study shows the limitations of official vital registration and concludes that dependence on death certificates alone to identify maternal deaths is incomplete and incorrect.

  20. Causes of maternal mortality decline in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-04-01

    Bangladesh is distinct among developing countries in achieving a low maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 322 per 100,000 livebirths despite the very low use of skilled care at delivery (13% nationally). This variation has also been observed in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, where longitudinal data on maternal mortality are available since the mid-1970s. The current study investigated the possible causes of the maternal mortality decline in Matlab. The study analyzed 769 maternal deaths and 215,779 pregnancy records from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) and other sources of safe motherhood data in the ICDDR,B and government service areas in Matlab during 1976-2005. The major interventions that took place in both the areas since the early 1980s were the family-planning programme plus safe menstrual regulation services and safe motherhood interventions (midwives for normal delivery in the ICDDR,B service area from the late 1980s and equal access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care [EmOC] in public facilities for women from both the areas). National programmes for social development and empowerment of women through education and microcredit programmes were implemented in both the areas. The quantitative findings were supplemented by a qualitative study by interviewing local community care providers for their change in practices for maternal healthcare over time. After the introduction of the safe motherhood programme, reduction in maternal mortality was higher in the ICDDR,B service area (68.6%) than in the government service area (50.4%) during 1986-1989 and 2001-2005. Reduction in the number of maternal deaths due to the fertility decline was higher in the government service area (30%) than in the ICDDR,B service area (23%) during 1979-2005. In each area, there has been substantial reduction in abortion-related mortality--86.7% and 78.3%--in the ICDDR,B and government service areas respectively. Education of women was a strong predictor

  1. Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Walraven, G.; Telfer, M.; Rowley, J.; Ronsmans, C.

    2000-01-01

    A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100,000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100,000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause--haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths. PMID:10859854

  2. Why did maternal mortality decline in Matlab?

    PubMed

    Maine, D; Akalin, M Z; Chakraborty, J; de Francisco, A; Strong, M

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, an article on the Maternity Care Program in Matlab, Bangladesh, reported a substantial decline in direct obstetric deaths in the intervention area, but not in the control area. The decline was attributed primarily to the posting of midwives at the village level. In this article, data are presented from the same period and area on a variety of intermediate events. They indicate that the decline in deaths was probably due to the combined efforts of community midwives and the physicians at the Matlab maternity clinic. Their ability to refer patients to higher levels of care was important. The data further indicate that the decline in deaths depended upon the functioning of the government hospital in Chandpur, where cesarean sections and blood transfusions were available. Midwives might also have made a special contribution by providing early termination of pregnancy, which is legal in Bangladesh.

  3. Levels and causes of maternal mortality in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Kodio, Belco; de Bernis, Luc; Ba, Mariame; Ronsmans, Carine; Pison, Gilles; Etard, Jean-François

    2002-06-01

    To report the findings of a direct, community-based, assessment of maternal mortality and medical causes of death using verbal autopsy in three unique cohorts in rural Senegal. Methods from ongoing demographic surveillance systems. We obtained records of all deaths and births in women of age 15-49 over a period of 14 years in Niakhar, 10 years in Bandafassi and 13 years in Mlomp. Relatives of all women who died were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Causes of death were assigned by three physicians independently. Maternal deaths were defined according to the ninth and tenth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases. The maternal mortality ratio was similar in Mlomp [436 per 100 000 live births (95% confidence interval 209-802)] and Niakhar [516 per 100 000 (413-636)] but significantly higher in the more remote area of Bandafassi [852 (587-1196)] [relative risk compared with Niakhar 1.6 (1.0-2.4)]. Two-thirds of the maternal deaths were from direct obstetric causes, haemorrhage being the most common. Abortion was rare. Demographic surveillance systems are useful tools for the measurement of maternal mortality provided special studies are carried out to arrive at the levels and causes of maternal death. The estimates of maternal mortality reported here are lower than those published by the WHO and UNICEF but remain extremely high, particularly in the very remote areas with very limited health infrastructure, where as many as one in 19 women may be expected to die as a consequence of childbirth.

  4. Causes of Maternal Mortality Decline in Matlab, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Anisuddin; Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-01-01

    Bangladesh is distinct among developing countries in achieving a low maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 322 per 100,000 livebirths despite the very low use of skilled care at delivery (13% nationally). This variation has also been observed in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, where longitudinal data on maternal mortality are available since the mid-1970s. The current study investigated the possible causes of the maternal mortality decline in Matlab. The study analyzed 769 maternal deaths and 215,779 pregnancy records from the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) and other sources of safe motherhood data in the ICDDR,B and government service areas in Matlab during 1976-2005. The major interventions that took place in both the areas since the early 1980s were the family-planning programme plus safe menstrual regulation services and safe motherhood interventions (midwives for normal delivery in the ICDDR,B service area from the late 1980s and equal access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care [EmOC] in public facilities for women from both the areas). National programmes for social development and empowerment of women through education and microcredit programmes were implemented in both the areas. The quantitative findings were supplemented by a qualitative study by interviewing local community care providers for their change in practices for maternal healthcare over time. After the introduction of the safe motherhood programme, reduction in maternal mortality was higher in the ICDDR,B service area (68.6%) than in the government service area (50.4%) during 1986-1989 and 2001-2005. Reduction in the number of maternal deaths due to the fertility decline was higher in the government service area (30%) than in the ICDDR,B service area (23%) during 1979-2005. In each area, there has been substantial reduction in abortion-related mortality—86.7% and 78.3%—in the ICDDR,B and government service areas respectively. Education of women was a strong

  5. Medical disease as a cause of maternal mortality: the pre-imminence of cardiovascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Mocumbi, A O; Sliwa, K; Soma-Pillay, P

    2016-01-01

    Maternal mortality ratio in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC) is 14 times higher than in high-income countries. This is partially due to lack of antenatal care, unmet needs for family planning and education, as well as low rates of birth managed by skilled attendants. While direct causes of maternal death such as complications of hypertension, obstetric haemorrhage and sepsis remain the largest cause of maternal death in LMICs, cardiovascular disease emerges as an important contributor to maternal mortality in both developing countries and the developed world, hampering the achievement of the millennium development goal 5, which aimed at reducing by three-quarters the maternal mortality ratio until the end of 2015. Systematic search for cardiac disease is usually not performed during pregnancy in LMICs despite hypertensive disease, rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies being recognised as major health problems in these settings. New concern has been rising due to both the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Undetected or untreated congenital heart defects, undiagnosed pulmonary hypertension, uncontrolled heart failure and complications of sickle cell disease may also be important challenges. This article discusses issues related to the role of cardiovascular disease in determining a substantial portion of maternal morbidity and mortality. It also presents an algorhitm to be used for suspected and previously known cardiac disease in pregnancy in the context of LIMCs.

  6. Maternal height and child mortality in 42 developing countries.

    PubMed

    Monden, Christiaan W S; Smits, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research reports mixed results about the association between maternal height and child mortality. Some studies suggest that the negative association might be stronger in contexts with fewer resources. This hypothesis has yet not been tested in a cross-nationally comparative design. We use data on 307,223 children born to 194,835 women in 444 districts of 42 developing countries to estimate the association between maternal height and child mortality and test whether this association is modified by indicators at the level of the household (like sex, age and twin status of the child and socio-economic characteristics of the mother and her partner), district (regional level of development, public health facilities and female occupational attainment) and country (GDP per capita). We find a robust negative effect of logged maternal height on child mortality. The effect of maternal health is strongest for women with least education and is more important in the first year after birth and for twin births. The indicators of development at the district and country level do not modify the effect of maternal height. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Maternal, neonatal and community factors influencing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge; Hill, Kenneth

    2005-03-01

    Child mortality (the mortality of children less than five years old) declined considerably in the developing world in the 1990s, but infant mortality declined less. The reductions in neonatal mortality were not impressive and, as a consequence, there is an increasing percentage of infant deaths in the neonatal period. Any further reduction in child mortality, therefore, requires an understanding of the determinants of neonatal mortality. 209,628 birth and 2581 neonatal death records for the 1998 birth cohort from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were probabilistically matched. Data were from SINASC and SIM, Information Systems on Live Births and Deaths of Brazil. Logistic regression was used to find the association between neonatal mortality and the following risk factors: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, maternal age, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. Infants of older mothers were less likely to die in the neonatal period. Caesarean delivery was not found to be associated with neonatal mortality. Low birth weight, pre-term birth and low Apgar scores were associated with neonatal death. Having a mother who lives in the highest developed community decreased the odds of neonatal death, suggesting that factors not measured in this study are behind such association. This result may also indicate that other factors over and above biological and more proximate factors could affect neonatal death.

  8. Maternal mortality at the end of a decade: signs of progress?

    PubMed Central

    AbouZahr, C.; Wardlaw, T.

    2001-01-01

    Maternal mortality is an important measure of women's health and indicative of the performance of health care systems. Several international conferences, most recently the Millennium Summit in 2000, have included the goal of reducing maternal mortality. However, monitoring progress towards the goal has proved to be problematic because maternal mortality is difficult to measure, especially in developing countries with weak health information and vital registration systems. This has led to interest in using alternative indicators for monitoring progress. This article examines recent trends in two indicators associated with maternal mortality: the percentage of births assisted by a skilled health care worker and rates of caesarean delivery. Globally, modest improvements in coverage of skilled care at delivery have occurred, with an average annual increase of 1.7% over the period 1989-99. Progress has been greatest in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, with annual increases of over 2%. In sub-Saharan Africa, on the other hand, coverage has stagnated. In general, caesarean delivery rates were stable over the 1990s. Countries where rates of caesarean deliveries were the lowest--and where the needs were greatest--showed the least change. This analysis leads us to conclude that whereas there may be grounds for optimism regarding trends in maternal mortality in parts of North Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the Middle East, the situation in sub-Saharan Africa remains disquieting. PMID:11436479

  9. An analysis of the determinants of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Buor, Daniel; Bream, Kent

    2004-10-01

    To establish what population characteristics affect the high maternal mortality rate in the sub-Saharan Africa region and to propose possible solutions to reduce this rate. This study is a secondary analysis of existing data sources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as direct and indirect sources from UNAIDS, the United Nations, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Macro International, and national statistical offices. Instead of looking at continentwide or individual nation models, it develops a regional model. Sociodemographic population variables are used as independent variables to predict the dependent variable, maternal mortality. Additionally, a new country-specific political stability independent variable is introduced into the model. Data from 28 sub-Saharan African countries are used. Bivariate correlations are used to establish associations among the variables, whereas cross-tabulations, using Kendall's tau-c values, and regression lines are used to establish impacts. In the sub-Saharan Africa region, births attended by skilled health personnel and life expectancy at birth strongly correlate with maternal mortality. Gross national product (GNP) per capita and health expenditure per capita also have strong association with maternal mortality. The availability of skilled delivery personnel, life expectancy, national economic wealth, and health expenditure per capita predict the maternal mortality rate of a country. Based on these findings, it is recommended that structural arrangements be made to train skilled health personnel to take care of maternal health problems. In view of the high cost of training physicians, middle-level health personnel may offer an affordable alternative to handle emergency obstetrical cases to address the shortage of physicians. In addition, the allocation of adequate resources to the health sector could improve maternal mortality. The economic wealth of a country and life expectancy at birth are

  10. The lifetime risk of maternal mortality: concept and measurement

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective The lifetime risk of maternal mortality, which describes the cumulative loss of life due to maternal deaths over the female life course, is an important summary measure of population health. However, despite its interpretive appeal, the lifetime risk of dying from maternal causes can be defined and calculated in various ways. A clear and concise discussion of both its underlying concept and methods of measurement is badly needed. Methods I define and compare a variety of procedures for calculating the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. I use detailed survey data from Bangladesh in 2001 to illustrate these calculations and compare the properties of the various risk measures. Using official UN estimates of maternal mortality for 2005, I document the differences in lifetime risk derived with the various measures. Findings Taking sub-Saharan Africa as an example, the range of estimates for the 2005 lifetime risk extends from 3.41% to 5.76%, or from 1 in 29 to 1 in 17. The highest value resulted from the method used for producing official UN estimates for the year 2000. The measure recommended here has an intermediate value of 4.47%, or 1 in 22. Conclusion There are strong reasons to consider the calculation method proposed here more accurate and appropriate than earlier procedures. Accordingly, it was adopted for use in producing the 2005 UN estimates of the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. By comparison, the method used for the 2000 UN estimates appears to overestimate this important measure of population health by around 20%. PMID:19551233

  11. Maternal mortality in a semi-urban Nigerian community.

    PubMed

    Ayangade, S O

    1981-02-01

    Maternal mortality was examined in a semi-urban Nigerian community over a 10-year period. Maternal mortality was defined as death occurring as the direct result of childbearing and measured per 1000 births. Abortions at below 20 weeks gestation were excluded. From 1966 to 1975, there were 90 maternal deaths out of 13,182, a rate of 6.8/1000. The hospital records of the Baptist Medical Center, located in the western part of Nigeria, were carefully reviewed and cross-checked with obstetric statistical records. Only 13 of the deaths occurred in hospitalized patients. 78 (80%) were due to direct obstetric causes; 12% were from nonobstetric causes. Anemia due to blood loss was the leading casue of death, accounting for 30, or 33%, of the deaths. Anemia, with or without congestive heart failure accounted for 7 deaths. Infection was responsible for 5 deaths. Ruptured uterus, preeclampsia, and eclampsia occurred in equal percentages, 10-11%. Indirect obstetric deaths, such as sudden death, accounted for 10 deaths. 50% of these were anesthetic deaths; the remainder were due to pulmonary embolism. Sickle cell intrapartum crisis was the cause of 1 death. Associated causes included featured pneumonia, nephritis, hepatitis, meningitis, enteritis, and cerebrovascular accident. Parity ranged from 0-11. 25 babies were salvaged in this series. Prevention continues to be the cornerstone in improving maternal mortality figures in developing countries. The Baptist Medical Center's model for providing maternal care is described briefly and is identified as responsible for the encouraging decline in the maternal mortality rate.

  12. Maternal and Neonatal Mortality in South-West Ethiopia: Estimates and Socio-Economic Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Yaya, Yaliso; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia has achieved the fourth Millennium Development Goal by reducing under 5 mortality. Nevertheless, there are challenges in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal and neonatal mortality and the socio-economic inequalities of these mortalities in rural south-west Ethiopia. Methods We visited and enumerated all households but collected data from those that reported pregnancy and birth outcomes in the last five years in 15 of the 30 rural kebeles in Bonke woreda, Gamo Gofa, south-west Ethiopia. The primary outcomes were maternal and neonatal mortality and a secondary outcome was the rate of institutional delivery. Results We found 11,762 births in 6572 households; 11,536 live and 226 stillbirths. There were 49 maternal deaths; yielding a maternal mortality ratio of 425 per 100,000 live births (95% CI:318–556). The poorest households had greater MMR compared to richest (550 vs 239 per 100,000 live births). However, the socio-economic factors examined did not have statistically significant association with maternal mortality. There were 308 neonatal deaths; resulting in a neonatal mortality ratio of 27 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 24–30). Neonatal mortality was greater in households in the poorest quartile compared to the richest; adjusted OR (AOR): 2.62 (95% CI: 1.65–4.15), headed by illiterates compared to better educated; AOR: 3.54 (95% CI: 1.11–11.30), far from road (≥6 km) compared to within 5 km; AOR: 2.40 (95% CI: 1.56–3.69), that had three or more births in five years compared to two or less; AOR: 3.22 (95% CI: 2.45–4.22). Households with maternal mortality had an increased risk of stillbirths; OR: 11.6 (95% CI: 6.00–22.7), and neonatal deaths; OR: 7.2 (95% CI: 3.6–14.3). Institutional delivery was only 3.7%. Conclusion High mortality with socio-economic inequality and low institutional delivery highlight the importance of strengthening obstetric interventions in rural south

  13. Obstetric transition in the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health: exploring pathways for maternal mortality reduction.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Solange da Cruz; Cecatti, José Guilherme; Carroli, Guillermo; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Hogue, Carol J; Mori, Rintaro; Zhang, Jun; Jayaratne, Kapila; Togoobaatar, Ganchimeg; Pileggi-Castro, Cynthia; Bohren, Meghan; Vogel, Joshua Peter; Tunçalp, Özge; Oladapo, Olufemi Taiwo; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin; Temmerman, Marleen; Souza, João Paulo

    2015-05-01

    To test whether the proposed features of the Obstetric Transition Model-a theoretical framework that may explain gradual changes that countries experience as they eliminate avoidable maternal mortality-are observed in a large, multicountry, maternal and perinatal health database; and to discuss the dynamic process of maternal mortality reduction using this model as a theoretical framework. This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study by the World Health Organization that collected information on more than 300 000 women who delivered in 359 health facilities in 29 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, during a 2-4-month period in 2010-2011. The ratios of Potentially Life-Threatening Conditions, Severe Maternal Outcomes, Maternal Near Miss, and Maternal Death were estimated and stratified by stages of obstetric transition. The characteristics of each stage are defined. Data from 314 623 women showed that female fertility, indirectly estimated by parity, was higher in countries at a lower obstetric transition stage, ranging from a mean of 3 children in Stage II to 1.8 children in Stage IV. Medicalization increased with obstetric transition stage. In Stage IV, women had 2.4 times the cesarean deliveries (15.3% in Stage II and 36.7% in Stage IV) and 2.6 times the labor inductions (7.1% in Stage II and 18.8% in Stage IV) as women in Stage II. The mean age of primiparous women also increased with stage. The occurrence of uterine rupture had a decreasing trend, dropping by 5.2 times, from 178 to 34 cases per 100 000 live births, as a country transitioned from Stage II to IV. This analysis supports the concept of obstetric transition using multicountry data. The Obstetric Transition Model could provide justification for customizing strategies for reducing maternal mortality according to a country's stage in the obstetric transition.

  14. Public health care funding modifies the effect of out-of-pocket spending on maternal, infant, and child mortality.

    PubMed

    Noel, Jonathan K

    2017-03-01

    Increased out-of-pocket (OOP) health care spending has been associated with increased maternal, infant, and child mortality, but the effect of public health care spending on mortality has not been studied. I identified a statistically significant interaction between public health care expenditure and OOP health care spending for maternal, infant, and child mortality. Generally, increases in public expenditure coincide with decreased rates of mortality, regardless of OOP spending levels. Specifically, higher levels of public expenditure with moderate levels of OOP spending may result in the lowest mortality rates. Increased public health care spending may improve health outcomes better than efforts to reduce OOP expenditure alone.

  15. Maternal mortality ratio in Lebanon in 2008: a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study (RAMOS).

    PubMed

    Hobeika, Elie; Abi Chaker, Samer; Harb, Hilda; Rahbany Saad, Rita; Ammar, Walid; Adib, Salim

    2014-01-01

    International agencies have recently assigned Lebanon to the group H of countries with "no national data on maternal mortality," and estimated a corresponding maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 150 per 100,000 live births. The Ministry of Public Health addressed the discrepancy perceived between the reality of the maternal mortality ratio experience in Lebanon and the international report by facilitating a hospital-based reproductive age mortality study, sponsored by the World Health Organization Representative Office in Lebanon, aiming at providing an accurate estimate of a maternal mortality ratio for 2008. The survey allowed a detailed analysis of maternal causes of deaths. Reproductive age deaths (15-49 years) were initially identified through hospital records. A trained MD traveled to each hospital to ascertain whether recorded deaths were in fact maternal deaths or not. ICD10 codes were provided by the medical controller for each confirmed maternal deaths. There were 384 RA death cases, of which 13 were confirmed maternal deaths (339%) (numerator). In 2008, there were 84823 live births in Lebanon (denominator). The MMR in Lebanon in 2008 was thus officially estimated at 23/100,000 live births, with an "uncertainty range" from 153 to 30.6. Hemorrhage was the leading cause of death, with double the frequency of all other causes (pregnancy-induced hypertension, eclampsia, infection, and embolism). This specific enquiry responded to a punctual need to correct a clearly inadequate report, and it should be relayed by an on-going valid surveillance system. Results indicate that special attention has to be devoted to the management of peri-partum hemorrhage cases. Arab, postpartum hemorrhage, development, pregnancy management, verbal autopsy

  16. Impact of training traditional birth attendants on maternal mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kayombo, Edmund J

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents discussion on impact of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on overall improvement of reproductive health care with focus on reducing the high rate of maternal and new-born mortality in rural settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The importance of TBAs for years has been denied by professional western trained health practitioners and other scientists until during the late 1980s, when World Health Organization through Safe motherhood 1987 found TBAs have a significant role in reducing maternal and new-born mortality. Trained TBAs in sub-Sahara Africa can have positive impact on reducing maternal and new-born mortality if the programme is well implemented with systematic follow-up after training. This could be done through joint meeting between health workers and TBAs as feed and learning experience from problem encountered in process of providing child delivery services. TBAs can help to break socio-cultural barriers on intervention on reproductive health programmes. However projects targeting TBAs should not be of hit and run; but gradually familiarize with the target group, build trust, transparency, and tolerance, willing to learn and creating rappour with them. In this paper, some case studies are described on how trained TBAs can be fully utilized in reducing maternal and new-born mortality rate in rural areas. What is needed is to identify TBAs, map their distribution and train them on basic primary healthcare related to child deliveries and complications which need to be referred to conventional health facilities immediately.

  17. Understanding Methods for Estimating HIV-Associated Maternal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, James E.; de Zoysa, Isabelle; Dehne, Karl; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Abdool-Karim, Quarraisha

    2012-01-01

    The impact of HIV on maternal mortality and more broadly on the health of women, remains poorly documented and understood. Two recent reports attempt to address the conceptual and methodological challenges that arise in estimating HIV-related maternal mortality and trends. This paper presents and compares the methods and discusses how they affect estimates at global and regional levels. Country examples of likely patterns of mortality among women of reproductive age are provided to illustrate the critical interactions between HIV and complications of pregnancy in high-HIV-burden countries. The implications for collaboration between HIV and reproductive health programmes are discussed, in support of accelerated action to reach the Millennium Development Goals and improve the health of women. PMID:21966594

  18. Accuracy of indirect estimates of maternal mortality: a simulation model.

    PubMed

    Garenne, M; Friedberg, F

    1997-06-01

    A simulation model was developed to test the accuracy of indirect estimates of maternal mortality (the sisterhood method). The model generated a first generation of grandmothers, a second generation of mothers (with brothers and sisters), and a third generation of children (births). In the second generation, maternal mortality was introduced. Empirical values for the parameters of fertility and mortality were taken from a prospective survey in Senegal (Niakhar). Results based on 100 simulations of the same situation revealed several limitations of the sisterhood method: The indirect estimates could fall as far as 33 percent from the true values on individual cases; the indirect estimates tended to be systematically higher than the direct estimates; their range was wider, as were their confidence intervals; and biases were particularly strong for the younger age groups of respondents. Reasons for these biases are explored.

  19. [Epidemiology of maternal mortality by infectious cause in France, 2007-2009, using data from confidential maternal mortality report].

    PubMed

    Ghesquière, L; Deruelle, P; Charbonneau, P; Puech, F

    2015-01-01

    Although deaths caused by infection during pregnancy and the postpartum period are rare in France, mortality rates have increased in several countries of the European community. In France, the rate of maternal mortality by infectious cause has decreased over the last 12 years. Infectious causes are currently in fifth place of maternal deaths. Over the period 2007-2009, 18 deaths occurred, eight by direct infectious causes and 10 by indirect infectious causes. Among the 18 deaths, 17 were examined by the National Expert Committee on Maternal Mortality (CNEMM) with the objectives to determine the direct or indirect link with pregnancy, the adequacy of care and the preventability of death. Among 8 deaths from direct infectious causes, four deaths were deemed "preventable" or "possibly preventable" because of inadequate care. Among nine deaths from indirect infectious causes, preventability could not be established in two deaths, five were non-preventable and two were preventable due to non-optimal care. These cases of puerperal septicemia show that when sepsis is clinically manifest, infection is already well established and widespread deterioration is therefore often irreversible. Maternal mortality is preventable in most cases if several points are observed: early diagnosis, probabilistic antibiotics targeting most frequently involved bacteria including Escherichia coli and Streptococcus A, early transfer to ICU, control septic portal entry, simple preventive measures, influenza vaccination. A "microbiological clinical diagnosis" approach must be initiated at the first clinical signs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors associated with maternal mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau. A longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Høj, L; da Silva, D; Hedegaard, K; Sandström, A; Aaby, P

    2002-07-01

    To assess demographic and obstetric risk factors for pregnancy-related death in a multiethnic rural population in a developing country. A prospective survey of women in the fertile age-range. Rural Guinea-Bissau. More than 15,000 women living in 100 clusters were visited at six-monthly intervals over a period of more than six years. A total of 10,931 pregnancies were registered prospectively; 85 of these pregnancies resulted in maternal or late maternal death. Maternal mortality ratio. In the rural areas of Guinea-Bissau, we conducted a prospective survey of women in the fertile age range. More than 15,000 women living in 100 clusters were visited at 6-monthly intervals over a period of more than six years. An analysis of demographic, environmental and obstetric risk factors for maternal death was performed based on 10,931 prospectively registered pregnancies; 85 of these pregnancies resulted in maternal or late maternal death. In the adjusted model maternal mortality ratio increased with increasing distance from the regional hospital (OR>25 km = 7.4 [95% CI: 1.6-132]). Multiple pregnancy was found to increase the risk of maternal death (OR = 3.4 [95% CI: 1.3-7.5]). The risk of subsequent maternal death was increased if the fetus was stillborn (OR = 5.3 [95% CI: 2.8-9.4]). Women living in the region of Gabu had higher mortality than those living in Biombo (OR = 2.5 [95% CI: 1.3-5.1]). No category of age or parity were associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality. Predictive values did not exceed 3% for any of the significant risk factors. For the purpose of reducing maternal mortality, the screening approach of antenatal care is of limited value. Age and parity should not be used routinely as selection criteria for transfer of otherwise healthy pregnant women to higher-level health institutions. Twin pregnancy seems to be the only operational risk factor identified in this study. Stillbirth is associated with an increased risk of maternal death. Regional

  1. Effect on mortality of community-based maternity-care programme in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fauveau, V; Stewart, K; Khan, S A; Chakraborty, J

    1991-11-09

    Various community-based interventions have been proposed to improve maternity care, but hardly any studies have reported the effect of these measures on maternal mortality. In this study, the efficacy of a maternity-care programme to reduce maternal mortality has been evaluated in the context of a primary health-care project in rural Bangladesh. Trained midwives were posted in villages, and asked to attend as many home-deliveries as possible, detect and manage obstetric complications at onset, and accompany patients requiring referral for higher-level care to the project central maternity clinic. The effect of the programme was evaluated by comparison of direct obstetric maternal mortality ratios between the programme area and a neighbouring control area without midwives. Random assignment of the intervention was not possible but potentially confounding characteristics, including coverage and use of other health and family planning services, were similar in both areas. Maternal mortality ratios due to obstetric complications were similar in both areas during the 3 years preceding the start of the programme. By contrast, during the following 3 years, the ratio was significantly lower in the programme than in the control area (1.4 vs 3.8 per 1000 live births, p = 0.02). The findings suggest that maternal survival can be improved by the posting of midwives at village level, if they are given proper training, means, supervision, and back-up. The inputs for such a programme to succeed and the constraints of its replication on a large scale should not be underestimated.

  2. Incidence and causes of maternal mortality in five Kampala hospitals, 1980-1986.

    PubMed

    Kampikaho, A; Irwig, L M

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a descriptive study to estimate the mortality rate, identify the type and the causes of maternal deaths. The study was conducted in 1987 in Kampala hospitals for a period covering seven years from 1st January 1980 to 31st December, 1986. The non abortion maternal mortality rate (NAMMR) was 2.65 per 1000 deliveries while the abortion related maternal mortality rate (ARMMR) was 3.58 per 1000 abortions. There was a statistically significant increase in NAMMR while the increase in ARMMR was almost significant over the seven year period. Of all maternal deaths, 80 per cent were non abortion while 20 per cent were abortion related. The commonest immediate causes of death, in order of importance, were sepsis, haemorrhage, ruptured uterus, anaesthesia and anaemia. The commonest patient management factors which contributed to death, in order of importance, were lack of blood for transfusion, lack of drugs and intravenous fluids, theatre problems and doctor related factors. We feel that a lot happens to the pregnant mother before she finally reaches a health unit for delivery and that there is a great need to improve on the community's gynaecological and obstetrical services as well as ambulance and emergency services. We also feel that maternal mortality in developing countries could be reduced if the health workers were imaginative in respect to each patient, tried not to operate as though they were working in a developed country, and created relevant solutions for the local problems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

  4. [Main causes of maternal mortality in Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)].

    PubMed

    Medina-Ramírez', Maria Concepción; Leal-Anaya, Paula; Aguilera-Romero, Tricia Nohemí; Leyva-Quintero, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the main causes of maternal mortality in the period 2009 to 2013 in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. Epidemiological, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, and retrospective study was conducted with a universe of 30 cases of maternal death. The information was collected from death certificates and records of cases obtained from the Institute of State Public Service Health of University Xochicalco. The average age of patients were 26.6 ± 5.6 years. Educational level and marital status was with junior school 15 (50%) and free union 12 (40%) respectively, 21 (70%) had no prenatal care. The mean gestational age was 28.8 ± 3.72 weeks, there was no difference in the place of residence, urban and rural, 15(50%). The main cause of death was hemorrhage 9(30%). The highest mortality was during the postpartum period 23 (77%). During the study period, the mortality rate was 36.8 x 100,000 live births. The increased frequency of maternal mortality was in young women, 70% had no prenatal care. Bleeding from ectopic pregnancy was the leading cause of death.

  5. Maternal Mortality in Henan Province, China: Changes between 1996 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    You, Fengzhi; Huo, Kaiming; Wang, Ruili; Xu, Dongmei; Deng, Jie; Wei, Ying; Shi, Fenglian; Liu, Hongyang; Cheng, Guomei; Zhang, Zhan; Yang, Ping; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiaoyang; Jacobsson, Bo; Zhu, Changlian

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal deaths occur mostly in developing countries and the majority of them are preventable. This study analyzes changes in maternal mortality and related causes in Henan Province, China, between 1996 and 2009, in an attempt to provide a reliable basis for introducing effective interventions to reduce the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), part of the fifth Millennium Development Goal. Methods and Findings This population-based maternal mortality survey in Henan Province was carried out from 1996 to 2009. Basic information was obtained from the health care network for women and children and the vital statistics system, from specially trained monitoring personnel in 25 selected monitoring sites and by household survey in each case of maternal death. This data was subsequently reported to the Henan Provincial Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital. The total MMR in Henan Province declined by 78.4%, from 80.1 per 100 000 live births in 1996 to 17.3 per 100 000 live births in 2009. The decline was more pronounced in rural than in urban areas. The most common causes of maternal death during this period were obstetric hemorrhage (43.8%), pregnancy-induced hypertension (15.8%), amniotic fluid embolism (13.9%) and heart disease (8.0%). The MMR was higher in rural areas with lower income, less education and poorer health care. Conclusion There was a remarkable decrease in the MMR in Henan Province between 1996 and 2009 mainly in the rural areas and MMR due to direct obstetric causes such as obstetric hemorrhage. This study indicates that improving the health care network for women, training of obstetric staff at basic-level units, promoting maternal education, and increasing household income are important interventional strategies to reduce the MMR further. PMID:23071740

  6. Towards reduction of maternal and perinatal mortality in rural Burkina Faso: communities are not empty vessels

    PubMed Central

    Hounton, Sennen; Byass, Peter; Brahima, Bassane

    2009-01-01

    Background Reducing maternal and perinatal mortality in sub Saharan Africa remains challenging and requires effective and context specific interventions. Objective The aims of this paper were to demonstrate the impact of the community mobilisation of the Skilled Care Initiative (SCI) in reducing maternal and perinatal mortality and to describe the concept and implementation in order to guide replication and scaling up. Designs A quasi experimental design was used to assess the extent to which the SCI was associated with increased institutional births, maternal and perinatal mortality reduction in an intervention (Ouargaye) versus a comparison (Diapaga) district. A geo-referenced census was conducted to retrospectively assess changes in outcomes and process measures. A detailed description of activities, rationale and timing of implementation were gathered from the SCI project officers and summarised. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses. Results At macro level, the main significant difference between Ouargaye and Diapaga districts was the scope and intensity of the community-based interventions implemented in Ouargaye. There was a temporal association relationship before and after the implementation of the demand-driven interventions and a remarkable 30% increase in institutional births in the intervention district compared to 10% increase in comparison district. There was a significant reduction of perinatal mortality rates (OR =0.75, CI 0.70–0.80) in intervention district and a larger decrease in maternal mortality ratios in intervention district, although statistical significance was not reached. A comprehensive framework of community mobilisation strategy is proposed to improve maternal and child health in poorest communities. Conclusion Controlling for the availability and quality of health services, working in partnership and effectively with communities, and not for them – hence characterising communities as not being

  7. Facility-based maternal death reviews: effects on maternal mortality in a district hospital in Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Alexandre; Gaye, Alioune; de Bernis, Luc; Chaillet, Nils; Landry, Anne; Delage, Joanne; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The improvement of obstetric services is one of the key components of the Safe Motherhood Programme. Reviewing maternal deaths and complications is one method that may make pregnancy safer, but there is no evidence about the effectiveness of this strategy. The objective of our before and after study is to assess the effect of facility-based maternal deaths reviews (MDR) on maternal mortality rates in a district hospital in Senegal that provides primary and referral maternity services. METHODS: We included all women who were admitted to the maternity unit for childbirth, or within 24 hours of delivery. We recorded maternal mortality during a 1-year baseline period from January to December 1997, and during a 3-year period from January 1998 to December 2000 after MDR had been implemented. Effects of MDR on organization of care were qualitatively evaluated. FINDINGS: The MDR strategy led to changes in organizational structure that improved life-saving interventions with a relatively large financial contribution from the community. Overall mortality significantly decreased from 0.83 (95% CI (confidence interval) = 0.60 -1.06) in baseline period to 0.41 (95% CI = 0.25 -0.56) per 100 women 3 years later. CONCLUSION: MDR had a marked effect on resources, management and maternal outcomes in this facility. However, given the design of our study and the local specific context, further research is needed to confirm the feasibility of MDR in other settings and to confirm the benefits of this approach for maternal health in developing countries. PMID:16583081

  8. Evaluating the impact a proposed family planning model would have on maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Ahmad Masoud; Wade, Benjamin; Riley, William

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential impact a proposed family planning model would have on reducing maternal and infant mortality in Afghanistan. Afghanistan has a high total fertility rate, high infant mortality rate, and high maternal mortality rate. Afghanistan also has tremendous socio-cultural barriers to and misconceptions about family planning services. We applied predictive statistical models to a proposed family planning model for Afghanistan to better understand the impact increased family planning can have on Afghanistan's maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate. We further developed a sensitivity analysis that illustrates the number of maternal and infant deaths that can be averted over 5 years according to different increases in contraceptive prevalence rates. Incrementally increasing contraceptive prevalence rates in Afghanistan from 10% to 60% over the course of 5 years could prevent 11,653 maternal deaths and 317,084 infant deaths, a total of 328,737 maternal and infant deaths averted. Achieving goals in reducing maternal and infant mortality rates in Afghanistan requires a culturally relevant approach to family planning that will be supported by the population. The family planning model for Afghanistan presents such a solution and holds the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Pitfalls of national routine death statistics for maternal mortality study.

    PubMed

    Saucedo, Monica; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Chantry, Anne A; Lamarche-Vadel, Agathe; Rey, Grégoire; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the study of maternal deaths depend on the accuracy of data. Our objective was to assess time trends in the underestimation of maternal mortality (MM) in the national routine death statistics in France and to evaluate their current accuracy for the selection and causes of maternal deaths. National data obtained by enhanced methods in 1989, 1999, and 2007-09 were used as the gold standard to assess time trends in the underestimation of MM ratios (MMRs) in death statistics. Enhanced data and death statistics for 2007-09 were further compared by characterising false negatives (FNs) and false positives (FPs). The distribution of cause-specific MMRs, as assessed by each system, was described. Underestimation of MM in death statistics decreased from 55.6% in 1989 to 11.4% in 2007-09 (P < 0.001). In 2007-09, of 787 pregnancy-associated deaths, 254 were classified as maternal by the enhanced system and 211 by the death statistics; 34% of maternal deaths in the enhanced system were FNs in the death statistics, and 20% of maternal deaths in the death statistics were FPs. The hierarchy of causes of MM differed between the two systems. The discordances were mainly explained by the lack of precision in the drafting of death certificates by clinicians. Although the underestimation of MM in routine death statistics has decreased substantially over time, one third of maternal deaths remain unidentified, and the main causes of death are incorrectly identified in these data. Defining relevant priorities in maternal health requires the use of enhanced methods for MM study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Risk factors for maternal mortality in Delhi slums: a community-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Abha; Pandey, Arvind; Bhattacharya, B N

    2007-09-01

    In order to develop, implement and evaluate policy for reducing maternal mortality, it is essential to study the risk factors associated with maternal deaths. The study aims to determine the epidemiological risk factors and its related causes associated with maternal deaths in Delhi slums. A community-based case-control study was designed, wherein snowball-sampling method was used to identify the maternal deaths (cases) in the community and circular systematic random sampling procedure was used to select the controls from the same area where a maternal death was found. Data on 70 cases and 384 controls that had live births as the outcome of the pregnancy were analyzed. Logistic regression was applied to identify the risk factors. In the study population, most of the deliveries were conducted at home by untrained 'dais.' Cases were mostly illiterate, young, having high parity and no antenatal care taken during pregnancy (P CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that women should be educated about the importance of antenatal registration and regular checkups. Untrained 'dais' should be trained to recognize the obstetric complications at an early stage and refer high-risk cases for adequate management. These preventive measures could help in reducing maternal mortality at the community level.

  11. [Model for a comprehensive approach to maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity].

    PubMed

    Karolinski, Ariel; Mercer, Raúl; Micone, Paula; Ocampo, Celina; Salgado, Pablo; Szulik, Dalia; Swarcz, Lucila; Corte, Vicente R; del Moral, Belén Fernández; Pianesi, Jorge; Balladelli, Pier Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Maternal mortality is an important public health and human rights problem and reflects the effects of social determinants on women's health. Understanding the extent and causes of maternal death has been insufficient to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. This article proposes a model for a comprehensive approach to maternal mortality, covering seven areas: prioritization and definition of the problem, contextual description, methodological scope, knowledge management, innovation, implementation, and a monitoring and evaluation system. This model helps address problems associated with maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity through early monitoring of potentially fatal complications in the reproductive process. Knowledge management is important for the reorientation of policies, programs, and health care. Interaction and synergies among people, communities, and actors in the health system should be strengthened in order to improve the results of health programs. More validated scientific information is needed on how actions should be implemented in different environments. It is essential to strengthen communication among research centers, cooperation agencies, and government organizations and to include them in programs and in the definition of a new women's health agenda in the Region of the Americas.

