Science.gov

Sample records for reduction des emissions

  1. Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wieneke, R.E.; Bowser, R.P.; Hedley, W.H.; Kissner, T.J.; Lamberger, P.H.; Morgan, F.G.; Van Patten, J.F.; Williams, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) will be a system for the continuous processing of tritium containing gases collected from various operations at Mound. The basis of the system operation will be the oxidation of elemental hydrogen isotopes and organic molecules at elevated temperatures on precious metal catalyst beds, and the adsorption of the resulting oxide (water) on molecular sieve dryers. The TERF will be expected to handle from 400,000 to 1,000,000 curies of tritium per year in the process gas stream and release no more than 200 curies per year to the atmosphere. Consequently, the TERF will need to convert and capture tritium at low concentrations in gas efficiently and reliably. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  3. Power plant emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  4. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  5. Stratospheric cruise emission reduction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Reck, G. M.; Marek, C. J.; Szaniszlo, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A recently implemented NASA effort specifically aimed at reducing cruise oxides of nitrogen from high-altitude aircraft is discussed. The desired emission levels and the combustor technology required to achieve them are discussed. A brief overview of the SCERP operating plan is given. Lean premixed-prevaporized combustion and some of the potential difficulties that are associated with applying this technique to gas turbine combustors are examined. Base technology was developed in several key areas. These fundamental studies are viewed as a requirement for successful implementation of the lean premixed combustion technique.

  6. TCM aircraft piston engine emission reduction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    The technology necessary to safely reduce general aviation piston engine exhaust emissions to meet the EPA 1980 Emission Standards with minimum adverse effects on cost, weight, fuel economy, and performance was demonstrated. A screening and assessment of promising emission reduction concepts was provided, and the preliminary design and development of those concepts was established. A system analysis study and a decision making procedure were used by TCM to evaluate, trade off, and rank the candidate concepts from a list of 14 alternatives. Cost, emissions, and 13 other design criteria considerations were defined and traded off against each candidate concept to establish its merit and emission reduction usefulness. A computer program was used to aid the evaluators in making the final choice of three concepts.

  7. Proposals for Solutions to Problems Related to the Use of F-34 (SFP) and High Sulphur Diesel on Ground Equipment Using Advanced Reduction Emission Technologies (Propositions de solutions aux problemes lies a l’utilisation de F-34 (SFP) et de diesel a haute teneur en soufre pour le materiel terrestre disposant de technologies avancees de reduction des emissions)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Sulphur Fuel ( HSF ) is a potential problem to NATO forces when vehicles and equipment are fitted with advanced emission reduction devices that require Low...worldwide available, standard fuel (F-34) and equipment capable of using such high sulphur fuels ( HSF ). Recommendations • Future equipment fitted with...will all be affected when using HSF . However, actions can be taken to overcome problems by by-passing these systems, modifying the ECU or a

  8. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  9. Towards a targetted emission reduction in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hordijk, Leen

    Currently 20 European countries have stated that they will reduce their SO 2-emissions by at least 30% in the years 1993-1995 based on 1980 emissions. Some countries will reduce more, e.g. France by 50 %. Although politically this is an important step, a more or less flat rate of emission reduction throughout Europe is not an efficient solution. The paper describes an alternate emission reduction targetted to those areas where depositions are high and taking into account the source-receptor relationships in Europe. The reductions are calculated by using the model RAINS which is being developed at IIASA. RAINS is a set of linked submodels dealing with energy scenarios, SO 2 emissions, abatement options, long-range transport, deposition, forest soil acidification and lake acidification. For the purpose of this paper an optimization algorithm developed by R. Shaw and J. Young (AES, Canada) has been connected with RAINS. The results show optimal reduction patterns in Europe for a number of different receptor areas and alternative energy scenarios.

  10. Reduction of chlorofluorocarbon emissions from refrigeration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cordova, A.; Kennicott, M.A.

    1992-09-01

    Recently enacted State and Federal legislation, (The Clean Air Act and Colorado Senate Bill 77), and the implementation of regulations for each, forbid the intentional release of ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) from refrigeration and air conditioning systems to the atmosphere. In addition, an international agreement (The Montreal Protocol), calls for CFC manufacturing reductions, which began in 1991, and eventual discontinuation. The declining supply and resultant escalating costs of CFCs are additional driving forces toward conservation and reuse of present refrigerant resources. Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) currently has an estimated 42,000 pounds of CFCs in refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss steps being taken at RFP toward the abatement of CFC releases. The main thrust of our efforts is the use of a refrigerant management system, used to recover and recycle our current CFC stock. Additional methods of further reducing CFC emissions will also be discussed. These include the installation of state-of-the-art oil filtration systems on major chiller units, installation of spring-loaded pressure relief valves and the retrofitting of major chiller units to accept less harmful, alternative refrigerants.

  11. Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

  12. Optimal deployment of emissions reduction technologies for construction equipment.

    PubMed

    Bari, Muhammad Ehsanul; Zietsman, Josias; Quadrifoglio, Luca; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a multiobjective optimization model to deploy emissions reduction technologies for nonroad construction equipment to reduce emissions in a cost-effective and optimal manner. Given a fleet of construction equipment emitting different pollutants in the nonattainment (NA) and near -nonattainment (NNA) counties of a state and a set of emissions reduction technologies available for installation on equipment to control pollution/emissions, the model assists in determining the mix of technologies to be deployed so that maximum emissions reduction and fuel savings are achieved within a given budget. Three technologies considered for emissions reduction were designated as X, Y, and Z to keep the model formulation general so that it can be applied for any other set of technologies. Two alternative methods of deploying these technologies on a fleet of equipment were investigated with the methods differing in the technology deployment preference in the NA and NNA counties. The model having a weighted objective function containing emissions reduction benefits and fuel-saving benefits was programmed with C++ and ILOG-CPLEX. For demonstration purposes, the model was applied for a selected construction equipment fleet owned by the Texas Department of Transportation, located in NA and NNA counties of Texas, assuming the three emissions reduction technologies X, Y, and Z to represent, respectively, hydrogen enrichment, selective catalytic reduction, and fuel additive technologies. Model solutions were obtained for varying budget amounts to test the sensitivity of emissions reductions and fuel-savings benefits with increasing the budget. Different mixes of technologies producing maximum oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) reductions and total combined benefits (emissions reductions plus fuel savings) were indicated at different budget ranges. The initial steep portion of the plots for NO(x) reductions and total combined benefits against budgets

  13. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  14. Human factors engineering for the TERF (Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility) project. [Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hedley, W.H.; Adams, F.S. ); Wells, J.E. )

    1990-12-14

    The Tritium Emissions Reduction Facility (TERF) is being built by EG G Mound Applied Technologies to provide improved control of the tritium emissions from gas streams being processed. Mound handles tritium in connection with production, development, research, disassembly, recovery, and surveillance operations. During these operations, a small fraction of the tritium being processed escapes from its original containment. The objective of this report is to describe the human factors engineering as performed in connection with the design, construction, and testing of the TERF as required in DOE Order 6430.1A, section 1300-12. Human factors engineering has been involved at each step of the process and was considered during the preliminary research on tritium capture before selecting the specific process to be used. Human factors engineering was also considered in determining the requirements for the TERF and when the specific design work was initiated on the facility and the process equipment. Finally, human factors engineering was used to plan the specific acceptance tests that will be made during TERF installation and after its completion. These tests will verify the acceptability of the final system and its components. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  15. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    This project focuses on a new technology that reduces NOx emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxygen-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace.

  16. Reduction of hydrocarbon emissions can be costly

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to share the Lone Star Greencastle Indiana Plant`s, experiences with changing raw materials in the kiln feed to reduce hydrocarbons emissions. The original change of the plant`s kiln feed composition was made in July of 1995. The plant changed the kiln feed composition for the first time since the plant opened. Shale was replaced in the kiln feed composition with clay, mill scale, and foundry sand, solely to reduce hydrocarbon emissions. At the time it was something that had to be done to keep burning liquid waste, in order to comply with the BIF Tier II limit of 20 ppm of hydrocarbon emissions. The change of raw materials did accomplish what it was supposed to by reducing the hydrocarbon emissions under the allowable limit. Plant personnel did not want to change raw materials, but did not have much of a choice, and had no idea of the repercussions that would follow. I will discuss the positives and negatives of the different raw mix compositions. 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  18. Controle modal des diodes laser a large fenetre d'emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Jean-Francois

    Les diodes laser a large fenetre d'emission (BA) constituent des sources permettant d'obtenir des puissances elevees a faible cout. Leur emission est cependant composee de nombreux modes lateraux et longitudinaux, reduisant la qualite du faisceau emis. Nous considerons l'utilisation, en cavite externe, de reseaux possedant un profil spatial de reflectivite, afin de controler les modes de ces lasers. Le chapitre 1 presente d'abord une introduction aux lasers a semi-conducteurs, ainsi qu'un rappel des principales methodes de controle des modes abordees dans la litterature. Le chapitre 2 decrit la fabrication et l'utilisation de reseaux holographiques apodisants dans le but d'obtenir une emission monomode laterale et longitudinale. Nous etudions d'abord les effets d'un profil spatial de reflectivite en cavite externe sur la discrimination envers les modes lateraux. Nous voyons ensuite la modelisation, la fabrication, puis la caracterisation des reseaux holographiques apodisants. Nous presentons finalement les resultats obtenus par l'operation d'une diode laser BA avec les reseaux fabriques. Ces resultats sont compares avec ceux obtenus en utilisant d'autres types de coupleurs externes. Le chapitre 3 traite de la fabrication et de l'usage de reseaux holographiques a double pas, dans le but d'obtenir une emission laser sur deux modes longitudinaux. La theorie et les procedures experimentales relatives a la fabrication de ces reseaux sont d'abord exposees. Nous procedons ensuite a une analyse des proprietes diffractives de ces elements. Le chapitre se termine par une presentation des resultats experimentaux obtenus en utilisant ces coupleurs en cavite externe avec une diode laser. Le chapitre 4 presente une analyse de la stabilite du systeme laser obtenu au chapitre 3. Nous rappelons d'abord la theorie relative a la competition modale dans les lasers et nous voyons, de facon analytique, l'effet de la saturation spatiale sur la saturation mutuelle des modes, dans le cas d

  19. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  20. Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W.; Toole, Gasper L.

