Science.gov

Sample records for reduction alters mode

  1. Intrinsic emittance reduction in transmission mode photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeri; Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    High quantum efficiency (QE) and low emittance electron beams provided by multi-alkali photocathodes make them of great interest for next generation high brightness photoinjectors. Spicer's three-step model well describes the photoemission process; however, some photocathode characteristics such as their thickness have not yet been completely exploited to further improve the brightness of the generated electron beams. In this work, we report on the emittance and QE of a multi-alkali photocathode grown onto a glass substrate operated in transmission and reflection modes at different photon energies. We observed a 20% reduction in the intrinsic emittance from the reflection to the transmission mode operation. This observation can be explained by inelastic electron-phonon scattering during electrons' transit towards the cathode surface. Due to this effect, we predict that thicker photocathode layers will further reduce the intrinsic emittance of electron beams generated by photocathodes operated in transmission mode.

  2. Altered default mode network functional connectivity in schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Shen, Jing; Wu, Jianlin; Yu, Xiao; Lou, Wutao; Fan, Hongyu; Shi, Lin; Wang, Defeng

    2014-12-01

    The default mode network (DMN) has been identified to play a critical role in many mental disorders, but such abnormalities have not yet been determined in patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD). The purpose of this study was to analyze the alteration of the DMN functional connectivity in subjects with (SPD) and compared it to healthy control subjects. Eighteen DSM-IV diagnosed SPD subjects (all male, average age: 19.7±0.9) from a pool of 3000 first year college students, and eighteen age and gender matched healthy control subjects were recruited (all male, average age: 20.3±0.9). Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to analyze the DMN functional connectivity alteration. Compared to the healthy control group, SPD subjects had significantly decreased functional connectivity in the frontal areas, including the superior and medial frontal gyrus, and greater functional connectivity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and sub-lobar regions, including the bilateral putamen and caudate. Compared to subjects with SPD, the healthy control group showed decreased functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, but showed greater functional connectivity in the right transverse temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. The healthy control group also showed greater activation in the cerebellum compared to the SPD group. These findings suggest that DMN functional connectivity, particularly that involving cognitive or emotional regulation, is altered in SPD subjects, and thus may be helpful in studying schizophrenia.

  3. Congruent reduction and mode conversion in 4-dimensional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, L.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1987-04-01

    Standard eikonal theory reduces, to N=1, the order of the system of equations underlying wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas. The condition for this remarkable reducibility is that only one eigenvalue of the unreduced NxN dispersion matrix D(k,x) vanishes at a time. If, however, two or more eigenvalues of D become simultaneously small, the geometric optics reduction scheme becomes singular. These regions are associated with linear mode conversion, and are described by higher order systems. A new reduction scheme based on congruent transformations of D is developed, and it is shown that, in ''degenerate'' plasma regions, a partial reduction of order is possible. The method comprises a constructive step-by-step procedure, which, in the most frequent (doubly) degenerate case, yields a second order system, describing the pairwise mode conversion problems, the solution of which in general geometry has been found recently.

  4. Synthetic aperture radar speckle reduction for circle mode SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgrove, Cameron

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images contain a grainy pattern, called speckle, that is a consequence of a coherent imaging system. For fine resolution SAR images speckle can obscure subtle features and reduce visual appeal. Many speckle reduction methods result in a loss of image resolution and reduce visual appeal which can obscure subtle features. Another approach to maintain resolution while reducing speckle is to register and combine multiple images. For persistent surveillance applications it is more efficient for an airborne platform to fly circles around the particular area of interest. In these cases, it would be beneficial to combine multiple circle mode SAR images, however the image registration process is not so straightforward because the layover angle changes in each image. This paper develops a SAR image registration process for combining multiple circle mode SAR images to reduce speckle while preserving resolution. The registration first uses a feature matching algorithm for a coarse rotation and alignment, and then uses a fine registration and warp. Ku band SAR data from a circle mode SAR collection is used to show the effectiveness of the registration and enhanced visual appeal from multi-looking.

  5. Genetically altered mice for evaluation of mode-of-action (MOA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetically altered mice for evaluation of mode-of-action (MOA). Barbara D. Abbott, Cynthia J. Wolf, Kaberi P. Das, Christopher S. Lau. (Presented by B. Abbott). This presentation provides an example of the use of genetically modified mice to determine the mode-of-action of r...

  6. Temporal Dynamics of the Default Mode Network Characterize Meditation-Induced Alterations in Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rajanikant; Bharath, Rose D; Upadhyay, Neeraj; Mangalore, Sandhya; Chennu, Srivas; Rao, Shobini L

    2016-01-01

    Current research suggests that human consciousness is associated with complex, synchronous interactions between multiple cortical networks. In particular, the default mode network (DMN) of the resting brain is thought to be altered by changes in consciousness, including the meditative state. However, it remains unclear how meditation alters the fast and ever-changing dynamics of brain activity within this network. Here we addressed this question using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the spatial extents and temporal dynamics of the DMN during rest and meditation. Using fMRI, we identified key reductions in the posterior cingulate hub of the DMN, along with increases in right frontal and left temporal areas, in experienced meditators during rest and during meditation, in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). We employed the simultaneously recorded EEG data to identify the topographical microstate corresponding to activation of the DMN. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of this microstate revealed that the average duration and frequency of occurrence of DMN microstate was higher in meditators compared to HCs. Both these temporal parameters increased during meditation, reflecting the state effect of meditation. In particular, we found that the alteration in the duration of the DMN microstate when meditators entered the meditative state correlated negatively with their years of meditation experience. This reflected a trait effect of meditation, highlighting its role in producing durable changes in temporal dynamics of the DMN. Taken together, these findings shed new light on short and long-term consequences of meditation practice on this key brain network. PMID:27499738

  7. Temporal Dynamics of the Default Mode Network Characterize Meditation-Induced Alterations in Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Rajanikant; Bharath, Rose D.; Upadhyay, Neeraj; Mangalore, Sandhya; Chennu, Srivas; Rao, Shobini L.

    2016-01-01

    Current research suggests that human consciousness is associated with complex, synchronous interactions between multiple cortical networks. In particular, the default mode network (DMN) of the resting brain is thought to be altered by changes in consciousness, including the meditative state. However, it remains unclear how meditation alters the fast and ever-changing dynamics of brain activity within this network. Here we addressed this question using simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the spatial extents and temporal dynamics of the DMN during rest and meditation. Using fMRI, we identified key reductions in the posterior cingulate hub of the DMN, along with increases in right frontal and left temporal areas, in experienced meditators during rest and during meditation, in comparison to healthy controls (HCs). We employed the simultaneously recorded EEG data to identify the topographical microstate corresponding to activation of the DMN. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of this microstate revealed that the average duration and frequency of occurrence of DMN microstate was higher in meditators compared to HCs. Both these temporal parameters increased during meditation, reflecting the state effect of meditation. In particular, we found that the alteration in the duration of the DMN microstate when meditators entered the meditative state correlated negatively with their years of meditation experience. This reflected a trait effect of meditation, highlighting its role in producing durable changes in temporal dynamics of the DMN. Taken together, these findings shed new light on short and long-term consequences of meditation practice on this key brain network. PMID:27499738

  8. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, L.; Thyagharajan, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC). SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD) is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method. PMID:26221623

  9. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision.

    PubMed

    Balaji, L; Thyagharajan, K K

    2015-01-01

    H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC). SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD) is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method.

  10. Distinguishing solid bitumens formed by thermochemical sulfate reduction and thermal chemical alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelemen, S.R.; Walters, C.C.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Afeworki, M.; Sansone, M.; Freund, H.; Pottorf, R.J.; Machel, H.G.; Zhang, T.; Ellis, G.S.; Tang, Y.; Peters, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Insoluble solid bitumens are organic residues that can form by the thermal chemical alteration (TCA) or thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) of migrated petroleum. TCA may actually encompass several low temperature processes, such as biodegradation and asphaltene precipitation, followed by thermal alteration. TSR is an abiotic redox reaction where petroleum is oxidized by sulfate. It is difficult to distinguish solid bitumens associated with TCA of petroleum from those associated with TSR when both processes occur at relatively high temperature. The focus of the present work was to characterize solid bitumen samples associated with TCA or TSR using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS is a surface analysis conducted on either isolated or in situ (>25 ??m diameter) solid bitumen that can provide the relative abundance and chemical speciation of carbon, organic and inorganic heteroatoms (NSO). In this study, naturally occurring solid bitumens from three locations, Nisku Fm. Brazeau River area (TSR-related), LaBarge Field Madison Fm. (TSR-related), and the Alaskan Brooks range (TCA-related), are compared to organic solids generated during laboratory simulation of the TSR and TCA processes. The abundance and chemical nature of organic nitrogen and sulfur in solid bitumens can be understood in terms of the nature of (1) petroleum precursor molecules, (2) the concentration of nitrogen by way of thermal stress and (3) the mode of sulfur incorporation. TCA solid bitumens originate from polar materials that are initially rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Aromaticity and nitrogen increase as thermal stress cleaves aliphatic moieties and condensation reactions take place. Organic sulfur in TCA organic solids remains fairly constant with increasing maturation (3.5 to ???17 sulfur per 100 carbons) into aromatic structures and to the low levels of nitrogen in their hydrocarbon precursors. Hence, XPS results provide organic chemical composition information that helps to

  11. Drag reduction by polymers in turbulent channel flows: Energy redistribution between invariant empirical modes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Elisabetta; Casciola, Carlo M; L'vov, Victor S; Piva, Renzo; Procaccia, Itamar

    2003-05-01

    We address the phenomenon of drag reduction by a dilute polymeric additive to turbulent flows, using direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the FENE-P model of viscoelastic flows. It had been amply demonstrated that these model equations reproduce the phenomenon, but the results of DNS were not analyzed so far with the goal of interpreting the phenomenon. In order to construct a useful framework for the understanding of drag reduction we initiate in this paper an investigation of the most important modes that are sustained in the viscoelastic and Newtonian turbulent flows, respectively. The modes are obtained empirically using the Karhunen-Loéve decomposition, allowing us to compare the most energetic modes in the viscoelastic and Newtonian flows. The main finding of the present study is that the spatial profile of the most energetic modes is hardly changed between the two flows. What changes is the energy associated with these modes, and their relative ordering in the decreasing order from the most energetic to the least. Modes that are highly excited in one flow can be strongly suppressed in the other, and vice versa. This dramatic energy redistribution is an important clue to the mechanism of drag reduction as is proposed in this paper. In particular, there is an enhancement of the energy containing modes in the viscoelastic flow compared to the Newtonian one; drag reduction is seen in the energy containing modes rather than the dissipative modes, as proposed in some previous theories.

  12. Characterization of solid bitumens originating from thermal chemical alteration and thermochemical sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Simon R.; Walters, Clifford C.; Kwiatek, Peter J.; Freund, Howard; Afeworki, Mobae; Sansone, Michael; Lamberti, William A.; Pottorf, Robert J.; Machel, Hans G.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Bolin, Trudy

    2010-09-01

    Solid bitumen can arise from several reservoir processes acting on migrated petroleum. Insoluble solid organic residues can form by oxidative processes associated with thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) as well as by thermal chemical alteration (TCA) of petroleum. TCA may follow non-thermal processes, such as biodegradation and asphaltene precipitation, that produce viscous fluids enriched in polar compounds that are then altered into solid bitumens. It is difficult to distinguish solid bitumen formed by TCA from TSR since both processes occur under relatively high temperatures. The focus of the present work is to characterize solid bitumen samples associated with TSR- or TCA-processes using a combination of solid-state X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Sulfur X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy (S-XANES), and 13C NMR. Naturally occurring solid bitumens from three locations, Nisku Formation, Brazeau River area (TSR-related); La Barge Field, Madison Formation (TSR-related); and, the Alaskan North Slope, Brooks Range (TCA-related), are compared to solid bitumens generated in laboratory simulations of TSR and TCA. The chemical nature of solid bitumens with respect to organic nitrogen and sulfur can be understood in terms of (1) the nature of hydrocarbon precursor molecules, (2) the mode of sulfur incorporation, and (3) their concentration during thermal stress. TSR-solid bitumen is highly aromatic, sulfur-rich, and nitrogen-poor. These heteroatom distributions are attributed to the ability of TSR to incorporate copious amounts of inorganic sulfur (S/C atomic ratio >0.035) into aromatic structures and to initial low levels of nitrogen in the unaltered petroleum. In contrast, TCA-solid bitumen is derived from polar materials that are initially rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Aromaticity and nitrogen increase as thermal stress cleaves aliphatic moieties and condensation reactions take place. TCA-bitumens from the Brooks Range have <75% aromatic

  13. Multibody model reduction by component mode synthesis and component cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, J. T.; Mingori, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The classical assumed-modes method is widely used in modeling the dynamics of flexible multibody systems. According to the method, the elastic deformation of each component in the system is expanded in a series of spatial and temporal functions known as modes and modal coordinates, respectively. This paper focuses on the selection of component modes used in the assumed-modes expansion. A two-stage component modal reduction method is proposed combining Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) with Component Cost Analysis (CCA). First, each component model is truncated such that the contribution of the high frequency subsystem to the static response is preserved. Second, a new CMS procedure is employed to assemble the system model and CCA is used to further truncate component modes in accordance with their contribution to a quadratic cost function of the system output. The proposed method is demonstrated with a simple example of a flexible two-body system.

  14. Simplified data reduction methods for the ECT test for mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian; Obrien, T. Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Simplified expressions for the parameter controlling the load point compliance and strain energy release rate were obtained for the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) specimen for mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness. Data reduction methods for mode 3 toughness based on the present analysis are proposed. The effect of the transverse shear modulus, G(sub 23), on mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness characterization was evaluated. Parameters influenced by the transverse shear modulus were identified. Analytical results indicate that a higher value of G(sub 23) results in a low load point compliance and lower mode 3 toughness estimation. The effect of G(sub 23) on the mode 3 toughness using the ECT specimen is negligible when an appropriate initial delamination length is chosen. A conservative estimation of mode 3 toughness can be obtained by assuming G(sub 23) = G(sub 12) for any initial delamination length.

  15. Multi-Mode Excitation and Data Reduction for Fatigue Crack Characterization in Conducting Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, B.; Namkung, M.; Fulton, J. P.; Clendenin, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in the technique of fatigue crack characterization by resonant modal analysis have been achieved through a new excitation mechanism and data reduction of multiple resonance modes. A non-contacting electromagnetic device is used to apply a time varying Lorentz force to thin conducting sheets. The frequency and direction of the Lorentz force are such that resonance modes are generated in the test sample. By comparing the change in frequency between distinct resonant modes of a sample, detecting and sizing of fatigue cracks are achieved and frequency shifts caused by boundary condition changes can be discriminated against. Finite element modeling has been performed to verify experimental results.

  16. Functional Connectivity with the Default Mode Network Is Altered in Fibromyalgia Patients.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Nicholas; Chiu, Yee; Nurmikko, Turo; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients show altered connectivity with the network maintaining ongoing resting brain activity, known as the default mode network (DMN). The connectivity patterns of DMN with the rest of the brain in FMS patients are poorly understood. This study employed seed-based functional connectivity analysis to investigate resting-state functional connectivity with DMN structures in FMS. Sixteen female FMS patients and 15 age-matched, healthy control subjects underwent T2-weighted resting-state MRI scanning and functional connectivity analyses using DMN network seed regions. FMS patients demonstrated alterations to connectivity between DMN structures and anterior midcingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule and left inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis showed that reduced functional connectivity between the DMN and the right parahippocampal gyrus was associated with longer duration of symptoms in FMS patients, whereas augmented connectivity between the anterior midcingulate and posterior cingulate cortices was associated with tenderness and depression scores. Our findings demonstrate alterations to functional connectivity between DMN regions and a variety of regions which are important for pain, cognitive and emotional processing in FMS patients, and which may contribute to the development or maintenance of chronic symptoms in FMS. PMID:27442504

  17. Functional Connectivity with the Default Mode Network Is Altered in Fibromyalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yee; Nurmikko, Turo; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients show altered connectivity with the network maintaining ongoing resting brain activity, known as the default mode network (DMN). The connectivity patterns of DMN with the rest of the brain in FMS patients are poorly understood. This study employed seed-based functional connectivity analysis to investigate resting-state functional connectivity with DMN structures in FMS. Sixteen female FMS patients and 15 age-matched, healthy control subjects underwent T2-weighted resting-state MRI scanning and functional connectivity analyses using DMN network seed regions. FMS patients demonstrated alterations to connectivity between DMN structures and anterior midcingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule and left inferior temporal gyrus. Correlation analysis showed that reduced functional connectivity between the DMN and the right parahippocampal gyrus was associated with longer duration of symptoms in FMS patients, whereas augmented connectivity between the anterior midcingulate and posterior cingulate cortices was associated with tenderness and depression scores. Our findings demonstrate alterations to functional connectivity between DMN regions and a variety of regions which are important for pain, cognitive and emotional processing in FMS patients, and which may contribute to the development or maintenance of chronic symptoms in FMS. PMID:27442504

  18. Altered resting perfusion and functional connectivity of default mode network in youth with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Hernandez, Leanna M; Beck-Pancer, Devora; McCarron, Rosemary; Smith, Robert X; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies can shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies of the resting brain have shown both altered baseline metabolism from PET/SPECT and altered functional connectivity (FC) of intrinsic brain networks based on resting-state fMRI. To date, however, no study has investigated these two physiological parameters of resting brain function jointly, or explored the relationship between these measures and ASD symptom severity. Methods Here, we used pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling with 3D background-suppressed GRASE to assess resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and FC in 17 youth with ASD and 22 matched typically developing (TD) children. Results A pattern of altered resting perfusion was found in ASD versus TD children including frontotemporal hyperperfusion and hypoperfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. We found increased local FC in the anterior module of the default mode network (DMN) accompanied by decreased CBF in the same area. In our cohort, both alterations were associated with greater social impairments as assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-total T scores). While FC was correlated with CBF in TD children, this association between FC and baseline perfusion was disrupted in children with ASD. Furthermore, there was reduced long-range FC between anterior and posterior modules of the DMN in children with ASD. Conclusion Taken together, the findings of this study – the first to jointly assess resting CBF and FC in ASD – highlight new avenues for identifying novel imaging markers of ASD symptomatology. PMID:26445698

  19. Iron reduction and alteration of nontronite NAu-2 by a sulfate-reducing bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Liang; Vali, Hojatollah; Sears, S. Kelly; Yang, John; Deng, Baolin; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2004-08-01

    Iron-rich clay minerals are abundant in the natural environment and are an important source of iron for microbial metabolism. The objective of this study was to understand the mechanism(s) of enhanced reduction of Fe(III) in iron-rich 2:1 clay minerals under sulfate-reducing conditions. In particular, biogenic reduction of structural Fe(III) in nontronite NAu-2, an Fe-rich smectite-group mineral, was studied using a Desulfovibrio spp. strain G-11 with or without amended sulfate. The microbial production of Fe(II) from NAu-2 is about 10% of total structural Fe(III) (30 mM) when Fe(III) is available as the sole electron acceptor. The measured production of Fe(II), however, can reach 29% of the total structural Fe(III) during sulfate reduction by G-11 when sulfate (50 mM) is concurrently added with NAu-2. In contrast, abiotic production of Fe(II) from the reaction of NAu-2 with Na 2S (50 mM) is only ca. 7.5% of the total structural Fe(III). The enhanced reduction of structural Fe(III) by G-11, particularly in the presence of sulfate, is closely related to the growth rate and metabolic activities of the bacteria. Analyses by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy reveal significant changes in the structure and composition of NAu-2 during its alteration by bacterial sulfate reduction. G-11 can also derive nutrients from NAu-2 to support its growth in the absence of amended minerals and vitamins. Results of this study suggest that sulfate-reducing bacteria may play a more significant role than previously recognized in the cycling of Fe, S, and other elements during alteration of Fe-rich 2:1 clay minerals and other silicate minerals.

  20. Age-related alterations in default mode network: impact on working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Sambataro, Fabio; Murty, Vishnu P; Callicott, Joseph H; Tan, Hao-Yang; Das, Saumitra; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2010-05-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of functionally connected brain regions which shows deactivation (task-induced deactivation, TID) during a cognitive task. Evidence shows an age-related decline in task-load-related modulation of the activity within the DMN during cognitive tasks. However, the effect of age on the functional coupling within the DMN and their relation to cognitive performance has hitherto been unexplored. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated functional connectivity within the DMN in older and younger subjects during a working memory task with increasing task load. Older adults showed decreased connectivity and ability to suppress low frequency oscillations of the DMN. Additionally, the strength of the functional coupling of posterior cingulate (pCC) with medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) correlated positively with performance and was lower in older adults. pCC was also negatively coupled with task-related regions, namely the dorsolateral PFC and cingulate regions. Our results show that in addition to changes in canonical task-related brain regions, normal aging is also associated with alterations in the activity and connectivity of brain regions within the DMN. These changes may be a reflection of a deficit in cognitive control associated with advancing age that results in deficient resource allocation to the task at hand.

  1. Altered functional connectivity of the default mode network in Williams syndrome: a multimodal approach.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Adriana; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Osório, Ana; Magalhães, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Cristiana; Férnandez, Montse; Carracedo, Angel; Alegria, Joana; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Soares, José Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Resting state brain networks are implicated in a variety of relevant brain functions. Importantly, abnormal patterns of functional connectivity (FC) have been reported in several neurodevelopmental disorders. In particular, the Default Mode Network (DMN) has been found to be associated with social cognition. We hypothesize that the DMN may be altered in Williams syndrome (WS), a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized by an unique cognitive and behavioral phenotype. In this study, we assessed the architecture of the DMN using fMRI in WS patients and typically developing matched controls (sex and age) in terms of FC and volumetry of the DMN. Moreover, we complemented the analysis with a functional connectome approach. After excluding participants due to movement artifacts (n = 3), seven participants with WS and their respective matched controls were included in the analyses. A decreased FC between the DMN regions was observed in the WS group when compared with the typically developing group. Specifically, we found a decreased FC in a posterior hub of the DMN including the precuneus, calcarine and the posterior cingulate of the left hemisphere. The functional connectome approach showed a focalized and global increased FC connectome in the WS group. The reduced FC of the posterior hub of the DMN in the WS group is consistent with immaturity of the brain FC patterns and may be associated with the singularity of their visual spatial phenotype. PMID:27412230

  2. Petroleum alteration by thermochemical sulfate reduction - A comprehensive molecular study of aromatic hydrocarbons and polar compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Clifford C.; Wang, Frank C.; Qian, Kuangnan; Wu, Chunping; Mennito, Anthony S.; Wei, Zhibin

    2015-03-01

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) alters petroleum composition as it proceeds towards the complete oxidation of hydrocarbons to CO2. The effects of TSR on the molecular and isotopic composition of volatile species are well known; however, the non-volatile higher molecular weight aromatic and polar species have not been well documented. To address this deficiency, a suite of onshore Gulf coast oils and condensates generated from and accumulating in Smackover carbonates was assembled to include samples that experienced varying levels of TSR alteration and in reservoir thermal cracking. The entire molecular composition of aromatic hydrocarbons and NSO species were characterized and semi-quantified using comprehensive GC × GC (FID and CSD) and APPI-FTICR-MS. The concentration of thiadiamondoids is a reliable indicator of the extent of TSR alteration. Once generated by TSR, thiadiamondoids remain thermally stable in all but the most extreme reservoir temperatures (>180 °C). Hydrocarbon concentrations and distributions are influenced by thermal cracking and TSR. With increasing TSR alteration, oils become enriched in monoaromatic hydrocarbons and the distribution of high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons shifts towards more condensed species with a decrease in the number of alkyl carbons. Organosulfur compounds are created by the TSR process. In addition to the increase in benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes noted in previous studies, TSR generates condensed species containing one or more sulfur atoms that likely are composed of a single or multiple thiophenic cores. We hypothesize that these species are generated from the partial oxidation of PAHs and dealkylation reactions, followed by sulfur incorporation and condensation reactions. The organosulfur species remaining in the TSR altered oils are "proto-solid bitumen" moieties that upon further condensation, oxidation or sulfur incorporation result in highly sulfur enriched solid bitumen, which is

  3. An efficient mode-based alternative to principal orthogonal modes in the order reduction of structural dynamic systems with grounded nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, Eric A.; AL-Shudeifat, Mohammad A.

    2011-07-01

    An alternative order reduction technique, based on the local equivalent linear stiffness method (LELSM), is suggested in this paper and compared with the principal orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the linear-based order reductions of structural dynamic systems with grounded cubic and dead-zone nonlinearities. It is shown that the updated LELSM modes approximate the principal orthogonal modes (POMs) of these systems with high accuracy especially at initial conditions corresponding to the linear modes of these systems. The use of the POMs for order reduction of nonlinear structural dynamic systems, while previously shown to be effective, requires that the solution response matrix in space and time should be obtained a priori while the alternative LELSM technique in this paper has no such requirement. The methods are applied to illustrative 2-dof (two degree-of-freedom) and 40-dof spring-mass systems with cubic and dead-zone nonlinearities. The reduced models of these systems in physical coordinates, obtained via updated LELSM modes, have been found nearly equivalent to POD modal-based reduced models and more accurate than the linear-based reduced models. Like POD modal-based order reduction, LELSM modal-based order reduction gives in-phase time histories with the exact numerical solution of the full model for long time periods of simulation. As a result, the updated LELSM modes are proposed as an alternative to POMs in order reduction of structural dynamic systems with grounded nonlinearities.

  4. Phosphate Imposed Limitations on Biological Reduction and Alteration of Ferrihydrite Mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Borch, Thomas; Masue, Yoko; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Fendorf, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Biogeochemical transformation (inclusive of dissolution) of iron (hydr)oxides resulting from dissimilatory reduction has a pronounced impact on the fate and transport of nutrients and contaminants in subsurface environments. Despite the reactivity noted for pristine (unreacted) minerals, iron (hydr)oxides within native environments will likely have a different reactivity owing in part to changes in surface composition. Accordingly, here we explore the impact of surface modifications induced by phosphate adsorption on ferrihydrite reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens under static and advective flow conditions. Alterations in surface reactivity induced by phosphate adsorption change the extent, nearly linearly, and pathway of iron biomineralization. Magnetite is the most appreciable mineralization product while minor amounts of vivianite and green rust-like phases are formed in systems having high aqueous concentrations of phosphate, ferrous iron, and biogenic bicarbonate. Goethite and lepidocrocite, characteristic biomineralization products at low ferrous-iron concentrations, are inhibited in the presence of adsorbed phosphate. Considering deviations in reactivity of iron (hydr)oxides with changes in surface composition is important for deciphering mineralization pathways under native conditions and predicting reactive characteristics.

  5. Comparing normal modes across different models and scales: Hessian reduction versus coarse-graining.

    PubMed

    Ghysels, An; Miller, Benjamin T; Pickard, Frank C; Brooks, Bernard R

    2012-10-30

    Dimension reduction is often necessary when attempting to reach longer length and time scales in molecular simulations. It is realized by constraining degrees of freedom or by coarse-graining the system. When evaluating the accuracy of a dimensional reduction, there is a practical challenge: the models yield vectors with different lengths, making a comparison by calculating their dot product impossible. This article investigates mapping procedures for normal mode analysis. We first review a horizontal mapping procedure for the reduced Hessian techniques, which projects out degrees of freedom. We then design a vertical mapping procedure for the "implosion" of the all-atom (AA) Hessian to a coarse-grained scale that is based upon vibrational subsystem analysis. This latter method derives both effective force constants and an effective kinetic tensor. Next, a series of metrics is presented for comparison across different scales, where special attention is given to proper mass-weighting. The dimension-dependent metrics, which require prior mapping for proper evaluation, are frequencies, overlap of normal mode vectors, probability similarity, Hessian similarity, collectivity of modes, and thermal fluctuations. The dimension-independent metrics are shape derivatives, elastic modulus, vibrational free energy differences, heat capacity, and projection on a predefined basis set. The power of these metrics to distinguish between reasonable and unreasonable models is tested on a toy alpha helix system and a globular protein; both are represented at several scales: the AA scale, a Gō-like model, a canonical elastic network model, and a network model with intentionally unphysical force constants.

  6. Symmetry reduction and boundary modes for Fe chains on an s-wave superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Qin; Wu, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xiong-Jun

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the superconducting phases and boundary modes for a quasi-1D system formed by up to three Fe chains on an s-wave superconductor, motivated by a recent experiment. While the Rashba type spin-orbit coupling together with a magnetic ordering is necessary to drive the system to be of nontrivial topology, we show that the onsite l\\centerdot s spin-orbit term, inter-chain diagonal hopping couplings, and magnetic disorders in the Fe chains are crucial in determining the symmetry classes of superconducting phases, which can be topologically trivial or nontrivial in different parameter regimes. In general multiple low-energy Andreev bound states, as well as a single Majorana zero mode if the phase is topological, are obtained in the ends of Fe chains. The nontrivial symmetry reduction mechanism is uncovered to provide an understanding of the present results, and may explain the zero-bias peak observed in the experiment. The present study can be applied to generic multiple-chain system.

  7. Symmetry reduction and boundary modes for Fe chains on an s-wave superconductor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Qin; Wu, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xiong-Jun

    2016-11-30

    We investigate the superconducting phases and boundary modes for a quasi-1D system formed by up to three Fe chains on an s-wave superconductor, motivated by a recent experiment. While the Rashba type spin-orbit coupling together with a magnetic ordering is necessary to drive the system to be of nontrivial topology, we show that the onsite [Formula: see text] spin-orbit term, inter-chain diagonal hopping couplings, and magnetic disorders in the Fe chains are crucial in determining the symmetry classes of superconducting phases, which can be topologically trivial or nontrivial in different parameter regimes. In general multiple low-energy Andreev bound states, as well as a single Majorana zero mode if the phase is topological, are obtained in the ends of Fe chains. The nontrivial symmetry reduction mechanism is uncovered to provide an understanding of the present results, and may explain the zero-bias peak observed in the experiment. The present study can be applied to generic multiple-chain system. PMID:27633482

  8. Symmetry reduction and boundary modes for Fe chains on an s-wave superconductor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Qin; Wu, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xiong-Jun

    2016-11-30

    We investigate the superconducting phases and boundary modes for a quasi-1D system formed by up to three Fe chains on an s-wave superconductor, motivated by a recent experiment. While the Rashba type spin-orbit coupling together with a magnetic ordering is necessary to drive the system to be of nontrivial topology, we show that the onsite [Formula: see text] spin-orbit term, inter-chain diagonal hopping couplings, and magnetic disorders in the Fe chains are crucial in determining the symmetry classes of superconducting phases, which can be topologically trivial or nontrivial in different parameter regimes. In general multiple low-energy Andreev bound states, as well as a single Majorana zero mode if the phase is topological, are obtained in the ends of Fe chains. The nontrivial symmetry reduction mechanism is uncovered to provide an understanding of the present results, and may explain the zero-bias peak observed in the experiment. The present study can be applied to generic multiple-chain system.

  9. Effect of Data Reduction and Fiber-Bridging on Mode I Delamination Characterization of Unidirectional Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Gretchen B.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable delamination characterization data for laminated composites are needed for input in analytical models of structures to predict delamination onset and growth. The double-cantilevered beam (DCB) specimen is used to measure fracture toughness, GIc, and strain energy release rate, GImax, for delamination onset and growth in laminated composites under mode I loading. The current study was conducted as part of an ASTM Round Robin activity to evaluate a proposed testing standard for Mode I fatigue delamination propagation. Static and fatigue tests were conducted on specimens of IM7/977-3 and G40-800/5276-1 graphite/epoxies, and S2/5216 glass/epoxy DCB specimens to evaluate the draft standard "Standard Test Method for Mode I Fatigue Delamination Propagation of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites." Static results were used to generate a delamination resistance curve, GIR, for each material, which was used to determine the effects of fiber-bridging on the delamination growth data. All three materials were tested in fatigue at a cyclic GImax level equal to 90% of the fracture toughness, GIc, to determine the delamination growth rate. Two different data reduction methods, a 2-point and a 7-point fit, were used and the resulting Paris Law equations were compared. Growth rate results were normalized by the delamination resistance curve for each material and compared to the nonnormalized results. Paris Law exponents were found to decrease by 5.4% to 46.2% due to normalizing the growth data. Additional specimens of the IM7/977-3 material were tested at 3 lower cyclic GImax levels to compare the effect of loading level on delamination growth rates. The IM7/977-3 tests were also used to determine the delamination threshold curve for that material. The results show that tests at a range of loading levels are necessary to describe the complete delamination behavior of this material.

  10. A magnetic damper for first mode vibration reduction in multimass flexible rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasarda, M. E. F.; Allaire, P. E.; Humphris, R. R.; Barrett, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    Many rotating machines such as compressors, turbines and pumps have long thin shafts with resulting vibration problems, and would benefit from additional damping near the center of the shaft. Magnetic dampers have the potential to be employed in these machines because they can operate in the working fluid environment unlike conventional bearings. An experimental test rig is described which was set up with a long thin shaft and several masses to represent a flexible shaft machine. An active magnetic damper was placed in three locations: near the midspan, near one end disk, and close to the bearing. With typical control parameter settings, the midspan location reduced the first mode vibration 82 percent, the disk location reduced it 75 percent and the bearing location attained a 74 percent reduction. Magnetic damper stiffness and damping values used to obtain these reductions were only a few percent of the bearing stiffness and damping values. A theoretical model of both the rotor and the damper was developed and compared to the measured results. The agreement was good.

  11. The mode of action alginic acid compound in the reduction of gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Malmud, L S; Charkes, N D; Littlefield, J; Reilley, J; Stern, H; Rosenberg, R; Fisher, R S

    1979-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate quantitatively the mode of action of alginic acid compound (AAC) in the treatment of patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy using an orall administered Tc-99m sulfur colloid solution was used to demonstrate that AAC decreased significantly the gastroesophageal reflux index from (9.9 +/- 1.3) % to (6.5 +/- 0.8) % (p less than 0.05). No alteration of lower esophageal sphincter pressure was observed. After ACC was suitably labeled with Sr-87m, a dual-nuclide scintigraphic technique was used to show that most (greater than 75%) of the AAC was located in the upper half of the stomach in both normal subjects and patients with gastroesophageal reflux. In those subjects in whom reflux did occur after treatment with AAC, the Sr-87m-AAC refluxed into the esophagus preferentially compared with the liquid containing Tc-99m sulfur colloid. These findings suggest that AAC dimishes gastroesophageal reflux by means of its foaming, floating, and viscous properties. PMID:231639

  12. Reduction of edge-localized mode intensity using high-repetition-rate pellet injection in tokamak H-mode plasmas.

    PubMed

    Baylor, L R; Commaux, N; Jernigan, T C; Brooks, N H; Combs, S K; Evans, T E; Fenstermacher, M E; Isler, R C; Lasnier, C J; Meitner, S J; Moyer, R A; Osborne, T H; Parks, P B; Snyder, P B; Strait, E J; Unterberg, E A; Loarte, A

    2013-06-14

    High repetition rate injection of deuterium pellets from the low-field side (LFS) of the DIII-D tokamak is shown to trigger high-frequency edge-localized modes (ELMs) at up to 12× the low natural ELM frequency in H-mode deuterium plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape, normalized beta, and input power just above the H-mode threshold. The pellet size, velocity, and injection location were chosen to limit penetration to the outer 10% of the plasma. The resulting perturbations to the plasma density and energy confinement time are thus minimal (<10%). The triggered ELMs occur at much lower normalized pedestal pressure than the natural ELMs, suggesting that the pellet injection excites a localized high-n instability. Triggered ELMs produce up to 12× lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor, and result in a strong decrease in plasma core impurity density. These results show for the first time that shallow, LFS pellet injection can dramatically accelerate the ELM cycle and reduce ELM energy fluxes on plasma facing components, and is a viable technique for real-time control of ELMs in ITER.

  13. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic alterations during exercise and passive recovery after three modes of exercise.

    PubMed

    Mandroukas, Athanasios; Heller, Jan; Metaxas, Thomas I; Sendelides, Thomas; Riganas, Cheistos; Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Christoulas, Kosmas; Stefanidis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Vasilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Mandroukas, Konstantinos

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential variations in cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters and running performance among 3 modes of exercise of the same duration, namely, intermittent running with active recovery (AR) or passive recovery (PR) and continuous running (CR) and whether these variations could affect passive recovery time (PRT). Fifteen male physical education students with a subspecialty in soccer were studied (mean age 22.3 ± 2.5 years, training experience 12.3 ± 2.5 years) in the middle of the playing season. The results showed that during exercise, the highest heart rate (HR) and VO2 values were observed in CR, whereas the lowest values in PR followed by AR. Blood lactate (BLa) concentration was higher in PR by 38% compared to that in AR (p < 0.05). The exercise duration was similar between PR and AR tests and longer than in CR. With regard to PRT, the highest HR (186 ± 9 b · min(-1)), VO2 (55.5 ± 5.2 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), and BLa (5.1 ± 1.7 mmol · L(-1)) values were found in CR. No differences in HR and VO2 between PR and AR were detected. However, despite the differences in BLa concentration between AR and PR during exercise, the PRT BLa values between these 2 exercise modes were not different. Among the 3 running protocols, only CR appeared to have fully challenged the cardiorespiratory system inducing maximal HR and VO2 responses during exercise and high BLa values in PRT, yet these responses were not associated with better exercise performance compared to intermittent running. Therefore, intermittent exercise, regardless of implementing passive or active interval, might be the preferable exercise mode particularly in activities extended over 30 minutes. PMID:21273910

  14. Cortical Thinning and Altered Cortico-Cortical Structural Covariance of the Default Mode Network in Patients with Persistent Insomnia Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sooyeon; Kim, Hosung; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Joo, Eunyeon; Shin, Chol

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent studies have suggested that structural abnormalities in insomnia may be linked with alterations in the default-mode network (DMN). This study compared cortical thickness and structural connectivity linked to the DMN in patients with persistent insomnia (PI) and good sleepers (GS). Methods: The current study used a clinical subsample from the longitudinal community-based Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Cortical thickness and structural connectivity linked to the DMN in patients with persistent insomnia symptoms (PIS; n = 57) were compared to good sleepers (GS; n = 40). All participants underwent MRI acquisition. Based on literature review, we selected cortical regions corresponding to the DMN. A seed-based structural covariance analysis measured cortical thickness correlation between each seed region of the DMN and other cortical areas. Association of cortical thickness and covariance with sleep quality and neuropsychological assessments were further assessed. Results: Compared to GS, cortical thinning was found in PIS in the anterior cingulate cortex, precentral cortex, and lateral prefrontal cortex. Decreased structural connectivity between anterior and posterior regions of the DMN was observed in the PIS group. Decreased structural covariance within the DMN was associated with higher PSQI scores. Cortical thinning in the lateral frontal lobe was related to poor performance in executive function in PIS. Conclusion: Disrupted structural covariance network in PIS might reflect malfunctioning of antero-posterior disconnection of the DMN during the wake to sleep transition that is commonly found during normal sleep. The observed structural network alteration may further implicate commonly observed sustained sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment in insomnia. Citation: Suh S, Kim H, Dang-Vu TT, Joo E, Shin C. Cortical thinning and altered cortico-cortical structural covariance of the default mode network in patients with

  15. GAMMA RADIATION INTERACTS WITH MELANIN TO ALTER ITS OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL AND RESULTS IN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C.; Ekechukwu, A.; Milliken, C.

    2011-05-17

    The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

  16. Gamma radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential and results in electric current production.

    PubMed

    Turick, Charles E; Ekechukwu, Amy A; Milliken, Charles E; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2011-08-01

    The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

  17. Altered effective connectivity within default mode network in major depression disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Baojuan; Bai, Yuanhan; Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Linchuan; Cui, Longbiao; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the neural basis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is important for the diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder. The default mode network (DMN) is considered to be highly involved in the MDD. To find directed interaction between DMN regions associated with the development of MDD, the effective connectivity within the DMN of the MDD patients and matched healthy controls was estimated by using a recently developed spectral dynamic causal modeling. Sixteen patients with MDD and sixteen matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. While the control group underwent the resting state fMRI scan just once, all patients underwent resting state fMRI scans before and after two months' treatment. The spectral dynamic causal modeling was used to estimate directed connections between four DMN nodes. Statistical analysis on connection strengths indicated that efferent connections from the medial frontal cortex (MFC) to posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and to right parietal cortex (RPC) were significant higher in pretreatment MDD patients than those of the control group. After two-month treatment, the efferent connections from the MFC decreased significantly, while those from the left parietal cortex (LPC) to MFC, PCC and RPC showed a significant increase. These findings suggest that the MFC may play an important role for inhibitory conditioning of the DMN, which was disrupted in MDD patients. It also indicates that disrupted suppressive function of the MFC could be effectively restored after two-month treatment.

  18. Variation of the default mode network with altered alertness levels induced by propofol

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyuan; Li, Huandong; Luo, Fang; Zhang, Lei; Han, Ruquan; Wang, Baoguo

    2015-01-01

    Background The default mode network (DMN) is closely associated with the maintenance of alertness and cognitive functions. This study aimed to observe the changes in DMN induced by increasing doses of propofol and progressively deepening sedation. Methods Twelve healthy subjects were selected; they received target-controlled infusion of propofol (1.0 and 3.0 μg/mL of plasma) and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging before sedation and when they achieved light and deep sedation states. The average degree, average shortest path length, global efficiency, local efficiency, and clustering coefficient of DMN were assessed to study the overall and internal changes of DMN with gradual changes in alertness level, as well as the relationship between thalamus and DMN. Meanwhile, basic vital signs and respiratory inhibition were recorded. Results DMN parameters were gradually inhibited with decreasing level of alertness, the differences were significant between light sedation and awake states (all P<0.01), but not between deep and light sedation states. However, the shortest path lengths of the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortexes in the DMN were significantly increased under deep sedation. Conclusion Overall, DMN is propofol-sensitive. A small dose of propofol can significantly inhibit the DMN, affecting the level of alertness. The posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortexes in the DMN are less sensitive to propofol, and could be significantly inhibited by a higher concentration of propofol, further reducing the level of alertness. PMID:26504389

  19. Alteration of the Intra- and Cross- Hemisphere Posterior Default Mode Network in Frontal Lobe Glioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haosu; Shi, Yonghong; Yao, Chengjun; Tang, Weijun; Yao, Demin; Zhang, Chenxi; Wang, Manning; Wu, Jinsong; Song, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Patients with frontal lobe gliomas often experience neurocognitive dysfunctions before surgery, which affects the default mode network (DMN) to different degrees. This study quantitatively analyzed this effect from the perspective of cerebral hemispheric functional connectivity (FC). We collected resting-state fMRI data from 20 frontal lobe glioma patients before treatment and 20 healthy controls. All of the patients and controls were right-handed. After pre-processing the images, FC maps were built from the seed defined in the left or right posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to the target regions determined in the left or right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ), respectively. The intra- and cross-group statistical calculations of FC strength were compared. The conclusions were as follows: (1) the intra-hemisphere FC strength values between the PCC and TPJ on the left and right were decreased in patients compared with controls; and (2) the correlation coefficients between the FC pairs in the patients were increased compared with the corresponding controls. When all of the patients were grouped by their tumor’s hemispheric location, (3) the FC of the subgroups showed that the dominant hemisphere was vulnerable to glioma, and (4) the FC in the dominant hemisphere showed a significant correlation with WHO grade. PMID:27248706

  20. Utah juniper and two-needle piñon reduction alters fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper (Juniperus spp.)-piñon (Pinus spp.) trees have encroached millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-bunchgrass communities. Juniper-piñon trees are treated to reduce canopy fuel loads and crown fire potential. We measured the effects of juniper-piñon infilling and fuel-reduction tre...

  1. Noise reduction in digital speckle pattern interferometry using bidimensional empirical mode decomposition.

    PubMed

    Bernini, María Belén; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2008-05-10

    We propose a bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) method to reduce speckle noise in digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) fringes. The BEMD method is based on a sifting process that decomposes the DSPI fringes in a finite set of subimages represented by high and low frequency oscillations, which are named modes. The sifting process assigns the high frequency information to the first modes, so that it is possible to discriminate speckle noise from fringe information, which is contained in the remaining modes. The proposed method is a fully data-driven technique, therefore neither fixed basis functions nor operator intervention are required. The performance of the BEMD method to denoise DSPI fringes is analyzed using computer-simulated data, and the results are also compared with those obtained by means of a previously developed one-dimensional empirical mode decomposition approach. An application of the proposed BEMD method to denoise experimental fringes is also presented.

  2. Flow Alteration and Chemical Reduction: Air Stripping to Lessen Subsurface Discharges of Mercury to Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. C.; Bogle, M.; Liang, L.; Miller, C. L.; Peterson, M.; Southworth, G. R.; Spalding, B. P.

    2009-12-01

    process water. Greater than 90% of the mercury in that discharge was converted to the highly volatile dissolved Hg(0) by dechlorinating the streamflow with ascorbic acid and then treating it with a near stoichiometric concentration of the chemical reductant stannous chloride. Preliminary engineering evaluations indicate that once converted to Hg(0), mercury in the stream discharge could be removed by in-situ air stripping at the discharge point or perhaps within the enclosed stormdrain network upstream. If chemical reduction:air stripping was eventualy able to remove 80% or more of Hg from water, input to the stream from that source could be lowered from 6 - 8 g/d to 1 - 2 g/d. Together, these two strategies have the potential to eliminate much of the remaining dissolved Hg input to the creek.

  3. Alteration of the mode of antibacterial action of a defensin by the amino-terminal loop substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Bin; Zhu, Shunyi

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M is an engineered fungal defensin with the n-loop of an insect defensin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M adopts a native defensin-like structure with high antibacterial potency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M kills bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work sheds light on the functional evolution of CS{alpha}{beta}-type defensins. -- Abstract: Ancient invertebrate-type and classical insect-type defensins (AITDs and CITDs) are two groups of evolutionarily related antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that adopt a conserved cysteine-stabilized {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet (CS{alpha}{beta}) fold with a different amino-terminal loop (n-loop) size and diverse modes of antibacterial action. Although they both are identified as inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis, only CITDs evolved membrane disruptive ability by peptide oligomerization to form pores. To understand how this occurred, we modified micasin, a fungus-derived AITDs with a non-membrane disruptive mechanism, by substituting its n-loop with that of an insect-derived CITDs. After air oxidization, the synthetic hybrid defensin (termed Al-M) was structurally identified by circular dichroism (CD) and functionally evaluated by antibacterial and membrane permeability assays and electronic microscopic observation. Results showed that Al-M folded into a native-like defensin structure, as determined by its CD spectrum that is similar to that of micasin. Al-M was highly efficacious against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium with a lethal concentration of 1.76 {mu}M. As expected, in contrast to micasin, Al-M killed the bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism of action. The alteration in modes of action supports a key role of the n-loop extension in assembling functional surface of CITDs for membrane disruption. Our work provides mechanical evidence for evolutionary relationship between AITDs and CITDs.

  4. Reduction of anabolic signals and alteration of osteoblast nuclear morphology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Rodenacker, Karsten; Jütting, Uta

    2006-10-01

    Bone loss has been repeatedly documented in astronauts after flight, yet little is known about the mechanism of bone loss in space flight. Osteoblasts were activated during space flight in microgravity (microg) with and without a 1 gravity (1 g) field and 24 genes were analyzed for early induction. Induction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (cox-2), cpla2, osteocalcin (OC), c-myc, fibroblast growth factor-2 (fgf-2), bcl2, bax, and fgf-2 message as well as FGF-2 protein were significantly depressed in microg when compared to ground (gr). Artificial onboard gravity normalized the induction of c-myc, cox-2, TGFbeta, bax, bcl2, and fgf-2 message as well as FGF-2 protein synthesis in spaceflight samples. In normal gravity, FGF-2 induces bcl2 expression; we found that bcl2 expression was significantly reduced in microgravity conditions. Since nuclear shape is known to elongate in the absence of mitogens like FGF-2, we used high-resolution image-based morphometry to characterize changes in osteoblast nuclear architecture under microgravity, 1 g flight, and ground conditions. Besides changes in cell shape (roundish/elliptic), other high-resolution analyses show clear influences of gravity on the inner nuclear structure. These changes occur in the texture, arrangement, and contrast of nuclear particles and mathematical modeling defines the single cell classification of the osteoblasts. Changes in nuclear structure were evident as early as 24 h after exposure to microgravity. This documented alteration in nuclear architecture may be a direct result of decreased expression of autocrine and cell cycle genes, suggesting an inhibition of anabolic response in microg. Life on this planet has evolved in a normal gravity field and these data suggest that gravity plays a significant role in regulation of osteoblast transcription.

  5. MODE OF ACTION: REDUCTION OF TESTOSTERONE AVAILABILITY--MOLINATE-INDUCED INHIBITION OF SPERMATOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molinate is a preemergent herbicide that has been demonstrated to affect reproduction in the rat via alterations in sperm production. A wealth of standard toxicological studies and targeted research efforts relating to this adverse effect is available, and these were used to eval...

  6. Reduction in Neutral Beam Driven Current in a Tokamak by Tearing Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, C.B.; Ferron, J.R.; Hyatt, A.W.; La Haye, R.J.; Politzer, P.A.; St. John, H.E.; Gianakon, T.; Harvey, R.W.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Murakami, M.

    1997-07-01

    Profiles of noninductive current driven by neutral beam injection into a tokamak have been measured and compared with theory. The driven current can be less than the theoretical prediction (by up to 80{percent}) in the presence of islands driven by tearing modes. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Least square based sliding mode control for a quad-rotor helicopter and energy saving by chattering reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Bambang; Uchiyama, Naoki; Sano, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new control structure for a quad-rotor helicopter that employs the least squares method is introduced. This proposed algorithm solves the overdetermined problem of the control input for the translational motion of a quad-rotor helicopter. The algorithm allows all six degrees of freedom to be considered to calculate the control input. The sliding mode controller is applied to achieve robust tracking and stabilization. A saturation function is designed around a boundary layer to reduce the chattering phenomenon that is a common problem in sliding mode control. In order to improve the tracking performance, an integral sliding surface is designed. An energy saving effect because of chattering reduction is also evaluated. First, the dynamics of the quad-rotor helicopter is derived by the Newton-Euler formulation for a rigid body. Second, a constant plus proportional reaching law is introduced to increase the reaching rate of the sliding mode controller. Global stability of the proposed control strategy is guaranteed based on the Lyapunov's stability theory. Finally, the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control system are demonstrated experimentally under wind gusts, and are compared with a regular sliding mode controller, a proportional-differential controller, and a proportional-integral-differential controller.

  8. Local surface plasmon mediated extraordinary optical transmission of multi-spatial-mode quantum noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrie, Benjamin J; Evans, Philip G; Pooser, Raphael C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent transduction of quantum noise reduction, or squeezed light, by Ag localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Squeezed light, generated through four-wave-mixing in Rb vapor, is coupled to a Ag nanohole array designed to exhibit LSP mediated extraordinary-optical transmission (EOT) spectrally coincident with the squeezed light source at 795 nm. We demonstrate that quantum noise reduction as a function of transmission is found to match closely with linear attenuation models, thus demonstrating that the photon-LSP-photon transduction process is coherent near the LSP resonance.

  9. Three Averaging Techniques for Reduction of Antenna Temperature Variance Measured by a Dicke Mode, C-Band Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.; Lawrence, Roland W.