  12. [Maternal mortality and referral maternities in Morocco: how to (re)motivate professionals?].

    PubMed

    Péchevis, M; Fernandez, H; Cook, J; Bensalah, A; Aouraghe, M; Benbaha, A

    1999-06-01

    The very high rates of maternal mortality and perinatal mortality, as well as the deficiencies and dysfunctions observed in maternity hospitals, which play the role of referential maternity wards, led the Moroccan Minister of Public Health to implement a project in order to improve the quality of care of parturient women and new-borns. This project included 8 provinces in the country. The strategy chosen was "the team approach to resolving health problems", which is a learning process which leads local teams to implement and evaluate projects they have developed themselves. This pedagogical approach, which is carried out over a period of more than a year, proved itself to be very motivating and mobilising for the professionals included, despite the obstacles that were encountered. It also contributed to creating a true team spirit. Most activities planned within these projects were carried out and many indicators improved.

  13. Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Godefay, Hagos; Byass, Peter; Graham, Wendy J; Kinsman, John; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Maternal mortality continues to have devastating impacts in many societies, where it constitutes a leading cause of death, and thus remains a core issue in international development. Nevertheless, individual determinants of maternal mortality are often unclear and subject to local variation. This study aims to characterise individual risk factors for maternal mortality in Tigray, Ethiopia. A community-based case-control study was conducted, with 62 cases and 248 controls from six randomly-selected rural districts. All maternal deaths between May 2012 and September 2013 were recruited as cases and a random sample of mothers who delivered in the same communities within the same time period were taken as controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent determinants of maternal mortality. Four independent individual risk factors, significantly associated with maternal death, emerged. Women who were not members of the voluntary Women's Development Army were more likely to experience maternal death (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04-4.11), as were women whose husbands or partners had below-median scores for involvement during pregnancy (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.14-4.18). Women with a pre-existing history of other illness were also at increased risk (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.17-14.30), as were those who had never used contraceptives (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.37-4.85). Previous pregnancy complications, a below-median number of antenatal care visits and a woman's lack of involvement in health care decision making were significant bivariable risks that were not significant in the multivariable model. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to focus on encouraging membership of the Women's Development Army, enhancing husbands' involvement in maternal health services, improving linkages between maternity care and other disease-specific programmes and ensuring that women with previous illnesses or non-users of contraceptive services are identified

  14. [Maternal mortality in the IMSS: an analysis from the perspective of mortality and lethality].

    PubMed

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    To assess the incidence of hospital maternal mortality in the population covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) from 2000 to 2003, utilizing the rates of the main causes of morbidity and lethality, in order to gain a better understanding of this epidemiological picture. We collected information from 3,357,346 hospital deliveries and 832 maternal deaths that occurred in the medical units of the IMSS during the above-mentioned years. For the specific analysis of mortality, morbidity and lethality, deliveries and deaths with diagnoses of mild preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, eclampsia, placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis and puerperal sepsis were selected, based on the criteria of International Diseases Classification, Tenth Revision. For statistical differences we used the chi(2). Maternal mortality registered a reduction of 25.1% (39 x 100,000 live births in 2000 and 29.2% in 2003). Morbidity increased by 6.6%. Morbidity and lethality caused by preeclampsia, obstetrical hemorrhages and puerperal sepsis (56.7% of the total deaths) showed a significant decrease in most cases. Specific morbidity showed no changes. We observed a decrease in the rate of hospital maternal mortality during the years of the study, linked to a reduction in lethality of these three main causes. This epidemiological picture may demonstrate the optimal quality in obstetrical care, because no reported changes in morbidity levels were registered.

  15. Challenges of maternal mortality reduction and opportunities under National Rural Health Mission--a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish

    2005-01-01

    Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) continues to remain high in our country without showing any declining trend over a period of two decades. The proportions of maternal deaths contributed by direct obstetric causes have also remained more or less the same in rural areas. There is a strong need to improve coverage of antenatal care, promote institutional deliveries and provide emergency obstetric care. Delays occur in seeking care for obstetric complications and levels of 'met obstetric need' continue to be low in many parts of the country. Most of the First Referral Units (FRUs) and CHCs function at sub-optimal level in the country. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) offers institutional mechanism and strategic options to reduce high MMR. 'Janani Suraksha Yojna', strengthening of CHCs (as per Indian Public Health standards) to offer 24 hours quality services including that of anesthetists and Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) are important proposals in this regard. District Health Mission can play an important role in monitoring maternal deaths occurring in hospitals or in community and thus create a social momentum to prevent and reduce maternal deaths. NRHM, however, depends largely on Panchayati Raj Institutions for effective implementation of proposed interventions and utilization of resources. In most parts of our country, State Governments have not empowered PRIs with real devolution of power. Therefore, much needs to be done locally to build the capacity of PRIs and develop state-specific guidelines in operational terms to implement interventions under NRHM for reducing maternal mortality ratio.

  16. Maternal mortality and morbidity: epidemiology of intensive care admissions in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, H; Dias, T; Jayawardena, A

    2013-12-01

    Maternal mortality reviews are used globally to assess the quality of health-care services. With the decline in the number of maternal deaths, it has become difficult to derive meaningful conclusions that could have an impact on quality of care using maternal mortality data. The emphasis has recently shifted to severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM), as an adjunct to maternal mortality reviews. Due to its heterogeneity, there are difficulties in recognising SAMM. The problem of identifying SAMM accurately is the main issue in investigating them. However, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) provides an unambiguous, management-based inclusion criterion for a SAMM. ICU data are available across health-care settings prospectively and retrospectively, making them a tool that could be studied readily. However, admission to the ICU depends on many factors, such as accessibility and the availability of high-dependency units, which will reduce the need for ICU admission. Thresholds for admission vary widely and are generally higher in facilities that handle a heavier workload. In addition, not all women with SAMM receive intensive care. However, women at the severe end of the spectrum of severe morbidity will almost invariably receive intensive care. Notwithstanding these limitations, the epidemiology of intensive care admissions in pregnancy will provide valuable data about women with severe morbidity. The overall rate of obstetric ICU admission varies from 0.04% to 4.54%.

  17. Maternal mortality cases from pulmonary embolism: A nation-wide study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sanisoğlu, Sema; Uygur, Dilek; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Engin-Üstün, Yaprak; Keskin, Hüseyin Levent; Karaahmetoğlu, Selma; Özcan, Ayşe; Esen, Meral; Ongun, Veli; Özkan, Seçil

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the maternal mortality cases attributed to pulmonary embolism (PE). PE constituted 7.58% of maternal deaths in 2013. Risk factors for PE were present in 15 (88.2%) of the women. Five women (29.4%) were overweight, and 5 (29.4%) were obese. Four women (23.5%) had cardiac diseases. PE occurred in the postpartum period after caesarean delivery in 9 (52.9%) patients. Eleven (64.7%) of the maternal deaths were recognised as preventable. More deaths attributed to PE occurred in the postpartum period (n = 11) than the antepartum period (n = 5). One other maternal mortality case was after therapeutic abortion. Caesarean section, obesity and cardiac diseases were important risk factors. It can be suggested that monitoring all risk factors and timely recognition of related symptoms and signs with initiation of appropriate management have paramount importance for reducing maternal mortality rate related to pulmonary embolism. Increasing awareness of healthcare professionals as well as the public, and continuously reviewing the cases are also important tools for achieving this goal.

  18. Preventing infant and child morbidity and mortality due to maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Surkan, Pamela J; Patel, Shivani A; Rahman, Atif

    2016-10-01

    This review provides an overview of perinatal depression and its impacts on the health of mothers, their newborns, and young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We define and describe the urgency and scope of the problem of perinatal depression for mothers, while highlighting some specific issues such as suicidal ideation and decreased likelihood to seek health care. Pathways through which stress may link maternal depression to childhood growth and development (e.g., the hypo-pituitary axis) are discussed, followed by a summary of the adverse effects of depression on birth outcomes, parenting practices, and child growth and development. Although preliminary studies on the association between maternal depressive symptoms and maternal and child mortality exist, more research on these topics is needed. We describe the available interventions and suggest strategies to reduce maternal depressive symptoms in LMICs, including integration of services with existing primary health-care systems.

  19. MATERNAL HEALTH-SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AND UNDER-FIVE MORTALITY IN ZIMBABWE.

    PubMed

    Chadoka-Mutanda, Nyasha; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2017-05-01

    Under-five mortality remains a major public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. Zimbabwe is one of the countries in the region that failed to achieve Millennium Developmental Goal 4 in 2015. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which maternal health-seeking behaviour prior to and during pregnancy and post-delivery influences the likelihood of under-five mortality among Zimbabwean children. The study was cross-sectional and data were extracted from the 2010/11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS). The study sample comprised 5155 children who were born five years preceding the 2010/11 ZDHS to a sample of 4128 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Cox Proportional Hazard regression modelling was used to examine the relationship between maternal health-seeking behaviour and under-five mortality. The results showed that maternal health-seeking behaviour factors are associated with the risk of dying during childhood. Children born to mothers who had ever used contraceptives (HR: 0.38, CI 0.28-0.51) had a lower risk of dying during childhood compared with children born to mothers who had never used any contraceptive method. The risk of under-five mortality among children who had a postnatal check-up within two months after birth (HR: 0.36, CI 0.23-0.56) was lower than that of children who did not receive postnatal care. Small birth size (HR: 1.70, CI 1.20-2.41) and higher birth order (2+) increased the risk of under-five mortality. Good maternal health-seeking behaviour practices at the three critical stages around childbirth have the potential to reduce under-five mortality. Therefore, public health programmes should focus on influencing health-seeking behaviour among women and removing obstacles to effective maternal health-seeking behaviour in Zimbabwe.

  20. [Obstetric care in Mali: effect of organization on in-hospital maternal mortality].

    PubMed

    Zongo, A; Traoré, M; Faye, A; Gueye, M; Fournier, P; Dumont, A

    2012-08-01

    Maternal mortality is still too high in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in referral hospitals. Solutions exist but their implementation is a great issue in the poor-resources settings. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of the organization of obstetric care services on maternal mortality in referral hospitals in Mali. This is a multicentric observational survey in 22 referral hospitals. Clinical data on 42,929 women delivering in the 22 hospitals within the 2007 to 2008 study period were collected. Organization evaluation was based on explicit criteria defined by an expert committee. The effect of the organization on in-hospital mortality adjusted on individual and institutional characteristics was estimated using multi-level logistic regression models. The results show that an optimal organization of obstetric care services based on eight explicit criteria reduced in-hospital maternal mortality by 41% compared with women delivering in a referral hospital with sub-optimal organization defined as non-compliance with at least one of the eight criteria (ORa=0.59; 95% CI=0.34-0.92). Furthermore, local policies that improved financial access to emergency obstetric care had a significant impact on maternal outcome. Criteria for optimal organization include the management of labor and childbirth by qualified personnel, an organization of human resources that allows timely management of obstetric emergencies, routine use of partography for all patients and availability of guidelines for the management of complications. These conditions could be easily implemented in the context of Mali to reduce in-hospital maternal mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrepancies between national maternal mortality data and international estimates: the experience of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Mola, Glen; Kirby, Barry

    2013-11-01

    Over the past 30 years maternal mortality estimates for Papua New Guinea have varied widely. There is no mandatory vital registration in PNG, and 85% of the population live in rural areas with limited or no access to health services. Demographic Health Survey data for PNG estimates the maternal mortality ratio to be 370 deaths per 100,000 live births in 1996 and 733 in 2006, whereas estimates based upon mathematical models (as calculated by international bodies) gave figures of 930 for 1980 and 230 for 2010. This disparity has been a source of considerable confusion for health workers, policy makers and development partners. In this study, we compared 2009 facility-based survey data with figures from the national Health Information System records. The comparison revealed similar maternal mortality ratios: for provincial hospitals (245 and 295), government health centres (574 and 386), church agency health centres (624 and 624), and nationally (394 and 438). Synthesizing these estimates for supervised births in facilities and data on unsupervised births from a community-based survey in one province indicates a national MMR of about 500. Knowing the maternal mortality ratio is a necessary starting point for working out how to reduce it.

  2. Epidemiologic transition in maternal mortality and morbidity: new challenges for Jamaica.

    PubMed

    McCaw-Binns, A; Alexander, S F; Lindo, J L M; Escoffery, C; Spence, K; Lewis-Bell, K; Lewis, G

    2007-03-01

    Given interventions implemented in recent years to reduce maternal deaths, we sought to determine the incidence and causes of maternal deaths for 1998-2003. Records of public hospitals and state pathologists were reviewed to identify pregnancy-related deaths within 12 months of delivery and determine their underlying causes. Maternal mortality declined (p=0.023) since surveillance began in 1981-83. The fall in direct mortality (p=0.0003) included 24% fewer hypertension deaths (introduction of clinical guidelines, reorganization of antenatal services) and 36% fewer hemorrhage deaths (introduction of plasma expanders). These improvements were tempered by growing indirect mortality (p=0.057), moving to 31% of maternal deaths from 17% in 1993-95. Declines in direct mortality may be associated with surveillance and related improvements in obstetric care. Increased indirect deaths from HIV/AIDS, cardiac disease, sickle cell disease and asthma suggests the need to improve collaboration with medical teams to implement guidelines to care for pregnant women with chronic diseases.

  3. [Chilean history of infant and maternal mortality, 1940 -1985].

    PubMed

    Viel, B; Campos, W

    1987-01-01

    greatly reduced health risks from multiparity, but adolescent pregnancy continues to pose a threat for mothers and children, especially since over half of births to women under 20 are illegitimate. Chile's infant mortality rates were 192.8 1940, 120.3 in 1960, and 19.7 in 1985. Between 1960-85, the neonatal rate declined from 35.2 to 10.4. It is possible that decline in late infant mortality was relative to the declining proportion of unwanted births made possible by availability of family planning services. It has been estimated that 30% of the decline in infant mortality between 1972-82 was due to the decline in high order births made possible by family planning. Maternal mortality has declined due to better care during pregnancy and delivery, decline in illegal abortions, and decreased fertility among women over 35.

  4. Perceptions of policymakers in Nigeria toward unsafe abortion and maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Okonofua, Friday E; Hammed, Afolabi; Nzeribe, Emily; Saidu, Buba; Abass, Tajudeen; Adeboye, Gabriel; Adegun, Temi; Okolocha, Chike

    2009-12-01

    In Nigeria, abortion is permitted only to save the life of a woman. Unsafe abortion is common and is a major cause of maternal mortality, yet policymakers have done little to address the problem. In-depth interviews were conducted in 2008 with 49 Nigerian politicians and officials to assess their awareness of unsafe abortion and its role in maternal mortality, and to determine their perceptions of the policies and actions needed to address these problems. Participants had poor knowledge of Nigeria's abortion law and the number of abortions and abortion-related deaths, though many knew of women who had died or nearly died from unsafe abortion. Policymakers were guided by moral and religious considerations rather than by evidence-based approaches. About one-third of informants felt that abortion should not be legal under any circumstances, one-fifth supported liberalization on medical grounds and a similar proportion believed that abortion should be legal in cases of rape and incest. Strategies recommended by respondents to reduce maternal mortality included facilitating access to contraceptives, providing sexuality education, improving the health care system, empowering women and providing free pregnancy care. Intense public health education and advocacy targeting policymakers is needed to increase political will for reducing abortion-related maternal deaths in Nigeria. Presenting statistics on unsafe abortion together with compelling personal stories will likely resonate with policymakers and contribute to an informed public debate on abortion law reform.

  5. Maternal mortality in New York--Looking back, looking forward.

    PubMed

    Chazotte, Cynthia; D'Alton, Mary E

    2016-03-01

    New York City was ahead of its time in recognizing the issue of maternal death and the need for proper statistics. New York has also documented since the 1950s the enormous public health challenge of racial disparities in maternal mortality. This paper addresses the history of the first Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI), a voluntary program in New York State to review reported cases of maternal deaths in hospitals. Review teams found that timely recognition and intervention in patients with serious morbidity could have prevented many of the deaths reviewed. Unfortunately the program was defunded by New York State. The paper then focuses on the revitalization of the SMI in 2013 to establish three safety bundles across the state to be used in the recognition and treatment of obstetric hemorrhage, severe hypertension in pregnancy, and the prevention of venous thromboembolism; and their introduction into 118 hospitals across the state. The paper concludes with a look to the future of the coordinated efforts needed by various organizations involved in women's healthcare in New York City and State to achieve the goal of a review of all maternal deaths in the state by a multidisciplinary team in a timely manner so that appropriate feedback to the clinical team can be given and care can be modified and improved as needed. It is the authors' opinion that we owe this type of review to the women of New York who entrust their care to us. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eliminating Preventable HIV-Related Maternal Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Do We Need to Know?

    PubMed Central

    Danel, Isabella; Cooper, Diane; Dilmitis, Sophie; Kaida, Angela; Kourtis, Athena P.; Langer, Ana; Lapidos-Salaiz, Ilana; Lathrop, Eva; Moran, Allisyn C.; Sebitloane, Hannah; Turan, Janet M.; Watts, D. Heather; Wegner, Mary Nell

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: HIV makes a significant contribution to maternal mortality, and women living in sub-Saharan Africa are most affected. International commitments to eliminate preventable maternal mortality and reduce HIV-related deaths among pregnant and postpartum women by 50% will not be achieved without a better understanding of the links between HIV and poor maternal health outcomes and improved health services for the care of women living with HIV (WLWH) during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum. Methods: This article summarizes priorities for research and evaluation identified through consultation with 30 international researchers and policymakers with experience in maternal health and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and a review of the published literature. Results: Priorities for improving the evidence about effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality and improve maternal health among WLWH include better quality data about causes of maternal death among WLWH, enhanced and harmonized program monitoring, and research and evaluation that contributes to improving: (1) clinical management of pregnant and postpartum WLWH, including assessment of the impact of expanded antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality and morbidity, (2) integrated service delivery models, and (3) interventions to create an enabling social environment for women to begin and remain in care. Conclusions: As the global community evaluates progress and prepares for new maternal mortality and HIV targets, addressing the needs of WLWH must be a priority now and after 2015. Research and evaluation on maternal health and HIV can increase collaboration on these 2 global priorities, strengthen political constituencies and communities of practice, and accelerate progress toward achievement of goals in both areas. PMID:25436825

  7. Eliminating preventable HIV-related maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: what do we need to know?

    PubMed

    Kendall, Tamil; Danel, Isabella; Cooper, Diane; Dilmitis, Sophie; Kaida, Angela; Kourtis, Athena P; Langer, Ana; Lapidos-Salaiz, Ilana; Lathrop, Eva; Moran, Allisyn C; Sebitloane, Hannah; Turan, Janet M; Watts, D Heather; Wegner, Mary Nell

    2014-12-01

    HIV makes a significant contribution to maternal mortality, and women living in sub-Saharan Africa are most affected. International commitments to eliminate preventable maternal mortality and reduce HIV-related deaths among pregnant and postpartum women by 50% will not be achieved without a better understanding of the links between HIV and poor maternal health outcomes and improved health services for the care of women living with HIV (WLWH) during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum. This article summarizes priorities for research and evaluation identified through consultation with 30 international researchers and policymakers with experience in maternal health and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and a review of the published literature. Priorities for improving the evidence about effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality and improve maternal health among WLWH include better quality data about causes of maternal death among WLWH, enhanced and harmonized program monitoring, and research and evaluation that contributes to improving: (1) clinical management of pregnant and postpartum WLWH, including assessment of the impact of expanded antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality and morbidity, (2) integrated service delivery models, and (3) interventions to create an enabling social environment for women to begin and remain in care. As the global community evaluates progress and prepares for new maternal mortality and HIV targets, addressing the needs of WLWH must be a priority now and after 2015. Research and evaluation on maternal health and HIV can increase collaboration on these 2 global priorities, strengthen political constituencies and communities of practice, and accelerate progress toward achievement of goals in both areas.

  8. Maternal mortality and severe morbidity in a migration perspective.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Thomas; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Among migrants in high-income countries, maternal mortality and severe morbidity generally occur more frequently as compared to host populations. There is marked variation between groups of migrants and host countries, with much elevated risks in some groups and no elevated risk at all in others. Those without a legal resident permit are most vulnerable. A reason for these elevated risks could be a different risk profile in migrants, but risk factors are unevenly distributed and not always present. Another reason is substandard care, which is identified more frequently in migrants, and comprises patient delays, for example, due to a lack of knowledge about the health system in the host country, and health worker delays, often compounded by communication barriers. Improvements in family planning and antenatal services are needed, and audits and confidential enquiries should be extended to include maternal morbidity and ethnic background. This requires scientific and political efforts.

  9. Maternal Mortality: Preventing the Tragedy in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Anthony J.

    1990-01-01

    Maternal mortality in childbirth has been, until recently, a neglected tragedy in most developing countries. Rates of maternal deaths range from 300 to 700/100 000 live births, from 50 to 100 times greater in developing than in developed countries. The major direct obstetric causes include illegal abortions, hemorrhage, sepsis, obstructed labour, ruptured uterus, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. During the past decade, increased recognition of this problem has led to the “Safe Motherhood Initiative” by the World Health Organization in 1987, which has been integrated into the goal of “Health for All by the Year 2000.” The training of traditional birth attendants (who attend from 40% to 60% of births in developing countries) is seen as one of the most important ways to improve obstetric care in remote rural villages. PMID:21249108

  10. Modeling maternal mortality in Bangladesh: the role of misoprostol in postpartum hemorrhage prevention.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Quaiyum, Md Abdul

    2014-02-20

    Bangladesh is one of the few countries that may actually achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in time, despite skilled birth attendance remaining low. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential role misoprostol can play in the decline of maternal deaths attributed to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in Bangladesh. Using data from a misoprostol and blood loss measurement tool feasibility study in Bangladesh, observed cause specific maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) were estimated and contrasted with expected ratios using estimates from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey (BMMS) data. Using Crystal Ball 7 we employ Monte Carlo simulation techniques to estimate maternal deaths in four scenarios, each with different levels of misoprostol coverage. These scenarios include project level misoprostol coverage (69%), no (0%), low (40%), and high (80%) misoprostol coverage. Data on receipt of clean delivery kit, use of misoprostol, experience of PPH, and cause of death were used in model assumptions. Using project level misoprostol coverage (69%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 40 (standard deviation = 8.01) per 100,000 live births. Assuming no misoprostol coverage (0%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 51 (standard deviation = 9.30) per 100,000 live births. For low misoprostol coverage (40%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 45 (standard deviation = 8.26) per 100,000 live births, and for high misoprostol coverage (80%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 38 (standard deviation = 7.04) per 100,000 live births. This theoretical exercise hypothesizes that prophylactic use of misoprostol at home births may contribute to a reduction in the risk of death due to PPH, in addition to reducing the incidence of PPH. If findings from this modeling exercise are accurate and uterotonics can prevent maternal death, misoprostol could be the tool countries need to further reduce maternal mortality at home births.

  11. Modeling maternal mortality in Bangladesh: the role of misoprostol in postpartum hemorrhage prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bangladesh is one of the few countries that may actually achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in time, despite skilled birth attendance remaining low. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential role misoprostol can play in the decline of maternal deaths attributed to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in Bangladesh. Methods Using data from a misoprostol and blood loss measurement tool feasibility study in Bangladesh, observed cause specific maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) were estimated and contrasted with expected ratios using estimates from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey (BMMS) data. Using Crystal Ball 7 we employ Monte Carlo simulation techniques to estimate maternal deaths in four scenarios, each with different levels of misoprostol coverage. These scenarios include project level misoprostol coverage (69%), no (0%), low (40%), and high (80%) misoprostol coverage. Data on receipt of clean delivery kit, use of misoprostol, experience of PPH, and cause of death were used in model assumptions. Results Using project level misoprostol coverage (69%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 40 (standard deviation = 8.01) per 100,000 live births. Assuming no misoprostol coverage (0%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 51 (standard deviation = 9.30) per 100,000 live births. For low misoprostol coverage (40%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 45 (standard deviation = 8.26) per 100,000 live births, and for high misoprostol coverage (80%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 38 (standard deviation = 7.04) per 100,000 live births. Conclusion This theoretical exercise hypothesizes that prophylactic use of misoprostol at home births may contribute to a reduction in the risk of death due to PPH, in addition to reducing the incidence of PPH. If findings from this modeling exercise are accurate and uterotonics can prevent maternal death, misoprostol could be the tool countries need to further

  12. Declining maternal mortality ratio in Uganda: priority interventions to achieve the Millennium Development Goal.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, A K; Mutabazi, M G; Asimwe, J B; Sentumbwe, O; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Orinda, V

    2007-09-01

    We conducted a survey to determine availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and to provide data for advocating for improved maternal and newborn health in Uganda. The survey, covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities, assessed availability of EmOC signal functions, documented maternal deaths and the related causes. Three levels of health facilities were covered. Few health units had running water; electricity or a functional operating theater. Yet having these items had a protective effect on maternal deaths as follows: theater (OR 0.56, P<0.0001); electricity (OR 0.39, P<0.0001); laboratory (OR 0.71, P<0.0001) and staffing levels (midwives) OR 0.20, P<0.0001. The availability of midwives had the highest protective effect on maternal deaths, reducing the case fatality rate by 80%. Further, most (97.2%) health facilities expected to offer basic EmOC, were not doing so. This is the likely explanation for the high health facility-based maternal death rate of 671/100,000 live births in Uganda. Addressing health system issues, especially human resources, and increasingaccess to EmOC could reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and enable the country to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG).

  13. Information management in Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Karimi, Afsaneh; Erfannia, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is preventable by proper information management and is the main target of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS). Aim This study aimed to determine the status of information management in the Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (IMMSS). Methods The population of this descriptive and analytical study, which was conducted in 2016, included 96 administrative staff of health and treatment deputies of universities of medical sciences and the Ministry of Health in Iran. Data were gathered by a five-part questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. A total of 76 questionnaires were completed, and data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19, by descriptive and inferential statistics. The relationship between variables “organizational unit” and the four studied axes was studied using Kendall’s correlation coefficient test. Results The status of information management in IMMSS was desirable. Data gathering and storage axis and data processing and compilation axis achieved the highest (2.7±0.46) and the lowest (2.4±0.49) mean scores, respectively. The data-gathering method, control of a sample of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences, use of international classification of disease, and use of this system information by management teams to set resources allocation achieved the lowest mean scores in studied axes. Treatment deputy staff had a more positive attitude toward the status of information management of IMMSS than the health deputy staff (p=0.004). Conclusion Although the status of information management in IMMSS was desirable, it could be improved by modification of the data-gathering method; creating communication links between different data resources; a periodic sample control of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences; and implementing ICD-MM and integration of its rules on a unified system of death. PMID:28894555

  14. Information management in Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Karimi, Afsaneh; Erfannia, Leila

    2017-07-01

    Maternal mortality is preventable by proper information management and is the main target of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS). This study aimed to determine the status of information management in the Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (IMMSS). The population of this descriptive and analytical study, which was conducted in 2016, included 96 administrative staff of health and treatment deputies of universities of medical sciences and the Ministry of Health in Iran. Data were gathered by a five-part questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. A total of 76 questionnaires were completed, and data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19, by descriptive and inferential statistics. The relationship between variables "organizational unit" and the four studied axes was studied using Kendall's correlation coefficient test. The status of information management in IMMSS was desirable. Data gathering and storage axis and data processing and compilation axis achieved the highest (2.7±0.46) and the lowest (2.4±0.49) mean scores, respectively. The data-gathering method, control of a sample of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences, use of international classification of disease, and use of this system information by management teams to set resources allocation achieved the lowest mean scores in studied axes. Treatment deputy staff had a more positive attitude toward the status of information management of IMMSS than the health deputy staff (p=0.004). Although the status of information management in IMMSS was desirable, it could be improved by modification of the data-gathering method; creating communication links between different data resources; a periodic sample control of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences; and implementing ICD-MM and integration of its rules on a unified system of death.

  15. One in Five Maternal Deaths in Bangladesh Associated with Acute Jaundice: Results from a National Maternal Mortality Survey.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupal; Nahar, Quamrun; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-03-01

    We estimated the proportion of maternal deaths in Bangladesh associated with acute onset of jaundice. We used verbal autopsy data from a nationally representative maternal mortality survey to calculate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with jaundice and compared it to previously published estimates. Of all maternal deaths between 2008 and 2010, 23% were associated with jaundice, compared with 19% from 1998 to 2001. Approximately one of five maternal deaths was preceded by jaundice, unchanged in 10 years. Our findings highlight the need to better understand the etiology of these maternal deaths in Bangladesh. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. One in Five Maternal Deaths in Bangladesh Associated with Acute Jaundice: Results from a National Maternal Mortality Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rupal; Nahar, Quamrun; Gurley, Emily S.

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of maternal deaths in Bangladesh associated with acute onset of jaundice. We used verbal autopsy data from a nationally representative maternal mortality survey to calculate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with jaundice and compared it to previously published estimates. Of all maternal deaths between 2008 and 2010, 23% were associated with jaundice, compared with 19% from 1998 to 2001. Approximately one of five maternal deaths was preceded by jaundice, unchanged in 10 years. Our findings highlight the need to better understand the etiology of these maternal deaths in Bangladesh. PMID:26755563

  17. The Neighbourhood Method for Measuring Differences in Maternal Mortality, Infant Mortality and Other Rare Demographic Events

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nurul; Townend, John

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of reliable systems for registering rare types of vital events large surveys are required to measure changes in their rates. However some events such as maternal deaths are widely known about in the community. This study examined the utility of asking respondents about events in their neighbourhood as an efficient method for measuring relative rates of rare health events such as maternal and infant deaths. A survey was conducted in the health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in Matlab, Bangladesh, which includes two areas with different health care regimes. Adult women were asked about any maternal deaths; multiple births; infant deaths, live births and some other events they knew of in a small specified area around their home. Agreement between HDSS records and survey responses was moderate or better (kappa≥0.44) for all the events and greatest for maternal deaths (kappa = 0.77) with 84% being reported. Most events were more likely to be reported if they were recent (p<0.05). Infant mortality rate in one area was 0.56 times that in the other which was well reflected by the ratio of survey results (0.53). Simulations were used to study the ability of the method to detect differences in maternal mortality ratio. These suggested that a sample size around 5000 would give 80% power to detect a 50% decrease from a baseline of 183 which compared well with an estimated sample size around 10 times larger using the direct sisterhood method. The findings suggest that the Neighbourhood Method has potential for monitoring relative differences between areas or changes over time in the rates of rare demographic events, requiring considerably smaller sample sizes than traditional methods. This raises the possibility for interventions to demonstrate real effects on outcomes such as maternal deaths where previously this was only feasible by indirect methods. PMID:24392088

  18. Maternal mortality related to induced abortion in North Carolina: a historical study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R E; Buescher, P A

    1994-01-01

    A study of trends in maternal mortality from 1963 to 1992 in North Carolina shows that during the period 1973-1977, when legal abortion first became available, the maternal mortality ratio (maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) for deaths related to induced abortion was almost 85% lower than the ratio during the previous five-year period. The decrease in abortion-related mortality had a substantial impact on the overall maternal mortality ratio during this period, accounting for about 46% of the total decline in maternal deaths. After 1977, the maternal mortality ratio for induced abortion declined to less than one death per 100,000 live births, while the mortality ratio for all other obstetric causes leveled off at about 10 deaths per 100,000 live births.

  19. Applying the sisterhood method for estimating maternal mortality to a health facility-based sample: a comparison with results from a household-based sample.

    PubMed

    Danel, I; Graham, W; Stupp, P; Castillo, P

    1996-10-01

    Researchers compared maternal mortality estimates using the sisterhood method in a household survey conducted in November 1991 and in an outpatient health facility survey conducted in July 1992. Both surveys were conducted in Region I, a predominantly rural, mountainous area in northern Nicaragua. They analyzed data from 9232 interviews with adults younger than 49. The estimated lifetime risk of maternal death and the corresponding maternal mortality ratio were essentially identical for both the household and health facility surveys (0.145 and 0.144 [i.e., 1 in 69 of reproductive age died due to pregnancy-related events] and 243 and 241/100,000 live births, respectively). The estimates were similar for both surveys, even when the results were standardized for age, residence, and socioeconomic characteristics. An important limitation to the sisterhood method of estimating maternal mortality is that it estimates maternal mortality for a period about 10-12 years before the study and therefore cannot be used to assess the immediate effect of interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Nevertheless, in areas with poor maternal mortality surveillance or where no alternative exists to collecting population-based data, the sisterhood method can reliably estimate maternal mortality. These findings suggest that health facilities-based studies using the sisterhood method is a feasible, low-cost, and efficient method to estimate maternal mortality in certain settings at subnational levels.

  20. [An analysis of factors influencing maternal mortality in Southern Algeria].

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Yves; Bivort, Philippe; Madani, Kamel; Metboul, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Southern Algeria has the highest rate of maternal mortality in the country. An action-research study was conducted to identify the explanatory factors of this issue. Three methodological approaches were used: (i) an epidemiological data analysis of maternal mortality and an analysis of obstetric complications at the hospital of Tamanrasset; (ii) a socio-anthropological study conducted among women in Tamanrasset; and (iii) semi-structured interviews with health professionals aimed at understanding their beliefs and representations. RESULTS; The study identified three major factors influencing the decision to seek care: (i) the interpretation of illness by mothers; (ii) the origin of their decision to seek care based on their assessment of the range of available therapeutic options; and (iii) medical uncertainty, with mothers often forced to resort to a range of therapeutic options because of uncertainty and pressure from family and other local residents. A detailed analysis of the implementation of mobile healthcare services is required to provide local health services to the population.

  1. The Effects of Maternal Mortality on Infant and Child Survival in Rural Tanzania: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Jocelyn E; Moucheraud, Corrina; Goshev, Simo; Levira, Francis; Mrema, Sigilbert; Canning, David; Masanja, Honorati; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2015-11-01

    The full impact of a maternal death includes consequences faced by orphaned children. This analysis adds evidence to a literature on the magnitude of the association between a woman's death during or shortly after childbirth, and survival outcomes for her children. The Ifakara and Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in rural Tanzania conduct longitudinal, frequent data collection of key demographic events at the household level. Using a subset of the data from these sites (1996-2012), this survival analysis compared outcomes for children who experienced a maternal death (42 and 365 days definitions) during or near birth to those children whose mothers survived. There were 111 maternal deaths (or 229 late maternal deaths) during the study period, and 46.28 % of the index children also subsequently died (40.73 % of children in the late maternal death group) before their tenth birthday-a much higher prevalence of child mortality than in the population of children whose mothers survived (7.88 %, p value <0.001). Children orphaned by early maternal deaths had a 51.54 % chance of surviving to their first birthday, compared to a 94.42 % probability for children of surviving mothers. A significant, but lesser, child survival effect was also found for paternal deaths in this study period. The death of a mother compromises the survival of index children. Reducing maternal mortality through improved health care-especially provision of high-quality skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric services and neonatal care-will also help save children's lives.

  2. An autopsy study of maternal mortality in Mozambique: the contribution of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Clara; Romagosa, Cleofé; Ismail, Mamudo R; Carrilho, Carla; Saute, Francisco; Osman, Nafissa; Machungo, Fernanda; Bardaji, Azucena; Quintó, Llorenç; Mayor, Alfredo; Naniche, Denise; Dobaño, Carlota; Alonso, Pedro L; Ordi, Jaume

    2008-02-01

    Maternal mortality is a major health problem concentrated in resource-poor regions. Accurate data on its causes using rigorous methods is lacking, but is essential to guide policy-makers and health professionals to reduce this intolerable burden. The aim of this study was to accurately describe the causes of maternal death in order to contribute to its reduction, in one of the regions of the world with the highest maternal mortality ratios. We conducted a prospective study between October 2002 and December 2004 on the causes of maternal death in a tertiary-level referral hospital in Maputo, Mozambique, using complete autopsies with histological examination. HIV detection was done by virologic and serologic tests, and malaria was diagnosed by histological and parasitological examination. During 26 mo there were 179 maternal deaths, of which 139 (77.6%) had a complete autopsy and formed the basis of this analysis. Of those with test results, 65 women (52.8%) were HIV-positive. Obstetric complications accounted for 38.2% of deaths; haemorrhage was the most frequent cause (16.6%). Nonobstetric conditions accounted for 56.1% of deaths; HIV/AIDS, pyogenic bronchopneumonia, severe malaria, and pyogenic meningitis were the most common causes (12.9%, 12.2%, 10.1% and 7.2% respectively). Mycobacterial infection was found in 12 (8.6%) maternal deaths. In this tertiary hospital in Mozambique, infectious diseases accounted for at least half of all maternal deaths, even though effective treatment is available for the four leading causes, HIV/AIDS, pyogenic bronchopneumonia, severe malaria, and pyogenic meningitis. These observations highlight the need to implement effective and available prevention tools, such as intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated bed-nets for malaria, antiretroviral drugs for HIV/AIDS, or vaccines and effective antibiotics for pneumococcal and meningococcal diseases. Deaths due to obstetric causes represent a failure of health

  3. Association between Maternal Mortality and Cesarean Section: Turkey Experience

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Cihangir; Ozcam, Hasene

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the cesarean Section (C/S) rates and maternal mortality (MM) causes and its relation between 2002 and 2013. Methods Data were gathered from Turkish Ministry of Health and Istanbul Health Administration. The Annual Clinical Reports for 2002–2013 were reviewed and analyzed: C/Ss and maternal deaths in women who gave birth ≥20 weeks between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2013, in any hospital in Turkey and Istanbul. Results The major causes of MM were hemorrhage (20%), hypertensive disorders (18.2%), embolism (10.3%), cardiovascular conditions (9%), infection (8.5%), and other causes (10.4%). Overall, the average annual CS delivery rate was 46.4% in Istanbul and 36.6% in Turkey. There was a significant increase in the CS rates in Istanbul and Turkey from 2008 to 2013 relative to those from 2002 to 2007 (p = 0.004). There was a statistically significant and inverse relationship (97.2%) between the MMR and CS rate from 2002 to 2013 in Turkey (p = 0.001). However, no significant relationship was detected between the MMR and CS rate from 2002 to 2013 in Istanbul (p > 0.05). There was a significant inverse correlation (66.3%) between the CS rate and peripartumhemorrhage in Turkey (p = 0.019) and there was a significant inverse correlation (66.5%) between the CS rate and peripartumhemorrhage(p = 0.018) in Istanbul between 2007 to 2013. There were no significant differences in ante-intrapartum haemorrhage bleeding (p > 0.05) or postpartum hemorrhage (p > 0.05) from 2007 to 2013. Conclusions This study demonstrates that there was a inverse correlation between increased CS and maternal mortality rates during the previous decade in Turkey. Although cesarean rates increase excessively, it appears that improved health care facilities have a positive effect on MMRs in Turkey. PMID:27880841

  4. Association between Maternal Mortality and Cesarean Section: Turkey Experience.

    PubMed

    Uzuncakmak, Cihangir; Ozcam, Hasene

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cesarean Section (C/S) rates and maternal mortality (MM) causes and its relation between 2002 and 2013. Data were gathered from Turkish Ministry of Health and Istanbul Health Administration. The Annual Clinical Reports for 2002-2013 were reviewed and analyzed: C/Ss and maternal deaths in women who gave birth ≥20 weeks between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2013, in any hospital in Turkey and Istanbul. The major causes of MM were hemorrhage (20%), hypertensive disorders (18.2%), embolism (10.3%), cardiovascular conditions (9%), infection (8.5%), and other causes (10.4%). Overall, the average annual CS delivery rate was 46.4% in Istanbul and 36.6% in Turkey. There was a significant increase in the CS rates in Istanbul and Turkey from 2008 to 2013 relative to those from 2002 to 2007 (p = 0.004). There was a statistically significant and inverse relationship (97.2%) between the MMR and CS rate from 2002 to 2013 in Turkey (p = 0.001). However, no significant relationship was detected between the MMR and CS rate from 2002 to 2013 in Istanbul (p > 0.05). There was a significant inverse correlation (66.3%) between the CS rate and peripartumhemorrhage in Turkey (p = 0.019) and there was a significant inverse correlation (66.5%) between the CS rate and peripartumhemorrhage(p = 0.018) in Istanbul between 2007 to 2013. There were no significant differences in ante-intrapartum haemorrhage bleeding (p > 0.05) or postpartum hemorrhage (p > 0.05) from 2007 to 2013. This study demonstrates that there was a inverse correlation between increased CS and maternal mortality rates during the previous decade in Turkey. Although cesarean rates increase excessively, it appears that improved health care facilities have a positive effect on MMRs in Turkey.