    2012-07-18

    There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

  1. Carbon reduction emissions in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Temchin, Jerome

    2002-02-28

    This project is a feasibility study for a control system for existing backup generators in South Africa. The strategy is to install a system to enable backup generators (BGs) to be dispatched only when a large generator fails. Using BGs to provide ''ten minute reserve'' will save energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by an estimated nearly 500,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year.

  2. Modeling nitrate-nitrogen load reduction strategies for the des moines river, iowa using SWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    The Des Moines River that drains a watershed of 16,175 km2 in portions of Iowa and Minnesota is impaired for nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) due to concentrations that exceed regulatory limits for public water supplies. The Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to model streamflow and nitrate loads and evaluate a suite of basin-wide changes and targeting configurations to potentially reduce nitrate loads in the river. The SWAT model comprised 173 subbasins and 2,516 hydrologic response units and included point and nonpoint nitrogen sources. The model was calibrated for an 11-year period and three basin-wide and four targeting strategies were evaluated. Results indicated that nonpoint sources accounted for 95% of the total nitrate export. Reduction in fertilizer applications from 170 to 50 kg/ha achieved the 38% reduction in nitrate loads, exceeding the 34% reduction required. In terms of targeting, the most efficient load reductions occurred when fertilizer applications were reduced in subbasins nearest the watershed outlet. The greatest load reduction for the area of land treated was associated with reducing loads from 55 subbasins with the highest nitrate loads, achieving a 14% reduction in nitrate loads achieved by reducing applications on 30% of the land area. SWAT model results provide much needed guidance on how to begin implementing load reduction strategies most efficiently in the Des Moines River watershed. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. High Speed Link Radiated Emission Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisognin, P.; Pelissou, P.; Cissou, R.; Giniaux, M.; Vargas, O.

    2016-05-01

    To control the radiated emission of high-speed link and associated unit, the current approach is to implement overall harness shielding on cables bundles. This method is very efficient in the HF/ VHF (high frequency/ very high frequency) and UHF (ultra-high frequency) ranges when the overall harness shielding is properly bonded on EMC back-shell. Unfortunately, with the increasing frequency, the associated half wavelength matches with the size of Sub-D connector that is the case for the L band. Therefore, the unit connectors become the main source of interference emission. For the L-band and S-band, the current technology of EMC back-shell leaves thin aperture matched with the L band half wavelength and therefore, the shielding effectiveness is drastically reduced. In addition, overall harness shielding means significant increases of the harness mass.Airbus D&S Toulouse and Elancourt investigated a new solution to avoid the need of overall harness shielding. The objective is to procure EM (Electro-Magnetic) clean unit connected to cables bundles free of any overall harness shielding. The proposed solution is to implement EMC common mode filtering on signal interfaces directly on unit PCB as close as possible the unit connector.Airbus D&S Elancourt designed and manufactured eight mock-ups of LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling) interface PCBs' with different solutions of filtering. After verification of the signal integrity, three mock-ups were retained (RC filter and two common mode choke coil) in addition to the reference one (without EMC filter).Airbus D&S Toulouse manufactured associated LVDS cable bundles and integrated the RX (Receiver) and TX (Transmitter) LVDS boards in shielded boxes.Then Airbus D&S performed radiated emission measurement of the LVDS links subassemblies (e.g. RX and TX boxes linked by LVDS cables) according to the standard test method. This paper presents the different tested solutions and main conclusions on the feasibility of such

  4. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  5. Reduction of CO2 Emissions Due to Wind Energy - Methods and Issues in Estimating Operational Emission Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Millgan, Michael; Pineda, Ivan; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Orths, Antje; Wolfgang, Ove

    2015-10-05

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. Estimates based on historical data have more pitfalls in methodology than estimates based on dispatch simulations. Taking into account exchange of electricity with neighboring regions is challenging for all methods. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. Wind power will reduce emissions for about 0.3-0.4 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly gas and up to 0.7 MtCO2/MWh when replacing mainly coal powered generation. The paper focuses on CO2 emissions from power system operation phase, but long term impacts are shortly discussed.

  6. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  7. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  8. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  9. Costs, emissions reductions, and vehicle repair: evidence from Arizona.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; McConnell, V; Harrington, W

    2000-04-01

    The Arizona inspection and maintenance (I/M) program provides one of the first opportunities to examine the costs and effectiveness of vehicle emission repair. This paper examines various aspects of emission reductions, fuel economy improvements, and repair costs, drawing data from over 80,000 vehicles that failed the I/M test in Arizona between 1995 and the first half of 1996. We summarize the wealth of data on repair from the Arizona program and highlight its limitations. Because missing or incomplete cost information has been a serious shortcoming for the evaluation of I/M programs, we develop a method for estimating repair costs when they are not reported. We find surprising evidence that almost one quarter of all vehicles that take the I/M test are never observed to pass the test. Using a statistical analysis, we provide some information about the differences between the vehicles that pass and those that do not. Older, more polluting vehicles are much more likely never to pass the I/M test, and their expected repair costs are much higher than those for newer cars. This paper summarizes the evidence on costs and emission reductions in the Arizona program, comparing costs and emissions reductions between cars and trucks. Finally, we examine the potential for more cost-effective repair, first through an analysis of tightening I/M cut points and then by calculating the cost savings of achieving different emission reduction goals when the most cost-effective repairs are made first.

  10. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engines. (c) The exhaust emission standards in this section apply for engines using the fuel type on which... emission reductions for remanufactured engines. 1042.820 Section 1042.820 Protection of Environment... MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine...

  11. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  12. 10 CFR 300.8 - Calculating emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... carbon storage (for actions within entity boundaries). An entity may use changes in carbon storage as a..., life cycle costs or benefit to cost ratios, using appropriate discount rates. (j) Emission reductions... sequestered carbon is the entity with financial control of the facility, land or vehicle which generated...

  13. EMISSIONS REDUCTION DATA FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study measured the pollutant emission reduction potential of 29 photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on residential and commercial building rooftops across the U.S. from 1993 through 1997. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 21 electric power companies sponsor...

  14. Reduction of aircraft gas turbine engine pollutant emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    To accomplish simultaneous reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, required major modifications to the combustor. The modification most commonly used was a staged combustion technique. While these designs are more complicated than production combustors, no insurmountable operational difficulties were encountered in either high pressure rig or engine tests which could not be resolved with additional normal development. The emission reduction results indicate that reductions in unburned hydrocarbons were sufficient to satisfy both near and far-termed EPA requirements. Although substantial reductions were observed, the success in achieving the CO and NOx standards was mixed and depended heavily on the engine/engine cycle on which it was employed. Technology for near term CO reduction was satisfactory or marginally satisfactory. Considerable doubt exists if this technology will satisfy all far-term requirements.

  15. Impact of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in Indonesia: NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susandi, A.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we develop scenarios of total air pollution from fossil fuel consumption and its impacts for the 21st century, using an inter-temporal general equilibrium model MERGE. The Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of greenhouse gas reduction policies (MERGE) is used to project energy consumption and production. We use the base scenarios from IPCC (2000). These scenarios assume that no measures are undertaken to control greenhouse gas emissions. We extend the IPCC scenarios with mitigation scenarios, estimating the air pollution impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The MERGE model was extended to analyze emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), their concentrations, impacts on human health, and economic valuation. To estimate of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) impacts on respiratory symptoms, we calculated the NO2 concentration as derived from nitrogen oxide (NOx). In the baseline scenario, the concentrations of NO2 are rising to 2,263 μg/m3 in 2100. If the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries reduce their emissions, respiratory symptoms among adult's associated with NO2 case would reach the highest to 65,741% of adult population cases by the end of century. If all countries reduce their emission in the future, the total health problem cost associated with NO2 will lower 35% of GDP than in the baseline scenario during the century.

  16. Adaptive Engine Technologies for Aviation CO2 Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Haller, William J.; Tong, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive turbine engine technologies are assessed for their potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from commercial air transports.Technologies including inlet, fan, and compressor flow control, compressor stall control, blade clearance control, combustion control, active bearings and enabling technologies such as active materials and wireless sensors are discussed. The method of systems assessment is described, including strengths and weaknesses of the approach. Performance benefit estimates are presented for each technology, with a summary of potential emissions reduction possible from the development of new, adaptively controlled engine components.