    2000-01-01

    As new radiometer technologies provide the possibility of greatly improved spatial resolution, their performance must also be evaluated in terms of expected sensitivity and absolute accuracy. As aperture size increases, the sensitivity of a Dicke mode radiometer can be maintained or improved by application of any or all of three digital averaging techniques: antenna data averaging with a greater than 50% antenna duty cycle, reference data averaging, and gain averaging. An experimental, noise-injection, benchtop radiometer at C-band showed a 68.5% reduction in Delta-T after all three averaging methods had been applied simultaneously. For any one antenna integration time, the optimum 34.8% reduction in Delta-T was realized by using an 83.3% antenna/reference duty cycle.

  10. Stiffness-generated rigid-body mode shapes for Lanczos eigensolution with SUPORT DOF by way of a MSC/NASTRAN DMAP alter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Ayman A.; Barnett, Alan R.; Widrick, Timothy W.; Manella, Richard T.; Miller, Robert P.

    1994-01-01

    When using all MSC/NASTRAN eigensolution methods except Lanczos, the analyst can replace the coupled system rigid-body modes calculated within DMAP module READ with mass orthogonalized and normalized rigid-body modes generated from the system stiffness. This option is invoked by defining MSC/NASTRAN r-set degrees of freedom via the SUPORT bulk data card. The newly calculated modes are required if the rigid-body modes calculated by the eigensolver are not 'clean' due to numerical roundoffs in the solution. When performing transient structural dynamic load analysis, the numerical roundoffs can result in inaccurate rigid-body accelerations which affect steady-state responses. Unfortunately, when using the Lanczos method and defining r-set degrees of freedom, the rigid-body modes calculated within DMAP module REIGL are retained. To overcome this limitation and to allow MSC/NASTRAN to handle SUPORT degrees of freedom identically for all eigensolvers, a DMAP Alter has been written which replaces Lanczos-calculated rigid-body modes with stiffness-generated rigid-body modes. The newly generated rigid-body modes are normalized with respect to the system mass and orthogonalized using the Gram-Schmidt technique. This algorithm has been implemented as an enhancement to an existing coupled loads methodology.

  11. Altered default mode and fronto-parietal network subsystems in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiao; Shen, Hui; Wang, Lubin; Liu, Zhening; Xin, Wei; Hu, Dewen; Miao, Danmin

    2014-05-01

    The complex symptoms of schizophrenia have recently been linked to disrupted neural circuits and corresponding malfunction of two higher-order intrinsic brain networks: The default mode network (DMN) and the fronto-parietal network (FPN). These networks are both functionally heterogeneous and consist of multiple subsystems. However, the extent to which these subsystems make differential contributions to disorder symptoms and to what degree such abnormalities occur in unaffected siblings have yet to be clarified. We used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to examine group differences in intra- and inter-connectivity of subsystems within the two neural networks, across a sample of patients with schizophrenia (n=24), their unaffected siblings (n=25), and healthy controls (n=22). We used group independent component analysis (gICA) to identify four network subsystems, including anterior and posterior portions of the DMN (aDMN, pDMN) as well as left- and right-lateralized portions of the FPN (lFPN, rFPN). Intra-connectivity is defined as neural coherence within a subsystem whereas inter-connectivity refers to functional connectivity between subsystems. In terms of intra-connectivity, patients and siblings shared dysconnection within the aDMN and two FPN subsystems, while both groups preserved connectivity within the pDMN. In terms of inter-connectivity, all groups exhibited positive connections between FPN and DMN subsystems, with patients having even stronger interaction between rFPN and aDMN than the controls, a feature that may underlie their psychotic symptoms. Our results implicate that DMN subsystems exhibit different liabilities to the disease risk while FPN subsystems demonstrate distinct inter-connectivity alterations. These dissociating manners between network subsystems explicitly suggest their differentiating roles to the disease susceptibility and manifestation.

  12. Complexity reduction in the H.264/AVC using highly adaptive fast mode decision based on macroblock motion activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellah, Skoudarli; Mokhtar, Nibouche; Amina, Serir

    2015-11-01

    The H.264/AVC video coding standard is used in a wide range of applications from video conferencing to high-definition television according to its high compression efficiency. This efficiency is mainly acquired from the newly allowed prediction schemes including variable block modes. However, these schemes require a high complexity to select the optimal mode. Consequently, complexity reduction in the H.264/AVC encoder has recently become a very challenging task in the video compression domain, especially when implementing the encoder in real-time applications. Fast mode decision algorithms play an important role in reducing the overall complexity of the encoder. In this paper, we propose an adaptive fast intermode algorithm based on motion activity, temporal stationarity, and spatial homogeneity. This algorithm predicts the motion activity of the current macroblock from its neighboring blocks and identifies temporal stationary regions and spatially homogeneous regions using adaptive threshold values based on content video features. Extensive experimental work has been done in high profile, and results show that the proposed source-coding algorithm effectively reduces the computational complexity by 53.18% on average compared with the reference software encoder, while maintaining the high-coding efficiency of H.264/AVC by incurring only 0.097 dB in total peak signal-to-noise ratio and 0.228% increment on the total bit rate.

  13. Structure-Based Alteration of Substrate Specificity and Catalytic Activity of Sulfite Oxidase from Sulfite Oxidation to Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, James A.; Wilson, Heather L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.

    2012-04-18

    Eukaryotic sulfite oxidase is a dimeric protein that contains the molybdenum cofactor and catalyzes the metabolically essential conversion of sulfite to sulfate as the terminal step in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine. Nitrate reductase is an evolutionarily related molybdoprotein in lower organisms that is essential for growth on nitrate. In this study, we describe human and chicken sulfite oxidase variants in which the active site has been modified to alter substrate specificity and activity from sulfite oxidation to nitrate reduction. On the basis of sequence alignments and the known crystal structure of chicken sulfite oxidase, two residues are conserved in nitrate reductases that align with residues in the active site of sulfite oxidase. On the basis of the crystal structure of yeast nitrate reductase, both positions were mutated in human sulfite oxidase and chicken sulfite oxidase. The resulting double-mutant variants demonstrated a marked decrease in sulfite oxidase activity but gained nitrate reductase activity. An additional methionine residue in the active site was proposed to be important in nitrate catalysis, and therefore, the triple variant was also produced. The nitrate reducing ability of the human sulfite oxidase triple mutant was nearly 3-fold greater than that of the double mutant. To obtain detailed structural data for the active site of these variants, we introduced the analogous mutations into chicken sulfite oxidase to perform crystallographic analysis. The crystal structures of the Mo domains of the double and triple mutants were determined to 2.4 and 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, respectively.

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Optimal Longitudinal-Mode Control for Drag Reduction through Distributed Aeroelastic Shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ippolito, Corey; Nguyen, Nhan; Lohn, Jason; Dolan, John

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of advanced lightweight materials is resulting in a new generation of lighter, flexible, more-efficient airframes that are enabling concepts for active aeroelastic wing-shape control to achieve greater flight efficiency and increased safety margins. These elastically shaped aircraft concepts require non-traditional methods for large-scale multi-objective flight control that simultaneously seek to gain aerodynamic efficiency in terms of drag reduction while performing traditional command-tracking tasks as part of a complete guidance and navigation solution. This paper presents results from a preliminary study of a notional multi-objective control law for an aeroelastic flexible-wing aircraft controlled through distributed continuous leading and trailing edge control surface actuators. This preliminary study develops and analyzes a multi-objective control law derived from optimal linear quadratic methods on a longitudinal vehicle dynamics model with coupled aeroelastic dynamics. The controller tracks commanded attack-angle while minimizing drag and controlling wing twist and bend. This paper presents an overview of the elastic aircraft concept, outlines the coupled vehicle model, presents the preliminary control law formulation and implementation, presents results from simulation, provides analysis, and concludes by identifying possible future areas for research

  15. Split-Spectrum Signal Processing for Reduction of the Effect of Dispersive Wave Modes in Long-range Ultrasonic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedram, S. K.; Haig, A.; Lowe, P. S.; Thornicroft, K.; Gan, L.; Mudge, P.

    This paper presents a Split-Spectrum Signal Processing (SSP) with applications to Long Range Ultrasonic Testing (LRUT). The problem of coherent noise due to Dispersive Wave Modes (DWM) in the context of ultrasonic scattering is addressed and a novel solution by utilizing the SSP technique is proposed for reduction of the effects of DWM in the received signal. The proposed technique investigates the sensitivity of SSP performance to the filter bank parameter values such as processing/filter bandwidth, and filter overlap. Therefore, as a result the optimum values are introduced that improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR) significantly. The proposed method has been compared with conventional approaches for synthesized signals for a 6 inch pipe by applying the different recombination SSP techniques. The Polarity Thresholding (PT) and PT with Minimization (PTM) methods were found to give the best result and substantially improve the SNR performance by an average of 10 dB.

  16. Core flooding tests to investigate the effects of IFT reduction and wettability alteration on oil recovery during MEOR process in an Iranian oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Arash; Sharifinik, Milad; Niazi, Ali; Hashemi, Abdolnabi; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-07-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) refers to the process of using bacterial activities for more oil recovery from oil reservoirs mainly by interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration mechanisms. Investigating the impact of these two mechanisms on enhanced oil recovery during MEOR process is the main objective of this work. Different analytical methods such as oil spreading and surface activity measurements were utilized to screen the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from the brine of a specific oil reservoir located in the southwest of Iran. The isolates identified by 16S rDNA and biochemical analysis as Enterobacter cloacae (Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) 1798) and Enterobacter hormaechei (PTCC 1799) produce 1.53 g/l of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant caused substantial surface tension reduction of the growth medium and interfacial tension reduction between oil and brine to 31 and 3.2 mN/m from the original value of 72 and 29 mN/m, respectively. A novel set of core flooding tests, including in situ and ex situ scenarios, was designed to explore the potential of the isolated consortium as an agent for MEOR process. Besides, the individual effects of wettability alteration and IFT reduction on oil recovery efficiency by this process were investigated. The results show that the wettability alteration of the reservoir rock toward neutrally wet condition in the course of the adsorption of bacteria cells and biofilm formation are the dominant mechanisms on the improvement of oil recovery efficiency.

  17. Core flooding tests to investigate the effects of IFT reduction and wettability alteration on oil recovery during MEOR process in an Iranian oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Arash; Sharifinik, Milad; Niazi, Ali; Hashemi, Abdolnabi; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-07-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) refers to the process of using bacterial activities for more oil recovery from oil reservoirs mainly by interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration mechanisms. Investigating the impact of these two mechanisms on enhanced oil recovery during MEOR process is the main objective of this work. Different analytical methods such as oil spreading and surface activity measurements were utilized to screen the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from the brine of a specific oil reservoir located in the southwest of Iran. The isolates identified by 16S rDNA and biochemical analysis as Enterobacter cloacae (Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) 1798) and Enterobacter hormaechei (PTCC 1799) produce 1.53 g/l of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant caused substantial surface tension reduction of the growth medium and interfacial tension reduction between oil and brine to 31 and 3.2 mN/m from the original value of 72 and 29 mN/m, respectively. A novel set of core flooding tests, including in situ and ex situ scenarios, was designed to explore the potential of the isolated consortium as an agent for MEOR process. Besides, the individual effects of wettability alteration and IFT reduction on oil recovery efficiency by this process were investigated. The results show that the wettability alteration of the reservoir rock toward neutrally wet condition in the course of the adsorption of bacteria cells and biofilm formation are the dominant mechanisms on the improvement of oil recovery efficiency. PMID:23553033

  18. Acid and reduction stimulated logic "and"-type combinational release mode achieved in DOX-loaded superparamagnetic nanogel.

    PubMed

    Song, Meifang; Xue, Yanan; Chen, Lidi; Xia, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Long, Sihui; Huang, Shiwen; Yu, Faquan

    2016-08-01

    A superparamagnetic nanogel featured with a logic "and"-type pH/reduction combinational stimulated release mode was fabricated as a drug delivery system by virtue of parallel crosslinking. The disulfide bond and electrostatic interaction between thiolated alginate (SA-SH) and thiolated/aminated iron oxide nanoparticles (SH-MION-NH2) were employed to achieve the mechanism. The obtained DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel is 122.7±20.3nm in size with superparamagnetism. The combinational conditions of pH5.0/10mM glutathione (GSH) stimulated a significantly high accumulative release. However, either pH7.4/10mM (GSH) or pH5.0 alone induced much low release. This verified the typical logic "and"-type combinationally stimulated release mode. In vitro cytotoxicity tests clearly illustrated the effective selectivity of killing the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with IC50 of 1.01μg/mL and the human hepatoma cells (HepG2) with IC50 of 1.57μg/mL but significantly low cytotoxicity to the cercopithecus aethiops kidney cells (Vero). CLSM presented the internationalization of the nanogel into cytoplasm and nuclei with time. In vivo investigation revealed that the selective intratumoral accumulation and antitumor efficacy were considerably advantageous over free DOX whereas low systemic toxicity exhibited up-regulated security as compared to free DOX. Overall, the DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel with enhanced antitumor efficacy and down-regulated adverse effect was a promising nanoplatform for the clinical chemotherapy of malignancy. PMID:27157762

  19. Monte Carlo study for physiological interference reduction in near-infrared spectroscopy based on empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Sun, JinWei; Rolfe, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used as the basis of non-invasive neuroimaging that may allow the measurement of haemodynamic changes in the human brain evoked by applied stimuli. Since this technique is very sensitive, physiological interference arising from the cardiac cycle and breathing can significantly affect the signal quality. Such interference is difficult to remove by conventional techniques because it occurs not only in the extracerebral layer but also in the brain tissue itself. Previous work on this problem employing temporal filtering, spatial filtering, and adaptive filtering have exhibited good performance for recovering brain activity data in evoked response studies. However, in this study, we present a time-frequency adaptive method for physiological interference reduction based on the combination of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert spectral analysis (HSA). Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layered slab model of a human adult head were implemented to evaluate our methodology. We applied an EMD algorithm to decompose the NIRS time series derived from Monte Carlo simulations into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). In order to identify the IMFs associated with symmetric interference, the extracted components were then Hilbert transformed from which the instantaneous frequencies could be acquired. By reconstructing the NIRS signal by properly selecting IMFs, we determined that the evoked brain response is effectively filtered out with even higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The results obtained demonstrated that EMD, combined with HSA, can effectively separate, identify and remove the contamination from the evoked brain response obtained with NIRS using a simple single source-detector pair.

  20. Seipin deficiency alters brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and insulin sensitivity in a non-cell autonomous mode

    PubMed Central

    Dollet, L.; Magré, J.; Joubert, M.; Le May, C.; Ayer, A.; Arnaud, L.; Pecqueur, C.; Blouin, V.; Cariou, B.; Prieur, X.

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in BSCL2 are responsible for Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, a rare disorder characterized by near absence of adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance. Seipin-deficient (Bscl2−/−) mice display an almost total loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) with residual brown adipose tissue (BAT). Previous cellular studies have shown that seipin deficiency alters white adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we aimed to decipher the consequences of seipin deficiency in BAT. Using a brown adipocyte cell-line, we show that seipin knockdown had very little effect on adipocyte differentiation without affecting insulin sensitivity and oxygen consumption. However, when submitted to cold acclimation or chronic β3 agonist treatment, Bscl2−/− mice displayed altered thermogenic capacity, despite several signs of BAT remodeling. Under cold activation, Bscl2−/− mice were able to maintain their body temperature when fed ad libitum, but not under short fasting. At control temperature (i.e. 21 °C), fasting worsened Bscl2−/− BAT properties. Finally, Bscl2−/− BAT displayed obvious signs of insulin resistance. Our results in these lipodystrophic mice strongly suggest that BAT activity relies on WAT as an energetic substrate provider and adipokine-producing organ. Therefore, the WAT/BAT dialogue is a key component of BAT integrity in guaranteeing its response to insulin and cold-activated adrenergic signals. PMID:27748422

  1. Reduction of the Cholesterol Sensor SCAP in the Brains of Mice Causes Impaired Synaptic Transmission and Altered Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Melissa J.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The sterol sensor SCAP is a key regulator of SREBP-2, the major transcription factor controlling cholesterol synthesis. Recently, we showed that there is a global down-regulation of cholesterol synthetic genes, as well as SREBP-2, in the brains of diabetic mice, leading to a reduction of cholesterol synthesis. We now show that in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, this is, in part, the result of a decrease of SCAP. Homozygous disruption of the Scap gene in the brains of mice causes perinatal lethality associated with microcephaly and gliosis. Mice with haploinsufficiency of Scap in the brain show a 60% reduction of SCAP protein and ∼30% reduction in brain cholesterol synthesis, similar to what is observed in diabetic mice. This results in impaired synaptic transmission, as measured by decreased paired pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation, and is associated with behavioral and cognitive changes. Thus, reduction of SCAP and the consequent suppression of cholesterol synthesis in the brain may play an important role in the increased rates of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease observed in diabetic states. PMID:23585733

  2. Local stochastic subgrid-scale modeling for a one dimensional shallow water model using stochastic mode reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharuk, Matthias; Stamen, Dolaptchiev; Ulrich, Achatz; Ilya, Timofeyev

    2016-04-01

    Due to the finite spatial resolution in numerical atmospheric models subgrid-scale (SGS) processes are excluded. A SGS parameterization of these excluded processes might improve the model on all scales. To parameterize the SGS processes we choose the MTV stochastic mode reduction (Majda, Timofeyev, Vanden-Eijnden 2001, A mathematical framework for stochastic climate models. Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 54:891-974). For this the model is separated into fast and slow processes. Using the statistics of the fast processes, a SGS parameterization is found. To identify fast processes the state vector of the model is separated into two state vectors. One vector is the average of the full model state vector in a coarse grid cell. The other describes SGS processes which are defined as the deviation of the full state vector from the coarse cell average. If the SGS vector decorrelates faster in time than the coarse grid vector, the interactions of SGS processes in the equation of the SGS processes are replaced by a local Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Afterwards the MTV SGS parameterization can be derived. This method was successfully applied on the Burgers-equation (Dolaptchiev et al. 2013, Stochastic closure for local averages in the finite-difference discretization of the forced Burgers equation. Theor. Comp. Fluid Dyn., 27:297-317). In this study we consider a more atmosphere like model and choose a model of the one dimensional shallow water equations (SWe). It will be shown, that the fine state vector decorrelates faster than the coarse state vector. Due to the non-polynomial form of the SWe in flux formulation an approximation of all 1/h (h = fluid depth) terms needs to be done, except of the interactions between coarse state vector to coarse state vector. It will be shown, that this approximation has only minor impact on the model results. In the following the model with the local Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process approximation of SGS interactions is analyzed and compared to the

  3. Altered functional connectivity in default mode network in absence epilepsy: a resting-state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng; Li, Qifu; Lai, Yongxiu; Xia, Yang; Qin, Yun; Liao, Wei; Li, Shasha; Zhou, Dong; Yao, Dezhong; Gong, Qiyong

    2011-03-01

    Dysfunctional default mode network (DMN) has been observed in various mental disorders, including epilepsy (see review Broyd et al. [2009]: Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:279–296). Because interictal epileptic discharges may affect DMN, resting-state fMRI was used in this study to determine DMN functional connectivity in 14 healthy controls and 12 absence epilepsy patients. To avoid interictal epileptic discharge effects, testing was performed within interictal durations when there were no interictal epileptic discharges. Cross-correlation functional connectivity analysis with seed at posterior cingulate cortex, as well as region-wise calculation in DMN, revealed decreased integration within DMN in the absence epilepsy patients. Region-wise functional connectivity among the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobe was significantly decreased in the patient group. Moreover, functional connectivity between the frontal and parietal lobe revealed a significant negative correlation with epilepsy duration. These findings indicated DMN abnormalities in patients with absence epilepsy, even during resting interictal durations without interictal epileptic discharges. Abnormal functional connectivity in absence epilepsy may reflect abnormal anatomo-functional architectural integration in DMN, as a result of cognitive mental impairment and unconsciousness during absence seizure. PMID:21319269

  4. Altered effective connectivity patterns of the default mode network in Alzheimer's disease: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yufang; Huang, Liyu; Cai, Suping; Zhang, Yun; von Deneen, Karen M; Ren, Aifeng; Ren, Junchan

    2014-08-22

    The aim of this work is to investigate the differences of effective connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NC). The technique of independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to identify DMN components and multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) was used to explore an effective connectivity pattern. We found that: (i) connections in AD were decreased than those in NC, in terms of intensity and quantity. Posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) exhibited significant activity in NC as it connected with most of the other regions within the DMN. Besides, the PCC was the convergence center which only received interactions from other regions; (ii) right inferior temporal cortex (rITC) in the NC exhibited stronger interactions with other regions within the DMN compared with AD patients; and (iii) interactions between medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in the NC were weaker than those in AD patients. These findings may implicate a brain dysfunction in AD patients and reveal more pathophysiological characteristics of AD.

  5. Microbial sulfate reduction and the sulfur budget for a complete section of altered oceanic basalts, IODP Hole 1256D (eastern Pacific)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alt, Jeffrey C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfide mineralogy and the contents and isotope compositions of sulfur were analyzed in a complete oceanic volcanic section from IODP Hole 1256D in the eastern Pacific, in order to investigate the role of microbes and their effect on the sulfur budget in altered upper oceanic crust. Basalts in the 800m thick volcanic section are affected by a pervasive low-temperature background alteration and have mean sulfur contents of 530ppm, reflecting loss of sulfur relative to fresh glass through degassing during eruption and alteration by seawater. Alteration halos along fractures average 155ppm sulfur and are more oxidized, have high SO4/ΣS ratios (0.43), and lost sulfur through oxidation by seawater compared to host rocks. Although sulfur was lost locally, sulfur was subsequently gained through fixation of seawater-derived sulfur in secondary pyrite and marcasite in veins and in concentrations at the boundary between alteration halos and host rocks. Negative δ34Ssulfide-S values (down to -30 °) and low temperatures of alteration (down to ~40 °C) point to microbial reduction of seawater sulfate as the process resulting in local additions of sulfide-S. Mass balance calculations indicate that 15-20% of the sulfur in the volcanic section is microbially derived, with the bulk altered volcanic section containing 940ppm S, and with δ34S shifted to -6.0‰) from the mantle value (0 ‰). The bulk volcanic section may have gained or lost sulfur overall. The annual flux of microbial sulfur into oceanic basement based on Hole 1256D is 3-4 X1010molSyr-1, within an order of magnitude of the riverine sulfate source and the sedimentary pyrite sink. Results indicate a flux of bacterially derived sulfur that is fixed in upper ocean basement of 7-8 X 10-8molcm-2yr-1 over 15m.y. This is comparable to that in open ocean sediment sites, but is one to two orders of magnitude less than for ocean margin sediments. The global annual subduction of sulfur in altered oceanic basalt lavas based

  6. Merged beam laser design for reduction of gain-saturation and two-photon absorption in high power single mode semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Lysevych, M; Tan, H H; Karouta, F; Fu, L; Jagadish, C

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we report a method to overcome the limitations of gain-saturation and two-photon absorption faced by developers of high power single mode InP-based lasers and semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) including those based on wide-waveguide or slab-coupled optical waveguide laser (SCOWL) technology. The method is based on Y-coupling design of the laser cavity. The reduction in gain-saturation and two-photon absorption in the merged beam laser structures (MBL) are obtained by reducing the intensity of electromagnetic field in the laser cavity. Standard ridge-waveguide lasers and MBLs were fabricated, tested and compared. Despite a slightly higher threshold current, the reduced gain-saturation in MBLs results in higher output power. The MBLs also produced a single spatial mode, as well as a strongly dominating single spectral mode which is the inherent feature of MBL-type cavity.

  7. Forest fuel reduction alters fire severity and long-term carbon storage in three Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen R; Harmon, Mark E; O'Connell, Kari E B

    2009-04-01

    Two forest management objectives being debated in the context of federally managed landscapes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest involve a perceived trade-off between fire restoration and carbon sequestration. The former strategy would reduce fuel (and therefore C) that has accumulated through a century of fire suppression and exclusion which has led to extreme fire risk in some areas. The latter strategy would manage forests for enhanced C sequestration as a method of reducing atmospheric CO2 and associated threats from global climate change. We explored the trade-off between these two strategies by employing a forest ecosystem simulation model, STANDCARB, to examine the effects of fuel reduction on fire severity and the resulting long-term C dynamics among three Pacific Northwest ecosystems: the east Cascades ponderosa pine forests, the west Cascades western hemlock-Douglas-fir forests, and the Coast Range western hemlock-Sitka spruce forests. Our simulations indicate that fuel reduction treatments in these ecosystems consistently reduced fire severity. However, reducing the fraction by which C is lost in a wildfire requires the removal of a much greater amount of C, since most of the C stored in forest biomass (stem wood, branches, coarse woody debris) remains unconsumed even by high-severity wildfires. For this reason, all of the fuel reduction treatments simulated for the west Cascades and Coast Range ecosystems as well as most of the treatments simulated for the east Cascades resulted in a reduced mean stand C storage. One suggested method of compensating for such losses in C storage is to utilize C harvested in fuel reduction treatments as biofuels. Our analysis indicates that this will not be an effective strategy in the west Cascades and Coast Range over the next 100 years. We suggest that forest management plans aimed solely at ameliorating increases in atmospheric CO2 should forgo fuel reduction treatments in these ecosystems, with the possible exception of

  8. Reductions in frontocortical cytokine levels are associated with long-lasting alterations in reward valuation after methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; Thompson, Andrew B; Barrientos, Ruth M; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2015-03-13

    Alterations in reward valuation are thought to have a central role at all stages of the addiction process. We previously reported work aversion in an effortful T-maze task following a binge exposure to methamphetamine, and no such changes in effort following escalating doses. Limitations of the T-maze task include its two available options, with an effort requirement, in the form of increasing barrier height, varying incrementally as a function of time, and reward magnitudes held constant. Reward preferences and choices, however, are likely affected by the number of options available and the manner in which alternatives are presented. In the present experiment, we investigated the long-lasting, off-drug effects of methamphetamine on reward choices in a novel effortful maze task with three possible courses of action, each associated with different effort requirements and reward magnitudes. Neuroinflammatory responses associated with drug exposure, proposed as one of the mechanisms contributing to suboptimal choices on effort-based tasks, were also examined. We investigated region-specific changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in the mesocorticolimbic pathway after methamphetamine, and their relationship with animals' reward choices. We observed long-lasting, increased sensitivity to differences in reward magnitude in the methamphetamine group: animals were more likely to overcome greater effort costs to obtain larger rewards on our novel effortful maze task. These behavioral changes were strongly predicted by pronounced decreases in frontocortical cytokines, but not amygdalar or striatal markers. The present results provide the first evidence that neuroinflammatory processes are associated with alterations in reward valuation during protracted drug withdrawal.

  9. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á; Olvera-Cortés, María E

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  10. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pérez, J. Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E.; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á.; Olvera-Cortés, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  11. Short-term high-fat-and-fructose feeding produces insulin signaling alterations accompanied by neurite and synaptic reduction and astroglial activation in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Ochoa, Erika; Hernández-Ortega, Karina; Ferrera, Patricia; Morimoto, Sumiko; Arias, Clorinda

    2014-01-01

    Chronic consumption of high-fat-and-fructose diets (HFFD) is associated with the development of insulin resistance (InsRes) and obesity. Systemic insulin resistance resulting from long-term HFFD feeding has detrimental consequences on cognitive performance, neurogenesis, and long-term potentiation establishment, accompanied by neuronal alterations in the hippocampus. However, diet-induced hippocampal InsRes has not been reported. Therefore, we investigated whether short-term HFFD feeding produced hippocampal insulin signaling alterations associated with neuronal changes in the hippocampus. Rats were fed with a control diet or an HFFD consisting of 10% lard supplemented chow and 20% high-fructose syrup in the drinking water. Our results show that 7 days of HFFD feeding induce obesity and InsRes, associated with the following alterations in the hippocampus: (1) a decreased insulin signaling; (2) a decreased hippocampal weight; (3) a reduction in dendritic arborization in CA1 and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) levels; (4) a decreased dendritic spine number in CA1 and synaptophysin content, along with an increase in tau phosphorylation; and finally, (5) an increase in reactive astrocyte associated with microglial changes. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing hippocampal insulin signaling, as well as morphologic, structural, and functional modifications due to short-term HFFD feeding in the rat. PMID:24667917

  12. Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response, and lateral root growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, A. M.; DeLong, A.; Muday, G. K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Auxin transport is required for important growth and developmental processes in plants, including gravity response and lateral root growth. Several lines of evidence suggest that reversible protein phosphorylation regulates auxin transport. Arabidopsis rcn1 mutant seedlings exhibit reduced protein phosphatase 2A activity and defects in differential cell elongation. Here we report that reduced phosphatase activity alters auxin transport and dependent physiological processes in the seedling root. Root basipetal transport was increased in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings but showed normal sensitivity to the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Phosphatase inhibition reduced root gravity response and delayed the establishment of differential auxin-induced gene expression across a gravity-stimulated root tip. An NPA treatment that reduced basipetal transport in rcn1 and cantharidin-treated wild-type plants also restored a normal gravity response and asymmetric auxin-induced gene expression, indicating that increased basipetal auxin transport impedes gravitropism. Increased auxin transport in rcn1 or phosphatase inhibitor-treated seedlings did not require the AGR1/EIR1/PIN2/WAV6 or AUX1 gene products. In contrast to basipetal transport, root acropetal transport was normal in phosphatase-inhibited seedlings in the absence of NPA, although it showed reduced NPA sensitivity. Lateral root growth also exhibited reduced NPA sensitivity in rcn1 seedlings, consistent with acropetal transport controlling lateral root growth. These results support the role of protein phosphorylation in regulating auxin transport and suggest that the acropetal and basipetal auxin transport streams are differentially regulated.

  13. Reduction of TEM/ETG-scale Density Fluctuations in the Core and Edge of H-mode DIII-D Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, L.

    2008-11-01

    Improved confinement during H-mode has been linked to ExB shear suppression of large-scale (kθρs<=0.3) turbulence within an edge transport barrier. While larger scale eddies are preferentially suppressed by increased shear flow in this paradigm, the effects on smaller scale (TEM/ETG-scale) turbulence are less certain. Recent results from DIII-D provide the first experimental evidence that intermediate-scale turbulence (1 < kθρs<=3) together with larger-scale electron temperature fluctuations [1] are also reduced promptly at the L-H transition. These reductions are not confined to the edge region. Intermediate-scale density fluctuations obtained via Doppler backscattering, are significantly reduced (30%-50%) over a range of normalized radii (0.5 <=r/a <=0.85) within a few ms of the L-H transition. A larger reduction (>=75%) is observed at the top of the pedestal (r/a ˜0.9) within 0.2 ms. In addition, low-k electron temperature fluctuations (kθρs<=0.3, from correlation ECE) are strongly reduced (>75%) at the L-H mode transition and during QH-mode (r/a ˜0.7). Gyrokinetic simulation results [2] predict that Te fluctuations contribute significantly to L-mode electron heat transport, hence, the observed reduction is likely an important factor in the observed improved H-mode electron heat confinement (χe^QH/χ3^L < 0.25). Doppler backscattering is also utilized to probe time-dependent shear flows (i.e. zonal flows). The results clearly indicate that zonal flow levels are anti-correlated with the amplitude of intermediate-scale density turbulence in L-mode, suggesting that zonal flows play an important role in turbulence/transport regulation. 3pt [1] L. Schmitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035002 (2008).[2] A.E. White et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 056116 (2008).

  14. Myg1-deficient mice display alterations in stress-induced responses and reduction of sex-dependent behavioural differences.

    PubMed

    Philips, Mari-Anne; Abramov, Urho; Lilleväli, Kersti; Luuk, Hendrik; Kurrikoff, Kaido; Raud, Sirli; Plaas, Mario; Innos, Jürgen; Puussaar, Triinu; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero

    2010-02-11

    Myg1 (Melanocyte proliferating gene 1) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed gene, which encodes a protein with mitochondrial and nuclear localization. In the current study we demonstrate a gradual decline of Myg1 expression during the postnatal development of the mouse brain that suggests relevance for Myg1 in developmental processes. To study the effects of Myg1 loss-of-function, we created Myg1-deficient (-/-) mice by displacing the entire coding sequence of the gene. Initial phenotyping, covering a multitude of behavioural, cognitive, neurological, physiological and stress-related responses, revealed that homozygous Myg1 (-/-) mice are vital, fertile and display no gross abnormalities. Myg1 (-/-) mice showed an inconsistent pattern of altered anxiety-like behaviour in different tests. The plus-maze and social interaction tests revealed that male Myg1 (-/-) mice were significantly less anxious than their wild-type littermates; female (-/-) mice showed increased anxiety in the locomotor activity arena. Restraint-stress significantly reduced the expression of the Myg1 gene in the prefrontal cortex of female wild-type mice and restrained female (-/-) mice showed a blunted corticosterone response, suggesting involvement of Myg1 in stress-induced responses. The main finding of the present study was that Myg1 invalidation decreases several behavioural differences between male and female animals that were obvious in wild-type mice, indicating that Myg1 contributes to the expression of sex-dependent behavioural differences in mice. Taken together, we provide evidence for the involvement of Myg1 in anxiety- and stress-related responses and suggest that Myg1 contributes to the expression of sex-dependent behavioural differences. PMID:19818808

  15. Ozone disinfection dynamics of enteric viruses provide evidence that infectious titer reduction is triggered by alterations to viral colloidal properties.

    PubMed

    Vanden Bossche, G; Wustmann, U; Krietemeyer, S

    1994-11-01

    The inactivation dynamics of three enteric virus species (polio-, rota- and parvovirus) were analysed in different aqueous suspensions by using O3 under continuous flow conditions. A mathematical model for the reaction rate of infectious titer reduction was proposed, based on the thermodynamic principles of phase behaviour of colloids suspended in aqueous environments. Up to a certain threshold dosage of residual ozone (RO), and depending on the type of test virus and the ionic or organic load in the stock suspension, the logarithm of the reaction rate constant of viral inactivation rate was observed to vary in a rather sigmoidal manner with log RO concentration. Data from photon correlation spectroscopy, electron microscopy and tensiometric analysis suggested that below the threshold RO, the pattern of virus inactivation dynamics reflects the varying potential of different-sized viral particles (VPs) to adsorb to the cellular monolayer. There is strong evidence that oxidant-induced surface activity of organic matter causes redistribution of VP infectivity. This hypothesis was statistically corroborated inasmuch as experimental inactivation data proved to be satisfactorily fitted by a logistic equation. It was concluded that viral infection, and thus viral inactivation, is a complex process which is governed largely by the classical laws of colloidal behaviour. The latter is suggested to appreciably determine the capability of inoculated VPs to infect host cultures. This notion may especially be cause for concern when regulatory requirements for virus disinfection are being based on titration results from in vitro testing procedures.

  16. Reduction of rainbow trout spleen size by splenectomy does not alter resistance against bacterial cold water disease.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Gregory D; Marancik, David P; Zwollo, Patty; Kaattari, Stephen L

    2015-03-01

    In lower vertebrates, the contribution of the spleen to anti-bacterial immunity is poorly understood. We have previously reported a phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) and spleen somatic index (spleen weight normalized to body weight, SI). Fish families with larger pre-challenge SI values were found to have greater BCWD survival (resistance) following intraperitoneal injection of a lethal dose of F. psychrophilum. Since the mammalian spleen is known to be crucial for capture and destruction of encapsulated bacteria, we tested the hypothesis that reduction of spleen size, by surgical splenectomy, should reduce the survival advantage of the larger-spleen, disease-resistant fish. Experiments were performed using two separate lines of fish that had previously been selected either based on BCWD survival (resistant and susceptible), or selected based on spleen size (high and low SI). Following 65 to 81 days post-surgical recovery, fish were challenged with F. psychrophilum and mortality monitored for a minimum of 21 days. No significant difference in the relative survival was detected between splenectomized or sham-operated groups, while SI of splenectomized fish was reduced to an average of 8-12% of control animals. A positive correlation was observed between the SI, measured at the time of splenectomy, and time-to-death post-challenge. In summary, these experiments argue that larger spleen size alone is not sufficient for greater BCWD resistance, but rather it is an indirect indicator of immunological status.

  17. Altered functional connectivity in the brain default-mode network of earthquake survivors persists after 2 years despite recovery from anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Du, Ming-Ying; Liao, Wei; Lui, Su; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Li, Fei; Kuang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jing; Chen, Hua-Fu; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2015-11-01

    Although acute impact of traumatic experiences on brain function in disaster survivors is similar to that observed in post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), little is known about the long-term impact of this experience. We have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate resting-state functional connectivity and gray and white matter (WM) changes occurring in the brains of healthy Wenchuan earthquake survivors both 3 weeks and 2 years after the disaster. Results show that while functional connectivity changes 3 weeks after the disaster involved both frontal-limbic-striatal and default-mode networks (DMN), at the 2-year follow-up only changes in the latter persisted, despite complete recovery from high initial levels of anxiety. No gray or WM volume changes were found at either time point. Taken together, our findings provide important new evidence that while altered functional connectivity in the frontal-limbic-striatal network may underlie the post-trauma anxiety experienced by survivors, parallel changes in the DMN persist despite the apparent absence of anxiety symptoms. This suggests that long-term changes occur in neural networks involved in core aspects of self-processing, cognitive and emotional functioning in disaster survivors which are independent of anxiety symptoms and which may also confer increased risk of subsequent development of PTSD. PMID:25862672

  18. A Highly Tilted Binding Mode by a Self-Reactive T Cell Receptor Results in Altered Engagement of Peptide and MHC

    SciTech Connect

    D Sethi; D Schubert; A Anders; A Heroux; D Bonsor; C Thomas; E Sundberg; J Pyrdol; K Wucherpfennig

    2011-12-31

    Self-reactive T cells that escape elimination in the thymus can cause autoimmune pathology, and it is therefore important to understand the structural mechanisms of self-antigen recognition. We report the crystal structure of a T cell receptor (TCR) from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that engages its self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand in an unusual manner. The TCR is bound in a highly tilted orientation that prevents interaction of the TCR-{alpha} chain with the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. In this structure, only a single germline-encoded TCR loop engages the MHC protein, whereas in most other TCR-pMHC structures all four germline-encoded TCR loops bind to the MHC helices. The tilted binding mode also prevents peptide contacts by the short complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3{beta} loop, and interactions that contribute to peptide side chain specificity are focused on the CDR3{alpha} loop. This structure is the first example in which only a single germline-encoded TCR loop contacts the MHC helices. Furthermore, the reduced interaction surface with the peptide may facilitate TCR cross-reactivity. The structural alterations in the trimolecular complex are distinct from previously characterized self-reactive TCRs, indicating that there are multiple unusual ways for self-reactive TCRs to bind their pMHC ligand.

  19. A highly tilted binding mode by a self-reactive T cell receptor results in altered engagement of peptide and MHC

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, D.K.; Heroux, A.; Schubert, D. A.; Anders, A.-K.; Bonsor, D. A.; Thomas, C. P.; Sundberg, E. J.; Pyrdol, J.; Wucherpfennig, K. W.

    2011-01-17

    Self-reactive T cells that escape elimination in the thymus can cause autoimmune pathology, and it is therefore important to understand the structural mechanisms of self-antigen recognition. We report the crystal structure of a T cell receptor (TCR) from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that engages its self-peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand in an unusual manner. The TCR is bound in a highly tilted orientation that prevents interaction of the TCR-{alpha} chain with the MHC class II {beta} chain helix. In this structure, only a single germline-encoded TCR loop engages the MHC protein, whereas in most other TCR-pMHC structures all four germline-encoded TCR loops bind to the MHC helices. The tilted binding mode also prevents peptide contacts by the short complementarity-determining region (CDR) 3{beta} loop, and interactions that contribute to peptide side chain specificity are focused on the CDR3{alpha} loop. This structure is the first example in which only a single germline-encoded TCR loop contacts the MHC helices. Furthermore, the reduced interaction surface with the peptide may facilitate TCR cross-reactivity. The structural alterations in the trimolecular complex are distinct from previously characterized self-reactive TCRs, indicating that there are multiple unusual ways for self-reactive TCRs to bind their pMHC ligand.

  20. Altered functional connectivity in the brain default-mode network of earthquake survivors persists after 2 years despite recovery from anxiety symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ming-Ying; Liao, Wei; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Li, Fei; Kuang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jing; Chen, Hua-Fu; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Although acute impact of traumatic experiences on brain function in disaster survivors is similar to that observed in post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), little is known about the long-term impact of this experience. We have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate resting-state functional connectivity and gray and white matter (WM) changes occurring in the brains of healthy Wenchuan earthquake survivors both 3 weeks and 2 years after the disaster. Results show that while functional connectivity changes 3 weeks after the disaster involved both frontal–limbic–striatal and default-mode networks (DMN), at the 2-year follow-up only changes in the latter persisted, despite complete recovery from high initial levels of anxiety. No gray or WM volume changes were found at either time point. Taken together, our findings provide important new evidence that while altered functional connectivity in the frontal–limbic–striatal network may underlie the post-trauma anxiety experienced by survivors, parallel changes in the DMN persist despite the apparent absence of anxiety symptoms. This suggests that long-term changes occur in neural networks involved in core aspects of self-processing, cognitive and emotional functioning in disaster survivors which are independent of anxiety symptoms and which may also confer increased risk of subsequent development of PTSD. PMID:25862672

  1. Sulfur geochemistry and microbial sulfate reduction during low-temperature alteration of uplifted lower oceanic crust: Insights from ODP Hole 735B

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alford, Susan E.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfide petrography plus whole rock contents and isotope ratios of sulfur were measured in a 1.5 km section of oceanic gabbros in order to understand the geochemistry of sulfur cycling during low-temperature seawater alteration of the lower oceanic crust, and to test whether microbial effects may be present. Most samples have low SO4/ΣS values (≤ 0.15), have retained igneous globules of pyrrhotite ± chalcopyrite ± pentlandite, and host secondary aggregates of pyrrhotite and pyrite laths in smectite ± iron-oxyhydroxide ± magnetite ± calcite pseudomorphs of olivine and clinopyroxene. Compared to fresh gabbro containing 100–1800 ppm sulfur our data indicate an overall addition of sulfide to the lower crust. Selection of samples altered only at temperatures ≤ 110 °C constrains microbial sulfate reduction as the only viable mechanism for the observed sulfide addition, which may have been enabled by the production of H2 from oxidation of associated olivine and pyroxene. The wide range in δ34Ssulfide values (− 1.5 to + 16.3‰) and variable additions of sulfide are explained by variable εsulfate-sulfide under open system pathways, with a possible progression into closed system pathways. Some samples underwent oxidation related to seawater penetration along permeable fault horizons and have lost sulfur, have high SO4/ΣS (≥ 0.46) and variable δ34Ssulfide (0.7 to 16.9‰). Negative δ34Ssulfate–δ34Ssulfide values for the majority of samples indicate kinetic isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfide minerals. Depth trends in sulfide–sulfur contents and sulfide mineral assemblages indicate a late-stage downward penetration of seawater into the lower 1 km of Hole 735B. Our results show that under appropriate temperature conditions, a subsurface biosphere can persist in the lower oceanic crust and alter its geochemistry.

  2. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods. PMID:27258276

  3. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods. PMID:27258276

  4. Reduction of mode partition noise of FP-LD by using Mach-Zehnder interferometer for RSOA-based DWDM applications.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Rok; Kye, Myeonggyun; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2016-06-27

    We investigate reduction of mode partition noise of a spectrally sliced Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) for application to seeded DWDM systems. The proposed scheme for the noise reduction incorporates a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). The MZI enables to reduce a relative intensity noise (RIN) more than 3 dB with better noise distributions. Experimental results of 10-Gb/s signal transmission exhibit a considerable bit-error-rate (BER) reduction by three orders of magnitude at the given received power. After the noise reduction, the FP-LD is applied to a 10-Gb/s DWDM system as a seed-light-source. In a local-seeding scheme, return-to-zero (RZ) and carrier-suppressed (CS)-RZ signal formats are compared as a function of transmission distance. Furthermore, a back-reflection induced impairment is evaluated in a remote-seeding scheme. We also count the number of useable channels to show the feasibility of DWDM transmission. PMID:27410602

  5. Reduction of Circulation Current in a Motor Simulator System by Using a Power Converter with a Common Mode Choke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Abe, Tatsuki

    This paper presents a new method for suppressing circulation currents in a motor simulator system. In conventional system a large transformer at grid frequency has to be used to avoid circulation currents between the motor simulator and a test inverter; further a regenerative converter is required too. In the proposed system, the high frequency components of the circulation current are suppressed by means of a common mode choke, and the low frequency components are suppressed by controlling the zero-phase current. Furthermore, a small medium frequency common mode choke is used instead of both a regenerative converter and the grid frequency transformer. In addition, the proposed system can be used to simulate the transient response of the motor. The proposed method is validated on the basis of simulation and experimental results. The primary current waveforms with distortions due to voltage errors caused the dead time agree well in the case of the motor simulator and the actual motor. Further, the low frequency component of the circulation current is suppressed to a value less than 1% of the fundamental component in the proposed system.

  6. Azotobacter vinelandii nitrogenases containing altered MoFe proteins with substitutions in the FeMo-cofactor environment: effects on the catalyzed reduction of acetylene and ethylene.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K; Dilworth, M J; Kim, C H; Newton, W E

    2000-03-21

    Altered MoFe proteins of Azotobacter vinelandii Mo-nitrogenase, with amino acid substitutions in the FeMo-cofactor environment, were used to probe interactions among C(2)H(2), C(2)H(4), CO, and H(2). The altered MoFe proteins used were the alpha-195(Asn) or alpha-195(Gln) MoFe proteins, which have either asparagine or glutamine substituting for alpha-histidine-195, and the alpha-191(Lys) MoFe protein, which has lysine substituting for alpha-glutamine-191. On the basis of K(m) determinations, C(2)H(2) was a particularly poor substrate for the nitrogenase containing the alpha-191(Lys) MoFe protein. Using C(2)D(2), a correlation was shown between the stereospecificity of proton addition to give the products, cis- and trans-C(2)D(2)H(2), and the propensity of nitrogenase to produce ethane. The most extensive loss of stereospecificity occurred with nitrogenases containing either the alpha-195(Asn) or the alpha-191(Lys) MoFe proteins, which also exhibited the highest rate of ethane production from C(2)H(2). These data are consistent with the presence of a common ethylenic intermediate on the enzyme, which is responsible for both ethane production and loss of proton-addition stereochemistry. C(2)H(4) was not a substrate of the nitrogenase with the alpha-191(Lys) MoFe protein and was a poor substrate of the nitrogenases incorporating either the wild-type or the alpha-195(Gln) MoFe protein, both of which had a low V(max) and high K(m) (120 kPa). Ethylene was a somewhat better substrate for the nitrogenase with the alpha-195(Asn) MoFe protein, which exhibited a K(m) of 48 kPa and a specific activity for C(2)H(6) formation from C(2)H(4) 10-fold higher than the others. Neither the wild-type nitrogenase nor the nitrogenase containing the alpha-195(Asn) MoFe protein produced cis-C(2)D(2)H(2) when turned over under trans-C(2)D(2)H(2). These results suggest that the C(2)H(4)-reduction site is affected by substitution at residue alpha-195, although whether the effect is related to

  7. The centrosome and its mode of inheritance: the reduction of the centrosome during gametogenesis and its restoration during fertilization.

    PubMed

    Schatten, G

    1994-10-01

    Neither the restoration of the centrosome during fertilization nor its reduction during gametogenesis is fully understood, but both are pivotal events in development. During each somatic cell cycle, the chromosomes, cytoplasm, and centrosomes duplicate in interphase, and all three split in two during each cell division. While it has long been recognized that both the sperm and the egg contribute equal haploid genomes during fertilization and that the vast majority of the cytoplasm is contributed by the egg, the relative contributions of the centrosome by each gamete are still in question. This article explores centrosome inheritance patterns and considers nine integral and secondarily derived activities of the centrosome. Boveri once hypothesized that "The ripe egg possesses all of the elements necessary for development save an active division-center. The sperm, on the other hand, possesses such a center but lacks the protoplasmic substratum in which to operate. In this respect the egg and sperm are complementary structures; their union in syngamy thus restores to each the missing element necessary to further development." This article reviews the evidence gathered from 11 experimental strategies used to test this theory. While the majority of these approaches supports the hypothesis that the sperm introduces the centrosome at fertilization, the pattern did not reveal itself as universal, since parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be induced artificially, since centrosome and centriole form de novo in extracts from unfertilized eggs and since the centrosome is derived from maternal sources during fertilization in some systems--notably, in mice. Models of the centrosome are proposed, along with speculative mechanisms which might lead to the cloaking of the reproducing element of the maternal centrosome during oogenesis and the retention of this structure by the paternal centrosome during spermatogenesis. Proteins essential for microtubule nucleation, like gamma

  8. Observations of vortex merger and growth reduction in a dual-mode, supersonic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Willow; Malamud, Guy; Shimony, Assaf; Trantham, Matt; Klein, Sallee; Shvarts, Dov; Kuranz, Carolyn; Drake, R. Paul

    2015-11-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) generates vortical structures and turbulence at an interface with shear flow. This instability is ubiquitous in natural and engineering systems including astrophysical environments and laboratory plasmas. Detailed measurements of modulation amplitude growth reduction and vortex merger evolving from well-defined initial conditions can benchmark hydrodynamic models and theories. This experiment provides the first measurements of the vortex merger rate of well-characterized seed perturbations evolving under the influence of the KHI in a supersonic flow. These data were obtained by utilizing a sustained laser pulse to drive a steady shockwave into low-density carbon foam, introducing shear along a precision-machined plastic interface. The evolution and merger of the modulations was measured with x-ray radiography and reproduced with 2D hydrodynamic simulations. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840, and the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0002032, and through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  9. Energy output reduction and surface alteration of quartz tips following Er:YAG laser contact irradiation on soft and hard tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Taichen; Kawamura, Rie; Aoki, Akira; Ichinose, Shizuko; Mizutani, Koji; Taniguchi, Yoichi; Eguro, Toru; Saito, Norihito; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Though the Er:YAG laser (ErL) has been used in periodontal therapy, the irradiated tip damage has not been studied in detail. In this study, the change in the energy output, surface morphology, and temperature of quartz tips was evaluated following contact irradiation. Soft tissue, calculus on extracted human teeth, and porcine bone were irradiated by ErL for 60 min at 14.2 or 28.3 J/cm(2)/pulse and 20 Hz with or without water spray. The energy output ratio declined the most in the calculus group, followed by the bone and soft tissue groups with and/or without water spray. Carbon contamination was detected in all groups, and contamination by P, Ca, and/or other inorganic elements was observed in the calculus and bone groups. The rate of energy output reduction and the degree of surface alteration/contamination is variously influenced by the targeting tissue, temperature elevation of the tip and water spray.