  5. Trends in maternal mortality in resident vs. migrant women in Shanghai, China, 2000-2009: a register-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Li; Qin, Min; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Houqin; Zhu, Liping

    2012-06-01

    Although Shanghai has good maternal health indicators, it also has a large in-migrating population, which has made control of maternal mortality a major challenge. This study analyzed maternal mortality and causes of death in pregnant women in Shanghai in the ten years from 2000 to 2009, comparing resident and migrant women. All live births were registered and every maternal death audited. The number of live births rose from 84,898 in 2000 to 187,335 in 2009. The number of migrants increased 4.6 times, while the proportion of live births to migrant women increased from 27% to 55%. There were 262 maternal deaths, 55 in Shanghai residents and 207 in migrant women (78.9% of the total). Most deaths in migrant women were due to illegal delivery. Three policy changes focusing on maternal health greatly reduced deaths: low-cost delivery services were established for migrant women in maternity hospitals, five obstetric emergency care and referral centres were created in general hospitals, and training for health professionals and health education for women were instituted. Maternal mortality in Shanghai decreased steadily from 2000 to 2009, reaching 10 per 100,000 live births in 2009. Among Shanghai permanent residents the ratio was below ten in most of those years, while among migrant women it declined sharply from 58 to 12 per 100,000 live births.

  6. Measuring Maternal Mortality: Three Case Studies Using Verbal Autopsy with Different Platforms.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Siân L; Mswia, Robert G; Weaver, Emily H

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurement of maternal mortality is needed to develop a greater understanding of the scale of the problem, to increase effectiveness of program planning and targeting, and to track progress. In the absence of good quality vital statistics, interim methods are used to measure maternal mortality. The purpose of this study is to document experience with three community-based interim methods that measure maternal mortality using verbal autopsy. This study uses a post-census mortality survey, a sample vital registration with verbal autopsy, and a large-scale household survey to summarize the measures of maternal mortality obtained from these three platforms, compares and contrasts the different methodologies employed, and evaluates strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Included is also a discussion of issues related to death identification and classification, estimating maternal mortality ratios and rates, sample sizes and periodicity of estimates, data quality, and cost. The sample sizes vary considerably between the three data sources and the number of maternal deaths identified through each platform was small. The proportion of deaths to women of reproductive age that are maternal deaths ranged from 8.8% to 17.3%. The maternal mortality rate was estimable using two of the platforms while obtaining an estimate of the maternal mortality ratio was only possible using one of the platforms. The percentage of maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes ranged from 45.2% to 80.4%. This study documents experiences applying standard verbal autopsy methods to estimate maternal mortality and confirms that verbal autopsy is a feasible method for collecting maternal mortality data. None of these interim methods are likely to be suitable for detecting short term changes in mortality due to prohibitive sample size requirements, and thus, comprehensive and continuous civil registration systems to provide high quality vital statistics are essential in the long-term.

  7. Measuring Maternal Mortality: Three Case Studies Using Verbal Autopsy with Different Platforms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate measurement of maternal mortality is needed to develop a greater understanding of the scale of the problem, to increase effectiveness of program planning and targeting, and to track progress. In the absence of good quality vital statistics, interim methods are used to measure maternal mortality. The purpose of this study is to document experience with three community-based interim methods that measure maternal mortality using verbal autopsy. Methods This study uses a post-census mortality survey, a sample vital registration with verbal autopsy, and a large-scale household survey to summarize the measures of maternal mortality obtained from these three platforms, compares and contrasts the different methodologies employed, and evaluates strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Included is also a discussion of issues related to death identification and classification, estimating maternal mortality ratios and rates, sample sizes and periodicity of estimates, data quality, and cost. Results The sample sizes vary considerably between the three data sources and the number of maternal deaths identified through each platform was small. The proportion of deaths to women of reproductive age that are maternal deaths ranged from 8.8% to 17.3%. The maternal mortality rate was estimable using two of the platforms while obtaining an estimate of the maternal mortality ratio was only possible using one of the platforms. The percentage of maternal deaths due to direct obstetric causes ranged from 45.2% to 80.4%. Conclusions This study documents experiences applying standard verbal autopsy methods to estimate maternal mortality and confirms that verbal autopsy is a feasible method for collecting maternal mortality data. None of these interim methods are likely to be suitable for detecting short term changes in mortality due to prohibitive sample size requirements, and thus, comprehensive and continuous civil registration systems to provide high quality vital

  8. Perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality after attempted operative vaginal delivery at midpelvic station

    PubMed Central

    Muraca, Giulia M.; Sabr, Yasser; Lisonkova, Sarka; Skoll, Amanda; Brant, Rollin; Cundiff, Geoffrey W.; Joseph, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased use of operative vaginal delivery (i.e., forceps or vacuum application), of which 20% occurs at midpelvic station, has been advocated to reduce the rate of cesarean delivery. We aimed to quantify severe perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with attempted midpelvic operative vaginal delivery. METHODS: We studied all term singleton deliveries in Canada between 2003 and 2013, by attempted midpelvic operative vaginal or cesarean delivery with labour (with and without prolonged second stage). The primary outcomes were composite severe perinatal morbidity and mortality (e.g., convulsions, assisted ventilation, severe birth trauma and perinatal death), and composite severe maternal morbidity and mortality (e.g., severe postpartum hemorrhage, shock, sepsis, cardiac complications, acute renal failure and death). RESULTS: The study population included 187 234 deliveries. Among women with dystocia and prolonged second stage of labour, midpelvic operative vaginal delivery was associated with higher rates of severe perinatal morbidity and mortality compared with cesarean delivery (forceps, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24 to 2.64; vacuum, AOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.80; sequential instruments, AOR 3.19, 95% CI 1.73 to 5.88), especially with higher rates of severe birth trauma. Rates of severe maternal morbidity and mortality were not significantly different after operative vaginal delivery, although rates of obstetric trauma were higher (forceps, AOR 4.51, 95% CI 4.04 to 5.02; vacuum, AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.35 to 3.09; sequential instruments, AOR 4.24, 95% CI 3.46 to 5.19). Among women with fetal distress, similar associations were seen for severe birth trauma and obstetric trauma, although vacuum was associated with lower rates of severe maternal morbidity and mortality (AOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.80). Associations tended to be stronger among women without a prolonged second stage. INTERPRETATION: Midpelvic

  9. Kinship, maternal effects, and management: Juvenile mortality and survival in captive African painted dogs, Lycaon pictus.

    PubMed

    Yordy, Jennifer; Mossotti, Regina H

    2016-09-01

    In 77 African painted dog (Lycaon pictus) litters born in North American zoos since 1998, pup mortality at 30 days was 53% (n = 478). More alarmingly, 52% of those 77 litters had zero pups surviving at 30 days. Many variables may have the potential to affect pup mortality in captivity, including kinship, maternal age, prior maternal breeding experience, and numerous social and husbandry factors. Data on these variables were obtained from the North American Regional Studbook, with supplemental information compiled from a survey sent to painted dog breeding facilities in North America. Survival curve analysis revealed significant effects for maternal age and kinship, with kinship being most significant (χ(2) , df = 19.71, 1; P < 0.0001). Pups born to unrelated parents had a median age at death two orders of magnitude higher than pups born to parents who were related to each other. Pup mortality was also lower for experienced mothers and for females under 2.5 years or between 4.5 and 6.5 years old. Follow-up analyses of these findings indicated that among first-time mothers, the youngest females achieved the lowest juvenile mortality, while juvenile mortality for experienced mothers was relatively low in all age classes until 6.5 years old. Regression analysis indicated that chances of survival are improved for pups born to younger mothers, unrelated parents, and in packs of >2 individuals. Enclosure size and area per animal may also be important factors. Our findings indicate that specific characteristics can be used to predict and potentially reduce pup mortality in captive African painted dogs. Zoo Biol. 35:367-377, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. New estimates of maternal mortality and how to interpret them: choice or confusion?

    PubMed

    Abouzahr, Carla

    2011-05-01

    Two independent exercises to estimate levels of maternal mortality took place during 2010, one published by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in Seattle, USA, the other published by four UN agencies (UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank and World Health Organization). Although both approaches are based on similar sets of empirical country data, their statistical methods differ in important respects--with implications for the resulting global, regional and country estimates. This paper examines the differences, discusses both the value and inherent limitations in such exercises, proposes ways of interpreting the different estimates and suggests how such exercises could be made more relevant to the needs of country-level decision-makers. It calls on the global community to invest seriously in working with countries to generate primary data on maternal mortality using measurement methods that reduce uncertainty and generate data on a continuing basis. The best routine source of data on maternal deaths is a civil registration system that assures permanent, compulsory and universal recording of the occurrence and characteristics of vital events, including births and deaths, and causes of death. The record of deaths among women of reproductive age derived from civil registration is often the first step in conducting a confidential enquiry into and preventing maternal deaths. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [The change in the epidemiological profile of maternal mortality in Chile will hinder the fulfillment of the Millennium 5th goal].

    PubMed

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-10-01

    The death of women during pregnancy, childbirth or puerperium, remains a serious public health problem worldwide. Chile is committed to comply with the Millennium 5th Goal of reducing maternal mortality to 9.9/100,000 live births in 2015. To analyze trends in maternal mortality in Chile during 2000-2009. A descriptive population analysis using raw data obtained from the yearbooks of the National Institute of Statistics of Chile. Maternal mortality, causes of death and age of the dead mothers were evaluated. The causes of maternal death were classified according to the tenth revision of International Classification of Diseases. Trend studies were performed using Pearson correlation analysis. In the studied period there were no significant changes in maternal mortality and fertility. The five major causes of maternal death were concurrent diseases, hypertension, abortion, obstetric embolism and postpartum hemorrhage. Mortality associated with concurrent illness showed a significant upward trend (r = 0.656, p = 0.035). Abortion associated mortality had a significant downward trend (r = -0.712, p = 0.023). The group of women 40 years and older significantly increased its birth rate (r = 0.930, p < 0.001), this group showed the highest maternal mortality, especially in association with concurrent diseases. The increased birth rate occurring in women over 40 years old and its larger maternal mortality rate, probably will hinder the fulfillment of the Millennium 5th goal in Chile.

  12. Tracking maternal mortality declines in Mongolia between 1992 and 2007: the importance of collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Merialdi, Mario; Davaadorj, Ishnyam; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Ahmad, Asima; Nymadawa, Pagvajav; Erkhembaatar, Tudevdorj; Barcelona, Delia; Ba-thike, Katherine; Hagan, Robert J; Prado, Richard; Wagner, Wolf; Khishgee, Seded; Sodnompil, Tserendorj; Tsedmaa, Baatar; Jav, Baldan; Govind, Salik R; Purevsuren, Genden; Tsevelmaa, Baldan; Soyoltuya, Bayaraa; Johnson, Brooke R; Fajans, Peter; Van Look, Paul FA; Otgonbold, Altankhuyag

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the declining trend in maternal mortality observed in Mongolia from 1992 to 2007 and its acceleration after 2001 following implementation of the Maternal Mortality Reduction Strategy by the Ministry of Health and other partners. Methods We performed a descriptive analysis of maternal mortality data collected through Mongolia’s vital registration system and provided by the Mongolian Ministry of Health. The observed declining mortality trend was analysed for statistical significance using simple linear regression. We present the maternal mortality ratios from 1992 to 2007 by year and review the basic components of Mongolia’s Maternal Mortality Reduction Strategy for 2001–2004 and 2005–2010. Findings Mongolia achieved a statistically significant annual decrease in its maternal mortality ratio of almost 10 deaths per 100 000 live births over the period 1992–2007. From 2001 to 2007, the maternal mortality ratio in Mongolia decreased approximately 47%, from 169 to 89.6 deaths per 100 000 live births. Conclusion Disparities in maternal mortality represent one of the major persisting health inequities between low- and high-resource countries. Nonetheless, important reductions in low-resource settings are possible through collaborative strategies based on a horizontal approach and the coordinated involvement of key partners, including health ministries, national and international agencies and donors, health-care professionals, the media, nongovernmental organizations and the general public. PMID:20428386

  13. Tracking maternal mortality declines in Mongolia between 1992 and 2007: the importance of collaboration.

    PubMed

    Yadamsuren, Buyanjargal; Merialdi, Mario; Davaadorj, Ishnyam; Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Ahmad, Asima; Nymadawa, Pagvajav; Erkhembaatar, Tudevdorj; Barcelona, Delia; Ba-Thike, Katherine; Hagan, Robert J; Prado, Richard; Wagner, Wolf; Khishgee, Seded; Sodnompil, Tserendorj; Tsedmaa, Baatar; Jav, Baldan; Govind, Salik R; Purevsuren, Genden; Tsevelmaa, Baldan; Soyoltuya, Bayaraa; Johnson, Brooke R; Fajans, Peter; Van Look, Paul Fa; Otgonbold, Altankhuyag

    2010-03-01

    To describe the declining trend in maternal mortality observed in Mongolia from 1992 to 2007 and its acceleration after 2001 following implementation of the Maternal Mortality Reduction Strategy by the Ministry of Health and other partners. We performed a descriptive analysis of maternal mortality data collected through Mongolia's vital registration system and provided by the Mongolian Ministry of Health. The observed declining mortality trend was analysed for statistical significance using simple linear regression. We present the maternal mortality ratios from 1992 to 2007 by year and review the basic components of Mongolia's Maternal Mortality Reduction Strategy for 2001-2004 and 2005-2010. Mongolia achieved a statistically significant annual decrease in its maternal mortality ratio of almost 10 deaths per 100 000 live births over the period 1992-2007. From 2001 to 2007, the maternal mortality ratio in Mongolia decreased approximately 47%, from 169 to 89.6 deaths per 100 000 live births. Disparities in maternal mortality represent one of the major persisting health inequities between low- and high-resource countries. Nonetheless, important reductions in low-resource settings are possible through collaborative strategies based on a horizontal approach and the coordinated involvement of key partners, including health ministries, national and international agencies and donors, health-care professionals, the media, nongovernmental organizations and the general public.

  14. Maternal Obesity During Pregnancy Associates With Premature Mortality and Major Cardiovascular Events in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan Ken; Raja, Edwin A; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2015-11-01

    One in 5 pregnant women is obese but the impact on later health is unknown. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity during pregnancy associates with increased premature mortality and later life major cardiovascular events. Maternity records of women who gave birth to their first child between 1950 and 1976 (n=18 873) from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal databank were linked to the National Register of Deaths, Scotland and Scottish Morbidity Record. The effect of maternal obesity at first antenatal visit on death and hospital admissions for cardiovascular events was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazard regression to compare outcomes of mothers in underweight, overweight, or obese body mass index (BMI) categories compared with normal BMI. Median follow-up was at 73 years. All-cause mortality was increased in women who were obese during pregnancy (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) versus normal BMI after adjustment for socioeconomic status, smoking, gestation at BMI measurement, preeclampsia, and low birth weight (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.77). In adjusted models, overweight and obese mothers had increased risk of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event (1.16; 1.06-1.27 and 1.26; 1.01-1.57) compared with normal BMI mothers. Adjustment for parity largely unchanged the hazard ratios (mortality: 1.43, 1.09-1.88; cardiovascular events overweight: 1.17, 1.07-1.29; and obese: 1.30, 1.04-1.62). In conclusion, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of premature death and cardiovascular disease. Pregnancy and early postpartum could represent an opportunity for interventions to identify obesity and reduce its adverse consequences.

  15. Effect of predelivery vaginal antisepsis on maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bakr, Ahmad F; Karkour, Tarek

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if cleansing the birth canal with an antiseptic solution at delivery reduces infections in mothers and their newborn babies. Women giving birth in the University Hospital, Alexandria, and their newborns were studied. No intervention for 3 months was followed by 3 months of intervention. Intervention consisted of manually wiping the maternal birth canal with a 0.25% chlorhexidine solution at admission and at every vaginal examination before delivery. Babies were also wiped with chlorhexidine. The study enrolled 4415 women and 4431 newborns. The nonintervention phase comprised 2128 mothers and 2138 newborns, and 2287 mothers and 2293 babies were enrolled in the intervention phase. There were no adverse reactions related to the intervention among the mothers or their children. There was no difference in the overall number of neonatal admissions in both groups, but the admissions because of infection, deaths, and mortalities from infection were significantly less in the intervention group. Among mothers receiving the intervention, admissions, deaths, and infections were significantly reduced. Cleansing the birth canal with chlorhexidine reduced neonatal and maternal postpartum infections. The safety, simplicity, and low cost of the procedure suggest that it should be considered standard care for the reduction of infant and maternal morbidity and mortality.

  16. Estimates of the maternal mortality ratio in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region, Ghana.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. B.; Fortney, J. A.; Wong, E.; Amatya, R.; Coleman, N. A.; de Graft Johnson, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by the sisterhood method in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana, and to determine the impact of different assumptions and analytical decisions on these estimates. METHODS: Indirect estimates of the MMR were calculated from data collected in 1995 by Family Health International (FHI) on 5202 women aged 15-49 years, using a household screen of randomly selected areas in the two districts. Other data from the nationally representative 1994 Ghana Infant, Child and Maternal Mortality Survey (ICMMS) and from the 1997 Kassena-Nankana District study were also used for comparison. FINDINGS: Based on the FHI data, the MMR was estimated to be 269 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births for both districts combined, a figure higher than ICMMS estimates. Biases during data collection may account for this difference, including the fact that biases underestimating mortality are more common than those overestimating it. Biases introduced during data analysis were also considered, but only the total fertility rate used to calculate the MMR seemed to affect the estimates significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the sisterhood method is still being refined and the extent and impact of biases have only recently received attention. Users of this method should be aware of limitations when interpreting results. We recommend using confidence limits around estimates, both to dispel false impressions of precision and to reduce overinterpretation of data. PMID:11417035

  17. Delivery as Trauma: A Prospective Time-Cohort Study of Maternal and Perinatal Mortality in Rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Houy, Chandy; Ha, Sam Ol; Steinholt, Margit; Skjerve, Eystein; Husum, Hans

    2017-04-01

    The majority of maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable, but still women and newborns die due to insufficient Basic Life Support in low-resource communities. Drawing on experiences from successful wartime trauma systems, a three-tier chain-of-survival model was introduced as a means to reduce rural maternal and perinatal mortality. A study area of 266 villages in landmine-infested Northwestern Cambodia were selected based on remoteness and poverty. The five-year intervention from 2005 through 2009 was carried out as a prospective study. The years of formation in 2005 and 2006 were used as a baseline cohort for comparisons with later annual cohorts. Non-professional and professional birth attendants at village level, rural health centers (HCs), and three hospitals were merged with an operational prehospital trauma system. Staff at all levels were trained in life support and emergency obstetrics. Findings The maternal mortality rate was reduced from a baseline level of 0.73% to 0.12% in the year 2009 (95% CI Diff, 0.27-0.98; P<.01). The main reduction was observed in deliveries at village level assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). There was a significant reduction in perinatal mortality rate by year from a baseline level at 3.5% to 1.0% in the year 2009 (95% CI Diff, 0.02-0.03; P<.01). Adjusting maternal and perinatal mortality rates for risk factors, the changes by time cohort remained a significant explanatory variable in the regression model. The results correspond to experiences from modern prehospital trauma systems: Basic Life Support reduces maternal and perinatal death if provided early. Trained TBAs are effective if well-integrated in maternal health programs. Houy C , Ha SO , Steinholt M , Skjerve E , Husum H . Delivery as trauma: a prospective time-cohort study of maternal and perinatal mortality in rural Cambodia. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):180-186.

  18. [Maternal mortality in Spain, 1980-1992. Relationship with birth distributions according to the mother's age].

    PubMed

    Valero Juan, L F; Sáenz González, M C

    1997-11-01

    The maternal mortality evolution in Spain during the 1980-1992 period is reported. The influence of birth distribution according to maternal age is analyzed. The information was gathered from vital statistics published by Instituto Nacional de Estadística. The mortality rates have stabilized since 1985 (4.8 per 10(5) for 1992) associated with the increase in the proportion of births in women aged > or = 30 years (40.6% for 1992). Birth distributions according to maternal age account for 13.1% of the deaths observed. The predictions point to an increase in maternal mortality for the year 2000.

  19. Infant mortality in India: use of maternal and child health services in relation to literacy status.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Medha K; Rao, Shobha S; Garole, Varsha R

    2002-06-01

    Slow reduction in infant mortality rate in the last couple of decades is a major concern in India. State-level aggregate data from the National Family Health Survey 1992 and micro-level data on rural mothers (n=317) were used for examining the influence of female literacy on reduction of infant mortality through increased use of maternal and child health (MCH) services. Illiteracy of females was strongly associated with all variables relating to maternal care and also with infant mortality rate. States were grouped into best, medium, and worst on the basis of female illiteracy (about 11%, 48.5%, and 75% respectively). Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 livebirths) was significantly (p<0.01) higher among the worst group (90.99) than that among the medium (64.2) and the best (24.0) groups. Use of maternal health services increased in the worst to become the best groups for tetanus toxoid (from 48.0% to 84.4%), iron and folic acid tablets (36.6% to 76.2%), hospitalized deliveries (14.2% to 69.7%), and childcare services, such as vaccination (23.8% to 64.9%). Illiteracy of females had a more detrimental impact on rural than on urban areas. In the event of high female illiteracy, male literacy was beneficial for improving the use of services for reducing infant mortality rate. The micro-level study supported all major findings obtained for the national-level aggregate data. Programmes, like providing free education to girls, will yield long-term health benefits.

  20. Seasonal variations in maternal mortality in Maputo, Mozambique: the role of malaria.

    PubMed

    Romagosa, Cleofé; Ordi, Jaume; Saute, Francisco; Quintó, Llorenç; Machungo, Fernanda; Ismail, Mamudo R; Carrilho, Carla; Osman, Nafissa; Alonso, Pedro L; Menendez, Clara

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of malaria on maternal death through the analysis of the seasonal variations of crude and malaria-specific maternal mortality rates. All maternal deaths and live births occurring at Maputo Central Hospital, located in an urban area, between January 2001 and December 2003, were retrospectively recorded. Clinical diagnoses of the causes of death and period of the year were analysed. Two hundred and seventy-eight deaths were recorded. The overall crude maternal mortality rate was 995/100 000 live births. Malaria was the most frequent cause of maternal death, accounting for 23%. Crude and malaria-specific maternal mortality rates showed a similar pattern of seasonal variation, with peaks at the beginning and the end of the malaria transmission season. The malaria-specific maternal mortality rate was significantly higher during the rainy seasons (rate ratio 1.919; 95% CI 1.061, 3.470; P = 0.031). Malaria may contribute to maternal mortality in highly endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa, at least in urban areas. Efforts to improve malaria control in pregnancy may have an impact on maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Causes of Maternal Mortality in Ethiopia: A Significant Decline in Abortion Related Death

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the common direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality are known from the literature, the contribution of each cause and the change in trend over decades is unknown in Ethiopia. The objective of this review was to assess the trend of proportion of maternal mortality due to the common direct causes. Methods This systematic review was done on eighteen health facility based maternal mortality studies conducted between 1980 and 2012 in Ethiopia. Emphasis was given to the proportion of maternal mortality due to direct causes and their case fatality rates. Results The summary of the findings has shown that the top four causes of maternal mortality in the year 1980–1999 were abortion related complications (31%), obstructed labor/uterine rupture (29%), sepsis/infection (21%) and hemorrhage (12%). In the last decade, however, the top four causes of maternal mortality were obstructed labor/uterine rupture (36%), hemorrhage (22%), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (19%) and sepsis/infection (13%). Conclusion Abortion and infection related maternal deaths have declined significantly in the last decade. Obstructed labor continues to be the major cause of maternal deaths; maternal deaths due to hypertensive disorders and hemorrhage showed an increasing trend. The findings in this review were somehow comparable with the WHO analysis for Africa in the same period with the exception of obstructed labor. PMID:25489180

  2. Urban vegetation for reducing heat related mortality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Xiaoming; Thatcher, Marcus; Barnett, Guy; Kachenko, Anthony; Prince, Robert

    2014-09-01

    The potential benefit of urban vegetation in reducing heat related mortality in the city of Melbourne, Australia is investigated using a two-scale modelling approach. A meso-scale urban climate model was used to quantify the effects of ten urban vegetation schemes on the current climate in 2009 and future climates in 2030 and 2050. The indoor thermal performance of five residential buildings was then simulated using a building simulation tool with the local meso-climates associated with various urban vegetation schemes. Simulation results suggest that average seasonal summer temperatures can be reduced in the range of around 0.5 and 2 °C if the city were replaced by vegetated suburbs and parklands, respectively. With the limited buildings and local meso-climates investigated in this study, around 5-28% and 37-99% reduction in heat related mortality rate have been estimated by doubling the city's vegetation coverage and transforming the city into parklands respectively. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The drama of maternal, infant and child mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    1990-12-01

    99% of the half-million maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries, and many are the result of inopportune or undesired pregnancies. Each month over a million infants an small children also die. In Latin America and the caribbean, women have a risk 50-100 times greater of dying as a result of pregnancy or delivery than women in the US, and their children have a 5 times greater risk of dying before heir 1st birthday. The majority of infant and maternal deaths are preventable. Education and family planning services, which are neither costly nor complicated, could significantly reduce these high mortality rates. A woman's lifetime risk of maternal death is related in great part to her economic and social environment, how many pregnancies she has had, and the availability of maternal health services, It is often difficult for women in developing countries to maintain good health especially if they are poor. They are frequently poorly nourished, and may be required to perform hard physical labor. Pregnancy places greater physical demands on them and may worsen existing health problems. Maternal health risks are substantially increased as well by age under 18 or over 40 years, parity over 4, previous delivery during the last 2 years, and preexisting health problems that could affect pregnancy. Some 75% of maternal deaths are believed to result from obstetrical complications. Hemorrhage, 1 of the most frequent,is more common among older women who have already had 4 or more deliveries. Hemorrhages can be fatal in areas lacking the capability to provide immediate transfusions. Toxemia can lead to convulsions and death if not treated early. Sepsis usually results from complications of an obstructed delivery in very young mothers. Illegal abortion is another major cause of maternal death. In some Latin American ad Caribbean countries, 1/2 of maternal deaths are due to illegal abortions under unhygienic conditions. The same obstetrical risks exist

  4. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of economical, political and social macrostructural factors. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published between 2000 and 2004 about the main causes of maternal death, as identified by WHO, and compare the proportion of papers on each cause with the corresponding burden of each cause. Secondly, we systematically review the characteristics and quality of the papers on the macrostructural determinants of maternal mortality. In view of their burden, obstructed labour, unsafe abortion and haemorrhage are proportionally underrepresented in the scientific literature. In our review, most studies analysed were cross-sectional, and were carried out by developed countries without the participation of researchers in the developing countries where maternal mortality was studied. The main macrostructural factors mentioned were socioeconomic variables. Overall, there is a lack of published information about the cultural and political determinants of maternal mortality. We believe that a high-quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of maternal mortality in order to obtain robust comparative data and that study design should be improved to allow causality between macrostructural determinants and maternal mortality to be shown. PMID:17143465

  5. Poverty and maternal mortality in Nigeria: towards a more viable ethics of modern medical practice

    PubMed Central

    Lanre-Abass, Bolatito A

    2008-01-01

    Poverty is often identified as a major barrier to human development. It is also a powerful brake on accelerated progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. Poverty is also a major cause of maternal mortality, as it prevents many women from getting proper and adequate medical attention due to their inability to afford good antenatal care. This Paper thus examines poverty as a threat to human existence, particularly women's health. It highlights the causes of maternal deaths in Nigeria by questioning the practice of medicine in this country, which falls short of the ethical principle of showing care. Since high levels of poverty limit access to quality health care and consequently human development, this paper suggests ways of reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria. It emphasizes the importance of care ethics, an ethical orientation that seeks to rectify the deficiencies of medical practice in Nigeria, notably the problem of poor reproductive health services. Care ethics as an ethical orientation, attends to the important aspects of our shared lives. It portrays the moral agent (in this context the physician) as a self who is embedded in webs of relations with others (pregnant women). Also central to this ethical orientation is responsiveness in an interconnected network of needs, care and prevention of harm. This review concludes by stressing that many human relationships involve persons who are vulnerable, including pregnant women, dependent, ill and or frail, noting that the desirable moral response is that prescribed by care ethics, which thus has implications for the practice of medicine in Nigeria. PMID:18447920

  6. Applying the lessons of maternal mortality reduction to global emergency health.

    PubMed

    Calvello, Emilie J; Skog, Alexander P; Tenner, Andrea G; Wallis, Lee A

    2015-06-01

    Over the last few decades, maternal health has been a major focus of the international community and this has resulted in a substantial decrease in maternal mortality globally. Although, compared with maternal illness, medical and surgical emergencies account for far more morbidity and mortality, there has been less focus on global efforts to improve comprehensive emergency systems. The thoughtful and specific application of the concepts used in the effort to decrease maternal mortality could lead to major improvements in global emergency health services. The so-called three-delay model that was developed for maternal mortality can be adapted to emergency service delivery. Adaptation of evaluation frameworks to include emergency sentinel conditions could allow effective monitoring of emergency facilities and further policy development. Future global emergency health efforts may benefit from incorporating strategies for the planning and evaluation of high-impact interventions.

  7. Applying the lessons of maternal mortality reduction to global emergency health

    PubMed Central

    Skog, Alexander P; Tenner, Andrea G; Wallis, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Over the last few decades, maternal health has been a major focus of the international community and this has resulted in a substantial decrease in maternal mortality globally. Although, compared with maternal illness, medical and surgical emergencies account for far more morbidity and mortality, there has been less focus on global efforts to improve comprehensive emergency systems. The thoughtful and specific application of the concepts used in the effort to decrease maternal mortality could lead to major improvements in global emergency health services. The so-called three-delay model that was developed for maternal mortality can be adapted to emergency service delivery. Adaptation of evaluation frameworks to include emergency sentinel conditions could allow effective monitoring of emergency facilities and further policy development. Future global emergency health efforts may benefit from incorporating strategies for the planning and evaluation of high-impact interventions. PMID:26240463

  8. The 2016 Hughes Lecture: What's new in maternal morbidity and mortality?

    PubMed

    Arendt, K W

    2016-05-01

    Each year, the Board of Directors of the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology selects an individual to review a given year's published obstetric anesthesiology literature. This individual then produces a syllabus of the year's most influential publications, delivers the Ostheimer Lecture at the Society's annual meeting, the Hughes Lecture at the following year's Sol Shnider meeting, and writes corresponding review articles. This 2016 Hughes Lecture review article focuses specifically on the 2014 publications that relate to maternal morbidity and mortality. It begins by discussing the 2014 research that was published on severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality in developed countries. This is followed by a discussion of specific coexisting diseases and specific causes of severe maternal mortality. The review ends with a discussion of worldwide maternal mortality and the 2014 publications that examined the successes and the shortfalls in the work to make childbirth safe for women throughout the entire world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent Increases in the U.S. Maternal Mortality Rate: Disentangling Trends From Measurement Issues.

    PubMed

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Morton, Christine

    2016-09-01

    To develop methods for trend analysis of vital statistics maternal mortality data, taking into account changes in pregnancy question formats over time and between states, and to provide an overview of U.S. maternal mortality trends from 2000 to 2014. This observational study analyzed vital statistics maternal mortality data from all U.S. states in relation to the format and year of adoption of the pregnancy question. Correction factors were developed to adjust data from before the standard pregnancy question was adopted to promote accurate trend analysis. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends for groups of states with similar pregnancy questions. The estimated maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) for 48 states and Washington, DC (excluding California and Texas, analyzed separately) increased by 26.6%, from 18.8 in 2000 to 23.8 in 2014. California showed a declining trend, whereas Texas had a sudden increase in 2011-2012. Analysis of the measurement change suggests that U.S. rates in the early 2000s were higher than previously reported. Despite the United Nations Millennium Development Goal for a 75% reduction in maternal mortality by 2015, the estimated maternal mortality rate for 48 states and Washington, DC, increased from 2000 to 2014; the international trend was in the opposite direction. There is a need to redouble efforts to prevent maternal deaths and improve maternity care for the 4 million U.S. women giving birth each year.

  10. Can mass media interventions reduce child mortality?

    PubMed

    Head, Roy; Murray, Joanna; Sarrassat, Sophie; Snell, Will; Meda, Nicolas; Ouedraogo, Moctar; Deboise, Laurent; Cousens, Simon

    2015-07-04

    Many people recognise that mass media is important in promoting public health but there have been few attempts to measure how important. An ongoing trial in Burkina Faso (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01517230) is an attempt to bring together the very different worlds of mass media and epidemiology: to measure rigorously, using a cluster-randomised design, how many lives mass media can save in a low-income country, and at what cost. Application of the Lives Saved Tool predicts that saturation-based media campaigns could reduce child mortality by 10-20%, at a cost per disability-adjusted life-year that is as low as any existing health intervention. In this Viewpoint we explain the scientific reasoning behind the trial, while stressing the importance of the media methodology used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others. PMID:20003411

  12. Is the United States Maternal Mortality Rate Increasing? Disentangling trends from measurement issues Short title: U.S. Maternal Mortality Trends

    PubMed Central

    Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Morton, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background A pregnancy question was added to the U.S. standard death certificate in 2003 to improve ascertainment of maternal deaths. The delayed adoption of this question among states led to data incompatibilities, and impeded accurate trend analysis. Our objectives were to develop methods for trend analysis, and to provide an overview of U.S. maternal mortality trends from 2000–2014. Methods This observational study analyzed vital statistics maternal mortality data from all U.S. states in relation to the format and year-of-adoption of the pregnancy question. Correction factors were developed to adjust data from before the standard pregnancy question was adopted, to promote accurate trend analysis. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends for groups of states with similar pregnancy questions. Results The estimated maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 live births) for 48 states and Washington D.C. (excluding California and Texas, analyzed separately) increased by 26.6%, from 18.8 in 2000 to 23.8 in 2014. California showed a declining trend, while Texas had a sudden increase in 2011–2012. Analysis of the measurement change suggests that U.S. rates in the early 2000s were higher than previously reported. Discussion Despite the United Nations Millennium Development Goal for a 75% reduction in maternal mortality by 2015, the estimated maternal mortality rate for 48 states and Washington D.C. increased from 2000–2014, while the international trend was in the opposite direction. There is a need to redouble efforts to prevent maternal deaths and improve maternity care for the 4 million U.S. women giving birth each year. PMID:27500333

  13. [Maternal mortality in Central America. The basis for national programs on epidemiologic surveillance].

    PubMed

    Kestler, E

    1989-01-01

    Although maternal mortality rates worldwide have declined dramatically over the past several decades, maternal mortality rates in developing countries are considered a public health problem. The true rates of maternal mortality are unknown and frequently underestimated. Data from the UN annual demographic report show that only 4 Central American countries met the requirements for publication of their maternal mortality rates. 1984 rates ranged from the high of 75.6/100,000 live births in Guatemala to the low of 22.4/100,000 in Costa Rica. The principal or only source of maternal mortality data in Central American countries is vital statistics reported by official organizations. Difficulties in reporting and collecting this information and the fact that vital statistics were not developed for study of maternal mortality make them a poor source of data. Death certificates do not include the final cause of death. Review of death certificates of fertile-aged women and combining other sources of data such as clinical histories or autopsy reports with the vital statistics are techniques for improving the registration of maternal deaths. A national system of epidemiologic surveillance of maternal mortality has the advantage of obtaining information from multiple sources, including the press, private physicians, midwives, hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments, health centers and posts, family planning clinics, private hospitals, maternal mortality committees, families, and the local and national vital statistics. A national level surveillance program should be recognized as the coordinator of activities in this area, and the systems of data collection, analysis, and use of the results should be easily adaptable, inexpensive, simple, and able to motivate. An outline of steps to be followed in organizing and developing a system of surveillance is included in this work, beginning with establishing the objectives and determining what data are needed and ending with

  14. An Autopsy Study of Maternal Mortality in Mozambique: The Contribution of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez, Clara; Romagosa, Cleofé; Ismail, Mamudo R; Carrilho, Carla; Saute, Francisco; Osman, Nafissa; Machungo, Fernanda; Bardaji, Azucena; Quintó, Llorenç; Mayor, Alfredo; Naniche, Denise; Dobaño, Carlota; Alonso, Pedro L; Ordi, Jaume

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is a major health problem concentrated in resource-poor regions. Accurate data on its causes using rigorous methods is lacking, but is essential to guide policy-makers and health professionals to reduce this intolerable burden. The aim of this study was to accurately describe the causes of maternal death in order to contribute to its reduction, in one of the regions of the world with the highest maternal mortality ratios. Methods and Findings We conducted a prospective study between October 2002 and December 2004 on the causes of maternal death in a tertiary-level referral hospital in Maputo, Mozambique, using complete autopsies with histological examination. HIV detection was done by virologic and serologic tests, and malaria was diagnosed by histological and parasitological examination. During 26 mo there were 179 maternal deaths, of which 139 (77.6%) had a complete autopsy and formed the basis of this analysis. Of those with test results, 65 women (52.8%) were HIV-positive. Obstetric complications accounted for 38.2% of deaths; haemorrhage was the most frequent cause (16.6%). Nonobstetric conditions accounted for 56.1% of deaths; HIV/AIDS, pyogenic bronchopneumonia, severe malaria, and pyogenic meningitis were the most common causes (12.9%, 12.2%, 10.1% and 7.2% respectively). Mycobacterial infection was found in 12 (8.6%) maternal deaths. Conclusions In this tertiary hospital in Mozambique, infectious diseases accounted for at least half of all maternal deaths, even though effective treatment is available for the four leading causes, HIV/AIDS, pyogenic bronchopneumonia, severe malaria, and pyogenic meningitis. These observations highlight the need to implement effective and available prevention tools, such as intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated bed-nets for malaria, antiretroviral drugs for HIV/AIDS, or vaccines and effective antibiotics for pneumococcal and meningococcal diseases. Deaths due to obstetric

  15. Maternal mental health and infant mortality for healthy-weight infants.

    PubMed

    White, Susan E; Gladden, Robert W

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if severe mental illness and/or a history of substance use in mothers of babies of a healthy weight was associated with infant mortality. This was a cross-sectional observational study using CareSource historical billed Medicaid Managed Care plan (MMC) claims in Ohio. CareSource is Ohio's largest MMCP, serving approximately 1.2 million Medicaid consumers. Claims from 89,159 babies of a healthy weight (≥ 2500 grams) and their mothers were selected from the CareSource Ohio MMCP population from January 2011 through December 2014. The mental health and substance abuse status of the mother was identified from claim history. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio for infant mortality based on the presence or absence of maternal severe mental illness (MSMI) or maternal substance abuse (MSU). The logistic regression model fit showed that the odds of infant mortality for infants born weighing 2500 grams or more was significantly higher when the mother was treated either for MSMI (χ2(1): P = .026) or MSU (χ2(1): P = .006) at any time before or after delivery. Findings indicate that to address infant mortality, a focus on only babies born premature or low birth weight will result in missing a notable segment of the population that requires attention. Mothers who have babies with a healthy weight of at least 2500 grams, but who are diagnosed with either MSMI or MSU, need at least equal attention if inroads are to be made in reducing infant mortality.