  17. Estimated emission reductions from California's enhanced Smog Check program.

    PubMed

    Singer, Brett C; Wenzel, Thomas P

    2003-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that states evaluate the effectiveness of their vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. This study demonstrates an evaluation approach that estimates mass emission reductions over time and includes the effect of I/M on vehicle deterioration. It includes a quantitative assessment of benefits from pre-inspection maintenance and repairs and accounts for the selection bias effect that occurs when intermittent high emitters are tested. We report estimates of one-cycle emission benefits of California's Enhanced Smog Check program, ca. 1999. Program benefits equivalent to metric tons per day of prevented emissions were calculated with a "bottom-up" approach that combined average per vehicle reductions in mass emission rates (g/gal) with average per vehicle activity, resolved by model year. Accelerated simulation mode test data from the statewide vehicle information database (VID) and from roadside Smog Check testing were used to determine 2-yr emission profiles of vehicles passing through Smog Check and infer emission profiles that would occur without Smog Check. The number of vehicles participating in Smog Check was also determined from the VID. We estimate that in 1999 Smog Check reduced tailpipe emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) by 97, 1690, and 81 t/d, respectively. These correspond to 26, 34, and 14% of the HC, CO, and NO(x) that would have been emitted by vehicles in the absence of Smog Check. These estimates are highly sensitive to assumptions about vehicle deterioration in the absence of Smog Check. Considering the estimated uncertainty in these assumptions yields a range for calculated benefits: 46-128 t/d of HC, 860-2200 t/d of CO, and 60-91 t/d of NO(x). Repair of vehicles that failed an initial, official Smog Check appears to be the most important mechanism of emission reductions, but pre-inspection maintenance and repair also contributed substantially. Benefits from removal of nonpassing

  18. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM

  19. Atmospheric emissions from a passenger ferry with selective catalytic reduction.

    PubMed

    Nuszkowski, John; Clark, Nigel N; Spencer, Thomas K; Carder, Daniel K; Gautam, Mridul; Balon, Thomas H; Moynihan, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    The two main propulsion engines on Staten Island Ferry Alice Austen (Caterpillar 3516A, 1550 hp each) were fitted with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment technology to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). After the installation of the SCR system, emissions from the ferry were characterized both pre- and post-aftertreatment. Prior research has shown that the ferry operates in four modes, namely idle, acceleration, cruise, and maneuvering modes. Emissions were measured for both engines (designated NY and SI) and for travel in both directions between Manhattan and Staten Island. The emissions characterization used an analyzer system, a data logger, and a filter-based particulate matter (PM) measurement system. The measurement of NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) were based on federal reference methods. With the existing control strategy for the SCR urea injection, the SCR provided approximately 64% reduction of NOx for engine NY and 36% reduction for engine SI for a complete round trip with less than 6.5 parts per million by volume (ppmv) of ammonia slip during urea injection. Average reductions during the cruise mode were 75% for engine NY and 47% for engine SI, which was operating differently than engine NY. Reductions for the cruise mode during urea injection typically exceeded 94% from both engines, but urea was injected only when the catalyst temperature reached a 300 degrees C threshold pre- and postcatalyst. Data analysis showed a total NOx mass emission split with 80% produced during cruise, and the remaining 20% spread across idle, acceleration, and maneuvering. Examination of continuous NOx data showed that higher reductions of NOx could be achieved on both engines by initiating the urea injection at an earlier point (lower exhaust temperature) in the acceleration and cruise modes of operation. The oxidation catalyst reduced the CO production 94% for engine NY and 82% for engine SI, although the high CO levels

  20. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  1. General aviation piston-engine exhaust emission reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.; Houtman, W. H.; Westfield, W. T.; Duke, L. C.; Rezy, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    To support the promulgation of aircraft regulations, two airports were examined, Van Nuys and Tamiami. It was determined that the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from piston-engine aircraft have a significant influence on the CO levels in the ambient air in and around airports, where workers and travelers would be exposed. Emissions standards were set up for control of emissions from aircraft piston engines manufactured after December 31, 1979. The standards selected were based on a technologically feasible and economically reasonable control of carbon monoxide. It was concluded that substantial CO reductions could be realized if the range of typical fuel-air ratios could be narrowed. Thus, improvements in fuel management were determined as reasonable controls.

  2. Augmentor emissions reduction technology program. [for turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colley, W. C.; Kenworthy, M. J.; Bahr, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Technology to reduce pollutant emissions from duct-burner-type augmentors for use on advanced supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Test configurations, representing variations of two duct-burner design concepts, were tested in a rectangular sector rig at inlet temperature and pressure conditions corresponding to takeoff, transonic climb, and supersonic cruise flight conditions. Both design concepts used piloted flameholders to stabilize combustion of lean, premixed fuel/air mixtures. The concepts differed in the flameholder type used. High combustion efficiency (97%) and low levels of emissions (1.19 g/kg fuel) were achieved. The detailed measurements suggested the direction that future development efforts should take to obtain further reductions in emission levels and associated improvements in combustion efficiency over an increased range of temperature rise conditions.

  3. Particulate emission reductions from road paving in California oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Cowherd, C.

    1982-06-01

    Calculation of road dust emissions before and after paving shows that paving is an effective measure for reducing road dust emissions in Kern County oil fields. Control efficiency values for particles smaller than 10 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter averaged about 70 percent for paving with coldmix asphalt and 95 percent for paving with hot-mix asphalt. These control efficiencies are about the same for other particle size fractions up to 30 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter. The higher efficiency associated with hot-mix asphalt reflects the substantially lower quantities of surface road dust found on hot-mix roads in comparison to cold-mix roads in Kern County. The emission reductions achievable by paving a given road depend on the VMT as well as the type of asphalt pavement used. VMT increases with increasing traffic count and length of the road segment. Emission reductions also depend on the texture (silt content) of the surface before paving and on the traffic characteristics, i.e., vehicle speed, vehicle weight and number of wheels per vehicle.

  4. Black carbon emissions reductions from combustion of alternative jet fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speth, Raymond L.; Rojo, Carolina; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurement campaigns for alternative aviation fuels indicate that black carbon emissions from gas turbines are reduced significantly with the use of alternative jet fuels that are low in aromatic content. This could have significant climate and air quality-related benefits that are currently not accounted for in environmental assessments of alternative jet fuels. There is currently no predictive way of estimating aircraft black carbon emissions given an alternative jet fuel. We examine the results from available measurement campaigns and propose a first analytical approximation (termed 'ASAF') of the black carbon emissions reduction associated with the use of paraffinic alternative jet fuels. We establish a relationship between the reduction in black carbon emissions relative to conventional jet fuel for a given aircraft, thrust setting relative to maximum rated thrust, and the aromatic volume fraction of the (blended) alternative fuel. The proposed relationship is constrained to produce physically meaningful results, makes use of only one free parameter and is found to explain a majority of the variability in measurements across the engines and fuels that have been tested.

  5. Cost-effective reduction of NOx emissions from electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Burtraw, D.; Palmer, K.; Bharvirkar, R.; Paul, A.

    2001-07-15

    This paper analyzes the benefits and costs of policies to reduce NOx emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Because emissions of NOx contribute to the high concentration of atmospheric ozone in the eastern states associated with health hazards, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called on eastern states to formulate state implementation plans (SIPs) for reducing NOx emissions. The analysis considers three NOx reduction scenarios: a summer seasonal cap in the eastern states covered by EPA's NOx SIP call, an annual cap in the same SIP Call region, and a national annual cap. All scenarios allow for emissions trading. Although EPA's current policy is to implement a seasonal cap in the SIP Call region, this analysis indicates that an annual cap in the SIP Call region would yield about 400 million dollars more in net benefits (benefits less costs) than would a seasonal policy, based on particulate-related health effects only. An annual cap in the SIP Call region is also the policy that is most likely to achieve benefits in excess of costs. Consideration of omissions from this accounting, including the potential benefits from reductions in ozone concentrations, strengthens the finding that an annual program offers greater net benefits than does a seasonal program. 22 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  6. A Healthy Reduction in Oil Dependence and Carbon Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, P. A.; Higgins, M.