  10. Antisense repression of cytosolic phosphoglucomutase in potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in severe growth retardation, reduction in tuber number and altered carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Alisdair R; Tauberger, Eva; Lytovchenko, Anna; Roessner, Ute; Willmitzer, Lothar; Trethewey, Richard N

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the role of cytosolic phosphoglucomutase (PGM; EC 5.4.2.2) in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Many in vitro studies have indicated that PGM plays a central role in carbohydrate metabolism; however, until now the importance of this enzyme in plants has not been subject to reverse-genetics investigations. With this intention we cloned the cytosolic isoform of potato PGM (StcPGM) and expressed this in the antisense orientation under the control of the CaMV 35 S promoter in potato plants. We confirmed that these plants contained reduced total PGM activity and that loss in activity was due specifically to a reduction in cytosolic PGM activity. These plants were characterised by a severe phenotype: stunted aerial growth combined with limited root growth and a reduced tuber yield. Analysis of the metabolism of these lines revealed that leaves of these plants were inhibited in sucrose synthesis whereas the tubers exhibited decreased levels of sucrose and starch as well as decreased levels of glycolytic intermediates but possessed unaltered levels of adenylates. Furthermore, a broader metabolite screen utilising GC-MS profiling revealed that these lines contained altered levels of several intermediates of the TCA cycle and of amino acids. In summary, we conclude that cytosolic PGM plays a crucial role in the sucrose synthetic pathway within the leaf and in starch accumulation within the tuber, and as such is important in the maintenance of sink-source relationships.

  11. Energy output reduction and surface alteration of quartz tips following Er:YAG laser contact irradiation on soft and hard tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Taichen; Kawamura, Rie; Aoki, Akira; Ichinose, Shizuko; Mizutani, Koji; Taniguchi, Yoichi; Eguro, Toru; Saito, Norihito; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Though the Er:YAG laser (ErL) has been used in periodontal therapy, the irradiated tip damage has not been studied in detail. In this study, the change in the energy output, surface morphology, and temperature of quartz tips was evaluated following contact irradiation. Soft tissue, calculus on extracted human teeth, and porcine bone were irradiated by ErL for 60 min at 14.2 or 28.3 J/cm(2)/pulse and 20 Hz with or without water spray. The energy output ratio declined the most in the calculus group, followed by the bone and soft tissue groups with and/or without water spray. Carbon contamination was detected in all groups, and contamination by P, Ca, and/or other inorganic elements was observed in the calculus and bone groups. The rate of energy output reduction and the degree of surface alteration/contamination is variously influenced by the targeting tissue, temperature elevation of the tip and water spray. PMID:26830823

  12. Assessment of buccal marginal alveolar peri-implant and periodontal defects using a cone beam CT system with and without the application of metal artefact reduction mode

    PubMed Central

    Kamburoğlu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Eren, H; Yüksel, S; Paksoy, C S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT) images obtained with and without artefact reduction (AR) in detecting simulated buccal peri-implant and buccal periodontal defects. Methods: 42 implants inserted into edentulous mandibles, and 38 teeth present in dry mandibles were used. Simulated buccal peri-implant defects (n = 22) and buccal periodontal defects (n = 22) were prepared. 20 implants and 18 teeth without simulated defects were the control group. Images of the mandibles were obtained using a Planmeca ProMax® 3D Max CBCT unit (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Image reconstructions were prepared without and with low, medium and high AR modes. Images were viewed randomly by six observers twice for the presence of defects. Kappa coefficient was calculated. F2_LD_F1 design for non-parametric analysis of longitudinal data was used. Area under curves (AUCs) were calculated for each observer. Significance level was taken as α = 0.05. Results: Intraobserver kappa ranged from 0.140 to 0.792 for peri-implant and from 0.189 to 1.0 for periodontal defects. All factors were statistically significant (p < 0.001), except for image mode and implant brand. Pairwise interactions were found between periodontal defects and peri-implant defects (p < 0.001), observers (p < 0.001), observer and image mode (p < 0.001), defect model and observer (p < 0.001) and defect model, image mode and observer (p = 0.04). AUC values ranged from 0.39 to 0.52 for peri-implant and from 0.45 to 0.71 for periodontal defects. Higher AUC values were found for periodontal defects than for peri-implant defects. Conclusions: Buccal peri-implant defects were more difficult to detect than buccal periodontal defects. No difference was found among CBCT images obtained with and without AR modes. PMID:23956236

  13. Dissolution-and-reduction CVD synthesis of few-layer graphene on ultra-thin nickel film lifted off for mode-locking fiber lasers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kaung-Jay; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Lun; Lin, Sheng-Fong; Yang, Chun-Yu; Lin, Shih-Meng; Tsai, Din-Ping; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The in-situ dissolution-and-reduction CVD synthesized few-layer graphene on ultra-thin nickel catalyst film is demonstrated at temperature as low as 550 °C, which can be employed to form transmission-type or reflection-type saturable absorber (SA) for mode-locking the erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs). With transmission-type graphene SA, the EDFL shortens its pulsewidth from 483 to 441 fs and broadens its spectral linewidth from 4.2 to 6.1 nm with enlarging the pumping current from 200 to 900 mA. In contrast, the reflection-type SA only compresses the pulsewidth from 875 to 796 fs with corresponding spectral linewidth broadened from 2.2 to 3.3 nm. The reflection-type graphene mode-locker increases twice of its equivalent layer number to cause more insertion loss than the transmission-type one. Nevertheless, the reflection-type based saturable absorber system can generate stabilized soliton-like pulse easier than that of transmission-type system, because the nonlinearity induced self-amplitude modulation depth is simultaneously enlarged when passing through the graphene twice under the retro-reflector design. PMID:26328535

  14. SVPWM Technique with Varying DC-Link Voltage for Common Mode Voltage Reduction in a Matrix Converter and Analytical Estimation of its Output Voltage Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhee, Varsha

    Common Mode Voltage (CMV) in any power converter has been the major contributor to premature motor failures, bearing deterioration, shaft voltage build up and electromagnetic interference. Intelligent control methods like Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) techniques provide immense potential and flexibility to reduce CMV, thereby targeting all the afore mentioned problems. Other solutions like passive filters, shielded cables and EMI filters add to the volume and cost metrics of the entire system. Smart SVPWM techniques therefore, come with a very important advantage of being an economical solution. This thesis discusses a modified space vector technique applied to an Indirect Matrix Converter (IMC) which results in the reduction of common mode voltages and other advanced features. The conventional indirect space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) method of controlling matrix converters involves the usage of two adjacent active vectors and one zero vector for both rectifying and inverting stages of the converter. By suitable selection of space vectors, the rectifying stage of the matrix converter can generate different levels of virtual DC-link voltage. This capability can be exploited for operation of the converter in different ranges of modulation indices for varying machine speeds. This results in lower common mode voltage and improves the harmonic spectrum of the output voltage, without increasing the number of switching transitions as compared to conventional modulation. To summarize it can be said that the responsibility of formulating output voltages with a particular magnitude and frequency has been transferred solely to the rectifying stage of the IMC. Estimation of degree of distortion in the three phase output voltage is another facet discussed in this thesis. An understanding of the SVPWM technique and the switching sequence of the space vectors in detail gives the potential to estimate the RMS value of the switched output voltage of any

  15. Altered intrinsic organisation of brain networks implicated in attentional processes in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state study of attention, default mode and salience network connectivity.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in task-related attentional engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been hypothesised to be due to altered interrelationships between attention, default mode and salience networks. We examined the intrinsic connectivity during rest within and between these networks. Six-minute resting-state scans were obtained. Using a network-based approach, connectivity within and between the dorsal and ventral attention, the default mode and the salience networks was compared between the ADHD and control group. The ADHD group displayed hyperconnectivity between the two attention networks and within the default mode and ventral attention network. The salience network was hypoconnected to the dorsal attention network. There were trends towards hyperconnectivity within the dorsal attention network and between the salience and ventral attention network in ADHD. Connectivity within and between other networks was unrelated to ADHD. Our findings highlight the altered connectivity within and between attention networks, and between them and the salience network in ADHD. One hypothesis to be tested in future studies is that individuals with ADHD are affected by an imbalance between ventral and dorsal attention systems with the former playing a dominant role during task engagement, making individuals with ADHD highly susceptible to distraction by salient task-irrelevant stimuli.

  16. Oscillations in the reduction of permanganate by hydrogen peroxide or by ninhydrin in a batch reactor and mixed-mode oscillations in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóthová, Mária; Nagy, Arpád; Treindl, Ľudovít.

    1999-01-01

    The periodical reduction of permanganate by hydrogen peroxide or by ninhydrin with transient oscillations in a closed system has been observed and discussed in relation to the first two permanganate oscillators described earlier. The mixed-mode oscillations of the permanganate-H 2O 2 oscillating system in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor have been described.

  17. Dual-band wavelength tunable nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber lasers induced by birefringence variation and gain curvature alteration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng-Fong; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-09-01

    With the combining effects of the fiber birefringence induced round-trip phase variation and the gain profile reshaping induced spectral filtering in the Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) cavity, the mechanism corresponding to the central wavelength tunability of the EDFL passively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation is explored. Bending the intracavity fiber induces the refractive index difference between orthogonal axes, which enables the dual-band central wavelength shift of 2.9 nm at 1570 nm region and up to 10.2 nm at 1600 nm region. The difference between the wavelength shifts at two bands is attributed to the gain dispersion decided by the gain spectral curvature of the EDFA, and the spacing between two switchable bands is provided by the birefringence induced variation on phase delay which causes transmittance variation. In addition, the central wavelength shift can also be controlled by varying the pumping geometry. At 1570 nm regime, an offset of up to 5.9 nm between the central wavelengths obtained under solely forward or backward pumping condition is observed, whereas the bidirectional pumping scheme effectively compensates the gain spectral reshaping effects to minimize the central wavelength shift. In contrast, the wavelength offset shrinks to only 1.1 nm when mode-locking at 1600 nm under single-sided pumping, as the gain profile strongly depends on the spatial distribution of the excited erbium ions under different pumping schemes. Except the birefringence variation and the gain spectral filtering phenomena, the gain-saturation mechanism induced refractive index change and its influence to the dual-band central wavelength tunability are also observed and analyzed.

  18. Dose addition models based on biologically-relevant reductions in fetal testosterone accurately predict postnatal reproductive tract alterations by a phthalate mixture in rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Challenges in cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic phthalate mixtures include a lack of data on all the individual phthalates and difficulty determining the biological relevance of reduction in fetal testosterone (T) on postnatal development. The objectives of the curren...

  19. Compliant wall-turbulent skin-friction reduction research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.; Ash, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Previous compliant-wall experiments successful in reducing skin-friction drag probably have had a (unplanned) membrane resonance at a favorable frequency, amplitude, wave shape, length, and speed. The most probable drag reduction mechanism involves a direct coupling between the fluid and the moving wall when the wall natural resonance frequencies are near the fundamental turbulent burst frequency. Local skin-friction reductions of 61% were measured with mylar/PVC plastisol compliant surfaces. These reductions were observed only at certain flow conditions, indicating that changing tunnel total temperature may have altered the substrate dynamic modulus, damping, and coupled mylar tension. Apparently, the coupled membrane/substrate must be excited in compatible narrow-band natural frequency modes. An accelerated effort is required to develop practical durable compliant surfaces optimized for maximum drag reduction. Application of compliant walls to other transportation modes appears feasible with liquid flows offering the greatest skin-friction drag reduction potential.

  20. Quantification of the effects of secondary matrix on the analysis of sandstone composition, and a petrographic-chemical technique for retrieving original framework grain modes of altered sandstones.

    PubMed

    Cox, R; Lowe, D R

    1996-05-01

    Most studies of sandstone provenance involve modal analysis of framework grains using techniques that exclude the fine-grained breakdown products of labile mineral grains and rock fragments, usually termed secondary matrix or pseudomatrix. However, the data presented here demonstrate that, when the proportion of pseudomatrix in a sandstone exceeds 10%, standard petrographic analysis can lead to incorrect provenance interpretation. Petrographic schemes for provenance analysis such as QFL and QFR should not therefore be applied to sandstones containing more than 10% secondary matrix. Pseudomatrix is commonly abundant in sandstones, and this is therefore a problem for provenance analysis. The difficulty can be alleviated by the use of whole-rock chemistry in addition to petrographic analysis. Combination of chemical and point-count data permits the construction of normative compositions that approximate original framework grain compositions. Provenance analysis is also complicated in many cases by fundamental compositional alteration during weathering and transport. Many sandstones, particularly shallow marine deposits, have undergone vigorous reworking, which may destroy unstable mineral grains and rock fragments. In such cases it may not be possible to retrieve provenance information by either petrographic or chemical means. Because of this, pseudomatrix-rich sandstones should be routinely included in chemical-petrological provenance analysis. Because of the many factors, both pre- and post-depositional, that operate to increase the compositional maturity of sandstones, petrologic studies must include a complete inventory of matrix proportions, grain size and sorting parameters, and an assessment of depositional setting.

  1. How Light-Harvesting Semiconductors Can Alter the Bias of Reversible Electrocatalysts in Favor of H2 Production and CO2 Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The most efficient catalysts for solar fuel production should operate close to reversible potentials, yet possess a bias for the fuel-forming direction. Protein film electrochemical studies of Ni-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and [NiFeSe]-hydrogenase, each a reversible electrocatalyst, show that the electronic state of the electrode strongly biases the direction of electrocatalysis of CO2/CO and H+/H2 interconversions. Attached to graphite electrodes, these enzymes show high activities for both oxidation and reduction, but there is a marked shift in bias, in favor of CO2 or H+ reduction, when the respective enzymes are attached instead to n-type semiconductor electrodes constructed from CdS and TiO2 nanoparticles. This catalytic rectification effect can arise for a reversible electrocatalyst attached to a semiconductor electrode if the electrode transforms between semiconductor- and metallic-like behavior across the same narrow potential range (<0.25 V) that the electrocatalytic current switches between oxidation and reduction. PMID:24070184

  2. Water- and nitrogen-dependent alterations in the inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency in winter wheat at the leaf and whole-plant level.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Dominika; Górny, Andrzej G

    2012-11-01

    The effects of contrasting water and nitrogen (N) supply on the observed inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency (TE) at the flag-leaf and whole-season levels were examined in winter wheat. Major components of the photosynthetic capacity of leaves and the season-integrated efficiency of water use in vegetative and grain mass formation were evaluated in parental lines of various origins and their diallel F(2)-hybrids grown in a factorial experiment under different moisture and N status of the soil. A broad genetic variation was mainly found for the season-long TE measures. The variation range in the leaf photosynthetic indices was usually narrow, but tended to slightly enhance under water and N shortage. Genotype-treatment interaction effects were significant for most characters. No consistency between the leaf- and season-long TE measures was observed. Preponderance of additivity-dependent variance was mainly identified for the season-integrated TE and leaf CO(2) assimilation rate. Soil treatments exhibited considerable influence on the phenotypic expression of gene action for the residual leaf measures. The contribution of non-additive gene effects and degree of dominance tended to increase in water- and N-limited plants, especially for the leaf transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The results indicate that promise exists to improve the season-integrated TE. However, selection for TE components should be prolonged for later hybrid generations to eliminate the masking of non-additive causes. Such evaluation among families grown under sub-optimal water and nitrogen supply seems to be the most promising strategy in winter wheat.

  3. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  4. One-Class Support Vector Machines Identify the Language and Default Mode Regions As Common Patterns of Structural Alterations in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Retico, Alessandra; Gori, Ilaria; Giuliano, Alessia; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The identification of reliable brain endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been hampered to date by the heterogeneity in the neuroanatomical abnormalities detected in this condition. To handle the complexity of neuroimaging data and to convert brain images in informative biomarkers of pathology, multivariate analysis techniques based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been widely used in several disease conditions. They are usually trained to distinguish patients from healthy control subjects by making a binary classification. Here, we propose the use of the One-Class Classification (OCC) or Data Description method that, in contrast to two-class classification, is based on a description of one class of objects only. This approach, by defining a multivariate normative rule on one class of subjects, allows recognizing examples from a different category as outliers. We applied the OCC to 314 regional features extracted from brain structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of young children with ASD (21 males and 20 females) and control subjects (20 males and 20 females), matched on age [range: 22-72 months of age; mean = 49 months] and non-verbal intelligence quotient (NVIQ) [range: 31-123; mean = 73]. We demonstrated that a common pattern of features characterize the ASD population. The OCC SVM trained on the group of ASD subjects showed the following performances in the ASD vs. controls separation: the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.74 for the male and 0.68 for the female population, respectively. Notably, the ASD vs. controls discrimination results were maximized when evaluated on the subsamples of subjects with NVIQ ≥ 70, leading to AUC = 0.81 for the male and AUC = 0.72 for the female populations, respectively. Language regions and regions from the default mode network-posterior cingulate cortex, pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and transverse temporal gyrus

  5. One-Class Support Vector Machines Identify the Language and Default Mode Regions As Common Patterns of Structural Alterations in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Retico, Alessandra; Gori, Ilaria; Giuliano, Alessia; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The identification of reliable brain endophenotypes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been hampered to date by the heterogeneity in the neuroanatomical abnormalities detected in this condition. To handle the complexity of neuroimaging data and to convert brain images in informative biomarkers of pathology, multivariate analysis techniques based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) have been widely used in several disease conditions. They are usually trained to distinguish patients from healthy control subjects by making a binary classification. Here, we propose the use of the One-Class Classification (OCC) or Data Description method that, in contrast to two-class classification, is based on a description of one class of objects only. This approach, by defining a multivariate normative rule on one class of subjects, allows recognizing examples from a different category as outliers. We applied the OCC to 314 regional features extracted from brain structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of young children with ASD (21 males and 20 females) and control subjects (20 males and 20 females), matched on age [range: 22–72 months of age; mean = 49 months] and non-verbal intelligence quotient (NVIQ) [range: 31–123; mean = 73]. We demonstrated that a common pattern of features characterize the ASD population. The OCC SVM trained on the group of ASD subjects showed the following performances in the ASD vs. controls separation: the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.74 for the male and 0.68 for the female population, respectively. Notably, the ASD vs. controls discrimination results were maximized when evaluated on the subsamples of subjects with NVIQ ≥ 70, leading to AUC = 0.81 for the male and AUC = 0.72 for the female populations, respectively. Language regions and regions from the default mode network—posterior cingulate cortex, pars opercularis and pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and transverse temporal

  6. Reduction of oxidative stress during recovery accelerates normalization of primary cilia length that is altered after ischemic injury in murine kidneys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee In; Kim, Jinu; Jang, Hee-Seong; Noh, Mi Ra; Lipschutz, Joshua H; Park, Kwon Moo

    2013-05-15

    The primary cilium is a microtubule-based nonmotile organelle that extends from the surface of cells, including renal tubular cells. Here, we investigated the alteration of primary cilium length during epithelial cell injury and repair, following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult, and the role of reactive oxygen species in this alteration. Thirty minutes of bilateral renal ischemia induced severe renal tubular cell damage and an increase of plasma creatinine (PCr) concentration. Between 8 and 16 days following the ischemia, the increased PCr returned to normal range, although without complete histological restoration. Compared with the primary cilium length in normal kidney tubule cells, the length was shortened 4 h and 1 day following ischemia, increased over normal 8 days after ischemia, and then returned to near normal 16 days following ischemia. In the urine of I/R-subjected mice, acetylated tubulin was detected. The cilium length of proliferating cells was shorter than that in nonproliferating cells. Mature cells had shorter cilia than differentiating cells. Treatment with Mn(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, during the recovery of damaged kidneys accelerated normalization of cilia length concomitant with a decrease of oxidative stress and morphological recovery in the kidney. In the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, H(2)O(2) treatment caused released ciliary fragment into medium, and MnTMPyP inhibited the deciliation. The ERK inhibitor U0126 inhibited elongation of cilia in normal and MDCK cells recovering from H(2)O(2) stress. Taken together, our results suggest that primary cilia length reflects cell proliferation and the length of primary cilium is regulated, at least, in part, by reactive oxygen species through ERK.

  7. Ser67Asp and His68Asp substitutions in candida parapsilosis carbonyl reductase alter the coenzyme specificity and enantioselectivity of ketone reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Wenchi; Xiao, Rong

    2009-04-01

    A short-chain carbonyl reductase (SCR) from Candida parapsilosis catalyzes an anti-Prelog reduction of 2-hydroxyacetophenone to (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (PED) and exhibits coenzyme specificity for NADPH over NADH. By using site-directed mutagenesis, the mutants were designed with different combinations of Ser67Asp, His68Asp, and Pro69Asp substitutions inside or adjacent to the coenzyme binding pocket. All mutations caused a significant shift of enantioselectivity toward the (R)-configuration during 2-hydroxyacetophenone reduction. The S67D/H68D mutant produced (R)-PED with high optical purity and yield in the NADH-linked reaction. By kinetic analysis, the S67D/H68D mutant resulted in a nearly 10-fold increase and a 20-fold decrease in the k(cat)/K(m) value when NADH and NADPH were used as the cofactors, respectively, but maintaining a k(cat) value essentially the same with respect to wild-type SCR. The ratio of K(d) (dissociation constant) values between NADH and NADPH for the S67D/H68D mutant and SCR were 0.28 and 1.9 respectively, which indicates that the S67D/H68D mutant has a stronger preference for NADH and weaker binding for NADPH. Moreover, the S67D/H68D enzyme exhibited a secondary structure and melting temperature similar to the wild-type form. It was also found that NADH provided maximal protection against thermal and urea denaturation for S67D/H68D, in contrast to the effective protection by NADP(H) for the wild-type enzyme. Thus, the double point mutation S67D/H68D successfully converted the coenzyme specificity of SCR from NADP(H) to NAD(H) as well as the product enantioselectivity without disturbing enzyme stability. This work provides a protein engineering approach to modify the coenzyme specificity and enantioselectivity of ketone reduction for short-chain reductases.

  8. Does Extraction or Retention of the Wisdom Tooth at the Time of Surgery for Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Mandible Alter the Patient Outcome?

    PubMed

    Hammond, Douglas; Parmar, Sat; Whitty, Justin; Pigadas, Nick

    2015-12-01

    Whether to extract or retain wisdom teeth present in a fracture line is a controversial topic. This study reviewed the records of all patients who had mandibular wisdom teeth at the time of the injury, and had an open reduction and internal fixation procedure between January 2009 and January 2012. The cohort of patients who concomitantly had their wisdom tooth extracted at the time of fixation had a greater complication rate (24.3%) compared with patients who did not (14.9%). This suggests that if third molars in the line of a fracture have caries, are fractured, show signs of pericoronitis, are periodontally involved, or are interfering with the occlusion are extracted at the time of fixation, this will increase the incidence of complications.

  9. Hyaluronan deficiency due to Has3 knock-out causes altered neuronal activity and seizures via reduction in brain extracellular space.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Amaia M; Perkins, Katherine L; Irie, Fumitoshi; Lewis, David P; Hrabe, Jan; Xiao, Fanrong; Itano, Naoki; Kimata, Koji; Hrabetova, Sabina; Yamaguchi, Yu

    2014-04-30

    Hyaluronan (HA), a large anionic polysaccharide (glycosaminoglycan), is a major constituent of the extracellular matrix of the adult brain. To address its function, we examined the neurophysiology of knock-out mice deficient in hyaluronan synthase (Has) genes. Here we report that these Has mutant mice are prone to epileptic seizures, and that in Has3(-/-) mice, this phenotype is likely derived from a reduction in the size of the brain extracellular space (ECS). Among the three Has knock-out models, namely Has3(-/-), Has1(-/-), and Has2(CKO), the seizures were most prevalent in Has3(-/-) mice, which also showed the greatest HA reduction in the hippocampus. Electrophysiology in Has3(-/-) brain slices demonstrated spontaneous epileptiform activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons, while histological analysis revealed an increase in cell packing in the CA1 stratum pyramidale. Imaging of the diffusion of a fluorescent marker revealed that the transit of molecules through the ECS of this layer was reduced. Quantitative analysis of ECS by the real-time iontophoretic method demonstrated that ECS volume was selectively reduced in the stratum pyramidale by ∼ 40% in Has3(-/-) mice. Finally, osmotic manipulation experiments in brain slices from Has3(-/-) and wild-type mice provided evidence for a causal link between ECS volume and epileptiform activity. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the physiological role of HA in the regulation of ECS volume, and suggest that HA-based preservation of ECS volume may offer a novel avenue for development of antiepileptogenic treatments.

  10. Dose Addition Models Based on Biologically Relevant Reductions in Fetal Testosterone Accurately Predict Postnatal Reproductive Tract Alterations by a Phthalate Mixture in Rats.

    PubMed

    Howdeshell, Kembra L; Rider, Cynthia V; Wilson, Vickie S; Furr, Johnathan R; Lambright, Christy R; Gray, L Earl

    2015-12-01

    Challenges in cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic phthalate mixtures include a lack of data on all the individual phthalates and difficulty determining the biological relevance of reduction in fetal testosterone (T) on postnatal development. The objectives of the current study were 2-fold: (1) to test whether a mixture model of dose addition based on the fetal T production data of individual phthalates would predict the effects of a 5 phthalate mixture on androgen-sensitive postnatal male reproductive tract development, and (2) to determine the biological relevance of the reductions in fetal T to induce abnormal postnatal reproductive tract development using data from the mixture study. We administered a dose range of the mixture (60, 40, 20, 10, and 5% of the top dose used in the previous fetal T production study consisting of 300 mg/kg per chemical of benzyl butyl (BBP), di(n)butyl (DBP), diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and 100 mg dipentyl (DPP) phthalate/kg; the individual phthalates were present in equipotent doses based on their ability to reduce fetal T production) via gavage to Sprague Dawley rat dams on GD8-postnatal day 3. We compared observed mixture responses to predictions of dose addition based on the previously published potencies of the individual phthalates to reduce fetal T production relative to a reference chemical and published postnatal data for the reference chemical (called DAref). In addition, we predicted DA (called DAall) and response addition (RA) based on logistic regression analysis of all 5 individual phthalates when complete data were available. DA ref and DA all accurately predicted the observed mixture effect for 11 of 14 endpoints. Furthermore, reproductive tract malformations were seen in 17-100% of F1 males when fetal T production was reduced by about 25-72%, respectively. PMID:26350170

  11. Reduction of Edge Localized Mode Intensity on DIII-D by On-demand triggering with High Frequency Pellet Injection and Implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, Larry R; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, Steven J; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Isler, Ralph C; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T.A.; Futantani, S.

    2013-01-01

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12 the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12 lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  12. Reduction of edge localized mode intensity on DIII-D by on-demand triggering with high frequency pellet injection and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, S. J.; Combs, S. K.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A.; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Futatani, S.

    2013-08-15

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12× the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12× lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized β operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  13. Sulfur and oxygen isotope study of the Vermont copper belt: evidence of seawater hydrothermal alteration and sulfate reduction in a high-grade metamorphic terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, W.C. III; Woodruff, L.G.; Slack, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Massive sulfide deposits of the Orange County copper district, in east-central Vermont, consist of stratiform lenses of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and minor sphalerite within amphibolite-facies rocks of Early Devonian (.) age. The deposits occur at several different stratigraphic levels. The two largest, Elizabeth and Ely, are in quartz-mica schists of the Gile Mountain Formation; the Pike Hill deposit occurs in calcareous quartz-mica schist of the underlying Waits River Formation. Two small deposits (Orange and Gove) are within the Standing Pond Volcanics, a thin tholeiitic amphibolite near the Gile Mountain-Waits River contact. The Elizabeth deposit in particularly distinctive, and contains a suite of unusual wall rocks rich in quartz, carbonate, muscovite, amphibole, phlogopite, tourmaline, spessartine, and sodic plagioclase. Sulfur isotope values at Elizabeth and Ely of 5.1 to 9.1 per thousands contrast with values for Gove (1.9 to 4.2) and Pike Hill (1.5 to 4.6). Disseminated sulfides in amphibolites of the Standing Pond Volcanics have sulfur isotope values in the range -0.1 to 1.7 per thousands, typical of MORB. These data require sulfur contributions to massive sulfide deposits both from basalt and from contemporaneous seawater sulfate sources. Whole-rock (carbonate free) oxygen isotope analyses of host lithologies range from 7.9 per thousands (Standing Pond Volcanics) to 19.9 per thousands (Waits River Formation). Detailed sampling of Elizabeth wall rocks (including those high in B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Mn) yields a narrow range of oxygen isotope values (11.1 to 14.1); heavier values correlate with higher silica contents. Isotopically light wallrock lithologies are probably due to premetamorphic seawater hydrothermal alteration.

  14. Life-span extension by caloric restriction is determined by type and level of food reduction and by reproductive mode in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David B Mark

    2013-04-01

    We measured life span and fecundity of three reproductive modes in a clone of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas subjected to chronic caloric restriction (CCR) over a range of food concentrations or to intermittent fasting (IF). IF increased life span 50%-70% for all three modes, whereas CCR increased life span of asexual females derived from sexually or asexually produced eggs, but not that of sexual females. The main effect of CR on both asexual modes was to delay death at young ages, rather than to prevent death at middle ages or to greatly extend maximum life span; in contrast CR in sexual females greatly increased the life span of a few long-lived individuals. Lifetime fecundity did not decrease with CCR, suggesting a lack of resource allocation trade-off between somatic maintenance and reproduction. Multiple outcomes for a clonal lineage indicate that different responses are established through epigenetic programming, whereas differences in life-span allocations suggest that multiple genetic mechanisms mediate life-span extension.

  15. Reduction of dead times and dead zones in the self-quenching streamer mode at high pressures and high quencher concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmer, R.D.; Mulera, T.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Schnurnacher, G.

    1985-02-01

    The large saturated pulses referred to as ''self-quenching streamer'' (SQS) provide a convenient and inexpensive method of radiation detection. Our previous work has revealed a strong dependence of the dead time, and of the length of the dead zone along the anode, on the pressure of the gas filling and on the concentration of the quenching component of this filling. These measurements have been extended to higher pressures and higher quencher concentrations with the object of achieving the smallest dead times and dead zones while still retaining the large amplitudes and fast rise times characteristic of the SQS mode of operation.

  16. Modes of Large-Scale Brain Network Organization during Threat Processing and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reduction during TF-CBT among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Cisler, Josh M.; Sigel, Benjamin A.; Kramer, Teresa L.; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often chronic and disabling across the lifespan. The gold standard treatment for adolescent PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), though treatment response is variable and mediating neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we test whether PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT is associated with individual differences in large-scale brain network organization during emotion processing. Twenty adolescent girls, aged 11–16, with PTSD related to assaultive violence completed a 12-session protocol of TF-CBT. Participants completed an emotion processing task, in which neutral and fearful facial expressions were presented either overtly or covertly during 3T fMRI, before and after treatment. Analyses focused on characterizing network properties of modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency within an 824 region-of-interest brain parcellation separately during each of the task blocks using weighted functional connectivity matrices. We similarly analyzed an existing dataset of healthy adolescent girls undergoing an identical emotion processing task to characterize normative network organization. Pre-treatment individual differences in modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency during covert fear vs neutral blocks predicted PTSD symptom reduction. Patients who responded better to treatment had greater network modularity and assortativity but lesser efficiency, a pattern that closely resembled the control participants. At a group level, greater symptom reduction was associated with greater pre-to-post-treatment increases in network assortativity and modularity, but this was more pronounced among participants with less symptom improvement. The results support the hypothesis that modularized and resilient brain organization during emotion processing operate as mechanisms enabling symptom reduction during TF-CBT. PMID:27505076

  17. Modes of Large-Scale Brain Network Organization during Threat Processing and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reduction during TF-CBT among Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often chronic and disabling across the lifespan. The gold standard treatment for adolescent PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), though treatment response is variable and mediating neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we test whether PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT is associated with individual differences in large-scale brain network organization during emotion processing. Twenty adolescent girls, aged 11-16, with PTSD related to assaultive violence completed a 12-session protocol of TF-CBT. Participants completed an emotion processing task, in which neutral and fearful facial expressions were presented either overtly or covertly during 3T fMRI, before and after treatment. Analyses focused on characterizing network properties of modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency within an 824 region-of-interest brain parcellation separately during each of the task blocks using weighted functional connectivity matrices. We similarly analyzed an existing dataset of healthy adolescent girls undergoing an identical emotion processing task to characterize normative network organization. Pre-treatment individual differences in modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency during covert fear vs neutral blocks predicted PTSD symptom reduction. Patients who responded better to treatment had greater network modularity and assortativity but lesser efficiency, a pattern that closely resembled the control participants. At a group level, greater symptom reduction was associated with greater pre-to-post-treatment increases in network assortativity and modularity, but this was more pronounced among participants with less symptom improvement. The results support the hypothesis that modularized and resilient brain organization during emotion processing operate as mechanisms enabling symptom reduction during TF-CBT.

  18. Modes of Large-Scale Brain Network Organization during Threat Processing and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Reduction during TF-CBT among Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often chronic and disabling across the lifespan. The gold standard treatment for adolescent PTSD is Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT), though treatment response is variable and mediating neural mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we test whether PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT is associated with individual differences in large-scale brain network organization during emotion processing. Twenty adolescent girls, aged 11-16, with PTSD related to assaultive violence completed a 12-session protocol of TF-CBT. Participants completed an emotion processing task, in which neutral and fearful facial expressions were presented either overtly or covertly during 3T fMRI, before and after treatment. Analyses focused on characterizing network properties of modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency within an 824 region-of-interest brain parcellation separately during each of the task blocks using weighted functional connectivity matrices. We similarly analyzed an existing dataset of healthy adolescent girls undergoing an identical emotion processing task to characterize normative network organization. Pre-treatment individual differences in modularity, assortativity, and global efficiency during covert fear vs neutral blocks predicted PTSD symptom reduction. Patients who responded better to treatment had greater network modularity and assortativity but lesser efficiency, a pattern that closely resembled the control participants. At a group level, greater symptom reduction was associated with greater pre-to-post-treatment increases in network assortativity and modularity, but this was more pronounced among participants with less symptom improvement. The results support the hypothesis that modularized and resilient brain organization during emotion processing operate as mechanisms enabling symptom reduction during TF-CBT. PMID:27505076

  19. The H(sub infinity) optimal controller design and reduction for the inertial hold mode of the attitude control system of the XTE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Zhong Ling; Zhou, Gui AN

    1994-01-01

    The Inertial Hold Mode (IHM) is one mode of the attitude control system of the X-ray Timing Explorer spacecraft that is disturbed by both parametric uncertainties and external torque disturbance. The IHM model is modified into a typical H-infinity mixed-sensitivity problem through choosing suitable weighting functions W(sub 1)(s) and W(sub 3)(s). The controller is designed by the H-infinity optimization technique with the transformation of shifting the imaginary axis. It can stabilize the plant with uncertainties from the natural frequencies of the flexible body. The gain margin and phase margin of the system are 24.03 db and 55.04 deg, respectively. The step response attenuates to zero within 150 seconds. These show that the controller satisfies the specified requirements. Since the order of the controller appears high, it is reduced to fourth order one. The results show that the stability and the performance of the system with the reduced controller are retained perfectly.

  20. Reduction of timing jitter and intensity noise in normal-dispersion passively mode-locked fiber lasers by narrow band-pass filtering.

    PubMed

    Qin, Peng; Song, Youjian; Kim, Hyoji; Shin, Junho; Kwon, Dohyeon; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue; Kim, Jungwon

    2014-11-17

    Fiber lasers mode-locked with normal cavity dispersion have recently attracted great attention due to large output pulse energy and femtosecond pulse duration. Here we accurately characterized the timing jitter of normal-dispersion fiber lasers using a balanced cross-correlation method. The timing jitter characterization experiments show that the timing jitter of normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers can be significantly reduced by using narrow band-pass filtering (e.g., 7-nm bandwidth filtering in this work). We further identify that the timing jitter of the fiber laser is confined in a limited range, which is almost independent of cavity dispersion map due to the amplifier-similariton formation by insertion of the narrow bandpass filter. The lowest observed timing jitter reaches 0.57 fs (rms) integrated from 10 kHz to 10 MHz Fourier frequency. The rms relative intensity noise (RIN) is also reduced from 0.37% to 0.02% (integrated from 1 kHz to 5 MHz Fourier frequency) by the insertion of narrow band-pass filter.

  1. Comparing State-Space Multivariable Controls to Multi-SISO Controls for Load Reduction of Drivetrain-Coupled Modes on Wind Turbines Through Field-Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P. A.; Van Wingerden, J. W.; Wright, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present results from an ongoing controller comparison study at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The intention of the study is to demonstrate the advantage of using modern multivariable methods for designing control systems for wind turbines versus conventional approaches. We will demonstrate the advantages through field-test results from experimental turbines located at the NWTC. At least two controllers are being developed side-by-side to meet an incrementally increasing number of turbine load-reduction objectives. The first, a multiple single-input, single-output (m-SISO) approach, uses separately developed decoupled and classicially tuned controllers, which is, to the best of our knowledge, common practice in the wind industry. The remaining controllers are developed using state-space multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) techniques to explicity account for coupling between loops and to optimize given known frequency structures of the turbine and disturbance. In this first publication from the study, we present the structure of the ongoing controller comparison experiment, the design process for the two controllers compared in this phase, and initial comparison results obtained in field-testing.

  2. Comparing State-Space Multivariable Controls to Multi-SISO Controls for Load Reduction of Drivetrain-Coupled Modes on Wind Turbines through Field-Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, P. A.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Wright, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the structure of an ongoing controller comparison experiment at NREL's National Wind Technology Center; the design process for the two controllers compared in this phase of the experiment, and initial comparison results obtained in field-testing. The intention of the study is to demonstrate the advantage of using modern multivariable methods for designing control systems for wind turbines versus conventional approaches. We will demonstrate the advantages through field-test results from experimental turbines located at the NWTC. At least two controllers are being developed side-by-side to meet an incrementally increasing number of turbine load-reduction objectives. The first, a multiple single-input, single-output (m-SISO) approach, uses separately developed decoupled and classicially tuned controllers, which is, to the best of our knowledge, common practice in the wind industry. The remaining controllers are developed using state-space multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) techniques to explicity account for coupling between loops and to optimize given known frequency structures of the turbine and disturbance. In this first publication from the study, we present the structure of the ongoing controller comparison experiment, the design process for the two controllers compared in this phase, and initial comparison results obtained in field-testing.

  3. Non-perturbative measurement of cross-field thermal diffusivity reduction at the O-point of 2/1 neoclassical tearing mode islands in the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardóczi, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Carter, T. A.; Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A.; Grierson, B. A.

    2016-05-01

    Neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) often lead to the decrease of plasma performance and can lead to disruptions, which makes them a major impediment in the development of operating scenarios in present toroidal fusion devices. Recent gyrokinetic simulations predict a decrease of plasma turbulence and cross-field transport at the O-point of the islands, which in turn affects the NTM dynamics. In this paper, a heat transport model of magnetic islands employing spatially non-uniform cross-field thermal diffusivity (χ⊥) is presented. This model is used to derive χ⊥ at the O-point from electron temperature data measured across 2/1 NTM islands in DIII-D. It was found that χ⊥ at the O-point is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the background plasma transport, in qualitative agreement with gyrokinetic predictions. As the anomalously large values of χ⊥ are often attributed to turbulence driven transport, the reduction of the O-point χ⊥ is consistent with turbulence reduction found in recent experiments. Finally, the implication of reduced χ⊥ at the O-point on NTM dynamics was investigated using the modified Rutherford equation that predicts a significant effect of reduced χ⊥ at the O-point on NTM saturation.

  4. Waveguides having patterned, flattened modes

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, Michael J.; Pax, Paul H.; Dawson, Jay W.

    2015-10-27

    Field-flattening strands may be added to and arbitrarily positioned within a field-flattening shell to create a waveguide that supports a patterned, flattened mode. Patterning does not alter the effective index or flattened nature of the mode, but does alter the characteristics of other modes. Compared to a telecom fiber, a hexagonal pattern of strands allows for a three-fold increase in the flattened mode's area without reducing the separation between its effective index and that of its bend-coupled mode. Hexagonal strand and shell elements prove to be a reasonable approximation, and, thus, to be of practical benefit vis-a-vis fabrication, to those of circular cross section. Patterned flattened modes offer a new and valuable path to power scaling.

  5. Excursions through KK modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  6. A noniterative improvement of Guyan reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, N.

    1993-01-01

    In determining the natural modes and frequencies of a linear elastic structure, Guyan reduction is often used to reduce the size of the mass and stiffness matrices and the solution of the reduced system is obtained first. The reduced system modes are then expanded to the size of the original system by using a static transformation linking the retained degrees of freedom to the omitted degrees of freedom. In the present paper, the transformation matrix of Guyan reduction is modified to include additional terms from a series accounting for the inertial effects. However, the inertial terms are dependent on the unknown frequencies. A practical approximation is employed to compute the inertial terms without any iteration. This new transformation is implemented in NASTRAN using a DMAP sequence alter. Numerical examples using a cantilever beam illustrate the necessary condition for allowing a large number of additional terms in the proposed series correction of Guyan reduction. A practical example of a large model of the Plasma Motor Generator module to be flown on a Delta launch vehicle is also presented.

  7. Copper complexes relevant to the catalytic cycle of copper nitrite reductase: electrochemical detection of NO(g) evolution and flipping of NO2 binding mode upon Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction.

    PubMed

    Maji, Ram Chandra; Barman, Suman Kumar; Roy, Suprakash; Chatterjee, Sudip K; Bowles, Faye L; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Patra, Apurba K

    2013-10-01

    Copper complexes of the deprotonated tridentate ligand, N-2-methylthiophenyl-2'-pyridinecarboxamide (HL1), were synthesized and characterized as part of our investigation into the reduction of copper(II) o-nitrito complexes into the related copper nitric oxide complexes and subsequent evolution of NO(g) such as occurs in the enzyme copper nitrite reductase. Our studies afforded the complexes [(L1)Cu(II)Cl]n (1), [(L1)Cu(II)(ONO)] (2), [(L1)Cu(II)(H2O)](ClO4)·H2O (3·H2O), [(L1)Cu(II)(CH3OH)](ClO4) (4), [(L1)Cu(II)(CH3CO2)]·H2O (5·H2O), and [Co(Cp)2][(L1)Cu(I)(NO2)(CH3CN)] (6). X-ray crystal structure determinations revealed distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry around Cu(II) ion in 1-5. Substitution of the H2O of 3 by nitrite quantitatively forms 2, featuring the κ(2)-O,O binding mode of NO2(-) to Cu(II). Reduction of 2 generates two Cu(I) species, one with κ(1)-O and other with the κ(1)-N bonded NO2(-) group. The Cu(I) analogue of 2, compound 6, was synthesized. The FTIR spectrum of 6 reveals the presence of κ(1)-N bonded NO2(-). Constant potential electrolysis corresponding to Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction of a CH3CN solution of 2 followed by reaction with acids, CH3CO2H or HClO4 generates 5 or 3, and NO(g), identified electrochemically. The isolated Cu(I) complex 6 independently evolves one equivalent of NO(g) upon reaction with acids. Production of NO(g) was confirmed by forming [Co(TPP)NO] in CH2Cl2 (λ(max) in CH2Cl2: 414 and 536 nm, ν(NO) = 1693 cm(-1)).

  8. TUTOR User's Memo Using AUTHOR MODE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, R. A.

    While a PLATO station is normally used to present lessons (STUDENT MODE), a station can also be used by a teacher to produce or alter lessons or to control lesson presentation (AUTHOR MODE). This memo describes the manner in which student records and lesson material are stored in the computer memory, prescribes the method of entry to AUTHOR MODE,…

  9. Plasma Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  10. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Ju, L.; Blair, D. G.

    2006-03-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  11. What is Local Mode (LM)? Global Mode (GM)? Calibration Mode?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... measurement in Global Mode (GM), Local Mode (LM), and Calibration. Global Mode is the normal acquisition with pole to pole coverage ... targets approximately 300 km in length Calibration Implemented bi-monthly Spectralon solar ...

  12. Altered dendritic distribution of dopamine D2 receptors and reduction in mitochondrial number in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Megan L.; Chan, June; Mackie, Kenneth; Lupica, Carl R.; Pickel, Virginia M.

    2013-01-01

    The prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL) is a brain region integral to complex behaviors that are highly influenced by cannabinoids and by dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated regulation of fast-firing parvalbumin-containing interneurons. We have recently shown that constitutive deletion of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) greatly reduces parvalbumin levels in these neurons. The effects of CB1R deletion on PL parvalbumin interneurons may be ascribed to loss of CB1R-mediated retrograde signaling on mesocortical dopamine transmission, and, in turn, altered expression and/or subcellular distribution of the D2R in the PL. Furthermore, diminished parvalbumin expression could indicate metabolic changes in fast-firing interneurons that may be reflected in changes in mitochondrial density in this population. We therefore comparatively examined electron microscopic dual labeling of the D2R and parvalbumin in CB1 (−/−) and CB1 (+/+) mice to test the hypothesis that absence of the CB1R produces changes in D2R localization and mitochondrial distribution in parvalbumin-containing interneurons of the PL. CB1 (−/−) mice had a significantly lower density of cytoplasmic D2R-immunogold particles in medium parvalbumin-labeled dendrites and a concomitant increase in the density of these particles in small dendrites. These dendrites received both excitatory and inhibitory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and contained many mitochondria, whose numbers were significantly reduced in the CB1 (−/−) mice. Non-parvalbumin containing dendrites showed no between-group differences in either D2R distribution or mitochondrial number. These results suggest that cannabinoid signaling provides an important determinant of dendritic D2 receptor distribution and mitochondrial availability in fast-spiking interneurons. PMID:22592925

  13. Mode 2 fatigue crack growth specimen development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, R. J.; Gross, B.; Srawley, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    A Mode II test specimen was developed which has potential application in understanding phemonena associated with mixed mode fatigue failures in high performance aircraft engine bearing races. The attributes of the specimen are: it contains one single ended notch, which simplifiers data gathering and reduction; the fatigue crack grous in-line with the direction of load application; a single axis test machine is sufficient to perform testing; and the Mode I component is vanishingly small.

  14. "He Said What?!" Constructed Dialogue in Various Interface Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Lesa; Morris, Carla; Langdon, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the manifestation of constructed dialogue in ASL narratives as dependent on the interface mode (i.e., face-to-face conversation, electronic conversation over videophone, and vlog monologues). Comparisons of eye gaze over three interface modes shows how aspects of constructed dialogue are altered to fit the communication mode.…

  15. Global Mode-Based Control of Supersonic Jet Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Mahesh; Freund, Jonathan; Bodony, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The loudest source of high-speed jet noise appears to be describable by unsteady wavepackets that resemble instabilities. We seek to reduce their acoustic impact by developing a novel control strategy that uses global modes to model their dynamics and structural sensitivity of the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes operator to determine effective linear feedback control. Using co-located actuators and sensors we demonstrate the method on an axisymmetric Mach 1.5 fitted with a nozzle. Direct numerical simulations using this control show significant noise reduction, with additional reduction with increase in control gain. Eigenanalysis of the uncontrolled and controlled mean flows reveal fundamental changes in the spectrum at frequencies lower than that used by the control. The non-normality of the global modes is shown to enable this control to affect a wide range of frequencies. The low-frequency wavepacket components are made less acoustically efficient, which is reflected in the far-field noise spectrum. Mean flow alterations are minor near the nozzle and only become apparent further downstream. Office of Naval Research and National Science Foundation.

  16. Ganoderma species discrimination by dual-mode chromatographic fingerprinting: a study on stationary phase effects in hydrophilic interaction chromatography and reduction of sample misclassification rate by additional use of reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Bicker, Wolfgang; Wu, Junyan; Xie, Ming Yong; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2010-02-19

    Acetonitrile-water extracts of several Ganoderma species - a mushroom being used in Traditional Chinese Medicine - were analysed by liquid chromatography-UV detection in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase (RP) elution modes. A set of six polar stationary phases was used for HILIC runs. These columns had remarkably different separation properties under binary gradient conditions as evinced by hierarchical cluster analysis on retention patterns of seven test compounds. Complementary measurements of RP chromatograms were carried out on a C(18) packing. Injection precision (n=5) and intra-day precision (n=5) were each <2.0% RSD (HILIC) and <0.7% RSD (RP) for relative retention times of main characteristic peaks of a sample extract while for relative peak areas RSD values were max. 6.8%. Repetitive analysis (n=7) of a processed sample stored in the autosampler tray for 48h was used to confirm within-sequence sample stability. Eleven Ganoderma lucidum samples served as training set for the construction of column-specific simulated mean chromatograms. Validation with twelve samples comprising G. lucidum, Ganoderma sinense, Ganoderma atrum, and Ganoderma tsugae by correlation coefficient based similarity evaluation of peak patterns showed that a discrimination of G. lucidum from other Ganoderma species by means of chromatographic fingerprints is conceptually possible on all columns, except of a bare silica packing. The importance of the combined use of RP and HILIC fingerprints to improve the rate of correct sample classification was demonstrated by the fact that each one G. sinense specimen was wrongly assigned being G. lucidum by all HILIC fingerprints but not the RP fingerprint and vice versa. The present data revealed that (i) the analysis of complex biological materials by quasi orthogonal chromatographic modes such as HILIC and RP may deliver more discriminative information than single-mode approaches which strengthens the reliability

  17. Decoupling of the brain's default mode network during deep sleep

    PubMed Central

    Horovitz, Silvina G.; Braun, Allen R.; Carr, Walter S.; Picchioni, Dante; Balkin, Thomas J.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2009-01-01

    The recent discovery of a circuit of brain regions that is highly active in the absence of overt behavior has led to a quest for revealing the possible function of this so-called default-mode network (DMN). A very recent study, finding similarities in awake humans and anesthetized primates, has suggested that DMN activity might not simply reflect ongoing conscious mentation but rather a more general form of network dynamics typical of complex systems. Here, by performing functional MRI in humans, it is shown that a natural, sleep-induced reduction of consciousness is reflected in altered correlation between DMN network components, most notably a reduced involvement of frontal cortex. This suggests that DMN may play an important role in the sustenance of conscious awareness. PMID:19549821

  18. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  19. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed. PMID:15810684

  20. Reduction/Transformation Operators

    2006-09-01

    RTOp (reduction/transformation operators) is a collection of C++ software that provides the basic mechanism for implementinig vector operations in a flexible and efficient manner. This is the main interface utilized by Thyra to allow for the specification of specific vector reduction and/or transformation operations. The RTOp package contains three different types of software. (a) a small number of interoperability interfaces. (b) support software including code for the parallel SPMD mode based on only Teuchos::Comm(and notmore » MPl directly(, and (c) a library of pre-implemented RTOp subclasses for everything from simple AXPYs and norms, to more specialized vector operations. RTOp allows an algorithm developer to implement their own RTOp subclasses in a way that is independent from any specific serial, parallel, out-of-core or other type of vector implementation. RTOp is a required package by Thyra and MOOCHO. (c)« less

  1. Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Marilyn; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that focus on waste reduction in the school and community. The ideas are divided into grade level categories. Sample activities include Techno-Trash, where children use tools to take apart broken appliances or car parts, then reassemble them or build new creations. Activities are suggested for areas including language arts and…

  2. Linear gyrokinetic simulations of microinstabilities within the pedestal region of H-mode NSTX discharges in a highly shaped geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Coury, M.; Guttenfelder, W.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Canik, J. M.; Canal, G. P.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.