  16. Maternal and child mortality indicators across 187 countries of the world: converging or diverging.

    PubMed

    Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    This study reassessed the progress achieved since 1990 in maternal and child mortality indicators to test whether the progress is converging or diverging across countries worldwide. The convergence process is examined using standard parametric and non-parametric econometric models of convergence. The results of absolute convergence estimates reveal that progress in maternal and child mortality indicators is diverging for the entire period of 1990-2010 [maternal mortality ratio (MMR) - β = .00033, p < .574; neonatal mortality rate (NNMR) - β = .04367, p < .000; post-neonatal mortality rate (PNMR) - β = .02677, p < .000; under-five mortality rate (U5MR) - β = .00828, p < .000)]. In the recent period, such divergence is replaced with convergence for MMR but diverged for all the child mortality indicators. The results of Kernel density estimate reveal considerable reduction in divergence of MMR for the recent period; however, the Kernel density distribution plots show more than one 'peak' which indicates the emergence of convergence clubs based on their mortality levels. For child mortality indicators, the Kernel estimates suggest that divergence is in progress across the countries worldwide but tended to converge for countries with low mortality levels. A mere progress in global averages of maternal and child mortality indicators among a global cross-section of countries does not warranty convergence unless there is a considerable reduction in variance, skewness and range of change.

  17. Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the

  18. Modeling variation in early life mortality in the western lowland gorilla: Genetic, maternal and other effects.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Monica H; Blomquist, Gregory E

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering sources of variation in gorilla infant mortality informs conservation and life history research efforts. The international studbook for the western lowland gorilla provides information on a sample of captive gorillas large enough for which to analyze genetic, maternal, and various other effects on early life mortality in this critically endangered species. We assess the importance of variables such as sex, maternal parity, paternal age, and hand rearing with regard to infant survival. We also quantify the proportions of variation in mortality influenced by heritable variation and maternal effects from these pedigree and survival data using variance component estimation. Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of generalized linear mixed models produce variance component distributions in an animal model framework that employs all pedigree information. Two models, one with a maternal identity component and one with both additive genetic and maternal identity components, estimate variance components for different age classes during the first 2 years of life. This is informative of the extent to which mortality risk factors change over time during gorilla infancy. Our results indicate that gorilla mortality is moderately heritable with the strongest genetic influence just after birth. Maternal effects are most important during the first 6 months of life. Interestingly, hand-reared infants have lower mortality for the first 6 months of life. Aside from hand rearing, we found other predictors commonly used in studies of primate infant mortality to have little influence in these gorilla data. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The decline in maternal mortality in Sweden: the role of community midwifery.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Ulf

    2004-08-01

    The maternal mortality rate in Sweden in the early 20th century was one third that in the United States. This rate was recognized by American visitors as an achievement of Swedish maternity care, in which highly competent midwives attend home deliveries. The 19th century decline in maternal mortality was largely caused by improvements in obstetric care, but was also helped along by the national health strategy of giving midwives and doctors complementary roles in maternity care, as well as equal involvement in setting public health policy. The 20th century decline in maternal mortality, seen in all Western countries, was made possible by the emergence of modern medicine. However, the contribution of the mobilization of human resources should not be underestimated, nor should key developments in public health policy.

  20. Lessons for low-income regions following the reduction in hypertension-related maternal mortality in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Robert L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Macguire, Emily R; Kamath, Beena D; Jobe, Alan H

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-associated maternal mortality in high-income countries to understand better the potential improvements in pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-related mortality in low-income countries. We searched Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database (1900-2010) using relevant search terms. Studies of the incidence of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and case fatality rates in various geographic regions were included. The incidence of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and the pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-associated case fatality rates are presented by location and year. Most declines in maternal mortality associated with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in high-income countries occurred between 1940 and 1970 and were associated with a 90% reduction in the incidence of eclampsia and a 90% reduction in the case fatality rate in women with eclampsia. The most important interventions were widespread use of prenatal care with blood pressure and urine protein measurement, and increased access to hospital care for timely induction of labor or cesarean delivery for women with severe pre-eclampsia or seizures. A substantial reduction in pre-eclampsia/eclampsia-related mortality could be made in low-income countries by widespread hypertension and proteinuria screening and early delivery of women with severe disease. Magnesium sulfate may reduce mortality, but should not be the cornerstone of maternal mortality reduction programs. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal antibodies reduce costs of an immune response during development.

    PubMed

    Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2008-03-01

    Young vertebrates are dependent primarily on innate immunity and maternally derived antibodies for immune defense. This reliance on innate immunity and the associated inflammatory response often leads to reduced growth rates after antigenic challenge. However, if offspring have maternal antibodies that recognize an antigen, these antibodies should block stimulation of the inflammatory response and reduce growth suppression. To determine whether maternal and/or offspring antigen exposure affect antibody transmission and offspring growth, female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and their newly hatched chicks were immunized. Mothers were immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), killed avian reovirus vaccine (AR), or were given a control, phosphate-buffered saline, injection. Within each family, one-third of offspring were immunized with LPS, one-third were immunized with AR, and one-third were given the control treatment. Maternal immunization significantly affected the specific types of antibodies that were transmitted. In general, immunization depressed offspring growth. However, offspring immunized with the same antigen as their mother exhibited elevated growth in comparison to siblings immunized with a different antigen. This suggests that the growth suppressive effects of antigen exposure during development can be partially ameliorated by the presence of maternal antibodies, but in the absence of specific maternal antibodies, offspring are dependent on more costly innate immune defenses. Together, the results suggest that the local disease environment of mothers prior to reproduction significantly affects maternal antibody transmission and these maternal antibodies may allow offspring to partially maintain growth during infection in addition to providing passive humoral immune defense.

  2. Reducing maternal deaths in a low resource setting in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezugwu, E C; Agu, P U; Nwoke, M O; Ezugwu, F O

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of the adoption of evidence based guidelines on maternal mortality reduction at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. A retrospective review of all maternal deaths between 1 st January, 2005 and 31 st December, 2010 was carried out. Evidence based management guidelines for eclampsia and post-partum hemorrhage were adopted. These interventions strategy were carried out from 1 st January, 2008-31 st December, 2010 and the result compared with that before the interventions (2005-2007). Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and case fatality rates. There were 9150 live births and 59 maternal deaths during the study period, giving an MMR of 645/100 000 live births. Pregnant women who had no antenatal care had almost 10 times higher MMR. There was 43.5% reduction in the MMR with the interventions (488 vs. 864/100 000 live births P = 0.039, odds ratio = 1.77). There was also significant reduction in case fatality rate for both eclampsia (15.8% vs. 2.7%; P = 0.024, odds ratio = 5.84 and Post partum hemorrhage (PPH) (13.6% vs. 2.5% P value = 0.023, odds ratio = 5.5. Obstetric hemorrhage was the most common cause of death (23.73%), followed by the eclampsia. Administration of evidence based intervention is possible in low resource settings and could contribute to a significant reduction in the maternal deaths.

  3. Maternal mortality in Sweden 1988–2007: more deaths than officially reported

    PubMed Central

    Esscher, Annika; Högberg, Ulf; Haglund, Bengt; Essën, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To obtain more accurate calculations of maternal and pregnancy-related mortality ratios in Sweden from 1988 to 2007 by using information from national registers and death certificates. Design A national register-based study, supplemented by a review of death certificates. Setting Sweden, 1988–2007. Population The deaths of 27 957 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). Methods The Swedish Cause of Death Register, Medical Birth Register, and National Patient Register were linked. All women with a diagnosis related to pregnancy in at least one of these registers within 1 year prior to death were identified. Death certificates were reviewed to ascertain maternal deaths. Maternal mortality ratio (the number of maternal deaths/100 000 live births, excluding and including suicides), and pregnancy-related mortality ratio (number of deaths within 42 days after termination of pregnancy, irrespective of cause of death/100 000 live births) were calculated. Main outcome measures Direct and indirect maternal deaths and pregnancy-related deaths. Results The maternal mortality ratio in Sweden, based on the current method of identifying maternal deaths, was 3.6. After linking registers and reviewing death certificates, we identified 64% more maternal deaths, resulting in a ratio of 6.0 (or 6.5 if suicides are included). The pregnancy-related mortality ratio was 7.3. A total of 478 women died within a year after being recorded with a diagnosis related to pregnancy. Conclusions By including the 123 cases of maternal death identified in this study, the mean maternal mortality ratio from 1988 to 2007 was 64% higher than reported to the World Health Organization. PMID:23157437

  4. Preventable maternal mortality in Morocco: the role of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Abouchadi, Saloua; Alaoui, Abdelali Belghiti; Meski, Fatima Zahra; Bezad, Rachid; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, the Ministry of Health of Morocco launched a national confidential enquiry around maternal deaths based on the newly implemented routine maternal death surveillance system (MDSS). The objective of this paper is to show the importance of substandard care among the factors associated with maternal deaths. The Moroccan National Expert Committee (NEC) organised an audit of maternal deaths identified by the MDSS to determine the medical cause, the preventability of the deaths and the type of substandard care involved. Three hundred and three cases of maternal deaths were analysed for the year 2009. Direct causes accounted for 80.8%. 75.9% were considered avoidable by the NEC. The three main factors were insufficient follow-up of care in 45.6% of cases, inadequate treatment in 43.9% and delay in seeking care in 41.3%. The auditors found that 54.3% of all maternal deaths could have been avoided if appropriate action had been taken at the health facilities. The audit of maternal deaths in Morocco enabled a better understanding of the circumstances contributing to maternal deaths and pinpointed that more than half of maternal deaths were associated with substandard care in hospitals. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Trends in neonatal mortality in Nigeria and effects of bio-demographic and maternal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Joshua Odunayo; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi; Ayeni, Olusola

    2015-04-09

    Nigeria's efforts to reduce under-five mortality has been biased in favour of childhood mortality to the neglect of neonates and as such the literature is short of adequate information on the determinants of neonatal mortality. Whereas studies have shown that about half of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period. Knowledge of the determinants of neonatal mortality are essential for the design of intervention programes that will enhance neonatal survival. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the trends and factors associated with neonatal mortality in Nigeria. This was a retrospective analysis of the reproductive history data collected in the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for 1990, 2003, 2008 and 2013. Neonatal mortality rates were estimated as the probability of dying before 28 completed days using synthetic cohort life table techniques. Univariate and multiple Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to explore the effects of selected maternal and bio-demographic variables on neonatal mortality. The Hazard Ratio (HR) and its 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were estimated to prioritize obtained significant factors. Nigeria neonatal mortality rate stagnated at 41 per 1000 live births between 1990 and 2013. There were rural-urban and regional differences with more deaths occurring in rural areas and northern regions. In 1990, antenatal care (HR = 0.76; CI = 0.61-0.95), facility delivery (HR = 0.69; CI = 0.53-0.90) and births interval less than 24 months (HR = 1.67; CI = 1.41-1.98) were significantly associated with neonatal deaths. Factors identified from the 2013 data were antenatal care (HR = 0.76; CI = 0.61-0.95), birth interval less than 24 months (HR = 1.67; CI = 1.41-1.98), delivery at health facility (HR = 0.69; CI = 0.53-0.90), and small birth size (HR = 1.72; CI = 1.39-2.14). There was little improvement in neonatal survival in Nigeria between 1990 and 2013. Bio-demographic and health care related characteristics are

  6. Maternal Mortality Ratio and Causes of Death in IRI Between 2009 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Vahiddastjerdy, Marzieh; Changizi, Nasrin; Habibollahi, Abas; Janani, Leila; Farahani, Zahra; Babaee, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Maternal Mortality Ratio is an important health indicator. We presented the distribution and causes of maternal mortality in Islamic Republic of Iran. Materials and methods: After provision of an electronic Registry system for date entry, a descriptive-retrospective data collection had been performed for all maternal Deaths in March 2009- March 2012. All maternal deaths and their demographic characteristic were identified by using medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) during pregnancy, labor, and 42 days after parturition. Results: During 3 years, there were 5094317 deliveries and 941 maternal deaths (MMR of 18.5 per 1000000 live births). We had access to pertained data of 896 cases (95.2%) for review in our study. Of 896 reported deaths, 549 were classified as direct, 302 as indirect and 45 as unknown. Hemorrhage was the most common cause of maternal mortality, followed by Preeclampsia, Eclampsia and sepsis. Among all indirect causes, cardio -vascular diseases were responsible for 10% of maternal deaths, followed by thromboembolism, HTN and renal diseases. Conclusion: Although maternal mortality ratio in IRI could be comparable with the developed countries but its pattern is following developing countries and with this study we had provided reliable data for other prospective studies. PMID:28101117

  7. A Ten Year Audit of Maternal Mortality: Millennium Development Still a Distant Goal.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anshuja; Rajaram, Shalini; Mehta, Sumita; Radhakrishnan, Gita

    2017-01-01

    To assess various causes of maternal mortality over a ten year period. Retrospective audit of hospital case records. Tertiary care hospital. Pregnant women who expired in the premises of GTB Hospital. A retrospective audit of case records of maternal deaths was conducted for a ten year period (January 2005 to December 2014). There were a total of 647 maternal deaths out of 1,16,641 live births. Sixty-eight percent (n = 445) of women were aged 21-30 years, while 10.5% (n = 68) were <20 years of age. The most common direct causes of maternal mortality were preeclampsia/eclampsia in 24.4% (n = 158), obstetric hemorrhage in 19.1% (n = 124) and puerperal sepsis in 14.5% (n = 94). With regards to indirect causes, anemia accounted for 15.3% (n = 99) mortality. There was only 1 (0.1%) mortality because of HIV/AIDS. Other notable causes of maternal mortality were infective hepatitis in 7.1% (n = 46). Tuberculosis, that is a disease of tropical countries, accounted for 3.0% (n = 20) of the total deaths. High maternal mortality in GTB hospital can be due to it being a tertiary hospital with referrals from all neighbouring states. Accessible antenatal care can help prevent these maternal deaths. Female education can be of immense help in dealing with the problem and improving the utilization of public health facilities. Preeclampsia/eclampsia and obstetric hemorrhage have been the main causes of maternal mortality for ages. Regular antenatal visits and the judicious training of grassroot level workers to pick-up complications early on in the pregnancy can be an effective way to deal the morbidity and mortality associated with these problems. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) and Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK) in India are pioneer steps in this direction.

  8. Maternal mortality in Malaysia 1991-1992: the paradox of increased rates.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, J; Mathews, A

    1996-03-01

    "This paper aims to show that the establishment of a better data collection and reporting system in Malaysia since 1991 has led to an apparent increase in the maternal mortality ratio.... Because of improved surveillance, the maternal mortality ratio may continue to appear to rise for a few years but should decline after that reflecting the improvement in the health status and service delivery in Malaysia."

  9. Global, regional, and national levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015, with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group.

    PubMed

    Alkema, Leontine; Chou, Doris; Hogan, Daniel; Zhang, Sanqian; Moller, Ann-Beth; Gemmill, Alison; Fat, Doris Ma; Boerma, Ties; Temmerman, Marleen; Mathers, Colin; Say, Lale

    2016-01-30

    Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between 1990 and 2015. We estimated levels and trends in maternal mortality for 183 countries to assess progress made. Based on MMR estimates for 2015, we constructed projections to show the requirements for the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) of less than 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths globally by 2030. We updated the UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group (MMEIG) database with more than 200 additional records (vital statistics from civil registration systems, surveys, studies, or reports). We generated estimates of maternal mortality and related indicators with 80% uncertainty intervals (UIs) using a Bayesian model. The model combines the rate of change implied by a multilevel regression model with a time-series model to capture data-driven changes in country-specific MMRs, and includes a data model to adjust for systematic and random errors associated with different data sources. We had data for 171 of 183 countries. The global MMR fell from 385 deaths per 100,000 livebirths (80% UI 359-427) in 1990, to 216 (207-249) in 2015, corresponding to a relative decline of 43·9% (34·0-48·7), with 303,000 (291,000-349,000) maternal deaths worldwide in 2015. Regional progress in reducing the MMR since 1990 ranged from an annual rate of reduction of 1·8% (0·0-3·1) in the Caribbean to 5·0% (4·0-6·0) in eastern Asia. Regional MMRs for 2015 ranged from 12 deaths per 100,000 livebirths (11-14) for high-income regions to 546 (511-652) for sub-Saharan Africa. Accelerated progress will be needed to achieve the SDG goal; countries will need to reduce their MMRs at an annual rate of reduction of at least 7·5%. Despite global progress in reducing maternal mortality, immediate action is needed to meet the ambitious SDG 2030 target, and ultimately eliminate preventable maternal mortality. Although the rates of reduction that are needed to achieve country

  10. Preventable maternal mortality: Geographic/rural-urban differences and associated factors from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most maternal deaths in developing countries can be prevented. China is among the 13 countries with the most maternal deaths; however, there has been a marked decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) over the last 3 decades. China's reduction in the MMR has contributed significantly to the global decline of the MMR. This study examined the geographic and rural-urban differences, time trends and related factors in preventable maternal deaths in China during 1996-2005, with the aim of providing reliable evidence for effective interventions. Methods Data were retrieved from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China. Each death was reviewed by three committees to determine whether it was avoidable. The preventable maternal mortality ratio (PMMR), the ratios of PMMR (risk ratio, RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to analyze regional disparities (coastal, inland and remote regions) and rural-urban variations. Time trends in the MMR, along with underlying causes and associated factors of death, were also analysed. Results Overall, 86.1% of maternal mortality was preventable. The RR of preventable maternal mortality adjusted by region was 2.79 (95% CI 2.42-3.21) and 2.38 (95% CI: 2.01-2.81) in rural areas compared to urban areas during the 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 periods, respectively. Meanwhile, the RR was the highest in remote areas, which was 4.80(95%CI: 4.10-5.61) and 4.74(95%CI: 3.86-5.83) times as much as that of coastal areas. Obstetric haemorrhage accounted for over 50% of preventable deaths during the 2001-2005 period. Insufficient information about pregnancy among women in remote areas and out-of-date knowledge and skills of health professionals and substandard obstetric services in coastal regions were the factors frequently associated with MMR. Conclusions Preventable maternal mortality and the distribution of its associated factors in China revealed obvious regional differences. The PMMR was higher in

  11. Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rate in caesarean section and vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ghahiri, Ataollah; Khosravi, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Background: The cesarean section is one of the most common procedures to prevent health-threatening risks to the mother and infant. Increasing rate of cesarean section attracted the attention of professionals and the overall objective of this study was to determine the frequency of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in the two methods of delivery. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cohort study, 300 cases undergoing caesarean section and 300 cases with vaginal delivery were selected in two main hospitals of Isfahan, Iran during 2013 and 2014. Demographic characteristics and factors related to mortality and morbidity of mothers and infants were studied. Mothers were also recruited 6 weeks after delivery to ask for complications. Mothers and infants mortality and morbidity were studied and analyzed by SPSS 22 software. Results: Follow-up of deliveries up to 1-month after delivery suggested 2 cases of infant death (7%) in vaginal delivery group, while no case of infant death was reported in cesarean delivery group (P = 0.5). Incidence of fever was observed in first 10 days after delivery in 7 cases in the vaginal delivery group and 11 cases in the cesarean delivery group (2.3% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.4). Conclusion: Despite all the benefits of vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section, in many cases, especially in emergency cesarean section delivery can substantially reduce the maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. It is recommended to assess the complications of each method in all pregnant women about to give birth, and then decide on the method of delivery. PMID:26605232

  12. The Associations between Types of Ambient PM2.5 and Under-Five and Maternal Mortality in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Lien, Wei-Hung; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Lin, Tang-Huang

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the effects of different types of PM2.5 is necessary to reduce associated deaths, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Hence we determined types of ambient PM2.5 before exploring their effects on under-five and maternal mortality in Africa. The spectral derivate of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products from 2000 to 2015 were employed to determine the aerosol types before using Generalized Linear and Additive Mixed-Effect models with Poisson link function to explore the associations and penalized spline for dose-response relationships. Four types of PM2.5 were identified in terms of mineral dust, anthropogenic pollutant, biomass burning and mixture aerosols. The results demonstrate that biomass PM2.5 increased the rate of under-five mortality in Western and Central Africa, each by 2%, and maternal mortality in Central Africa by 19%. Anthropogenic PM2.5 increased under-five and maternal deaths in Northern Africa by 5% and 10%, respectively, and maternal deaths by 4% in Eastern Africa. Dust PM2.5 increased under-five deaths in Northern, Western, and Central Africa by 3%, 1%, and 10%, respectively. Mixture PM2.5 only increased under-five deaths and maternal deaths in Western (incidence rate ratio = 1.01, p < 0.10) and Eastern Africa (incidence rate ratio = 1.06, p < 0.01), respectively. The findings indicate the types of ambient PM2.5 are significantly associated with under-five and maternal mortality in Africa where the exposure level usually exceeds the World Health Organization’s (WHO) standards. Appropriate policy actions on protective and control measures are therefore suggested and should be developed and implemented accordingly. PMID:28358348

  13. The Associations between Types of Ambient PM2.5 and Under-Five and Maternal Mortality in Africa.

    PubMed

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Lien, Wei-Hung; Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Lin, Tang-Huang

    2017-03-30

    Exploring the effects of different types of PM2.5 is necessary to reduce associated deaths, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Hence we determined types of ambient PM2.5 before exploring their effects on under-five and maternal mortality in Africa. The spectral derivate of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products from 2000 to 2015 were employed to determine the aerosol types before using Generalized Linear and Additive Mixed-Effect models with Poisson link function to explore the associations and penalized spline for dose-response relationships. Four types of PM2.5 were identified in terms of mineral dust, anthropogenic pollutant, biomass burning and mixture aerosols. The results demonstrate that biomass PM2.5 increased the rate of under-five mortality in Western and Central Africa, each by 2%, and maternal mortality in Central Africa by 19%. Anthropogenic PM2.5 increased under-five and maternal deaths in Northern Africa by 5% and 10%, respectively, and maternal deaths by 4% in Eastern Africa. Dust PM2.5 increased under-five deaths in Northern, Western, and Central Africa by 3%, 1%, and 10%, respectively. Mixture PM2.5 only increased under-five deaths and maternal deaths in Western (incidence rate ratio = 1.01, p < 0.10) and Eastern Africa (incidence rate ratio = 1.06, p < 0.01), respectively. The findings indicate the types of ambient PM2.5 are significantly associated with under-five and maternal mortality in Africa where the exposure level usually exceeds the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards. Appropriate policy actions on protective and control measures are therefore suggested and should be developed and implemented accordingly.

  14. The role of unorthodox and traditional birth care in maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Umeora, O U J; Egwuatu, V E

    2010-01-01

    Many pregnant women see unorthodox medical providers in labour before presentation to the modern medical facilities after obstetric complications have arisen. This study evaluates the contribution of unorthodox medical facilities to the delays subsisting maternal mortality in a rural, poor and illiterate community. Data was collected prospectively on all referrals from outside the St. Vincent's hospital, over a three-year period. Seven hundred and fifty women were referred to the hospital and there were a total of thirty maternal deaths out of the 1268 live births, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2366/100,000. Most of the referrals were patient-driven and verbal and came from traditional birth attendants (TBAs). The majority of the patients (86.7%) came in poor clinical conditions and some were moribund. The TBAs contributed most to maternal deaths. Prolongation of labour for more than 24 hours correlated positively with maternal mortality. Ruptured uterus complicating obstructed labour (34.8%) and haemorrhage (30.4%) were the leading causes of death in this series. The mortal delay suffered by pregnant women in accessing unorthodox medical attention deserves further attention in issues of maternal mortality in the underserved rural communities of Nigeria.

  15. [Coverage for birth care in Mexico and its interpretation within the context of maternal mortality].

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Schiavon, Raffaela; Uribe-Zúñiga, Patricia; Walker, Dilys; Suárez-López, Leticia; Luna-Gordillo, Rufino; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate health coverage for birth care in Mexico within the frame of maternal mortality reduction. Two information sources were used: 1) The comparison between the results yield by the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Surveys 2006 and 2012 (ENSANUT 2006 and 2012), and 2) the databases monitoring maternal deaths during 2012 (up to December 26), and live births (LB) in Mexico as estimated by the Mexican National Population Council (Conapo). The national coverage for birth care by medical units is nearly 94.4% at the national level, but in some federal entities such as Chiapas (60.5%), Nayarit (87.8%), Guerrero (91.2%), Durango (92.5%), Oaxaca (92.6%), and Puebla (93.4%), coverage remains below the national average. In women belonging to any social security system (eg. IMSS, IMSS Oportunidades, ISSSTE), coverage is almost 99%, whereas in those affiliated to the Mexican Popular Health Insurance (which depends directly from the Federal Ministry of Health), coverage reached 92.9%. In terms of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), there are still large disparities among federal states in Mexico, with a national average of 47.0 per 100 000 LB (preliminary data for 2012, up to December 26). The MMR estimation has been updated using the most recent population projections. There is no correlation between the level of institutional birth care and the MMR in Mexico. It is thus necessary not only to guarantee universal birth care by health professionals, but also to provide obstetric care by qualified personnel in functional health services networks, to strengthen the quality of obstetric care, family planning programs, and to promote the implementation of new and innovative health policies that include intersectoral actions and human rights-based approaches targeted to reduce the enormous social inequity still prevailing in Mexico.

  16. Impact of Janani Suraksha Yojana on Institutional Delivery Rate and Maternal Morbidity and Mortality: An Observational Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Pal, Dinesh K.; Tiwari, Rajesh; Garg, Rajesh; Shrivastava, Ashish K.; Sarawagi, Radha; Patil, Rajkumar; Agarwal, Lokesh; Gupta, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    The Government of India initiated a cash incentive scheme—Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)—to promote institutional deliveries with an aim to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR). An observational study was conducted in a tertiary-care hospital of Madhya Pradesh, India, before and after implementation of JSY, with a sample of women presenting for institutional delivery. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the total number of institutional deliveries before and after implementation of JSY, (ii) determine the MMR, and (iii) compare factors associated with maternal mortality and morbidity. The data were analyzed for two years before implementation of JSY (2003-2005) and compared with two years following implementation of JSY (2005-2007). Overall, institutional deliveries increased by 42.6% after implementation, including those among rural, illiterate and primary-literate persons of lower socioeconomic strata. The main causes of maternal mortality were eclampsia, pre-eclampsia and severe anaemia both before and after implementation of JSY. Anaemia was the most common morbidity factor observed in this study. Among those who had institutional deliveries, there were significant increases in cases of eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, antepartum haemorrhage (APH), postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), and malaria after implementation of JSY. The scheme appeared to increase institutional delivery by at-risk mothers, which has the potential to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, improve child survival, and ensure equity in maternal healthcare in India. The lessons from this study and other available sources should be utilized to improve the performance and implementation of JSY scheme in India. PMID:23304913

  17. Vital registration and under-reporting of maternal mortality in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    McCaw-Binns, Affette M; Mullings, Jasneth A; Holder, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    To identify why vital registration under-reports maternal deaths in Jamaica. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify all maternal deaths (during pregnancy or ≤42 days after pregnancy ended) occurring in 2008. Data sources included vital registration, hospital records, forensic pathology records, and an independent maternal mortality surveillance system. Potential cases were cross-referenced to registered live births and stillbirths, and hospital records to confirm pregnancy status, when the pregnancy ended, and registration. Medical certificates were inspected for certification, transcription, and coding errors. Maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) for registered and/or unregistered deaths were calculated. Of 50 maternal deaths identified, 10 (20%) were unregistered. Eight unregistered deaths were coroners' cases. Among 40 registered deaths, pregnancy was undocumented in 4 (10%). Among the other 36, 24 (67%) had been misclassified (59% direct and 89% indirect deaths). Therefore, only 12 (30%) registered maternal deaths had been coded as maternal deaths, yielding an MMR of 28.3 per 100 000 live births (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3-48.3), which was 76% lower than the actual MMR of 117.8 (95% CI 85.2-150.4). Under-reporting of maternal deaths in Jamaica in 2008 was attributable to delayed registration of coroners' cases and misclassification. Timely registration of coroners' cases and training of nosologists to recognize and code maternal deaths is needed. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Independent and combined effects of maternal smoking and solid fuel on infant and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; Adedini, Sunday A; Wandera, Stephen O; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the independent and combined risks of infant and child mortality associated with maternal smoking and use of solid fuel in sub-Saharan Africa. Pooled weighted data on 143 602 under-five children in the most recent demographic and health surveys for 15 sub-Saharan African countries were analysed. The synthetic cohort life table technique and Cox proportional hazard models were employed to investigate the effect of maternal smoking and solid cooking fuel on infant (age 0-11 months) and child (age 12-59 months) mortality. Socio-economic and other confounding variables were included as controls. The distribution of the main explanatory variable in households was as follows: smoking + solid fuel - 4.6%; smoking + non-solid fuel - 0.22%; no smoking + solid fuel - 86.9%; and no smoking + non-solid fuel - 8.2%. The highest infant mortality rate was recorded among children exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (72 per 1000 live births); the child mortality rate was estimated to be 54 per 1000 for this group. In full multivariate models, the risk of infant death was 71% higher among those exposed to maternal smoking + solid fuel (HR = 1.71, CI: 1.29-2.28). For ages 12 to 59 months, the risk of death was 99% higher (HR = 1.99, CI: 1.28-3.08). Combined exposures to cigarette smoke and solid fuel increase the risks of infant and child mortality. Mothers of under-five children need to be educated about the danger of smoking while innovative approaches are needed to reduce the mortality risks associated with solid cooking fuel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. National, regional, and global levels and trends in maternal mortality between 1990 and 2015 with scenario-based projections to 2030: a systematic analysis by the United Nations Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group

    PubMed Central

    Alkema, Leontine; Chou, Doris; Hogan, Daniel; Zhang, Sanqian; Moller, Ann-Beth; Gemmill, Alison; Fat, Doris Ma; Boerma, Ties; Temmerman, Marleen; Mathers, Colin; Say, Lale; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Ali, Mohamed; Amouzou, Agbessi; Braunholtz, David; Byass, Peter; Carvajal-Velez, Liliana; Gaigbe-Togbe, Victor; Gerland, Patrick; Loaiza, Edilberto; Mills, Samuel; Mutombo, Namuunda; Newby, Holly; Pullum, Thomas W.; Suzuki, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 calls for a reduction of 75% in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between 1990 and 2015. We estimated levels and trends in maternal mortality for 183 countries to assess progress made. Based on MMR estimates for 2015, we constructed scenario-based projections to highlight the accelerations needed to accomplish the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) global target of less than 70 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births globally by 2030. Methods We updated the open access UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-agency Group (MMEIG) database. Based upon nationally-representative data for 171 countries, we generated estimates of maternal mortality and related indicators with uncertainty intervals using a Bayesian model, which extends and refines the previous UN MMEIG estimation approach. The model combines the rate of change implied by a multilevel regression model with a time series model to capture data-driven changes in country-specific MMRs, and includes a data model to adjust for systematic and random errors associated with different data sources. Results The global MMR declined from 385 deaths per 100,000 live births (80% uncertainty interval ranges from 359 to 427) in 1990 to 216 (207 to 249) in 2015, corresponding to a relative decline of 43.9% (34.0 to 48.7) during the 25-year period, with 303,000 (291,000 to 349,000) maternal deaths globally in 2015. Regional progress in reducing the MMR since 1990 ranged from an annual rate of reduction of 1.8% (0 to 3.1) in the Caribbean to 5.0% (4.0 to 6.0) for Eastern Asia. Regional MMRs for 2015 range from 12 (11 to 14) for developed regions to 546 (511 to 652) for sub-Saharan Africa. Accelerated progress will be needed to achieve the SDG goal; countries will need to reduce their MMRs at an annual rate of reduction of at least 7.5%. Interpretation Despite global progress in reducing maternal mortality, immediate action is required to begin making progress towards the

  20. Shifting visions: "delegation" policies and the building of a "rights-based" approach to maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Lynn P

    2002-01-01

    "Rights-based" approaches fold human rights principles into the ongoing work of health policy making and programming. The example of delegation of anesthesia provision for emergency obstetric care is used to demonstrate how a rights-based approach, applied to this problem in the context of high-mortality countries, requires decision makers to shift from an individual, ethics-based, clinical perspective to a structural, rights-based, public health perspective. This fluid and context-sensitive approach to human rights also applies at the international level, where the direction of overall maternal mortality reduction strategy is set. By contrasting family planning programs and maternal mortality programs, this commentary argues for choosing the human rights approach that speaks most effectively to the power dynamics underlying the particular health problem being addressed. In the case of maternal death in high-mortality countries, this means a strategic focus on the health care system itself.

  1. Maternal mortality in developing countries: challenges in scaling-up priority interventions.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Passano, Paige; Sreenivas, Amita; Gerdts, Caitlin Elisabeth

    2010-03-01

    Although maternal mortality is a significant global health issue, achievements in mortality decline to date have been inadequate. A review of the interventions targeted at maternal mortality reduction demonstrates that most developing countries face tremendous challenges in the implementation of these interventions, including the availability of unreliable data and the shortage in human and financial resources, as well as limited political commitment. Examples from developing countries, such as Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Honduras, demonstrate that maternal mortality will decline when appropriate strategies are in place. Such achievable strategies need to include redoubled commitments on the part of local, national and global political bodies, concrete investments in high-yield and cost-effective interventions and the delegation of some clinical tasks from higher-level healthcare providers to mid- or lower-level healthcare providers, as well as improved health-management information systems.

  2. Trends in Maternal Mortality by Sociodemographic Characteristics and Cause of Death in 27 States and the District of Columbia.

    PubMed

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene; Thoma, Marie E

    2017-05-01

    To analyze recent trends in maternal mortality by sociodemographic characteristics and cause of death and to evaluate data quality. This observational study compared data from 2008-2009 with 2013-2014 for 27 states and the District of Columbia that had comparable reporting of maternal mortality throughout the period. Maternal mortality rates were computed per 100,000 live births. Statistical significance of trends and differentials was evaluated using a two-proportion z-test. The study population included 1,687 maternal deaths and 7,369,966 live births. The maternal mortality rate increased by 23% from 20.6 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2008-2009 to 25.4 in 2013-2014. However, most of the increase was among women aged 40 years or older and for nonspecific causes of death. From 2008-2009 to 2013-2014, maternal mortality rates increased by 90% for women 40 years of age or older but did not increase significantly for women younger than 40 years. The maternal mortality rate for nonspecific causes of death increased by 48%; however, the rate for specific causes of death did not increase significantly between 2008-2009 (13.5) and 2013-2014 (15.0). Despite the United Nations Millennium Development Goal and a 44% decline in maternal mortality worldwide from 1990 to 2015, maternal mortality has not improved in the United States and appears to be increasing. Maternal mortality rates for women 40 years or older and for nonspecific causes of death were implausibly high and increased rapidly, suggesting possible overreporting of maternal deaths, which may be increasing over time. Efforts to improve reporting for the pregnancy checkbox and to modify coding procedures to place less reliance on the checkbox are essential to improving vital statistics maternal mortality data, the official data source for maternal mortality statistics used to monitor trends, identify at-risk populations, and evaluate the success of prevention efforts.

  3. The safe motherhood referral system to reduce cesarean sections and perinatal mortality - a cross-sectional study [1995-2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set targets for reducing child mortality and improving maternal health by 2015. Objective To evaluate the results of a new education and referral system for antenatal/intrapartum care as a strategy to reduce the rates of Cesarean sections (C-sections) and maternal/perinatal mortality. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University/UNESP, Brazil. Population: 27,387 delivering women and 27,827 offspring. Data collection: maternal and perinatal data between 1995 and 2006 at the major level III and level II hospitals in Botucatu, Brazil following initiation of a safe motherhood education and referral system. Main outcome measures: Yearly rates of C-sections, maternal (/100,000 LB) and perinatal (/1000 births) mortality rates at both hospitals. Data analysis: Simple linear regression models were adjusted to estimate the referral system's annual effects on the total number of deliveries, C-section and perinatal mortality ratios in the two hospitals. The linear regression were assessed by residual analysis (Shapiro-Wilk test) and the influence of possible conflicting observations was evaluated by a diagnostic test (Leverage), with p < 0.05. Results Over the time period evaluated, the overall C-section rate was 37.3%, there were 30 maternal deaths (maternal mortality ratio = 109.5/100,000 LB) and 660 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate = 23.7/1000 births). The C-section rate decreased from 46.5% to 23.4% at the level II hospital while remaining unchanged at the level III hospital. The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 9.71 to 1.66/1000 births and from 60.8 to 39.6/1000 births at the level II and level III hospital, respectively. Maternal mortality ratios were 16.3/100,000 LB and 185.1/100,000 LB at the level II and level III hospitals. There was a shift from direct to indirect causes of maternal

  4. Maternal and Burial Environment Effects on Seed Mortality of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and Giant Foxtail (Setaria faberi)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weed seed mortality in the soil seedbank is likely to be influenced by the maternal environment during seed development because the primary defense against seed mortality, the seed coat, is maternally derived. Our central hypothesis was that relative rates of seed mortality for seed lots of contrast...