    2003-12-01

    Societal dependence on oil as an energy source for personal transportation leads to increasingly negative social consequences including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability and habitat degradation. Our heavy reliance on the automobile for transportation, determined in part by urban sprawl, also contributes to the population's increasingly sedentary lifestyle and to a concomitant degradation in health. We have shown that widespread substitution of exercise, commensurate with previously recommended levels, through biking or walking instead of driving can substantially reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions. For example, if all individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 substituted one hour of cycling for driving the reduction in gasoline demand would be equivalent to the gas produced from 34.9 percent of current oil consumption. Relative to 1990 net US emissions, this constitutes a 10.9 percent reduction in carbon emissions. Therefore, substitution of exercise for driving could improve health, reduce carbon emissions and save more oil than even upper estimates of that contained in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

  7. Reconnaissance optique des formes en parallele utilisant des reseaux de neurones et une mire de reduction de dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Philippe

    Cette recherche vise à la mise en OEuvre optique de la reconnaissance des images en utilisant une mire d'anneaux afin de générer des vecteurs caractéristiques qui seront ensuite classifiés par un réseau de neurones. On proposera deux architectures originales: une qui permettra la reconnaissance invariante sous rotation en utilisant un corrélateur conjoint; l'autre montage permettra une classification en parallèle de plusieurs images grâce à la capacité des mires d'anneaux de compresser l'information. Ce dernier montage est basé sur un corrélateur 4F. On présentera des résultats optiques expérimentaux pour ces deux montages. Pour arriver à des résultats concluants on analysera le comportement des vecteurs obtenus à partir d'une mire d'anneaux, on introduira une règle d'apprentissage optimisant le pic de corrélation en réduisant les pics parasites et on corrigera à l'aide d'un algorithme génétique les modulations de phases générées par le modulateur spatial à cristaux liquides.

  8. Modeling Air Pollution in Beijing: Emission Reduction vs. Meteorological Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risse, Eicke-Alexander; Hao, Nan; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This case study uses the Chemical Transport Model WRF-Chem to simulate and measure the efficiency of temporal large-scale emission reductions under different meteorological conditions. The Nov. 2014 Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit provides a unique opportunity for this study due to the extraordinarily good and well-measured air quality which is believed to be induced by intense emission- reduction measures by the Chinese government. Four cases are simulated to inter-compare between favorable und unfavorablemeteorological conditions (in terms of air quality) as well as reduced and non-reduced emissions. Key variables of the simulation results are evaluated against AERONET measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and air-quality measurements by the Chinese Ministry of Environment (CME). The inter-comparison is then performed on time- and volume-averaged total concentrations of the key variables Nitrogenous Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10).The simulation settings and some important facts about the model are shown in table 1.

  9. Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Don (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period December 2004 through August 2007 for the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3-01136, Task Order 8, Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady of the NASA Glenn Research Center. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence of the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report is for a test program in which NASA funded engine validations of integrated technologies that reduce aircraft engine noise. These technologies address the reduction of engine fan and jet noise, and noise associated with propulsion/airframe integration. The results of these tests will be used by NASA to identify the engineering tradeoffs associated with the technologies that are needed to enable advanced engine systems to meet stringent goals for the reduction of noise. The objectives of this program are to (1) conduct system engineering and integration efforts to define the engine test-bed configuration; (2) develop selected noise reduction technologies to a technical maturity sufficient to enable engine testing and validation of those technologies in the FY06-07 time frame; (3) conduct engine tests designed to gain insight into the sources, mechanisms and characteristics of noise in the engines; and (4) establish baseline engine noise measurements for subsequent use in the evaluation of noise reduction.

  10. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-ying

    2003-07-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbon market, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex, dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. The modeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared. Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reduction requirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA's withdrawal. Total costs vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs would sharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigation strategies drops to only 0-16% .

  11. Recent reduction in NO x emissions over China: synthesis of satellite observations and emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Zhang, Qiang; van der A, Ronald J.; Zheng, Bo; Tong, Dan; Yan, Liu; Zheng, Yixuan; He, Kebin

    2016-11-01

    Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities detected from space are widely used to infer trends in terrestrial nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emissions. We study changes in NO2 column densities using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over China from 2005 to 2015 and compare them with the bottom-up inventory to examine NO x emission trends and their driving forces. From OMI measurements we detect the peak of NO2 column densities at a national level in the year 2011, with average NO2 column densities deceasing by 32% from 2011 to 2015 and corresponding to a simultaneous decline of 21% in bottom-up emission estimates. A significant variation in the peak year of NO2 column densities over regions is observed. Because of the reasonable agreement between the peak year of NO2 columns and the start of deployment of denitration devices, we conclude that power plants are the primary contributor to the NO2 decline, which is further supported by the emission reduction of 56% from the power sector in the bottom-up emission inventory associated with the penetration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) increasing from 18% to 86% during 2011-2015. Meanwhile, regulations for vehicles also make a significant contribution to NO x emission reductions, in particular for a few urbanized regions (e.g., Beijing and Shanghai), where they implemented strict regulations for vehicle emissions years before the national schedule for SCR installations and thus reached their NO2 peak 2-3 years ahead of the deployment of denitration devices for power plants.

  12. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  13. Reconciling NOx emissions reductions and ozone trends in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dynamic evaluation seeks to assess the ability of photochemical models to replicate changes in air quality as emissions and other conditions change. When a model fails to replicate an observed change, a key challenge is to discern whether the discrepancy is caused by errors in meteorological simulations, errors in emission magnitudes and changes, or inaccurate responses of simulated pollutant concentrations to emission changes. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is applied to simulate the ozone (O3) change after the NOx SIP Call and mobile emission controls substantially reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in the eastern U.S. from 2002 to 2006. For both modeled and observed O3, changes in episode average daily maximal 8-h O3 were highly correlated (R2 = 0.89) with changes in the 95th percentile, although the magnitudes of reductions increased nonlinearly at high percentile O3 concentrations. Observed downward changes in mean NOx (−11.6 to −2.5 ppb) and 8-h O3 (−10.4 to −4.7 ppb) concentrations in metropolitan areas in the NOx SIP Call region were under-predicted by 31%–64% and 26%–66%, respectively. The under-predicted O3 improvements in the NOx SIP Call region could not be explained by adjusting for temperature biases in the meteorological input, or by considering uncertainties in the chemical reaction rate constants. However, the under-prediction in O3 improvements could be alleviated by 5%–31% by constraining NO

  14. Photometric redshifts and clustering of emission line galaxies selected jointly by DES and eBOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouvel, S.; et al.

    2015-09-23

    We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\\% and 68\\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.

  15. Emissions from residential combustion considering end-uses and spatial constraints: Part II, emission reduction scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking, heating, and other activities in the residential sector are major sources of indoor and outdoor air pollution, especially when solid fuels are used to provide energy. Because of their deleterious effects on the atmosphere and human health, multinational strategies to reduce emissions have been proposed. This study examines the effects of some possible policies, considering realistic factors that constrain mitigation: end-uses, spatial constraints involving proximity to forest or electricity, existing technology, and assumptions about user behavior. Reduction scenarios are applied to a year-2010, spatially distributed baseline of emissions of particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen oxides, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Scenarios explored are: (1) cleanest current stove, where we assume that existing technology in each land type is applied to burn existing fuels; (2) stove standards, where we assume that stoves are designed to meet performance standards; and (3) clean fuels, where users adopt the cleanest fuels plausible in each land type. We assume that people living in forest access areas continue to use wood regardless of available fuels, so the clean-fuels scenario leads to a reduction in emissions of 18-25%, depending on the pollutant, across the study region. Cleaner stoves preferentially affect land types with forest access, where about half of the fuel is used; emission reductions range from 25 to 82%, depending on the pollutant. If stove performance standards can be met, particulate matter emissions are reduced by 62% for the loosest standards and 95% for the tightest standards, and carbon monoxide is reduced by 40% and 62% for the loosest and tightest standards. Reductions in specific regions and countries depend on the existing fuel mixture and the population division among land types, and are explored for Latin America, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.

  16. Electricity generation: options for reduction in carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Whittington, H W

    2002-08-15

    Historically, the bulk production of electricity has been achieved by burning fossil fuels, with unavoidable gaseous emissions, including large quantities of carbon dioxide: an average-sized modern coal-burning power station is responsible for more than 10 Mt of CO(2) each year. This paper details typical emissions from present-day power stations and discusses the options for their reduction. Acknowledging that the cuts achieved in the past decade in the UK CO(2) emissions have been achieved largely by fuel switching, the remaining possibilities offered by this method are discussed. Switching to less-polluting fossil fuels will achieve some measure of reduction, but the basic problem of CO(2) emissions continues. Of the alternatives to fossil fuels, only nuclear power represents a zero-carbon large-scale energy source. Unfortunately, public concerns over safety and radioactive waste have still to be assuaged. Other approaches include the application of improved combustion technology, the removal of harmful gases from power-station flues and the use of waste heat to improve overall power-station efficiency. These all have a part to play, but many consider our best hope for emissions reduction to be the use of renewable energy. The main renewable energy contenders are assessed in this paper and realistic estimates of the contribution that each could provide are indicated. It appears that, in the time-scale envisaged by planners for reduction in CO(2) emission, in many countries renewable energy will be unlikely to deliver. At the same time, it is worth commenting that, again in many countries, the level of penetration of renewable energy will fall short of the present somewhat optimistic targets. Of renewable options, wind energy could be used in the short to medium term to cover for thermal plant closures, but for wind energy to be successful, the network will have to be modified to cope with wind's intermittent nature. Globally, hydroelectricity is currently the

  17. EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS USING HYDROGEN FROM PLASMATRON FUEL CONVERTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L

    2000-08-20

    Substantial progress in engine emission control is needed in order to meet present and proposed regulations for both spark ignition and diesel engines. Tightening regulations throughout the world reflect the ongoing concern with vehicle emissions. Recently developed compact plasmatron fuel converters have features that are suitable for onboard production of hydrogen for both fuel pretreatment and for exhaust aftertreatment applications. Systems that make use of these devices in conjunction with aftertreatment catalysts have the potential to improve significantly prospects for reduction of diesel engine emissions. Plasmatron fuel converters can provide a rapid response compact means to transform efficiently a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen rich gas. They have been used to reform natural gas [Bromberg1], gasoline [Green], diesel [Bromberg2] and hard-to-reform biofuels [Cohn1] into hydrogen rich gas (H2 + CO). The development of these devices has been pursued for the purpose of reducing engine exhaust pollutants by providing hydrogen rich gas for combustion in spark ignition and possibly diesel engines, as shown in Figure 1 [Cohn2]. Recent developments in compact plasmatron reformer design at MIT have resulted in substantial decreases in electrical power requirements. These new developments also increase the lifetime of the electrodes.