    2016-06-30

    Linear (local) gyrokinetic predictions of edge microinstabilities in highly shaped, lithiated and non-lithiated NSTX discharges are reported using the gyrokinetic code GS2. Microtearing modes dominate the non-lithiated pedestal top. The stabilization of these modes at the lithiated pedestal top enables the electron temperature pedestal to extend further inwards, as observed experimentally. Kinetic ballooning modes are found to be unstable mainly at the mid-pedestal of both types of discharges, with un- stable trapped electron modes nearer the separatrix region. At electron wavelengths, ETG modes are found to be unstable from mid-pedestal outwards for ηe, exp ~2.2 with higher growth rates formore » the lithiated discharge. Near the separatrix, the critical temperature gradient for driving ETG modes is reduced in the presence of lithium, re ecting the reduction of the lithiated density gradients observed experimentally. A preliminary linear study in the edge of non-lithiated discharges shows that the equilibrium shaping alters the electrostatic modes stability, found more unstable at high plasma shaping.« less

  3. Assimilation of Mode-S EHS aircraft observations with a local EnKF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Heiner; Janjic, Tijana

    2016-04-01

    Aircraft observations of wind and temperature collected by airport surveillance radars (Mode-S EHS) were assimilated in COSMO-KENDA (Kilometre-scale ENsemble Data Assimilation) which couples an Ensemble Kalman Filter to a 40 member ensemble of the convection permitting COSMO-DE (Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling) model. The number of observing aircrafts in Mode-S EHS was about 15 times larger than in the AMDAR system. Between both aircraft observation systems, comparable observation error standard deviations in wind and a larger error in temperature were diagnosed a posteriori using analysis/forecast residuals in observation space (Desrozier's method). With the high density of Mode-S EHS observations, a reduction of temperature and wind error in forecasts of one and three hours was found mainly in the flight level and less near the surface. The amount of Mode-S EHS data was reduced by random thinning to test the effect of a varying observation density. With the current data assimilation setup, a saturation of the forecast error reduction was apparent when more than 50 percent of the Mode-S EHS data were assimilated. Forecast kinetic energy spectra indicated that the reduction in error is related to analysis updates on all scales resolved by COSMO-DE. Evolution (every 15 minutes) of forecast kinetic energy spectra compared to the control experiment showed different behavior of COSMO-DE model depending on amount of data assimilated.

  4. CNS development under altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajdel-Sulkowska, E.

    The future of space exploration depends on a solid understanding of the developmental process under microgravity. In furtherance of this goal, the present studies assessed the impact of altered gravity on the developing rat cerebellum. Specifically, the expression of selected cerebellar proteins and corresponding genes was compared in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity (1.5G) from embryonic day (E) 11 to postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 against their expression in rat neonates developing under normal gravity. Cerebellar proteins were analyzed by quantitative western blots of cerebellar homogenates; RNA analysis was performed in the same samples using ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). Densitometric analysis of western blots suggested 21% to 31% reduction in neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and 31% to 45% reduction in glial acidic protein (GFAP). RPA results suggested a small reduction (<10%) in NCAM mRNA and a moderate reduction (<25%) in GFAP mRNA. These data indicate that the expression of selected cerebellar proteins may be affected at both the transcriptional and translational/postranslational level. Furthermore, these results suggest that changes in expression of selected genes may underlie hypergravity's effect on the developing CNS. (Supported by NASA grant NCC2-1042 and BWH Psychiatry Fund).

  5. Failure detection system risk reduction assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Robert B. (Inventor); Huang, Zhaofeng (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process includes determining a probability of a failure mode of a system being analyzed reaching a failure limit as a function of time to failure limit, determining a probability of a mitigation of the failure mode as a function of a time to failure limit, and quantifying a risk reduction based on the probability of the failure mode reaching the failure limit and the probability of the mitigation.

  6. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  7. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  8. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  9. Deposition of thin Si and Ge films by ballistic hot electron reduction in a solution-dripping mode and its application to the growth of thin SiGe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Ryutaro; Yagi, Mamiko; Kojima, Akira; Mentek, Romain; Mori, Nobuya; Shirakashi, Jun-ichi; Koshida, Nobuyoshi

    2015-04-01

    To enhance the usefulness of ballistic hot electron injection into solutions for depositing thin group-IV films, a dripping scheme is proposed. A very small amount of SiCl4 or GeCl4 solution was dripped onto the surface of a nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) electron emitter, and then the emitter is driven without using any counter electrodes. It is shown that thin Si and Ge films are deposited onto the emitting surface. Spectroscopic surface and compositional analyses showed no extrinsic carbon contaminations in deposited thin films, in contrast to the results of a previous study using the dipping scheme. The availability of this technique for depositing thin SiGe films is also demonstrated using a mixture SiCl4+GeCl4 solution. Ballistic hot electrons injected into solutions with appropriate kinetic energies promote preferential reduction of target ions with no by-products leading to nuclei formation for the thin film growth. Specific advantageous features of this clean, room-temperature, and power-effective process is discussed in comparison with the conventional dry and wet processes.

  10. Broadband radiation modes: Estimation and active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2002-03-01

    In this paper we give a formulation of the most efficiently radiating vibration patterns of a vibrating body, the radiation modes, in the time domain. The radiation modes can be used to arrive at efficient weighting schemes for an array of sensors in order to reduce the controller dimensionality. Because these particular radiation modes are optimum in a broadband sense, they are termed broadband radiation modes. Methods are given to obtain these modes from measured data. The broadband radiation modes are used for the design of an actuator array in a feedback control system to reduce the sound power radiated from a plate. Three methods for the design of the actuator are compared, taking into account the reduction of radiated sound power in the controlled frequency range, but also the possible increase of radiated sound power in the uncontrolled frequency range.

  11. Amazing Altered Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

  12. Selective reduction.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark I; Krivchenia, Eric L; Gelber, Shari E; Wapner, Ronald J

    2003-03-01

    Multifetal pregnancy reduction continues to be controversial. Attitudes about MFPR have not, in our experience, followed a simple "pro-choice/pro-life" dichotomy. As far back as the mid to late 1980s, opinions about the subject were varied. Even then, when much less was known about the subject, opinions did not always parallel the usual pro-choice/theological boundaries. We believe that the real debate over the next 5 to 10 years will not be whether or not MFPR should be performed with triplets or more. The fact is that MFPR does improve those outcomes. A serious debate will emerge over whether or not it is appropriate to offer MFPR routinely for twins, even natural ones, for whom the outcome is commonly considered "good enough." Our data suggest that reduction of twins to a singleton improves the outcome of the remaining fetus. No consensus on appropriateness of routine 2-1 reductions is ever likely to emerge. The ethical issues surrounding MFPR will always be controversial. Over the years, much has been written on the subject. Opinions will always vary from outraged condemnation to complete acceptance. No short paragraph could do justice to the subject other than to state that most proponents do not believe this is a frivolous procedure but do believe in the principle of proportionality ie, therapy to achieve the most good for the least harm). Over the past 15 years, MFPR has become a well-established and integral part of infertility therapy and attempts to deal with the sequelae of aggressive infertility management. In the mid 1980s, the risks and benefits of the procedure could only be guessed. We now have clear and precise data on the risks and benefits of the procedure and an understanding that the risks increase substantially with the starting and finishing number of fetuses in multifetal pregnancies. The collaborative loss rate numbers (ie, 4.5% for triplets, 8% for quadruplets. 11% for quintuplets, and 15% for sextuplets or more) seem reasonable to present

  13. List mode multichannel analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  14. Active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Carolyn R.

    Active noise reduction (ANR) techniques are described with reference to their application to crewmembers during aircraft operation to enhance productivity and safety. ANR concepts and theory are explained, and the development of protective ANR systems for direct implementation are described. Sound attenuation testing was conducted to study the feasibility of aircraft-powered ANR systems, and the positive results spurred their development for compatibility with flight helmets. The Helmets Limited ANR system uses a bypass mode at times of limited available power and complements the use of passive sound attenuation. Subjective testing results show that the device is effective, and a planned program of intensive evaluation is discussed. The aircraft that require an ANR system are listed, and key areas of implementation include battery power and the combination of ANR circuitry and helmet oxygen masks. It is suggested that ANR techniques can positively impact the efficiency and performance of crewmembers in high-noise-level aircraft.

  15. Three-dimensional equilibria and island energy transport due to resonant magnetic perturbation edge localized mode suppression on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Nazikian, R.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Eldon, D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hanson, J. M.; Haskey, S. R.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S. A.; Logan, N. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, J.-K.; Shiraki, D.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments in the DIII-D tokamak show that the plasma responds to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with toroidal mode numbers of n = 2 and n = 3 without field line reconnection, consistent with resistive magnetohydrodynamic predictions, while a strong nonlinear bifurcation is apparent when edge localized modes (ELMs) are suppressed. The magnetic response associated with this bifurcation is localized to the high field side of the machine and exhibits a dominant n = 1 component despite the application of a constant amplitude, slowly toroidally rotating, n = 2 applied field. The n = 1 mode is born locked to the vacuum vessel wall, while the n = 2 mode is entrained to the rotating field. Based on these magnetic response measurements and Thomson scattering measurements of flattening of the electron temperature profile, it is likely that these modes are magnetic island chains near the H-mode pedestal. The reduction in ∇Te occurs near the q = 4 and 5 rational surfaces, suggesting five unique islands are possible (m = 8, 9, or 10 for n = 2) and (m = 4 or 5 for n = 1). In all cases, the island width is estimated to be 2-3 cm. The Chang-Callen calculated confinement degradation due to the presence of an individual island of this size is 8%-12%, which is close to the 13%-14% measured between the ELMs and suppressed states. This suggests that edge tearing modes may alter the pedestal causing peeling-ballooning stability during RMP induced ELM suppression.

  16. Oxidative Homeostasis Regulates the Response to Reductive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress through Translation Control.

    PubMed

    Maity, Shuvadeep; Rajkumar, Asher; Matai, Latika; Bhat, Ajay; Ghosh, Asmita; Agam, Ganesh; Kaur, Simarjot; Bhatt, Niraj R; Mukhopadhyay, Arnab; Sengupta, Shantanu; Chakraborty, Kausik

    2016-07-19

    Reductive stress leads to the loss of disulfide bond formation and induces the unfolded protein response of the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR(ER)), necessary to regain proteostasis in the compartment. Here we show that peroxide accumulation during reductive stress attenuates UPR(ER) amplitude by altering translation without any discernible effect on transcription. Through a comprehensive genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we identify modulators of reductive stress-induced UPR(ER) and demonstrate that oxidative quality control (OQC) genes modulate this cellular response in the presence of chronic but not acute reductive stress. Using a combination of microarray and relative quantitative proteomics, we uncover a non-canonical translation attenuation mechanism that acts in a bipartite manner to selectively downregulate highly expressed proteins, decoupling the cell's transcriptional and translational response during reductive ER stress. Finally, we demonstrate that PERK, a canonical translation attenuator in higher eukaryotes, helps in bypassing a ROS-dependent, non-canonical mode of translation attenuation. PMID:27373166

  17. Altered balance of functional brain networks in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Todd S; Leong, KaWai; Sanford, Nicole; Tipper, Christine M; Lavigne, Katie M

    2016-02-28

    Activity in dorsal attention (DAN) and frontoparietal (FPN) functional brain networks is linked to allocation of attention to external stimuli, and activity in the default-mode network (DMN) is linked to allocation of attention to internal representations. Tasks requiring attention to external stimuli shift activity to the DAN/FPN and away from the DMN, and optimal task performance depends on balancing DAN/FPN against DMN activity. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study assessed the balance of DAN/FPN and DMN activity in 13 schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy controls while they were engaged in a task switching Stroop paradigm which demanded internally directed attention to task instructions. The typical pattern of reciprocity between the DAN/FPN and DMN was observed for healthy controls but not for patients, suggesting a reduction in the internally focussed thought important for maintenance of instructions and strategies in schizophrenia. The observed alteration in the balance between DAN/FPN and DMN in patients may reflect a general mechanism underlying multiple forms of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, including global processing deficits such as cognitive inefficiency and impaired context processing.

  18. Altered balance of functional brain networks in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Todd S; Leong, KaWai; Sanford, Nicole; Tipper, Christine M; Lavigne, Katie M

    2016-02-28

    Activity in dorsal attention (DAN) and frontoparietal (FPN) functional brain networks is linked to allocation of attention to external stimuli, and activity in the default-mode network (DMN) is linked to allocation of attention to internal representations. Tasks requiring attention to external stimuli shift activity to the DAN/FPN and away from the DMN, and optimal task performance depends on balancing DAN/FPN against DMN activity. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study assessed the balance of DAN/FPN and DMN activity in 13 schizophrenia patients and 13 healthy controls while they were engaged in a task switching Stroop paradigm which demanded internally directed attention to task instructions. The typical pattern of reciprocity between the DAN/FPN and DMN was observed for healthy controls but not for patients, suggesting a reduction in the internally focussed thought important for maintenance of instructions and strategies in schizophrenia. The observed alteration in the balance between DAN/FPN and DMN in patients may reflect a general mechanism underlying multiple forms of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, including global processing deficits such as cognitive inefficiency and impaired context processing. PMID:26786152

  19. Large mode radius resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Resonator configurations permitting operation with large mode radius while maintaining good transverse mode discrimination are considered. Stable resonators incorporating an intracavity telescope and unstable resonator geometries utilizing an output coupler with a Gaussian reflectivity profile are shown to enable large radius single mode laser operation. Results of heterodyne studies of pulsed CO2 lasers with large (11mm e sup-2 radius) fundamental mode sizes are presented demonstrating minimal frequency sweeping in accordance with the theory of laser-induced medium perturbations.

  20. A comparative study of two stochastic mode reduction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2005-09-01

    We present a comparative study of two methods for thereduction of the dimensionality of a system of ordinary differentialequations that exhibits time-scale separation. Both methods lead to areduced system of stochastic differential equations. The novel feature ofthese methods is that they allow the use, in the reduced system, ofhigher order terms in the resolved variables. The first method, proposedby Majda, Timofeyev and Vanden-Eijnden, is based on an asymptoticstrategy developed by Kurtz. The second method is a short-memoryapproximation of the Mori-Zwanzig projection formalism of irreversiblestatistical mechanics, as proposed by Chorin, Hald and Kupferman. Wepresent conditions under which the reduced models arising from the twomethods should have similar predictive ability. We apply the two methodsto test cases that satisfy these conditions. The form of the reducedmodels and the numerical simulations show that the two methods havesimilar predictive ability as expected.

  1. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  2. Integrated mode converter for mode division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Galacho, Diego; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Marris-Morini, Delphine; Vakarin, Vladyslav; Le Roux, Xavier; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Perez, Juan Gonzalo; Vivien, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    The ever growing demands of bandwidth in optical communication systems are making traditional Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) based systems to reach its limit. In order to cope with future bandwidth demand is necessary to use new levels of orthogonality, such as the waveguide mode or the polarization state. Mode Division Multiplexing (MDM) has recently attracted attention as a possible solution to increase aggregate bandwidth. In this work we discuss the proposition a of mode converter that can cover the whole C-Band of optical communications. The Mode Converter is based on two Multimode Interference (MMI) couplers and a phase shifter. Insertion loss (IL) below 0.2 dB and Extinction ratio (ER) higher than 20 dB in a broad bandwidth range of 1.5 μm to 1.6 μm have been estimated. The total length of the device is less than 30 μm.

  3. Few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Hirokazu; Morioka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A study is presented of the fiber properties needed to achieve 10-mode multiplexing transmission. A combination of MIMO processing with optical LP mode separation is proposed to prevent the need for massive MIMO computation. The impact of mode crosstalk, differential mode delay, and the mode dependent loss of the few-mode fibers on mode multiplexing are discussed.

  4. Minimum fan turbine inlet temperature mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in turbine temperature which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT) mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of net propulsive force and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and partial afterburning power settings. The FTIT reductions for the supersonic tests are less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Subsonically at military power, FTIT reductions were above 70 R for either the left or right engines, and repeatable for the right engine. At partial afterburner and supersonic conditions, the level of FTIT reductions were at least 25 R and as much as 55 R. Considering that the turbine operates at or very near its temperature limit at these high power settings, these seemingly small temperature reductions may significantly lengthen the life of the turbine. In general, the minimum FTIT mode has performed well, demonstrating significant temperature reductions at military and partial afterburner power. Decreases of over 100 R at cruise flight conditions were identified. Temperature reductions of this magnitude could significantly extend turbine life and reduce replacement costs.

  5. Cataclasis and processes of particle size reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Tom G.

    1991-05-01

    The particle size distribution (P.S.D.) of fragmented geological materials is affected by the fragmentation process, initial size distribution, number of fracturing events, energy input, strain, and confining pressure. A summary of literature shows that the fractal dimension ( D) of the P.S.D. is increased by the number of fracturing events, energy input, strain, and confining pressure. Cenozoic cataclasis of granite, granodiorites, gneisses and arkose seen in cores from the Cajon Pass drillhole, southern California, produced P.S.D.s with values of D that varied from 1.88 to 3.08. Each rock type has a characteristic and more limited range of D. Areas of dilatant texture and mode I fracture-fillings have low average values (2.32 and 2.37) compared to an average value of 2.67 in shear fracture-fillings D has a good inverse correlation with average particle size. Data from fault rocks in the San Gabriel fault zone, southern California ( Anderson et al., 1983) have been reanalyzed to show that values of D are higher (2.10 5.52) and average particle size is lower than the Cajon Pass samples, but the ranges of values overlap, and the inverse correlation between D and average particle size is extended. Microstructural observations combined with these results suggest that three processes contributed to particle size reduction during cataclasis. The first process of feldspar alteration, which leads to low values of D, has not been previously recognized. The second process is probably constrained comminution ( Sammis et al., 1987), since the average D in shear fracture-fillings is close to the value of 2.58 predicted by this theory. A further stage of particle size reduction is demonstrated by an increase of D with cataclasis. This third process is selective fracture of larger particles, which may also operate during localization and the cataclastic flow-to-faulting transition as observed in experiments. A transition from constrained comminution to selective fracture of

  6. Immunization alters body odor.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. PMID:24524972

  7. How Misinformation Alters Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    1998-01-01

    Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

  8. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  9. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations

    PubMed Central

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks. PMID:26793435

  10. Network community structure alterations in adult schizophrenia: identification and localization of alterations.

    PubMed

    Lerman-Sinkoff, Dov B; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests functional connectivity alterations in schizophrenia. While findings have been mixed, evidence points towards a complex pattern of hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity. This altered connectivity can be represented and analyzed using the mathematical frameworks provided by graph and information theory to represent functional connectivity data as graphs comprised of nodes and edges linking the nodes. One analytic technique in this framework is the determination and analysis of network community structure, which is the grouping of nodes into linked communities or modules. This data-driven technique finds a best-fit structure such that nodes in a given community have greater connectivity with nodes in their community than with nodes in other communities. These community structure representations have been found to recapitulate known neural-systems in healthy individuals, have been used to identify novel functional systems, and have identified and localized community structure alterations in a childhood onset schizophrenia cohort. In the present study, we sought to determine whether community structure alterations were present in an adult onset schizophrenia cohort while stringently controlling for sources of imaging artifacts. Group level average graphs in healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia exhibited visually similar network community structures and high amounts of normalized mutual information (NMI). However, testing of individual subject community structures identified small but significant alterations in community structure with alterations being driven by changes in node community membership in the somatosensory, auditory, default mode, salience, and subcortical networks.

  11. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  12. Purification and Characterization of ZmRIP1, a Novel Reductant-Inhibited Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase from Maize1[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingbing; Zhao, Yanxia; Liang, Liyan; Ren, Huibo; Xing, Yu; Chen, Lin; Sun, Mingzhu; Wang, Yuanhua; Han, Yu; Jia, Haifeng; Huang, Conglin; Wu, Zhongyi; Jia, Wensuo

    2012-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) have long been thought to be activated by reductants and deactivated by oxidants, owing to the presence of a crucial sulfhydryl group in their catalytic centers. In this article, we report the purification and characterization of Reductant-Inhibited PTPase1 (ZmRIP1) from maize (Zea mays) coleoptiles, and show that this PTPase has a unique mode of redox regulation and signaling. Surprisingly, ZmRIP1 was found to be deactivated by a reductant. A cysteine (Cys) residue (Cys-181) near the active center was found to regulate this unique mode of redox regulation, as mutation of Cys-181 to arginine-181 allowed ZmRIP1 to be activated by a reductant. In response to oxidant treatment, ZmRIP1 was translocated from the chloroplast to the nucleus. Expression of ZmRIP1 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants and maize protoplasts altered the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in antioxidant catabolism, such as At1g02950, which encodes a glutathione transferase. Thus, the novel PTPase identified in this study is predicted to function in redox signaling in maize. PMID:22529284

  13. Pyrochlores from the Lueshe carbonatite complex (Democratic Republic of Congo): a geochemical record of different alteration stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasraoui, M.; Bilal, E.

    2000-04-01

    Magmatic pyrochlores from the Lueshe syenite-carbonatite complex from the northeastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (ex-Zaı̈re) are characterized by Ta/Nb ratios in an increasing order from pyroxenite, calcite-carbonatite (sövite), silicate xenoliths (nodules) to syenite. Substitutions involving Nb, Ta, Ti and REE have been precisely described. Hydrothermal alteration of Lueshe pyrochlore involves the substitution of Na ++F -=VA+VY and Ca+O=VA+VY (VA=A-site vacancy and VY=Y-site vacancy). In calcite carbonatite, hydrothermal alteration of pyrochlore took place during and after the precipitation of ancylite-(Ce), strontianite, celestite, baryte and fayalite according to a fluid composition of relatively low pH, aNa +, aCa 2+ and aHF, and high aSr 2+ and aLREE 3+. The supergene alteration is characterized by complete leaching of Na, Ca and F and partial incorporation of K, Ba, Sr and Ce resulting in the formation of kali-, bario-, strontio- and ceriopyrochlore respectively. The Na-poor pyrochlore may be an intermediate variety corresponding to an alteration stage between the hydrothermal and weathered pyrochlores. The IR spectroscopic study has indicated that the weathered pyrochlore is a hydrated variety containing two bands of OH vibration modes at 3413 and 1630 cm -1. During hydrothermal and supergene alterations, the cations at B-site remain relatively constant. The variable chemical compositions of the pyrochlores from the Lueshe complex represent geochemical memories of the different alteration conditions including the variation in the oxidation-reduction environment.

  14. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  15. Precursory changes in seismic velocity for the spectrum of earthquake failure modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, M. M.; Marone, C.; Tinti, E.; di Stefano, G.; Collettini, C.

    2016-09-01

    Temporal changes in seismic velocity during the earthquake cycle have the potential to illuminate physical processes associated with fault weakening and connections between the range of fault slip behaviours including slow earthquakes, tremor and low-frequency earthquakes. Laboratory and theoretical studies predict changes in seismic velocity before earthquake failure; however, tectonic faults fail in a spectrum of modes and little is known about precursors for those modes. Here we show that precursory changes of wave speed occur in laboratory faults for the complete spectrum of failure modes observed for tectonic faults. We systematically altered the stiffness of the loading system to reproduce the transition from slow to fast stick-slip and monitored ultrasonic wave speed during frictional sliding. We find systematic variations of elastic properties during the seismic cycle for both slow and fast earthquakes indicating similar physical mechanisms during rupture nucleation. Our data show that accelerated fault creep causes reduction of seismic velocity and elastic moduli during the preparatory phase preceding failure, which suggests that real-time monitoring of active faults may be a means to detect earthquake precursors.

  16. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part I. Estimation of the rate constants

    SciTech Connect

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J.

    2008-12-15

    A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO{sub 2} and wustite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wustite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wustite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wustite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (> 1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

  17. Amplitude Noise Reduction of Ion Lasers with Optical Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in amplitude noise on the output of a multi-mode continuous-wave Ar-ion laser was previously demonstrated when a fraction of the output power was retroreflected back into the laser cavity. This result was reproduced in the present work and a Fabry-Perot etalon was used to monitor the longitudinal mode structure of the laser. A decrease in the number of operating longitudinal cavity modes was observed simultaneously with the introduction of the optical feedback and the onset of the amplitude noise reduction. The noise reduction is a result of a reduced number of lasing modes, resulting in less mode beating and amplitude fluctuations of the laser output power.

  18. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  19. The electronic state of heme in cytochrome oxidase II. Oxidation-reduction potential interactions and heme iron spin state behavior observed in reductive titrations.

    PubMed

    Babcock, G T; Vickery, L E; Palmer, G

    1978-04-10

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and optical absorption spectroscopies have been used to monitor the concentrations of oxidized and reduced heme and copper during stoichiometric reductive titrations of purified beef heart cytochrome oxidase. The MCD data are deconvoluted to obtain the concentrations of reduced cytochromes a and a3 during the titrations; analysis of the EPR spectra provides complementary data on the concentrations of the EPR-detectable species. For the native enzyme in the absence of exogenous ligands, cytochromes a and a3 are reduced to approximately the same extent at all points in the titration. The reduction of the EPR-detectable copper, on the other hand, initially lags the reduction of the two cytochromes but in the final stages of the titration is completely reduced prior to either cytochrome a or a3. These non-Nernstian titration results are interpreted to indicate that the primary mode of heme-heme interaction in cytochrome oxidase involves shifts in oxidation-reduction potential for each of the two cytochromes such that a change in oxidation state for one of the hemes lowers the oxidation-reduction potential of the second heme by approximately 135 mV. In these titrations high spin species are detected which account for 0.25 spin/oxidase maximally. Evidence is presented to indicate that at least some of these signals can be attributed to cytochrome a3+ which has undergone a low-spin to high-spin state transition in the course of the titration. In the presence of carbon monoxide the oxidation-reduction properties of cytochromes a and a3 are markedly altered. The a32+. CO complex is fully formed prior to reduction of either cytochrome a3+ or the EPR-detectable copper. The g = 3 EPR signal attributed to cytochrome a3+ decreases as the MCD intensity of cytochrome a2+ increases; no significant high-spin intensity is observed at any intermediate stage of reduction. We interpret these Nernstian titration

  20. New Modes of Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob

    1979-01-01

    Recounts the experiences of an education expert who learned from his Navajo Indian students that there are many modes of learning. Identifies the dominant modes as symbolic/abstract, visual, kinesthetic/integrative, and auditory; argues for the value of each. (First part of a two-part article.) (FL)

  1. Tearing Modes in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.

    2008-05-14

    This lecture gives a basic introduction to magnetic pound elds, magnetic surface destruction, toroidal equilibrium and tearing modes in a tokamak, including the linear and nonlinear development of these modes and their modi pound cation by current drive and bootstrap current, and sawtooth oscillations and disruptions.

  2. Mode decomposition evolution equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2011-01-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  3. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  4. Zero-mode waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2007-02-20

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  5. Spin waves and domain wall modes in curved magnetic nanowires.

    PubMed

    Bocklage, Lars; Motl-Ziegler, Sandra; Topp, Jesco; Matsuyama, Toru; Meier, Guido

    2014-07-01

    The confinement of spin waves in inhomogeneous fields and spin wave interaction with domain walls has attracted interest due to possible applications in magnonics. We investigate spin waves in curved ferromagnetic nanowires. The field dispersion and localization of spin waves is revealed by comparison to known modes in stripes and taking into account the specific field reversal of the curved wire. In small wires we find a strongly altered mode spectrum in a certain field regime. Micromagnetic simulations show an extended domain wall within the wire in this field region. The domain wall shows several dynamic modes and changes the remaining spin wave modes. We find mode suppression as well as newly arising modes due to the strong inhomogenous internal field of the wall.

  6. Squeezing Alters Frequency Tuning of WGM Optical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical squeezing has been found to alter the frequency tuning of a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonator that has an elliptical shape and is made of lithium niobate. It may be possible to exploit this effect to design reconfigurable optical filters for optical communications and for scientific experiments involving quantum electrodynamics. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the squeezing-induced alteration of frequency tuning: The spectrum of a WGM resonator is represented by a comblike plot of intensity versus frequency. Each peak of the comblike plot corresponds to an electromagnetic mode represented by an integer mode number, and the modes are grouped into sets represented by integer mode indices. Because lithium niobate is an electro-optically active material, the WGM resonator can be tuned (that is, the resonance frequencies can be shifted) by applying a suitable bias potential. The frequency shift of each mode is quantified by a tuning rate defined as the ratio between the frequency shift and the applied potential. In the absence of squeezing, all modes exhibit the same tuning rate. This concludes the background information. It has been demonstrated experimentally that when the resonator is squeezed along part of either of its two principal axes, tuning rates differ among the groups of modes represented by different indices (see figure). The differences in tuning rates could be utilized to configure the resonance spectrum to obtain a desired effect; for example, through a combination of squeezing and electrical biasing, two resonances represented by different mode indices could be set at a specified frequency difference something that could not be done through electrical biasing alone.

  7. Untangled modes in multimode waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, TomáÅ.¡; Čižmár, TomáÅ.¡

    2016-03-01

    Small, fibre-based endoscopes have already improved our ability to image deep within the human body. A novel approach introduced recently utilised disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless imaging. Importantly, this approach brought very significant reduction of the instruments footprint to dimensions below 100 μm. The most important limitations of this exciting technology is the lack of bending flexibility - imaging is only possible as long as the fibre remains stationary. The only route to allow flexibility of such endoscopes is in trading-in all the knowledge about the optical system we have, particularly the cylindrical symmetry of refractive index distribution. In perfect straight step-index cylindrical waveguides we can find optical modes that do not change their spatial distribution as they propagate through. In this paper we present a theoretical background that provides description of such modes in more realistic model of real-life step-index multimode fibre taking into account common deviations in distribution of the refractive index from its ideal step-index profile. Separately, we discuss how to include the influence of fibre bending.

  8. The electron geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect

    Chakrabarti, N.; Kaw, P. K.

    2012-09-15

    In this report, a novel new mode, named the electron geodesic acoustic mode, is presented. This mode can occur in toroidal plasmas like the conventional geodesic acoustic mode (GAM). The frequency of this new mode is much larger than that of the conventional GAM by a factor equal to the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio.

  9. Raman spectroscopic study of a genetically altered kidney cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Joel; Garcia, Francisco; Centeno, Silvia P.; Joshi, N. V.

    2008-02-01

    A Raman spectroscopic investigation of a genetically altered Human Embryonic Kidney Cell (HEK293) along with a pathologically normal cell has been carried out by a conventional method. The genetic alteration was carried out with a standard protocol by using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP). Raman spectra show that there are dramatic differences between the spectrum obtained from a genetically altered cell and that obtained from a pathologically normal cell. The former shows three broad bands; meanwhile the latter shows several sharp peaks corresponding to the ring vibrational modes of Phen, GFP and DNA. The present analysis provides an indication that the force field near Phen located at 64, 65 and 66 was altered during the genetic transformation. The Raman spectrum could be a direct experimental evidence for substantial modifications triggered due to the expression of specific genes.

  10. Supersymmetric mode converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Matthias; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Stützer, Simon; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the ever-increasing demand for high-capacity transmission systems has driven remarkable advances in technologies that encode information on an optical signal. Mode-division multiplexing makes use of individual modes supported by an optical waveguide as mutually orthogonal channels. The key requirement in this approach is the capability to selectively populate and extract specific modes. Optical supersymmetry (SUSY) has recently been proposed as a particularly elegant way to resolve this design challenge in a manner that is inherently scalable, and at the same time maintains compatibility with existing multiplexing strategies. Supersymmetric partners of multimode waveguides are characterized by the fact that they share all of their effective indices with the original waveguide. The crucial exception is the fundamental mode, which is absent from the spectrum of the partner waveguide. Here, we demonstrate experimentally how this global phase-matching property can be exploited for efficient mode conversion. Multimode structures and their superpartners are experimentally realized in coupled networks of femtosecond laser-written waveguides, and the corresponding light dynamics are directly observed by means of fluorescence microscopy. We show that SUSY transformations can readily facilitate the removal of the fundamental mode from multimode optical structures. In turn, hierarchical sequences of such SUSY partners naturally implement the conversion between modes of adjacent order. Our experiments illustrate just one of the many possibilities of how SUSY may serve as a building block for integrated mode-division multiplexing arrangements. Supersymmetric notions may enrich and expand integrated photonics by versatile optical components and desirable, yet previously unattainable, functionalities.

  11. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  12. Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

  13. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem.

  14. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  15. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  16. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  17. Parasites alter community structure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chelsea L; Byers, James E; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Altman, Irit; Donahue, Megan J; Blakeslee, April M H

    2007-05-29

    Parasites often play an important role in modifying the physiology and behavior of their hosts and may, consequently, mediate the influence hosts have on other components of an ecological community. Along the northern Atlantic coast of North America, the dominant herbivorous snail Littorina littorea structures rocky intertidal communities through strong grazing pressure and is frequently parasitized by the digenean trematode Cryptocotyle lingua. We hypothesized that the effects of parasitism on host physiology would induce behavioral changes in L. littorea, which in turn would modulate L. littorea's influence on intertidal community composition. Specifically, we hypothesized that C. lingua infection would alter the grazing rate of L. littorea and, consequently, macroalgal communities would develop differently in the presence of infected versus uninfected snails. Our results show that uninfected snails consumed 40% more ephemeral macroalgal biomass than infected snails in the laboratory, probably because the digestive system of infected snails is compromised by C. lingua infection. In the field, this weaker grazing by infected snails resulted in significantly greater expansion of ephemeral macroalgal cover relative to grazing by uninfected snails. By decreasing the per-capita grazing rate of the dominant herbivore, C. lingua indirectly affects the composition of the macroalgal community and may in turn affect other species that depend on macroalgae for resources or habitat structure. In light of the abundance of parasites across systems, we suggest that, through trait-mediated indirect effects, parasites may be a common determinant of structure in ecological communities. PMID:17517667

  18. Configuring a Powered Knee and Ankle Prosthesis for Transfemoral Amputees within Five Specific Ambulation Modes

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ann M.; Ingraham, Kimberly A.; Fey, Nicholas P.; Finucane, Suzanne B.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Young, Aaron J.; Hargrove, Levi J.

    2014-01-01

    Lower limb prostheses that can generate net positive mechanical work may restore more ambulation modes to amputees. However, configuration of these devices imposes an additional burden on clinicians relative to conventional prostheses; devices for transfemoral amputees that require configuration of both a knee and an ankle joint are especially challenging. In this paper, we present an approach to configuring such powered devices. We developed modified intrinsic control strategies—which mimic the behavior of biological joints, depend on instantaneous loads within the prosthesis, or set impedance based on values from previous states, as well as a set of starting configuration parameters. We developed tables that include a list of desired clinical gait kinematics and the parameter modifications necessary to alter them. Our approach was implemented for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis in five ambulation modes (level-ground walking, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent). The strategies and set of starting configuration parameters were developed using data from three individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations who had previous experience using the device; this approach was then tested on three novice unilateral transfemoral amputees. Only 17% of the total number of parameters (i.e., 24 of the 140) had to be independently adjusted for each novice user to achieve all five ambulation modes and the initial accommodation period (i.e., time to configure the device for all modes) was reduced by 56%, to 5 hours or less. This approach and subsequent reduction in configuration time may help translate powered prostheses into a viable clinical option where amputees can more quickly appreciate the benefits such devices can provide. PMID:24914674

  19. Configuring a powered knee and ankle prosthesis for transfemoral amputees within five specific ambulation modes.

    PubMed

    Simon, Ann M; Ingraham, Kimberly A; Fey, Nicholas P; Finucane, Suzanne B; Lipschutz, Robert D; Young, Aaron J; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-01-01

    Lower limb prostheses that can generate net positive mechanical work may restore more ambulation modes to amputees. However, configuration of these devices imposes an additional burden on clinicians relative to conventional prostheses; devices for transfemoral amputees that require configuration of both a knee and an ankle joint are especially challenging. In this paper, we present an approach to configuring such powered devices. We developed modified intrinsic control strategies--which mimic the behavior of biological joints, depend on instantaneous loads within the prosthesis, or set impedance based on values from previous states, as well as a set of starting configuration parameters. We developed tables that include a list of desired clinical gait kinematics and the parameter modifications necessary to alter them. Our approach was implemented for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis in five ambulation modes (level-ground walking, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent). The strategies and set of starting configuration parameters were developed using data from three individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations who had previous experience using the device; this approach was then tested on three novice unilateral transfemoral amputees. Only 17% of the total number of parameters (i.e., 24 of the 140) had to be independently adjusted for each novice user to achieve all five ambulation modes and the initial accommodation period (i.e., time to configure the device for all modes) was reduced by 56%, to 5 hours or less. This approach and subsequent reduction in configuration time may help translate powered prostheses into a viable clinical option where amputees can more quickly appreciate the benefits such devices can provide.

  20. MCNP variance reduction overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code.

  1. Mode of action from dose-response microarray data: case study using 10 environmental chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ligand-activated nuclear receptors regulate many biological processes through complex interactions with biological macromolecules. Certain xenobiotics alter nuclear receptor signaling through direct or indirect interactions. Defining the mode of action of such xenobiotics is di...

  2. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric C. Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  3. Mediation Analysis of Mode Deactivation Therapy (Reanalysis and Interpretation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Christopher K.; Apsche, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    A key component of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) is the development of self-awareness and regulatory skills by the client with the aim of helping adolescent males with conduct disordered behaviors, including sexually inappropriate behaviors and emotional dysregulation. The goal includes altering specific behaviors to fall within socially…

  4. A Simple Laser Teaching Aid for Transverse Mode Structure Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Cheng; Zhang, Shulian

    2009-01-01

    A teaching aid for demonstrating the transverse mode structure in lasers is described. A novel device called "multi-dimension adjustable combined cat-eye reflector" has been constructed from easily available materials to form a He-Ne laser resonator. By finely adjusting the cat-eye, the boundary conditions of the laser cavity can be altered, which…

  5. Mode 2 fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, Robert J.; Ghosn, Louis

    1988-01-01

    Current development of high-performance rolling element bearings for aircraft engines (up to 3 million DN, where DN is the product of shaft diameter in millimeters and speed in revolutions per minute) has aroused concern about fatigue crack growth in the inner bearing race that leads to catastrophic failure of the bearing and the engine. A failure sequence was postulated by Srawley, and an analytical program was undertaken to simulate fatigue crack propagation in the inner raceway of such a bearing. A fatigue specimen was developed at NASA by which fatigue data may be obtained relative to the cracking problems. The specimen may be used to obtain either mode 2 data alone or a combination of mixed-mode (1 and 2) data as well and was calibrated in this regard. Mixed-mode fracture data for M-50 bearing steel are presented, and a method for performing reversed-loading tests is described.

  6. Violin plate modes.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the first step toward developing a generic model for the acoustically radiating vibrational modes of the violin and related instruments, the modes of both freely supported and edge-constrained top and back plates have been investigated as functions of shape, arching height, elastic anisotropy, the f-holes and associated island area, thickness graduations, and the additional boundary constraints of the ribs, soundpost, and bass-bar present in the assembled instrument. Comsol shell structure finite element software has been used as a quasi-experimental tool, with physical and geometric properties varied smoothly, often over several orders of magnitude, allowing the development of the plate modes to be followed continuously from those of an initially square plate to those of doubly-arched, guitar-shaped, orthotropic plates and their dependence on all the above factors. PMID:25618046

  7. Violin plate modes.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin

    2015-01-01

    As the first step toward developing a generic model for the acoustically radiating vibrational modes of the violin and related instruments, the modes of both freely supported and edge-constrained top and back plates have been investigated as functions of shape, arching height, elastic anisotropy, the f-holes and associated island area, thickness graduations, and the additional boundary constraints of the ribs, soundpost, and bass-bar present in the assembled instrument. Comsol shell structure finite element software has been used as a quasi-experimental tool, with physical and geometric properties varied smoothly, often over several orders of magnitude, allowing the development of the plate modes to be followed continuously from those of an initially square plate to those of doubly-arched, guitar-shaped, orthotropic plates and their dependence on all the above factors.

  8. Whispering Bloch modes

    PubMed Central

    Craster, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate eigenvalue problems for the planar Helmholtz equation in open systems with a high order of rotational symmetry. The resulting solutions have similarities with the whispering gallery modes exploited in photonic micro-resonators and elsewhere, but unlike these do not necessarily require a surrounding material boundary, with confinement instead resulting from the geometry of a series of inclusions arranged in a ring. The corresponding fields exhibit angular quasi-periodicity reminiscent of Bloch waves, and hence we refer to them as whispering Bloch modes (WBMs). We show that if the geometry of the system is slightly perturbed such that the rotational symmetry is broken, modes with asymmetric field patterns can be observed, resulting in field enhancement and other potentially desirable effects. We investigate the WBMs of two specific geometries first using expansion methods and then by applying a two-scale asymptotic scheme. PMID:27493564

  9. Infernal Fishbone Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; V.S. Marchenko; R.B. White

    2003-02-11

    A new kind of fishbone instability associated with circulating energetic ions is predicted. The considered instability is essentially the energetic particle mode; it is characterized by m/n not equal to 1 (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively). The mode is localized inside the flux surface where the safety factor (q) is q* = m/n, its amplitude being maximum near q*. The instability arises in plasmas with small shear inside the q* surface and q(0) > 1. A possibility to explain recent experimental observations of the m = 2 fishbone oscillations accompanied by strong changes of the neutron emission during tangential neutral-beam injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] is shown.

  10. The pipeline for the GOSSS data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota, A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2011-11-01

    The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS) is an ambitious project that is observing all known Galactic O stars with B < 13 in the blue-violet part of the spectrum with R ˜ 2500. It is based on version 2 of the most complete catalog to date of Galactic O stars with accurate spectral types (v1, Maíz Apellániz et al. 2004; v2, Sota et al. 2008). Given the large amount of data that we are getting (more than 150 nights of observations at three different observatories in the last 4 years) we have developed an automatic spectroscopic reduction pipeline. This pipeline has been programmed in IDL and automates the process of data reduction. It can operate in two modes: automatic data reduction (quicklook) or semi-automatic data reduction (full). In "quicklook", we are able to get rectified and calibrated spectra of all stars of a full night just minutes after the observations. The pipeline automatically identifies the type of image and applies the standard reduction procedure (bias subtraction, flat field correction, application of bad pixel mask, ...). It also extracts all spectra of the stars in one image (including close visual binaries), aligns and merges all spectra of the same star (to increase the signal to noise ratio and to correct defects such as cosmic rays), calibrates in wavelength and rectifies the continuum. The same operations are performed in full mode, but allowing the user to adjust the parameters used in the process.

  11. Should Radial Modes Always Be Regarded as p-Modes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, M.

    2013-12-01

    As standard textbooks of stellar oscillations say, the only restoring force of radial modes in spherically symmetric stars is the pressure gradient, whereas the buoyancy force does not operate because no horizontal inhomogeneity is generated by radial oscillations. This is the physical reason why all radial modes should be classified as p-modes. In this presentation, however, we numerically demonstrate that unstable (adiabatic) radial modes should not be regraded as p-modes, because they are closely related to f-modes or g-modes of nonradial oscillations.

  12. Multi-mode horn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, Jeffrey M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A horn has an input aperture and an output aperture, and comprises a conductive inner surface formed by rotating a curve about a central axis. The curve comprises a first arc having an input aperture end and a transition end, and a second arc having a transition end and an output aperture end. When rotated about the central axis, the first arc input aperture end forms an input aperture, and the second arc output aperture end forms an output aperture. The curve is then optimized to provide a mode conversion which maximizes the power transfer of input energy to the Gaussian mode at the output aperture.

  13. Optimizing parallel reduction operations

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    A parallel program consists of sets of concurrent and sequential tasks. Often, a reduction (such as array sum) sequentially combines values produced by a parallel computation. Because reductions occur so frequently in otherwise parallel programs, they are good candidates for optimization. Since reductions may introduce dependencies, most languages separate computation and reduction. The Sisal functional language is unique in that reduction is a natural consequence of loop expressions; the parallelism is implicit in the language. Unfortunately, the original language supports only seven reduction operations. To generalize these expressions, the Sisal 90 definition adds user-defined reductions at the language level. Applicable optimizations depend upon the mathematical properties of the reduction. Compilation and execution speed, synchronization overhead, memory use and maximum size influence the final implementation. This paper (1) Defines reduction syntax and compares with traditional concurrent methods; (2) Defines classes of reduction operations; (3) Develops analysis of classes for optimized concurrency; (4) Incorporates reductions into Sisal 1.2 and Sisal 90; (5) Evaluates performance and size of the implementations.

  14. The Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Deluis, Javier

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the middeck 0-gravity dynamics experiment (MODE) are presented. Topics covered include: MODE flight hardware elements; MODE science objectives; MODE team; flight operations; and summary.

  15. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.

    2006-03-01

    Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic

  16. Improved feedback control of wall stabilized kink modes with different plasma-wall couplings and mode rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Q.; Levesque, J. P.; Stoafer, C. C.; Bialek, J.; Byrne, P.; Hughes, P. E.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Rhodes, D. J.

    2016-04-01

    A new algorithm for feedback control of rotating, wall-stabilized kink modes in the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) device maintains an accurate phase shift between the perturbation and the measured rotating mode through current control, with control power emphasizing fast rotation and phase jumps over fast amplitude changes. In HBT-EP, wall-stabilized kink modes become unstable above the ideal wall stability limit, and feedback suppression is aimed at delaying the onset of discharge disruption through reduction of the kink mode amplitude. Performance of the new feedback algorithm is tested under different experimental conditions, including variation of the plasma-wall coupling, insertion of a ferritic wall, changing mode rotation frequency over the range of 4-8 kHz using an internal biased electrode, and adjusting the feedback phase-angle to accelerate, amplify, or suppress the mode. We find the previously reported excitation of the slowly rotating mode at high feedback gain in HBT-EP is mitigated by the current control scheme. We also find good agreement between the observed and predicted changes to the mode rotation frequency and amplitude. When ferritic material is introduced, or the plasma-wall coupling becomes weaker as the walls are retracted from plasma, the feedback gain needs to be increased to achieve the same level of suppression. When mode rotation is slowed by a biased electrode, the feedback system still achieves mode suppression, and demonstrates wide bandwidth effectiveness.

  17. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  18. Synthesize Modes and Correlate

    2005-10-01

    SMAC is an automated experimental modal parameter extraction package which determines the natural frequencies of vibration, viscous damping ratios and mode shapes from experimental accelerance frequency response functions (FRFs). It is written in the MATLAB interpretive matrix language and has a graphical user interface.

  19. Mode conversion in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) can convert to much shorter wavelength modes such as ion Bernstein waves (IBW) and ion cyclotron waves (ICW) [1]. These modes are potentially useful for plasma control through the generation of localized currents and sheared flows. As part of the SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions project, the AORSA global-wave solver [2] has been ported to the new, dual-core Cray XT-3 (Jaguar) at ORNL where it demonstrates excellent scaling with the number of processors. Preliminary calculations using 4096 processors have allowed the first full-wave simulations of mode conversion in ITER. Mode conversion from the fast wave to the ICW is observed in mixtures of deuterium, tritium and helium3 at 53 MHz. The resulting flow velocity and electric field shear will be calculated. [1] F.W. Perkins, Nucl. Fusion 17, 1197 (1977). [2] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, J.R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).

  20. Study Mode Negotiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasan, Mani Le; Sargunan, Rajeswary

    This paper outlines a model of study mode negotiation between clients and English Language Training providers that has been developed at the University of Malaya, specifically related to English language writing skills as taught to corporate clients. Negotiation is used to reach decisions concerning the goals and methodology of learning to ensure…

  1. Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewatripont, Mathias; Tirole, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The paper develops a theory of costly communication in which the sender's and receiver's motivations and abilities endogenously determine the communication mode and the transfer of knowledge. Communication is modeled as a problem of moral hazard in teams, in which the sender and receiver select persuasion and message elaboration efforts. The model…

  2. Theories and Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  3. pyhrs: Spectroscopic data reduction package for SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Steven M.

    2015-11-01

    The pyhrs package reduces data from the High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). HRS is a dual-beam, fiber fed echelle spectrectrograph with four modes of operation: low (R~16000), medium (R~34000), high (R~65000), and high stability (R~65000). pyhrs, written in Python, includes all of the steps necessary to reduce HRS low, medium, and high resolution data; this includes basic CCD reductions, order identification, wavelength calibration, and extraction of the spectra.

  4. Elucidation of the Mode of Action of a New Antibacterial Compound Active against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Gerits, Evelien; Blommaert, Eline; Lippell, Anna; O’Neill, Alex J.; Weytjens, Bram; De Maeyer, Dries; Fierro, Ana Carolina; Marchal, Kathleen; Marchand, Arnaud; Chaltin, Patrick; Spincemaille, Pieter; De Brucker, Katrijn; Thevissen, Karin; Cammue, Bruno P. A.; Swings, Toon; Liebens, Veerle; Fauvart, Maarten; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial and community-acquired infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria represent a major human health problem. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of antibiotics with new modes of action. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial characteristics and mode of action of a new antimicrobial compound, SPI031 (N-alkylated 3, 6-dihalogenocarbazol 1-(sec-butylamino)-3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)propan-2-ol), which was previously identified in our group. This compound exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, including activity against the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that SPI031 has rapid bactericidal activity (7-log reduction within 30 min at 4x MIC) and that the frequency of resistance development against SPI031 is low. To elucidate the mode of action of SPI031, we performed a macromolecular synthesis assay, which showed that SPI031 causes non-specific inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis pathways. Liposome leakage and membrane permeability studies revealed that SPI031 rapidly exerts membrane damage, which is likely the primary cause of its antibacterial activity. These findings were supported by a mutational analysis of SPI031-resistant mutants, a transcriptome analysis and the identification of transposon mutants with altered sensitivity to the compound. In conclusion, our results show that SPI031 exerts its antimicrobial activity by causing membrane damage, making it an interesting starting point for the development of new antibacterial therapies. PMID:27167126

  5. Elucidation of the Mode of Action of a New Antibacterial Compound Active against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Gerits, Evelien; Blommaert, Eline; Lippell, Anna; O'Neill, Alex J; Weytjens, Bram; De Maeyer, Dries; Fierro, Ana Carolina; Marchal, Kathleen; Marchand, Arnaud; Chaltin, Patrick; Spincemaille, Pieter; De Brucker, Katrijn; Thevissen, Karin; Cammue, Bruno P A; Swings, Toon; Liebens, Veerle; Fauvart, Maarten; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Nosocomial and community-acquired infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria represent a major human health problem. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of antibiotics with new modes of action. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial characteristics and mode of action of a new antimicrobial compound, SPI031 (N-alkylated 3, 6-dihalogenocarbazol 1-(sec-butylamino)-3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)propan-2-ol), which was previously identified in our group. This compound exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, including activity against the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that SPI031 has rapid bactericidal activity (7-log reduction within 30 min at 4x MIC) and that the frequency of resistance development against SPI031 is low. To elucidate the mode of action of SPI031, we performed a macromolecular synthesis assay, which showed that SPI031 causes non-specific inhibition of macromolecular biosynthesis pathways. Liposome leakage and membrane permeability studies revealed that SPI031 rapidly exerts membrane damage, which is likely the primary cause of its antibacterial activity. These findings were supported by a mutational analysis of SPI031-resistant mutants, a transcriptome analysis and the identification of transposon mutants with altered sensitivity to the compound. In conclusion, our results show that SPI031 exerts its antimicrobial activity by causing membrane damage, making it an interesting starting point for the development of new antibacterial therapies. PMID:27167126

  6. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... approved model to another, involving any changes in compression ratio, propeller reduction gear, impeller... of using fuel of a rating or grade other than that listed in the engine specifications. (3) Propeller major alterations. The following alterations of a propeller when not authorized in the...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compression ratio, propeller reduction gear, impeller gear ratios or the substitution of major engine parts... in the engine specifications. (3) Propeller major alterations. The following alterations of a propeller when not authorized in the propeller specifications issued by the FAA are propeller...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compression ratio, propeller reduction gear, impeller gear ratios or the substitution of major engine parts... in the engine specifications. (3) Propeller major alterations. The following alterations of a propeller when not authorized in the propeller specifications issued by the FAA are propeller...