  5. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values <0.05). Maternal anxiety was lower during singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  7. Impact of reproductive laws on maternal mortality: the chilean natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Koch, Elard

    2013-05-01

    Improving maternal health and decreasing morbidity and mortality due to induced abortion are key endeavors in developing countries. One of the most controversial subjects surrounding interventions to improve maternal health is the effect of abortion laws. Chile offers a natural laboratory to perform an investigation on the determinants influencing maternal health in a large parallel time-series of maternal deaths, analyzing health and socioeconomic indicators, and legislative policies including abortion banning in 1989. Interestingly, abortion restriction in Chile was not associated with an increase in overall maternal mortality or with abortion deaths and total number of abortions. Contrary to the notion proposing a negative impact of restrictive abortion laws on maternal health, the abortion mortality ratio did not increase after the abortion ban in Chile. Rather, it decreased over 96 percent, from 10.8 to 0.39 per 100,000 live births. Thus, the Chilean natural experiment provides for the first time, strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that legalization of abortion is unnecessary to improve maternal health in Latin America.

  8. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods We conducted interviews with 28 adult family members of women who died from maternal causes, as well as 13 stakeholders (government officials, civil society, and a UN agency); and held 10 focus group discussions with 87 community members. Data were analyzed using NVivo10 software for qualitative analysis. Results We found that newborns and children whose mothers died from maternal causes face nutrition deficits, and are less likely to access needed health care than children with living mothers. Older children drop out of school to care for younger siblings and contribute to household and farm labor which may be beyond their capacity and age, and often choose migration in search of better opportunities. Family fragmentation is common following maternal death, leading to tenuous relationships within a household with the births and prioritization of additional children further stretching limited financial resources. Currently, there is no formal standardized support system for families caring for vulnerable children in Ethiopia. Conclusions Impacts of maternal mortality on children are far-reaching and have the potential to last into adulthood. Coordinated, multi-sectorial efforts towards mitigating the impacts on children and families following a maternal death are lacking. In order to prevent impacts on children and families, efforts targeting maternal mortality must address inequalities in access to care at the community, facility, and policy levels. PMID:26001276

  9. Maternal Mortality from Obstructed Labor: A MANDATE Analysis of the Ability of Technology to Save Lives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Margo S; Griffin, Jennifer B; McClure, Elizabeth M; Jones, Bonnie; Moran, Katelin; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate clinical interventions to significantly reduce maternal mortality from prolonged labor, obstructed labor, and prolonged obstructed labor (PL/OL/POL) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods A mathematical model-Maternal and Neonatal Directed Assessment of Technology ("MANDATE")-was created for SSA with estimated prevalence for PL/OL/POL and case fatality rates from hemorrhage, infection, and uterine rupture. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, the model was populated with estimated likelihoods of the current healthcare system ability to diagnose, transfer, and treat women with these conditions. Impact on maternal mortality of improved diagnosis, transfer, and delivery to relieve PL/OL/POL was assessed. Results Without current technologies, the model estimated 8,464 maternal deaths annually in SSA from these conditions. Imputing current diagnosis, transfer, and treatment of PL/OL/POL, an estimated 7,033 maternal deaths occur annually from these complications. With improved PL/OL/POL diagnosis and improved transfer, 1,700 and 740 lives could be saved, respectively. Improved diagnosis, transfer, and treatment for PL/OL/POL reduce the mortality rate to 864 maternal deaths annually, saving 6,169 lives. If improved transfusion and antibiotic use were added, only 507 women per year would die from PL/OL/POL in SSA. Conclusion In SSA, increasing diagnostics, transfer to higher care, and operative delivery could substantially reduce maternal mortality from PL/OL/POL. Synopsis A computerized model of obstructed labor in SSA was created to explore the interventions necessary to reduce maternal mortality from this condition. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Field test results of the motherhood method to measure maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Maskey, Mahesh K; Baral, Kedar P; Shah, Rajani; Shrestha, Bhagawan D; Lang, Janet; Rothman, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    Measuring maternal mortality in developing countries poses a major challenge. In Nepal, vital registration is extremely deficient. Currently available methods to measure maternal mortality, such as the sisterhood method, pose problems with respect to validity, precision, cost and time. We conducted this field study to test a community-based method (the motherhood method), to measure maternal and child mortality in a developing country setting. Motherhood method was field tested to derive measures of maternal and child mortality at the district and sub-regional levels in Bara district, Nepal. Information on birth, death, risk factors and health outcomes was collected within a geographic area as in an unbiased census, but without visiting every household. The sources of information were a vaccination registry, focus group discussions with local health workers, and most importantly, interview in group setting with women who share social bonds formed by motherhood and aided by their peer memory. Such groups included all women who have given birth, including those whose babies died during the measurement period. A total of 15,161 births were elicited in the study period of two years. In the same period 49 maternal deaths, 713 infant deaths, 493 neonatal deaths and 679 perinatal deaths were also recorded. The maternal mortality ratio was 329 (95%CI: 243-434)/100,000 live birth, infant mortality rate was 48 (44-51)/1000LB, neonatal mortality rate was 33 (30-36)/1000LB, and perinatal mortality rate was 45 (42-48)/1000 total birth. The motherhood method estimated maternal, perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality rates and ratios. It has been field tested and validated against census data, and found to be efficient in terms of time and cost. Motherhood method can be applied in a time and cost-efficient manner to measure and monitor the progress in the reduction of maternal and child deaths. It can give current estimates of mortalities as well as averages over the past few

  11. Field test results of the motherhood method to measure maternal mortality

    PubMed Central

    Maskey, Mahesh K.; Baral, Kedar P.; Shah, Rajani; Shrestha, Bhagawan D.; Lang, Janet; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Measuring maternal mortality in developing countries poses a major challenge. In Nepal, vital registration is extremely deficient. Currently available methods to measure maternal mortality, such as the sisterhood method, pose problems with respect to validity, precision, cost and time. We conducted this field study to test a community-based method (the motherhood method), to measure maternal and child mortality in a developing country setting. Methods: Motherhood method was field tested to derive measures of maternal and child mortality at the district and sub-regional levels in Bara district, Nepal. Information on birth, death, risk factors and health outcomes was collected within a geographic area as in an unbiased census, but without visiting every household. The sources of information were a vaccination registry, focus group discussions with local health workers, and most importantly, interview in group setting with women who share social bonds formed by motherhood and aided by their peer memory. Such groups included all women who have given birth, including those whose babies died during the measurement period. Results: A total of 15161 births were elicited in the study period of two years. In the same period 49 maternal deaths, 713 infant deaths, 493 neonatal deaths and 679 perinatal deaths were also recorded. The maternal mortality ratio was 329 (95%CI:243-434)/100000 live birth, infant mortality rate was 48(44-51)/1000LB, neonatal mortality rate was 33(30-36)/1000LB, and perinatal mortality rate was 45(42-48)/1000 total birth. Interpretation & conclusions: The motherhood method estimated maternal, perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality rates and ratios. It has been field tested and validated against census data, and found to be efficient in terms of time and cost. Motherhood method can be applied in a time and cost-efficient manner to measure and monitor the progress in the reduction of maternal and child deaths. It can give

  12. Tackling Health Inequities in Chile: Maternal, Newborn, Infant, and Child Mortality Between 1990 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831

  13. Frequency of Maternal Mortality in Urban and Rural Areas of Iranshahr County (Southeast of Iran) in 2009-2013: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zareban, Iraj; Jamalzae, Abdul-Qaffar; Darban, Fatemeh; Bakhshani, Khadejeh Dehghan; Balouchi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal mortality is one of the threatening factors of human life and the overall status index of women’s health in any society. Death of a mother causes irreversible damage to a family and a society. This study aims at examining the causes of maternal mortality in urban and rural areas. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the frequney and causes of maternal mortality in urban and rural areas in southeast of Iran in 2009-2013. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective descriptive study and its research population includes the entire pregnant woman who died in Iranshahr County between April 2009 and March 2013. An eight-section questionnaire was used for collecting data. The first section was based on the hospital records of pregnant woman including mother’s demographic data and the following sections were completed based on their health records. Results The frequency of maternal mortality during birth in the study period was 34 (of 4857). The study individuals were between 13 and 40-year-old with the mean age of 30±6.4. Maximum maternal mortality occurred in 2012. Haemorrhage was the most common cause of maternal death (38.2%). Conclusion As haemorrhage was the most common cause of death of pregnant women in this study, it seems necessary to improve care for woman and reduce haemorrhage and its complications during pregnancy period. PMID:27656510

  14. Measuring maternal mortality in developing Pacific island countries: experience with the sisterhood method in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J; Wierzba, T; Knott, S; Pikacha, J

    1994-07-13

    To estimate the maternal mortality rate in the Solomon Islands, and to assist health planning and implementation of effective interventions. The sisterhood method, an indirect technique for deriving population-based estimates of maternal mortality was used in interviews with 2580 randomly chosen women reporting on the fertility and mortality experience of their sisters. The maternal mortality ratio in this study was 549 per 100,000 (95% CI 431, 684). This equates to one maternal death in every 180 pregnancies. The sisterhood method was found to be easy to administer, inexpensive and quick, and is recommended as a measurement tool to other developing countries.

  15. Progress and inequities in maternal mortality in Afghanistan (RAMOS-II): a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Linda; LeFevre, Amnesty; Zimmerman, Linnea; Saeedzai, Sayed Ataullah; Turkmani, Sabera; Zabih, Weeda; Tappis, Hannah; Becker, Stan; Winch, Peter; Koblinsky, Marge; Rahmanzai, Ahmed Javed

    2017-05-01

    The risk of maternal death in Afghanistan is among the highest in the world; however, the risks within the country are poorly understood. Subnational maternal mortality estimates are needed along with a broader understanding of determinants to guide future maternal health programmes. Here we aimed to study maternal mortality risk and causes, care-seeking patterns, and costs within the country. We did a household survey (RAMOS-II) in the urban area of Kabul city and the rural area of Ragh, Badakshan. Questionnaires were administered to senior female household members and data were collected by a team of female interviewers with secondary school education. Information was collected about all deaths, livebirths, stillbirths, health-care access and costs, household income, and assets. Births were documented using a pregnancy history. We investigated all deaths in women of reproductive age (12-49 years) since January, 2008, using verbal autopsy. Community members; service providers; and district, provincial, and national officials in each district were interviewed to elicit perceptions of changes in maternal mortality risk and health service provision, along with programme and policy documentation of maternal care coverage. Data were collected between March 2, 2011, and Oct 16, 2011, from 130 688 participants: 63 329 in Kabul and 67 359 in Ragh. The maternal mortality ratio in Ragh was quadruple that in Kabul (713 per 100 000 livebirths, 95% CI 553-873 in Ragh vs 166, 63-270 in Kabul). We recorded similar patterns for all other maternal death indicators, including the maternal mortality rate (1·7 per 1000 women of reproductive age, 95% CI 1·3-2·1 in Ragh vs 0·2, 0·1-0·3 in Kabul). Infant mortality also differed significantly between the two areas (115·5 per 1000 livebirths, 95% CI 108·6-122·3 in Ragh vs 24·8, 20·5-29·0 in Kabul). In Kabul, 5594 (82%) of 6789 women reported a skilled attendant during recent deliveries compared with 381 (3%) of 11

  16. Knowledge of direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality and associated factors among reproductive age women in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Fikreselassie; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Ayana, Mulatu; Amsalu, Endawoke

    2017-01-01

    in Ethiopia, 20,000 women die each year from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth with much more maternal morbidity occurring for each maternal death. Good knowledge of women related with direct causes of maternal mortality is important in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess knowledge of direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality and associated factors among reproductive age of women in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage sampling followed by simple random sampling technique. The study was conducted in Aneded woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. A total of 844 reproductive age women were included in the study. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews by 12 data collectors. Data was cleaned, coded and entered into Epi-data, then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were computed to identify factors related to knowledge of obstetric causes of maternal mortality. The crude and adjusted odds ratios together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. A P-value less than 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. This study found that almost half (49.6%) of respondents have good knowledge level towards obstetric causes of maternal mortality. Significant variables associated with knowledge towards obstetric causes of maternal mortality were; being government employee (AOR=3.6, 95% CI=1.4-8.9), respondents who had additional monthly income from family members (AOR=1.54, 95% CI=1.04-2.27), respondents who attended primary school and above (AOR=1.6, 95% CI=1.13-2.25), distance of health facility in which the time it took less than 20 minutes (AOR=2.25, 95% CI(1.24-4.09), 20-39minutes (AOR=3.06, 95% CI=1.66-5.64), 40-60 minutes (AOR=2.38, 95% CI=1.52-5.26), and previous

  17. The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages and increased adult mortality is explained by early parental loss

    PubMed Central

    Elo, Irma T.; Kohler, Iliana; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The association between advanced maternal and paternal ages at birth and increased mortality among adult offspring is often attributed to parental reproductive ageing, e.g., declining oocyte or sperm quality. Less attention has been paid to alternative mechanisms, including parental socio-demographic characteristics or the timing of parental death. Moreover, it is not known if the parental age-adult mortality association is mediated by socioeconomic attainment of the children, or if it varies over the lifecourse of the adult children. We used register-based data drawn from the Finnish 1950 census (sample size 89,737; mortality follow-up 1971–2008) and discrete-time survival regression with logit link to analyze these alternative mechanisms in the parental age-offspring mortality association when the children were aged 35–49 and 50–72. Consistent with prior literature, we found that adult children of older parents had increased mortality relative to adults whose parents were aged 25–29 at the time of birth. For example, maternal and paternal ages 40–49 were associated with mortality odds ratios (ORs)of 1.31 (p<.001) and 1.22 (p<.01), respectively, for offspring mortality at ages 35–49. At ages 50–72 advanced parental age also predicted higher mortality, though not as strongly. Adjustment for parental socio-demographic characteristics (education, occupation, family size, household crowding, language) weakened the associations only slightly. Adjustment for parental survival, measured by whether the parents were alive when the child reached age 35, reduced the advanced parental age coefficients substantially and to statistically insignificant levels. These results indicate that the mechanism behind the advanced parental age-adult offspring mortality association is mainly social, reflecting early parental loss and parental characteristics, rather than physiological mechanisms reflecting reproductive ageing. PMID:24997641

  18. Maternal mortality in rural South Africa: the impact of case definition on levels and trends.

    PubMed

    Garenne, Michel; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Tollman, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty in the levels of global maternal mortality reflects data deficiencies, as well as differences in methods and definitions. This study presents levels and trends in maternal mortality in Agincourt, a rural subdistrict of South Africa, under long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance. All deaths of women aged 15 years-49 years occurring in the study area between 1992 and 2010 were investigated, and causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsy. Two case definitions were used: "obstetrical" (direct) causes, defined as deaths caused by conditions listed under O00-O95 in International Classification of Diseases-10; and "pregnancy-related deaths", defined as any death occurring during the maternal risk period (pregnancy, delivery, 6 weeks postpartum), irrespective of cause. The case definition had a major impact on levels and trends in maternal mortality. The obstetric mortality ratio averaged 185 per 100,000 live births over the period (60 deaths), whereas the pregnancy-related mortality ratio averaged 423 per 100,000 live births (137 deaths). Results from both calculations increased over the period, with a peak around 2006, followed by a decline coincident with the national roll-out of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and antiretroviral treatment programs. Mortality increase from direct causes was mainly due to hypertension or sepsis. Mortality increase from other causes was primarily due to the rise in deaths from HIV/AIDS and pulmonary tuberculosis. These trends underline the major fluctuations induced by emerging infectious diseases in South Africa, a country undergoing rapid and complex health transitions. Findings also pose questions about the most appropriate case definition for maternal mortality and emphasize the need for a consistent definition in order to better monitor and compare trends over time and across settings.

  19. [Maternal mortality and impact of dengue in Southeast Brazil: an ecological study, 2001-2005].

    PubMed

    Mota, Anne Karin Madureira da; Miranda Filho, Adalberto Luiz; Saraceni, Valéria; Koifman, Sergio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the distribution of reproductive outcomes following dengue virus infection during pregnancy (2001-2005). An ecological epidemiological study was conducted in all counties with more than 80,000 inhabitants in Southeast Brazil. The study explored the correlation between dengue incidence rates in women 15-39 years of age and selected mortality indicators (maternal, fetal, perinatal, neonatal, early neonatal, and infant) in these counties, and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. A positive correlation was observed between median dengue incidence in women 15-39 years of age and median maternal mortality (r = 0.88; 95%CI: 0.51; 1.00), with a determination coefficient R² = 0.78. The correlation between dengue incidence in childbearing-age women and reproductive outcomes in Southeast Brazil suggests that dengue infection during pregnancy can negatively impact its outcome and increase maternal mortality.

  20. The Changes in Maternal Mortality in 1000 Counties in Mid-Western China by a Government-Initiated Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li; Zeng, Weiyue; Li, Qi; Li, Mingrong; Zhou, Rong; He, Chunhua; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2000, the Chinese government has implemented an intervention program to reduce maternal mortality and eliminate neonatal tetanus in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals 5. To assess the effectiveness of this intervention program, we analyzed the level, trend and reasons defining the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the 1,000 priority counties before and after implementation of the intervention between 1999 and 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings The data was obtained from the National Maternal and Child Health Routine Reporting System. The intervention included providing basic and emergency obstetric equipment and supplies to local medical hospitals, and also included providing professional training to local obstetric doctors, development of obstetric emergency centers and “green channel” express referral networks, reducing or waiving the cost of hospital delivery, and conducting community health education. Based on the initiation time of the intervention and the level of poverty, 1,000 counties, containing a total population of 300 million, were categorized into three groups. MMR significantly decreased by about 50%, with an average reduction rate of 9.24%, 16.06%, and 18.61% per year in the three county groups, respectively. The hospital delivery rate significantly increased. Obstetric hemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal deaths and significantly declined, with an average decrease in the MMR of 11.25%, 18.03%, and 24.90% per year, respectively. The magnitude of the MMR, the average reduction rate of the MMR, and the occurrence of the leading causes of death were closely associated with the percentage of poverty. Conclusions/Significance The intervention program implemented by the Chinese government has significantly reduced the MMR in mid-western China, suggesting that well-targeted interventions could be an efficient strategy to reducing MMR in resource-poor areas. Reduction of the MMR not only depends on conducting

  1. Acknowledging HIV and malaria as major causes of maternal mortality in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavita; Moran, Allisyn; Story, William; Bailey, Patricia; Chavane, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review national data on HIV and malaria as causes of maternal death and to determine the importance of looking at maternal mortality at a subnational level in Mozambique. Methods Three national data surveys were used to document HIV and malaria as causes of maternal mortality and to assess HIV and malaria prevention services for pregnant women. Data were collected between 2007 and 2011, and included population-level verbal autopsy data and household survey data. Results Verbal autopsy data indicated that 18.2% of maternal deaths were due to HIV and 23.1% were due to malaria. Only 19.6% of recently pregnant women received at least two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment, and only 42.3% of pregnant women were sleeping under an insecticide-treated net. Only 37.5% of recently pregnant women had been counseled, tested, and received an HIV test result. Coverage of prevention services varied substantially by province. Conclusion Triangulation of information on cause of death and coverage of interventions can enable appropriate targeting of maternal health interventions. Such information could also help countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to recognize and take action against malaria and HIV in an effort to decrease maternal mortality. PMID:24981974

  2. Maternal alcohol use and sudden infant death syndrome and infant mortality excluding SIDS.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Colleen M; Jacoby, Peter J; Bartu, Anne; D'Antoine, Heather; Bower, Carol

    2013-03-01

    Improvements in the rate of infant mortality (death in first year of life) have not occurred in recent years. This study investigates the association between maternal alcohol-use disorder and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infant mortality not classified as SIDS using linked, population-based health and mortality data. Exposed mothers were identified through the presence of an International Classification of Diseases 9/10 alcohol diagnosis, a proxy for alcohol-use disorder, recorded on health, mental health, and/or drug and alcohol datasets (1983-2005). Comparison mothers without an alcohol diagnosis were frequency matched to exposed mothers on maternal age within maternal race and year of birth of their children. All offspring with their birth recorded on the Midwives Notification System compose the exposed (n = 21 841) and comparison (n = 56 054) cohorts. Cases of SIDS (n = 303) and infant mortality excluding SIDS (n = 598) were identified through linkage with the Western Australian Mortality Register. Analyses were conducted by using Cox regression and results presented as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The highest risk of SIDS occurred when a maternal alcohol diagnosis was recorded during pregnancy (aHR 6.92, 95% CI 4.02-11.90) or within 1 year postpregnancy (aHR 8.61, 95% CI 5.04-14.69). An alcohol diagnosis recorded during pregnancy more than doubled the risk of infant deaths (excluding SIDS) (aHR 2.35, 95% CI 1.45-3.83). Maternal alcohol-use disorder is attributable for at least 16.41% (95% CI 9.73%-23.69%) of SIDS and 3.40% (95% CI 2.28%-4.67%) of infant deaths not classified as SIDS. Maternal alcohol-use disorder is a significant risk factor for SIDS and infant mortality excluding SIDS.

  3. Confronting maternal mortality, controlling birth in Nepal: the gendered politics of receiving biomedical care at birth.

    PubMed

    Brunson, Jan

    2010-11-01

    One way of reducing maternal mortality in developing countries is to ensure that women have a referral system at the local level that includes access to emergency obstetric care. Using a 13-month ethnographic study from 2003 to 2005 of women's social positions and maternal health in a semi-urban community of Hindu-caste women in the Kathmandu Valley, this paper identifies impediments to receiving obstetric care in a context where the infrastructure and services are in place. As birth in Nepal predominantly takes place at home, this paper identifies the following areas for potential improvement in order to avoid the loss of women's lives during childbirth: the frequency of giving birth unaided, minimal planning for birth or obstetric complications, and delayed responses at the household level to obstetric emergencies. Focusing particularly on the last item, this study concludes that women do not have the power to demand biomedical services or emergency care, and men still viewed birth as the domain of women and remained mostly uninvolved in the process. As the cultural construction of birth shifts from a "natural" phenomenon that did not require human regulation toward one that is located within the domain of biomedical expertise and control, local acceptance of a biomedical model does not necessarily lead to the utilization of services if neither women nor men are in a culturally-defined position to act. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the competing risks of HIV acquisition and maternal mortality in Africa: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M I; Reeves, M F; Caughey, A B

    2012-08-01

    To model the risk of HIV acquisition and maternal mortality for women in four African countries in the light of previous data on risk of HIV acquisition and hormonal contraceptive use. Decision analysis. Chad, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda. Women of reproductive age, at risk of HIV, who do not desire pregnancy. A decision analysis model was built to compare the consequences of removing progestin injectables from use, assuming an increased risk of HIV acquisition. Three scenarios were considered in four African countries: replacement of progestin injectables with no method, with combined oral contraceptives (COC) or with an intrauterine device (IUD). Health outcomes measured include: life-years, maternal mortality, HIV acquisition and unsafe abortion. Sensitivity analysis, including Monte Carlo simulation, was performed around all variables. HIV acquisition, maternal mortality and life-years. If progestin injectables are removed from use, without a minimum of 70-100% of women switching to an IUD or COCs, up to nine additional maternal deaths will occur for every case of HIV averted. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that this finding persisted across a broad range of variables. Contraception is critical to preserving life for women in Africa. In the absence of clear evidence regarding hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition, policy decisions must not overlook the very real risk of maternal mortality. © 2012 World Health Organization BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  5. Maternal Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination and Neonatal Mortality in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Stones, William

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Preventable neonatal mortality due to tetanus infection remains common. We aimed to examine antenatal vaccination impact in a context of continuing high neonatal mortality in rural northern India. Methods and Findings Using the third round of the Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005–06, mortality of most recent singleton births was analysed in discrete-time logistic model with maternal tetanus vaccination, together with antenatal care utilisation and supplementation with iron and folic acid. 59% of mothers reported receiving antenatal care, 48% reported receiving iron and folic acid supplementation and 68% reported receiving two or more doses of tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination. The odds of all-cause neonatal death were reduced following one or more antenatal dose of TT with odds ratios (OR) of 0.46 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.78) after one dose and 0.45 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.66) after two or more doses. Reported utilisation of antenatal care and iron-folic acid supplementation did not influence neonatal mortality. In the statistical model, 16% (95% CI 5% to 27%) of neonatal deaths could be attributed to a lack of at least two doses of TT vaccination during pregnancy, representing an estimated 78,632 neonatal deaths in absolute terms. Conclusions Substantial gains in newborn survival could be achieved in rural North India through increased coverage of antenatal TT vaccination. The apparent substantial protective effect of a single antenatal dose of TT requires further study. It may reflect greater population vaccination coverage and indicates that health programming should prioritise universal antenatal coverage with at least one dose. PMID:23152814

  6. Maternal tetanus toxoid vaccination and neonatal mortality in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Stones, William

    2012-01-01

    Preventable neonatal mortality due to tetanus infection remains common. We aimed to examine antenatal vaccination impact in a context of continuing high neonatal mortality in rural northern India. Using the third round of the Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-06, mortality of most recent singleton births was analysed in discrete-time logistic model with maternal tetanus vaccination, together with antenatal care utilisation and supplementation with iron and folic acid. 59% of mothers reported receiving antenatal care, 48% reported receiving iron and folic acid supplementation and 68% reported receiving two or more doses of tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination. The odds of all-cause neonatal death were reduced following one or more antenatal dose of TT with odds ratios (OR) of 0.46 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.78) after one dose and 0.45 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.66) after two or more doses. Reported utilisation of antenatal care and iron-folic acid supplementation did not influence neonatal mortality. In the statistical model, 16% (95% CI 5% to 27%) of neonatal deaths could be attributed to a lack of at least two doses of TT vaccination during pregnancy, representing an estimated 78,632 neonatal deaths in absolute terms. Substantial gains in newborn survival could be achieved in rural North India through increased coverage of antenatal TT vaccination. The apparent substantial protective effect of a single antenatal dose of TT requires further study. It may reflect greater population vaccination coverage and indicates that health programming should prioritise universal antenatal coverage with at least one dose.

  7. The effect of maternal and child health and family planning services on mortality: is prevention enough?

    PubMed Central

    Fauveau, V; Wojtyniak, B; Chakraborty, J; Sarder, A M; Briend, A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the impact on mortality of a child survival strategy, mostly based on preventive interventions. DESIGN--Cross sectional comparison of cause specific mortality in two communities differing in the type, coverage, and quality of maternal and child health and family planning services. In the intervention area the services were mainly preventive, community based, and home delivered. SUBJECTS--Neonates, infants, children, and mothers in two contiguous areas of rural Bangladesh. INTERVENTIONS--In the intervention area community health workers provided advice on contraception and on feeding and weaning babies; distributed oral rehydration solution, vitamin A tablets for children under 5, and ferrous fumarate and folic acid during pregnancy; immunised children; trained birth attendants in safe delivery and when to refer; treated minor ailments; and referred seriously ill people and malnourished children to a central clinic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Overall and age and cause specific death rates, obtained by a multiple step "verbal autopsy" process. RESULTS--During the two years covered by the study overall mortality was 17% lower among neonates, 9% lower among infants aged 1-5 months, 30% lower among children aged 6-35 months, and 19% lower among women living in the study area than in those living in the control area. These differences were mainly due to fewer deaths from neonatal tetanus, measles, persistent diarrhoea with severe malnutrition among children, and fewer abortions among women. CONCLUSIONS--The programme was effective in preventing some deaths. In addition to preventive components such as tetanus and measles immunisation, health and nutrition education, and family planning, curative services are needed to reduce mortality further. PMID:2390566

  8. Maternally transmitted mitochondrial DNA mutations can reduce lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jaime M.; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Hoffer, Barry J.; Olson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that germline transmission of mitochondrial DNA mutations via the oocyte cause aggravation of aging phenotypes in prematurely aging mtDNA mutator (PolgAmut/mut) mice. We discovered that 32% of these mice also exhibit stochastic disturbances of brain development, when maternal mtDNA mutations were combined with homozygosity for the PolgA mutation, leading to de novo somatic mtDNA mutations. Surprisingly, we also found that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations can cause mild premature aging phenotypes also in mice with a wild-type nuclear DNA background. We now report that in addition to the early onset of aging phenotypes, these mice, burdened only by low levels of mtDNA mutations transmitted via the germline, also exhibit reduced longevity. Our data thus demonstrate that low levels of maternally inherited mtDNA mutations when present during development can affect both overall health and lifespan negatively. PMID:25299268

  9. Contribution of maternal age and pregnancy checkbox on maternal mortality ratios in the United States, 1978-2012.

    PubMed

    Davis, Nicole L; Hoyert, Donna L; Goodman, David A; Hirai, Ashley H; Callaghan, William M

    2017-09-01

    Maternal mortality ratios (MMR) appear to have increased in the United States over the last decade. Three potential contributing factors are (1) a shifting maternal age distribution, (2) changes in age-specific MMR, and (3) the addition of a checkbox indicating recent pregnancy on the death certificate. To determine the contribution of increasing maternal age on changes in MMR from 1978 to 2012 and estimate the contribution of the pregnancy checkbox on increases in MMR over the last decade. Kitagawa decomposition analyses were conducted to partition the maternal age contribution to the MMR increase into 2 components: changes due to a shifting maternal age distribution and changes due to greater age-specific mortality ratios. We used National Vital Statistics System natality and mortality data. The following 5-year groupings were used: 1978-1982, 1988-1992, 1998-2002, and 2008-2012. Changes in age-specific MMRs among states that adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox onto their death certificate before 2008 (n = 23) were compared with states that had not adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox on their death certificate by the end of 2012 (n = 11) to estimate the percentage increase in the MMR due to the pregnancy checkbox. Overall US MMRs for 1978-1982, 1988-1992, and 1998-2002 were 9.0, 8.1, and 9.1 deaths per 100,000 live births, respectively. There was a modest increase in the MMR between 1998-2002 and 2008-2012 in the 11 states that had not adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox on their death certificate by the end of 2012 (8.6 and 9.9 deaths per 100,000, respectively). However, the MMR more than doubled between 1998-2002 and 2008-2012 in the 23 states that adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox (9.0-22.4); this dramatic increase was almost entirely attributable to increases in age-specific MMRs (94.9%) as opposed to increases in maternal age (5.1%), with an estimated 90% of the observed change reflecting the change in maternal death identification rather

  10. Maternal exposure to hurricane destruction and fetal mortality.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Breunig, Ian M; Link, Bruce G; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Weiler, Stephan; Mielke, Howard W

    2014-08-01

    The majority of research documenting the public health impacts of natural disasters focuses on the well-being of adults and their living children. Negative effects may also occur in the unborn, exposed to disaster stressors when critical organ systems are developing and when the consequences of exposure are large. We exploit spatial and temporal variation in hurricane behaviour as a quasi-experimental design to assess whether fetal death is dose-responsive in the extent of hurricane damage. Data on births and fetal deaths are merged with Parish-level housing wreckage data. Fetal outcomes are regressed on housing wreckage adjusting for the maternal, fetal, placental and other risk factors. The average causal effect of maternal exposure to hurricane destruction is captured by difference-in-differences analyses. The adjusted odds of fetal death are 1.40 (1.07-1.83) and 2.37 (1.684-3.327) times higher in parishes suffering 10-50% and >50% wreckage to housing stock, respectively. For every 1% increase in the destruction of housing stock, we observe a 1.7% (1.1-2.4%) increase in fetal death. Of the 410 officially recorded fetal deaths in these parishes, between 117 and 205 may be attributable to hurricane destruction and postdisaster disorder. The estimated fetal death toll is 17.4-30.6% of the human death toll. The destruction caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita imposed significant measurable losses in terms of fetal death. Postdisaster migratory dynamics suggest that the reported effects of maternal exposure to hurricane destruction on fetal death may be conservative. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Increased prenatal maternal investment reduces inbreeding depression in offspring.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Kate E; Hutter, Pascale; Tschirren, Barbara

    2017-08-16

    Inbreeding depression refers to the reduction of fitness that results from matings between relatives. Evidence for reduced fitness in inbred individuals is widespread, but the strength of inbreeding depression varies widely both within and among taxa. Environmental conditions can mediate this variation in the strength of inbreeding depression, with environmental stress exacerbating the negative consequences of inbreeding. Parents can modify the environment experienced by offspring, and have thus the potential to mitigate the negative consequences of inbreeding. While such parental effects have recently been demonstrated during the postnatal period, the role of prenatal parental effects in influencing the expression of inbreeding depression remains unexplored. To address this gap, we performed matings between full-sibs or unrelated individuals in replicated lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) experimentally selected for high and low maternal egg provisioning. We show that in the low maternal investment lines hatching success was strongly reduced when parents were related. In the high maternal investment lines, however, this negative effect of inbreeding on hatching success was absent, demonstrating that prenatal maternal provisioning can alleviate the negative fitness consequences of inbreeding. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Perimortem cesarean delivery: its role in maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Katz, Vern L

    2012-02-01

    Since Roman times, physicians have been instructed to perform postmortem cesarean deliveries to aid in funeral rites, baptism, and in the very slim chance that a live fetus might still be within the deceased mother's womb. This procedure was disliked by physicians being called to a dying mother's bedside. As births moved to hospitals, and modern obstetrics evolved, the causes of maternal death changed from sepsis, hemorrhage, and dehydration to a greater incidence of sudden cardiac arrest from medication errors or embolism. Thus, the likelihood of delivering a viable neonate at the time of a mother's death increased. Additionally, as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) became widespread, physicians realized that during pregnancy, with the term gravid woman lying on her back, chest compressions cannot deliver sufficient cardiac output to accomplish resuscitation. Paradoxically, after a postmortem cesarean delivery is performed, effective CPR was seen to occur. Mothers were revived. Thus, the procedure was renamed the perimortem cesarean. Because brain damage begins at 5 minutes of anoxia, the procedure should be initiated at 4 minutes (the 4-minute rule) to deliver the healthiest fetus. If a mother has a resuscitatable cause of death, then her life may be saved as well by a prompt and timely cesarean delivery during CPR. Sadly, too often, we are paralyzed by the horror of the maternal cardiac arrest, and instinctively, we try CPR for too long before turning to the perimortem delivery. The quick procedure though may actually improve the situation for the mother, and certainly will save the child.

  13. Family planning issues relating to maternal and infant mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Puffer, R R

    1993-01-01

    Both maternal and infant death rates in the United States are much higher than in many developed countries. The interrelationships between abortions and maternal and infant mortality have been analyzed on the basis of data from the 1970s and 1980s. The legalization of abortions in 1973 resulted in a marked increase in legal abortions and marked reductions in maternal and infant mortality over the course of the 1970s. However, a wide variation in abortion rates and in the number of abortion facilities indicates that such facilities were not readily available to all segments of the population in some areas. This probably accounts in part for higher maternal and infant death rates in such areas. Smoking, small weight gain, use of alcohol and drugs in pregnancy, and excessive maternal youth or age affected the outcome of pregnancy and contributed to high rates of infant death. Infant death rates were especially high among newborns of teenagers and young adult mothers; relatively high proportions of these newborns had low birthweights; a large share of the pregnancies involved were unintended; and slightly over half of the unintended pregnancies in teenagers and young women resulted in abortion. Comparisons with findings in Sweden reveal that the rates of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and infant mortality were all much higher in the United States than in Sweden. The differences are attributed to better contraceptive services, which were made available free or very inexpensively in Sweden. Also, the frequency of low weight births was much lower in Sweden.

  14. Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.

    PubMed

    Scalone, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

  15. Maternal mortality in obstetrics and gynaecology in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Khatun, K; Ara, R; Aleem, N T; Khan, S; Husein, S; Alam, S; Roy, A S

    2015-01-01

    Maternal mortality is the leading causes of death and disability of reproductive age in the developing countries. Bangladesh is one of the developing countries where maternal mortality is very high. The purpose of the present study was to see the causes of maternal deaths at Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward. This retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH). All maternal deaths were included in this study from July 2003 to June 2004 for a period of one year. The incidence of maternal death was 18.5/1000 live birth. Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (41.84%) was the most common cause of maternal death followed by unsafe abortions (21.4%), PPH (10.2%), obstructed labour (8.2%). Among 98 patients 36(36.7%) cases are died due to eclampsia. Death due to pre-eclampsia (5.1%), unsafe Abortion (21.4%), Obstetric haemorrhage (18.4%) and obstructed labour (8.3%) were commonly found in this study. The study permits to conclude that Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is the leading cause of pregnancy related deaths followed by unsafe abortions and obstetric haemorrhage. Other causes include obstructed labour, anaesthetic complications and others.

  16. The Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Nigeria (SOGON) plan for sustainable reduction in maternal mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Okaro, J M; Iyoke, C A

    2010-06-01

    In the year 2000, SOGON formulated a strategic plan on women's health based on the reproductive health approach with the aim of reducing maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2010. In 2005, the Nigerian Road Map for accelerating the attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 was launched. One of the key guiding principles of the Road Map was promoting partnerships and joint programming among stakeholders including professional associations. In response, SOGON decided to align her strategic plan with the Road Map by refocusing the plan to the key objectives of the Road Map. The new SOGON Plan involves interventions with a focal objective of reducing the case-fatality of emergency obstetric conditions. The plan is anchored on interventions where SOGON has comparative advantage such as providing human resources and promoting capacity building for emergency obstetric care and skilled attendance at delivery, and advocacy and information dissemination on maternal health.

  17. Improving the measurement of maternal mortality in Thailand using multiple data sources.

    PubMed

    Chandoevwit, Worawan; Phatchana, Phasith; Sirigomon, Kanjana; Ieawsuwan, Kunakorn; Thungthong, Jutatip; Ruangdej, Saray

    2016-01-01

    Thailand uses cause of death records in civil registration to summarize maternal mortality statistics. A report by the Department of Health using the Reproductive Age Mortality Studies (RAMOS) reported that the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in 1997 was approximately three to four times higher than MMR based on the civil registration cause of death records. Here, we used multiple data sources to systematically measure maternal mortality in Thailand and showed a disparity between age groups and regions. We calculated the number of maternal deaths using a two-stage method. In the first stage, we counted the number of deceased mothers who successfully gave live births. In the second stage, we counted the number of women who died during the pregnancy, delivery, or the postpartum period without a live birth. The number of maternal deaths dropped from 268 in 2007 to 226 in 2014. Nearly 50 % of the deaths occurred in Stage 1. The maternal mortality ratio in 2007 was 33.6 per 100,000 live births; the rate fell to 31.8 in 2014. The age ranges of women observed were 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, and 45-49, and the MMR averages were 21.5, 23.8, 27.0, 42.1, 67.7, 115.4, and 423.4 per 100,000 live births, respectively. The Southern region consistently exhibited the highest MMR compared to other regions for every year analyzed, except 2012. Women in Bangkok had a lower risk of dying during pregnancy, delivery, and the postpartum period than women from other regions. We demonstrated that using multiple administrative data sources in the two-stage method was an efficient method that provided systematic measurement and timely reporting on the maternal mortality ratio. An additional benefit of the method was that information provided from the combined data sources, (e.g., the number of maternal deaths by age group and region) was relevant to the safe motherhood policy.