  18. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury

  19. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF DIESEL ENGINE NOX EMISSIONS USING ETHANOL AS A REDUCTANT

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M; Thomas, J; Lewis, S; Storey, J; Domingo, N; Graves, R Panov, A

    2003-08-24

    NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine were reduced by more than 90% and 80% utilizing a full-scale ethanol-SCR system for space velocities of 21000/h and 57000/h respectively. These results were achieved for catalyst temperatures between 360 and 400 C and for C1:NOx ratios of 4-6. The SCR process appears to rapidly convert ethanol to acetaldehyde, which subsequently slipped past the catalyst at appreciable levels at a space velocity of 57000/h. Ammonia and N2O were produced during conversion; the concentrations of each were higher for the low space velocity condition. However, the concentration of N2O did not exceed 10 ppm. In contrast to other catalyst technologies, NOx reduction appeared to be enhanced by initial catalyst aging, with the presumed mechanism being sulfate accumulation within the catalyst. A concept for utilizing ethanol (distilled from an E-diesel fuel) as the SCR reductant was demonstrated.

  20. REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSION FROM COAL COMBUSTION THROUGH OXYGEN ENRICHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2006-07-01

    BOC Process Gas Solutions and Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a pilot-scale test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen enrichment on the emissions characteristics of pulverized coal. The combustion test facility (CTF) at WRI was used to assess the viability of the technique and determine the quantities of oxygen required for NOx reduction from coal fired boiler. In addition to the experimental work, a series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were made of the CTF under comparable conditions. A series of oxygen enrichment test was performed using the CTF. In these tests, oxygen was injected into one of the following streams: (1) the primary air (PA), (2) the secondary air (SA), and (3) the combined primary and secondary air. Emission data were collected from all tests, and compared with the corresponding data from the baseline cases. A key test parameter was the burner stoichiometry ratio. A series of CFD simulation models were devised to mimic the initial experiments in which secondary air was enriched with oxygen. The results from these models were compared against the experimental data. Experimental evidence indicated that oxygen enrichment does appear to be able to reduce NOx levels from coal combustion, especially when operated at low over fire air (OFA) levels. The reductions observed however are significantly smaller than that reported by others (7-8% vs. 25-50%), questioning the economic viability of the technique. This technique may find favor with fuels that are difficult to burn or stabilize at high OFA and produce excessive LOI. While CFD simulation appears to predict NO amounts in the correct order of magnitude and the correct trend with staging, it is sensitive to thermal conditions and an accurate thermal prediction is essential. Furthermore, without development, Fluent's fuel-NO model cannot account for a solution sensitive fuel-N distribution between volatiles and char and thus cannot predict the trends seen in the

  1. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  2. Reduction of organochlorine emissions from municipal and hazardous waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, R.C.; Collazo-Lopez, H.

    1987-06-01

    The authors have modeled some chemical processes that occur in municipal incinerators that result in the emission of organochlorine compounds by studying the high-temperature destruction of noncombustible polymers, specifically poly(vinylidene chloride), in a stream of heated, flowing, moist air. The dominant volatile products form the thermal destruction of poly(vinylidene chloride) were polychloroaromatic hydrocarbons. The thermochemistry for the reaction of calcium, oxide, chloroacetylene, and oxygen to give calcium chloride, carbon dioxide, and water is very favorable (-571 kcal/mol). Calcium oxide is available by the heat treatment of crushed limestone. Fluidized-bed technology involving calcium oxide is already in place for reduction of acidic emissions (SO/sub 2/) from coal-fired power plants. Preliminary experiments in which a fluidized bed of calcium oxide was placed above the thermal destruction zone for poly(vinyldene chloride) in a 1000/sup 0/C tube furnace results in a decrease in aromatic polychloride effluents of a factor of 3 x 10/sup 2/. 18 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Emissions of arsenic in Sweden and their reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lindau, L

    1977-01-01

    The role of arsenic in Sweden is generally described, including raw materials, exports/imports, products, consumption, etc. An attempt was also made to estimate the transport of arsenic in Sweden. The quantities of arsenic in raw materials, the emissions of arsenic from such processes as copper smelters and chemical industries, and the amounts of products containing arsenic were calculated. The studies show that a copper smelter is the main user of arsenical materials, the very largest emitting source and also the plant which manufacturers most arsenic products. A summary of measurements of arsenic in air, water and soil in Sweden has also been made. The concentrations near a smelter, in the Baltic, in cities and in "clean-air areas" are given. The efforts made to date to reduce the emissions of arsenic and the measures planned for the next few years are described. A reduction has already been achieved and a further rather large decrease will come, especially in arsenic levels in water. The possibilities of minimizing the use of materials and products containing arsenic is also discussed. PMID:908306

  4. Mercury Emission From Plants Depends on Reduction by Ascorbate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, S.; Ernst, D.; Fleischmann, F.; Battke, F.

    2007-12-01

    The importance of vegetation for the ecological Hg cycle has been recognized recently. One step in this cycle is the poorly understood phytogenic reduction of dissolved Hg(II) to volatile Hg(0) which had initially been reported for common reed growing on Hg-contaminated sediments. The hitherto unknown mechanism of this reduction was the objective of our investigations. Young barley and European-beech plants were cultivated for 24 h and 2 days, respectively, on a sterile hydroponic medium containing 20-40 µM HgCl2. Within 10 min after seclusion in a closed exposure system, the Hg(0) emission from the encapsulated aerial part of the plants reached 10 times the control value in a plant-free system and was proportional to the Hg(II) concentration in the medium. At 20 µM Hg(II) in the medium, a flux of 12.8 µg Hg(0)/m2/h was estimated for beech leaves. The phytogenic Hg(II) reduction was further examined by addition of powderized homogenates from deep-frozen leaves (barley, beech, Arabidopsis thaliana) or from needles (Norway spruce) to solutions of 1-5 µM Hg(II). These samples consistently produced a strong transient Hg(0) release at neutral pH that was even reinforced in alkaline medium and vanished at acidic pH. The very same pH dependence was observed after addition of pure L(+)-ascorbate (AA) instead of plant material to the HgCl2 solutions, whereas the reductants NADPH and GSH produced only little or no Hg(0), respectively. At neutral and alkaline pH, the Hg(II)-reducing capacity of spruce needle homogenates was 2 - 4 times that of beech leaves, which paralleled a 6-fold difference in AA concentrations. Homogenates from whole wildtype-plants of Arabidopsis reduced 8-times more Hg(II) than those from the AA-deficient mutant vtc1-1 (AA concentration 30% of wild type). A comparison of literature data on AA concentrations revealed for wetland plants a range from 0.3 µmol/g DW (Phragmites communis) over 15.0 (Typha latifolia) to < 34.1 (Spartina altiflora), and

  5. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  6. Projects to Improve Air Quality at Ports – 2013 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) Funding Opportunity - Closed Announcement FY 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    OTAQ is soliciting proposals that achieve reductions in diesel emissions produced by diesel engines and diesel emissions exposure, from fleets operating at marine and inland water ports under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA).

  7. Projects to Improve Air Quality at Ports – 2014 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) Funding Opportunity - Closed Announcement FY 2014

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    OTAQ is soliciting proposals that achieve reductions in diesel emissions produced by diesel engines and diesel emissions exposure, from fleets operating at marine and inland water ports under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA).