  9. Testing and analysis of dual-mode adaptive landing gear, taxi mode test system for YF-12A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of a dual mode adaptive landing gear system in reducing the dynamic response of an airplane during ground taxiing was studied. The dynamic taxi tests of the YF-12A research airplane are presented. A digital computer program which simulated the test conditions is discussed. The dual mode system as tested provides dynamic taxi response reductions of 25 percent at the cg and 30 to 45 percent at the cockpit.

  10. Model reduction for axisymmetric tokamak control

    SciTech Connect

    Tinios, G.; Horne, S. F.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Wolfe, S. M.

    1992-12-31

    We deal with the problem of reducing a complicated electromagnetic passive structure model coupled to a linear plasma response model to a size that allows rapid calculations of gains for plasma position and shape control. We find that model reduction through eigenmode decomposition does not reproduce the input-to-output relationship of the system, unless one has a good idea of which eigenmodes are important. Hankel singular mode decomposition, on the other hand, provides an orthogonal basis for the system response, where the modes are ordered by their importance to the input-to-output relationship. A perturbed equilibrium plasma response model is used together with an electromagnetic model of the Alcator C-MOD passive structure to assess the performance of different model reduction schemes. We find that between 10 and 20 modes are required to give an adequate representation of the passive system. Emphasis is placed on keeping the reduction process independent of the parameters of the plasma we are trying to control.

  11. Model reduction for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    Model reduction is an important practical problem in the control of flexible spacecraft, and a considerable amount of work has been carried out on this topic. Two of the best known methods developed are modal truncation and internal balancing. Modal truncation is simple to implement but can give poor results when the structure possesses clustered natural frequencies, as often occurs in practice. Balancing avoids this problem but has the disadvantages of high computational cost, possible numerical sensitivity problems, and no physical interpretation for the resulting balanced 'modes'. The purpose of this work is to examine the performance of the subsystem balancing technique developed by the investigator when tested on a realistic flexible space structure, in this case a model of the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC) of Space Station Freedom. This method retains the desirable properties of standard balancing while overcoming the three difficulties listed above. It achieves this by first decomposing the structural model into subsystems of highly correlated modes. Each subsystem is approximately uncorrelated from all others, so balancing them separately and then combining yields comparable results to balancing the entire structure directly. The operation count reduction obtained by the new technique is considerable: a factor of roughly r(exp 2) if the system decomposes into r equal subsystems. Numerical accuracy is also improved significantly, as the matrices being operated on are of reduced dimension, and the modes of the reduced-order model now have a clear physical interpretation; they are, to first order, linear combinations of repeated-frequency modes.

  12. Kinetic effect of toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W. Ye, L.; Zhou, D.; Xiao, X.; Wang, S.

    2015-01-15

    Kinetic effects of the toroidal rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode are theoretically investigated. It is found that when the toroidal rotation increases, the damping rate increases in the weak rotation regime due to the rotation enhancement of wave-particle interaction, and it decreases in the strong rotation regime due to the reduction of the number of resonant particles. Theoretical results are consistent with the behaviors of the geodesic acoustic mode recently observed in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade. The kinetic damping effect of the rotation on the geodesic acoustic mode may shed light on the regulation of turbulence through the controlling the toroidal rotation.

  13. Brain Injury Alters Volatile Metabolome.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Cohen, Akiva S; Gordon, Amy R; Opiekun, Maryanne; Martin, Talia; Elkind, Jaclynn; Lundström, Johan N; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-06-01

    Chemical signals arising from body secretions and excretions communicate information about health status as have been reported in a range of animal models of disease. A potential common pathway for diseases to alter chemical signals is via activation of immune function-which is known to be intimately involved in modulation of chemical signals in several species. Based on our prior findings that both immunization and inflammation alter volatile body odors, we hypothesized that injury accompanied by inflammation might correspondingly modify the volatile metabolome to create a signature endophenotype. In particular, we investigated alteration of the volatile metabolome as a result of traumatic brain injury. Here, we demonstrate that mice could be trained in a behavioral assay to discriminate mouse models subjected to lateral fluid percussion injury from appropriate surgical sham controls on the basis of volatile urinary metabolites. Chemical analyses of the urine samples similarly demonstrated that brain injury altered urine volatile profiles. Behavioral and chemical analyses further indicated that alteration of the volatile metabolome induced by brain injury and alteration resulting from lipopolysaccharide-associated inflammation were not synonymous. Monitoring of alterations in the volatile metabolome may be a useful tool for rapid brain trauma diagnosis and for monitoring recovery. PMID:26926034

  14. Van Kampen modes for bunch longitudinal motion

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Conditions for existence, uniqueness and stability of bunch steady states are considered. For the existence uniqueness problem, simple algebraic equations are derived, showing the result both for the action and Hamiltonian domain distributions. For the stability problem, van Kampen theory is used. Emerging of discrete van Kampen modes show either loss of Landau damping, or instability. This method can be applied for an arbitrary impedance, RF shape and beam distribution function Available areas on intensity-emittance plane are shown for resistive wall wake and single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening RF configurations. Language of van Kampen modes is a powerful tool for studying beam stability. Its unique efficiency reveals itself in those complicated cases, when the dielectric function cannot be obtained, as it is for the longitudinal bunch motion. Emergence of a discrete mode means either loss of Landau damping or instability. By definition, the discrete modes lie outside the continuous incoherent spectrum, but they still may stay within the bucket. In the last case, the discrete mode would disappear after a tiny portion of resonant particles would be added. However, if the discrete mode lie outside the bucket, the Landau damping cannot be restored by tiny perturbation of the particle distribution; LLD is called radical in that case. For a given bunch emittance and RF voltage, the intensity is limited either by reduction of the bucket acceptance or by (radical) LLD. In this paper, results are presented for longitudinal bunch stability in weak head-tail approximation and resistive wall impedance; three RF configurations are studied: single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening. It is shown that every RF configuration may be preferable, depending on the bunch emittance and intensity.

  15. Drag reduction in nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Moore, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies on the drag-reducing shapes, structures, and behaviors of swimming and flying animals are reviewed, with an emphasis on potential analogs in vehicle design. Consideration is given to form drag reduction (turbulent flow, vortex generation, mass transfer, and adaptations for body-intersection regions), skin-friction drag reduction (polymers, surfactants, and bubbles as surface 'additives'), reduction of the drag due to lift, drag-reduction studies on porpoises, and drag-reducing animal behavior (e.g., leaping out of the water by porpoises). The need for further research is stressed.

  16. Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold.

    PubMed

    Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Modsching, Norbert; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-06-15

    The threshold-like onset of mode instabilities is currently the main limitation for the scaling of the average output power of fiber laser systems with diffraction limited beam quality. In this contribution, the impact of a wavelength shift of the seed signal on the mode instability threshold has been investigated. Against expectations, it is experimentally shown that the highest mode instabilities threshold is reached around 1030 nm and not for the smallest wavelength separation between pump and signal. This finding implies that the quantum defect is not the only source of thermal heating in the fiber. Systematic experiments and simulations have helped in identifying photodarkening as the most likely second heat source in the fiber. It is shown that even a negligible photodarkening-induced power loss can lead to a decrease of the mode instabilities threshold by a factor of two. Consequently, reduction of photodarkening is a promising way to mitigate mode instabilities. PMID:26193508

  17. Equivalent gravity modes - An interim evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindzen, R. S.; Hong, S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of the main solar semidiurnal tidal mode in a dissipative atmosphere is studied both in a rotating spherical atmosphere and by means of the equivalent gravity mode approximation. Coefficients are chosen to crudely simulate the effects of molecular viscosity and conductivity. Major findings are: (1) Below 130 km, where friction is unimportant, equivalent gravity mode results are, for all practical purposes, identical to those at the equator obtained from a spherical calculation. (2) Above 130 km amplitudes over the equator obtained from the spherical calculation are about 30 percent smaller than those obtained from the equivalent gravity mode calculations. Also, there is a 15 deg (1/2 hour) difference in phase. (3) The amplitude reduction over the equator, is associated with a broadening of the latitude distribution of amplitude for the oscillatory pressure and temperature fields within the thermosphere. There is also significant variation of phase with latitude within the thermosphere. Associated with the above variations are significant changes in the latitude distribution of horizontal velocity within the thermosphere.

  18. Dual mode laser velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunter, William D., Jr. (Inventor); Donaldson, Ralph W. (Inventor); Anderson, Alma G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Described is a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) which is capable of operating with a small focus diameter for analyzing fluid flows at low velocity with high spatial resolution, or with a larger focus diameter to measure fluid flows at higher velocities accurately. More particularly, this is an LDV in which a simple reversal of a lens pair will allow it to operate in the two focus diameter modes.

  19. Modes of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partridge, Susan

    This literature review is divided into two parts. The first part is a survey of materials in the William S. Gray Collection at the University of Chicago that deal with modes of learning. The studies reviewed range from the 1930s to the 1960s. The second part of the paper extends the review to studies published during the 1970s. Each section of the…

  20. Rotating Rake Turbofan Duct Mode Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental measurement system was developed and implemented by the NASA Glenn Research Center in the 1990s to measure turbofan duct acoustic modes. The system is a continuously rotating radial microphone rake that is inserted into the duct. This Rotating Rake provides a complete map of the acoustic duct modes present in a ducted fan and has been used on a variety of test articles: from a low-speed, concept test rig, to a full-scale production turbofan engine. The Rotating Rake has been critical in developing and evaluating a number of noise reduction concepts as well as providing experimental databases for verification of several aero-acoustic codes. More detailed derivation of the unique Rotating Rake equations are presented in the appendix.

  1. Method to monitor HC-SCR catalyst NOx reduction performance for lean exhaust applications

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Michael B.; Schmieg, Steven J.; Sloane, Thompson M.; Hilden, David L.; Mulawa, Patricia A.; Lee, Jong H.; Cheng, Shi-Wai S.

    2012-05-29

    A method for initiating a regeneration mode in selective catalytic reduction device utilizing hydrocarbons as a reductant includes monitoring a temperature within the aftertreatment system, monitoring a fuel dosing rate to the selective catalytic reduction device, monitoring an initial conversion efficiency, selecting a determined equation to estimate changes in a conversion efficiency of the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the monitored temperature and the monitored fuel dosing rate, estimating changes in the conversion efficiency based upon the determined equation and the initial conversion efficiency, and initiating a regeneration mode for the selective catalytic reduction device based upon the estimated changes in conversion efficiency.

  2. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  3. Resistance to Antibiotics Mediated by Target Alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Brian G.

    1994-04-01

    The development of resistance to antibiotics by reductions in the affinities of their enzymatic targets occurs most rapidly for antibiotics that inactivate a single target and that are not analogs of substrate. In these cases of resistance (for example, resistance to rifampicin), numerous single amino acid substitutions may provide large decreases in the affinity of the target for the antibiotic, leading to clinically significant levels of resistance. Resistance due to target alterations should occur much more slowly for those antibiotics (penicillin, for example) that inactivate multiple targets irreversibly by acting as close analogs of substrate. Resistance to penicillin because of target changes has emerged, by unexpected mechanisms, only in a limited number of species. However, inactivating enzymes commonly provide resistance to antibiotics that, like penicillin, are derived from natural products, although such enzymes have not been found for synthetic antibiotics. Thus, the ideal antibiotic would be produced by rational design, rather than by the modification of a natural product.

  4. Principles of harm reduction. Harm Reduction Coalition.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Harm reduction is a set of practical strategies used for working with drug users to help them choose behaviors that are less risky. The harm reduction approach accepts that illicit drug use occurs, and encourages input from drug users in designing programs and services to help educate themselves. Drug use is a complex problem related to poverty, class, racism, social isolation, and discrimination, and calls for non-judgmental, non-coercive services for the drug using population. Federal money for drug interventions is more often spent on incarcerations and prosecutions, than on education, research, prevention, or treatment. Public policy changes, such as teaching drug users how to lower their risks, may reduce the number of deaths and HIV transmissions among drug users and their partners.

  5. Microbial reductive dehalogenation.

    PubMed Central

    Mohn, W W; Tiedje, J M

    1992-01-01

    A wide variety of compounds can be biodegraded via reductive removal of halogen substituents. This process can degrade toxic pollutants, some of which are not known to be biodegraded by any other means. Reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds has been found primarily in undefined, syntrophic anaerobic communities. We discuss ecological and physiological principles which appear to be important in these communities and evaluate how widely applicable these principles are. Anaerobic communities that catalyze reductive dehalogenation appear to differ in many respects. A large number of pure cultures which catalyze reductive dehalogenation of aliphatic compounds are known, in contrast to only a few organisms which catalyze reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds. Desulfomonile tiedjei DCB-1 is an anaerobe which dehalogenates aromatic compounds and is physiologically and morphologically unusual in a number of respects, including the ability to exploit reductive dehalogenation for energy metabolism. When possible, we use D. tiedjei as a model to understand dehalogenating organisms in the above-mentioned undefined systems. Aerobes use reductive dehalogenation for substrates which are resistant to known mechanisms of oxidative attack. Reductive dehalogenation, especially of aliphatic compounds, has recently been found in cell-free systems. These systems give us an insight into how and why microorganisms catalyze this activity. In some cases transition metal complexes serve as catalysts, whereas in other cases, particularly with aromatic substrates, the catalysts appear to be enzymes. Images PMID:1406492

  6. Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, D. Michael; Ford, Donnie R.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the Intelligent Data Reduction (IDARE) expert system and an IDARE user's manual are given. IDARE is a data reduction system with the addition of a user profile infrastructure. The system was tested on a nickel-cadmium battery testbed. Information is given on installing, loading, maintaining the IDARE system.

  7. Constraining primordial vector mode from B-mode polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Shiraishi, Maresuke E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it

    2014-10-01

    The B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may be the smoking gun of not only the primordial tensor mode but also of the primordial vector mode. If there exist nonzero vector-mode metric perturbations in the early Universe, they are known to be supported by anisotropic stress fluctuations of free-streaming particles such as neutrinos, and to create characteristic signatures on both the CMB temperature, E-mode, and B-mode polarization anisotropies. We place constraints on the properties of the primordial vector mode characterized by the vector-to-scalar ratio r{sub v} and the spectral index n{sub v} of the vector-shear power spectrum, from the Planck and BICEP2 B-mode data. We find that, for scale-invariant initial spectra, the ΛCDM model including the vector mode fits the data better than the model including the tensor mode. The difference in χ{sup 2} between the vector and tensor models is Δχ{sup 2} = 3.294, because, on large scales the vector mode generates smaller temperature fluctuations than the tensor mode, which is preferred for the data. In contrast, the tensor mode can fit the data set equally well if we allow a significantly blue-tilted spectrum. We find that the best-fitting tensor mode has a large blue tilt and leads to an indistinct reionization bump on larger angular scales. The slightly red-tilted vector mode supported by the current data set can also create O(10{sup -22})-Gauss magnetic fields at cosmological recombination. Our constraints should motivate research that considers models of the early Universe that involve the vector mode.

  8. Transdiagnostic commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of the default mode network in schizophrenia and major depression.

    PubMed

    Schilbach, L; Hoffstaedter, F; Müller, V; Cieslik, E C; Goya-Maldonado, R; Trost, S; Sorg, C; Riedl, V; Jardri, R; Sommer, I; Kogler, L; Derntl, B; Gruber, O; Eickhoff, S B

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and depression are prevalent psychiatric disorders, but their underlying neural bases remains poorly understood. Neuroimaging evidence has pointed towards the relevance of functional connectivity aberrations in default mode network (DMN) hubs, dorso-medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus, in both disorders, but commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of those two regions across disorders has not been formally assessed. Here, we took a transdiagnostic approach to investigate resting state functional connectivity of those two regions in 75 patients with schizophrenia and 82 controls from 4 scanning sites and 102 patients with depression and 106 controls from 3 sites. Our results demonstrate common dysconnectivity patterns as indexed by a significant reduction of functional connectivity between precuneus and bilateral superior parietal lobe in schizophrenia and depression. Furthermore, our findings highlight diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions of the parietal operculum in schizophrenia relative to depression. In light of evidence that points towards the importance of the DMN for social cognitive abilities and well documented impairments of social interaction in both patient groups, it is conceivable that the observed transdiagnostic connectivity alterations may contribute to interpersonal difficulties, but this could not be assessed directly in our study as measures of social behavior were not available. Given the operculum's role in somatosensory integration, diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions may indicate a pathophysiological mechanism for basic self-disturbances that is characteristic of schizophrenia, but not depression. PMID:26904405

  9. Transdiagnostic commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of the default mode network in schizophrenia and major depression.

    PubMed

    Schilbach, L; Hoffstaedter, F; Müller, V; Cieslik, E C; Goya-Maldonado, R; Trost, S; Sorg, C; Riedl, V; Jardri, R; Sommer, I; Kogler, L; Derntl, B; Gruber, O; Eickhoff, S B

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and depression are prevalent psychiatric disorders, but their underlying neural bases remains poorly understood. Neuroimaging evidence has pointed towards the relevance of functional connectivity aberrations in default mode network (DMN) hubs, dorso-medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus, in both disorders, but commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of those two regions across disorders has not been formally assessed. Here, we took a transdiagnostic approach to investigate resting state functional connectivity of those two regions in 75 patients with schizophrenia and 82 controls from 4 scanning sites and 102 patients with depression and 106 controls from 3 sites. Our results demonstrate common dysconnectivity patterns as indexed by a significant reduction of functional connectivity between precuneus and bilateral superior parietal lobe in schizophrenia and depression. Furthermore, our findings highlight diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions of the parietal operculum in schizophrenia relative to depression. In light of evidence that points towards the importance of the DMN for social cognitive abilities and well documented impairments of social interaction in both patient groups, it is conceivable that the observed transdiagnostic connectivity alterations may contribute to interpersonal difficulties, but this could not be assessed directly in our study as measures of social behavior were not available. Given the operculum's role in somatosensory integration, diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions may indicate a pathophysiological mechanism for basic self-disturbances that is characteristic of schizophrenia, but not depression.

  10. Transdiagnostic commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of the default mode network in schizophrenia and major depression

    PubMed Central

    Schilbach, L.; Hoffstaedter, F.; Müller, V.; Cieslik, E.C.; Goya-Maldonado, R.; Trost, S.; Sorg, C.; Riedl, V.; Jardri, R.; Sommer, I.; Kogler, L.; Derntl, B.; Gruber, O.; Eickhoff, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and depression are prevalent psychiatric disorders, but their underlying neural bases remains poorly understood. Neuroimaging evidence has pointed towards the relevance of functional connectivity aberrations in default mode network (DMN) hubs, dorso-medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus, in both disorders, but commonalities and differences in resting state functional connectivity of those two regions across disorders has not been formally assessed. Here, we took a transdiagnostic approach to investigate resting state functional connectivity of those two regions in 75 patients with schizophrenia and 82 controls from 4 scanning sites and 102 patients with depression and 106 controls from 3 sites. Our results demonstrate common dysconnectivity patterns as indexed by a significant reduction of functional connectivity between precuneus and bilateral superior parietal lobe in schizophrenia and depression. Furthermore, our findings highlight diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions of the parietal operculum in schizophrenia relative to depression. In light of evidence that points towards the importance of the DMN for social cognitive abilities and well documented impairments of social interaction in both patient groups, it is conceivable that the observed transdiagnostic connectivity alterations may contribute to interpersonal difficulties, but this could not be assessed directly in our study as measures of social behavior were not available. Given the operculum's role in somatosensory integration, diagnosis-specific connectivity reductions may indicate a pathophysiological mechanism for basic self-disturbances that is characteristic of schizophrenia, but not depression. PMID:26904405

  11. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-06-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions of 84% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (64%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g. at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the feedstock. As the plume cools downwind of the engine, nucleation-mode aerosols form. For the pure FT fuels, reductions (94% averaged over all powers) in downwind particle number emissions were similar to those measured at the exhaust plane (84

  12. Obesity promotes alterations in iron recycling.

    PubMed

    Citelli, Marta; Fonte-Faria, Thaís; Nascimento-Silva, Vany; Renovato-Martins, Mariana; Silva, Raphael; Luna, Aderval Severino; Silva, Simone Vargas da; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN), a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function.

  13. Obesity promotes alterations in iron recycling.

    PubMed

    Citelli, Marta; Fonte-Faria, Thaís; Nascimento-Silva, Vany; Renovato-Martins, Mariana; Silva, Raphael; Luna, Aderval Severino; Silva, Simone Vargas da; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Hepcidin is a key hormone that induces the degradation of ferroportin (FPN), a protein that exports iron from reticuloendothelial macrophages and enterocytes. The aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate if the obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) modifies the expression of FPN in macrophages and enterocytes, thus altering the iron bioavailability. In order to directly examine changes associated with iron metabolism in vivo, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or a HFD. Serum leptin levels were evaluated. The hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), FPN and ferritin genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The amount of iron present in both the liver and spleen was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ferroportin localization within reticuloendothelial macrophages was observed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Obese animals were found to exhibit increased hepcidin gene expression, while iron accumulated in the spleen and liver. They also exhibited changes in the sublocation of splenic cellular FPN and a reduction in the FPN expression in the liver and the spleen, while no changes were observed in enterocytes. Possible explanations for the increased hepcidin expression observed in HFD animals may include: increased leptin levels, the liver iron accumulation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Together, the results indicated that obesity promotes changes in iron bioavailability, since it altered the iron recycling function. PMID:25569627

  14. Noise Reduction in Arterial Spin Labeling Based Functional Connectivity Using Nuisance Variables

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Smith, Robert X.; Rios Piedra, Edgar A.; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion image series have recently been utilized for functional connectivity (FC) analysis in healthy volunteers and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Noise reduction by using nuisance variables has been shown to be necessary to minimize potential confounding effects of head motion and physiological signals on BOLD based FC analysis. The purpose of the present study is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different noise reduction strategies (NRS) using nuisance variables to improve perfusion based FC analysis in two cohorts of healthy adults using state of the art 3D background-suppressed (BS) GRASE pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL sequences. Five different NRS were performed in healthy volunteers to compare their performance. We then compared seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in a cohort of 12 children with ASD (3f/9m, age 12.8 ± 1.3 years) and 13 typically developing (TD) children (1f/12m; age 13.9 ± 3 years) in conjunction with NRS. Regression of different combinations of nuisance variables affected FC analysis from a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to other areas of the default mode network (DMN) in both BOLD and pCASL data sets. Consistent with existing literature on BOLD-FC, we observed improved spatial specificity after physiological noise reduction and improved long-range connectivity using head movement related regressors. Furthermore, 3D BS GRASE pCASL shows much higher temporal SNR compared to dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL and similar effects of noise reduction as those observed for BOLD. Seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in children with ASD and TD children showed that noise reduction including physiological and motion related signals as nuisance variables is crucial for identifying altered long-range connectivity from PCC to frontal brain areas associated with ASD. This is the first study that systematically evaluated the effects of

  15. Noise Reduction in Arterial Spin Labeling Based Functional Connectivity Using Nuisance Variables

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Smith, Robert X.; Rios Piedra, Edgar A.; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion image series have recently been utilized for functional connectivity (FC) analysis in healthy volunteers and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Noise reduction by using nuisance variables has been shown to be necessary to minimize potential confounding effects of head motion and physiological signals on BOLD based FC analysis. The purpose of the present study is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different noise reduction strategies (NRS) using nuisance variables to improve perfusion based FC analysis in two cohorts of healthy adults using state of the art 3D background-suppressed (BS) GRASE pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL sequences. Five different NRS were performed in healthy volunteers to compare their performance. We then compared seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in a cohort of 12 children with ASD (3f/9m, age 12.8 ± 1.3 years) and 13 typically developing (TD) children (1f/12m; age 13.9 ± 3 years) in conjunction with NRS. Regression of different combinations of nuisance variables affected FC analysis from a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to other areas of the default mode network (DMN) in both BOLD and pCASL data sets. Consistent with existing literature on BOLD-FC, we observed improved spatial specificity after physiological noise reduction and improved long-range connectivity using head movement related regressors. Furthermore, 3D BS GRASE pCASL shows much higher temporal SNR compared to dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL and similar effects of noise reduction as those observed for BOLD. Seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in children with ASD and TD children showed that noise reduction including physiological and motion related signals as nuisance variables is crucial for identifying altered long-range connectivity from PCC to frontal brain areas associated with ASD. This is the first study that systematically evaluated the effects of

  16. Noise Reduction in Arterial Spin Labeling Based Functional Connectivity Using Nuisance Variables.

    PubMed

    Jann, Kay; Smith, Robert X; Rios Piedra, Edgar A; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion image series have recently been utilized for functional connectivity (FC) analysis in healthy volunteers and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Noise reduction by using nuisance variables has been shown to be necessary to minimize potential confounding effects of head motion and physiological signals on BOLD based FC analysis. The purpose of the present study is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different noise reduction strategies (NRS) using nuisance variables to improve perfusion based FC analysis in two cohorts of healthy adults using state of the art 3D background-suppressed (BS) GRASE pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL sequences. Five different NRS were performed in healthy volunteers to compare their performance. We then compared seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in a cohort of 12 children with ASD (3f/9m, age 12.8 ± 1.3 years) and 13 typically developing (TD) children (1f/12m; age 13.9 ± 3 years) in conjunction with NRS. Regression of different combinations of nuisance variables affected FC analysis from a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to other areas of the default mode network (DMN) in both BOLD and pCASL data sets. Consistent with existing literature on BOLD-FC, we observed improved spatial specificity after physiological noise reduction and improved long-range connectivity using head movement related regressors. Furthermore, 3D BS GRASE pCASL shows much higher temporal SNR compared to dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL and similar effects of noise reduction as those observed for BOLD. Seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in children with ASD and TD children showed that noise reduction including physiological and motion related signals as nuisance variables is crucial for identifying altered long-range connectivity from PCC to frontal brain areas associated with ASD. This is the first study that systematically evaluated the effects of

  17. All-silica, large mode area, single mode photonic bandgap fibre with Fabry-Perot resonant structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Várallyay, Zoltán; Kovács, Péter

    2016-03-01

    All-silica, photonic crystal fibres consisting of a low index, silica core surrounded by higher index inclusions embedded in a silica matrix to form a photonic bandgap cladding were numerically analysed. The aim of the investigations was to modify the guiding properties of the fibre by introducing resonant structural entities. These structural modifications are realised by altering the refractive index of certain high index inclusions in the photonic crystal cladding resulting in mode coupling between the core mode and the mode propagated in the modified index region. This results in an increased effective core area of the fundamental core mode and consequently decreased nonlinearity as well as modified effective index compared to the effective index of the unmodified structure and resonant dispersion profile that can be used for pulse compression or optical delay purposes.

  18. Reduction of Iron-Oxide-Carbon Composites: Part I. Estimation of the Rate Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    A new ironmaking concept using iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets has been proposed, which involves the combination of a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) and an iron bath smelter. This part of the research focuses on studying the two primary chemical kinetic steps. Efforts have been made to experimentally measure the kinetics of the carbon gasification by CO2 and wüstite reduction by CO by isolating them from the influence of heat- and mass-transport steps. A combined reaction model was used to interpret the experimental data and determine the rate constants. Results showed that the reduction is likely to be influenced by the chemical kinetics of both carbon oxidation and wüstite reduction at the temperatures of interest. Devolatilized wood-charcoal was observed to be a far more reactive form of carbon in comparison to coal-char. Sintering of the iron-oxide at the high temperatures of interest was found to exert a considerable influence on the reactivity of wüstite by virtue of altering the internal pore surface area available for the reaction. Sintering was found to be predominant for highly porous oxides and less of an influence on the denser ores. It was found using an indirect measurement technique that the rate constants for wüstite reduction were higher for the porous iron-oxide than dense hematite ore at higher temperatures (>1423 K). Such an indirect mode of measurement was used to minimize the influence of sintering of the porous oxide at these temperatures.

  19. Bayesian model updating using incomplete modal data without mode matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates a new probabilistic strategy for model updating using incomplete modal data. A hierarchical Bayesian inference is employed to model the updating problem. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive random-work steps is used to draw parameter samples for uncertainty quantification. Mode matching between measured and predicted modal quantities is not required through model reduction. We employ an iterated improved reduced system technique for model reduction. The reduced model retains the dynamic features as close as possible to those of the model before reduction. The proposed algorithm is finally validated by an experimental example.

  20. Microbial reduction of uranium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Gorby, Y.A.; Landa, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    REDUCTION of the soluble, oxidized form of uranium, U(VI), to insoluble U(IV) is an important mechanism for the immobilization of uranium in aquatic sediments and for the formation of some uranium ores1-10. U(VI) reduction has generally been regarded as an abiological reaction in which sulphide, molecular hydrogen or organic compounds function as the reductant1,2,5,11. Microbial involvement in U(VI) reduction has been considered to be limited to indirect effects, such as microbial metabolism providing the reduced compounds for abiological U(VI) reduction and microbial cell walls providing a surface to stimulate abiological U(VI) reduction1,12,13. We report here, however, that dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms can obtain energy for growth by electron transport to U(VI). This novel form of microbial metabolism can be much faster than commonly cited abiological mechanisms for U(VI) reduction. Not only do these findings expand the known potential terminal electron acceptors for microbial energy transduction, they offer a likely explanation for the deposition of uranium in aquatic sediments and aquifers, and suggest a method for biological remediation of environments contaminated with uranium.

  1. A Comprehensive Literature Review of Mode Deactivation Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Marsha Ann; Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article literature published on Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) was reviewed in depth. Several studies were identified that used a common outcome measure of reduction of physical and sexual aggression, other risk related behaviors. Comparisons of MDT and, other standardized approaches typically used in treating aggression in juveniles,…

  2. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M.

    1996-12-31

    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  3. Localized acoustic surface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  4. Three-dimensional equilibria and island energy transport due to resonant magnetic perturbation edge localized mode suppression on DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Nazikian, R.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Eldon, D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hanson, J. M.; Haskey, S. R.; La Haye, R. J.; et al

    2015-11-16

    In this research, we conducted experiments in the DIII-D tokamak that show that the plasma responds to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with toroidalmode numbers of n=2 and n=3 without field line reconnection, consistent with resistive magnetohydrodynamic predictions, while a strong nonlinear bifurcation is apparent when edge localized modes(ELMs) are suppressed. The magnetic response associated with this bifurcation is localized to the high field side of the machine and exhibits a dominant n=1 component despite the application of a constant amplitude, slowly toroidally rotating, n=2 applied field. The n=1 mode is born locked to the vacuum vessel wall, while the n=2more » mode is entrained to the rotating field. Based on these magnetic response measurements and Thomson scattering measurements of flattening of the electron temperature profile, it is likely that these modes are magnetic island chains near the H-mode pedestal. The reduction in ∇Te occurs near the q=4 and 5 rational surfaces, suggesting five unique islands are possible (m=8, 9, or 10 for n=2) and (m=4 or 5 for n=1). In all cases, the island width is estimated to be 2–3 cm. The Chang-Callen calculated confinement degradation due to the presence of an individual island of this size is 8%–12%, which is close to the 13%–14% measured between the ELMs and suppressed states. In conclusion, this suggests that edge tearing modes may alter the pedestal causing peeling-ballooning stability during RMP induced ELM suppression.« less

  5. Three-dimensional equilibria and island energy transport due to resonant magnetic perturbation edge localized mode suppression on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Nazikian, R.; Paz-Soldan, Carlos; Eldon, D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hanson, J. M.; Haskey, S. R.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, Matthew J.; Lazerson, Sam A.; Logan, N. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, J. -K.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2015-11-16

    In this research, we conducted experiments in the DIII-D tokamak that show that the plasma responds to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with toroidalmode numbers of n=2 and n=3 without field line reconnection, consistent with resistive magnetohydrodynamic predictions, while a strong nonlinear bifurcation is apparent when edge localized modes(ELMs) are suppressed. The magnetic response associated with this bifurcation is localized to the high field side of the machine and exhibits a dominant n=1 component despite the application of a constant amplitude, slowly toroidally rotating, n=2 applied field. The n=1 mode is born locked to the vacuum vessel wall, while the n=2 mode is entrained to the rotating field. Based on these magnetic response measurements and Thomson scattering measurements of flattening of the electron temperature profile, it is likely that these modes are magnetic island chains near the H-mode pedestal. The reduction in ∇Te occurs near the q=4 and 5 rational surfaces, suggesting five unique islands are possible (m=8, 9, or 10 for n=2) and (m=4 or 5 for n=1). In all cases, the island width is estimated to be 2–3 cm. The Chang-Callen calculated confinement degradation due to the presence of an individual island of this size is 8%–12%, which is close to the 13%–14% measured between the ELMs and suppressed states. In conclusion, this suggests that edge tearing modes may alter the pedestal causing peeling-ballooning stability during RMP induced ELM suppression.

  6. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  7. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  8. Chlordecone, a mixed pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) agonist, alters cholesterol homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Junga; Scheri, Richard C.; Zhang Yuan; Curtis, Lawrence R.

    2008-12-01

    Chlordecone (CD) is one of many banned organochlorine (OC) insecticides that are widespread persistent organic pollutants. OC insecticides alter lipid homeostasis in rodents at doses that are not neurotoxic or carcinogenic. Pretreatment of mice or rats with CD altered tissue distribution of a subsequent dose of [{sup 14}C]CD or [{sup 14}C]cholesterol (CH). Nuclear receptors regulate expression of genes important in the homeostasis of CH and other lipids. In this study, we report that CD suppresses in vitro reporter systems for human liver X receptors (LXRs) and activates those for human farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) in a concentration-dependent manner (0-50 {mu}M). Consistent with human PXR activation in vitro, three days after a single dose of CD (15 mg/kg) hepatic microsomal CYP3A11 protein increases in C57BL/6 mice. CD decreases hepatic CH ester content without altering total CH concentration. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) contents of hepatic lipoprotein-rich and microsomal fractions of CD-treated mice are higher than controls. There is a significant reduction in non-high density lipoprotein CH but not apolipoprotein B-48/100 (apoB-48/100) in plasma from CD-treated mice after a 4 h fast. At 14 days after 15 mg CD/kg apoA-I and apoB-100 proteins but not CYP3A11 protein in hepatic microsomes are similar to controls. This work indicates that altered CH homeostasis is a mode of OC insecticide action of relevance after a single dose. This at least partially explains altered CH tissue distribution in CD-pretreated mice.

  9. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the I-mode high confinement regime and comparisons with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    White, A. E. Howard, N. T.; Creely, A. J.; Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Marmar, E.; Rice, J. E.; Sierchio, J. M.; Sung, C.; Walk, J. R.; Whyte, D. G.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Edlund, E. M.; Kung, C.; Holland, C.; Candy, J.; Petty, C. C.; Reinke, M. L.; and others

    2015-05-15

    For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of I-mode plasmas are performed and compared with experiment. I-mode is a high confinement regime, featuring energy confinement similar to H-mode, but without enhanced particle and impurity particle confinement [D. G. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)]. As a consequence of the separation between heat and particle transport, I-mode exhibits several favorable characteristics compared to H-mode. The nonlinear gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] is used to explore the effects of E × B shear and profile stiffness in I-mode and compare with L-mode. The nonlinear GYRO simulations show that I-mode core ion temperature and electron temperature profiles are more stiff than L-mode core plasmas. Scans of the input E × B shear in GYRO simulations show that E × B shearing of turbulence is a stronger effect in the core of I-mode than L-mode. The nonlinear simulations match the observed reductions in long wavelength density fluctuation levels across the L-I transition but underestimate the reduction of long wavelength electron temperature fluctuation levels. The comparisons between experiment and gyrokinetic simulations for I-mode suggest that increased E × B shearing of turbulence combined with increased profile stiffness are responsible for the reductions in core turbulence observed in the experiment, and that I-mode resembles H-mode plasmas more than L-mode plasmas with regards to marginal stability and temperature profile stiffness.

  10. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the I-mode high confinement regime and comparisons with experimenta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Creely, A. J.; Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Marmar, E.; Rice, J. E.; Sierchio, J. M.; Sung, C.; Walk, J. R.; Whyte, D. G.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Edlund, E. M.; Kung, C.; Holland, C.; Candy, J.; Petty, C. C.; Reinke, M. L.; Theiler, C.

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of I-mode plasmas are performed and compared with experiment. I-mode is a high confinement regime, featuring energy confinement similar to H-mode, but without enhanced particle and impurity particle confinement [D. G. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)]. As a consequence of the separation between heat and particle transport, I-mode exhibits several favorable characteristics compared to H-mode. The nonlinear gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] is used to explore the effects of E × B shear and profile stiffness in I-mode and compare with L-mode. The nonlinear GYRO simulations show that I-mode core ion temperature and electron temperature profiles are more stiff than L-mode core plasmas. Scans of the input E × B shear in GYRO simulations show that E × B shearing of turbulence is a stronger effect in the core of I-mode than L-mode. The nonlinear simulations match the observed reductions in long wavelength density fluctuation levels across the L-I transition but underestimate the reduction of long wavelength electron temperature fluctuation levels. The comparisons between experiment and gyrokinetic simulations for I-mode suggest that increased E × B shearing of turbulence combined with increased profile stiffness are responsible for the reductions in core turbulence observed in the experiment, and that I-mode resembles H-mode plasmas more than L-mode plasmas with regards to marginal stability and temperature profile stiffness.

  11. Histochemical and enzymehistochemical alterations during experimental cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kirvalidze, I; Khetsuriani, R; Jorbenadze, T; Shukakidze, A; Kipiani, T

    2006-05-01

    Investigation of ethiology, pathogenesis, morphogenesis, pathokinesis, treatment and prevention of cardiomyopathy is one of the most important problems of cardiology. Last years many scientific forums have been devoted to cardiomyopathy problems and still many issues remain disputable and needs further investigation and definition. In particular, investigation of metabolic processes in cardiac muscle seems of great importance. Obtained data will promote elaboration of adequate means toward the correction of cardiac decompensation during cardiomyopathy. The main goal of present study was the investigation of oxidation-reduction and electron transport associated protein activity in myocardium during experimental cardiomyopathy. Experiments were carried out on 30 male rats (180 - 200 g weight). Based on histological, histochemical, enzymehistological investigations conclusion has been made that during experimental autoimmune cardiomyopathy activity of oxidation-reduction and electron transport enzymes is sharply decreased along with the decrease of ascorbic acid and tiny granule glycogen amount (with altered topographic distribution) determining energy deficiency and weakening of cardiac muscle contractile function. It is possible to consider that the present study will open the way for future research and prompt us to select optimal therapeutic agents. PMID:16783088

  12. The Detection of Radiated Modes from Ducted Fan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Nark, Douglas M.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2001-01-01

    The bypass duct of an aircraft engine is a low-pass filter allowing some spinning modes to radiate outside the duct. The knowledge of the radiated modes can help in noise reduction, as well as the diagnosis of noise generation mechanisms inside the duct. We propose a nonintrusive technique using a circular microphone array outside the engine measuring the complex noise spectrum on an arc of a circle. The array is placed at various axial distances from the inlet or the exhaust of the engine. Using a model of noise radiation from the duct, an overdetermined system of linear equations is constructed for the complex amplitudes of the radial modes for a fixed circumferential mode. This system of linear equations is generally singular, indicating that the problem is illposed. Tikhonov regularization is employed to solve this system of equations for the unknown amplitudes of the radiated modes. An application of our mode detection technique using measured acoustic data from a circular microphone array is presented. We show that this technique can reliably detect radiated modes with the possible exception of modes very close to cut-off.

  13. [The application of spectral geological profile in the alteration mapping].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Ting; Lin, Qi-Zhong; Zhang, Bing; Lu, Lin-Lin

    2012-07-01

    Geological section can help validating and understanding of the alteration information which is extracted from remote sensing images. In the paper, the concept of spectral geological profile was introduced based on the principle of geological section and the method of spectral information extraction. The spectral profile can realize the storage and vision of spectra along the geological profile, but the spectral geological spectral profile includes more information besides the information of spectral profile. The main object of spectral geological spectral profile is to obtain the distribution of alteration types and content of minerals along the profile which can be extracted from spectra measured by field spectrometer, especially for the spatial distribution and mode of alteration association. Technical method and work flow of alteration information extraction was studied for the spectral geological profile. The spectral geological profile was set up using the ground reflectance spectra and the alteration information was extracted from the remote sensing image with the help of typical spectra geological profile. At last the meaning and effect of the spectral geological profile was discussed.

  14. Reductive dechlorination reduces negative impact of PCBs on in vitro fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, K.; Mousa, M.; Quensen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The variety of toxic effects ascribed to commercial PCB mixtures is likely because the individual congeners differ in their modes of toxicity and potencies. Similarly, a change in the congener composition of a PCB mixture due to reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms might be expected to alter the toxicological properties of that PCB mixture. In this study, Aroclors 1,242 and 1,254 were reductively dechlorinated using cultures of microorganisms from two different sites. The resulting dechlorination products and Aroclors were then tested for their effects on in vitro fertilization using mouse gametes. In general, percent fertilization increased with the extent of dechlorination. For example, fertilization in treatments with 10 {micro}g/ml of either Aroclor was only 40% of that in controls without Aroclor, but equal total molar concentrations of the dechlorination products produced by River Raisin microorganisms had no significant effect on fertilization. By this measure, therefore, the microbial dechlorination of PCBs appears to have a beneficial effect in reducing reproductive toxicity.

  15. Non-linear mode interaction between spin torque driven and damped modes in spin torque nano-oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Romera, M.; Monteblanco, E.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Buda-Prejbeanu, L. D.; Ebels, U.; Delaët, B.

    2015-05-11

    The influence of dynamic coupling in between magnetic layers of a standard spin torque nano-oscillator composed of a synthetic antiferromagnet (SyF) as a polarizer and an in-plane magnetized free layer has been investigated. Experiments on spin valve nanopillars reveal non-continuous features such as kinks in the frequency field dependence that cannot be explained without such interactions. Comparison of experiments to numerical macrospin simulations shows that this is due to non-linear interaction between the spin torque (STT) driven mode and a damped mode that is mediated via the third harmonics of the STT mode. It only occurs at large applied currents and thus at large excitation amplitudes of the STT mode. Under these conditions, a hybridized mode characterized by a strong reduction of the linewidth appears. The reduced linewidth can be explained by a reduction of the non-linear contribution to the linewidth via an enhanced effective damping. Interestingly, the effect depends also on the exchange interaction within the SyF. An enhancement of the current range of reduced linewidth by a factor of two and a reduction of the minimum linewidth by a factor of two are predicted from simulation when the exchange interaction strength is reduced by 30%. These results open directions to optimize the design and microwave performances of spin torque nano-oscillators taking advantage of the coupling mechanisms.

  16. Single-Mode VISAR

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Kerry

    2007-11-28

    High energy-density physics (HEDP) experiments examine the properties of materials under extreme conditions. These experiments rely on the measurement of one or two velocities. These velocities are used to obtain Hugoniot relationships and thermodynamic equations of state. This methodology is referred to as 'velocimetry' and an instrument used to measure the shock wave is called a 'velocimeter' or a '(velocity) diagnostic'. The two most-widely used existing velocity diagnostics are; photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). PDV's advantages are a fast rise-time and ease of implementation but PDV has an upper velocity limit. Traditional implementations of VISAR have a rise time 10 times slower than PDV and are not easily implemented but are capable of measuring any velocity produced during HEDP experiments. This thesis describes a novel method of combining the positive attributes of PDV and VISAR into a more cost effective diagnostic called a Single-Mode VISAR (SMV). The new diagnostic will consist of PDV parts in a VISAR configuration. This configuration will enable the measurement of any velocity produced during shock physics experiments while the components used to build the diagnostic will give the diagnostic a fast rise time and make it easy to use. This thesis describes the process of building and testing the first single-mode VISAR. The tests include verifying the performance of the components and the diagnostic as a whole.

  17. Modes of fossil preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  18. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  19. SAMPEX Spin Stabilized Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Dean C.; Markley, F. Landis; Watson, Todd P.

    2008-01-01

    The Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX), the first of the Small Explorer series of spacecraft, was launched on July 3, 1992 into an 82' inclination orbit with an apogee of 670 km and a perigee of 520 km and a mission lifetime goal of 3 years. After more than 15 years of continuous operation, the reaction wheel began to fail on August 18,2007. With a set of three magnetic torquer bars being the only remaining attitude actuator, the SAMPEX recovery team decided to deviate from its original attitude control system design and put the spacecraft into a spin stabilized mode. The necessary operations had not been used for many years, which posed a challenge. However, on September 25, 2007, the spacecraft was successfully spun up to 1.0 rpm about its pitch axis, which points at the sun. This paper describes the diagnosis of the anomaly, the analysis of flight data, the simulation of the spacecraft dynamics, and the procedures used to recover the spacecraft to spin stabilized mode.

  20. Floral longevity and autonomous selfing are altered by pollination and water availability in Collinsia heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Rachael; Arathi, H. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims A plant investing in reproduction partitions resources between flowering and seed production. Under resource limitation, altered allocations may result in floral trait variations, leading to compromised fecundity. Floral longevity and timing of selfing are often the traits most likely to be affected. The duration of corolla retention determines whether fecundity results from outcrossing or by delayed selfing-mediated reproductive assurance. In this study, the role of pollination schedules and soil water availability on floral longevity and seed production is tested in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae). Methods Using three different watering regimes and pollination schedules, effects on floral longevity and seed production were studied in this protandrous, flowering annual. Key Results The results reveal that soil water status and pollination together influence floral longevity with low soil water and hand-pollinations early in the floral lifespan reducing longevity. However, early pollinations under excess water did not extend longevity, implying that resource surplus does not lengthen the outcrossing period. The results also indicate that pollen receipt, a reliable cue for fecundity, accelerates flower drop. Early corolla abscission under drought stress could potentially exacerbate sexual conflict in this protandrous, hermaphroditic species by ensuring self-pollen paternity and enabling male control of floral longevity. While pollination schedules did not affect fecundity, water stress reduced per-capita seed numbers. Unmanipulated flowers underwent delayed autonomous selfing, producing very few seeds, suggesting that inbreeding depression may limit benefits of selfing. Conclusions In plants where herkogamy and dichogamy facilitate outcrossing, floral longevity determines reproductive success and mating system. Reduction in longevity under drought suggests a strong environmental effect that could potentially alter the preferred breeding

  1. Separation of crack extension modes in orthotropic delamination models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    In the analysis of an interface crack between dissimilar elastic materials, the mode of crack extension is typically not unique, due to oscillatory behavior of near-tip stresses and displacements. This behavior currently limits the applicability of interfacial fracture mechanics as a means to predict composite delamination. The Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) is a method used to extract mode 1 and mode 2 energy release rates from numerical fracture solutions. The mode of crack extension extracted from an oscillatory solution using the VCCT is not unique due to the dependence of mode on the virtual crack extension length, Delta. In this work, a method is presented for using the VCCT to extract Delta-independent crack extension modes for the case of an interface crack between two in-plane orthotropic materials. The method does not involve altering the analysis to eliminate its oscillatory behavior. Instead, it is argued that physically reasonable, Delta-independent modes of crack extension can be extracted from oscillatory solutions. Knowledge of near-tip fields is used to determine the explicit Delta dependence of energy release rate parameters. Energy release rates are then defined that are separated from the oscillatory dependence on Delta. A modified VCCT using these energy release rate definitions is applied to results from finite element analyses, showing that Delta-independent modes of crack extension result. The modified technique has potential as a consistent method for extracting crack extension modes from numerical solutions. The Delta-independent modes extracted using this technique can also serve as guides for testing the convergence of finite element models. Direct applications of this work include the analysis of planar composite delamination problems, where plies or debonded laminates are modeled as in-plane orthotropic materials.

  2. Reduction of astrometric plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method for the reduction of comet or asteroid plates is described. Projection equations, scale length correction, rotation of coordinates, linearization, the search for additional reference stars, and the final solution are examined.

  3. Active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J.

    1984-01-01

    Active Noise Reduction (ANR) techniques, singly and in combination with passive hearing protectors, offer the potential for increased sound protection, enhanced voice communications and improved wearability features for personnel exposed to unacceptable noise conditions. An enhanced closed loop active noise reduction system was miniaturized and incorporated into a standard Air Force flight helmet (HGU-26/P). This report describes the theory of design and operation, prototype configuration and operation, and electroacoustic performance and specifications for the ANR system. This system is theoretically capable of producing in excess of 30 decibels of active noise reduction. Electroacoustic measurements on a flat plate coupler demonstrated approximately 20 decibels of active noise reduction with the prototype unit. A performance evaluation of the integrated ANR unit will be conducted under laboratory and field conditions by government personnel to determine the feasibility of the system for use in military applications.

  4. Quantization of Algebraic Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Sniatycki, Jeodrzej

    2007-11-14

    For a Poisson algebra obtained by algebraic reduction of symmetries of a quantizable system we develop an analogue of geometric quantization based on the quantization structure of the original system.

  5. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Microjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Cuppoletti, Dan; Malla, Bhupatindra

    2013-11-01

    Fluidic injection for jet noise reduction involves injecting secondary jets into a primary jet to alter the noise characteristics of the primary jet. A major challenge has been determining what mechanisms are responsible for noise reduction due to varying injector designs, injection parameters, and primary jets. The current study provides conclusive results on the effect of injector angle and momentum ux ratio on the acoustics and shock structure of a supersonic Md = 1.56 jet. It is shown that the turbulent mixing noise scales primarily with the injector momentum flux ratio. Increasing the injector momentum flux ratio increases streamwise vorticity generation and reduces peak turbulence levels. It is found that the shock-related noise components are most affected by the interaction of the shocks from the injectors with the primary shock structure of the jet. Increasing momentum flux ratio causes shock noise reduction until a limit where shock noise increases again. It is shown that the shock noise components and mixing noise components are reduced through fundamentally different mechanisms and maximum overall noise reduction is achieved by balancing the reduction of both components.

  6. Theory of intermodal four-wave mixing with random linear mode coupling in few-mode fibers.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuzhe; Essiambre, René-Jean; Desgroseilliers, Marc; Tulino, Antonia M; Ryf, Roland; Mumtaz, Sami; Agrawal, Govind P

    2014-12-29

    We study intermodal four-wave mixing (FWM) in few-mode fibers in the presence of birefringence fluctuations and random linear mode coupling. Two different intermodal FWM processes are investigated by including all nonlinear contributions to the phase-matching condition and FWM bandwidth. We find that one of the FWM processes has a much larger bandwidth than the other. We include random linear mode coupling among fiber modes using three different models based on an analysis of the impact of random coupling on differences of propagation constants between modes. We find that random coupling always reduces the FWM efficiency relative to its vale in the absence of linear coupling. The reduction factor is relatively small (about 3 dB) when only a few modes are linearly coupled but can become very large (> 40 dB) when all modes couple strongly. In the limit of a coupling length much shorter than the nonlinear length, intermodal FWM efficiency becomes vanishingly small. These results should prove useful in the context of space-division multiplexing with few-mode and multimode fibers. PMID:25607171

  7. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  8. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  9. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  10. Optimization of few-mode-fiber based mode converter for mode division multiplexing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yiwei; Fu, Songnian; Zhang, Minming; Tang, M.; Shum, P.; Liu, Deming

    2013-10-01

    Few-mode-fiber (FMF) based mode division multiplexing (MDM) is a promising technique to further increase the transmission capacity of single mode fibers. We propose and numerically investigate a fiber-optical mode converter (MC) using long period gratings (LPGs) fabricated on the FMF by point-by-point CO2 laser inscription technique. In order to precisely excite three modes (LP01, LP11, and LP02), both untilted LPG and tilted LPG are comprehensively optimized through the length, index modulation depth, and tilt angle of the LPG in order to achieve a mode contrast ratio (MCR) of more than 20 dB with less wavelength dependence. It is found that the proposed MCs have obvious advantages of high MCR, low mode crosstalk, easy fabrication and maintenance, and compact size.