  18. Socio-economic improvements and health system strengthening of maternity care are contributing to maternal mortality reduction in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Liljestrand, Jerker; Sambath, Mean Reatanak

    2012-06-01

    Maternal mortality has been falling significantly in Cambodia since 2005 though it had been stagnant for at least 15 years before that. This paper analyzes the evolution of some major societal and health system factors based on recent national and international reports. The maternal mortality ratio fell from 472 per 100,000 live births in 2000-2005 to 206 in 2006-2010. Background factors have included peace and stability, economic growth and poverty reduction, improved primary education, especially for girls, improved roads, improved access to information on health and health services via TV, radio and cellphones, and increased ability to communicate with and within the health system. Specific health system improvements include a rapid increase in facility-based births and skilled birth attendance, notably investment in midwifery training and numbers of midwives providing antenatal care and deliveries within an expanding primary health care network, a monetary incentive for facility-based midwives for every live birth conducted, and an expanding system of health equity funds, making health care free of cost for poor people. Several major challenges remain, including post-partum care, family planning, prevention and treatment of breast and cervical cancer, and addressing sexual violence against women, which need the same priority attention as maternity care. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal mortality in different Pakistani sites: ratios, clinical causes and determinants.

    PubMed

    Fikree, F F; Midhet, F; Sadruddin, S; Berendes, H W

    1997-08-01

    Population-based estimates of maternal mortality from Pakistan are inadequate to define the magnitude of the problem or provide information on clinical causes and determinants. Surveys were conducted in selected clusters in Karachi, Balochistan and North West Frontier Province from 1989-1992. Pre-coded questionnaires were administered to 38,563 households to ascertain household characteristics, complete pregnancy histories and deaths of household members in the five years preceding the survey. Verbal autopsy questionnaires were then conducted to establish cause of death to women in the reproductive age group. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable analyses were carried out to determine the association between the background variables, biological and women's status indicators and maternal mortality using a nested case-control design. Overall, the estimated maternal mortality ratio combining the data from the different sites was 433 per 100,000 livebirths. The estimated maternal mortality ratios per 100,000 livebirths ranged from a low of 281 in Karachi to a high of 673 in Khuzdar [Balochistan]. Hemorrhage (52.9%), puerperal sepsis (16.3%) and eclampsia (14.4%) were the leading causes for direct maternal deaths. Logistic regression identified the important risk factors as poor housing construction material (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3,3.2), distance of 40 or more miles from nearest hospital (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.9,1.8), grandmultigravidity (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1,2.4) and prior fetal losses (OR = 5.3; 95% CI = 3.8,7.4). Focusing on special groups of pregnant women with targeted programs such as training, monitoring and supervision of birth attendants for the provision of oxytocics, will go a long way in decreasing the proportion of maternal deaths attributed to direct, avoidable causes.

  20. Increased Duration of Paid Maternity Leave Lowers Infant Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Arijit; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Harper, Sam; Koski, Alissa; Strumpf, Erin C.; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs. Methods and Findings We used birth history data collected via the Demographic and Health Surveys to assemble a panel of approximately 300,000 live births in 20 countries from 2000 to 2008; these observational data were merged with longitudinal information on the duration of paid maternity leave provided by each country. We estimated the effect of an increase in maternity leave in the prior year on the probability of infant (<1 y), neonatal (<28 d), and post-neonatal (between 28 d and 1 y after birth) mortality. Fixed effects for country and year were included to control for, respectively, unobserved time-invariant confounders that varied across countries and temporal trends in mortality that were shared across countries. Average rates of infant, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality over the study period were 55.2, 30.7, and 23.0 per 1,000 live births, respectively. Each additional month of paid maternity was associated with 7.9 fewer infant deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI 3.7, 12.0), reflecting a 13% relative reduction. Reductions in infant mortality associated with increases in the duration of paid maternity leave were concentrated in the post-neonatal period. Estimates were robust to adjustment for individual, household, and country-level characteristics, although there may be residual confounding by unmeasured time-varying confounders, such as coincident policy changes. Conclusions More generous paid maternity leave policies represent a potential instrument for facilitating early-life interventions and reducing infant mortality in LMICs and warrant further discussion in the post-2015

  1. Increased Duration of Paid Maternity Leave Lowers Infant Mortality in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arijit; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Harper, Sam; Koski, Alissa; Strumpf, Erin C; Heymann, Jody

    2016-03-01

    Maternity leave reduces neonatal and infant mortality rates in high-income countries. However, the impact of maternity leave on infant health has not been rigorously evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this study, we utilized a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate whether paid maternity leave policies affect infant mortality in LMICs. We used birth history data collected via the Demographic and Health Surveys to assemble a panel of approximately 300,000 live births in 20 countries from 2000 to 2008; these observational data were merged with longitudinal information on the duration of paid maternity leave provided by each country. We estimated the effect of an increase in maternity leave in the prior year on the probability of infant (<1 y), neonatal (<28 d), and post-neonatal (between 28 d and 1 y after birth) mortality. Fixed effects for country and year were included to control for, respectively, unobserved time-invariant confounders that varied across countries and temporal trends in mortality that were shared across countries. Average rates of infant, neonatal, and post-neonatal mortality over the study period were 55.2, 30.7, and 23.0 per 1,000 live births, respectively. Each additional month of paid maternity was associated with 7.9 fewer infant deaths per 1,000 live births (95% CI 3.7, 12.0), reflecting a 13% relative reduction. Reductions in infant mortality associated with increases in the duration of paid maternity leave were concentrated in the post-neonatal period. Estimates were robust to adjustment for individual, household, and country-level characteristics, although there may be residual confounding by unmeasured time-varying confounders, such as coincident policy changes. More generous paid maternity leave policies represent a potential instrument for facilitating early-life interventions and reducing infant mortality in LMICs and warrant further discussion in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. From a

  2. Assessing health and economic outcomes of interventions to reduce pregnancy-related mortality in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women in Nigeria face some of the highest maternal mortality risks in the world. We explore the benefits and cost-effectiveness of individual and integrated packages of interventions to prevent pregnancy-related deaths. Methods We adapt a previously validated maternal mortality model to Nigeria. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to Southwest and Northeast zones using survey-based data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions, and could include improved logistics. Results Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality, was cost saving in the Southwest zone and cost-effective elsewhere, and prevented nearly 1 in 5 abortion-related deaths. However, with a singular focus on family planning and safe abortion, mortality reduction would plateau below MDG 5. Strategies that could prevent 4 out of 5 maternal deaths included an integrated and stepwise approach that includes increased skilled deliveries, facility births, access to antenatal/postpartum care, improved recognition of referral need, transport, and availability quality of EmOC in addition to family planning and safe abortion. The economic benefits of these strategies ranged from being cost-saving to having incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $500 per YLS, well below Nigeria’s per capita GDP. Conclusions Early intensive efforts to improve family planning and control of fertility choices, accompanied by a stepwise effort to scale-up capacity for integrated maternal health services over several years, will save lives and provide equal or greater value than many public health interventions we consider among the most cost-effective (e.g., childhood immunization). PMID:22978519

  3. Maternal complications and perinatal mortality: findings of the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    PubMed

    Vogel, J P; Souza, J P; Mori, R; Morisaki, N; Lumbiganon, P; Laopaiboon, M; Ortiz-Panozo, E; Hernandez, B; Pérez-Cuevas, R; Roy, M; Mittal, S; Cecatti, J G; Tunçalp, Ö; Gülmezoglu, A M

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and risks of late fetal deaths (LFDs) and early neonatal deaths (ENDs) in women with medical and obstetric complications. Secondary analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health (WHOMCS). A total of 359 participating facilities in 29 countries. A total of 308 392 singleton deliveries. We reported on perinatal indicators and determined risks of perinatal death in the presence of severe maternal complications (haemorrhagic, infectious, and hypertensive disorders, and other medical conditions). Fresh and macerated LFDs (defined as stillbirths ≥ 1000 g and/or ≥28 weeks of gestation) and ENDs. The LFD rate was 17.7 per 1000 births; 64.8% were fresh stillbirths. The END rate was 8.4 per 1000 liveborns; 67.1% occurred by day 3 of life. Maternal complications were present in 22.9, 27.7, and 21.2% [corrected] of macerated LFDs, fresh LFDs, and ENDs, respectively. The risks of all three perinatal mortality outcomes were significantly increased with placental abruption, ruptured uterus, systemic infections/sepsis, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and severe anaemia. Preventing intrapartum-related perinatal deaths requires a comprehensive approach to quality intrapartum care, beyond the provision of caesarean section. Early identification and management of women with complications could improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. © 2014 RCOG The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  4. Child and maternal mortality during a period of conflict in Beira City, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Cutts, F T; Dos Santos, C; Novoa, A; David, P; Macassa, G; Soares, A C

    1996-04-01

    Child mortality rates have been declining in most developing countries. We studied child and maternal mortality risk factors for child mortality in Beira city in July 1993, after a decade of conflict in Mozambique. A community-based cluster sample survey of 4609 women of childbearing age was conducted. Indirect techniques were used to estimate child mortality ('children ever born' method and Preceding Birth Techniques (PBT) and maternal mortality (sisterhood method). Deaths among the most recent born child, born since July 1990, were classified as cases (n = 106), and two controls, matched by age and cluster, were selected per case. Indirect estimates of the probability of dying from birth to age 5 (deaths before age 5 years, (5)q(0) per 1000) decreased from 246 in 1977/8 to 212 in 1988/9. The PBT estimate of 1990/91 was 154 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 124-184), but recent deaths may have been underreported. Lack of beds in the household (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95 percent CI: 1.1-3.8), absence of the father (OR = 2.4, 95 percent CI : 1.2-4.8), low paternal educational level (OR = 2.1, 95 percent CI: 0.8-5.4), young maternal age (OR = 2.0, 95 percent CI: 1.0-3.7), self-reported maternal illness (OR = 2.4, 95 percent CI : 1.2-4.9), and home delivery of the child (OR = 2.3, 95 percent CI : 1.2-4.5) were associated with increased mortality, but the sensitivity of risk factors was low. Estimated maternal mortality was 410/100 000 live births with a reference date of 1982. Child mortality decreased slowly over the 1980s in Beira despite poor living conditions caused by the indirect effects of the war. Coverage of health services increased over this period. The appropriateness of a risk approach to maternal-child-health care needs further evaluation.

  5. Where does distance matter? Distance to the closest maternity unit and risk of foetal and neonatal mortality in France

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Béatrice; Drewniak, Nicolas; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of maternity units has declined in France, raising concerns about the possible impact of increasing travel distances on perinatal health outcomes. We investigated impact of distance to closest maternity unit on perinatal mortality. Methods: Data from the French National Vital Statistics Registry were used to construct foetal and neonatal mortality rates over 2001–08 by distance from mother’s municipality of residence and the closest municipality with a maternity unit. Data from French neonatal mortality certificates were used to compute neonatal death rates after out-of-hospital birth. Relative risks by distance were estimated, adjusting for individual and municipal-level characteristics. Results: Seven percent of births occurred to women residing at ≥30 km from a maternity unit and 1% at ≥45 km. Foetal and neonatal mortality rates were highest for women living at <5 km from a maternity unit. For foetal mortality, rates increased at ≥45 km compared with 5–45 km. In adjusted models, long distance to a maternity unit had no impact on overall mortality but women living closer to a maternity unit had a higher risk of neonatal mortality. Neonatal deaths associated with out-of-hospital birth were rare but more frequent at longer distances. At the municipal-level, higher percentages of unemployment and foreign-born residents were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: Overall mortality was not associated with living far from a maternity unit. Mortality was elevated in municipalities with social risk factors and located closest to a maternity unit, reflecting the location of maternity units in deprived areas with risk factors for poor outcome. PMID:24390464

  6. Spatial-temporal dynamics and structural determinants of child and maternal mortality in a rural, high HIV burdened South African population, 2000–2014: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tlou, B; Sartorius, B; Tanser, F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child (infant and under-5) and maternal mortality rates are key indicators for assessing the health status of populations. South Africa's maternal and child mortality rates are high, and the country mirrors the continental trend of slow progress towards its Millennium Development Goals. Rural areas are often more affected regarding child and maternal mortalities, specifically in areas with a high HIV burden. This study aims to understand the factors affecting child and maternal mortality in the Africa Centre Demographic Surveillance Area (DSA) from 2003 to 2014 towards developing tailored interventions to reduce the deaths in resource poor settings. This will be done by identifying child and maternal mortality ‘hotspots’ and their associated risk factors. Methods and analysis This retrospective study will use data for 2003–2014 from the Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS) in rural KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. All homesteads in the study area have been mapped to an accuracy of <2 m, all deaths recorded and the assigned cause of death established using a verbal autopsy interview. Advanced spatial-temporal clustering techniques (both regular (Kulldorff) and irregular (FleXScan)) will be used to identify mortality ‘hotspots’. Various advanced statistical modelling approaches will be tested and used to identify significant risk factors for child and maternal mortality. Differences in attributability and risk factors profiles in identified ‘hotspots’ will be assessed to enable tailored intervention guidance/development. This multicomponent study will enable a refined intervention model to be developed for typical rural populations with a high HIV burden. Ethics Ethical approval was received from the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (BREC) of the University of KwaZulu-Natal (BE 169/15). PMID:27421296

  7. Maternal education, birth weight, and infant mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gage, Timothy B; Fang, Fu; O'Neill, Erin; Dirienzo, Greg

    2013-04-01

    This research determines whether the observed decline in infant mortality with socioeconomic level, operationalized as maternal education (dichotomized as college or more, versus high school or less), is due to its "indirect" effect (operating through birth weight) and/or to its "direct" effect (independent of birth weight). The data used are the 2001 U.S. national African American, Mexican American, and European American birth cohorts by sex. The analysis explores the birth outcomes of infants undergoing normal and compromised fetal development separately by using covariate density defined mixture of logistic regressions (CDDmlr). Among normal births, mean birth weight increases significantly (by 27-108 g) with higher maternal education. Mortality declines significantly (by a factor of 0.40-0.96) through the direct effect of education. The indirect effect of education among normal births is small but significant in three cohorts. Furthermore, the indirect effect of maternal education tends to increase mortality despite improved birth weight. Among compromised births, education has small and inconsistent effects on birth weight and infant mortality. Overall, our results are consistent with the view that the decrease in infant death by socioeconomic level is not mediated by improved birth weight. Interventions targeting birth weight may not result in lower infant mortality.

  8. Maternal Education, Birth Weight, and Infant Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Timothy B.; Fang, Fu; O’Neill, Erin; DiRienzo, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This research determines whether the observed decline in infant mortality with socioeconomic level, operationalized as maternal education (dichotomized as college or more, versus high school or less), is due to its “indirect” effect (operating through birth weight) and/or to its “direct” effect (independent of birth weight). The data used are the 2001 U.S. national African American, Mexican American, and European American birth cohorts by sex. The analysis explores the birth outcomes of infants undergoing normal and compromised fetal development separately by using covariate density defined mixture of logistic regressions (CDDmlr). Among normal births, mean birth weight increases significantly (by 27–108 g) with higher maternal education. Mortality declines significantly (by a factor of 0.40–0.96) through the direct effect of education. The indirect effect of education among normal births is small but significant in three cohorts. Furthermore, the indirect effect of maternal education tends to increase mortality despite improved birth weight. Among compromised births, education has small and inconsistent effects on birth weight and infant mortality. Overall, our results are consistent with the view that the decrease in infant death by socioeconomic level is not mediated by improved birth weight. Interventions targeting birth weight may not result in lower infant mortality. PMID:23073749

  9. [Maternal mortality decrease at IMSS, 2000-2005. As a result of specific actions or by chance?].

    PubMed

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; de la Cruz-Mejía, Leticia

    2008-01-01

    to assessment the epidemiological characteristics and evolution of maternal hospital deaths at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) on the years 2000-2005 and to analyze a possible relation with a specific program to reduce it, starting in 2001. we collected and studied data about 253 and 144 hospital maternal deaths between 2000 and 2005, respectively. We compared rates, causes, type of obstetrical death, age, parity, history of prenatal care and preventability at admission in hospitals were the women died. Data about live births in were obtained from the official Information Medical System of IMSS. The analysis was made with descriptive statistical measures and values of chi(2). the maternal mortality rate fell by 30.8 %, as result of a decline from 39 per 100,000 live births in 2000, to 27 in 2005; the proportion of direct obstetric deaths showed a reduction from 77.1 to 66.7 %; all the specific-age mortality rates felt too, but with some variability. Preeclampsia-eclampsia, hemorrhages and abortion were responsible for more of 50 % of total deaths in both years compared. We did not observe significant changes in other variables. the reduction in general rate of hospital maternal mortality, in percentage of direct obstetric causes of death and specific-age rates were chronologically coincidental with the development of a program to increase opportunity and quality of obstetric care at the whole institution. The results let us think there is a possible cause-effect relation. It is imperative to conduct a more long-term observation to confirm this epidemiological phenomenon.

  10. Reducing Maternal Deaths in Ethiopia: Results of an Intervention Programme in Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mitiku, Demissew; Zidda, Zillo; Yaya, Yaliso

    2017-01-01

    Background In a large population in Southwest Ethiopia (population 700,000), we carried out a complex set of interventions with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. This study evaluated the effects of several coordinated interventions to help improve effective coverage and reduce maternal deaths. Together with the Ministry of Health in Ethiopia, we designed a project to strengthen the health-care system. A particular emphasis was given to upgrade existing institutions so that they could carry out Basic (BEmOC) and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC). Health institutions were upgraded by training non-clinical physicians and midwives by providing the institutions with essential and basic equipment, and by regular monitoring and supervision by staff competent in emergency obstetric work. Results In this implementation study, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was the primary outcome. The study was carried out from 2010 to 2013 in three districts, and we registered 38,312 births. The MMR declined by 64% during the intervention period from 477 to 219 deaths per 100,000 live births (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.24–0.88). The decline in MMR was higher for the districts with CEmOC, while the mean number of antenatal visits for each woman was 2.6 (Inter Quartile Range 2–4). The percentage of pregnant women who attended four or more antenatal controls increased by 20%, with the number of women who delivered at home declining by 10.5% (P<0.001). Similarly, the number of deliveries at health posts, health centres and hospitals increased, and we observed a decline in the use of traditional birth attendants. Households living near to all-weather roads had lower maternal mortality rates (MMR 220) compared with households without roads (MMR 598; OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.61–4.61)). Conclusions Our results show that it is possible to achieve substantial reductions in maternal mortality rates over a short period of time if the effective coverage of well-known interventions is

  11. Maternal Mortality in Andaman and Nicobar Group of Islands: 10 Years Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Indu; Saha, Mrinmoy Kumar; Akhtarkharvi, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is an indicator of effectiveness of health care facilities for women of child bearing age group. Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) group of islands are unique as they are situated 1200 km from the mainland India. Healthcare delivery for the these islands is exclusively provided and controlled by only one authority, Directorate of Health Services, A&N Islands. GB Pant Hospital, Port Blair is the only referral hospital with round the clock specialists and surgical services. Aims: To estimate the MMR in A&N islands from 2001 to 2010, and study the causes of maternal mortality. Settings and Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: Data for the estimation of MMR were collected from office of Registrar of Births and Deaths, Hospital and Peripheral Health Centres. Case records of maternal deaths in GB Pant Hospital were reviewed to study the causes of death. Statistical analysis used: Proportions and Ratios. Results: Ten years average MMR for the entire island was 85.42. Analysis of 30 maternal deaths in GB Pant Hospital showed that 63.3% were due to direct obstetric causes (eclampsia 30%, hemorrhage 23.33%, sepsis 6.66%, and 3.33% amniotic fluid embolism). Of the indirect causes, anemia was the commonest (16.66%). Conclusions: The MMR of A&N islands is much lower than the national average of 250. Direct obstetric causes accounted for more than half of maternal deaths 63.33%. PMID:24696538

  12. Maternal mortality among migrants in Western Europe: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Rich-Edwards, Janet

    2014-09-01

    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population. Results were derived from a random-effects meta-analysis, and statistical heterogeneity assessed by the I (2) statistic. In sub-analyses we also calculated summary estimates stratified by direct and indirect death causes. We included 13 studies with more than 42 million women and 4,995 maternal deaths. Compared with indigenous born women, the pooled risk estimate (RR) was 2.00 with 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 1.72, 2.33. Migrant women had a non-significantly higher risk of dying from direct than indirect death causes; pooled RRs of 2.65 CI 1.88, 3.74 and 1.83 CI 1.37, 2.45. This meta-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality.

  13. Determinants of maternal mortality in Eastern Mediterranean region: A panel data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bayati, Mohsen; Vahedi, Sajad; Esmaeilzadeh, Firooz; Kavosi, Zahra; Jamali, Zahra; Rajabi, Abdolhalim; Alimohamadi, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    Background: As one of the main criteria of health outcomes, maternal mortality indicates the socioeconomic development level of countries. The present study aimed at identifying and analyzing the effective factors on maternal mortality in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods: Analytical model was developed based on the literature review. Panel data of 2004-2011 periods for 22 EMR countries was used. Required data were collected from WHO online database. Based on results of diagnostic tests for panel data model, parameters of model were estimated by fixed effects method. Results: Descriptive statistics demonstrated the large disparities in social, economic, and health indicators among EMRO countries. Findings obtained from evaluating the model showed a negative, significant relationship between GDP per capita (β=-0.869, p<0.01), health expenditure) β=-0.525, p<0.01 (female literacy rate) β=-1.045, <0.01 (skilled birth attendance) β=-0.899, p<0.05) and maternal mortality rate. Conclusion: Improved income and economic development, increased resources allocated to the health sector, improved delivery services particularly the increased use of trained staff in the delivery, improve quality of primary care centers, mitigating the risks of marginalization and its dangers, and especially improving the level of women's education and knowledge are the key factors in policy making related to maternal health promotion. PMID:27453890

  14. Maternal defense: breast feeding increases aggression by reducing stress.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M; Lawson, E Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress.

  15. Maternal Defense: Breast Feeding Increases Aggression by Reducing Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Holbrook, Colin; Coyne, Sarah M.; Lawson, E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Mothers in numerous species exhibit heightened aggression in defense of their young. This shift typically coincides with the duration of lactation in nonhuman mammals, which suggests that human mothers may display similarly accentuated aggressiveness while breast feeding. Here we report the first behavioral evidence for heightened aggression in lactating humans. Breast-feeding mothers inflicted louder and longer punitive sound bursts on unduly aggressive confederates than did formula-feeding mothers or women who had never been pregnant. Maternal aggression in other mammals is thought to be facilitated by the buffering effect of lactation on stress responses. Consistent with the animal literature, our results showed that while lactating women were aggressing, they exhibited lower systolic blood pressure than did formula-feeding or never-pregnant women while they were aggressing. Mediation analyses indicated that reduced arousal during lactation may disinhibit female aggression. Together, our results highlight the contributions of breast feeding to both protecting infants and buffering maternal stress. PMID:21873570

  16. Health system determinants of infant, child and maternal mortality: A cross-sectional study of UN member countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined the link between health system strength and important public health outcomes across nations. We examined the association between health system indicators and mortality rates. Methods We used mixed effects linear regression models to investigate the strength of association between outcome and explanatory variables, while accounting for geographic clustering of countries. We modelled infant mortality rate (IMR), child mortality rate (CMR), and maternal mortality rate (MMR) using 13 explanatory variables as outlined by the World Health Organization. Results Significant protective health system determinants related to IMR included higher physician density (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] 0.81; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.71-0.91), higher sustainable access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.85; 95% CI 0.78-0.93), and having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.57; 95% CI 0.40-0.80). Out-of-pocket expenditures on health (aRR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62) were a risk factor. The same four variables were significantly related to CMR after controlling for other variables. Protective determinants of MMR included access to water and sanitation (aRR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-0.94), having a less corrupt government (aRR 0.49; 95%; CI 0.36-0.66), and higher total expenditures on health per capita (aRR 0.84; 95% CI 0.77-0.92). Higher fertility rates (aRR 2.85; 95% CI: 2.02-4.00) were found to be a significant risk factor for MMR. Conclusion Several key measures of a health system predict mortality in infants, children, and maternal mortality rates at the national level. Improving access to water and sanitation and reducing corruption within the health sector should become priorities. PMID:22023970

  17. [Maternal mortality in obstetrics at the Mont-Amba University Clinics, Kinshasa].

    PubMed

    Kinkenda, K N; Lusanga, N; Mbanzulu, N; Yanga, K

    1985-10-01

    All cases of maternal mortality occurring at the University Clinic of Mont Amba in Kinshasa, Zaire, between 1961 and 1980 were analyzed. 20 of the 60 records of maternal deaths were excluded from the study for technical reasons, but the maternal mortality rates were calculated on the basis of all deaths. The highest rate of 197.53/100,000 live births occurred in 1961. The lowest rate, 35.76/100,000 live births, occurred in 1976. The maternal mortality rate for the entire series was 68.58/100,000 live births. Of the 40 women included, 5 were under 20 years old, 11 were 20-29, 18 were 30-39, and 6 were 40-49 years old. 30 of the women were from lower and 10 from higher socioeconomic level backgrounds. 8 were nulliparas, 9 had had few births, 8 were multiparas, and 13 were grand multiparas. 1 death occurred during pregnancy, 4 during labor, 30 postpartum, 3 during a cesarean, and 2 during a laparotomy for uterine rupture. The cause of death was hemorrhage in 14 cases, infection in 6 cases, vascular accident in 6 cases, anesthetic accident in 4 cases, acute pulmonary edema in 3 cases, hepatitis in 1 case, and bronchial pneumonia in 1 case. 85% of the deaths appear to have been avoidable; only the 6 deaths from vascular accidents were judged unavoidable. The maternal mortality rate was probably lower than those registered in developing countries in general because it included only obstetrical deaths in a university teaching hospital. 7 of the deaths from hemorrhage were due to uterine rupture. 3 of the deaths from vascular accidents were due of thromboembolism, 2 to amniotic embolism, and 1 to pulmonary embolism. 12 of the women died after a cesarean.

  18. [Losing one's life giving birth: maternal mortality at Port-Royal 1815-1826].

    PubMed

    Beauvalet, S

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the "Hospice de la Maternité", created in 1795 to replace the "Office des acouchées of the Paris "Hôtel-Dieu". Our objectives were first to conduct a demographic study of the pregnant women coming to the maternity and second, to evaluate the patterns of maternal mortality. Our data are constituted individual medical reports between 1815 and 1826. 4086 women issued from a quest at the letter B have been observed. Because of the relative low number of deaths in this population (192), we decided to investigate four other years (1817, 1818, 1819 and 1821), where the deaths were exhaustively recorded. Unwed mothers represented 80.4% of the population and their mean age was 25, whereas married women were more than 30 years old. Nearly all these women came from the working class, especially three sectors, sewing (35.4%), servants (31.8%) and workers (20%). More than three quarters dwelled in Paris; among them, less than 20% were born in the city. Mortality was very high, it reached 6%. Forsaking was more prominent for unwed women (81.7%) than for married mothers (58.3%). The stay at the Maternity was rather long, mean 23 days. Maternal mortality was high, 47 for thousand, but we noted important fluctuations amongst years and seasons. The demographic analysis of the population showed that the Maternity appears as a transition structure between the ancient "hospices" and the modern hospital. The poor economic and physiological status of women explained that, despite the noticeable improvement in care, the mortality rate will remain elevated during all the century, and even increase.

  19. Effect of cleansing the birth canal with antiseptic solution on maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality in Malawi: clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Taha, T E; Biggar, R J; Broadhead, R L; Mtimavalye, L A; Justesen, A B; Liomba, G N; Chiphangwi, J D; Miotti, P G

    1997-07-26

    To determine if cleansing the birth canal with an antiseptic at delivery reduces infections in mothers and babies postnatally. Clinical trial; two months of no intervention were followed by three months of intervention and a final month of no intervention. Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (tertiary care urban hospital), Blantyre, Malawi. A total of 6965 women giving birth in a six month period and their 7160 babies. Manual wipe of the maternal birth canal with a 0.25% chlorhexidine solution at every vaginal examination before delivery. Babies born during the intervention were also wiped with chlorhexidine. Effects of the intervention on neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. 3635 women giving birth to 3743 babies were enrolled in the intervention phase and 3330 women giving birth to 3417 babies were enrolled in the non-intervention phase. There were no adverse reactions related to the intervention among the mothers or their children. Among infants born in the intervention phase, overall neonatal admissions were reduced (634/3743 (16.9%) v 661/3417 (19.3%), P < 0.01), as were admissions for neonatal sepsis (7.8 v 17.9 per 1000 live births, P < 0.0002), overall neonatal mortality (28.6 v 36.9 per 1000 live births, P < 0.06), and mortality due to infectious causes (2.4 v 7.3 per 1000 live births, P < 0.005). Among mothers receiving the intervention, admissions related to delivery were reduced (29.4 v 40.2 per 1000 deliveries, P < 0.02), as were admissions due to postpartum infections (1.7 v 5.1 per 1000 deliveries, P = 0.02) and duration of hospitalisation (Wilcoxon P = 0.008). Cleansing the birth canal with chlorhexidine reduced early neonatal and maternal postpartum infectious problems. The safety, simplicity, and low cost of the procedure suggest that it should be considered as standard care to lower infant and maternal morbidity and mortality.

  20. Argentina: risk factors and maternal mortality in La Matanza, Province of Buenos Aires, 1990.

    PubMed

    Szmoisz, S; Vuegen, S E; Plaza, A S; Barracchini, R; Checa, S; Derlindati, A; Espinola, D A; Rúgolo, E C

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation of the health services infrastructure of the La Matanza part of Buenos Aires in 1990 was carried out in addition to an evaluation of maternal mortality case studies. This procedure allowed for an assessment of factors related to the performance of health services and the health behaviour of women which, concomitantly, led to maternal deaths. Approximately 50% of maternal deaths went unreported in La Matanza on the basis of record checks performed in the institutions, hence the maternal mortality was twice as high as officially indicated for 1990. Flaws in the proper clinical diagnosis of the causes of deaths were detected and a higher degree of precision was called for. In the case of women who came from the poorest section of La Matanza, most deaths were due to complications related to abortion (either self-induced or non-professionally induced). Most of the maternal deaths could have been avoided. The sociological enquiry revealed conflicting social pressures which led the women onto the path of maternal death. The men were found not to be involved in the health issues arising from pregnancy and delivery, and the reproductive process was seen to lie exclusively in the women's domain. The services were not prepared to cater for the needs of poor women, and the inadequacy of the existing system to reach the women in need was well documented. Detection of women at risk was lacking in most establishments and, with the exception of one hospital, referral procedures did not exist. At the municipal level the absence of a policy for maternal and child health was noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. [Perinatal morbidity and mortality in twin pregnancies in a Moroccan level-3 maternity ward].

    PubMed

    Boubkraoui, Mohamed El-Mahdi; Aguenaou, Hassan; Mrabet, Mustapha; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Twin pregnancies are associated with a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and mortality than singleton pregnancies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate perinatal morbidity and mortality in twin pregnancies in a Moroccan level-3 maternity ward. This is a comparative cross-sectional study of perinatal morbidity and mortality rates in newborn infants in twin pregnancies versus singleton pregnancies among women who gave birth at Souissi Maternity Hospital in Rabat from January 1 to February 28, 2014. There were 3297 births and, of these, 65 in twin pregnancies and 3167 in singleton pregnancies. Twin pregnancies were associated with higher rates of preeclampsia and eclampsia (P = 0.046), HELLP syndrome (P = 0.030), premature rupture of membranes (P < 0.001), malpresentation (P < 0.001), prematurity (P < 0.001), low birth weight in fullterm neonates (P < 0.001), respiratory distress at birth (P < 0.001), congenital malformations (P = 0.015), hospitalization in the neonatal period (P = 0.001), and perinatal mortality (P = 0.001) than singleton pregnancies. Monochorionic twins showed higher rates of low birth weight in fullterm pregnancies (P = 0.016) and of perinatal mortality (P = 0.017) than dichorionic twins. Twin pregnancies showed higher risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality than singleton pregnancies and were more exposed to prematurity. Monochorionic twin pregnancies showed a higher risk because of the significant exposure to low birth weight in fullterm babies.

  2. Maternal stress and infant mortality: The importance of the preconception period

    PubMed Central

    Class, Quetzal A.; Khashan, Ali S.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Although preconception and prenatal maternal stress are associated with adverse birth and childhood outcomes, the relation to infant mortality remains uncertain. We used logistic regression to study infant mortality risk following maternal stress within a population-based sample of offspring born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008 (N= 3,055,361). Preconception (6-0 months before conception) and prenatal (conception to birth) stress was defined as death of a first-degree relative of the mother. A total of 20,651 offspring were exposed to preconception stress, 26,731 to prenatal stress, and 8,398 cases of infant mortality were identified. Preconception stress increased the risk of infant mortality independent of measured covariates (adjusted OR=1.53; 95% CI=1.25–1.88) and the association was timing-specific and robust across low-risk groups. Prenatal stress did not increase risk of infant mortality (adjusted OR=1.05; 95% CI=0.84–1.30). The period immediately before conception may be a sensitive developmental period influencing risk for infant mortality. PMID:23653129

  3. Direct and indirect estimates of maternal mortality in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Garenne, M; Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Borchert, M; Benzler, J; Diesfeld, J

    1997-03-01

    A retrospective study of maternal mortality was conducted in Nouna, a rural area of Burkina Faso in 1992. Strong evidence was found of a major mortality decline among children and young adults over the 50 years preceding the study: The estimated life expectancy of 36 years in around 1945 rose to 58 years in 1991. Direct and indirect (using the sisterhood method) estimates of the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) were compared. Overall, the direct estimate of the MMR (389 deaths per 100,000 live births) for women aged 15 and older was slightly lower than the indirect estimate (428 deaths per 100,000). Taking into account the biases involved in the use of information obtained from sisters, the direct estimates indicated a marked decline in maternal mortality over time from 569 deaths per 100,000 around 1941 to 305 deaths around 1987. The validity of both data and approach, as well as the discrepancies between the direct and indirect methods, are discussed.

  4. Exploring Child Mortality Risks Associated with Diverse Patterns of Maternal Migration in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Thomas, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    Internal migration is a salient dimension of adulthood in Haiti, particularly among women. Despite the prevalence of migration in Haiti, it remains unknown whether Haitian women's diverse patterns of migration influence their children's health and survival. In this paper, we introduce the concept of lateral (i.e., rural-to-rural, urban-to-urban) versus nonlateral (i.e., rural-to-urban, urban-to-rural) migration to describe how some patterns of mothers' internal migration may be associated with particularly high mortality among children. We use the 2006 Haitian Demographic and Health Survey to estimate a series of discrete-time hazard models among 7,409 rural children and 3,864 urban children. We find that, compared with their peers with nonmigrant mothers, children born to lateral migrants generally experience lower mortality whereas those born to nonlateral migrants generally experience higher mortality. Although there are important distinctions across Haiti's rural and urban contexts, these associations remain net of socioeconomic factors, suggesting they are not entirely attributable to migrant selection. Considering the timing of maternal migration uncovers even more variation in the child health implications of maternal migration; however, the results counter the standard disruption and adaptation perspective. Although future work is needed to identify the processes underlying the differential risk of child mortality across lateral versus nonlateral migrants, the study demonstrates that looking beyond rural-to-urban migration and considering the timing of maternal migration can provide a fuller, more complex understanding of migration's association with child health.