  8. Locomotive Emission and Engine Idle Reduction Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Archer

    2005-03-14

    In response to a United States Department of Energy (DOE) solicitation, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA), in partnership with CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT), submitted a proposal to DOE to support the demonstration of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) technology on fifty-six CSXT locomotives. The project purpose was to demonstrate the idle fuel savings, the Nitrous Oxide (NOX) emissions reduction and the noise reduction capabilities of the APU. Fifty-six CSXT Baltimore Division locomotives were equipped with APUs, Engine Run Managers (ERM) and communications equipment to permit GPS tracking and data collection from the locomotives. Throughout the report there is mention of the percent time spent in the State of Maryland. The fifty-six locomotives spent most of their time inside the borders of Maryland and some spent all their time inside the state borders. Usually when a locomotive traveled beyond the Maryland State border it was into an adjoining state. They were divided into four groups according to assignment: (1) Power Unit/Switcher Mate units, (2) Remote Control units, (3) SD50 Pusher units and (4) Other units. The primary data of interest were idle data plus the status of the locomotive--stationary or moving. Also collected were main engine off, idling or working. Idle data were collected by county location, by locomotive status (stationary or moving) and type of idle (Idle 1, main engine idling, APU off; Idle 2, main engine off, APU on; Idle 3, main engine off, APU off; Idle 4, main engine idle, APU on). Desirable main engine idle states are main engine off and APU off or main engine off and APU on. Measuring the time the main engine spends in these desirable states versus the total time it could spend in an engine idling state allows the calculation of Percent Idle Management Effectiveness (%IME). IME is the result of the operation of the APU plus the implementation of CSXT's Warm Weather Shutdown Policy. It is difficult to separate the two. The units

  9. Effect of smelter emission reductions on children's blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Hilts, Steven R

    2003-02-15

    Trail, British Columbia has been the site of an active lead-zinc smelter for approximately 95 years. Since 1989, the community has been monitoring blood lead levels in children, studying exposure pathways and conducting comprehensive education and case management programs. From 1989 through 1996, mean blood lead levels of pre-school children declined at an average rate of 0.6 microg/dl per year. From 1996 to 1999, mean blood lead levels fell at an average rate of 1.8 microg/dl per year, from 11.5 in 1996 to 5.9 in 1999. The recent rapid decline appears to be mainly attributable to the start-up of a new lead smelter using modern flash-smelting technology in May of 1997. In 1998, the annual arithmetic mean air lead level in Trail was 0.28 microg/m(3), compared with 1.1 microg/m(3) in 1996. Reductions of approximately 50% were observed in lead loadings and concentrations in outdoor dustfall, street dust and indoor dustfall after smelter emissions were reduced. Slight reductions (statistically insignificant) have been observed in carpet dust and soil lead concentrations. During the summer of 2001, the smelting and refining operations at Trail were shut down completely for 3 months. During this period, average air lead levels in Trail dropped to 0.03 microg/m(3). The average blood lead level in Trail pre-school children at the end of the shutdown was 4.7 microg/dl. These results challenge prevailing theories about the relative importance of various environmental lead sources. For example, the US EPA Integrated Biokinetic Uptake Model for Lead (IEUBK), with its emphasis on soil concentrations, would not have predicted the dramatic decline in children's blood lead levels seen in Trail following the reductions in air lead levels. The Trail experience suggests that increased attention should be paid to the importance of active sources of highly bioavailable and mobile lead bearing dusts.

  10. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7... practicable, on a full assessment and sum total of all changes in an entity's emissions, eligible avoided... include the annual changes in the total emissions of the entity, including the total emissions of each...

  11. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7... practicable, on a full assessment and sum total of all changes in an entity's emissions, eligible avoided... include the annual changes in the total emissions of the entity, including the total emissions of each...

  12. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7... practicable, on a full assessment and sum total of all changes in an entity's emissions, eligible avoided... include the annual changes in the total emissions of the entity, including the total emissions of each...

  13. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7... practicable, on a full assessment and sum total of all changes in an entity's emissions, eligible avoided... include the annual changes in the total emissions of the entity, including the total emissions of each...

  14. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7... practicable, on a full assessment and sum total of all changes in an entity's emissions, eligible avoided... include the annual changes in the total emissions of the entity, including the total emissions of each...

  15. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  16. Reduction of Military Vehicle Acquisition Time and Cost through Advanced Modelling and Virtual Simulation (La reduction des couts et des delais d’acquisition des vehicules militaires par la modelisation avancee et la simulation de produit virtuel)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    l’informatique – a naturellement conduit à envisager l’usage de la simulation de façon systématique tout au long d’un programme naval comme un élément...les fonctions de transfert des déformations souples au niveau des capteurs gyromètre et accéléromètre du système de commande de vol sur les braquages

  17. Reduction of nitric oxide emissions from a combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, R.A.; Pritchard, H.O.

    1980-05-27

    A turbojet combustor and method for controlling nitric oxide emissions is provided by employing successive combustion zones wherein after combustion of an initial portion of the fuel in a primary combustion zone, the combustion products of the primary zone are combined with the remaining portion of fuel and additional plenum air and burned in a secondary combustion zone under conditions that result in low nitric oxide emissions. Low nitric oxide emissions are achieved by a novel turbojet combustor arrangement which provides flame stability by allowing stable combustion, which usually result in large emissions of nitric oxide in a primary combustion zone, to be accompanied by low nitric oxide emissions resulting from controlled fuel-lean combustion, ignited by the emission products from the primary zone, in a secondary combustion zone at a lower combustion temperature resulting in low emissions of nitric oxide.

  18. Terahertz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz DES) - ‘ALMA in the Lab’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile Auriacombe, Olivier Bruno Jacques; Fraser, Helen; Ellison, Brian; Ioppolo, Sergio; Rea, Simon

    2016-06-01

    ALMA is revolutionising our scope to identify and locate molecules that have been desorbed from ices, particularly complex organic molecules (COMS), which provide a vital link between interstellar and prebiotic chemistry. Explaining the existence of these molecules in star-forming regions relies on an empirical understanding of the chemistry that underpins their formation:- do COMS form predominantly in the solid-phase and then desorb to the gas phase, or do only “smaller” species, radials or ions desorb and then undergo gas-phase chemical reactions to generate larger COMS?-are the rotational state populations in COMS only attributable to equilibrium chemistry, or could their formation mechanisms and desorption processes affect the rotational state occupancy of these molecules, thereby directly tying certain species to solid-state origins?We have developed a novel laboratory method - THz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz-DES) that combines “traditional” laboratory astrophysics high-vacuum ice experiments with a sensitive high-spectral-resolution terahertz total-power heterodyne radiometer 1,2, partially mirroring the spectral range of ALMA band 7 (275- 373 GHz). Ices are grown in situ on a cold-plate, situated in a vacuum cell, then (thermally) desorbed. The sub-mm emission spectra of the resultant gas-phase molecules are detected as a function of time, temperature, or distance from the surface. Our first THz DES results will be shown for pure and binary ice systems including H2O, N2O and CH3OH. They show good correlation with established methods e.g. TPD, with the advantage of exploiting the molecular spectroscopy to unravel surface dynamics, state-occupancy, and unequivocal molecular identification, as well as concurrently measuring desorption barriers and molecular yields. We will extend our technique to a broader frequency range, enabling us to detect radical and ion desorption, to differentiate between A and E populations of CH3OH or ortho

  19. Reduction of nitric oxide emissions from a combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. A.; Pritchard, H. O. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A turbojet combustor and method for controlling nitric oxide emissions by employing successive combustion zones is described. After combustion of an initial portion of the fuel in a primary combustion zone, the combustion products of the primary zone are combined with the remaining portion of fuel and additional plenum air and burned in a secondary combustion zone under conditions that result in low nitric oxide emissions. Low nitric oxide emissions are achieved by a novel turbojet combustor arrangement which provides flame stability by allowing stable combustion to be accompanied by low nitric oxide emissions resulting from controlled fuel-lean combustion (ignited by the emission products from the primary zone) in a secondary combustion zone at a lower combustion temperature resulting in low emission of nitric oxide.

  20. Observations and Modeling of US Power Plant NOx Emission Reductions and Their Impact on Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; McKeen, S.; Hsie, E.; Trainer, M.; Heckel, A.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.

    2007-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O3). One of the largest US sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of US anthropogenic NOx emissions prior to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies. Continuous emission monitoring data demonstrate that overall US power plant NOx emissions decreased about 50% during the summer ozone season since the late 1990's. Space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to these emission reductions. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast US urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O3 across much of the eastern US in response to these emission reductions.

  1. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

  2. An Inter-Regional Comparison of Ozone Sensitivity to Reductions in Emissions in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, S.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Jia, Y.; Beaver, S.; Matsuoka, J.; Cordova, J.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions of ozone precursors NOx and VOC have declined significantly in central California over the past 60 years due to rigorous emission control programs, with 40 to 50 percent reductions achieved from 1990 to 2010 alone. Three major air basins, however, are still designated as nonattainment areas for the federal 8-hour ozone standard: the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), Sacramento area and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Historically, ozone response to reductions in emissions varied from region to region. While the maximum hourly ozone concentrations have declined significantly in all three air basins, the locations of maximum ozone shifted. Some exceedance areas came into compliance with the standard while new areas started exceeding the standard. Some areas did not significantly respond to reductions in emissions. To meet the current ozone standard, additional emission reductions are needed. Further emission reductions above and beyond the goal of meeting the current standard will be needed if the EPA lowers the current standard. In an effort to help planners and decision makers, we have been conducting a modeling study to better understand how ozone may respond to future emission reductions in the region. In this initial phase of the study, we used the WRF-CMAQ modeling system to simulate ozone for July 12-28, 2006, a representative high ozone period for all three air basins. With the selected high grid resolution and optimum model setup, the model performance for the base case simulation was exceptionally good. Statistical agreement with observations was better than most previously applied models in the region. We performed a number of sensitivity simulations by reducing anthropogenic VOC or NOx emissions separately or together 10-60 percent at 10 percent intervals uniformly across the board and prepared EKMA diagrams at observation stations. We found that a 60 percent reduction in VOC and NOx emissions reduced the maximum ozone by 20-30 percent in the

  3. Reduction in soil aggregation in response to dust emission processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swet, Nitzan; Katra, Itzhak

    2016-09-01

    Dust emission by aeolian (wind) soil erosion depends on the topsoil properties of the source area, especially on the nature of the aggregates where most dust particles are held. Although the key role of soil aggregates in dust emission, the response of soil aggregation to aeolian processes and its implications for dust emission remain unknown. This study focuses on aggregate size distribution (ASD) analyses before and after in-situ aeolian experiments in semiarid loess soils that are associated with dust emission. Wind tunnel simulations show that particulate matter (PM) emission and saltation rates depend on the initial ASD and shear velocity. Under all initial ASD conditions, the content of saltator-sized aggregates (63-250 μm) increased by 10-34% due to erosion of macro-aggregates (> 500 μm), resulting in a higher size ratio (SR) between the saltators and macro-aggregates following the aeolian erosion. The results revealed that the saltator production increases significantly for soils that are subjected to short-term (anthropogenic) disturbance of the topsoil. The findings highlight a decrease in soil aggregation for all initial ASD's in response to aeolian erosion, and consequently its influence on the dust emission potential. Changes in ASD should be considered as a key parameter in dust emission models of complex surfaces.