  11. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD. PMID:26734709

  12. Art as Alterity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  13. Altered Vision Near the Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Richard A.; Davoli, Christopher C.; Du, Feng; Knapp, William H., III; Paull, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The present study explored the manner in which hand position may affect visual processing. We studied three classic visual attention tasks (visual search, inhibition of return, and attentional blink) during which the participants held their hands either near the stimulus display, or far from the display. Remarkably, the hands altered visual…

  14. Frequency-Shaped Sliding Mode Control for Rudder Roll Damping System of Robotic Boat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xinping; Yu, Zhenyu; Nonami, Kenzo

    In this paper, a robotic boat model of combined yaw and roll rate is obtained by a system identification approach. The identified system is designed with frequency-shaped sliding mode control. The control scheme is composed of a sliding mode observer and a sliding mode controller. The stability and reachability of the switching function are proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulations and experiment carried out at INAGE offshore show that successful course keeping and roll reduction results are achieved.

  15. Monolithic enhancement-mode and depletion-mode GaN-based MOSHEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Chang, Jhe-Hao; Tseng, Chun-Yen

    2016-02-01

    GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) with outstanding properties of high operation speed and high breakdown voltage are promising for high frequency switching operation in ICs. To further develop the GaN-based digital ICs, the AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMT inverters integrated with the enhancement/depletion-mode (E/D-mode) transistors were investigated. In this work, the ferroelectric LiNbO3 (LNO) gate oxide layer and the photoelectrochemical (PEC)-recessed structure were simultaneously utilized to fabricate the critical E-mode AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMTs. Among the ferroelectric materials, the high dielectric constant LNO film with the larger spontaneous polarization of 80 μC/cm2, the wider bandgap of 3.9 eV, and the lower interface state density on the GaN-based semiconductor was beneficial to the modulation of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel and the reduction of the gate leakage current. Besides, using the PEC-recessed structure could improve the transconductance of the E-mode transistors and adjust the operation current of the D-mode transistors without destroying the etched AlGaN surface. Instead of the typical tuning area size method, the PEC etching method was demonstrated in this work to adjust the current ratio (β) of the E/D-mode transistors with keeping the matched area size for the miniaturization of the AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMT inverters. From the voltage transfer curve, the corresponded VOUT was equaled to VIN = VDD/2 = 2.5 V, and the output swing were about 4.9 Vp-p as the input signal was 5 Vp-p. It revealed that the resulting AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMT inverter with the β of 25 was operated as a high performance un-skewed inverter.

  16. Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-04-01

    We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction wave functions. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the wave function are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode wave function. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational wave functions lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.

  17. NASA research on viscous drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Research on natural laminar flow, laminar flow control by suction, and turbulent drag reduction is discussed. Preliminary results suggest that a significant amount of natural laminar flow can be achieved on small, straight wing airplanes. On larger, swept wing aircraft, laminar flow control by distributed suction is expected to result in significant fuel savings. The area over which laminar flow control is applied depends on tradeoffs involving structural complexity, maintenance, and cost. Several methods of reducing turbulent skin friction by altering the turbulence structure itself have shown promise in exploratory testing. The status of these technologies and the benefits of applying them to future aircraft are reviewed.

  18. A New NASTRAN Capability for Data Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, M.; Mittal, S.

    1985-01-01

    A new module, MODB, for the data reduction of NASTRAN results is described. NASTRAN analysis results can be filtered and sorted for minimum/maximum values and the printed output resulting from large NASTRAN runs can be limited based on a number of available user options. The sorting is done on stresses, forces and vector quantities like displacements, velocity, and acceleration. The module can be accessed via DMAP alters to existing rigid formats, and has been used on a large number of statics and dynamics problems resulting in considerable savings in cost, time, and the amount of printing.

  19. Reheating induced by competing decay modes

    SciTech Connect

    Charters, T.

    2008-10-15

    We address the problem of studying the decay of the inflaton field {phi} to another scalar field {chi} through parametric resonance in the case of a coupling that involves several decay modes. This amounts to the presence of extra harmonic terms in the perturbation of the {chi} field dynamics. For the case of two frequencies we compute the geometry of the resonance regions, which is significantly altered due to the presence of noncuspidal resonance regions associated to higher harmonics and to the emergence of instability 'pockets'. We discuss the effect of this change in the efficiency of the energy transfer process for the simplest case of a coupling given by a combination of the two interaction terms of homogeneous degree usually considered in the literature. We find that the presence of higher harmonics has limited cosmological implications.

  20. AMBER data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatulli, E.; Duvert, G.

    2007-10-01

    This course describes the data reduction process of the AMBER instrument, the three beam-recombiner of the very large telescope interferometer (VLTI). In body of this paper, we develop its principles from a theoretical point of view and we illustrate the main points with examples taken from the practical AMBER data reduction session given during school. The detailed practical application making use of the ESO gasgano tool is then presented. In this lecture, we particularly emphasize what the AMBER data reduction process is (i) a fit of the interferogram in the detector plane, (ii) using an a priori calibration of the instrument, where (iii) the complex visibility of the source is estimated from a least-square determination of a linear inverse problem, and where (iv) the derived AMBER observables are the squared visibility, the closure phase, and the spectral differential phase.

  1. Linear stability of tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when ..delta..' is positive.

  2. NASA research on viscous drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Current NASA research points toward exciting opportunities for large reductions in viscous drag. Research is underway on natural laminar flow, laminar flow control by suction, and turbulent drag reduction. Preliminary results suggest that a significant amount of natural laminar flow can be achieved on small, straight-wing airplanes. On larger, swept-wing aircraft, laminar flow control by distributed suction is expected to result in significant fuel savings. The area over which laminar flow control is applied depends on tradeoffs involving structural complexity, maintenance, and cost. Several methods of reducing turbulent skin friction by altering the turbulence structure itself have shown promise in exploratory testing. This paper reviews the status of these technologies and indicates the benefits of applying them to future aircraft.

  3. Delay reduction: current status.

    PubMed

    Fantino, E; Preston, R A; Dunn, R

    1993-07-01

    Delay-reduction theory states that the effectiveness of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer may be predicted most accurately by the reduction in time to primary reinforcement correlated with its onset. We review support for the theory and then discuss two new types of experiments that assess it. One compares models of choice in situations wherein the less preferred outcome is made more accessible; the other investigates whether frequency of conditioned reinforcement affects choice beyond the effect exerted by frequency of primary reinforcement.

  4. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  5. Discrete reductive perturbation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, Decio; Petrera, Matteo

    2006-04-15

    We expand a partial difference equation (P{delta}E) on multiple lattices and obtain the P{delta}E which governs its far field behavior. The perturbative-reductive approach is here performed on well-known nonlinear P{delta}Es, both integrable and nonintegrable. We study the cases of the lattice modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation, the Hietarinta equation, the lattice Volterra-Kac-Van Moerbeke equation and a nonintegrable lattice KdV equation. Such reductions allow us to obtain many new P{delta}Es of the nonlinear Schroedinger type.

  6. Neonatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene induces oxidative stress causing altered hippocampal cytomorphometry and behavior during early adolescence period of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupesh; Das, Saroj Kumar; Das, Swagatika; Das, Lipsa; Patri, Manorama

    2016-05-01

    Environmental neurotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been well documented regarding their potential to induce oxidative stress. However, neonatal exposure to B[a]P and its subsequent effect on anti-oxidant defence system and hippocampal cytomorphometry leading to behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of acute exposure of B[a]P on five days old male Wistar pups administered with single dose of B[a]P (0.2 μg/kg BW) through intracisternal mode. Control group was administered with vehicle i.e., DMSO and a separate group of rats without any treatment was taken as naive group. Behavioral analysis showed anxiolytic-like behavior with significant increase in time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze. Further, significant reduction in fall off time during rotarod test showing B[a]P induced locomotor hyperactivity and impaired motor co-ordination in adolescent rats. B[a]P induced behavioral changes were further associated with altered anti-oxidant defence system involving significant reduction in the total ATPase, Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase, GR and GPx activity with a significant elevation in the activity of catalase and GST as compared to naive and control groups. Cytomorphometry of hippocampus showed that the number of neurons and glia in B[a]P treated group were significantly reduced as compared to naive and control. Subsequent observation showed that the area and perimeter of hippocampus, hippocampal neurons and neuronal nucleus were significantly reduced in B[a]P treated group as compared to naive and control. The findings of the present study suggest that the alteration in hippocampal cytomorphometry and neuronal population associated with impaired antioxidant signaling and mood in B[a]P treated group could be an outcome of neuromorphological alteration leading to pyknotic cell death or impaired differential migration of neurons during early postnatal brain development.

  7. Dual-mode acoustic wave biosensors microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auner, Gregory W.; Shreve, Gina; Ying, Hao; Newaz, Golam; Hughes, Chantelle; Xu, Jianzeng

    2003-04-01

    We have develop highly sensitive and selective acoustic wave biosensor arrays with signal analysis systems to provide a fingerprint for the real-time identification and quantification of a wide array of bacterial pathogens and environmental health hazards. We have developed an unique highly sensitive dual mode acoustic wave platform prototype that, when combined with phage based selective detection elements, form a durable bacteria sensor. Arrays of these new real-time biosensors are integrated to form a biosensor array on a chip. This research and development program optimizes advanced piezoelectric aluminum nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, novel micromachining processes, advanced device structures, selective phage displays development and immobilization techniques, and system integration and signal analysis technology to develop the biosensor arrays. The dual sensor platform can be programmed to sense in a gas, vapor or liquid environment by switching between acoustic wave resonate modes. Such a dual mode sensor has tremendous implications for applications involving monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms in the clinical setting due to their ability to detect airborne pathogens. This provides a number of applications including hospital settings such as intensive care or other in-patient wards for the reduction of nosocomial infections and maintenance of sterile environments in surgical suites. Monitoring for airborn pathogen transmission in public transportation areas such as airplanes may be useful for implementation of strategies for redution of airborn transmission routes. The ability to use the same sensor in the liquid sensing mode is important for tracing the source of airborn pathogens to local liquid sources. Sensing of pathogens in saliva will be useful for sensing oral pathogens and support of decision-making strategies regarding prevention of transmission and support of treatment strategies.

  8. Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

    2014-06-01

    Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

  9. Interior noise reduction by alternate resonance tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Gottwald, James A.; Bryce, Jeffrey W.

    1987-01-01

    Existing interior noise reduction techniques for aircraft fuselages perform reasonably well at higher frequencies, but are inadequate at low frequencies, particularly with respect to the low blade passage harmonics with high forcing levels found in propeller aircraft. A method is studied which considers aircraft fuselages lined with panels alternately tuned to frequencies above and below the frequency that must be attenuated. Adjacent panel would oscillate at equal amplitude, to give equal acoustic source strength, but with opposite phase. Provided these adjacent panels are acoustically compact, the resulting cancellation causes the interior acoustic modes to be cut off, and therefore be nonpropagating and evanescent. This interior noise reduction method, called Alternate Resonance Tuning (ART), is being investigated theoretically and experimentally. Progress to date is discussed.

  10. Whispering gallery mode sensors

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Matthew R.; Swaim, Jon D.; Vollmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of sensor technology exploiting optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances. After a short introduction we begin by detailing the fundamental principles and theory of WGMs in optical microcavities and the transduction mechanisms frequently employed for sensing purposes. Key recent theoretical contributions to the modeling and analysis of WGM systems are highlighted. Subsequently we review the state of the art of WGM sensors by outlining efforts made to date to improve current detection limits. Proposals in this vein are numerous and range, for example, from plasmonic enhancements and active cavities to hybrid optomechanical sensors, which are already working in the shot noise limited regime. In parallel to furthering WGM sensitivity, efforts to improve the time resolution are beginning to emerge. We therefore summarize the techniques being pursued in this vein. Ultimately WGM sensors aim for real-world applications, such as measurements of force and temperature, or alternatively gas and biosensing. Each such application is thus reviewed in turn, and important achievements are discussed. Finally, we adopt a more forward-looking perspective and discuss the outlook of WGM sensors within both a physical and biological context and consider how they may yet push the detection envelope further. PMID:26973759

  11. Ultrasonic Doppler Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortoli, Piero; Fidanzati, Paolo; Luca, Bassi

    Any US equipment includes Doppler facilities capable of providing information about moving structures inside the human body. In most cases, the primary interest is in the investigation of blood flow dynamics, since this may be helpful for early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is also an increasing interest in tracking the movements of human tissues, since such movements can give an indirect evaluation of their elastic properties, which are valuable indicators of the possible presence of pathologies. This paper aims at presenting an overview of the different ways in which the Doppler technique has been developed and used in medical ultrasound (US), from early continuous wave (CW) systems to advanced pulsed wave (PW) colour-Doppler equipment. In particular, the most important technical features and clinical applications of CW, single-gate PW, multi-gate PW and flow-imaging systems are reviewed. The main signal processing approaches used for detection of Doppler frequencies are described, including time-domain and frequency-domain (spectral) methods, as well as novel strategies like, e.g., harmonic Doppler mode, which have been recently introduced to exploit the benefits of US contrast agents.

  12. The impact of heating the breakdown bubble on the global mode of a swirling jet: Experiments and linear stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukes, Lothar; Sieber, Moritz; Paschereit, C. Oliver; Oberleithner, Kilian

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the dynamics of non-isothermal swirling jets undergoing vortex breakdown, with an emphasis on helical coherent structures. It is proposed that the dominant helical coherent structure can be suppressed by heating the recirculation bubble. This proposition is assessed with stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the breakdown region of isothermal and heated swirling jets. The coherent kinetic energy of the dominant helical structure was derived from PIV snapshots via proper orthogonal decomposition. For one set of experimental parameters, mild heating is found to increase the energy content of the dominant helical mode. Strong heating leads to a reduction by 30% of the coherent structures energy. For a second set of experimental parameters, no alteration of the dominant coherent structure is detectable. Local linear stability analysis of the time-averaged velocity fields shows that the key difference between the two configurations is the density ratio at the respective wavemaker location. A density ratio of approximately 0.8 is found to correlate to a suppression of the global mode in the experiments. A parametric study with model density and velocity profiles indicates the most important parameters that govern the local absolute growth rate: the density ratio and the relative position of the density profiles and the inner shear layer.

  13. Nonlinear mode coupling in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Menyuk, Curtis R.

    2016-04-01

    We present a first-principles derivation of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations that govern the interaction between two families of modes with different transverse profiles in a generic whispering-gallery-mode resonator. We find regions of modulational instability and the existence of trains of bright solitons in both the normal and the anomalous dispersion regime.

  14. Separation of crack extension modes in composite delamination problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L.

    1994-01-01

    This work concerns fracture mechanics modeling of composite delamination problems. In order to predict delamination resistance, an applied stress intensity factor, K, or energy release rate, G, must be compared to a mode-dependent critical value of K or G from experiment. In the interfacial fracture analysis of most applications and some tests, the mode of crack extension is not uniquely defined. It is instead a function of distance from the crack tip due to the oscillating singularity existing at the tip. In this work, a consistent method is presented of extracting crack extension modes in such cases. In particular, use of the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) to extract modes of crack extension is studied for cases of a crack along the interface between two in-plane orthotropic materials. Modes of crack extension extracted from oscillatory analyses using VCCT are a function of the virtual crack extension length, delta. Most existing efforts to obtain delta-independent modes of crack extension involve changing the analysis in order to eliminate its oscillatory nature. One such method involves changing one or more properties of the layers to make the oscillatory exponent parameter, epsilon, equal zero. Standardized application of this method would require consistent criteria for identifying which properties can be altered without changing the physical aspects of the problem. Another method involves inserting a thin homogeneous layer (typically referred to as a resin interlayer) along the interface and placing the crack within it. The drawbacks of this method are that it requires increased modeling effort and introduces the thickness of the interlayer as an additional length parameter. The approach presented here does not attempt to alter the interfacial fracture analysis to eliminate its oscillatory behavior. Instead, the argument is made that the oscillatory behavior is non-physical and that if its effects were separated from VCCT quantities, then consistent

  15. Exploiting stoichiometric redundancies for computational efficiency and network reduction.

    PubMed

    Ingalls, Brian P; Bembenek, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of metabolic networks typically begins with construction of the stoichiometry matrix, which characterizes the network topology. This matrix provides, via the balance equation, a description of the potential steady-state flow distribution. This paper begins with the observation that the balance equation depends only on the structure of linear redundancies in the network, and so can be stated in a succinct manner, leading to computational efficiencies in steady-state analysis. This alternative description of steady-state behaviour is then used to provide a novel method for network reduction, which complements existing algorithms for describing intracellular networks in terms of input-output macro-reactions (to facilitate bioprocess optimization and control). Finally, it is demonstrated that this novel reduction method can be used to address elementary mode analysis of large networks: the modes supported by a reduced network can capture the input-output modes of a metabolic module with significantly reduced computational effort.

  16. Exploiting stoichiometric redundancies for computational efficiency and network reduction.

    PubMed

    Ingalls, Brian P; Bembenek, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of metabolic networks typically begins with construction of the stoichiometry matrix, which characterizes the network topology. This matrix provides, via the balance equation, a description of the potential steady-state flow distribution. This paper begins with the observation that the balance equation depends only on the structure of linear redundancies in the network, and so can be stated in a succinct manner, leading to computational efficiencies in steady-state analysis. This alternative description of steady-state behaviour is then used to provide a novel method for network reduction, which complements existing algorithms for describing intracellular networks in terms of input-output macro-reactions (to facilitate bioprocess optimization and control). Finally, it is demonstrated that this novel reduction method can be used to address elementary mode analysis of large networks: the modes supported by a reduced network can capture the input-output modes of a metabolic module with significantly reduced computational effort. PMID:25547516

  17. Exploiting stoichiometric redundancies for computational efficiency and network reduction

    PubMed Central

    Ingalls, Brian P.; Bembenek, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Analysis of metabolic networks typically begins with construction of the stoichiometry matrix, which characterizes the network topology. This matrix provides, via the balance equation, a description of the potential steady-state flow distribution. This paper begins with the observation that the balance equation depends only on the structure of linear redundancies in the network, and so can be stated in a succinct manner, leading to computational efficiencies in steady-state analysis. This alternative description of steady-state behaviour is then used to provide a novel method for network reduction, which complements existing algorithms for describing intracellular networks in terms of input-output macro-reactions (to facilitate bioprocess optimization and control). Finally, it is demonstrated that this novel reduction method can be used to address elementary mode analysis of large networks: the modes supported by a reduced network can capture the input-output modes of a metabolic module with significantly reduced computational effort. PMID:25547516

  18. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  19. Propulsion system noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, C. E.; Heidelberg, L. J.; Karchmer, A. M.; Lansing, D. L.; Miller, B. A.; Rice, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The progress in propulsion system noise reduction is reviewed. The noise technology areas discussed include: fan noise; advances in suppression including conventional acoustic treatment, high Mach number inlets, and wing shielding; engine core noise; flap noise from both under-the-wing and over-the-wing powered-lift systems; supersonic jet noise suppression; and the NASA program in noise prediction.

  20. Industrial Waste Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  1. Exercise and Fat Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This document analyzes the problems encountered by the obese individual and the effects of regular exercise on weight loss and fat reduction. Part one compares the psychological traits of obese children with age groups of normal weight and discusses the organic disorders and social attitudes which plague the overweight individual. Part two states…

  2. Imino Transfer Hydrogenation Reductions.

    PubMed

    Wills, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This review contains a summary of recent developments in the transfer hydrogenation of C=N bonds, with a particularly focus on reports from within the last 10 years and asymmetric transformations. However, earlier work in the area is also discussed in order to provide context for the more recent results described. I focus strongly on the Ru/TsDPEN class of asymmetric transfer hydrogenation reactions originally reported by Noyori et al., together with examples of their applications, particularly to medically valuable target molecules. The recent developments in the area of highly active imine-reduction catalysts, notably those based on iridium, are also described in some detail. I discuss diastereoselective reduction methods as a route to the synthesis of chiral amines using transfer hydrogenation. The recent development of a methodology for positioning reduction complexes within chiral proteins, permitting the generation of asymmetric reduction products through a directed modification of the protein environment in a controlled manner, is also discussed. PMID:27573139

  3. Nagel on reduction.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2015-10-01

    This paper attempts a critical reappraisal of Nagel's (1961, 1970) model of reduction taking into account both traditional criticisms and recent defenses. This model treats reduction as a type of explanation in which a reduced theory is explained by a reducing theory after their relevant representational items have been suitably connected. In accordance with the deductive-nomological model, the explanation is supposed to consist of a logical deduction. Nagel was a pluralist about both the logical form of the connections between the reduced and reducing theories (which could be conditionals or biconditionals) and their epistemological status (as analytic connections, conventions, or synthetic claims). This paper defends Nagel's pluralism on both counts and, in the process, argues that the multiple realizability objection to reductionism is misplaced. It also argues that the Nagel model correctly characterizes reduction as a type of explanation. However, it notes that logical deduction must be replaced by a broader class of inferential techniques that allow for different types of approximation. Whereas Nagel (1970), in contrast to his earlier position (1961), recognized the relevance of approximation, he did not realize its full import for the model. Throughout the paper two case studies are used to illustrate the arguments: the putative reduction of classical thermodynamics to the kinetic theory of matter and that of classical genetics to molecular biology.

  4. Intracellular chromium reduction.

    PubMed

    Arslan, P; Beltrame, M; Tomasi, A

    1987-10-22

    Two steps are involved in the uptake of Cr(VI): (1) the diffusion of the anion CrO4(2-) through a facilitated transport system, presumably the non-specific anion carrier and (2) the intracellular reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The intracellular reduction of Cr(VI), keeping the cytoplasmic concentration of Cr(VI) low, facilitates accumulation of chromate from extracellular medium into the cell. In the present paper, a direct demonstration of intracellular chromium reduction is provided by means of electron paramagnetic (spin) resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Incubation of metabolically active rat thymocytes with chromate originates a signal which can be attributed to a paramagnetic species of chromium, Cr(V) or Cr(III). The EPR signal is originated by intracellular reduction of chromium since: (1) it is observed only when cells are incubated with chromate, (2) it is present even after extensive washings of the cells in a chromium-free medium; (3) it is abolished when cells are incubated with drugs able to reduce the glutathione pool, i.e., diethylmaleate or phorone; and (4) it is abolished when cells are incubated in the presence of a specific inhibitor of the anion carrier, 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2-2'-disulfonic acid. PMID:2820507

  5. Nagel on reduction.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2015-10-01

    This paper attempts a critical reappraisal of Nagel's (1961, 1970) model of reduction taking into account both traditional criticisms and recent defenses. This model treats reduction as a type of explanation in which a reduced theory is explained by a reducing theory after their relevant representational items have been suitably connected. In accordance with the deductive-nomological model, the explanation is supposed to consist of a logical deduction. Nagel was a pluralist about both the logical form of the connections between the reduced and reducing theories (which could be conditionals or biconditionals) and their epistemological status (as analytic connections, conventions, or synthetic claims). This paper defends Nagel's pluralism on both counts and, in the process, argues that the multiple realizability objection to reductionism is misplaced. It also argues that the Nagel model correctly characterizes reduction as a type of explanation. However, it notes that logical deduction must be replaced by a broader class of inferential techniques that allow for different types of approximation. Whereas Nagel (1970), in contrast to his earlier position (1961), recognized the relevance of approximation, he did not realize its full import for the model. Throughout the paper two case studies are used to illustrate the arguments: the putative reduction of classical thermodynamics to the kinetic theory of matter and that of classical genetics to molecular biology. PMID:26386529

  6. Teaching Reductive Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith

    2005-01-01

    When dealing with a complex problem, solving it by reduction to simpler problems, or problems for which the solution is already known, is a common method in mathematics and other scientific disciplines, as in computer science and, specifically, in the field of computability. However, when teaching computational models (as part of computability)…

  7. Magnetic control of waveguide modes of Bragg structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylgacheva, D. A.; Khokhlov, N. E.; Kalish, A. N.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We present the study of the waveguide modes of one-dimensional magnetic photonic crystals with in-plane-magnetized layers. There is a magneto-optical effect of nonreciprocity for the TM-modes propagating along the layers perpendicularly to the magnetization. Due to the non-reciprocity the phase velocity of the modes changes with magnetization reversal. Comparison of the effect in the non-magnetic photonic crystal with additional magnetic layer on top and a magnetophotonic crystal with altering magnetic layers shows that the effect is greater in the first case due to the higher asymmetry of the claddings of the magnetic layer. This effect is important for the light modulation with external magnetic field in waveguide structures and may be used for design of novel types of the magneto-optical devices, sensors of magnetic field or biosensors.

  8. Progress in Electromagnetic Alteration of Nuclear Decay Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Burke, J. T.; Scielzo, N. D.; Soufli, R.

    2014-03-01

    Significant alteration of nuclear decay properties would have important consequences, ranging from novel approaches to nuclear batteries and gamma-ray lasers, to improved viability for physics experiments with short-lived targets. Quantum systems that decay by photon emission must couple to the electromagnetic modes of the local environment, and by modifying these modes, one can manipulate the rate of spontaneous emission. The nuclear isomer 235mU is low-energy, long-lived, and is easily populated through 239Pu α-decay, which makes it an excellent benchmark for this effect. The decay rate of this isomer in a variety of environments is currently under investigation. Implications of this work will be discussed, and first results will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Progress in Electromagnetic Alteration of Nuclear Decay Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casperson, R. J.; Burke, J. T.; Hughes, R. O.; Scielzo, N. D.; Soufli, R.

    2013-10-01

    Significant alteration of nuclear decay properties would have important consequences, ranging from novel approaches to nuclear batteries and gamma-ray lasers, to improved viability for physics experiments with short-lived targets. Quantum systems that decay by photon emission must couple to the electromagnetic modes of the local environment, and by modifying these modes, one can manipulate the rate of spontaneous emission. The nuclear isomer 235mU is low-energy, long-lived, and is easily populated through 239Pu α-decay, which makes it an excellent benchmark for this effect. The decay rate of this isomer in a variety of environments is currently under investigation. Implications of this work will be discussed, and first results will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    PubMed

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  11. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoshuk, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems.

  12. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  13. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness.

  14. SURF: Submm User Reduction Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Tim; Lightfoot, John

    2014-03-01

    SURF reduces data from the SCUBA instrument from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Facilities are provided for reducing all the SCUBA observing modes including jiggle, scan and photometry modes. SURF uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).

  15. KINOMIC ALTERATIONS IN ATYPICAL MENINGIOMA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Joshua C.; Taylor, Robert B.; Fiveash, John B.; de Wijn, Rik; Gillespie, G. Yancey; Willey, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to profile Atypical Meningioma in a high-throughput manner to better understand the altered signaling within these tumors and specifically the kinases altered in recurrent atypical meningioma. Kinomic Profiles could be used to identify prognostic biomarkers for responders/non-responders to classify future patients that are unlikely to benefit from current therapies. Directly these results could be used to identify drug-actionable kinase targets as well. Methods Peptide-substrate microarray kinase activity analysis was conducted with a PamStation®12 analyzing the tyrosine kinome in each tumor kinetically against ~144 target peptides. These data were then analyzed relative to clinical outcome (e.g., tumor recurrence). Results 3 major clusters of atypical meningiomas were identified with highly variant peptides primarily being targets of EGFR family, ABL, BRK and BMX kinases. Kinomic analysis of recurrent atypical meningiomas indicated patterns of increased phosphorylation of BMX, TYRO3 and FAK substrates as compared to non-recurrent tumors. Conclusion The atypical meningiomas profiled here exhibited molecular sub-clustering that may have phenotypic corollaries predictive of outcome. Recurrent tumors had increases in kinase activity that may predict resistance to current therapies, and may guide selection of directed therapies. Taken together these data further the understanding of kinomic alteration in atypical meningioma, and the processes that may not only mediate recurrence, but additionally may identify kinase targets for intervention. PMID:27158663

  16. Effects of voids on delamination behavior under static and fatigue mode I and mode II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelal, Nisrin Rizek

    Composite materials have become materials of choice for wind turbine blade manufacturing due to their high specific stiffness, strength and fatigue life. Glass fiber composites are used extensively in light-weight structural components for wind turbines, aircrafts, marine craft and high performance automobile because glass fiber is inexpensive and usually provides high strength to weight ratio and good in-plane mechanical properties. The high cycle fatigue resistance of composite materials used in wind turbine blades has been recognized as a major uncertainty in predicting the reliability of wind turbines over their design lifetime. Blades are expected to experience 108 to 109 fatigue cycles over a 20 to 30 year lifetime. Delamination or interlaminar failure is a serious failure mode observed in composite structures. Even partial delamination will lead to a loss of local stiffness, which can preclude buckling failure. Manufacturing process defects such as voids and fiber waviness degrade the fatigue life and delamination resistance of the blade's composite. This research describes the effect of voids on static and fatigue interlaminar fracture behavior under mode I and mode II loading of wind turbine glass fiber composites. Samples with different void volume fractions in the 0.5%-7% range were successfully obtained by varying the vacuum in the hand layup vacuum bagging manufacturing process. Void content was characterized using four different methods; ultrasonic scanning, epoxy burn off, serial sectioning and X-Ray computed tomography. The effect of voids on both mode I and mode II interlaminar fracture toughness under static and fatigue loading was investigated. Finally, fractographic analysis (using optical and scanning electron microscopy) was conducted. The results showed that voids leads to slight reduction in static modes I and II interlaminar fracture toughness. In addition, voids lead to a decrease in modes I and II maximum cyclic strain energy release

  17. Radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration haloes in albite: implications for alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization and element mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, D. C.; Chaudhuri, T.

    2016-07-01

    Uraninite, besides occurring in other modes, occurs as inclusions in albite in feldspathic schist in the Bagjata uranium deposits, Singhbhum shear zone, India. The feldspathic schist, considered the product of Na-metasomatism, witnessed multiple hydrothermal events, the signatures of which are preserved in the alteration halo in albite surrounding uraninite. Here we report radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration halo in albite and its various geological implications. Microscopic observation and SRIM/TRIM simulations reveal that the dimension of the alteration halo is dependent collectively on the zone of maximum cumulative α dose that albite was subjected to and by the extent of dissolution of uraninite during alteration. In well-preserved alteration haloes, from uraninite to the unaltered part of albite, the alteration minerals are systematically distributed in different zones; zone-1: K-feldspar; zone-2: chlorite; zone-3: LREE-phase/pyrite/U-Y-silicate. Based on textures of alteration minerals in the alteration microdomain, we propose a generalized Na+➔K+➔H+ alteration sequence, which is in agreement with the regional-scale alteration pattern. Integrating distribution of ore and alteration minerals in the alteration zone and their geochemistry, we further propose multiple events of U, REE, and sulfide mineralization/mobilization in the Bagjata deposit. The alteration process also involved interaction of the hydrothermal fluid with uraninite inclusions resulting in resorption of uraninite, redistribution of elements, including U and Pb, and resetting of isotopic clock. Thus, our study demonstrates that alteration halo is a miniature scale-model of the regional hydrothermal alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization/mobilization. This study further demonstrates that albite is vulnerable to radiation damage and damage-controlled fluid-assisted alteration, which may redistribute metals, including actinides, from radioactive minerals

  18. Adaptive robust controller based on integral sliding mode concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, M.; Plestan, F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes, for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems, an adaptive controller based on adaptive second-order sliding mode control and integral sliding mode control concepts. The adaptation strategy solves the problem of gain tuning and has the advantage of chattering reduction. Moreover, limited information about perturbation and uncertainties has to be known. The control is composed of two parts: an adaptive one whose objective is to reject the perturbation and system uncertainties, whereas the second one is chosen such as the nominal part of the system is stabilised in zero. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an application on an academic example is shown with simulation results.

  19. Electrically controlled optical-mode switch for fundamental mode and first order mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imansyah, Ryan; Tanaka, Tatsushi; Himbele, Luke; Jiang, Haisong; Hamamoto, Kiichi

    2016-08-01

    We have proposed an optical mode switch, the principle of which is based on the partial phase shift of injected light; therefore, one important issue is to clarify the proper design criteria for the mode combiner section. We focused on the bending radius of the S-bend waveguide issue that is connected to the multi mode waveguide in the Y-junction section that acts as mode combiner. Long radius leads to undesired mode coupling before the Y-junction section, whereas a short radius causes radiation loss. Thus, we simulated this mode combiner by the beam-propagation method to obtain the proper radius. In addition, we used a trench pin structure to simplify the fabrication process into a single-step dry-etching process. As a result, we successfully fabricated an optical-mode switch with the bending radius R = 610 µm. It showed the successful electrical mode switching and the achieved mode crosstalk was approximately -10 dB for 1550 nm wavelength with the injection current of 60 mA (5.7 V).

  20. Electrically controlled optical-mode switch for fundamental mode and first order mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imansyah, Ryan; Tanaka, Tatsushi; Himbele, Luke; Jiang, Haisong; Hamamoto, Kiichi

    2016-08-01

    We have proposed an optical mode switch, the principle of which is based on the partial phase shift of injected light; therefore, one important issue is to clarify the proper design criteria for the mode combiner section. We focused on the bending radius of the S-bend waveguide issue that is connected to the multi mode waveguide in the Y-junction section that acts as mode combiner. Long radius leads to undesired mode coupling before the Y-junction section, whereas a short radius causes radiation loss. Thus, we simulated this mode combiner by the beam-propagation method to obtain the proper radius. In addition, we used a trench pin structure to simplify the fabrication process into a single-step dry-etching process. As a result, we successfully fabricated an optical-mode switch with the bending radius R = 610 µm. It showed the successful electrical mode switching and the achieved mode crosstalk was approximately ‑10 dB for 1550 nm wavelength with the injection current of 60 mA (5.7 V).

  1. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessah, Martin E.; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2008-09-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, nonlinear solutions of the nonideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating background threaded by a vertical magnetic field when disturbances with wavenumbers perpendicular to the shear are considered. We provide a geometrical description of these viscous, resistive MRI modes and show how their physical structure is modified as a function of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers. We demonstrate that when finite dissipative effects are considered, velocity and magnetic field disturbances are no longer orthogonal (as is the case in the ideal MHD limit) unless the magnetic Prandtl number is unity. We generalize previous results found in the ideal limit and show that a series of key properties of the mean Reynolds and Maxwell stresses also hold for the viscous, resistive MRI. In particular, we show that the Reynolds stress is always positive and the Maxwell stress is always negative. Therefore, even in the presence of viscosity and resistivity, the total mean angular momentum transport is always directed outward. We also find that, for any combination of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers, magnetic disturbances dominate both the energetics and the transport of angular momentum and that the total mean energy density is an upper bound for the total mean stress responsible for angular momentum transport. The ratios between the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses and between magnetic and kinetic energy densities increase with decreasing Reynolds numbers for any magnetic Reynolds number; the lowest limit of both ratios is reached in the ideal MHD regime. The analytical results presented here provide new benchmarks for the various algorithms employed to solve the viscous, resistive MHD equations in the shearing box approximation.

  2. Stabilization of garnet in metamorphosed altered turbidites near the St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, southeastern British Columbia: Equilibrium and kinetic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, David R. M.; Seitz, JennaLee D.

    2012-03-01

    The St. Eugene lead-zinc deposit, near Moyie, southeastern British Columbia, is a Mesoproterozoic vein deposit hosted by metaturbidites of the 1.5-1.4 Ga Belt-Purcell Supergroup. The regional metamorphic grade of the rocks is biotite zone, with the age of metamorphism being Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.35 Ga). The vein system is enveloped by a metamorphosed alteration zone of increasing intensity as the vein is approached. Thin argillaceous tops of turbidite beds away from the vein are garnet-free, whereas those in the inner alteration zone are garnet-bearing. Compared to rocks away from the vein, those near the vein are enriched in Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn, with proportional reduction in other compositional parameters. Thermodynamic modeling of three rocks across the alteration gradient predicts increasing stabilization of garnet with increasing degree of alteration. Predicted and observed modes of garnet in the samples are in close agreement. In the most altered rock, the garnet-in line is displaced down-temperature by ~ 100 °C relative to the least altered rock. Approximately 2/3 of the garnet stabilization is accounted for by increase in Mn content and the rest by increase in Fe/(Fe + Mg). Kinetic factors played a role in the development of the mineral assemblages, including metastable persistence of zoisite, and disequilibrium (overstepped) initial growth of garnet. Estimates of peak pressure-temperature conditions from mineral assemblage constraints and from compositional isopleths are complicated by the kinetic effects but yield similar results: 490-510 °C and 3.6-4.0 kbar. The pressure-temperature estimates imply an average linear geothermal gradient of ~ 35 °C/km, broadly consistent with burial metamorphism in the Belt-Purcell extensional basin. However, the estimated pressure, equivalent to a depth of 13-15 km, is greater than the estimated ~ 8 km (~ 2.2 kbar) of stratigraphic overburden at the time of metamorphism. The results of this study support the idea that

  3. New electromagnetic mode in graphene.

    PubMed

    Mikhailov, S A; Ziegler, K

    2007-07-01

    A new, weakly damped, transverse electromagnetic mode is predicted in graphene. The mode frequency omega lies in the window 1.667<[see text]omega/micro < 2, where micro is the chemical potential, and can be tuned from radio waves to the infrared by changing the density of charge carriers through a gate voltage. PMID:17678180

  4. Condensation modes in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Chang-Hyuk

    1986-01-01

    Condensation modes in magnetized cylindrical plasmas, with concentration on how magnetic field affects the stability were studied. It is found that the effects of magnetic field (shear, twist, and strength) on the condensation modes are different depending on the wave vector. For modes whose wave vector is not perpendicular to magnetic field lines the plasma motion is mainly along the field lines; the effects of magnetic field on the modes are negligible except on the heat flow parallel to the field line. For a mode which is localized near a surface where the wave vector is perpendicular to the field line, the plasma moves perpendicular to the line carrying the field line into the condensed region; magnetic field affects the mode by building up magnetic pressure in the condensed region. The stability of condensation modes strongly depends on how density and temperature vary with field twist. The stable nature of global quiescent prominence magnetic configurations implies that prominences form for low field twist for which ideal MHD modes are stable; plasma temperature should increase with field twist for stable prominence formation.

  5. Altered gene expression in conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahale, Alka; Alkatan, Hind; Alwadani, Saeed; Othman, Maha; Suarez, Maria J; Price, Antoinette; Al-Hussain, Hailah; Jastaneiah, Sabah; Yu, Wayne; Maktabi, Azza; Deepak, Edward P; Eberhart, Charles G; Asnaghi, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma is a malignancy of the ocular surface. The molecular drivers responsible for the development and progression of this disease are not well understood. We therefore compared the transcriptional profiles of eight snap-frozen conjunctival squamous cell carcinomas and one in situ lesion with normal conjunctival specimens in order to identify diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. RNA was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays, and a wide range of transcripts with altered expression identified, including many dysregulated in carcinomas arising at other sites. Among the upregulated genes, we observed more than 30-fold induction of the matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-9 and MMP-11, as well as a prominent increase in the mRNA level of a calcium-binding protein important for the intracellular calcium signaling, S100A2, which was induced over 20-fold in the tumor cohort. Clusterin was the most downregulated gene, with an approximately 180-fold reduction in the mRNA expression. These alterations were all confirmed by qPCR in the samples used for initial microarray analysis. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the overexpression of MMP-11 and S100A2, as well as reductions in clusterin, in several independent in situ carcinomas of conjunctiva. These data identify a number of alterations, including upregulation of MMP-9, MMP-11, and S100A2, as well as downregulation of clusterin, associated with epithelial tumorigenesis in the ocular surface. PMID:26916071

  6. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  7. [Functional alterations of the arterial vessels in experimental models of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Boleeva, G S; Mochalov, S V; Tarasova, O S

    2014-01-01

    The review analyzws the literature on the pathological alterations of endothelium, smooth muscle and vasomotor innervation of arterial vessels in animal modes of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Particular attention is paid t the analysis of mechanisms of diabetic abnormalities in the light of modern knowledge on the functioning of the main components of the vascular wall. PMID:25707261

  8. Automating OSIRIS Data Reduction for the Keck Observatory Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Hien D.; Holt, J.; Goodrich, R. W.; Lyke, J. E.; Gelino, C. R.; Berriman, G. B.; KOA Team

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of 2013, the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) has served data from all active instruments on the Keck Telescopes. OSIRIS (OH-Suppressing Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph), the last active instrument to be archived in KOA, has been in use behind the adaptive optics (AO) system at Keck since February 2005. It uses an array of tiny lenslets to simultaneously produce spectra at up to 4096 locations. Due to the complicated nature of the OSIRIS raw data, the OSIRIS team developed a comprehensive data reduction program. This data reduction system has an online mode for quick real-time reductions which are used primarily for basic data visualization and quality assessment done at the telescope while observing. The offline version of the data reduction system includes an expanded reduction method list, does more iterations for a better construction of the data cubes, and is used to produce publication-quality products. It can also use reconstruction matrices that are developed after the observations were taken, and are more refined. The KOA team is currently utilizing the standard offline reduction mode to produce quick-look browse products for the raw data. Users of the offline data reduction system generally use a graphical user interface to manually setup the reduction parameters. However, in order to reduce and serve the ~200,000 science files on disk, all of the reduction parameters and steps need to be fully automated. This pipeline will also be used to automatically produce quick-look browse products for future OSIRIS data after each night's observations. Here we discuss the complexities of OSIRIS data, the reduction system in place, methods for automating the system, performance using virtualization, and progress made to date in generating the KOA products.

  9. Automating OSIRIS Data Reduction for the Keck Observatory Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, J.; Tran, H. D.; Goodrich, R.; Berriman, G. B.; Gelino, C. R.; KOA Team

    2014-05-01

    By the end of 2013, the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) will serve data from all active instruments on the Keck Telescopes. OSIRIS (OH-Suppressing Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph), the last active instrument to be archived in KOA, has been in use behind the (AO) system at Keck since February 2005. It uses an array of tiny lenslets to simultaneously produce spectra at up to 4096 locations. Due to the complicated nature of the OSIRIS raw data, the OSIRIS team developed a comprehensive data reduction program. This data reduction system has an online mode for quick real-time reductions, which are used primarily for basic data visualization and quality assessment done at the telescope while observing. The offline version of the data reduction system includes an expanded reduction method list, does more iterations for a better construction of the data cubes, and is used to produce publication-quality products. It can also use reconstruction matrices that are developed after the observations were taken, and are more refined. The KOA team is currently utilizing the standard offline reduction mode to produce quick-look browse products for the raw data. Users of the offline data reduction system generally use a graphical user interface to manually setup the reduction parameters. However, in order to reduce and serve the 200,000 science files on disk, all of the reduction parameters and steps need to be fully automated. This pipeline will also be used to automatically produce quick-look browse products for future OSIRIS data after each night's observations. Here we discuss the complexities of OSIRIS data, the reduction system in place, methods for automating the system, performance using virtualization, and progress made to date in generating the KOA products.

  10. Mode tracking issues in optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, M. S.; Venkayya, V. B.; Anderson, W. J.

    1993-04-01

    Methodology for the tracking of eigenpairs during perturbations in the eigenvalue problem, for both self-adjoint and nonself-adjoint cases is presented. This methodology based on mode tracking techniques is considered to be an important bookkeeping tool which enables the analyst to maintain proper identification of modal data, thus avoiding confusion caused by mode switching. It is shown that, in optimization with frequency constraints, higher order eigenpair perturbations (HOEP) and the cross-orthogonality check (CORC) are effective in eliminating convergence problems caused by mode switching. In V-g flutter analysis, C-HOEP is found to be more robust than C-CORC. C-HOEP is capable of succesfully tracking modes near flutter despite mode shape similarity.

  11. Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. I. Low m modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2015-09-01

    Helicons are whistler modes with azimuthal wave numbers. They arise in bounded gaseous and solid state plasmas, but the present work shows that very similar modes also exist in unbounded uniform plasmas. The antenna properties determine the mode structure. A simple antenna is a magnetic loop with dipole moment aligned either along or across the ambient background magnetic field B0. For such configurations, the wave magnetic field has been measured in space and time in a large and uniform laboratory plasma. The observed wave topology for a dipole along B0 is similar to that of an m = 0 helicon mode. It consists of a sequence of alternating whistler vortices. For a dipole across B0, an m = 1 mode is excited which can be considered as a transverse vortex which rotates around B0. In m = 0 modes, the field lines are confined to each half-wavelength vortex while for m = 1 modes they pass through the entire wave train. A subset of m = 1 field lines forms two nested helices which rotate in space and time like corkscrews. Depending on the type of the antenna, both m = + 1 and m = -1 modes can be excited. Helicons in unbounded plasmas also propagate transverse to B0. The transverse and parallel wave numbers are about equal and form oblique phase fronts as in whistler Gendrin modes. By superimposing small amplitude fields of several loop antennas, various antenna combinations have been created. These include rotating field antennas, helical antennas, and directional antennas. The radiation efficiency is quantified by the radiation resistance. Since helicons exist in unbounded laboratory plasmas, they can also arise in space plasmas.

  12. Tensor sufficient dimension reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenxuan; Xing, Xin; Suslick, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Tensor is a multiway array. With the rapid development of science and technology in the past decades, large amount of tensor observations are routinely collected, processed, and stored in many scientific researches and commercial activities nowadays. The colorimetric sensor array (CSA) data is such an example. Driven by the need to address data analysis challenges that arise in CSA data, we propose a tensor dimension reduction model, a model assuming the nonlinear dependence between a response and a projection of all the tensor predictors. The tensor dimension reduction models are estimated in a sequential iterative fashion. The proposed method is applied to a CSA data collected for 150 pathogenic bacteria coming from 10 bacterial species and 14 bacteria from one control species. Empirical performance demonstrates that our proposed method can greatly improve the sensitivity and specificity of the CSA technique. PMID:26594304

  13. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  14. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10‑16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  15. Mode identification from spectroscopy of gravity-mode pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, K. R.; Brunsden, E.; Cottrell, P. L.; Davie, M.; Greenwood, A.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.

    2014-02-01

    The gravity modes present in γ Doradus stars probe the deep stellar interiors and are thus of particular interest in asteroseismology. For the MUSICIAN programme at the University of Canterbury, we obtain extensive high-resolution echelle spectra of γ Dor stars from the Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. We analyze these to obtain the pulsational frequencies and identify these with the multiple pulsational modes excited in the star. A summary of recent results from our spectroscopic mode-identification programme is given.

  16. Warming alters the metabolic balance of ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel; Jones, J. Iwan; Trimmer, Mark; Woodward, Guy; Montoya, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon cycle modulates climate change, via the regulation of atmospheric CO2, and it represents one of the most important services provided by ecosystems. However, considerable uncertainties remain concerning potential feedback between the biota and the climate. In particular, it is unclear how global warming will affect the metabolic balance between the photosynthetic fixation and respiratory release of CO2 at the ecosystem scale. Here, we present a combination of experimental field data from freshwater mesocosms, and theoretical predictions derived from the metabolic theory of ecology to investigate whether warming will alter the capacity of ecosystems to absorb CO2. Our manipulative experiment simulated the temperature increases predicted for the end of the century and revealed that ecosystem respiration increased at a faster rate than primary production, reducing carbon sequestration by 13 per cent. These results confirmed our theoretical predictions based on the differential activation energies of these two processes. Using only the activation energies for whole ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration we provide a theoretical prediction that accurately quantified the precise magnitude of the reduction in carbon sequestration observed experimentally. We suggest the combination of whole-ecosystem manipulative experiments and ecological theory is one of the most promising and fruitful research areas to predict the impacts of climate change on key ecosystem services. PMID:20513719

  17. Hypohydration does not alter standing balance.

    PubMed

    Seay, Joseph F; Ely, Brett R; Kenefick, Robert W; Sauer, Shane G; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2013-04-01

    We examined the effect of body water deficits on standing balance and sought to determine if plasma hyperosmolality (P(osm)) and/or volume reduction (%ΔV(plasma)) exerted independent effects. Nine healthy volunteers completed three experimental trials which consisted of a euhydration (EUH) balance test, a water deficit session and a hypohydration (HYP) balance test. Hypohydration was achieved both by exercise-heat stress to 3% and 5% body mass loss (BML), and by a diuretic to 3% BML. Standing balance was assessed during quiet standing on a force platform with eyes open and closed. With eyes closed, hypohydration significantly decreased medial-lateral sway path and velocity by 13% (both p < .040). However, 95% confidence intervals for the mean difference between EUH and HYP were all within the coefficient of variation of EUH measures, indicating limited practical importance. Neither V(plasma) loss nor P(osm) increases were associated with changes in balance. We concluded that standing balance was not altered by hypohydration. PMID:23155117

  18. Foveal Thickness Alterations in Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Cem; Tecellioglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the alterations in foveal retinal thickness (FT) values in patients with migraine and to reveal the correlations between FT and clinical characteristics of migraine disease. Methods: This study included sixty-eight eyes of 34 migraine patients [twenty-eight eyes of 14 patients with aura (group 1), and forty eyes of 20 patients without aura (group 2)] and forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteer who served as the control group (group 3). FT values were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in each group. Results: Mean age of patients in group 1, 2, and 3 was 34.0± 6.82, 35.2±10.12, and 35.1± 6.85 years, respectively (p=0.84). Mean FT was 211.07±7.36, 220.0±12.01, and 221.85±12.27 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was statistically significance among the group 1-2 and 1-3 (p=0.002 and p< 0.001). There was no statistically significance between group 2-3 (p=0.88). Conclusion: This study suggests that in particular migraine with aura may lead to a reduction in FT values. This finding can be explained by the blood flow decrease theory in migraine; however larger studies seem mandatory. PMID:27147787

  19. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H.; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response. PMID:25276830

  20. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  1. Reduction of astrographic catalogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stock, J.; Prugna, F. D.; Cova, J.

    1984-01-01

    An automatic program for the reduction of overlapping Carte du Ciel plates is described. The projection and transformation equations are given and the RAA subprogram flow is outlined. The program was applied to two different sets of data, namely to nine overlapping plates of the Cape Zone of the CdC, and to fifteen plates taken with the CIDA-refractor of the open cluster Tr10.

  2. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Goodnow, Warren H.; Payne, John R.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB.sub.2, for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints.

  3. Emissions reductions strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper consists of the series of viewgraphs used by the author during his presentation. They tabulate nitrogen oxide reduction techniques, technical evaluation of NOx control techniques, critical system design parameters for SNCR processes, major concerns for SCR retrofit applications, integrating technologies, sulfur dioxide control for a coal fired power plant, heavy metals on US EPA`s HAPs list, and mercury emissions. Other slides show flow charts of some of these processes, as well as diagrams of equipment.

  4. [Aware and cooperative reduction].