  5. TulaSalud: An m-health system for maternal and infant mortality reduction in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Lobos-Medina, Isabel; Díaz-Molina, Cesar Augusto; Chen-Cruz, Moisés Faraón; Prieto-Egido, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Guatemalan NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) TulaSalud has implemented an m-health project in the Department of Alta Verapaz. This Department has 1.2 million inhabitants (78% living in rural areas and 89% from indigenous communities) and in 2012, had a maternal mortality rate of 273 for every 100,000 live births. This m-health initiative is based on the provision of a cell phone to community facilitators (CFs). The CFs are volunteers in rural communities who perform health prevention, promotion and care. Thanks to the cell phone, the CFs have become tele-CFs who able to carry out consultations when they have questions; send full epidemiological and clinical information related to the cases they attend to; receive continuous training; and perform activities for the prevention and promotion of community health through distance learning sessions in the Q’eqchí and/or Poqomchi’ languages. In this study, rural populations served by tele-CFs were selected as the intervention group while the control group was composed of the rural population served by CFs without Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools. As well as the achievement of important process results (116,275 medical consultations, monitoring of 6,783 pregnant women, and coordination of 2,014 emergency transfers), the project has demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in maternal mortality (p < 0.05) and in child mortality (p = 0.054) in the intervention group compared with rates in the control group. As a result of the telemedicine initiative, the intervention areas, which were selected for their high maternal and infant mortality rates, currently show maternal and child mortality indicators that are not only lower than the indicators in the control area, but also lower than the provincial average (which includes urban areas). PMID:25766857

  6. Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-10-08

    In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level. We quantified eight underlying causes of maternal death and four timing categories, improving estimation methods since GBD 2013 for adult all-cause mortality, HIV-related maternal mortality, and late maternal death. Secondary analyses then allowed systematic examination of drivers of trends, including the relation between maternal mortality and coverage of specific reproductive health-care services as well as assessment of observed versus expected maternal mortality as a function of Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Only ten countries achieved MDG 5, but 122 of 195 countries have already met SDG 3.1. Geographical disparities widened between 1990 and 2015 and, in 2015, 24 countries still had a maternal mortality ratio greater than 400. The proportion of all maternal deaths occurring in the bottom two SDI quintiles, where haemorrhage is the dominant cause of maternal death, increased from roughly 68% in 1990 to more than 80% in 2015. The middle SDI quintile improved the most from 1990 to 2015, but also has the most complicated causal profile. Maternal mortality in the highest SDI quintile is mostly due to other direct maternal disorders, indirect maternal disorders, and abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and/or miscarriage. Historical

  7. Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015. Methods We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10–54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level. We quantified eight underlying causes of maternal death and four timing categories, improving estimation methods since GBD 2013 for adult all-cause mortality, HIV-related maternal mortality, and late maternal death. Secondary analyses then allowed systematic examination of drivers of trends, including the relation between maternal mortality and coverage of specific reproductive health-care services as well as assessment of observed versus expected maternal mortality as a function of Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Findings Only ten countries achieved MDG 5, but 122 of 195 countries have already met SDG 3.1. Geographical disparities widened between 1990 and 2015 and, in 2015, 24 countries still had a maternal mortality ratio greater than 400. The proportion of all maternal deaths occurring in the bottom two SDI quintiles, where haemorrhage is the dominant cause of maternal death, increased from roughly 68% in 1990 to more than 80% in 2015. The middle SDI quintile improved the most from 1990 to 2015, but also has the most complicated causal profile. Maternal mortality in the highest SDI quintile is mostly due to other direct maternal disorders, indirect maternal disorders, and abortion, ectopic

  8. Caesarean Delivery and Postpartum Maternal Mortality: A Population-Based Case Control Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Saucedo, Monica; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cesarean delivery rates continue to increase worldwide and reached 57% in Brazil in 2014. Although the safety of this surgery has improved in the last decades, this trend is a concern because it carries potential risks to women’s health and may be a modifiable risk factor of maternal mortality. This paper aims to investigate the risk of postpartum maternal death directly associated with cesarean delivery in comparison to vaginal delivery in Brazil. Methods This was a population-based case—control study performed in eight Brazilian states. To control for indication bias, deaths due to antenatal morbidity were excluded. We included 73 cases of postpartum maternal deaths from 2009–2012. Controls were selected from the Birth in Brazil Study, a 2011 nationwide survey including 9,221 postpartum women. We examined the association of cesarean section and postpartum maternal death by multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. Results After controlling for indication bias and confounders, the risk of postpartum maternal death was almost three-fold higher with cesarean than vaginal delivery (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.63–5.06), mainly due to deaths from postpartum hemorrhage and complications of anesthesia. Conclusion Cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor of postpartum maternal death. Clinicians and patients should consider this fact in balancing the benefits and risks of the procedure. PMID:27073870

  9. Maternal and perinatal mortality by place of delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Chinkhumba, Jobiba; De Allegri, Manuela; Muula, Adamson S; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2014-09-28

    Facility-based delivery has gained traction as a key strategy for reducing maternal and perinatal mortality in developing countries. However, robust evidence of impact of place of delivery on maternal and perinatal mortality is lacking. We aimed to estimate the risk of maternal and perinatal mortality by place of delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a systematic review of population-based cohort studies reporting on risk of maternal or perinatal mortality at the individual level by place of delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Outcomes were summarized in pooled analyses using fixed and random effects models. We calculated attributable risk percentage reduction in mortality to estimate exposure effect. We report mortality ratios, crude odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. We found 9 population-based cohort studies: 6 reporting on perinatal and 3 on maternal mortality. The mean study quality score was 10 out of 15 points. Control for confounders varied between the studies. A total of 36,772 pregnancy episodes were included in the analyses. Overall, perinatal mortality is 21% higher for home compared to facility-based deliveries, but the difference is only significant when produced with a fixed effects model (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.02-1.46) and not when produced by a random effects model (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 0.79-1.84). Under best settings, up to 14 perinatal deaths might be averted per 1000 births if the women delivered at facilities instead of homes. We found significantly increased risk of maternal mortality for facility-based compared to home deliveries (OR 2.29, 95% CI: 1.58-3.31), precluding estimates of attributable risk fraction. Evaluating the impact of facility-based delivery strategy on maternal and perinatal mortality using population-based studies is complicated by selection bias and poor control of confounders. Studies that pool data at an individual level may overcome some of these

  10. Maternal/fetal mortality and fetal growth restriction: Role of nitric oxide and virulence factors in intrauterine infection in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska-Seniuk, Katarzyna; Nowicki, Stella; Lebouguénec, Chantal; Nowicki, Bogdan; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective The mechanism of infection-related mortality of pregnant rats and the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are not understood. We assessed if nitric oxide (NO) has differential effects on infection with E. coli Dr/Afa mutants lacking either AfaE or AfaD invasins. Material and Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were intrauterinally infected with the clinical strain of E. coli AfaE+D+ or one of its isogenic mutants in the presence or absence of the NO synthesis inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Maternal/fetal mortality, feto-placental weight, and the infection rate were evaluated. Results Maternal and/or fetal mortality was associated with the presence of at least one virulence factor (AfaE+D+>AfaE+D−>AfaE-D+) and was increased by L-NAME treatment. The fetal and placental weights were lower than controls and they were further reduced by L-NAME treatment. Conclusions These results demonstrate that NO enhanced AfaE and AfaD mediated virulence and play an important role in Dr/Afa+ E. coli gestational tropism. PMID:21481839

  11. Maternal or Infant Antiretroviral Drugs to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chasela, Charles S.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Kayira, Dumbani; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kourtis, Athena P.; Martinson, Francis; Tegha, Gerald; Knight, Rodney J.; Ahmed, Yusuf I.; Kamwendo, Deborah D.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Kacheche, Zebrone; Soko, Alice; Wiener, Jeffrey B.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Kazembe, Peter; Mofolo, Innocent A.; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Sichali, Dorothy S.; van der Horst, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy of a maternal triple-drug antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine prophylaxis for 28 weeks during breast-feeding to reduce postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Malawi. Methods We randomly assigned 2369 HIV-1–positive, breast-feeding mothers with a CD4+ lymphocyte count of at least 250 cells per cubic millimeter and their infants to receive a maternal antiretroviral regimen, infant nevirapine, or no extended postnatal antiretroviral regimen (control group). All mothers and infants received perinatal prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine and 1 week of zidovudine plus lamivudine. We used the Kaplan–Meier method to estimate the cumulative risk of HIV-1 transmission or death by 28 weeks among infants who were HIV-1–negative 2 weeks after birth. Rates were compared with the use of the log-rank test. Results Among mother–infant pairs, 5.0% of infants were HIV-1–positive at 2 weeks of life. The estimated risk of HIV-1 transmission between 2 and 28 weeks was higher in the control group (5.7%) than in either the maternal-regimen group (2.9%, P = 0.009) or the infant-regimen group (1.7%, P<0.001). The estimated risk of infant HIV-1 infection or death between 2 and 28 weeks was 7.0% in the control group, 4.1% in the maternal-regimen group (P = 0.02), and 2.6% in the infant-regimen group (P<0.001). The proportion of women with neutropenia was higher among those receiving the antiretroviral regimen (6.2%) than among those in either the nevirapine group (2.6%) or the control group (2.3%). Among infants receiving nevirapine, 1.9% had a hypersensitivity reaction. Conclusions The use of either a maternal antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine for 28 weeks was effective in reducing HIV-1 transmission during breast-feeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00164736.) PMID:20554982

  12. Maternal or infant antiretroviral drugs to reduce HIV-1 transmission.

    PubMed

    Chasela, Charles S; Hudgens, Michael G; Jamieson, Denise J; Kayira, Dumbani; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Kourtis, Athena P; Martinson, Francis; Tegha, Gerald; Knight, Rodney J; Ahmed, Yusuf I; Kamwendo, Deborah D; Hoffman, Irving F; Ellington, Sascha R; Kacheche, Zebrone; Soko, Alice; Wiener, Jeffrey B; Fiscus, Susan A; Kazembe, Peter; Mofolo, Innocent A; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Sichali, Dorothy S; van der Horst, Charles M

    2010-06-17

    We evaluated the efficacy of a maternal triple-drug antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine prophylaxis for 28 weeks during breast-feeding to reduce postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Malawi. We randomly assigned 2369 HIV-1-positive, breast-feeding mothers with a CD4+ lymphocyte count of at least 250 cells per cubic millimeter and their infants to receive a maternal antiretroviral regimen, infant nevirapine, or no extended postnatal antiretroviral regimen (control group). All mothers and infants received perinatal prophylaxis with single-dose nevirapine and 1 week of zidovudine plus lamivudine. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the cumulative risk of HIV-1 transmission or death by 28 weeks among infants who were HIV-1-negative 2 weeks after birth. Rates were compared with the use of the log-rank test. Among mother-infant pairs, 5.0% of infants were HIV-1-positive at 2 weeks of life. The estimated risk of HIV-1 transmission between 2 and 28 weeks was higher in the control group (5.7%) than in either the maternal-regimen group (2.9%, P=0.009) or the infant-regimen group (1.7%, P<0.001). The estimated risk of infant HIV-1 infection or death between 2 and 28 weeks was 7.0% in the control group, 4.1% in the maternal-regimen group (P=0.02), and 2.6% in the infant-regimen group (P<0.001). The proportion of women with neutropenia was higher among those receiving the antiretroviral regimen (6.2%) than among those in either the nevirapine group (2.6%) or the control group (2.3%). Among infants receiving nevirapine, 1.9% had a hypersensitivity reaction. The use of either a maternal antiretroviral regimen or infant nevirapine for 28 weeks was effective in reducing HIV-1 transmission during breast-feeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00164736.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  13. Physical barrier to reduce WP mortalities of foraging waterfowl

    SciTech Connect

    Pochop, P.A.; Cummings, J.L.; Yoder, C.A.; Gossweiler, W.A.

    2000-02-01

    White phosphorus (WP) has been identified as the cause of mortality to certain species of water-fowl at Eagle River Flats, a tidal marsh in Alaska, used as an ordinance impact area by the US Army. A blend of calcium bentonite/organo clays, gravel, and binding polymers was tested for effectiveness as a barrier to reduce duck foraging and mortality. Following the application of the barrier to one of two contaminated ponds, the authors observed greater duck foraging and higher mortality in the untreated pond and no mortality in the treated pond after a year of tidal inundations and ice effects. Emergent vegetation recovered within a year of treatment. WP levels in the barrier were less than the method limit of detection, indicating no migration of WP into the materials. Barrier thickness remained relatively stable over a period of 4 years, and vegetation was found to be important in stabilizing the barrier material.

  14. Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in Ethiopia: Part II-Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background The major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths are mostly pregnancy related. However, there are several predisposing factors for the increased risk of pregnancy related complications and deaths in developing countries. The objective of this review was to grossly estimate the effect of selected socioeconomic and cultural factors on maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the effect of total fertility rate (TFR), modern contraceptive use, harmful traditional practice, adult literacy rate and level of income on maternal and perinatal mortalities. For the majority of the data, regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used as a proxy indicator for the association of variables with maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality. Results Although there were variations in the methods for estimation, the TFR of women in Ethiopia declined from 5.9 to 4.8 in the last fifteen years, which was in the middle as compared with that of other African countries. The preference of injectable contraceptive method has increased by 7-fold, but the unmet contraceptive need was among the highest in Africa. About 50% reduction in female genital cutting (FGC) was reported although some women's attitude was positive towards the practice of FGC. The regression analysis demonstrated increased risk of stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality with increased TFR. The increased adult literacy rate was associated with increased antenatal care and skilled person attended delivery. Low adult literacy was also found to have a negative association with stillbirths and neonatal and maternal mortality. A similar trend was also observed with income. Conclusion Maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality rate had inverse relations with income and adult education. In Ethiopia, the high total fertility rate, low utilization of contraceptive methods, low adult

  15. Preconception maternal bereavement and infant and childhood mortality: A Danish population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Class, Quetzal A.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Dalman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Khashan, Ali S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, though these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood. Methods Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979–2009 (N=1,865,454), we predicted neonatal (0–28 days), post-neonatal infant (29–364 days), and early childhood (1–5 years) mortality following maternal bereavement in the preconception (6–0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regression that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors. Results We identified 6,541 (0.004%) neonates, 3,538 (0.002%) post-neonates, and 2,132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 to 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with an increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.53–2.30) and post-neonatal infant mortality (aOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02). Associations were timing-specific (6 months prior to pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality, however this may reflect relatively low statistical power. Conclusions Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately prior to pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality. PMID:26374948

  16. Generation of political priority for global health initiatives: a framework and case study of maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Smith, Stephanie

    2007-10-13

    Why do some global health initiatives receive priority from international and national political leaders whereas others receive little attention? To analyse this question we propose a framework consisting of four categories: the strength of the actors involved in the initiative, the power of the ideas they use to portray the issue, the nature of the political contexts in which they operate, and characteristics of the issue itself. We apply this framework to the case of a global initiative to reduce maternal mortality, which was launched in 1987. We undertook archival research and interviewed people connected with the initiative, using a process-tracing method that is commonly employed in qualitative research. We report that despite two decades of effort the initiative remains in an early phase of development, hampered by difficulties in all these categories. However, the initiative's 20th year, 2007, presents opportunities to build political momentum. To generate political priority, advocates will need to address several challenges, including the creation of effective institutions to guide the initiative and the development of a public positioning of the issue to convince political leaders to act. We use the framework and case study to suggest areas for future research on the determinants of political priority for global health initiatives, which is a subject that has attracted much speculation but little scholarship.

  17. Maternal mortality in Herat Province, Afghanistan, in 2002: an indicator of women's human rights.

    PubMed

    Amowitz, Lynn L; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2002-09-11

    Maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan are estimated to be high. To assess maternal mortality and human rights issues in Herat, Afghanistan. Cross-sectional survey of 4886 Afghan women living in 7 districts in Afghanistan's Herat Province, which included 34 urban and rural villages/towns. Using structured interviews/questionnaires, these women also provided maternal mortality information on 14 085 sisters in March 2002. A survey of health facilities in the 7 districts was also conducted. Mean (SE) age of the respondents was 31 (0.23) years (range, 15-49 years). The majority had received 0.35 (0.11) years of formal education and 4233 (88%) were married (mean [SE] age at marriage, 15 [0.3] years; range, 5-39 years). The mean (SE) number of pregnancies was 5.0 (0.08) and live births was 4.6 (0.2). There were 276 maternal deaths among 14 085 sisters of the survey respondents (593 maternal deaths/100 000 live births per year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 557-630). Of the 276 deaths, 254 (92%) were reported from rural areas. The respondents reported the following primary problems: lack of food (41%), shelter (18%), and clean water (14%). Of 4721 respondents, 4008 (85%) wanted to get married at the time of their wedding, but 957 (20%) felt family pressure. Of 4703 women, 4117 (87%) had to obtain permission from their husband or male relative to seek health care; only 1% (54/3946) reported not being permitted to obtain prenatal care. Of 4881 women, 597 (12%) used birth control, but 23% (1013/4294) wanted to use birth control. Of 4306 women, 3189 (74%) reported that decisions about the number and spacing of children were made by husband and wife equally. Of 4637 respondents, 519 (11%) reported receiving prenatal care. Of 4624 women, 40 (0.9%) reported a trained health care worker was present at birth; 97% (4475/4612) had untrained traditional birth attendants. Only 17 of 27 listed health facilities were functional and only 5 provided essential obstetric care. Only 35

  18. Maternal mortality in Bangladesh: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.

    PubMed

    El Arifeen, Shams; Hill, Kenneth; Ahsan, Karar Zunaid; Jamil, Kanta; Nahar, Quamrun; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2014-10-11

    Bangladesh is one of the only nine Countdown countries that are on track to achieve the primary target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 by 2015. It is also the only low-income or middle-income country with two large, nationally-representative, high-quality household surveys focused on the measurement of maternal mortality and service use. We use data from the 2001 and 2010 Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Surveys to measure change in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and from these and six Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys to measure changes in factors potentially related to such change. We estimate the changes in risk of maternal death between the two surveys using Poisson regression. The MMR fell from 322 deaths per 100,000 livebirths (95% CI 253-391) in 1998-2001 to 194 deaths per 100,000 livebirths (149-238) in 2007-10, an annual rate of decrease of 5·6%. This decrease rate is slightly higher than that required (5·5%) to achieve the MDG target between 1990 and 2015. The key contribution to this decrease was a drop in mortality risk mainly due to improved access to and use of health facilities. Additionally, a number of favourable changes occurred during this period: fertility decreased and the proportion of births associated with high risk to the mother fell; income per head increased sharply and the poverty rate fell; and the education levels of women of reproductive age improved substantially. We estimate that 52% of maternal deaths that would have occurred in 2010 in view of 2001 rates were averted because of decreases in fertility and risk of maternal death. The decrease in MMR in Bangladesh seems to have been the result of factors both within and outside the health sector. This finding holds important lessons for other countries as the world discusses and decides on the post-MDG goals and strategies. For Bangladesh, this case study provides a strong rationale for the pursuit of a broader developmental agenda alongside increased and

  19. Maternal and neonatal separation and mortality associated with concurrent admissions to intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G.; Urquia, Marcelo L.; Berger, Howard; Vermeulen, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Concurrent admission of a mother and her newborn to separate intensive care units (herein referred to as co-ICU admission), possibly in different centres, can magnify family discord and stress. We examined the prevalence and predictors of mother–infant separation and mortality associated with co-ICU admissions. Methods: We completed a population-based study of all 1 023 978 singleton live births in Ontario between Apr. 1, 2002, and Mar. 31, 2010. We included data for maternal–infant pairs that had co-ICU admission (n = 1216), maternal ICU admission only (n = 897), neonatal ICU (NICU) admission only (n = 123 236) or no ICU admission (n = 898 629). The primary outcome measure was mother–infant separation because of interfacility transfer. Results: The prevalence of co-ICU admissions was 1.2 per 1000 live births and was higher than maternal ICU admissions (0.9 per 1000). Maternal–newborn separation due to interfacility transfer was 30.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 26.9–35.3) times more common in the co-ICU group than in the no-ICU group and exceeded the prevalence in the maternal ICU group and NICU group. Short-term infant mortality (< 28 days after birth) was higher in the co-ICU group (18.1 per 1000 live births; maternal age–adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 27.8, 95% CI 18.2–42.6) than in the NICU group (7.6 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 11.5, 95% CI 10.4–12.7), relative to 0.7 per 1000 in the no-ICU group. Short-term maternal mortality (< 42 days after delivery) was also higher in the co-ICU group (15.6 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 328.7, 95% CI 191.2–565.2) than in the maternal ICU group (6.7 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 140.0, 95% CI 59.5–329.2) or the NICU group (0.2 per 1000; age-adjusted HR 4.6, 95% CI 2.8–7.4). Interpretation: Mother–infant pairs in the co-ICU group had the highest prevalence of separation due to interfacility transfer and the highest mortality compared with those in the maternal ICU and NICU groups. PMID:23091180

  20. [Maternal mortality in the Hospital General de Matamoros Dr. Alfredo Pumarejo Lafaurie for a period of 10 years].

    PubMed

    González-Rosales, Ricardo; Ayala-Leal, Isabel; Cerda-López, Jorge Alejandro; Cerón-Saldaña, Miguel Angel

    2010-04-01

    In Mexico, maternal mortality has fallen substantially in recent decades. Although according to the Secretaria de Salud, in Tamaulipas the maternal mortality rate has increased in recent years. Despite these facts, Tamaulipas ranks among the ten institutions with the lowest level of maternal mortality. To describe the basic elements of epidemiologic behavior of maternal mortality during a period of ten years at the Gynecology and Obstetrics department of the Hospital General de Matamoros Dr. Alfredo Pumarejo Lafaurie in Tamaulipas, Mexico. A descriptive, transverse, retrospective and a cases series research was carried out at the Gynecology and Obstetrics department of the Hospital General de Matamoros Dr. Alfredo Pumarejo Lafaurie in Tamaulipas, Mexico. There was a revision of the expedients of direct and indirect obstetric maternal deaths occurred from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2007. We used descriptive statistics with central trend measurements and standard deviation. 30 obstetric maternal deaths were registered. Maternal death ratio was 87.2 x 100,000 live births during the 10 years. The average age of patients was 25.1 +/- 7.8 years old. 54% were in their first pregnancy. Only 20% had adequate prenatal control. Direct obstetric causes were 60% and indirect obstetric causes 40%. The main causes of maternal deaths were preeclampsia/eclampsia (27%), obstetric hemorrhage (20%) and gravid-puerperal sepsis (13%). 83% was foreseeable. It was noted a clear trend towards the reduction in the maternal mortality ratio in the decade from 1998 to 2007. Preeclampsia-eclampsia and obstetric hemorrhage remain the main causes of maternal death. The maternal mortality ratio tended to invest when comparing the first five years with the last five years of the study, which talks about improvements in management and direct obstetric causes prevention.

  1. Confidence intervals and sample-size calculations for the sisterhood method of estimating maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Hanley, J A; Hagen, C A; Shiferaw, T

    1996-01-01

    The sisterhood method is an indirect method of estimating maternal mortality that has, in comparison with conventional direct methods, the dual advantages of ease of use in the field and smaller sample-size requirements. This report describes how to calculate a standard error to quantify the sampling variability for this method. This standard error can be used to construct confidence intervals and statistical tests and to plan the size of a sample survey that employs the sisterhood method. Statistical assumptions are discussed, particularly in relation to the effective sample size and to effects of extrabinomial variation. In a worked example of data from urban Pakistan, a maternal mortality ratio of 153 (95 percent confidence interval between 96 and 212) deaths per 100,000 live births is estimated.

  2. Rate and time trend of perinatal, infant, maternal mortality, natality and natural population growth in kosovo.

    PubMed

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    THE AIM OF WORK HAS BEEN THE PRESENTATION OF THE RATE AND TIME TRENDS OF SOME INDICATORS OF THE HEATH CONDITION OF MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN KOSOVO: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. THE DATA WERE TAKEN FROM: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a continuous decrease. Infant mortality

  3. Rate and Time Trend of Perinatal, Infant, Maternal Mortality, Natality and Natural Population Growth in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Gashi, Sanije; Berisha, Majlinda; Kolgeci, Selim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work has been the presentation of the rate and time trends of some indicators of the heath condition of mothers and children in Kosovo: fetal mortality, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, infant mortality, natality, natural growth of population etc. The treated patients were the newborn and infants in the post neonatal period, women during their pregnancy and those 42 days before and after the delivery. Methods: The data were taken from: register of the patients treated in the Pediatric Clinic of Prishtina, World Health Organization, Mother and Child Health Care, Reproductive Health Care, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kosovo, Statistical Department of Kosovo, the National Institute of Public Health and several academic texts in the field of pediatrics. Some indicators were analyzed in a period between year 1945-2010 and 1950-2010, whereas some others were analyzed in a time period between year 2000 and 2011. Results: The perinatal mortality rate in 2000 was 29.1‰, whereas in 2011 it was 18.7‰. The fetal mortality rate was 14.5‰ during the year 2000, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰, in 2000 the early neonatal mortality was 14.8‰, in 2011 it was 7.5‰. The infant mortality in Kosovo was 164‰ in 1950, whereas in 2010 it was 20.5‰. The most frequent causes of infant mortality have been: lower respiratory tract infections, acute infective diarrhea, perinatal causes, congenital malformations and unclassified conditions. Maternal death rate varied during this time period. Maternal death in 2000 was 23 whereas in 2010 only two cases were reported. Regarding the natality, in 1950 it reached 46.1 ‰, whereas in 2010 it reached 14‰, natural growth of population rate in Kosovo was 29.1‰ in 1950, whereas in 2011 it was 11.0‰. Conclusion: Perinatal mortality rate in Kosovo is still high in comparison with other European countries (Turkey and Kyrgyzstan have the highest perinatal mortality rate), even though it is in a

  4. Normal maternal behavior, but increased pup mortality, in conditional oxytocin receptor knockout females.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Stepp, Jennifer E; Lee, Heon-Jin; Young, W Scott; Caldwell, Heather K

    2010-10-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) and the Oxt receptor (Oxtr) are implicated in the onset of maternal behavior in a variety of species. Recently, we developed two Oxtr knockout lines: a total body knockout (Oxtr-/-) and a conditional Oxtr knockout (OxtrFB/FB) in which the Oxtr is lacking only in regions of the forebrain, allowing knockout females to potentially nurse and care for their biological offspring. In the current study, we assessed maternal behavior of postpartum OxtrFB/FB females toward their own pups and maternal behavior of virgin Oxtr-/- females toward foster pups and compared knockouts of both lines to wildtype (Oxtr+/+) littermates. We found that both Oxtr-/- and OxtrFB/FB females appear to have largely normal maternal behaviors. However, with first litters, approximately 40% of the OxtrFB/FB knockout dams experienced high pup mortality, compared to fewer than 10% of the Oxtr+/+ dams. We then went on to test whether or not this phenotype occurred in subsequent litters or when the dams were exposed to an environmental disturbance. We found that regardless of the degree of external disturbance, OxtrFB/FB females lost more pups on their first and second litters compared to wildtype females. Possible reasons for higher pup mortality in OxtrFB/FB females are discussed.

  5. Rapid reduction of maternal mortality in Uganda and Zambia through the saving mothers, giving life initiative: results of year 1 evaluation.

    PubMed

    Serbanescu, Florina; Goldberg, Howard I; Danel, Isabella; Wuhib, Tadesse; Marum, Lawrence; Obiero, Walter; McAuley, James; Aceng, Jane; Chomba, Ewlyn; Stupp, Paul W; Conlon, Claudia Morrissey

    2017-01-19

    Achieving maternal mortality reduction as a development goal remains a major challenge in most low-resource countries. Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL) is a multi-partner initiative designed to reduce maternal mortality rapidly in high mortality settings through community and facility evidence-based interventions and district-wide health systems strengthening that could reduce delays to appropriate obstetric care. An evaluation employing multiple studies and data collection methods was used to compare baseline maternal outcomes to those during Year 1 in SMGL pilot districts in Uganda and Zambia. Studies include health facility assessments, pregnancy outcome monitoring, enhanced maternal mortality detection in facilities, and population-based investigation of community maternal deaths. Population-based evaluation used standard approaches and comparable indicators to measure outcome and impact, and to allow comparison of the SMGL implementation in unique country contexts. The evaluation found a 30% reduction in the population-based maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Uganda during Year 1, from 452 to 316 per 100,000 live births. The MMR in health facilities declined by 35% in each country (from 534 to 345 in Uganda and from 310 to 202 in Zambia). The institutional delivery rate increased by 62% in Uganda and 35% in Zambia. The number of facilities providing emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) rose from 10 to 25 in Uganda and from 7 to 11 in Zambia. Partial EmONC care became available in many more low and mid-level facilities. Cesarean section rates for all births increased by 23% in Uganda and 15% in Zambia. The proportion of women with childbirth complications delivered in EmONC facilities rose by 25% in Uganda and 23% in Zambia. Facility case fatality rates fell from 2.6 to 2.0% in Uganda and 3.1 to 2.0% in Zambia. Maternal mortality ratios fell significantly in one year in Uganda and Zambia following the introduction of the SMGL model. This model employed

  6. Integrating interventions on maternal mortality and morbidity and HIV: a human rights-based framework and approach.

    PubMed

    Fried, Susanna; Harrison, Brianna; Starcevich, Kelly; Whitaker, Corinne; O'Konek, Tiana

    2012-12-15

    Maternal mortality and morbidity (MMM) and HIV represent interlinked challenges arising from common causes, magnifying their respective impacts and producing related consequences. Accordingly, an integrated response will lead to the most effective approach for both. Shared structural drivers include gender inequality; gender-based violence (including sexual violence); economic disempowerment; and stigma and discrimination in access to services or opportunities based on gender and HIV. Further, shared system-related drivers also contribute to a lack of effective access to acceptable, high-quality health services and other development resources from birth forward. HIV and MMM are connected in both outcomes and solutions: in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV is the leading cause of maternal death, while the most recent global report on HIV identifies prevention of unintended pregnancy and access to contraception as two of the most important HIV-related prevention efforts.1 Both are central to reducing unsafe abortion--another leading cause of maternal death globally, and particularly in Africa. A human rights-based framework helps to identify these shared determinants. A human rights-based approach works to establish the health-related human rights standards to which all women are entitled, as well to outline the indivisible and intersecting human rights principles which inform and guide efforts to prevent, protect from, respond to, and provide remedy for human rights violations-in this case related to HIV and maternal mortality and morbidity.The Millennium Declaration and Development Goals (MDGs) help to both set quantifiable goals for achieving the components identified within the human rights-based framework and document the international consensus that no single goal--such as those addressing HIV and MMM--can be achieved without progress on all development goals.

  7. "Guilty until proven innocent": the contested use of maternal mortality indicators in global health.

    PubMed

    Storeng, Katerini T; Béhague, Dominique P

    2017-03-15

    The MMR - maternal mortality ratio - has risen from obscurity to become a major global health indicator, even appearing as an indicator of progress towards the global Sustainable Development Goals. This has happened despite intractable challenges relating to the measurement of maternal mortality. Even after three decades of measurement innovation, maternal mortality data are widely presumed to be of poor quality, or, as one leading measurement expert has put it, 'guilty until proven innocent'. This paper explores how and why leading epidemiologists, demographers and statisticians have devoted the better part of the last three decades to producing ever more sophisticated and expensive surveys and mathematical models of globally comparable MMR estimates. The development of better metrics is publicly justified by the need to know which interventions save lives and at what cost. We show, however, that measurement experts' work has also been driven by the need to secure political priority for safe motherhood and by donors' need to justify and monitor the results of investment flows. We explore the many effects and consequences of this measurement work, including the eclipsing of attention to strengthening much-needed national health information systems. We analyse this measurement work in relation to broader political and economic changes affecting the global health field, not least the incursion of neoliberal, business-oriented donors such as the World Bank and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation whose institutional structures have introduced new forms of administrative oversight and accountability that depend on indicators.

  8. “Guilty until proven innocent”: the contested use of maternal mortality indicators in global health

    PubMed Central

    Storeng, Katerini T.; Béhague, Dominique P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The MMR – maternal mortality ratio – has risen from obscurity to become a major global health indicator, even appearing as an indicator of progress towards the global Sustainable Development Goals. This has happened despite intractable challenges relating to the measurement of maternal mortality. Even after three decades of measurement innovation, maternal mortality data are widely presumed to be of poor quality, or, as one leading measurement expert has put it, ‘guilty until proven innocent’. This paper explores how and why leading epidemiologists, demographers and statisticians have devoted the better part of the last three decades to producing ever more sophisticated and expensive surveys and mathematical models of globally comparable MMR estimates. The development of better metrics is publicly justified by the need to know which interventions save lives and at what cost. We show, however, that measurement experts’ work has also been driven by the need to secure political priority for safe motherhood and by donors’ need to justify and monitor the results of investment flows. We explore the many effects and consequences of this measurement work, including the eclipsing of attention to strengthening much-needed national health information systems. We analyse this measurement work in relation to broader political and economic changes affecting the global health field, not least the incursion of neoliberal, business-oriented donors such as the World Bank and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation whose institutional structures have introduced new forms of administrative oversight and accountability that depend on indicators. PMID:28392630

  9. [Maternal mortality in developing countries: statistical data and improvement in obstetrical care].

    PubMed

    Bouvier-Colle, M H

    2003-01-01

    Since launching of the safe motherhood initiative in 1987, much work has been undertaken, understanding of the situation in developing countries has improved, and numerous health programs have been designed. However the end result of action has been considered disappointing more often than encouraging especially in Sub Saharan Africa. What is the true picture? The purpose of this article is to review the means available for studying all facets of maternal mortality and methodological precautions that must be applied in the interpretation of statistical data. Perusal of recent reports on maternal mortality reveals that estimated incidences in different populations vary widely from 85 to 1000 per 100,000 live births, that rural zones are more affected than urban areas, that reductions have been achieved in the major cities, that the most common direct obstetrical causes are postpartum hemorrhage, dystocia with uterine rupture, eclampsia, and sepsis, and that 70% of deaths are avoidable, i.e., due to absent or insufficient care. Although currently underused, qualitative study methods are gradually being implemented and will identify the health care sectors requiring priority improvement. Based on previous experience, it is unlikely that technical or obstetrical measures and action on the part of medical professionals alone will achieve any reduction in maternal mortality without the commitment of political authorities.

  10. Effect of Early Detection and Treatment on Malaria Related Maternal Mortality on the North-Western Border of Thailand 1986–2010

    PubMed Central

    McGready, Rose; Boel, Machteld; Rijken, Marcus J.; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Cho, Thein; Moo, Oh; Paw, Moo Koh; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Hkirijareon, Lily; Carrara, Verena I.; Lwin, Khin Maung; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Turner, Claudia; Chu, Cindy S.; van Vugt, Michele; Price, Richard N.; Luxemburger, Christine; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Tan, Saw Oo; Proux, Stephane; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Maternal mortality is high in developing countries, but there are few data in high-risk groups such as migrants and refugees in malaria-endemic areas. Trends in maternal mortality were followed over 25 years in antenatal clinics prospectively established in an area with low seasonal transmission on the north-western border of Thailand. Methods and Findings All medical records from women who attended the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit antenatal clinics from 12th May 1986 to 31st December 2010 were reviewed, and maternal death records were analyzed for causality. There were 71 pregnancy-related deaths recorded amongst 50,981 women who attended antenatal care at least once. Three were suicide and excluded from the analysis as incidental deaths. The estimated maternal mortality ratio (MMR) overall was 184 (95%CI 150–230) per 100,000 live births. In camps for displaced persons there has been a six-fold decline in the MMR from 499 (95%CI 200–780) in 1986–90 to 79 (40–170) in 2006–10, p<0.05. In migrants from adjacent Myanmar the decline in MMR was less significant: 588 (100–3260) to 252 (150–430) from 1996–2000 to 2006–2010. Mortality from P.falciparum malaria in pregnancy dropped sharply with the introduction of systematic screening and treatment and continued to decline with the reduction in the incidence of malaria in the communities. P.vivax was not a cause of maternal death in this population. Infection (non-puerperal sepsis and P.falciparum malaria) accounted for 39.7 (27/68) % of all deaths. Conclusions Frequent antenatal clinic screening allows early detection and treatment of falciparum malaria and substantially reduces maternal mortality from P.falciparum malaria. No significant decline has been observed in deaths from sepsis or other causes in refugee and migrant women on the Thai–Myanmar border. PMID:22815732

  11. [Maternal mortality. Experience of five years in Northern Veracruz IMSS Delegation].

    PubMed

    Leal, Luis Antonio Caballero; Rodríguez, Mario Ramón Muñoz; Huerta, Elizabeth Soler; Cornejo, Aída Verónica Blanco; Barradas, María del Rocío Aguilar

    2009-11-01

    Determine the variation in type of maternal death and associated pathologies in the 2004-2008 period. Maternal deaths retrospective and descriptive study at Delegación Veracruz Norte of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico. Medical files of obligatory regimen patients were included, between 2004-2008, from general zone hospitals of Xalapa, Veracruz, Cardel, Poza Rica, Martínez de la Torre and Lerdo de Tejada, and two subzone general hospitals: Tuxpan and San Andrés Tuxtla, also of the Delegación Veracruz Norte of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Twenty two maternal deaths were registered, with a maternal mortality rate of 33.7 by 100,000 living newborns. The main type of maternal death was the indirect one, with 15 cases (68%). The main pathology associated to the direct death type was hipovolemic shock, 18.1% (4 cases), preeclampsia-eclampsia 9% (2 cases) and sepsis 4.5% (1 case). It is notorious the descent in direct obstetrics causes, and the increase in the indirect ones in the 2004-2008 period.

  12. Maternal Genistein Intake Can Reduce Body Weight in Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun Bo; Yan, Jing Dong; Yang, Su Qing; Guo, Ji Peng; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xiao Xi; Na, Xiao Lin; Dai, Shao Chun

    2015-10-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the relationship between early exposure to genistein and obesity in young adulthood and to evaluate changes in reproductive health during puberty and adulthood following in utero exposure to genistein. Thirty-two female rats were randomized into four groups; low dose 400 mg genistein/kg diet group (LG), mid-dose 1200 mg genistein/kg diet group (MG), high dose 3600 mg genistein/kg diet group (HG), and control group without genistein diet (CON). Rats were fed genistein at the beginning of pregnancy along with a high-fat diet. Pups were sacrificed at week 4 and week 8 after birth. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed a correlation between maternal genistein intake and genistein concentration in pups' plasma. Compared to CON, body weight reduced significantly in male HG group at week 8. No statistical differences were found in plasma estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), interleukin (IL)-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with early genistein exposure. Furthermore, uterine histopathology showed notable changes in groups HG and MG compared with CON at week 4 and week 8. In conclusion, maternal genistein supplement could reduce body weight in male pups and alter uterine histopathology in female pups. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeting the Mevalonate Pathway to Reduce Mortality from Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    protect these women from developing ovarian cancer. In addition, oral contraceptives , which reduce the frequency of ovulation, have been shown to be...effective in reducing the incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer (1). However, neither of these approaches is without concern. Oral contraceptive use...Hermon C, Peto R, Reeves G. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives : collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257

  14. A prospective key informant surveillance system to measure maternal mortality – findings from indigenous populations in Jharkhand and Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Sarah; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Borghi, Jo; Rath, Suchitra; Costello, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Background In places with poor vital registration, measurement of maternal mortality and monitoring the impact of interventions on maternal mortality is difficult and seldom undertaken. Mortality ratios are often estimated and policy decisions made without robust evidence. This paper presents a prospective key informant system to measure maternal mortality and the initial findings from the system. Methods In a population of 228 186, key informants identified all births and deaths to women of reproductive age, prospectively, over a period of 110 weeks. After birth verification, interviewers visited households six to eight weeks after delivery to collect information on the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods, as well as birth outcomes. For all deaths to women of reproductive age they ascertained whether they could be classified as maternal, pregnancy related or late maternal and if so, verbal autopsies were conducted. Results 13 602 births were identified, with a crude birth rate of 28.2 per 1000 population (C.I. 27.7–28.6) and a maternal mortality ratio of 722 per 100 000 live births (C.I. 591–882) recorded. Maternal deaths comprised 29% of all deaths to women aged 15–49. Approximately a quarter of maternal deaths occurred ante-partum, a half intra-partum and a quarter post-partum. Haemorrhage was the commonest cause of all maternal deaths (25%), but causation varied between the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods. The cost of operating the surveillance system was US$386 a month, or US$0.02 per capita per year. Conclusion This low cost key informant surveillance system produced high, but plausible birth and death rates in this remote population in India. This method could be used to monitor trends in maternal mortality and to test the impact of interventions in large populations with poor vital registration and thus assist policy makers in making evidence-based decisions. PMID:18307796

  15. A prospective key informant surveillance system to measure maternal mortality - findings from indigenous populations in Jharkhand and Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Sarah; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Borghi, Jo; Rath, Suchitra; Costello, Anthony

    2008-02-28

    In places with poor vital registration, measurement of maternal mortality and monitoring the impact of interventions on maternal mortality is difficult and seldom undertaken. Mortality ratios are often estimated and policy decisions made without robust evidence. This paper presents a prospective key informant system to measure maternal mortality and the initial findings from the system. In a population of 228 186, key informants identified all births and deaths to women of reproductive age, prospectively, over a period of 110 weeks. After birth verification, interviewers visited households six to eight weeks after delivery to collect information on the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods, as well as birth outcomes. For all deaths to women of reproductive age they ascertained whether they could be classified as maternal, pregnancy related or late maternal and if so, verbal autopsies were conducted. 13 602 births were identified, with a crude birth rate of 28.2 per 1000 population (C.I. 27.7-28.6) and a maternal mortality ratio of 722 per 100 000 live births (C.I. 591-882) recorded. Maternal deaths comprised 29% of all deaths to women aged 15-49. Approximately a quarter of maternal deaths occurred ante-partum, a half intra-partum and a quarter post-partum. Haemorrhage was the commonest cause of all maternal deaths (25%), but causation varied between the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods. The cost of operating the surveillance system was US$386 a month, or US$0.02 per capita per year. This low cost key informant surveillance system produced high, but plausible birth and death rates in this remote population in India. This method could be used to monitor trends in maternal mortality and to test the impact of interventions in large populations with poor vital registration and thus assist policy makers in making evidence-based decisions.