  4. Evaluating the Effects of Emission Reductions on Multiple Pollutants Simultaneously

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling studies over the Philadelphia metropolitan area have examined how emission control strategies might affect several types of air pollutants simultaneously. This study supports considering effects of multiple pollutants in determining optimum pollution control strategies. ...

  5. Alternative technologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from palm oil mills in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewmai, Roihatai; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2013-01-01

    Alternative methodologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude palm oil (CPO) production by a wet extraction mill in Thailand were developed. The production of 1 t of CPO from mills with biogas capture (four mills) and without biogas capture (two mills) in 2010 produced GHG emissions of 935 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), on average. Wastewater treatment plants with and without biogas capture produced GHG emissions of 64 and 47% of total GHG emission, respectively. The rest of the emissions mostly originated from the acquisition of fresh fruit bunches. The establishment of a biogas recovery system must be the first step in the reduction of GHG emissions. It could reduce GHG emissions by 373 kgCO2eq/t of CPO. The main source of GHG emission of 163 kgCO2eq/t of CPO from the mills with biogas capture was the open pond used for cooling of wastewater before it enters the biogas recovery system. The reduction of GHG emissions could be accomplished by (i) using a wastewater-dispersed unit for cooling, (ii) using a covered pond, (iii) enhancing the performance of the biogas recovery system, and (iv) changing the stabilization pond to an aerated lagoon. By using options i-iv, reductions of GHG emissions of 216, 208, 92.2, and 87.6 kgCO2eq/t of CPO, respectively, can be achieved.

  6. Emissions reductions as a result of automobile improvement.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Sajal S; Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Slott, Robert

    2003-11-15

    Remote sensing of light duty vehicle on-road tailpipe exhaust has been used to measure on-road mass emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis of these fleets shows that newer automobiles, during a period of fairly constant new car standards, have become continually less polluting independent of measurement location. Improving emissions control technology spurred by federal regulations is thought to have brought about these trends.

  7. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  8. Potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO(2) reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO(2) emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO(2) emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO(2) with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China's greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  9. Potential CO2 Emission Reduction by Development of Non-Grain-Based Bioethanol in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Limao; Shen, Lei

    2010-10-01

    Assessment of the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based ethanol in China is valuable for both setting up countermeasures against climate change and formulating bioethanol policies. Based on the land occupation property, feedstock classification and selection are conducted, identifying sweet sorghum, cassava, and sweet potato as plantation feedstocks cultivated from low-quality arable marginal land resources and molasses and agricultural straws as nonplantation feedstocks derived from agricultural by-products. The feedstock utilization degree, CO2 reduction coefficient of bioethanol, and assessment model of CO2 emission reduction potential of bioethanol are proposed and established to assess the potential CO2 emission reduction by development of non-grain-based bioethanol. The results show that China can obtain emission reduction potentials of 10.947 and 49.027 Mt CO2 with non-grain-based bioethanol in 2015 and 2030, which are much higher than the present capacity, calculated as 1.95 Mt. It is found that nonplantation feedstock can produce more bioethanol so as to obtain a higher potential than plantation feedstock in both 2015 and 2030. Another finding is that developing non-grain-based bioethanol can make only a limited contribution to China’s greenhouse gas emission reduction. Moreover, this study reveals that the regions with low and very low potentials for emission reduction will dominate the spatial distribution in 2015, and regions with high and very high potentials will be the majority in 2030.

  10. 75 FR 80833 - Shipboard Air Emission Reduction Technology Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL) Annex VI. These regulations require the reduction of nitrous oxides (NO X ), sulfur oxides (SO X ), and particulate matter...

  11. Maximizing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions through Food Waste Diversion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Humboldt County, California, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  12. Summary of NOx Emissions Reduction from Biomass Cofiring

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, D.

    2002-05-01

    NOx emissions from commercial- and pilot-scale biomass/coal cofiring demonstrations are reduced as the percentage of energy supplied to the boiler by the biomass fuel is increased. This report attempts to provide a summary of the NO{sub x} emissions measured during recent biomass/coal cofiring demonstrations. These demonstrations were carried out at the commercial and pilot-scales. Commercial-scale tests were conducted in a variety of pulverized fuel boiler types including wall-fired, T-fired, and cyclone furnaces. Biomass input ranged up to 20% on a mass basis and 10% on an energy basis.

  13. Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

  14. Power Plant Emission Reductions Using a Generation Performance Standard

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    In an earlier analysis completed in response to a request received from Representative David McIntosh, Chairman of the Subcommittee on National Economic Growth, Natural Resources, and Regulatory Affairs, the Energy Information Administration analyzed the impacts of power sector caps on nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide emissions, assuming a policy instrument patterned after the sulfur dioxide allowance program created in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This paper compares the results of that work with the results of an analysis that assumes the use of a dynamic generation performance standard as an instrument for reducing carbon dioxide emissions.

  15. An assessment of costs and benefits associated with mercury emission reductions from major anthropogenic sources.

    PubMed

    Pacyna, Jozef M; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G; Jozewicz, Wojciech; Munthe, John; Belhaj, Mohammed; Aström, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Several measures are available for reducing mercury emissions; however, these measures differ with regard to emission control efficiency, cost, and environmental benefits obtained through their implementation. Measures that include the application of technology, such as technology to remove mercury from flue gases in electric power plants, waste incinerators, and smelters, are rather expensive compared with nontechnological measures. In general, dedicated mercury removal is considerably more expensive than a co-benefit strategy, using air pollution control equipment originally designed to limit emissions of criterion pollutants, such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, or oxides of nitrogen. Substantial benefits can be achieved globally by introducing mercury emission reduction measures because they reduce human and wildlife exposure to methyl mercury. Although the reduction potential is greatest with the technological measures, technological and nontechnological solutions for mercury emissions and exposure reductions can be carried out in parallel.

  16. Assessing Regional Emissions Reductions from Travel Efficiency: Applying the Travel Efficiency Assessment Method

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation from the 2016 TRB Summer Conference on Transportation Planning and Air Quality summarizes the application of the Travel Efficiency Assessment Method (TEAM) which analyzed selected transportation emission reduction strategies in three case

  17. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  18. Terms and conditions for nonprofits in the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) National Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has determined that all construction, alteration, and repair activity involving the following Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) projects is subject to DB. Use this T&C for nonprofits in the DERA National Program.

  19. Incorporating Voluntary Mobile Source Emission Reduction Programs in State Implementation Plans (SIPs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA memorandum provides guidance and sets forth policy and interpretation regarding the granting of explicit State Implementation Plan (SIP) credit for Voluntary Mobile Source Emission Reduction Programs (VMEPs) under section 110 of the Clean Air Act.

  20. Guidance for Halon Emissions Reduction Rule (40 CFR Part 82, Subpart H)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document provides guidance for technicians on compliance with EPA's halon emission reduction rule (40 CFR 82, Subpart H). Guidance covers technician training requirements and proper halon disposal and recycling.

  1. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  2. Plastic Films for Soil Fumigation: Permeability and Emissions Reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is being increasingly regulated to protect human and environmental health. Current California regulations are based on field data and, in effect, assume that use of a standard polyethylene tarp does not reliably reduce emissions. Plastic tarps used to cover the soil surface during so...

  3. Scenario analysis to vehicular emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiurui; Fu, Liwei; Ji, Muse; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are increasingly becoming one of the important factors affecting the urban air quality in China. It is necessary and useful to policy makers to demonstrate the situation given the relevant pollutants reduction measures are taken. This paper predicted the reduction potentials of conventional pollutants (PM10, NOx, CO, HC) under different control strategies and policies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during 2011-2020. There are the baseline and 5 control scenarios designed, which presented the different current and future possible vehicular emissions control measures. Future population of different kinds of vehicles were predicted based on the Gompertz model, and vehicle kilometers travelled estimated as well. After that, the emissions reduction under the different scenarios during 2011-2020 could be estimated using emission factors and activity level data. The results showed that, the vehicle population in the BTH region would continue to grow up, especially in Tianjin and Hebei. Comparing the different scenarios, emission standards updating scenario would achieve a substantial reduction and keep rising up for all the pollutants, and the scenario of eliminating high-emission vehicles can reduce emissions more effectively in short-term than in long-term, especially in Beijing. Due to the constraints of existing economical and technical level, the reduction effect of promoting new energy vehicles would not be significant, especially given the consideration of their lifetime impact. The reduction effect of population regulation scenario in Beijing cannot be ignorable and would keep going up for PM10, CO and HC, excluding NOx. Under the integrated scenario considering all the control measures it would achieve the maximum reduction potential of emissions, which means to reduce emissions of PM10, NOx, CO, HC, by 56%, 59%, 48%, 52%, respectively, compared to BAU scenario for the whole BTH region in 2020.