    PubMed

    Tambone, V; Ghilardi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the question of reduction in the scientific method, to evaluate its legitimacy as well as its pro and contra from an epistemological point of view. In the first paragraph we classify some kinds of reductionism, analysing their presuppositions and epistemological status and showing some examples of scientific reduction. The presentation includes a classificatory table that shows some of the different forms of biological reductionism. In the second paragraph we study the epistemology of science starting from its modern beginning: the Vienna Circle, focusing on the meaning of methodological reductionism. What did it mean for science to define itself mainly as method, which effects did this new concept of science have on methodology and what kind of problems did this movement bring about. In the third paragraph we examine the reactions triggered by methodological reductionism, we analyze the theoretical consistency of these answers, trying to offer a balanced view. We show how complexity can be seen as a paradigm of the anti-reductionism effort, and we study its epistemological basis. In the fourth paragraph we outline our operative proposal: the reduction that is both aware and cooperative. We point out the main reasons why science cannot avoid being reductive in some way, and therefore how we need to deal with this feature in order to prevent it to degenerate into reductionism. We show some examples of this new proposal taken from the practical realm and from literature, where it is possible to discern the spirit of this alternative methodology. PMID:22964706

  5. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  6. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  7. Oxidation, Reduction, and Deoxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Robert

    In this chapter, methods for oxidation, reduction, and deoxygenation of carbohydrates are presented. In most cases, the reactions have been used on aldoses and their derivatives including glycosides, uronic acids, glycals, and other unsaturated monosaccharides. A number of reactions have also been applied to aldonolactones. The methods include both chemical and enzymatic procedures and some of these can be applied for regioselective transformation of unprotected or partially protected carbohydrates.

  8. Somatic reduction in cycads.

    PubMed

    Storey, W B

    1968-02-01

    Recurrent somatic reduction is a normal ontogenetic process in apogeotropic roots of cycads, which develop into dichotomously branching coralloid masses. The reduced cells make up part of a ring of differentiated cortical tissue lying midway between the pericycle and the epidermis; they serve as fillers among the large cells and become charged with slime. The differentiated tissue is colonized by a species of blue-green algae.

  9. Ultrasound speckle reduction using modified Gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Ricardo G; Costa, Eduardo T

    2007-03-01

    B-mode ultrasound images are characterized by speckle artifact, which may make the interpretation of images difficult. One widely used method for ultrasound speckle reduction is the split spectrum processing (SSP), but the use of one-dimensional (1-D), narrow-band filters makes the resultant image experience a significant resolution loss. In order to overcome this critical drawback, we propose a novel method for speckle reduction in ultrasound medical imaging, which uses a bank of wideband 2-D directive filters, based on modified Gabor functions. Each filter is applied to the 2-D radio-frequency (RF) data, resulting in a B-mode image filtered in a given direction. The compounding of the filters outputs give rise to a final image in which speckle is reduced and the structure is enhanced. We have denoted this method as directive filtering (DF). Because the proposed filters have effectively the same bandwidth as the original image, it is possible to avoid the resolution loss caused by the use of narrow-band filters, as with SSP. The tests were carried out with both simulated and real clinical data. Using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to quantify the amount of speckle of the ultrasound images, we have achieved an average SNR enhancement of 2.26 times with simulated data and 1.18 times with real clinical data.

  10. The acoustic emission of a distributed mode loudspeaker near a porous layer.

    PubMed

    Prokofieva, E Yu; Horoshenkov, Kirill V; Harris, N

    2002-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical modeling of the vibro-acoustic performance of a distributed mode loudspeaker (DML) suggest that their acoustic emission can be significantly affected by the presence of a porous layer. The amplitude of the surface velocity of the panel and the acoustic pressure on the porous surface are reduced largely in the vicinity of structural resonances due to the additional radiation damping and visco-thermal absorption phenomenon in the porous layer. The experimental results suggest that a porous layer between a rigid base and a DML panel can considerably alter its acoustic emission in the near field and in the far field. This is illustrated by a reduction in the level of fluctuations in the emitted acoustic pressure spectra. These fluctuations are normally associated with the interference between the sound emitted by the front surface of the speaker and that emitted from the back. Another contribution comes from the pronounced structural resonances in the surface velocity spectrum. The results of this work suggest that the acoustic boundary conditions near a DML can be modified by the porous layer so that a desired acoustic output can be attained.

  11. Thermochemical nitrate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-09-01

    A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with {approximately}3 wt% NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia {approx} methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics.

  12. Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Gillow, Jeffrey B.

    2006-04-05

    The FRC groundwater and sediment contain significant concentrations of U and Tc and are dominated by low pH, and high nitrate and Al concentrations where dissimilatory metal reducing bacterial activity may be limited. The presence of Clostridia in Area 3 at the FRC site has been confirmed and their ability to reduce uranium under site conditions will be determined. Although the phenomenon of uranium reduction by Clostridia has been firmly established, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a reaction are not very clear. The authors are exploring the hypothesis that U(VI) reduction occurs through hydrogenases and other enzymes (Matin and Francis). Fundamental knowledge of metal reduction using Clostridia will allow us to exploit naturally occurring processes to attenuate radionuclide and metal contaminants in situ in the subsurface. The outline for this report are as follows: (1) Growth of Clostridium sp. under normal culture conditions; (2) Fate of metals and radionuclides in the presence of Clostridia; (3) Bioreduction of uranium associated with nitrate, citrate, and lepidocrocite; and (4) Utilization of Clostridium sp. for immobilization of uranium at the FRC Area 3 site.

  13. Neoclassical viscosity effects on resistive magnetohydrodynamic modes in toroidal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.G.; Oh, Y.H.; Choi, D.I. ); Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W. )

    1992-03-01

    The flux-surface-averaged linearized resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary-layer equations including the compressibility, diamagnetic drift, and neoclassical viscosity terms are derived in toroidal geometry. These equations describe the resistive layer dynamics of resistive MHD modes over the collisionality regime between the banana plateau and the Pfirsch--Schlueter. From the resulting equations, the effects of neoclassical viscosity on the stability of the tearing and resistive ballooning modes are investigated numerically. Also, a study is given for the problem of how the neoclassical resistive MHD mode is generated as the collisionality is reduced. It is shown that the neoclassical viscosity terms give a significant destabilizing effect for the tearing and resistive ballooning modes. This destabilization comes mainly from the reduction of the stabilizing effect of the parallel ion sound compression by the ion neoclassical viscosity. In the banana-plateau collisionality limit, where the compressibility is negligible, the dispersion relations of the tearing and resistive ballooning modes reduce to the same form, with the threshold value of the driving force given by {Delta}{sub {ital c}}=0. On the other hand, with the finite neoclassical effect it is found that the neoclassical resistive MHD instability is generated in agreement with previous results. Furthermore, it is shown that this later instability can be generated in a wide range of the collisionality including near the Pfirsch--Schlueter regime as well as the banana-plateau regime, suggesting that this mode is a probable cause of anomalous transport.

  14. Altering prolactin concentrations in sows.

    PubMed

    Farmer, C

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted.

  15. Mode I, Mode II, and mixed mode interlaminar fracture of woven fabric carbon/epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Alif, N.; Carlsson, L.A.; Gillespie, J.W. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Interlaminar fracture behavior of a five-harness satin orthogonal woven fabric carbon/epoxy composite laminate loaded in Mode I, Mode II, and mixed mode has been investigated. Fracture testing employed the DCB, ENF, and MMB specimens. Special emphasis was put on microscopic details of crack growth and their relation to fracture resistance. For all fracture mode combinations it was found that crack growth occurred in a nonplanar region of topology determined by the weave pattern and relative positioning of the plies adjacent to the crack plane. The woven fabric structure constrains fiber bridging, but partial debonding of transversely oriented fiber bundles led to occasional crack branching, stick-slip behavior leading to variations in the Mode I fracture resistance. Slow stable crack growth occurred in the ENF and MMB specimens prior to unstable fracture and resulted in nonlinear load-displacement response.. A linear relation between the critical values of G{sub I} and G{sub II} was observed.

  16. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiawei; Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Qi; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-03-01

    A dual-cavity TM02-TM01 mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM01 mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM01 mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM01 mode feedback.

  17. Physical view on migration modes

    PubMed Central

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Cellular motility is essential for many processes such as embryonic development, wound healing processes, tissue assembly and regeneration, immune cell trafficing and diseases such as cancer. The migration efficiency and the migratory potential depend on the type of migration mode. The previously established migration modes such as epithelial (non-migratory) and mesenchymal (migratory) as well as amoeboid (squeezing motility) relay mainly on phenomenological criteria such as cell morphology and molecular biological criteria such as gene expression. However, the physical view on the migration modes is still not well understood. As the process of malignant cancer progression such as metastasis depends on the migration of single cancer cells and their migration mode, this review focuses on the different migration strategies and discusses which mechanical prerequisites are necessary to perform a special migration mode through a 3-dimensional microenvironment. In particular, this review discusses how cells can distinguish and finally switch between the migration modes and what impact do the physical properties of cells and their microenvironment have on the transition between the novel migration modes such as blebbing and protrusive motility. PMID:26192136

  18. Difference frequency modulation of multi-section dual-mode lasers with nanoscale surface gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uusitalo, Topi; Virtanen, Heikki; Viheriälä, Jukka; Salmi, Joel; Aho, Antti T.; Dumitrescu, Mihail

    2016-03-01

    Dual-mode multi-section quantum-well distributed feedback lasers with surface gratings have been fabricated, without regrowth, at 1310 and 1550 nm using UV nano-imprint lithography. Several laser and grating sections have been employed to control and stabilize the dual-mode emission and to reduce mode competition. Frequency differences between 15 GHz and 1 THz were achieved for different longitudinal structures. Frequency difference variations of several GHz have been measured under bias modulation with rates up to a few GHz. Higher frequency difference modulation rates are expected from improved measurement setups and from employing quantum dot active regions for further reduction of mode competition.

  19. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  20. Altered cell function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1991-01-01

    The paper overviews published results from investigations of changes in basic biological parameters taking place as a result of spaceflight exposure. These include changes in the rates of the DNA, mRNA, and protein biosyntheses; changes in the growth rate of an organism; and alterations in the cytoskeleton structure, differentiation, hormone accumulation, and collagen matrix secretion. These results, obtained both in complex biological organisms and on cultured cells, suggest that a basic cellular function is influenced and changed by microgravity. Many of the above mentioned changes are also found to take place in aging cells.

  1. Altered Mental Status and Delirium.

    PubMed

    Wilber, Scott T; Ondrejka, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    Older patients who present to the emergency department frequently have acute or chronic alterations of their mental status, including their level of consciousness and cognition. Recognizing both acute and chronic changes in cognition are important for emergency physicians. Delirium is an acute change in attention, awareness, and cognition. Numerous life-threatening conditions can cause delirium; therefore, prompt recognition and treatment are critical. The authors discuss an organized approach that can lead to a prompt diagnosis within the time constraints of the emergency department. PMID:27475019

  2. Membrane lipid alterations in hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Frans A

    2007-01-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) membrane is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins. Hundreds of phospholipid molecular species spontaneously arrange themselves in a lipid bilayer and move rapidly in the plane as well as across the bilayer in a dynamic but highly organized fashion. Areas enriched in certain lipids determine proper protein function. Phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed across the lipid bilayer with phosphatidylserine (PS) exclusively on the inside. Both the composition and organization of the RBC membrane is well maintained. Alterations lead to apoptosis during erythropoiesis or early demise of the cell in the circulation. The mechanisms that govern the maintenance of the lipid bilayer are only recently being unraveled at the individual protein level. Oxidized lipids are rapidly repaired using fatty acids taken up from plasma to maintain membrane integrity. Several isoforms of a RBC acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) synthase have been reported, as well as the first member of a family of lysophospholipid acylCoA acyltransferases. Phospholipid asymmetry is maintained by the recently identified RBC amino-phospholipid translocase. These enzymes, essential in maintaining membrane lipid organization, are affected by oxidant stress or an increase in cytosolic calcium. Normal lipid composition and organization is lost in subpopulations of RBC in hemoglobinopathies such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Despite elaborate antioxidant systems, lipids and membrane proteins, including those that maintain lipid organization, are damaged in these cells. This in turn leads to improper repair of damaged RBC membranes and altered interactions of RBCs with other blood cells and plasma components that play a role in the pathology that defines these disorders. The altered lipid bilayer in RBCs in hemoglobinopathies leads to premature removal (anemia) and imbalance in hemostasis, and plays a role in vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease. Lipid breakdown products of PS

  3. Spatiotemporal mode structure of nonlinearly coupled drift wave modes

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Christian; Grulke, Olaf; Klinger, Thomas; Negrete, Jose Jr.; Bousselin, Guillaume; Brochard, Frederic; Bonhomme, Gerard; Oldenbuerger, Stella

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents full cross-section measurements of drift waves in the linear magnetized plasma of the Mirabelle device. Drift wave modes are studied in regimes of weakly developed turbulence. The drift wave modes develop azimuthal space-time structures of plasma density, plasma potential, and visible light fluctuations. A fast camera diagnostic is used to record visible light fluctuations of the plasma column in an azimuthal cross section with a temporal resolution of 10 {mu}s corresponding approximately to 10% of the typical drift wave period. Mode coupling and drift wave dispersion are studied by spatiotemporal Fourier decomposition of the camera frames. The observed coupling between modes is compared to calculations of nonlinearly coupled oscillators described by the Kuramoto model.

  4. Mode control and mode conversion in nonlinear aluminum nitride waveguides.

    PubMed

    Stegmaier, Matthias; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2013-11-01

    While single-mode waveguides are commonly used in integrated photonic circuits, emerging applications in nonlinear and quantum optics rely fundamentally on interactions between modes of different order. Here we propose several methods to evaluate the modal composition of both externally and device-internally excited guided waves and discuss a technique for efficient excitation of arbitrary modes. The applicability of these methods is verified in photonic circuits based on aluminum nitride. We control modal excitation through suitably engineered grating couplers and are able to perform a detailed study of waveguide-internal second harmonic generation. Efficient and broadband power conversion between orthogonal polarizations is realized within an asymmetric directional coupler to demonstrate selective excitation of arbitrary higher-order modes. Our approach holds promise for applications in nonlinear optics and frequency up/down-mixing in a chipscale framework.

  5. Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

    2013-05-17

    A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

  6. Spaceflight-induced bone loss alters failure mode and reduces bending strength in murine spinal segments.

    PubMed

    Berg-Johansen, Britta; Liebenberg, Ellen C; Li, Alfred; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation rates are quadrupled in astronauts following spaceflight. While bending motions are main contributors to herniation, the effects of microgravity on the bending properties of spinal discs are unknown. Consequently, the goal of this study was to quantify the bending properties of tail discs from mice with or without microgravity exposure. Caudal motion segments from six mice returned from a 30-day Bion M1 mission and eight vivarium controls were loaded to failure in four-point bending. After testing, specimens were processed using histology to determine the location of failure, and adjacent motion segments were scanned with micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantify bone properties. We observed that spaceflight significantly shortened the nonlinear toe region of the force-displacement curve by 32% and reduced the bending strength by 17%. Flight mouse spinal segments tended to fail within the growth plate and epiphyseal bone, while controls tended to fail at the disc-vertebra junction. Spaceflight significantly reduced vertebral bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and trabecular thickness, which may explain the tendency of flight specimens to fail within the epiphyseal bone. Together, these results indicate that vertebral bone loss during spaceflight may degrade spine bending properties and contribute to increased disc herniation risk in astronauts. PMID:26285046

  7. Spaceflight-induced bone loss alters failure mode and reduces bending strength in murine spinal segments.

    PubMed

    Berg-Johansen, Britta; Liebenberg, Ellen C; Li, Alfred; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation rates are quadrupled in astronauts following spaceflight. While bending motions are main contributors to herniation, the effects of microgravity on the bending properties of spinal discs are unknown. Consequently, the goal of this study was to quantify the bending properties of tail discs from mice with or without microgravity exposure. Caudal motion segments from six mice returned from a 30-day Bion M1 mission and eight vivarium controls were loaded to failure in four-point bending. After testing, specimens were processed using histology to determine the location of failure, and adjacent motion segments were scanned with micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantify bone properties. We observed that spaceflight significantly shortened the nonlinear toe region of the force-displacement curve by 32% and reduced the bending strength by 17%. Flight mouse spinal segments tended to fail within the growth plate and epiphyseal bone, while controls tended to fail at the disc-vertebra junction. Spaceflight significantly reduced vertebral bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and trabecular thickness, which may explain the tendency of flight specimens to fail within the epiphyseal bone. Together, these results indicate that vertebral bone loss during spaceflight may degrade spine bending properties and contribute to increased disc herniation risk in astronauts.

  8. Ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in Porcellio scaber under stress.

    PubMed

    Znidaršič, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana

    2003-04-01

    Cellular ultrastructure varies in accordance with physiological processes, also reflecting responses to environmental stress factors. Ultrastructural changes of the hepatopancreatic cells in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber exposed to sublethal concentrations of zinc or cadmium in their food were identified by transmission electron microscopy. The exclusive structural characteristic of the hepatopancreas of animals exposed to metal-dosed food was grain-like electrondense deposits (EDD) observed in the intercellular spaces and in vesicles of B cells. In addition, hepatopancreatic cells of metal-exposed animals displayed non-specific, stress-indicating alterations such as cellular disintegration, the reduction of energetic reserves (lipid droplets, glycogen), electron dense cytoplasm, ultrastructural alterations of granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER), the Golgi complex and mitochondria.

  9. Alteration of Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Properties Induced by Particle Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R. C.; Polen, M.; Beydoun, H.; Lawlis, E.; Ahern, A.; Jahn, L.; Hill, T. C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol particles that can serve as ice nuclei frequently experience rapid and extensive chemical aging during atmospheric transport. This is known to significantly alter some ice nucleation modes of the few types of ice nucleation particle systems where aging effects have been simulated, such as for mineral dust. Yet much of our understanding of atmospheric particle freezing properties is derived from measurements of fresh or unaged particles. We know almost nothing regarding how atmospheric aging might alter the freezing properties of biomass burning aerosol or biological particle nucleants. We have investigated the effects of simulated aging using a chamber reactor on the heterogeneous ice nucleation properties of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) and ice-active bacteria particles. Some types of aging were found to enhance the freezing ability of BBA, exhibited as a shift in a portion of the droplet freezing curve to warmer temperatures by a few °C. Ice-active bacteria were found to consistently loose their most ice-active nucleants after repeated aging cycles. The bacterial systems always retained significantly efficient ice active sites that still allowed them to induce freezing at mild/warm temperatures, despite this decrease in freezing ability. A comprehensive series of online single-particle mass spectrometry and offline spectromicroscopic analysis of individual particles was used to determine how the aging altered the aerosol's composition, and gain mechanistic insights into how this in turn altered the freezing properties. Our new ice nucleation framework that uses a continuous distribution of ice active site ability (contact angle) was used to interpret the droplet freezing spectra and understand how aging alters the internal and external variability, and rigidity, of the ice active sites.

  10. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  11. An emerging understanding of H-mode discharges in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Groebner, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    A remarkable degree of consistency of experimental results from tokamaks throughout the world has developed with regard to the phenomenology of the transition from L-mode to H-mode confinement in tokamaks. The transition is initiated in a narrow layer at the plasma periphery where density fluctuations are suppressed and steep gradients of temperature and density form in a region with large first and second radial derivatives in the {upsilon}{sub E}{sup {yields}} = (E {times} B)/B{sup 2} flow velocity. These results are qualitatively consistent with theories which predict suppression of fluctuations by shear or curvature in {upsilon}E. The required {upsilon}E flow is generated very rapidly when the magnitude of the heating power or of an externally imposed radial current exceed threshold values and several theoretical models have been developed to explain the observed changes in the {upsilon}E flow. After the transition occurs, the altered boundary conditions enable the development of improved confinement in the plasma interior on a confinement time scale. The resulting H-mode discharge has typically twice the confinement of L-mode discharges and regimes of further improved confinement have been obtained in some H-mode scenarios.

  12. High energy components and collective modes in thermonuclear plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Coppi, B.; Cowley, S.; Detragiache, P.; Kulsrud, R.; Pegoraro, F.

    1986-02-01

    The theory of a class of collective modes of a thermonuclear magnetically confined plasma, with frequencies in the range of the ion cyclotron frequency and of its harmonics, is presented. These modes can be excited by their resonant cyclotron interaction with a plasma component of relatively high energy particles characterized by a strongly anisotropic distribution in velocity space. Normal modes that are spatially localized by the inhomogeneity of the plasma density are found. This ensures that the energy gained by their resonant interaction is not convected away. The mode spatial localization can be significantly altered by the magnetic field inhomogeneity for a given class of plasma density profiles. Special attention is devoted to the case of a spin polarized plasma, where the charged products of fusion reactions are anisotropically distributed. We show that for the mode of polarization that enhances nuclear reaction rates the tritium will be rapidly depolarized to toroidal configurations with relatively mild gradients of the confining magnetic field. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Linguistic-Numeric Presentation Mode Effects on Risky Option Preferences

    PubMed

    Dusenbury; Fennema

    1996-11-01

    In this study, we examine preferences between lotteries with chances presented either numerically or linguistically. Presentation mode is predicted to affect preferences due to the perception of linguistic chance as skewed distributions of risk. Based upon weighting functions incorporating risk/uncertainty aversion from ambiguity theory and cumulative prospect theory, we predict that presentation mode effects on risky choices will be detectable in very small risks and in large risks. In two experiments, subjects chose between both gain and loss lotteries with constant payoffs and equivalent numeric and linguistic chances. Presentation mode affected choices when chances were above 50%, where lotteries with numeric chances were more frequently preferred in gains while lotteries with linguistic chances were more often preferred in losses. The effect of presentation mode for low-chance lotteries (5% and less) also affected choices such that numeric choices were generally preferred more frequently in losses and linguistically expressed choices were generally preferred more often in gains. Overall, these results suggest that theories of the effects of second order uncertainty on risky choice may be used to model decisions involving linguistic risk. They also suggest that the study of the perception of linguistic risk assessments can provide insight into the cognitive processing behind the weighting functions proposed to depict decision under risk and uncertainty. Finally, the results have practical implications since information providers can affect decision makers' choices by controlling presentation mode in such a way as to alter the relative attractiveness of uncertain events.

  14. Facial and dental alterations according to the breathing pattern

    PubMed Central

    RETAMOSO, Luciana Borges; KNOP, Luégya Amorin Henriques; GUARIZA FILHO, Odilon; TANAKA, Orlando Motohiro

    2011-01-01

    There is controversy in the literature about possible interaction of the respiratory mode with the facial and dental structures. Objectives The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment of the changes in facial and dental structures in Angle’s Class II, division 1 malocclusion individuals, divided according to the respiratory pattern (predominantly nasal or mouth), at two distinct moments of craniofacial development. Material and Methods Pogonium and nose measurements were made on the lateral cephalometric tracings (LS’-Pog’, LS’-B’, B’-Pog’, Pog’-PogTeg’, Line NB, Pog-NB, N'-Prn, Prn-NPog, N-Prn-Sn, Prn-Sn-LS). Dental measurements were made on the plaster models (distances between the tips of the canine cusps and the tips of mesial cusps of the first molars) of 40 individuals aged 10 to 14 years (moment 1) and 13 to 16 years (moment 2), 23 being nose breathers (NB) and 17 being predominantly mouth breathers (MB). Results The Student’s-t test and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were applied to indicate differences between the mean values of these variables according to the moments and/or respiratory mode. Conclusions There were alterations in the facial measurements, without interference of the breathing pattern. However, the breathing pattern influenced dental alterations. PMID:21552720

  15. Aqueous Alteration of Enstatite Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Ziegler, K.; Weisberg, M. K.; Gounelle, M.; Berger, E. L.; Le, L.; Ivanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Kaidun meteorite is different from all other meteorites [1], consisting largely of a mixture of “incompatible” types of meteoritic material – carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites, i.e. corre-sponding to the most oxidized and the most reduced samples of meteorite materials, including CI1, CM1-2, CV3, EH3-5, and EL3. In addition to these, minor amounts of ordinary and R chondrites are present. In addition, approximately half of the Kaidun lithologies are new materials not known as separate meteorites. Among these are aqueously altered enstatite chondrites [1], which are of considerable interest because they testify that not all reduced asteroids escaped late-stage oxidation, and hydrolysis, and also because hydrated poorly crystalline Si-Fe phase, which in turn is re-placed by serpentine (Figs 3-5). In the end the only indication of the original presence of metal is the re-sidual carbides. In other enstatite chondrite lithogies (of uncertain type) original silicates and metal have been thoroughly replaced by an assemblage of authi-genic plagioclase laths, calcite boxwork, and occasion-al residual grains of silica, Cr-rich troilite, ilmenite, and rare sulfides including heideite (Fig. 6). Fe and S have been largely leached from the rock (Fig. 4). Again the accessory phases are the first clue to the original character of the rock, which can be verified by O isotopes. It is fortunate that Kaidun displays every step of the alteration process.

  16. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  17. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  18. Reduction of turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A. (Inventor); Brookfield, John M. (Inventor); Sell, Julian (Inventor); Hayden, Belva J. (Inventor); Ingard, K. Uno (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    In the invention, propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise characteristic of interaction of a turbomachine blade wake, produced by a turbomachine blade as the blade rotates, with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade, are reduced. This is accomplished by injection of fluid into the blade wake through a port in the rotor blade. The mass flow rate of the fluid injected into the blade wake is selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake. With this fluid injection, reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved. In a further noise reduction technique, boundary layer fluid is suctioned into the turbomachine blade through a suction port on the side of the blade that is characterized as the relatively low-pressure blade side. As with the fluid injection technique, the mass flow rate of the fluid suctioned into the blade is here selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake; reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved with this suction technique. Blowing and suction techniques are also provided in the invention for reducing noise associated with the wake produced by fluid flow around a stationary blade upstream of a rotating turbomachine.

  19. Multi-mode radio frequency device

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, Ronald W.; Carrender, Curtis Lee; Anderson, Gordon A.; Steele, Kerry D.

    2007-02-13

    A transponder device having multiple modes of operation, such as an active mode and a passive mode, wherein the modes of operation are selected in response to the strength of a received radio frequency signal. A communication system is also provided having a transceiver configured to transmit a radio frequency signal and to receive a responsive signal, and a transponder configured to operate in a plurality of modes and to activate modes of operation in response to the radio frequency signal. Ideally, each mode of operation is activated and deactivated independent of the other modes, although two or more modes may be concurrently operational.

  20. Linear stability of low mode number tearing modes in the banana collisionality regime

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, R. , Abingdon, OX14 3DB, England )

    1989-12-01

    The semicollisional layer equations governing the linear stability of small mode number tearing modes in a low beta, large aspect ratio, tokamak equilibrium are derived from an expansion of the gyrokinetic equation. In this analysis only the cases where the ion Larmor radius is either much less than, or much greater than, the layer width are considered. Both the electrons and the ions are assumed to lie in the banana collisionality regime. One interesting feature of the derived layer equations, in the limit of small ion Larmor radius, is a substantial reduction in the effective collisionality of the system due to neoclassical ion dynamics. Next, using a shooting code, a dispersion relation is obtained from the layer equations in the limits of small ion Larmor radius and a vanishingly small fraction of trapped particles. As expected, strong semicollisional stabilization of the mode is found, but, in addition, a somewhat weaker destabilizing effect is obtained in the transition region between the collisional and semicollisional regimes.

  1. Estimation of full modal damping matrices from complex test modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasselman, T. K.; Chrostowski, J. D.; Pappa, Richard

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the refinements of a previously published method for estimating a full modal damping matrix from complex test modes. It also documents application of the refined method to a structure where complex test modes were derived by the ERA method from multi-input random vibration test data. A numerical example based on simulated test data is presented to demonstrate the validity of the method. The application using real data was not successful, presumably because of noise in the small phase angles of the measured complex modes. Alternative test and data reduction procedures are suggested as possible remedies to the problem. A careful analysis of measurement and data processing errors should be made to examine basic feasibility before implementing the alternative procedures. The ability to estimate a full modal damping matrix is considered important for the preflight estimation of on-orbit damping, and for the synthesis of structural damping from substructure tests.

  2. 28 CFR 36.402 - Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use wheelchairs. (2) An alteration is deemed to be undertaken after January 26, 1992, if the physical... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alterations. 36.402 Section 36.402.... (1) Any alteration to a place of public accommodation or a commercial facility, after January...

  3. Altered Functional Connectivity in Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D.; Romero, Juan Pablo; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Manzanedo, Eva; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix; Posada, Ignacio; Rocon, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Essential tremor (ET) has been associated with a spectrum of clinical features, with both motor and nonmotor elements, including cognitive deficits. We employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether brain networks that might be involved in the pathogenesis of nonmotor manifestations associated with ET are altered, and the relationship between abnormal connectivity and ET severity and neuropsychological function. Resting-state fMRI data in 23 ET patients (12 women and 11 men) and 22 healthy controls (HC) (12 women and 10 men) were analyzed using independent component analysis, in combination with a “dual-regression” technique, to identify the group differences of resting-state networks (RSNs) (default mode network [DMN] and executive, frontoparietal, sensorimotor, cerebellar, auditory/language, and visual networks). All participants underwent a neuropsychological and neuroimaging session, where resting-state data were collected. Relative to HC, ET patients showed increased connectivity in RSNs involved in cognitive processes (DMN and frontoparietal networks) and decreased connectivity in the cerebellum and visual networks. Changes in network integrity were associated not only with ET severity (DMN) and ET duration (DMN and left frontoparietal network), but also with cognitive ability. Moreover, in at least 3 networks (DMN and frontoparietal networks), increased connectivity was associated with worse performance on different cognitive domains (attention, executive function, visuospatial ability, verbal memory, visual memory, and language) and depressive symptoms. Further, in the visual network, decreased connectivity was associated with worse performance on visuospatial ability. ET was associated with abnormal brain connectivity in major RSNs that might be involved in both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of examining RSNs in this population as a biomarker of disease. PMID:26656325

  4. Electrolytic oxide reduction system

    DOEpatents

    Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Barnes, Laurel A; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L; Berger, John F

    2015-04-28

    An electrolytic oxide reduction system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a plurality of anode assemblies, a plurality of cathode assemblies, and a lift system configured to engage the anode and cathode assemblies. The cathode assemblies may be alternately arranged with the anode assemblies such that each cathode assembly is flanked by two anode assemblies. The lift system may be configured to selectively engage the anode and cathode assemblies so as to allow the simultaneous lifting of any combination of the anode and cathode assemblies (whether adjacent or non-adjacent).

  5. Reductive Desulfurization of Dibenzyldisulfide

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kathleen W.

    1992-01-01

    Dibenzyldisulfide was reductively degraded by a methanogenic mixed culture derived from a sewage digestor. Toluene was produced with benzyl mercaptan as an intermediate in sulfur-limited medium. Toluene production was strictly associated with biological activity; however, the reducing agent for the culture medium, Ti(III), was partially responsible for production of benzyl mercaptan. Sulfide was not detected. Additions of sodium sulfide did not inhibit toluene production. Additions of 2-bromoethane sulfonic acid prevented methanogenesis but did not adversely affect toluene yields. PMID:16348733

  6. NSF grant reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.

    Many National Science Foundation grants will be reduced this year as a result of a provision in H.R. 3299. The provision stems from disagreement between the Congress and the administration on how to make budget deficit cuts required by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings budget law. An agreement was made to cut $4.55 billion through a reduction in discretionary spending, by what amounts to 1.4% across-the-board. The cuts will affect all discretionary federal domestic and defense programs.

  7. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Payne, John R.

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces.

  8. Scissors Mode in Gd Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Parker, W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, G. J.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Wu, C. Y.

    2012-02-01

    Spectra of γ rays following neutron capture at isolated resonances of 6 stable Gd isotopes were measured with highly segmented BaF2 detector DANCE at the Los Alamos LANSCE spallation neutron source. The main emphasis was put on studying the γ-cascade decay of neutron resonances to get unique information on photon strength. An analysis of the accumulated γ-ray spectra within the extreme statistical model leads to an inescapable conclusion that scissors mode resonances are built not only on the ground-state, but also on excited levels in all product nuclei studied. The results on summed B(M1)↑ strength and energy of the scissors mode are compared with systematics of scissors mode parameters for the ground-state transitions deduced from nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements. A specific feature of our experiments is the investigation of scissors mode of odd nuclei, for which the nuclear resonance fluorescence provides only limited information.

  9. Resonant Mode-hopping Micromixing.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ling-Sheng; Chao, Shih-Hui; Holl, Mark R; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2007-07-20

    A common micromixer design strategy is to generate interleaved flow topologies to enhance diffusion. However, problems with these designs include complicated structures and dead volumes within the flow fields. We present an active micromixer using a resonating piezoceramic/silicon composite diaphragm to generate acoustic streaming flow topologies. Circulation patterns are observed experimentally and correlate to the resonant mode shapes of the diaphragm. The dead volumes in the flow field are eliminated by rapidly switching from one discrete resonant mode to another (i.e., resonant mode-hop). Mixer performance is characterized by mixing buffer with a fluorescence tracer containing fluorescein. Movies of the mixing process are analyzed by converting fluorescent images to two-dimensional fluorescein concentration distributions. The results demonstrate that mode-hopping operation rapidly homogenized chamber contents, circumventing diffusion-isolated zones. PMID:19551159

  10. Prepotential approach to quasinormal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Choon-Lin

    2011-06-15

    Research Highlights: > A unified approach to both exactly and quasi-exactly solvable quasinormal modes. > A simple constructive approach without knowledge of underlying symmetry of the system. > Three new models admitting quasinormal modes. - Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate how the recently reported exactly and quasi-exactly solvable models admitting quasinormal modes can be constructed and classified very simply and directly by the newly proposed prepotential approach. These new models were previously obtained within the Lie-algebraic approach. Unlike the Lie-algebraic approach, the prepotential approach does not require any knowledge of the underlying symmetry of the system. It treats both quasi-exact and exact solvabilities on the same footing, and gives the potential as well as the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues simultaneously. We also present three new models with quasinormal modes: a new exactly solvable Morse-like model, and two new quasi-exactly solvable models of the Scarf II and generalized Poeschl-Teller types.

  11. Acoustic modes in fluid networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Doiron, Harold H.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure and flow rate eigenvalue problems for one-dimensional flow of a fluid in a network of pipes are derived from the familiar transmission line equations. These equations are linearized by assuming small velocity and pressure oscillations about mean flow conditions. It is shown that the flow rate eigenvalues are the same as the pressure eigenvalues and the relationship between line pressure modes and flow rate modes is established. A volume at the end of each branch is employed which allows any combination of boundary conditions, from open to closed, to be used. The Jacobi iterative method is used to compute undamped natural frequencies and associated pressure/flow modes. Several numerical examples are presented which include acoustic modes for the Helium Supply System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System. It should be noted that the method presented herein can be applied to any one-dimensional acoustic system involving an arbitrary number of branches.

  12. Reduction operators of Burgers equation

    PubMed Central

    Pocheketa, Oleksandr A.; Popovych, Roman O.

    2013-01-01

    The solution of the problem on reduction operators and nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation is systematically treated and completed. A new proof of the theorem on the special “no-go” case of regular reduction operators is presented, and the representation of the coefficients of operators in terms of solutions of the initial equation is constructed for this case. All possible nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation to single ordinary differential equations are exhaustively described. Any Lie reduction of the Burgers equation proves to be equivalent via the Hopf–Cole transformation to a parameterized family of Lie reductions of the linear heat equation. PMID:23576819

  13. Single mode levitation and translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Allen, James L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A single frequency resonance mode is applied by a transducer to acoustically levitate an object within a chamber. This process allows smooth movement of the object and suppression of unwanted levitation modes that would urge the object to a different levitation position. A plunger forms one end of the chamber, and the frequency changes as the plunger moves. Acoustic energy is applied to opposite sides of the chamber, with the acoustic energy on opposite sides being substantially 180 degrees out of phase.

  14. Instantaneous normal mode analysis of the vibrational relaxation of the amide I mode of alanine dipeptide in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Marwa H.; Zúñiga, José; Requena, Alberto; Bastida, Adolfo

    2013-05-01

    Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations coupled to instantaneous normal modes (INMs) analysis are used to study the vibrational relaxation of the acetyl and amino-end amide I modes of the alanine dipeptide (AlaD) molecule dissolved in water (D2O). The INMs are assigned in terms of the equilibrium normal modes using the Effective Atomic Min-Cost algorithm as adapted to make use of the outputs of standard MD packages, a method which is well suited for the description of flexible molecules. The relaxation energy curves of both amide I modes show multiexponential decays, in good agreement with the experimental findings. It is found that ˜85%-90% of the energy relaxes through intramolecular vibrational redistribution. The main relaxation pathways are also identified. The rate at which energy is transferred into the solvent is similar for the acetyl-end and amino-end amide I modes. The conformational changes occurring during relaxation are investigated, showing that the populations of the alpha and beta region conformers are altered by energy transfer in such a way that it takes 15 ps for the equilibrium conformational populations to be recovered after the initial excitation of the AlaD molecule.

  15. Adaptive mode control of a few-mode fiber by real-time mode decomposition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liangjin; Leng, Jinyong; Zhou, Pu; Guo, Shaofeng; Lü, Haibin; Cheng, Xiang'ai

    2015-10-19

    A novel approach to adaptively control the beam profile in a few-mode fiber is experimentally demonstrated. We stress the fiber through an electric-controlled polarization controller, whose driven voltage depends on the current and target modal content difference obtained with the real-time mode decomposition. We have achieved selective excitations of LP01 and LP11 modes, as well as significant improvement of the beam quality factor, which may play crucial roles for high-power fiber lasers, fiber based telecommunication systems and other fundamental researches and applications. PMID:26480466

  16. Islam and harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed.

  17. Microbial reduction of iodate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Councell, T.B.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The different oxidation species of iodine have markedly different sorption properties. Hence, changes in iodine redox states can greatly affect the mobility of iodine in the environment. Although a major microbial role has been suggested in the past to account for these redox changes, little has been done to elucidate the responsible microorganisms or the mechanisms involved. In the work presented here, direct microbial reduction of iodate was demonstrated with anaerobic cell suspensions of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans which reduced 96% of an initial 100 ??M iodate to iodide at pH 7 in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer, whereas anaerobic cell suspensions of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens were unable to reduce iodate in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer (pH 7). Both D. desulfuricans and S. putrefaciens were able to reduce iodate at pH 7 in 10 mM HEPES buffer. Both soluble ferrous iron and sulfide, as well as iron monosulfide (FeS) were shown to abiologically reduce iodate to iodide. These results indicate that ferric iron and/or sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of mediating both direct, enzymatic, as well as abiotic reduction of iodate in natural anaerobic environments. These microbially mediated reactions may be important factors in the fate and transport of 129I in natural systems.

  18. Harm Reduction From Below

    PubMed Central

    Van Schipstal, Inge; Berning, Moritz; Murray, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on how recreational drug users in the Netherlands and in online communities navigate the risks and reduce the harms they associate with psychoactive drug use. To do so, we examined the protective practices they invent, use, and share with their immediate peers and with larger drug experimenting communities online. The labor involved in protective practices and that which ultimately informs harm reduction from below follows three interrelated trajectories: (1) the handling and sharing of drugs to facilitate hassle-free drug use, (2) creating pleasant and friendly spaces that we highlight under the practices of drug use attunements, and (3) the seeking and sharing of information in practices to spread the good high. We focus not only on users’ concerns but also on how these concerns shape their approach to drugs, what young people do to navigate uncertainties, and how they reach out to and create different sources of knowledge to minimize adversities and to improve highs. Harm reduction from below, we argue, can best be seen in the practices of sharing around drug use and in the caring for the larger community of drug-using peers. PMID:27721525

  19. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  20. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  1. Alterations in grip strength during male sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Jiao, C; Turman, B; Weerakoon, P; Knight, P

    2006-01-01

    Although it is known that alterations in grip strength occur under a number of conditions, little is known about relationships between grip strength and sexual arousal. This relationship was investigated in 30 healthy heterosexual males, who viewed both erotic and nonerotic videos. A questionnaire was used to assess the extent of sexual arousal. The grip strengths of both hands were measured with a five-position (P1-P5) dynamometer, before and after watching the videos. After watching the erotic video, there was a statistically significant reduction in grip strength for the P2 position, with nonsignificant overall reductions in grip strength for all other positions tested. No such effect was observed in control tests. The results indicate that during sexual arousal, the neural system is likely to reduce the output to muscles not directly related to sexual function, presumably to enhance the physiological responses of sexual arousal. PMID:16254571

  2. Subjective ratings of noise-reduction hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Kuk, F K; Tyler, R S; Mims, L

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of seven commercially available noise-reduction hearing aids was evaluated using subjective ratings of continuous discourse. Subjective scales of listening comfort, speech quality, speech understanding, noise interference, and overall liking were used. Fifteen experienced hearing-aid users participated. Two hearing aids that used amplitude compression (Audiotone A-54 and Telex 363C), two hearing aids that used the Zeta Noise Blocker (two versions of a Maico SP147), and three hearing aids that proportionally attenuated the low-frequencies (Rion HB-69AS, Richards ASE-B, and Siemens 283 ASP) were evaluated. None of the noise-reduction hearing aids significantly altered group performance on any subjective scale. Individually, however, subjects responded differently to different noise-reduction hearing aids, indicating that some noise-reduction hearing aids may help some hearing-impaired individuals.

  3. Pathogen reduction in human plasma using an ultrashort pulsed laser.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Kingsley, David H; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Sizemore, Sara; Vaiana, Sara M; Anderson, Jeanne; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen reduction is a viable approach to ensure the continued safety of the blood supply against emerging pathogens. However, the currently licensed pathogen reduction techniques are ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as hepatitis A virus, and they introduce chemicals with concerns of side effects which prevent their widespread use. In this report, we demonstrate the inactivation of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in human plasma using a novel chemical-free method, a visible ultrashort pulsed laser. We found that laser treatment resulted in 2-log, 1-log, and 3-log reductions in human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis A virus, and murine cytomegalovirus in human plasma, respectively. Laser-treated plasma showed ≥70% retention for most coagulation factors tested. Furthermore, laser treatment did not alter the structure of a model coagulation factor, fibrinogen. Ultrashort pulsed lasers are a promising new method for chemical-free, broad-spectrum pathogen reduction in human plasma.

  4. Window to 'Clovis's' Altered Past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole (center) into it with its rock abrasion tool. An analysis of the interior of the hole with the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer found higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine compared to basaltic, or volcanic, rocks at Gusev. This might indicate that Clovis was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004).

  5. Intrinsic Brain Activity in Altered States of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Boly, M.; Phillips, C.; Tshibanda, L.; Vanhaudenhuyse, A.; Schabus, M.; Dang-Vu, T.T.; Moonen, G.; Hustinx, R.; Maquet, P.; Laureys, S.

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has recently received increasing interest in the neuroimaging community. However, the value of resting-state studies to a better understanding of brain–behavior relationships has been challenged. That altered states of consciousness are a privileged way to study the relationships between spontaneous brain activity and behavior is proposed, and common resting-state brain activity features observed in various states of altered consciousness are reviewed. Early positron emission tomography studies showed that states of extremely low or high brain activity are often associated with unconsciousness. However, this relationship is not absolute, and the precise link between global brain metabolism and awareness remains yet difficult to assert. In contrast, voxel-based analyses identified a systematic impairment of associative frontoparieto–cingulate areas in altered states of consciousness, such as sleep, anesthesia, coma, vegetative state, epileptic loss of consciousness, and somnambulism. In parallel, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified structured patterns of slow neuronal oscillations in the resting human brain. Similar coherent blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) systemwide patterns can also be found, in particular in the default-mode network, in several states of unconsciousness, such as coma, anesthesia, and slow-wave sleep. The latter results suggest that slow coherent spontaneous BOLD fluctuations cannot be exclusively a reflection of conscious mental activity, but may reflect default brain connectivity shaping brain areas of most likely interactions in a way that transcends levels of consciousness, and whose functional significance remains largely in the dark. PMID:18591474

  6. High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of lithium granules in DIII-D H-mode discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jackson, G. L.; Gilson, E. P.; Lunsford, R.; Parks, P. B.; Chrystal, C.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R.; Haskey, S. R.; Makowski, M. J.; Lasnier, C. J.; Nazikian, R.; Osborne, T.; Shiraki, D.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    A newly installed Lithium Granule Injector (LGI) was used to pace edge localized modes (ELM) in DIII-D. ELM pacing efficiency was studied injecting lithium granules of nominal diameter 0.3-0.9 mm, speed of 50-120 m s-1 and average injection rates up to 100 Hz for 0.9 mm granules and up to 700 Hz for 0.3 mm granules. The efficiency of ELM triggering was found to depend strongly on size of the injected granules, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9 mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes, and weakly depending on granule velocity. Robust ELM pacing was demonstrated in ITER-like plasmas for the entire shot length, at ELM frequencies 3-5 times larger than the ‘natural’ ELM frequency observed in reference discharges. Within the range of ELM frequencies obtained, the peak ELM heat flux at the outer strike point was reduced with increasing pacing frequency. The peak heat flux reduction at the inner strike point appears to saturate at high pacing frequency. Lithium was found in the plasma core, with a concurrent reduction of metallic impurities and carbon. Overall, high frequency ELM pacing using the lithium granule injection appears to be compatible with both H-mode energy confinement and attractive H-mode pedestal characteristics, but further assessment is needed to determine whether the projected heat flux reduction required for ITER can be met.

  7. Statistical light-mode dynamics of multipulse passive mode locking.

    PubMed

    Weill, Rafi; Well, Rafi; Vodonos, Boris; Gordon, Ariel; Gat, Omri; Fischer, Baruch

    2007-09-01

    We study the multipulse formation in passive mode locking in the framework of the statistical light-mode dynamics theory. It is a many-body theory that treats the complex many-mode laser system by statistical mechanics. We give a detailed theory and experimental verification for the important case of multiple-pulse formation in the laser cavity. We follow and extend our former work on the subject. We give a detailed analysis with a rigorous calculation of the partition function, the free energy, and the order parameter in the coarse-graining method within the mean-field theory that is exact in the light-mode system. The outcome is a comprehensive picture of multipulse formation and annihilation, pulse after pulse, in an almost quantized manner, as the noise ("temperature") or the light power is varied. We obtain the phase diagram of the system, showing a series of first-order phase transitions, each belonging to a different number of pulses. We also study the hysteresis behavior, typical for such thermodynamic systems. We elaborate on the role of the saturable absorber structure in determining the multipulse formation. The theoretical results are compared to experimental measurements that we obtained with mode-locked fiber lasers, and we find an excellent agreement. PMID:17930204

  8. Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Marion; Berg-Johansen, Stefan; Chille, Vanessa; Gabriel, Christian; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    As the generation of squeezed states of light has become a standard technique in laboratories, attention is increasingly directed towards adapting the optical parameters of squeezed beams to the specific requirements of individual applications. It is known that imaging, metrology, and quantum information may benefit from using squeezed light with a tailored transverse spatial mode. However, experiments have so far been limited to generating only a few squeezed spatial modes within a given setup. Here, we present the generation of single-mode squeezing in Laguerre-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss modes, as well as an arbitrary intensity pattern, all from a single setup using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The degree of squeezing obtained is limited mainly by the initial squeezing and diffractive losses introduced by the SLM, while no excess noise from the SLM is detectable at the measured sideband. The experiment illustrates the single-mode concept in quantum optics and demonstrates the viability of current SLMs as flexible tools for the spatial reshaping of squeezed light. PMID:27137050

  9. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Aircraft Flight Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Li, Jinhua; Ng, Hok Kwan

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on the flight range of aircraft as contrail reduction strategies have different impacts on aircraft depending on how they plan to fly. In general, aircraft with longer flight distances cruise at the altitudes where contrails are more likely to form. The concept of the contrail frequency index is used to quantify contrail impacts. The strategy for reducing the persistent contrail formation is to minimize the contrail frequency index by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. A user-defined factor is used to trade off between contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. Results show that contrail reduction strategies using various tradeo factors behave differently from short-range flights to long-range ights. Analysis shows that short-distance flights (less than 500 miles) are the most frequent flights but contribute least to contrail reduction. Therefore these aircraft have the lowest priority when applying contrail reduction strategies. Medium-distance flights (500 to 1000 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction in total; long-distance flights (1000 to 1500 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction per flight. The characteristics of transcontinental flights (greater than 1500 miles) vary with different weather days so the priority of applying contrail reduction strategies to the group needs to be evaluated based on the locations of the contrail areas during any given day. For the days tested, medium-distance ights contribute up to 42.6% of the reduction among the groups during a day. The contrail frequency index per 1,000 miles for medium-distance, long-distance, and transcontinental flights can be reduced by an average of 75%. The results provide a starting point for developing operational policies to reduce the impact of

  10. Sepsis-induced alterations in sleep of rats.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, Francesca; Ingiosi, Ashley M; Raymond, Richard M; Opp, Mark R

    2011-11-01

    Sepsis is a systemic immune response to infection that may result in multiple organ failure and death. Polymicrobial infections remain a serious clinical problem, and in the hospital, sepsis is the number-one noncardiac killer. Although the central nervous system may be one of the first systems affected, relatively little effort has been made to determine the impact of sepsis on the brain. In this study, we used the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to determine the extent to which sepsis alters sleep, the EEG, and brain temperature (Tbr) of rats. Sepsis increases the amount of time rats spend in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the dark period, but not during the light period. Rapid eye movements sleep (REMS) of septic rats is suppressed for about 24 h following CLP surgery, after which REMS increases during dark periods for at least three nights. The EEG is dramatically altered shortly after sepsis induction, as evidenced by reductions in slow-frequency components. Furthermore, sleep is fragmented, indicating that the quality of sleep is diminished. Effects on sleep, the EEG, and Tbr persist for at least 84 h after sepsis induction, the duration of our recording period. Immunohistochemical assays focused on brain stem mechanisms responsible for alterations in REMS, as little information is available concerning infection-induced suppression of this sleep stage. Our immunohistochemical data suggest that REMS suppression after sepsis onset may be mediated, in part, by the brain stem GABAergic system. This study demonstrates for the first time that sleep and EEG patterns are altered during CLP-induced sepsis. These data suggest that the EEG may serve as a biomarker for sepsis onset. These data also contribute to our knowledge of potential mechanisms, whereby infections alter sleep and other central nervous system functions.

  11. Analytical first-order extension of coupled-mode theory for waveguide arrays.

    PubMed

    Minot, Christophe; Belabas, Nadia; Levenson, Juan Ariel; Moison, Jean-Marie

    2010-03-29

    Coupled mode theory for waveguide arrays is extended to next-nearest neighbor interactions using propagation equations. Both lateral diffraction and propagation of Floquet-Bloch waves are altered respectively by extra coupling and non-orthogonality between isolated waveguide modes. The analytical formula describing the distortions of the diffraction relation is validated by direct numerical simulation for weakly coupled InP and GaAs shallow ridge waveguides and for strongly coupled Si-SiO(2) buried strip waveguides. The impact of extended coupled mode theory on propagation and diffraction design in waveguide arrays is discussed with reference to available experimental work.

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Gu, Jianqiang; Singh, Ranjan; Ma, Yingfang; Zhu, Jun; Tian, Zhen; He, Mingxia; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2012-03-01

    We observe the excitation and tuning of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) by the interference between different excitation pathways of the dark mode in a planar terahertz metamaterial. The EIT unit cell consists of a cut wire as the bright resonator and a pair of split ring resonators (SRRs) as the dark element. The dark mode resonance is excited by both the electric and magnetic fields when the SRR pair translates along the wire without altering the lateral distance between the resonators. The electric and magnetic pathways of exciting the dark mode allows for a giant amplitude modulation of the EIT resonance.