  16. Material consumption and social well-being within the periphery of the world economy: an ecological analysis of maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Rice, James

    2008-12-01

    The degree to which social well-being is predicated upon levels of material consumption remains under-examined from a large-N, quantitative perspective. The present study analyzes the factors influencing levels of maternal mortality in 2005 among 92 peripheral countries. We incorporate into regression analysis the ecological footprint, a comprehensive measure of natural resource consumption, and alternative explanatory variables drawn from previous research. Results illustrate ecological footprint consumption has a moderately strong direct influence shaping lower levels of maternal mortality. Path analysis reveals export commodity concentration has a negative effect on level of ecological footprint demand net the strong positive influence of income per capita. This illustrates cross-national trade dependency relations directly influence natural resource consumption opportunities and thereby indirectly contribute to higher maternal mortality levels within the periphery of the world economy. The results confirm material consumption is an important dimension of improvement in maternal mortality.

  17. Biocultural perspectives on maternal mortality and obstetrical death from the past to the present.

    PubMed

    Stone, Pamela K

    2016-01-01

    Global efforts to improve maternal health are the fifth focus goal of the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the international community in 2000. While maternal mortality is an epidemic, and the death of a woman in childbirth is tragic, certain assumptions that frame the risk of death for reproductive aged women continue to hinge on the anthropological theory of the "obstetric dilemma." According to this theory, a cost of hominin selection to bipedalism is the reduction of the pelvic girdle; in tension with increasing encephalization, this reduction results in cephalopelvic disproportion, creating an assumed fragile relationship between a woman, her reproductive body, and the neonates she gives birth to. This theory, conceived in the 19th century, gained traction in the paleoanthropological literature in the mid-20th century. Supported by biomedical discourses, it was cited as the definitive reason for difficulties in human birth. Bioarchaeological research supported this narrative by utilizing demographic parameters that depict the death of young women from reproductive complications. But the roles of biomedical and cultural practices that place women at higher risk for morbidity and early mortality are often not considered. This review argues that reinforcing the obstetrical dilemma by framing reproductive complications as the direct result of evolutionary forces conceals the larger health disparities and risks that women face globally. The obstetrical dilemma theory shifts the focus away from other physiological and cultural components that have evolved in concert with bipedalism to ensure the safe delivery of mother and child. It also sets the stage for a framework of biological determinism and structural violence in which the reproductive aged female is a product of her pathologized reproductive body. But what puts reproductive aged women at risk for higher rates of morbidity and mortality goes far beyond the reproductive body. Moving beyond reproduction

  18. Latent mortality of juvenile snapping turtles from the Upper Hudson River, New York, exposed maternally and via the diet to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Eisenreich, Karen M; Kelly, Shannon M; Rowe, Christopher L

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment to compare sublethal and lethal responses of juvenile snapping turtles exposed maternally and/or through the diet to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) over 14 months posthatching. Maternal exposure did not affect embryonic development or hatching success. Thyrosomatic indices were not influenced by treatments, although hepatosomatic indices were lower in animals having been exposed to PCBs maternally relative to those having been exposed both maternally and via the diet. Dietary PCB exposure reduced metabolic rates of juveniles in two of three assays conducted. Approximately eight months after hatching, high rates of mortality began to emerge in individuals having been exposed maternally to PCBs, and mortality rate correlated with [PCB](total) in eggs. Prior to death, individuals that died experienced lower growth rates than those that survived, suggesting chronic effects prior to death. By 14 months posthatching, only 40% of juveniles derived from females in the contaminated area had survived, compared to 90% from the reference area. Such latent effects of maternally derived contaminants suggest that assessments of environmental impacts based upon shorter-term studies may provide very conservative estimates of the severity of effects, as they cannot capture responses that may emerge later in the life cycle.

  19. [Maternal mortality at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Initial results from a reduction intervention strategy].

    PubMed

    Velasco-Murillo, Vitelio; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; Hernández-Alemán, Francisco; Anaya-Coeto, Sergio; Pozos-Cavanzo, José Luis; Chavarría-Olarte, María Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    To analyze the preliminary results of a medical manager intervention to improve the quality of medical care during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium, on the maternal mortality rates in population covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). We selected the 14 administrative delegations of IMSS that showed the highest rates and absolute numbers of maternal deaths in the years 1999 to 2001. Within this group, the manager medical staff developed activities for medical training of family physicians and gynecologists, to improve medical resources, to achieve a better coordination among medical services, to adequate reference of obstetrical complications to higher-level hospitals, and for monitoring of maternal mortality committees operation. The other 23 IMSS administrative delegations were used as controls. Maternal mortality rates fell down from 40.7 to 28.2 per 100,000 live births among the delegations included in the strategy (mean reduction 30.7%). Among the control delegations maternal mortality rate fell down 1.5% only (32.3 to 31.8 per 100,000 live births). A similar phenomenon was observed for the absolute number of maternal deaths, with a reduction of 36.7% and 8.4%, respectively. The improving intervention was associated with a noticeable reduction in the maternal mortality rate. It is necessary a long-term observation to confirm a cause-effect relationship.

  20. Using the integrated nurse leadership program to reduce sepsis mortality.

    PubMed

    Kliger, Julie; Singer, Sara J; Hoffman, Frank H

    2015-06-01

    The Integrated Nurse Leadership Program (INLP) is a collaborative improvement model focused on developing practical leadership skills of nurses and other frontline clinicians to lead quality improvement efforts. Sepsis is a major challenge to treat because it arises unpredictably and can progress rapidly. Nine San Francisco Bay Area hospitals participated in a 22-month INLP Sepsis Mortality Reduction Project to improve sepsis detection and management. The INLP focused on developing leadership and process improvement skills of nurses and other frontline clinicians. Teams of trained clinicians then implemented three strategies to improve early identification and timely treatment of sepsis: (1) sepsis screening of all patients, with diagnostic testing according to protocol; (2) timely treatment on the basis of key elements of Early Goal-Directed Therapy (EGDT); and (3) ongoing data review. Each hospital agreed to pursue the goal of reducing sepsis mortality by 15% by the end of the project. In the data collection period (baseline, July-December 2008 and project completion, January-June 2011), team members showed strong improvement in perceived leadership skills, team effectiveness, and ability to improve care quality. During this period, sepsis mortality for eight of the participating hospitals (Hospital 9 joined the project six months after it began) decreased by 43.7%-from 28% in the baseline period to 16% at project completion. Sepsis mortality rates trended downward for all hospitals, significantly decreasing (p<.05 at one hospital, p<.01 for four hospitals). In addition to improvement in safety culture and management of septic patients, hospitals participating in the INLP Sepsis Mortality Reduction Project achieved reductions in sepsis mortality during the study period and sustained reductions for more than one year later. The INLP model can be readily applied beyond sepsis management and mortality to other quality problems.

  1. Reducing mortality from hip fractures: a systematic quality improvement programme.

    PubMed

    Lisk, Radcliffe; Yeong, Keefai

    2014-01-01

    Hip fracture is one of the most serious consequences of falls in the elderly, with a mortality of 10% at one month and 30% at one year. Elderly patients with hip fractures have complex medical, surgical, and rehabilitation needs, and a well-coordinated multidisciplinary team approach is essential for the best outcome. The model of best practice for hip fracture care is set out in the Orthopaedic Blue Book and is incentivised by the best practice tariff. In 2009 to 2010, only 39.6% of our patients were being operated on within 36 hours, 19% achieved best practice tariff [1], and mortality was 7.8%. We were ranked as one of the worst hospitals to achieve best practice tariff [1] and our mortality was average. The orthogeriatrics team at Ashford & St Peter's NHS Trust (SPH) was implemented in 2010. Through a system redesign, regular governance meetings, audits and quality improvement projects, we have managed to improve care for our patients and reduce mortality. Over the last three years we have successfully achieved best care for our hip fracture patients, demonstrating a steady improvement in our attainment of the best practice tariff and a reduction in mortality to 5.3% in 2013, which ranks us amongst the best trusts nationally.

  2. Reducing mortality from hip fractures: a systematic quality improvement programme

    PubMed Central

    Lisk, Radcliffe; Yeong, Keefai

    2014-01-01

    Hip fracture is one of the most serious consequences of falls in the elderly, with a mortality of 10% at one month and 30% at one year. Elderly patients with hip fractures have complex medical, surgical, and rehabilitation needs, and a well-coordinated multidisciplinary team approach is essential for the best outcome. The model of best practice for hip fracture care is set out in the Orthopaedic Blue Book and is incentivised by the best practice tariff. In 2009 to 2010, only 39.6% of our patients were being operated on within 36 hours, 19% achieved best practice tariff [1], and mortality was 7.8%. We were ranked as one of the worst hospitals to achieve best practice tariff [1] and our mortality was average. The orthogeriatrics team at Ashford & St Peter's NHS Trust (SPH) was implemented in 2010. Through a system redesign, regular governance meetings, audits and quality improvement projects, we have managed to improve care for our patients and reduce mortality. Over the last three years we have successfully achieved best care for our hip fracture patients, demonstrating a steady improvement in our attainment of the best practice tariff and a reduction in mortality to 5.3% in 2013, which ranks us amongst the best trusts nationally. PMID:27493729

  3. Can green structure reduce the mortality of cardiovascular diseases?

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Sheng; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that green spaces are beneficial to health; however, few studies have analyzed the relationship between green structure and mortality of cardiovascular disease. Green structure may mediate the effects of air pollution and temperature on health. This work applies partial least squares (PLS) modeling to analyze the degree to which green structure reduces mortality of cardiovascular disease, using Taipei Metropolitan Area as an empirical case. In addition to clarifying the complex relationships and effects of green structure, air pollution, temperature, and mortality of cardiovascular disease, this study demonstrates that green structure has a significant influence on mortality of cardiovascular disease because it reduces the effects of air pollution and heat. The most crucial elements for planning a healthy living environment are the maximization of the largest green patch proportion and the minimization of green space fragmentation. Moreover, to enhance the benefits of greening city spaces on health, this work proposes several strategies for connecting fragmentary green spaces, expanding green patches to the largest possible proportion, and managing green spaces. The proposed strategies may serve as a reference for other metropolitan areas with features similar to those of the study area.

  4. Cholera in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fetal, Neonatal, and Maternal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Taylor, Richard; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal infection with cholera may negatively affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this research is to systematically review the literature and determine the risk of fetal, neonatal and maternal death associated with cholera during pregnancy. Materials and Methods Medline, Global Health Library, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the key terms cholera and pregnancy for articles published in any language and at any time before August 2013 to quantitatively summarize estimates of fetal, maternal, and neonatal mortality. 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each selected study. Random-effect non-linear logistic regression was used to calculate pooled rates and 95% CIs by time period. Studies from the recent period (1991-2013) were compared with studies from 1969-1990. Relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% CIs were obtained by comparing mortality of selected recent studies with published national normative data from the closest year. Results The meta-analysis included seven studies that together involved 737 pregnant women with cholera from six countries. The pooled fetal death rate for 4 studies during 1991-2013 was 7.9% (95% CIs 5.3-10.4), significantly lower than that of 3 studies from 1969-1990 (31.0%, 95% CIs 25.2-36.8). There was no difference in fetal death rate by trimester. The pooled neonatal death rate for 1991-2013 studies was 0.8% (95% CIs 0.0-1.6), and 6.4% (95% CIs 0.0-20.8) for 1969-1990. The pooled maternal death rate for 1991-2013 studies was 0.2% (95% CIs 0.0-0.7), and 5.0% (95% CIs 0.0-16.0) for 1969-1990. Compared with published national mortality estimates, the RR for fetal death of 5.8 (95% CIs 2.9-11.3) was calculated for Haiti (2013), 1.8 (95% CIs 0.3-10.4) for Senegal (2007), and 2.6 (95% CIs 0.5-14.9) for Peru (1991); there were no significant differences in the RR for neonatal or maternal death. Conclusion Results are limited by the inconsistencies found across included studies but suggest that

  5. Cholera in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fetal, Neonatal, and Maternal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Taylor, Richard; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Maternal infection with cholera may negatively affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this research is to systematically review the literature and determine the risk of fetal, neonatal and maternal death associated with cholera during pregnancy. Medline, Global Health Library, and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the key terms cholera and pregnancy for articles published in any language and at any time before August 2013 to quantitatively summarize estimates of fetal, maternal, and neonatal mortality. 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each selected study. Random-effect non-linear logistic regression was used to calculate pooled rates and 95% CIs by time period. Studies from the recent period (1991-2013) were compared with studies from 1969-1990. Relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% CIs were obtained by comparing mortality of selected recent studies with published national normative data from the closest year. The meta-analysis included seven studies that together involved 737 pregnant women with cholera from six countries. The pooled fetal death rate for 4 studies during 1991-2013 was 7.9% (95% CIs 5.3-10.4), significantly lower than that of 3 studies from 1969-1990 (31.0%, 95% CIs 25.2-36.8). There was no difference in fetal death rate by trimester. The pooled neonatal death rate for 1991-2013 studies was 0.8% (95% CIs 0.0-1.6), and 6.4% (95% CIs 0.0-20.8) for 1969-1990. The pooled maternal death rate for 1991-2013 studies was 0.2% (95% CIs 0.0-0.7), and 5.0% (95% CIs 0.0-16.0) for 1969-1990. Compared with published national mortality estimates, the RR for fetal death of 5.8 (95% CIs 2.9-11.3) was calculated for Haiti (2013), 1.8 (95% CIs 0.3-10.4) for Senegal (2007), and 2.6 (95% CIs 0.5-14.9) for Peru (1991); there were no significant differences in the RR for neonatal or maternal death. Results are limited by the inconsistencies found across included studies but suggest that maternal cholera is associated with adverse

  6. A six-year review of maternal mortality in a teaching hospital in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Yoseph, S; Kifle, G

    1988-07-01

    The case notes of all patients who died over the January 1980 to December 1985 period in Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, as a result of conditions associated with pregnancy, labor, and puerperium were reviewed in an effort to identify the most common causes of maternal death. Postpartum autopsy seldom was possible; consequently, the cause of death was based on clinical findings only. 216 deaths occurred over the 6-year period; there were 22,404 live births in the same period, giving a maternal mortality rate (MMR) of 9.6/1000. This rate included deaths from complications following abortions. 197 of the deaths occurred in women who were not booked into Tikur Anbessa Hospital. In terms of direct causes of death, abortion, puerperal sepsis, and ruptured uterus together accounted for 75.9% of deaths. Of indirect causes, infectious hepatitis, relapsing fever, and malaria accounted for 56.8% of deaths. Of deaths due to abortion, 21/48 occurred in nulliparas, and 25 were below age 19. Of the deaths caused by ruptured uterus, 20/29 occurred in multipara, and all of those women were from rural areas. The majority of deaths from hepatitis occurred in the 30-34 years age group. In Ethiopia, the maternal mortality rate is high because of both poor or inadequate antenatal and postnatal care as well as because of poor transportation and communication systems.

  7. The untold story: how the health care systems in developing countries contribute to maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Sundari, T K

    1992-01-01

    This article attempts to put together evidence from maternal mortality studies in developing countries of how an inadequate health care system characterized by misplaced priorities contributes to high maternal mortality rates. Inaccessibility of essential health information to the women most affected, and the physical as well as economic and sociocultural distance separating health services from the vast majority of women, are only part of the problem. Even when the woman reaches a health facility, there are a number of obstacles to her receiving adequate and appropriate care. These are a result of failures in the health services delivery system: the lack of minimal life-saving equipment at the first referral level; the lack of equipment, personnel, and know-how even in referral hospitals; and worst of all, faulty patient management. Prevention of maternal deaths requires fundamental changes not only in resource allocation, but in the very structures of health services delivery. These will have to be fought for as part of a wider struggle for equity and social justice.

  8. Using community informants to estimate maternal mortality in a rural district in Pakistan: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Mir, Ali Mohammad; Shaikh, Mohammad Saleem; Qomariyah, Siti Nurul; Rashida, Gul; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the feasibility of using community-based informants' networks to identify maternal deaths that were followed up through verbal autopsies (MADE-IN MADE-FOR technique) to estimate maternal mortality in a rural district in Pakistan. We used 4 community networks to identify deaths in women of reproductive age in the past 2 years in Chakwal district, Pakistan. The deaths recorded by the informants were followed up through verbal autopsies. In total 1,143 Lady Health Workers (government employees who provide primary health care), 1577 religious leaders, 20 female lady councilors (elected representatives), and 130 nikah registrars (persons who register marriages) identified 2001 deaths in women of reproductive age. 1424 deaths were followed up with verbal autopsies conducted with the relatives of the deceased. 169 pregnancy-related deaths were identified from all reported deaths. Through the capture-recapture technique probability of capturing pregnancy-related deaths by LHWs was 0.73 and for religious leaders 0.49. Maternal mortality in Chakwal district was estimated at 309 per 100,000 live births. It is feasible and economical to use community informants to identify recent deaths in women of reproductive age and, if followed up through verbal autopsies, obviate the need for conducting large scale surveys.

  9. The etiology of maternal mortality in developing countries: what do verbal autopsies tell us?

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, N. L.; Langer, A.; Hernandez, B.; Romero, M.; Winikoff, B.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reassess the practical value of verbal autopsy data, which, in the absence of more definitive information, have been used to describe the causes of maternal mortality and to identify priorities in programmes intended to save women's lives in developing countries. METHODS: We reanalysed verbal autopsy data from a study of 145 maternal deaths that occurred in Guerrero, Querétaro and San Luis Potosí, Mexico, in 1995, taking into account other causes of death and the WHO classification system. The results were also compared with information given on imperfect death certificates. FINDINGS: The reclassification showed wide variations in the attribution of maternal deaths to single specific medical causes. CONCLUSION: The verbal autopsy methodology has inherent limitations as a means of obtaining histories of medical events. At best it may reconfirm the knowledge that mortality among poor women with little access to medical care is higher than that among wealthier women who have better access to such care. PMID:11584727

  10. Maternal mortality and accessibility to health services by means of transit-network estimated traveled distances.

    PubMed

    Simões, Patricia Passos; Almeida, Renan Moritz V R

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between maternal mortality and variables related to the use of health services (especially residence-hospital traveled distances estimated through transit networks). Deaths were identified for Rio de Janeiro and adjacent cities, from 2000 to 2002, and were matched by age and socio-economic level to birth admissions without maternal deaths (1 case to 3 controls). The variables used were: type of hospital (general × specialized maternity services), number of hospital beds, nature of hospital ownership (public × private-associated), main admission diagnostic, residence-hospital distance, age, income, and education. Distances were estimated by a geographic information system, and were based on most probable itineraries through the urban transit networks. The probability of death was estimated by conditional logistic regression models. 226 maternal deaths were studied, and another 10 were excluded due to incompleteness of information. The ROC area for the final model was 0.89 [95% CI (0.87-0.92)]. This model retained statistical significance for the variables admission diagnostic, type of hospital and residence-hospital distance. The death odds ratio for women who traveled 5-10 km (reference category: <5 km) was 3.84 [95% CI (1.96-7.55)]. The traveled distance measured through transit networks was an important risk factor for death in the studied population.

  11. Statins Are Associated With Reduced Mortality in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Jesse; Gage, Brian F.; Luo, Suhong; Wang, Tzu-Fei; Moskowitz, Gerald; Gumbel, Jason; Blue, Brandon; O’Brian, Katiuscia; Carson, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have activity in one of the pathways influenced by nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, which are associated with improved survival in multiple myeloma (MM). To understand the benefit of statins in MM, we evaluated the association between statin use and mortality in a large cohort of patients with MM. Patients and Methods From the Veterans Administration Central Cancer Registry, we identified patients diagnosed with MM between 1999 and 2013. We defined statin use as the presence of any prescription for a statin within 3 months before or any time after MM diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the association of statin use with mortality, while controlling for known MM prognostic factors. Results We identified a cohort of 4,957 patients, of whom 2,294 received statin therapy. Statin use was associated with a 21% decrease in all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.86; P < .001) as well as a 24% decrease in MM-specific mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.86; P < .001). This association remained significant across all sensitivity analyses. In addition to reductions in mortality, statin use was associated with a 31% decreased risk of developing a skeletal-related event. Conclusion In this cohort study of US veterans with MM, statin therapy was associated with a reduced risk of both all-cause and MM-specific mortality. Our findings suggest a potential role for statin therapy in patients with MM. The putative benefit of statin therapy in MM should be corroborated in prospective studies. PMID:27646948

  12. Historical perspective on induced abortion through the ages and its links with maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Drife, James Owen

    2010-08-01

    Abortion is mentioned in ancient medical texts but the effectiveness of the methods described is doubtful. Attitudes varied from apparent disapproval by Hippocrates to open approval in Ancient Rome. In mediaeval times abortion was practised by women in secret and this continued during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Despite being illegal in England induced abortion became more common in Victorian times as the population grew. At the same time the link between criminal abortion and maternal mortality became increasingly clear, and if a woman died after a procedure the abortionist (sometimes a midwife) could be sentenced to death. The law was more tolerant of abortions performed by registered doctors. In the 20th century pressure grew for its legalisation. At the time of the 1967 Abortion Act, abortion was the leading cause of maternal death in the UK but within fifteen years death from illegal abortion had been abolished.

  13. Reduced mortality selects for family cohesion in a social species

    PubMed Central

    Griesser, Michael; Nystrand, Magdalena; Ekman, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Delayed dispersal is the key to family formation in most kin-societies. Previous explanations for the evolution of families have focused on dispersal constraints. Recently, an alternative explanation was proposed, emphasizing the benefits gained through philopatry. Empirical data have confirmed that parents provide their philopatric offspring with preferential treatment through enhanced access to food and predator protection. Yet it remains unclear to what extent such benefits translate into fitness benefits such as reduced mortality, which ultimately can select for the evolution of families. Here, we demonstrate that philopatric Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus) offspring have an odds ratio of being killed by predators 62% lower than offspring that dispersed promptly after independence to join groups of unrelated individuals (20.6% versus 33.3% winter mortality). Predation was the sole cause of mortality, killing 20 out of 73 juveniles fitted with radio tags. The higher survival rate among philopatric offspring was associated with parents providing nepotistic predator protection that was withheld from unrelated group members. Natal philopatry usually involves the suppression of personal reproduction. However, a lower mortality of philopatric offspring can overcome this cost and may thus select for the formation of families and set the scene for cooperative kin-societies. PMID:16822747

  14. The impact of economic recession on maternal and infant mortality: lessons from history.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Tim; Cooper, Stephanie; Davidson, Lisa; Fitzmaurice, Ann; Graham, Wendy J

    2010-11-24

    The effect of the recent world recession on population health has featured heavily in recent international meetings. Maternal health is a particular concern given that many countries were already falling short of their MDG targets for 2015. We utilise 20th century time series data from 14 high and middle income countries to investigate associations between previous economic recession and boom periods on maternal and infant outcomes (1936 to 2005). A first difference logarithmic model is used to investigate the association between short run fluctuations in GDP per capita (individual incomes) and changes in health outcomes. Separate models are estimated for four separate time periods. The results suggest a modest but significant association between maternal and infant mortality and economic growth for early periods (1936 to 1965) but not more recent periods. Individual country data display markedly different patterns of response to economic changes. Japan and Canada were vulnerable to economic shocks in the post war period. In contrast, mortality rates in countries such as the UK and Italy and particularly the US appear little affected by economic fluctuations. The data presented suggest that recessions do have a negative association with maternal and infant outcomes particularly in earlier stages of a country's development although the effects vary widely across different systems. Almost all of the 20 least wealthy countries have suffered a reduction of 10% or more in GDP per capita in at least one of the last five decades. The challenge for today's policy makers is the design and implementation of mechanisms that protect vulnerable populations from the effects of fluctuating national income.

  15. The impact of economic recession on maternal and infant mortality: lessons from history

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The effect of the recent world recession on population health has featured heavily in recent international meetings. Maternal health is a particular concern given that many countries were already falling short of their MDG targets for 2015. Methods We utilise 20th century time series data from 14 high and middle income countries to investigate associations between previous economic recession and boom periods on maternal and infant outcomes (1936 to 2005). A first difference logarithmic model is used to investigate the association between short run fluctuations in GDP per capita (individual incomes) and changes in health outcomes. Separate models are estimated for four separate time periods. Results The results suggest a modest but significant association between maternal and infant mortality and economic growth for early periods (1936 to 1965) but not more recent periods. Individual country data display markedly different patterns of response to economic changes. Japan and Canada were vulnerable to economic shocks in the post war period. In contrast, mortality rates in countries such as the UK and Italy and particularly the US appear little affected by economic fluctuations. Conclusions The data presented suggest that recessions do have a negative association with maternal and infant outcomes particularly in earlier stages of a country's development although the effects vary widely across different systems. Almost all of the 20 least wealthy countries have suffered a reduction of 10% or more in GDP per capita in at least one of the last five decades. The challenge for today's policy makers is the design and implementation of mechanisms that protect vulnerable populations from the effects of fluctuating national income. PMID:21106089

  16. Maternal factors, birthweight, and racial differences in infant mortality: a Georgia population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, J. F.; Taylor, B. D.; Blumenthal, D. S.; Sikes, K.; Davis-Floyd, V.; McGrady, G.; Lofton, T. C.; Wade, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Black infant mortality rates (IMRs) are approximately twice those of whites in Georgia and nationwide. This study evaluates maternal factors, particularly marital status, that influence racial differences in infant mortality. Population-based data on 565,730 live births and 7269 infant deaths in Georgia from 1980 to 1985 were examined. The IMR ratio for unmarried compared to married mothers was calculated and adjusted singly for maternal education, age and race, and infant birthweight. In addition, racial differences in IMR were estimated using stratified analysis on the basis of four factors: infant birthweight, maternal age, marital status, and education. When only normal birthweight infants were considered, the IMR, adjusted for maternal education level, was highest for infants born to unmarried black teens (9.5/1000 live births), followed by that for infants born to married black teens (9.1), unmarried black adults (7.5), married black adults (4.8), married white teens (4.4), married white adults (3.4), unmarried white adults (2.4), and unmarried white teens (1.3). When only low birthweight infants were considered, the highest IMR per 1000 was found in infants born to married black adults (119), followed by unmarried black adults (103), married black teens (99.9), unmarried black teens (92.5), married white adults (92.1), married white teens (79.0), unmarried white adults (38.0), and unmarried white teens (26.3). These differences led to a black-to-white IMR risk ratio from 1.3 for low birthweight infants born to unmarried teen or adult mothers to 3.7 for normal birthweight infants born to unmarried teen mothers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8078081

  17. Electroacupuncture Reduces Cocaine-Induced Seizures and Mortality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Hung; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the protective profile of electroacupuncture (EA) on cocaine-induced seizures and mortality in mice. Mice were treated with EA (2 Hz, 50 Hz, and 100 Hz), or they underwent needle insertion without anesthesia at the Dazhui (GV14) and Baihui (GV20) acupoints before cocaine administration. EA at 50 Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 significantly reduced the seizure severity induced by a single dose of cocaine (75 mg/kg; i.p.). Furthermore, needle insertion into GV14 and GV20 and EA at 2 Hz and 50 Hz at both acupoints significantly reduced the mortality rate induced by a single lethal dose of cocaine (125 mg/kg; i.p.). In the sham control group, EA at 50 Hz applied to bilateral Tianzong (SI11) acupoints had no protective effects against cocaine. In addition, EA at 50 Hz applied to GV14 and GV20 failed to reduce the incidence of seizures and mortality induced by the local anesthetic procaine. In an immunohistochemistry study, EA (50 Hz) pretreatment at GV14 and GV20 decreased cocaine (75 mg/kg; i.p.)-induced c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamus. While the dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, SB-277011-A (30 mg/kg; s.c), did not by itself affect cocaine-induced seizure severity, it prevented the effects of EA on cocaine-induced seizures. These results suggest that EA alleviates cocaine-induced seizures and mortality and that the dopamine D3 receptor is involved, at least in part, in the anticonvulsant effects of EA in mice. PMID:23690833

  18. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden: maternal death audit with application of the 'migration three delays' model.

    PubMed

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit; Högberg, Ulf; Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana; Essén, Birgitta

    2014-04-12

    Several European countries report differences in risk of maternal mortality between immigrants from low- and middle-income countries and host country women. The present study identified suboptimal factors related to care-seeking, accessibility, and quality of care for maternal deaths that occurred in Sweden from 1988-2010. A subset of maternal death records (n = 75) among foreign-born women from low- and middle-income countries and Swedish-born women were audited using structured implicit review. One case of foreign-born maternal death was matched with two native born Swedish cases of maternal death. An assessment protocol was developed that applied both the 'migration three delays' framework and a modified version of the Confidential Enquiry from the United Kingdom. The main outcomes were major and minor suboptimal factors associated with maternal death in this high-income, low-maternal mortality context. Major and minor suboptimal factors were associated with a majority of maternal deaths and significantly more often to foreign-born women (p = 0.01). The main delays to care-seeking were non-compliance among foreign-born women and communication barriers, such as incongruent language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. Suboptimal care factors, major and minor, were present in more than 2/3 of maternal deaths in this high-income setting. Those related to migration were associated to miscommunication, lack of professional interpreters, and limited knowledge about rare diseases and pregnancy complications. Increased insight into a migration perspective is advocated for maternity clinicians who provide care to foreign-born women.

  19. Maternal Mortality in the Main Referral Hospital in Angola, 2010-2014: Understanding the Context for Maternal Deaths Amidst Poor Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Abubakar Sadiq; Kabamba, Lusamba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing global health efforts have focused on preventing pregnancy-related maternal deaths, but the factors that contribute to maternal deaths in specific high-burden nations are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence the occurrence of maternal deaths in a regional maternity hospital in Kuando Kubango province of Angola. Methods: The study was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of case notes of all maternal deaths and deliveries that were recorded from 2010 to 2014. The information collected included data on pregnancy, labor and post-natal period retrieved from case notes and the delivery register. Results: During the period under study, a total of 7,158 live births were conducted out of which 131 resulted in maternal death with an overall maternal mortality ratio of 1,830 per 100,000 live births. The causes of death and their importance was relatively similar over the period reviewed. The direct obstetric causes accounted for 51% of all deaths. The major causes were hemorrhage (15%), puerperal sepsis (13%), eclampsia (11%) and ruptured uterus (10%). In addition, indirect non-obstetric medical causes such as Malaria, Anemia, hepatitis, AIDs and cardiovascular diseases accounted for 49% of all maternal deaths. There is poor documentation of personal data and clinical case management of cases. The factors of mutual instability of statistical significance associated with maternal death are: place of domicile (P=0.0001) and distance to the hospital (P=0.0001). Conclusion and Global Health Implication: The study demonstrated that the MMR in maternity hospital is very high and is higher than the WHO 2014 estimates and the province is yet to achieve the desired MDG 5 target by the end of 2015. A reversal of the present state requires data driven planning in order to improve access and use of Maternal Health Services (MHS) and ultimately lower the number of pregnancy-related maternal deaths. PMID:28058194

  20. Maternal mortality in Colombia in 2011: a two level ecological study.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery; Cotes-Cantillo, Karol; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo Enrique; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Maternal mortality reduction is a Millennium Development Goal. In Colombia, there is a large disparity in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between and into departments (states) and also between municipalities. We examined socioeconomics variables at the municipal and departmental levels which could be associated to the municipal maternal mortality in Colombia. A multilevel ecology study was carried out using different national data sources in Colombia. The outcome variable was the MMR at municipal level in 2011 with multidimensional poverty at municipal and department level as the principal independent variables and other measures of the social and economic characteristics at municipal and departmental level were also considered explicative variables (overall fertility municipal rate, percentage of local rural population, health insurance coverage, per capita territorial participation allocated to the health sector, transparency index and Gini coefficient). The association between MMR and socioeconomic contextual conditions at municipal and departmental level was assessed using a multilevel Poisson regression model. The MMR in the Colombian municipalities was associated significantly with the multidimensional poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 3.52; CI 95%: 1.09-11.38). This association was stronger in municipalities from departments with the highest poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 7.14; CI 95%: 2.01-25.35). Additionally, the MMR at municipal level was marginally associated with municipally health insurance coverage (relative ratio of MMR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.98-1.00), and significantly with transparency index at departmental level (relative ratio of MMR: 0.98; CI 95%: 0.97-0.99). Poverty and transparency in a contextual level were associated with the increase of the municipal MMR in Colombia. The results of this study are useful evidence for informing the public policies discussion and formulation processes with a differential approach.

  1. Maternal Mortality in Colombia in 2011: A Two Level Ecological Study

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery; Cotes-Cantillo, Karol; Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo Enrique; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective Maternal mortality reduction is a Millennium Development Goal. In Colombia, there is a large disparity in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between and into departments (states) and also between municipalities. We examined socioeconomics variables at the municipal and departmental levels which could be associated to the municipal maternal mortality in Colombia. Methods A multilevel ecology study was carried out using different national data sources in Colombia. The outcome variable was the MMR at municipal level in 2011 with multidimensional poverty at municipal and department level as the principal independent variables and other measures of the social and economic characteristics at municipal and departmental level were also considered explicative variables (overall fertility municipal rate, percentage of local rural population, health insurance coverage, per capita territorial participation allocated to the health sector, transparency index and Gini coefficient). The association between MMR and socioeconomic contextual conditions at municipal and departmental level was assessed using a multilevel Poisson regression model. Results The MMR in the Colombian municipalities was associated significantly with the multidimensional poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 3.52; CI 95%: 1.09-11.38). This association was stronger in municipalities from departments with the highest poverty (relative ratio of MMR: 7.14; CI 95%: 2.01-25.35). Additionally, the MMR at municipal level was marginally associated with municipally health insurance coverage (relative ratio of MMR: 0.99; CI 95%: 0.98-1.00), and significantly with transparency index at departmental level (relative ratio of MMR: 0.98; CI 95%: 0.97-0.99). Conclusion Poverty and transparency in a contextual level were associated with the increase of the municipal MMR in Colombia. The results of this study are useful evidence for informing the public policies discussion and formulation processes with a differential

  2. [Maternal mortality due to pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in a state in southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Vânia Muniz Néquer; de Souza, Kleyde Ventura; Freygang, Tatiana Claumann; Correa, Vanessa; Saito, Maria Rialto

    2009-11-01

    to identify the profile, tendency and causes of maternal death by pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in Paraná. descriptive, transversal cohort study on maternal death by pre-eclampsia/eclampsia from 1997 to 2005. Data were obtained from case studies prepared by Maternal Death Committees that employ the Reproductive Age Mortality Survey Method to examine all the cases of death among women in fertile age. The general and specific maternal death rate (MDR) by pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were considered. To evaluate the tendency, triennial periods have been compared, two by two, taking into consideration the MDR of each period (p<0.05). In the triennial period from 2003 to 2005, 56 deaths by pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were analyzed. The variables focused were: age, income, schooling, gestation number and complications, pre-natal conditions, signs and symptoms related to the condition, delivery route, the time gestation was interrupted, the newborn conditions, access and treatment, ability to avoid and prevention measures. the general triennial MDR has presented significant decline, with 64.3/100,000 born-alive babies. There has been stability along the period for MDR by hypertensive disorder, with MDR of 11.8/100,000 born-alive. Primiparous women, women over 40 and with low socio-economical status have presented higher risks. In relation to the treatment, there has been underuse or inadequate use of conventional medicines for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. The committees' analysis indicated that all the maternal death due to these conditions could have been avoided. actions aiming at minimizing the set of causes that lead to death by pre-eclampsia in Paraná should be enforced, including the training and monitoring of health professionals in order to apply the treatment protocols, besides the formalization of a reference net of clinics and hospitals, qualified for the care of high risk pregnancy and its intercurrences, to which pre-natal pregnant women are enrolled.

  3. Online social integration is associated with reduced mortality risk

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, William R.; Burke, Moira; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions increasingly take place online. Friendships and other offline social ties have been repeatedly associated with human longevity, but online interactions might have different properties. Here, we reference 12 million social media profiles against California Department of Public Health vital records and use longitudinal statistical models to assess whether social media use is associated with longer life. The results show that receiving requests to connect as friends online is associated with reduced mortality but initiating friendships is not. Additionally, online behaviors that indicate face-to-face social activity (like posting photos) are associated with reduced mortality, but online-only behaviors (like sending messages) have a nonlinear relationship, where moderate use is associated with the lowest mortality. These results suggest that online social integration is linked to lower risk for a wide variety of critical health problems. Although this is an associational study, it may be an important step in understanding how, on a global scale, online social networks might be adapted to improve modern populations’ social and physical health. PMID:27799553

  4. Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus

    PubMed Central

    Blencowe, Hannah; Lawn, Joy; Vandelaer, Jos; Roper, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Background Neonatal tetanus remains an important and preventable cause of neonatal mortality globally. Large reductions in neonatal tetanus deaths have been reported following major increases in the coverage of tetanus toxoid immunization, yet the level of evidence for the mortality effect of tetanus toxoid immunization is surprisingly weak with only two trials considered in a Cochrane review. Objective To review the evidence for and estimate the effect on neonatal tetanus mortality of immunization with tetanus toxoid of pregnant women, or women of childbearing age. Methods We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases. Standardized abstraction forms were used. Individual study quality and the overall quality of evidence were assessed using an adaptation of the GRADE approach. Meta-analyses were performed. Results Only one randomised controlled trial (RCT) and one well-controlled cohort study were identified, which met inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Immunization of pregnant women or women of childbearing age with at least two doses of tetanus toxoid is estimated to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus by 94% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80–98%]. Additionally, another RCT with a case definition based on day of death, 3 case–control studies and 1 before-and-after study gave consistent results. Based on the consistency of the mortality data, the very large effect size and that the data are all from low/middle-income countries, the overall quality of the evidence was judged to be moderate. Conclusion This review uses a standard approach to provide a transparent estimate of the high impact of tetanus toxoid immunization on neonatal tetanus. PMID:20348112

  5. Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce mortality from neonatal tetanus.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Hannah; Lawn, Joy; Vandelaer, Jos; Roper, Martha; Cousens, Simon

    2010-04-01

    Neonatal tetanus remains an important and preventable cause of neonatal mortality globally. Large reductions in neonatal tetanus deaths have been reported following major increases in the coverage of tetanus toxoid immunization, yet the level of evidence for the mortality effect of tetanus toxoid immunization is surprisingly weak with only two trials considered in a Cochrane review. To review the evidence for and estimate the effect on neonatal tetanus mortality of immunization with tetanus toxoid of pregnant women, or women of childbearing age. We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases. Standardized abstraction forms were used. Individual study quality and the overall quality of evidence were assessed using an adaptation of the GRADE approach. Meta-analyses were performed. Only one randomised controlled trial (RCT) and one well-controlled cohort study were identified, which met inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Immunization of pregnant women or women of childbearing age with at least two doses of teta