  13. Resonant translational, breathing, and twisting modes of transverse magnetic domain walls pinned at notches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Peter J.; Albert, Maximilian; Lequeux, Steven; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Bortolotti, Paolo; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Fangohr, Hans

    2016-02-01

    We study resonant translational, breathing, and twisting modes of transverse magnetic domain walls pinned at notches in ferromagnetic nanostrips. We demonstrate that a mode's sensitivity to notches depends strongly on the mode's characteristics. For example, the frequencies of modes that involve lateral motion of the wall are the most sensitive to changes in the notch intrusion depth, especially at the narrow, more strongly confined end of the domain wall. In contrast, the breathing mode, whose dynamics are concentrated away from the notches is relatively insensitive to changes in the notches' sizes. We also demonstrate a sharp drop in the translational mode's frequency towards zero when approaching depinning which is confirmed, using a harmonic oscillator model, to be consistent with a reduction in the local slope of the notch-induced confining potential at its edge.

  14. Phase stability and lattice thermal conductivity reduction in CoSb3 skutterudites, doped with chalcogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battabyal, M.; Priyadarshini, B.; Pradipkanti, L.; Satapathy, Dillip K.; Gopalan, R.

    2016-07-01

    We report a significant reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity of the CoSb3 skuttertudites, doped with chalcogen atoms. Te/Se chalcogen atoms doped CoSb3 skutterudite samples (Te0.1Co4Sb12, Se0.1Co4Sb12, Te0.05Se0.05Co4Sb12) are processed by ball milling and spark plasma sintering. X-ray diffraction data combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectra indicate the doping of Te/Se chalcogen atoms in the skutterudite. The temperature dependent X-ray diffraction confirms the stability of the Te/Se doped CoSb3 skutterudite phase and absence of any secondary phase in the temperature range starting from 300 K to 773 K. The Raman spectroscopy reveals that different chalcogen dopant atoms cause different resonant optical vibrational modes between the dopant atom and the host CoSb3 skutterudite lattice. These optical vibrational modes do scatter heat carrying acoustic phonons in a different spectral range. It was found that among the Te/Se chalcogen atoms, Te atoms alter the host CoSb3 skutterudite lattice vibrations to a larger extent than Se atoms, and can potentially scatter more Sb related acoustic phonons. The Debye model of lattice thermal conductivity confirms that the resonant phonon scattering has important contributions to the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity in CoSb3 skutterudites doped with Te/Se chalcogen atoms. Lattice thermal conductivity ˜ 0.9 W/mK at 773 K is achieved in Te0.1Co4Sb12 skutterudites, which is the lowest value reported so far in CoSb3 skutterudites, doped with single Te chalcogen atom.

  15. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alteration data and identify all alterations that affect fatigue critical baseline structure identified under... AIRPLANES Aging Airplane Safety-Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.45 Holders of type... category airplanes subject to § 26.43. (b) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing and...

  16. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRPLANES Aging Airplane Safety-Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.45 Holders of type... category airplanes subject to § 26.43. (b) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing and future alteration data developed by the holder of a type certificate, the holder must— (1) Review alteration...

  17. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRPLANES Aging Airplane Safety-Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.45 Holders of type... category airplanes subject to § 26.43. (b) Fatigue critical alteration structure. For existing and future alteration data developed by the holder of a type certificate, the holder must— (1) Review alteration...

  18. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  19. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0-600 cm(-1)), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  20. Coupled perturbed modes and internal solitary waves.

    PubMed

    Higham, C J; Tindle, C T

    2003-05-01

    Coupled perturbed mode theory combines conventional coupled modes and perturbation theory. The theory is used to directly calculate mode coupling in a range-dependent shallow water problem involving propagation through continental shelf internal solitary waves. The solitary waves considered are thermocline depressions, separating well-mixed upper and lower layers. The method is fast and accurate. Results highlight mode coupling associated with internal solitary waves, and mode capture or loss to and from the discrete mode spectrum.

  1. Hazardous solvent source reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, M.S.; Green, B.

    1995-09-01

    This book is written for the managers, production leaders, and operations staff tasked with the job of eliminating hazardous cleaning solvents from their workplace. Information regarding the location, evaluation, and implementation of environmentally preferred cleaning technologies is offered for a broad range of applications. These include: removal of grease and grime from a piece of equipment during maintenance, cleaning small parts before assembly, defluxing printed circuit boards and assemblies, and stripping paint from field vehicles and aircraft. Moving beyond the limits of source reduction alone, this book provides complete information on the planning, staffing, and execution of a pollution prevention program, alternative and in-use cleaner testing, waste recycling and treatment, air emission control, replacement system design, and system economics. For the environmental specialist, this book helps to bridge the gap between regulatory requirements and shop-floor constraints.

  2. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  3. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  4. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  5. Fast particle destabilization of TAE modes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Hsu, C.T.

    1995-09-01

    High-n TAE modes are studied based on a kinetic model that includes full thermal ion finite Larmor radius effects, trapped electron collisions and fast particle instability drive. Lower KTAE modes are shown to be non-existent. Like TAE modes, upper KTAE modes are shown to exist due to thermal ion FLR effects in the dissipationless limit. Dissipation effects on the stability of both TAE and upper KTAE modes can be treated perturbatively. However, due to their extended mode structure in the ballooning space, upper KTAE modes usually remain stable or weakly unstable even with large fast particle free energy. On the other hand, TAE modes can be strongly destabilized. A new resonant TAE mode (RTAE) can be excited when the fast particle drive is significantly large. The RTAE mode is a beam-like mode with its frequency determined mainly by the wave-particle resonance condition. The frequency of the RTAE mode can be much less than the TAE gap frequency and may be interpreted as the BAE observed in DIII-D experiments. As plasma {beta} increases, the TAE, RTAE and kinetic ballooning modes strongly couple; the TAE mode changes into the RTAE mode and eventually connects to the kinetic ballooning mode. Numerical results and analytical analysis on the stability of the RTAE and KTAE modes will be presented and compared with the TAE mode stability.

  6. Thiazolidinedione-8 Alters Symbiotic Relationship in C. albicans-S. mutans Dual Species Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Mark; Ginsburg, Isaac; Al-Quntar, Abed; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    The small molecule, thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8) was shown to impair biofilm formation of various microbial pathogens, including the fungus Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Previously, we have evaluated the specific molecular mode of S-8 action against C. albicans biofilm-associated pathogenicity. In this study we investigated the influence of S-8 on dual species, C. albicans-S. mutans biofilm. We show that in the presence of S-8 a reduction of the co-species biofilm formation occurred with a major effect on C. albicans. Biofilm biomass and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were significantly reduced by S-8. Moreover, the agent caused oxidative stress associated with a strong induction of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide uptake inhibition by a mixed biofilm. In addition, S-8 altered symbiotic relationship between these species by a complex mechanism. Streptococcal genes associated with quorum sensing (QS) (comDE and luxS), EPS production (gtfBCD and gbpB), as well as genes related to protection against oxidative stress (nox and sodA) were markedly upregulated by S-8. In contrast, fungal genes related to hyphae formation (hwp1), adhesion (als3), hydrophobicity (csh1), and oxidative stress response (sod1, sod2, and cat1) were downregulated in the presence of S-8. In addition, ywp1 gene associated with yeast form of C. albicans was induced by S-8, which is correlated with appearance of mostly yeast cells in S-8 treated dual species biofilms. We concluded that S-8 disturbs symbiotic balance between C. albicans and S. mutans in dual species biofilm. PMID:26904013

  7. Thiazolidinedione-8 Alters Symbiotic Relationship in C. albicans-S. mutans Dual Species Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Mark; Ginsburg, Isaac; Al-Quntar, Abed; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    The small molecule, thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8) was shown to impair biofilm formation of various microbial pathogens, including the fungus Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Previously, we have evaluated the specific molecular mode of S-8 action against C. albicans biofilm-associated pathogenicity. In this study we investigated the influence of S-8 on dual species, C. albicans-S. mutans biofilm. We show that in the presence of S-8 a reduction of the co-species biofilm formation occurred with a major effect on C. albicans. Biofilm biomass and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were significantly reduced by S-8. Moreover, the agent caused oxidative stress associated with a strong induction of reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxide uptake inhibition by a mixed biofilm. In addition, S-8 altered symbiotic relationship between these species by a complex mechanism. Streptococcal genes associated with quorum sensing (QS) (comDE and luxS), EPS production (gtfBCD and gbpB), as well as genes related to protection against oxidative stress (nox and sodA) were markedly upregulated by S-8. In contrast, fungal genes related to hyphae formation (hwp1), adhesion (als3), hydrophobicity (csh1), and oxidative stress response (sod1, sod2, and cat1) were downregulated in the presence of S-8. In addition, ywp1 gene associated with yeast form of C. albicans was induced by S-8, which is correlated with appearance of mostly yeast cells in S-8 treated dual species biofilms. We concluded that S-8 disturbs symbiotic balance between C. albicans and S. mutans in dual species biofilm. PMID:26904013

  8. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  9. Altering petrology through microbial dissimilatory phosphite oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Figueroa, I.; Coates, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) takes advantage of various microbial metabolisms to increase hydrocarbon and energy yield by improving oil flow and flood water sweep in a reservoir during tertiary recovery. Wormholing at the injection well is believed to be the result of the large drop in pressure when water exits the injection well and enters the unconsolidated reservoir matrix. One possible means of prevent this event is to consolidate the rock matrix immediately around the injection well to create a permeable zone of stable petrology. Many microbial processes are known to result in the precipitation of ionic components into their environment creating solid-phase minerals. Such processes could be judiciously applied to bind unconsolidated matrices in order to form a permeable concreted rock matrix, which would minimize wormholing events and thus improve floodwater sweep. However, to date, apart from the application of urea oxidation creating calcium carbonate precipitation, there has been little investigation of the applicability of these precipitated bioconcretions to MEOR strategies and none to control wormholing events. Here we present a novel approach to altering rock petrology to concrete unconsolidated matrices in the near well environment by the biogenesis of authigenic minerals through microbial dissimilatory phosphite oxidation. Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans, strain FiPS-3 is currently the only isolated organism capable of using phosphite (HPO32-) as an electron donor for growth. This process, known as dissimilatory phosphite oxidation (DPO), can be coupled to either sulfate reduction or homoacetogenesis and leads to the accumulation of inorganic phosphate in the medium. The resulting insoluble mineral phases can coat the rock environment resulting in a concretion binding the unconsolidated matrix particles into a single phase. In this study we demonstrate that DPO can effectively produce calcium or magnesium phosphate minerals in packed glass

  10. F-Mode Eikonal Heliotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, S.; Zhao, J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate 5 days of Doppler measurements geo-tracked for a sunspot. The data is cross -correlated to create time-distance impulse responses of wave propagation in the plasma. We focus on imaging the f-mode (surface gravity mode), which is separated from the other modes by k-ω filtering. Recent developments for surface wave imaging in earth-seismology include the development of an eikonal tomography technique. Eikonal tomography relies on evaluation of the local spatial derivatives of a traveltime surface to directly infer the slowness of wave-propagation. Whereas earth-seismology relies on increasing high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by cross-correlating long-time series, helioseismology relies on stacking over geometrically similar virtual sources. We assume there are two symmetries in the geometry of virtual sources around a sunspot. The first is a radial symmetry centered at the sunspot. The second is a radial symmetry of propagation around each virtual source. Because we are interested in the effect of sunspots on wave-propagation, we keep the averaging along the second symmetry axis to a minimum, and rely heavily on averaging each virtual source with equal distance from the sunspot. We will investigate the spatial variation of f-mode dispersion in a radial geometry with the sunspot at the center by creating f-mode velocity maps at different frequencies.

  11. Characterization of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for fluorescence decay measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, John C.; Phelan, Don; Morrison, Alan P.; Redfern, R. Michael; Mathewson, Alan

    2002-05-01

    Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APD) can be biased above the breakdown voltage to allow detection of single photons. Because of the increase in quantum efficiency, magnetic field immunity, robustness, longer operating lifetime and reduction in costs, solid-state detectors capable of operating at non-cryogenic temperatures and providing single photon detection capabilities provide attractive alternatives to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). Shallow junction Geiger mode APD detectors provide the ability to manufacture photon detectors and detector arrays with CMOS compatible processing steps and allows the use of novel Silicon-on-Insulator(SoI) technology to provide future integrated sensing solutions. Previous work on Geiger mode APD detectors has focused on increasing the active area of the detector to make it more PMT like, easing the integration of discrete reaction, detection and signal processing into laboratory experimental systems. This discrete model for single photon detection works well for laboratory sized test and measurement equipment, however the move towards microfluidics and systems on a chip requires integrated sensing solutions. As we move towards providing integrated functionality of increasingly nanoscopic sized emissions, small area detectors and detector arrays that can be easily integrated into marketable systems, with sensitive small area single photon counting detectors will be needed. This paper will demonstrate the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional simulation of optical coupling that occurs in Geiger mode APDs. Fabricated Geiger mode APD detectors optimized for fluorescence decay measurements were characterized and preliminary results show excellent results for their integration into fluorescence decay measurement systems.

  12. Explosive thermal reduction of graphene oxide-based materials: mechanism and safety implications.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Guo, Fei; Hurt, Robert; Külaots, Indrek

    2014-06-01

    Thermal reduction of graphene oxide or graphite oxide (GO) is an important processing step in the fabrication of many graphene-based materials and devices. Here we show that some bulk solid GO samples can undergo explosive decomposition when small samples are heated slowly in inert gas environments, while others do not. These micro-explosions can occur for samples as small as few milligrams and are sufficiently energetic to cause laboratory equipment damage. Thermochemical analysis methods are used to understand the factors that lead to the explosive reduction mode. The studies show that the explosive mode of reduction is caused by the exothermicity of GO reduction coupled with a threshold sample mass/size that causes heat and mass transfer limitations leading to local temperature rise and a thermal runaway reaction. The explosive mode of reduction is not caused or promoted by interstitial water, and its onset temperature can be lowered by immersion in potassium hydroxide solution. By allowing early release of internal gas pressure, the explosive mode reduces the extent of surface area development in GO exfoliation from an optimum value of 1470 m(2)g(-1) obtained under non-explosive reduction conditions. Explosive reduction of bulk GO poses industrial safety hazards during large-scale storage, handling, and processing.

  13. Explosive thermal reduction of graphene oxide-based materials: mechanism and safety implications

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yang; Guo, Fei; Hurt, Robert; Külaots, Indrek

    2014-01-01

    Thermal reduction of graphene oxide or graphite oxide (GO) is an important processing step in the fabrication of many graphene-based materials and devices. Here we show that some bulk solid GO samples can undergo explosive decomposition when small samples are heated slowly in inert gas environments, while others do not. These micro-explosions can occur for samples as small as few milligrams and are sufficiently energetic to cause laboratory equipment damage. Thermochemical analysis methods are used to understand the factors that lead to the explosive reduction mode. The studies show that the explosive mode of reduction is caused by the exothermicity of GO reduction coupled with a threshold sample mass/size that causes heat and mass transfer limitations leading to local temperature rise and a thermal runaway reaction. The explosive mode of reduction is not caused or promoted by interstitial water, and its onset temperature can be lowered by immersion in potassium hydroxide solution. By allowing early release of internal gas pressure, the explosive mode reduces the extent of surface area development in GO exfoliation from an optimum value of 1470 m2g−1 obtained under non-explosive reduction conditions. Explosive reduction of bulk GO poses industrial safety hazards during large-scale storage, handling, and processing. PMID:25018560

  14. Gene Expression in Developing Brain is Altered by Modest Reductions in Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Although animal models of developmental TH deficiency can predict the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system, the effects of moderate TH insufficiencies have not been adequatel...

  15. Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia rates in patients receiving haemodialysis following alteration of skin antisepsis procedures.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B J; Gardiner, T; Perry, G J; Tong, S Y C

    2016-02-01

    This study examined all cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in the haemodialysis cohort at the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia over a seven-year period. Midway through this period, antisepsis for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) and central venous catheters (CVC) changed from 0.5% chlorhexidine solution to 2% chlorhexidine solution. Rates of SAB episodes were calculated using registry data. Trends in SAB over time were analysed using an interrupted regression analysis. Following the change to 2% chlorhexidine, average SAB rates decreased by 68%, and it is estimated that 0.111 cases of SAB/patient-year were prevented. CVC-related SAB rates remained low throughout. These results support the use of 2% chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis for patients with AVF. PMID:26778135

  16. Teaching Social Workers about Substance Use Problems via Temporary Abstinence from Normal Mood-Altering Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Paul Elliott

    2007-01-01

    Social work students enrolled in a graduate-level course in substance abuse (N = 450, over nine years) assessed their own "mood-altering" behaviors (i.e., stress-reduction strategies and leisure-time activities), abstained from one or more of these activities for one week, then completed a written summary of their personal bio-psycho-social…

  17. ALTERATION OF SOIL METAL CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOAVAILABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH BIOSOLIDS APPLICATION (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biosolids are a complex mixture which contain both inorganic and organic adsorbents. Thus, addition of biosolids to soil not only increases the environmental loading of toxic metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, etc.) it alters the phytoavailability of these metals. This reduction in ph...

  18. The North Pacific Gyre Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, N.; di Lorenzo, E.

    2007-12-01

    Discussion of North Pacific Decadal decadal variability has focused primarily on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the leading mode of sea surface temperature anomalies north of the tropics. The PDO appears to result from a superposition of SST pattern forced by the North Pacific atmosphere due to its intrinsic dynamics and teleconnected from the tropics, with a regional impact of the ocean circulation in the frontal regions associated with the Kuroshio/Oyashio and their extensions into the interior. Recent modeling, however, suggest that previously unexplained decadal changes of salinity, nutrient upwelling and chlorophyl in the California Current are not dominated by the PDO. Rather, these are associated with a mode of variability associated with wind driven changes of the North Pacific Gyre. Consideration of this mode variability may thus be important to understand present and future variations of the North Pacific ecosystem, and in the interpretation of climate proxies.

  19. Scissors modes: The first overtone

    SciTech Connect

    Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Palumbo, Fabrizio

    2011-07-15

    Scissors modes were predicted in the framework of the two-rotor model. This model has an intrinsic harmonic spectrum, so that the level above the scissors mode, the first overtone, has excitation energy twice that of the scissors mode. Because the latter is of the order of 3 MeV in the rare-earth region, the energy of the overtone is below threshold for nucleon emission, and its width should remain small enough for the overtone to be observable. We find that B(E2){up_arrow}{sub overtone}=(1/64 {theta}{sub 0}{sup 2})B(E2){up_arrow}{sub scissors}, where {theta}{sub 0} is the zero-point oscillation amplitude, which in the rare-earth region is of order 10{sup -1}.

  20. Reduction of radar cross-section of a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Brock, Billy C.; Clem, Paul G.; Loui, Hung; Allen, Steven E.

    2016-08-02

    The various technologies presented herein relate to formation of a wind turbine blade having a reduced radar signature in comparison with a turbine blade fabricated using conventional techniques. Various techniques and materials are presented to facilitate reduction in radar signature of a wind turbine blade, where such techniques and materials are amenable for incorporation into existing manufacturing techniques without degradation in mechanical or physical performance of the blade or major alteration of the blade profile.

  1. Altered Gravity and Early Heart Development in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Darrell J.; Lwigale, P.; Denning, J.

    1996-01-01

    The macromolecules comprising the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix of cells may be sensitive to gravitation. Since early development of organs depends on dynamic interactions across cell surfaces, altered gravity may disturb development. We investigated this possibility for heart development. Previous studies showed that the extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibronectin (Fn) is necessary for normal heart development. We cultured precardiac tissue explants in a high aspect ratio bioreactor vessel (HARV) to simulate microgravity. We observed tissue morphology, contraction, and Fn distribution by immunolocalization in HARV rotated and control (lxg) explants, cultured 18 hr. We also measured Fn amount by immunoassay. Explants in HARV were rotated at 6 rpm to achieve continuous freefall. Thirty-five of 37 control, but only 1 of 37 matched rotated explants exhibited contractions. Tissue architecture was identical. Immunolocalization of Fn showed remarkable differences which may be related to the development of contractions. The Fn staining in the HARV explants was less intense in all areas. Areas of linear staining along epithelia were present but shorter, and there was less intercellular staining in both mesenchymal tissue and myocardium. Initial immunoassay results of 5 matched pairs of explants showed a 22% reduction in total tissue Fn in the HARV rotated samples. Our results indicate that altered gravity in the HARV reduced the amount and distribution of Fn, as assessed by two independent criteria. This was correlated with a reduction in the development of contractile activity.

  2. Redux: A Common Interface for SOFIA Data Reduction Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, M.; Vacca, W. D.; Shuping, R. Y.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed a common user interface for running the data reduction software for multiple instruments for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This interface, called Redux, provides a GUI for processing the data from three instruments (EXES, FORCAST, and FLITECAM) in their various modes (imaging and spectroscopy), and is currently being adapted to run a fourth (HAWC+). Redux can also be run without the GUI, in order to automatically process data in a non-interactive pipeline mode. By separating the interface from the pipeline reduction algorithms, Redux provides a standardized means of controlling the pipelines. This shields the user from the diversity of the individual software packages and formats and simplifies code maintenance and re-use. Redux is now an important element in the SOFIA Data Processing System, an overview of which is given in Shuping et al. (2014). Here, we describe the design and development of Redux.

  3. Component model reduction via the projection and assembly method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Douglas E.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of acquiring a simple but sufficiently accurate model of a dynamic system is made more difficult when the dynamic system of interest is a multibody system comprised of several components. A low order system model may be created by reducing the order of the component models and making use of various available multibody dynamics programs to assemble them into a system model. The difficulty is in choosing the reduced order component models to meet system level requirements. The projection and assembly method, proposed originally by Eke, solves this difficulty by forming the full order system model, performing model reduction at the the system level using system level requirements, and then projecting the desired modes onto the components for component level model reduction. The projection and assembly method is analyzed to show the conditions under which the desired modes are captured exactly; to the numerical precision of the algorithm.

  4. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for

  5. Polyamines alter intestinal glucose transport.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L R; Brockway, P D; Madsen, K; Hardin, J A; Gall, D G

    1995-03-01

    Polyamines are required for the growth of all eukaryotic cells. Enterocytes respond to luminal nutrients with large increases in polyamine synthesis, even though they are mature, nonproliferating cells. The role of polyamines in these cells is unknown. The current experiments examined whether polyamines affected intestinal transport of glucose, since absorption is the primary activity of enterocytes and since polyamines are known to affect membrane function and stability. Glucose transport was examined in rabbit brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). BBMV from rabbits given 5% alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) in their drinking water 24 h before they were killed transported significantly less glucose than control vesicles [38% decrease in maximal transport rate (Jmax)]. Orogastric administration of spermine, spermidine, or putrescine to DFMO-treated animals 24 h before they were killed prevented the decrease. In rabbits receiving only orogastric spermine, glucose transport was significantly increased (64% increase in Jmax), whereas in vivo spermidine and putrescine decreased Jmax. This increase in Jmax caused by in vivo administration of spermine was not dependent on protein synthesis. Addition of polyamines whether in vivo or in vitro decreased Michaelis constant in vesicles from control and DFMO-treated animals. The change in glucose transport induced by DFMO or polyamines was not related to altered membrane lipid composition or fluidity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Few-Mode Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2006-01-01

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators of a type now under development are designed to support few well-defined waveguide modes. In the simplest case, a resonator of this type would support one equatorial family of WGMs; in a more complex case, such a resonator would be made to support two, three, or some other specified finite number of modes. Such a resonator can be made of almost any transparent material commonly used in optics. The nature of the supported modes does not depend on which material is used, and the geometrical dispersion of this resonator is much smaller than that of a typical prior WGM resonator. Moreover, in principle, many such resonators could be fabricated as integral parts of a single chip. Basically, a resonator of this type consists of a rod, made of a suitable transparent material, from which protrudes a thin circumferential belt of the same material. The belt is integral with the rest of the rod (see figure) and acts as a circumferential waveguide. If the depth (d) and width (w) of the belt are made appropriately small, then the belt acts as though it were the core of a single-mode optical fiber: the belt and its adjacent supporting rod material support a single, circumferentially propagating mode or family of modes. It has been shown theoretically that the fiber-optic-like behavior of the belton- rod resonator structure can be summarized, in part, by the difference, Dn, between (1) an effective index of refraction of an imaginary fiber core and (2) the index of refraction (n) of the transparent rod/belt material. It has also been shown theoretically that for a given required value of Dn, the required depth of the belt can be estimated as d R Dn, where R is the radius of the rod. It must be emphasized that this estimated depth is independent of n and, hence, is independent of the choice of rod material. As in the cases of prior WGM resonators, input/output optical coupling involves utilization of evanescent fields. In the

  7. Dynamic Instability of Barlike Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durisen, Richard H.; Pickett, Brian K.; Bate, Matthew R.; Imamura, James N.; Brandl, Andreas; Sterzik, Michael F.

    Numerical simulations during the 1980's established that prompt binary formation (or ``fission'') through dynamic growth of barlike modes is aborted by gravitational torques. Because these instabilities may occur during star formation and because their outcome over long times is still uncertain, we have combined various linear analyses with simulations by hydrodynamics codes to refine our understanding. We show that it is in fact the torques which cause nonlinear saturation of the mode amplitude. Excellent agreement for the early nonlinear phase is obtained using radically different hydrodynamics codes. However, the ultimate outcome is sensitive to assumptions about dissipative heating and is also somewhat code-dependent.

  8. Dual-Mode Adhesive Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, Leslie

    1994-01-01

    Tool helps worker grip and move along large, smooth structure with no handgrips or footholds. Adheres to surface but easily released by actuating simple mechanism. Includes handle and segmented contact-adhesive pad. Bulk of pad made of soft plastic foam conforming to surface of structure. Each segment reinforced with rib. In sticking mode, ribs braced by side catches. In peeling mode, side catches retracted, and segmented adhesive pad loses its stiffness. Modified versions useful in inspecting hulls of ships and scaling walls in rescue operations.

  9. Atrazine and reproductive function: mode and mechanism of action studies.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ralph L; Laws, Susan C; Das, Parikshit C; Narotsky, Michael G; Goldman, Jerome M; Lee Tyrey, E; Stoker, Tammy E

    2007-04-01

    Atrazine, a chlorotriazine herbicide, is used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. In this review, we summarize our laboratory's work evaluating the neuroendocrine toxicity of atrazine (and related chlorotriazines) from an historic perspective. We provide the rationale for our work as we have endeavored to determine: 1) the underlying reproductive changes leading to the development of mammary gland tumors in the atrazine-exposed female rat; 2) the cascade of physiological events that are responsible for these changes (i.e., the mode of action for mammary tumors); 3) the potential cellular mechanisms involving adverse effects of atrazine; and 4) the range of reproductive alterations associated with this pesticide.

  10. e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Written in Python and utilizing ParselTongue (ascl:1208.020) to interface with AIPS (ascl:9911.003), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline processes, calibrates and images data from the UK's radio interferometric array (Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network). Driven by a plain text input file, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent (ascl:1312.001), carry out some or all of the calibration procedures (including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so data quality can be assessed.

  11. Bosch CO2 Reduction System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F.; King, C. D.; Keller, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Refinements in the design of a Bosch CO2 reduction unit for spacecraft O2 production are described. Sealing of the vacuum insulation jacket was simplified so that high vacuum and high insulation performance are easily maintained. The device includes a relatively simple concentric shell recuperative heat exchanger which operates at approximately 95% temperature effectiveness and helps lower power consumption. The influence of reactor temperature, pressure, and recycle gas composition on power consumption was investigated. In general, precise control is not required since power consumption is not very sensitive to moderate variations of these parameters near their optimum values. There are two process rate control modes which match flow rate to process demand. Catalyst conditioning, support, and packing pattern developments assure consistent starts, reduced energy consumption, and extended cartridge life. Operation levels for four or five men were maintained with overall power input values of 50 to 60 watts per man.

  12. Setting goals for drug policy: harm reduction or use reduction?

    PubMed

    Caulkins, J P; Reuter, P

    1997-09-01

    Historically, United States drug policy has focused on use reduction; harm reduction is a prominent alternative. This paper aims to provoke and inform more debate about the relative merits of these two. Since harm is not necessarily proportional to use, use reduction and harm reduction differ. Both terms are somewhat ambiguous; precisely defining them clarifies thinking and policy implications. Measures associated with use reduction goals are poor; those associated with harm reduction are even worse. National goals influence the many decentralized individuals who collectively make drug policy; clearly enunciating goals makes some policy choices transparent and goals serve a variety of purposes besides guiding programmatic decisions. We recommend that the overall objective be to minimize the total harm associated with drug production, distribution, consumption and control. Reducing use should be seen as a principal means of attaining that end.

  13. Variability modes in core flows inverted from geomagnetic field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pais, M. A.; Morozova, A. L.; Schaeffer, N.

    2014-01-01

    The flow of liquid metal inside the Earth's core produces the geomagnetic field and its time variations. Understanding the variability of those deep currents is crucial to improve the forecast of geomagnetic field variations and may provide relevant information on the core dynamics. The main goal of this study is to extract and characterize the leading variability modes of core flows over centennial periods, and to assess their statistical robustness. To this end, we use flows that we invert from two geomagnetic field models (`gufm1' and `COV-OBS'), and apply principal component analysis and singular value decomposition of coupled fields. The quasi-geostrophic (QG) flows inverted from both geomagnetic field models show similar features. However, `COV-OBS' flows have a less energetic mean and larger time variability. The statistical significance of flow components is tested from analyses performed on subareas of the whole domain. Bootstrapping methods are also used to extract significant flow features required by both `gufm1' and `COV-OBS'. Three main empirical circulation modes emerge, simultaneously constrained by both geomagnetic field models and expected to be robust against the particular a priori used to build them (large-scale QG dynamics). Mode 1 exhibits three large vortices at medium/high latitudes, with opposite circulation under the Atlantic and the Pacific hemispheres. Mode 2 interestingly accounts for most of the variations of the Earth's core angular momentum. In this mode, the regions close to the tangent cylinder and to the equator are correlated, and oscillate with a period between 80 and 90 yr. Each of these two modes is energetic enough to alter the mean flow, sometimes reinforcing the eccentric gyre, and other times breaking it up into smaller circulations. The three main circulation modes added to the mean flow account for about 70 per cent of the flows variability, 90 per cent of the rms total velocities, and 95 per cent of the secular

  14. Atmospheric emissions from a passenger ferry with selective catalytic reduction.

    PubMed

    Nuszkowski, John; Clark, Nigel N; Spencer, Thomas K; Carder, Daniel K; Gautam, Mridul; Balon, Thomas H; Moynihan, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    The two main propulsion engines on Staten Island Ferry Alice Austen (Caterpillar 3516A, 1550 hp each) were fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment technology to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). After the installation of the SCR system, emissions from the ferry were characterized both pre- and post-aftertreatment. Prior research has shown that the ferry operates in four modes, namely idle, acceleration, cruise, and maneuvering modes. Emissions were measured for both engines (designated NY and SI) and for travel in both directions between Manhattan and Staten Island. The emissions characterization used an analyzer system, a data logger, and a filter-based particulate matter (PM) measurement system. The measurement of NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) were based on federal reference methods. With the existing control strategy for the SCR urea injection, the SCR provided approximately 64% reduction of NOx for engine NY and 36% reduction for engine SI for a complete round trip with less than 6.5 parts per million by volume (ppmv) of ammonia slip during urea injection. Average reductions during the cruise mode were 75% for engine NY and 47% for engine SI, which was operating differently than engine NY. Reductions for the cruise mode during urea injection typically exceeded 94% from both engines, but urea was injected only when the catalyst temperature reached a 300 degrees C threshold pre- and postcatalyst. Data analysis showed a total NOx mass emission split with 80% produced during cruise, and the remaining 20% spread across idle, acceleration, and maneuvering. Examination of continuous NOx data showed that higher reductions of NOx could be achieved on both engines by initiating the urea injection at an earlier point (lower exhaust temperature) in the acceleration and cruise modes of operation. The oxidation catalyst reduced the CO production 94% for engine NY and 82% for engine SI, although the high CO levels

  15. Size reduction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  16. Beta-limiting Instabilities and Global Mode Stabilization in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Steven

    2001-10-01

    Low aspect ratio and high edge q theoretically alter the plasma stability and mode structure compared to standard tokamak configurations. Below the no-wall limit, stability calculations with PEST, GATO, and DCON show the perturbed radial field is maximized near the center column and DCON and VALEN calculations show that mode stability is not greatly improved by a nearby conducting wall due to the short poloidal wavelength in this region. In contrast, as beta reaches and exceeds the no-wall limit, the mode becomes strongly ballooning with long poloidal wavelength at large major radius and is highly wall stabilized. In this way, wall stabilization is more effective at higher beta in low aspect ratio geometry. Research on the stability of spherical torus plasmas at and above the no-wall beta limit is being addressed on NSTX, which has produced low aspect ratio plasmas, R/a = 1.27 at plasma current up to 1.4 MA with high energy confinement (TauE/TauE-ITER89P = 2). Toroidal and normalized beta have reached 22%, and 4.3, respectively in q = 7 plasmas. The beta limit is observed to increase with increasing plasma internal inductance, li, and the stability factor betaN/li has reached 5.8, limited by sudden beta collapses at low li that was achieved by use of high-harmonic fast wave heating (HHFW). DCON stability analysis of equilibria reconstructed with EFIT using external magnetics show that the plasmas are below or at the no-wall beta limit for the n = 1 mode, which has characteristics of a current-driven kink. With more peaked current profiles (li greater than 0.7), core MHD instabilities are observed which saturate or slowly degrade beta. Sawteeth with large inversion radii can also cause substantial beta collapses, although current profile modification using HHFW, altered plasma growth, and increased toroidal field have each been successful in mitigating this effect.

  17. The hydrothermal alteration of cooling lava domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Jessica L.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Calder, Eliza S.; Valentine, Greg A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration is a recognized cause of volcanic instability and edifice collapse, including that of lava domes or dome complexes. Alteration by percolating fluids transforms primary minerals in dome lavas to weaker secondary products such as clay minerals; moreover, secondary mineral precipitation can affect the porosity and permeability of dome lithologies. The location and intensity of alteration in a dome depend heavily on fluid pathways and availability in conjunction with heat supply. Here we investigate postemplacement lava dome weakening by hydrothermal alteration using a finite element numerical model of water migration in simplified dome geometries. This is combined with the rock alteration index (RAI) to predict zones of alteration and secondary mineral precipitation. Our results show that alteration potential is highest at the interface between the hot core of a lava dome and its clastic talus carapace. The longest lived alteration potential fields occur in domes with persistent heat sources and permeabilities that allow sufficient infiltration of water for alteration processes, but not so much that domes cool quickly. This leads us to conclude that alteration-induced collapses are most likely to be shallow seated and originate in the talus or talus/core interface in domes which have a sustained supply of magmatic heat. Mineral precipitation at these zones of permeability contrast could create barriers to fluid flow, potentially causing gas pressurization which might promote deeper seated and larger volume collapses. This study contributes to our knowledge of how hydrothermal alteration can affect lava domes and provides constraints on potential sites for alteration-related collapses, which can be used to target hazard monitoring.

  18. The role of substrate surface alteration in the fabrication of vertically aligned CdTe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Neretina, S; Hughes, R A; Devenyi, G A; Sochinskii, N V; Preston, J S; Mascher, P

    2008-05-01

    Previously we have described the deposition of vertically aligned wurtzite CdTe nanowires derived from an unusual catalytically driven growth mode. This growth mode could only proceed when the surface of the substrate was corrupted with an alcohol layer, although the role of the corruption was not fully understood. Here, we present a study detailing the remarkable role that this substrate surface alteration plays in the development of CdTe nanowires; it dramatically improves the size uniformity and largely eliminates lateral growth. These effects are demonstrated to arise from the altered surface's ability to limit Ostwald ripening of the catalytic seed material and by providing a surface unable to promote the epitaxial relationship needed to sustain a lateral growth mode. The axial growth of the CdTe nanowires is found to be exclusively driven through the direct impingement of adatoms onto the catalytic seeds leading to a self-limiting wire height associated with the sublimation of material from the sidewall facets. The work presented furthers the development of the mechanisms needed to promote high quality substrate-based vertically aligned CdTe nanowires. With our present understanding of the growth mechanism being a combination of selective area epitaxy and a catalytically driven vapour-liquid-solid growth mode, these results also raise the intriguing possibility of employing this growth mode in other material systems in an effort to produce superior nanowires.

  19. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-01-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL(-1)) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10(-3) mol · mL(-1) is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing. PMID:27256771

  20. Dual Mode Inverter Control Test Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.M.

    2001-04-25

    Permanent Magnet Motors with either sinusoidal back emf (permanent magnet synchronous motor [PMSM]) or trapezoidal back emf (brushless dc motor [BDCM]) do not have the ability to alter the air gap flux density (field weakening). Since the back emf increases with speed, the system must be designed to operate with the voltage obtained at its highest speed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) has developed a dual mode inverter controller (DMIC) that overcomes this disadvantage. This report summarizes the results of tests to verify its operation. The standard PEEMRC 75 kW hard-switched inverter was modified to implement the field weakening procedure (silicon controlled rectifier enabled phase advance). A 49.5 hp motor rated at 2800 rpm was derated to a base of 400 rpm and 7.5 hp. The load developed by a Kahn Industries hydraulic dynamometer, was measured with a MCRT9-02TS Himmelstein and Company torque meter. At the base conditions a current of 212 amperes produced the 7.5 hp. Tests were run at 400, 1215, and 2424 rpm. In each run, the current was no greater than 214 amperes. The horsepower obtained in the three runs were 7.5, 9.3, and 8.12. These results verified the basic operation of the DMIC in producing a Constant Power Speed Ratios (CPSR) of six.

  1. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-01-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL−1) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10−3 mol · mL−1 is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing. PMID:27256771

  2. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-06-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL‑1) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10‑3 mol · mL‑1 is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing.

  3. Evidence that estrogens directly alter androgen-regulated prostate development.

    PubMed

    Jarred, R A; Cancilla, B; Prins, G S; Thayer, K A; Cunha, G R; Risbridger, G P

    2000-09-01

    Neonatal exposure to high doses of estrogen results in permanent suppression of prostate growth and reduced sensitivity to androgens in adulthood. It is unclear whether alterations in prostate growth are due to a direct effect of estrogens on the gland or are the result of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suppression and a subsequent reduction in androgen levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether estrogens have a direct effect on the prostate using a defined method of culturing neonatal prostates. Newborn rat ventral prostates were microdissected and cultured in the presence of testosterone, which resulted in branching morphogenesis and ductal canalization. Solid cords of epithelium differentiated into acini lined by tall columnar epithelial cells; these acini were surrounded by stromal cells, expressing smooth muscle alpha-actin. When cultured in the presence of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol in addition to testosterone, androgen-induced prostatic growth was reduced, and differentiation was altered. Although estrogen-treated explants were smaller than controls, quantification of epithelial, stromal, and luminal volumes using unbiased stereology revealed significant changes; the proportion of epithelial cells and lumen decreased, and the proportion of stroma increased compared with control values. Concurrent with this reduced growth rate, we observed a disturbance in the branching pattern and a reduction in ductal canalization. Specifically, stromal differentiation and organization were disrupted, so that a discontinuous smooth muscle layer was observed around the epithelial ducts, and epithelial differentiation was altered. The effects of estrogens were not accompanied by a decrease in androgen response via the androgen receptor, because immunolocalization of this receptor remained constant. These data demonstrate that high doses of estrogens are growth inhibitory and have direct effects on prostate development in vitro, which

  4. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    acids. We use single molecule DNA stretching to show that the nucleocapsid protein (NC) of the yeast retrotransposon Ty3, which is likely to be an ancestor of HIV NC, has optimal nucleic acid chaperone activity with only a single zinc finger. We also show that the chaperone activity of the ORF1 protein is responsible for successful replication of the mouse LINE-1 retrotransposon. LINE-1 is also 17% of the human genome, where it generates insertion mutations and alters gene expression. Retrotransposons such as LINE-1 and Ty3 are likely to be ancestors of retroviruses such as HIV. Human APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits HIV-1 replication via cytidine deamination of the viral ssDNA genome, as well as via a distinct deamination-independent mechanism. Efficient deamination requires rapid on-off binding kinetics, but a slow dissociation rate is required for the proposed deaminase-independent mechanism. We resolve this apparent contradiction with a new quantitative single molecule method, which shows that A3G initially binds ssDNA with fast on-off rates and subsequently converts to a slow binding mode. This suggests that oligomerization transforms A3G from a fast enzyme to a slow binding protein, which is the biophysical mechanism that allows A3G to inhibit HIV replication. A complete understanding of the mechanism of A3G-mediated antiviral activity is required to design drugs that disrupt the viral response to A3G, enhance A3G packaging inside the viral core, and other potential strategies for long-term treatment of HIV infection. We use single molecule biophysics to explore the function of proteins involved in bacterial DNA replication, endogenous retrotransposition of retroelements in eukaryotic hosts such yeast and mice, and HIV replication in human cells. Our quantitative results provide insight into protein function in a range of complex biological systems and have wide-ranging implications for human health.

  5. Dual mode nuclear rocket system applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boretz, J. E.; Bell, J. M.; Plebuch, R. K.; Priest, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Mission areas where the dual-mode nuclear rocket system is superior to nondual-mode systems are demonstrated. It is shown that the dual-mode system is competitive with the nondual-mode system even for those specific missions and particular payload configurations where it does not have a clear-cut advantage.

  6. Laser Mode Structure Experiments for Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Richard A.; Gehrz, Robert D.

    Experiments dealing with laser mode structure are presented which are suitable for an upper division undergraduate laboratory. The theory of cavity modes is summarized. The mode structure of the radiation from a helium-neon laser is measured by using a photodiode detector and spectrum analyzer to detect intermode beating. Off-axial modes can be…

  7. Avian assemblages on altered grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopf, Fritz L.

    1994-01-01

    Grasslands comprise 17% of the North American landscape but provide primary habitat for only 5% of native bird species. On the Great Plains, grasslands include an eastern component of tall grasses and a western component of short grasses, both of which have been regionally altered by removing native grazers, plowing sod, draining wetlands, and encouraging woody vegetation. As a group, populations of endemic bird species of the grasslands have declined more than others (including neotropical migrants) in the last quarter century. Individually, populations of the Upland Sandpiper and McCown’s Longspur have increased; the wetlands-associated Marbled Godwit and Wilson’s Phalarope appear stable; breeding ranges are shifting for the Ferruginous Hawk, Mississippi Kite, Short-eared Owl, Upland Sandpiper, Horned Lark, Vesper, Savannah, and Henslow’s sparrows, and Western Meadowlark; breeding habitats are disappearing locally for Franklin’s Gull, Dickcissel, Henslow’s and Grasshopper sparrows. Lark Bunting, and Eastern Meadowlark; and populations are declining throughout the breeding ranges for Mountain Plover, and Cassin’s and Clay-colored sparrows. Declines of these latter three species, and also the Franklin’s Gull, presumably are due to ecological phenomena on their respective wintering areas. Unlike forest species that winter in the neotropics, most birds that breed in the North American grasslands also winter on the continent and problems driving declines in grassland species are associated almost entirely with North American processes. Contemporary programs and initiatives hold promise for the conservation of breeding habitats for these birds. Ecological ignorance of wintering habits and habitats clouds the future of the endemic birds of grasslands, especially those currently experiencing widespread declines across breeding locales.

  8. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, T.; Weiland, J.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  9. Current Mode Logic Fan Out

    2011-05-07

    Current mode logic is used in high speed timing systems for particle accelerators due to the fast rise time of the electrical signal. This software provides the necessary documentation to produce multiple copies of a single input for distribution to multiple devices. This software supports the DOE mission by providing a method for producing high speed signals in accelerator timing systems.

  10. Elastic modes and their computation

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom, G.W.

    1995-04-01

    In this note we summarize the theory of modes in stratified elastic media, and we discuss some of the considerations necessary to achieve reliable numerical computations. We also point out the consequences of the fact that the corresponding eigenvalue problem is not selfadjoint. 14 refs.

  11. An acoustic mode measurement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joppa, P. D.

    1984-10-01

    Turbomachinery noise propagates in aircraft jet engine ducts in a complicated manner. Measurement of this propagation is useful both to identify source mechanisms and to design efficient linings. A practical method of making these measurements has been developed, using linear arrays of equally spaced microphones mounted flush with the duct wall. Circumferential or axial arrays are analyzed by spatial Fourier transform, giving sound level as a function of spinning order or axial wavenumber respectively. Complex demodulation is used to acquire data in a modest bandwidth around a high frequency of interest. A joint NASA/Boeing test of the system used 32 microphones in a JT15D turbofan engine inlet. A 400-Hz bandwidth centered at blade passage frequency and at half blade passage frequency was studied. The theoretically predicted modes were clearly seen at blade passage frequency; broadband noise at half blade passage frequency was biased towards modes corotating with the fan. Interference between similar modes was not a significant problem. A lining design study indicated a 15 percent improvement in lining efficiency was possible when mode data were used, for this particular engine. The technique has proven reliable and useful for source diagnostics and lining design.

  12. Mode of Action of Glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although glyphosate is the most used and studied herbicide in the world, the available information is not enough to fully understand its mode of action. The molecular site of action of glyphosate is the enzyme 5-enolpyruvlyshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is the only known compound that ...

  13. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a nonperturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely based on relativistic viscous fluids. If the dominant adiabatic mode is not affected by the viscosity of the background a sufficiently small fraction of entropic fluctuations of viscous origin cannot be a priori ruled out.

  14. Modes of Greetings in Nepali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giri, Ram Ashish

    The greeting systems in Nepali are derived from the Hindu ethos and religious culture, and can be traced back to Hindu sacred writing. However, as tied to conventions as they are, these systems are also the product of an interplay of socio-cultural factors. A study found that despite exposure to education and Western culture, Nepali modes of…

  15. Theory of Modes and Impulses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  16. Global gyrokinetic simulations of trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode microturbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Sarrat, M.; Collard, M.; Bertrand, P.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a reduced kinetic model, which describes simultaneously trapped-ion (TIM) and trapped-electron (TEM) driven modes. Interestingly, the model enables the study of a full f problem for ion and electron trapped particles at very low numerical cost. The linear growth rate obtained with the full f nonlinear code Trapped Element REduction in Semi Lagrangian Approach is successfully compared with analytical predictions. Moreover, nonlinear results show some basic properties of collisionless TEM and TIM turbulence in tokamaks. A competition between streamer-like structures and zonal flows is observed for TEM and TIM turbulence. Zonal flows are shown to play an important role in suppressing the nonlinear transport and strongly depend on the temperature ratio Te/Ti .

  17. Altered astronaut lower limb and mass center kinematics in downward jumping following space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, D. J.; Jackson, D. K.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to the microgravity conditions encountered during space flight exhibit postural and gait instabilities upon return to earth that could impair critical postflight performance. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of microgravity exposure on astronauts' performance of two-footed jump landings. Nine astronauts from several Space Shuttle missions were tested both preflight and postflight with a series of voluntary, two-footed downward hops from a 30-cm-high step. A video-based, three-dimensional motion-analysis system permitted calculation of body segment positions and joint angular displacements. Phase-plane plots of knee, hip, and ankle angular velocities compared with the corresponding joint angles were used to describe the lower limb kinematics during jump landings. The position of the whole-body center of mass (COM) was also estimated in the sagittal plane using an eight-segment body model. Four of nine subjects exhibited expanded phase-plane portraits postflight, with significant increases in peak joint flexion angles and flexion rates following space flight. In contrast, two subjects showed significant contractions of their phase-plane portraits postflight and three subjects showed insignificant overall changes after space flight. Analysis of the vertical COM motion generally supported the joint angle results. Subjects with expanded joint angle phase-plane portraits postflight exhibited larger downward deviations of the COM and longer times from impact to peak deflection, as well as lower upward recovery velocities. Subjects with postflight joint angle phase-plane contraction demonstrated opposite effects in the COM motion. The joint kinematics results indicated the existence of two contrasting response modes due to microgravity exposure. Most subjects exhibited "compliant" impact absorption postflight, consistent with decreased limb stiffness and damping, and a reduction in the bandwidth of the postural control system

  18. Topical fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A; Heber, D

    1995-11-01

    The fat on women's thighs is more difficult to mobilize due to increased alpha-2 adrenergic receptor activity induced by estrogen. Lipolysis can be initiated through adipocyte receptor stimulation (beta adrenergic) or inhibition (adenosine or alpha-2 adrenergic) or by inhibition of phosphodiesterase. Since many women desire regional thigh fat loss, a series of clinical trials were initiated using one thigh as a double-blinded control. Trial #1: Five overweight women had injections of isoproterenol at intervals around the thigh three times a week for 4 weeks with diet and walking. Trial #2: Five overweight woman had ointment containing forskolin, yohimbine and aminophylline applied to the thigh five times a week for 4 weeks after hypertonic warm soaks with a diet and walking. Trial #3: Eighteen overweight women were divided into three groups of six and trial #2 was repeated with each agent alone vs. placebo using forskolin, yohimbine or aminophylline in separate ointments. Trial #4: Thirty overweight women had 10% aminophylline ointment applied to the thigh five times a week for 6 weeks with diet and walking. Chemistry panel, theophylline level and patch testing were performed. Trial #5: Twelve women had trial #4 repeated with 2% aminophylline cream without a diet or walking. Trial #6: Trial #5 was repeated with 0.5% aminophylline cream. All trials except yohimbine ointment gave significantly more girth loss from the treated thigh (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Chemistry panel showed no toxicity. Theophylline was undetectable and patch testing was negative. We conclude that topical fat reduction for women's thighs can be achieved without diet or exercise. PMID:8697059

  19. Model reduction for flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1990-01-01

    Several conditions for a near-optimal reduction of general dynamic systems are presented focusing on the reduction in balanced and modal coordinates. It is shown that model and balanced reductions give very different results for the flexible structure with closely-spaced natural frequencies. In general, balanced reduction is found to give better results. A robust model reduction technique was developed to study the sensitivity of modeling error to variations in the damping of a structure. New concepts of grammians defined over a finite time and/or a frequency interval are proposed including computational procedures for evaluating them. Application of the model reduction technique to these grammians is considered to lead to a near-optimal reduced model which closely reproduces the full system output in the time and/or frequency interval.

  20. Surface alteration and physical properties of glass from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barkatt, A.; Sang, J.C.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Talmy, I.G.; Norr, M.K.; Mazer, J.J.; Izett, G.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur

    1994-01-01

    The scalloped surface feature on Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary glass is often explained as being due to terrestrial aqueous leaching. Leaching of man-made glass results in a reduction in density of the glass. Also, Fe, because of its relative insolubility, is concentrated by the leaching process. Thus, the Haitian glass specimens which have been heavily altered should have a thin rim of less dense glass in which the Fe is concentrated compared to the core glass. The higher Fe concentration in the rim glass should cause it to have an enhanced Curie constant and a lower density compared to the unaltered glass. The magnetic Curie constant, density, and scanning electron microscopic studies were made on altered specimens of Haitian glass and also on specimens showing a minimum of alteration. The results show that the less altered samples have the highest density and the lowest Curie constant. The data substantiate the terrestrial hypothesis. ?? 1994.