  4. Joint implementation as a financing instrument for global reductions in greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, B.

    1995-11-01

    Joint implementation is based on the idea of cost-effectiveness by providing parties with the opportunity to partially off-set their own emissions with cheaper reductions achieved elsewhere. Joint implementation can be defined as realization of reduction emissions by one investor on the territory of another. Joint implementation could contribute to the North-South cooperation that is embedded in the Climate Convention.

  5. Determination of greenhouse gas emission reductions from sewage sludge anaerobic digestion in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-T; Kong, X-J; Zheng, G-D; Chen, C-C

    2016-01-01

    Sewage sludge is a considerable source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in the field of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from sludge anaerobic digestion, including direct and indirect emissions as well as replaceable emission reduction due to biogas being reused instead of natural gas, were quantified respectively. The results indicated that no GHG generation needed to be considered during the anaerobic digestion process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption on-site and sludge transportation. Overall, the total GHG emission owing to relative subtraction from anaerobic digestion rather than landfill, and replaceable GHG reduction caused by reuse of its product of biogas, were quantified to be 0.7214 (northern China) or 0.7384 (southern China) MgCO2 MgWS(-1) (wet sludge).

  6. Institutionalizing a Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Target at Yale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Jason N.; Newman, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the development and implementation of how a greenhouse gas GHG reduction target at Yale University has resulted in broad and long-term institutional commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Interviews are conducted with key individuals representing those most directly involved in developing and…

  7. Predator-induced reduction of freshwater carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, Trisha B.; Hammill, Edd; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Srivastava, Diane S.; Richardson, John S.

    2013-03-01

    Predators can influence the exchange of carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere by altering ecosystem processes such as decomposition and primary production, according to food web theory. Empirical knowledge of such an effect in freshwater systems is limited, but it has been suggested that predators in odd-numbered food chains suppress freshwater carbon dioxide emissions, and predators in even-numbered food chains enhance emissions. Here, we report experiments in three-tier food chains in experimental ponds, streams and bromeliads in Canada and Costa Rica in the presence or absence of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and invertebrate (Hesperoperla pacifica and Mecistogaster modesta) predators. We monitored carbon dioxide fluxes along with prey and primary producer biomass. We found substantially reduced carbon dioxide emissions in the presence of predators in all systems, despite differences in predator type, hydrology, climatic region, ecological zone and level of in situ primary production. We also observed lower amounts of prey biomass and higher amounts of algal and detrital biomass in the presence of predators. We conclude that predators have the potential to markedly influence carbon dioxide dynamics in freshwater systems.

  8. Contribution from urban heating to China's 2020 goal of emission reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Xia; Wang, Lu; Sun, Shufeng; Tong, Lige; Yue, Xianfang; Yin, Shaowu; Zheng, Lifang

    2011-06-01

    To reduce inhalable particle and SO(x) pollution from coal-based urban central heating (UCH), China has been vigorously developing natural gas-based UCH for years. The CO(2) emissions of UCH, having an average annual growth rate of 10.3%, accounted for 4.4% of China's total CO(2) emissions in 2009. This paper analyzes the feasibility of replacing UCH with heat pump heating (HPH) in China's climatic suitable regions and evaluates the corresponding potential for energy saving and emission reduction. Current strategy of replacing coal-based UCH with natural gas-based UCH is expected to decrease CO(2) emissions by 63.5%. However, the CO(2) emissions of HPH are 55.4% less than those of natural gas-based UCH. Replacing coal-based UCH with HPH is capable of decreasing CO(2) emissions by 83.7% and consequently decreases the CO(2) emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 4.2% by 2020 compared with 2005 level. This contributes about 10.5% to China's 2020 CO(2) emission reduction target. For controlling environmental pollution and protecting ecological environment better, China should adjust its strategy for CO(2) emission reduction by shifting its attention from replacing coal-based UCH with natural gas-based UCH to popularizing HPH in climatic suitable regions.

  9. Estimating the Reduction of Generating System CO2 Emissions Resulting from Significant Wind Energy Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Pineda, Ivan; McCann, John; Clancy, Matthew; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    This paper presents ways of estimating CO2 reductions of wind power using different methodologies. The paper discusses pitfalls in methodology and proposes appropriate methods to perform the calculations. Results for CO2 emission reductions are shown from several countries. This paper is an international collaboration of IEA Wind Task 25 on wind integration.

  10. Staggering reductions in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide across Canada in response to legislated transportation emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Holly; Aherne, Julian

    2016-12-01

    It is well established that atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), associated mainly with emissions from transportation and industry, can have adverse effects on both human and ecosystem health. Specifically, atmospheric NO2 plays a role in the formation of ozone, and in acidic and nutrient deposition. As such, international agreements and national legislation, such as the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations (SOR/2003-2), and the Federal Agenda on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuel have been put into place to regulate and limit oxidized nitrogen emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the response of ambient air concentrations of NO2 across Canada to emissions regulations. Current NO2 levels across Canada were examined at 137 monitoring sites, and long-term annual and quarterly trends were evaluated for 63 continuous monitoring stations that had at least 10 years of data during the period 1988-2013. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test (Z values) and Sen's slope estimate were used to determine monotonic trends; further changepoint analysis was used to determine periods with significant changes in NO2 air concentration and emissions time-series data. Current annual average NO2 levels in Canada range between 1.16 and 14.96 ppb, with the national average being 8.43 ppb. Provincially, average NO2 ranges between 3.77 and 9.25 ppb, with Ontario and British Columbia having the highest ambient levels of NO2. Long-term tend analysis indicated that the annual average NO2 air concentration decreased significantly at 87% of the stations (55 of 63), and decreased non-significantly at 10% (5 of 63) during the period 1998-2013. Concentrations increased (non-significantly) at only 3% (2 of 63) of the sites. Quarterly long-term trends showed similar results; significant decreases occurred at 84% (January-March), 88% (April-June), 83% (July-September), and 81% (October-December) of the sites. Declines in transportation emissions had the most influence on NO2 air

  11. Global sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions: regional trends, uncertainties and options for emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, J. G.; van Aardenne, J. A.; Peters, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    An overview will be presented of sources and trends of global emissions of direct non-CO2 greenhouse gases CH4, N2O and the fluorinated gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6, which are addressed in the Kyoto protocol. Special attention will be given to regional source trends, estimated uncertainties and most recent global emission trends. In addition, the most significant options for emission reductions will be discussed in view of medium term emission scenarios that were meant to illustrate future trends without the effects climate policy. For estimating the recent global emission trends a special approach was used to compile fast annual updates of the EDGAR global emission inventories, based on the more detailed previous version. We present an overview of the approaches used for this `Fast Track' for the different source sectors. Results are presented for 1995-2002 for various anthropogenic sources at regional scales including an estimate of the accuracies achieved. A similar overview will be provided for the emissions of the ozone precursors NOx, CO and NMVOC and of black carbon. Tropospheric ozone and black carbon are both greenhouse gases, which are not considered in the Kyoto protocol, but in industrialised countries the emissions that cause them are often part of environmental policy on local and regional air quality.

  12. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Sarkar, A.; Legler, J.

    1995-12-31

    The pace of economic progress and development experienced in many Asian countries has not occurred without costs to the natural environment. In particular, energy policies and technologies are a primary driving force behind air pollution problems arising from air pollution emissions in Asia. Economic growth, energy use, and reliance on fossil fuels are experiencing extremely high growth throughout most of the continent. Electric power expansion plans in many countries of Asia, particularly China and India, call for substantial increases in coal combustion. In the 1990`s, two-thirds of all power related investments in developing countries will be in Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe and North America, emissions of air pollution species in Asia are increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air pollution problems and higher acidic deposition in many regions. In general, most Asian countries do not have a strong scientific nor public constituency for addressing potentially serious air pollution problems impacting important economic and cultural activities such as forestry, agriculture, and tourism. The complex political ramifications of trans-boundary air pollution in Asia have not yet begun to be addressed.

  13. Estimated Impacts of Emissions Reductions on Wheat and Maize Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebaldi, C.; Lobell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    An ability to quantify the impacts associated with different emissions scenarios acrossa broad range of economic and environmental outcomes would be helpful for guidingpolicy on energy and greenhouse gas emissions. One outcome of particular interest,especially for food insecure populations, are effects on agricultural productivity. Inthis study we use empirical models of the relation between climate and CO2concentration on the one hand, and changes in crop yields on the other, tocharacterize the differential impacts on the future productivity of two major crops oftwo level of forcings: those associated with RCP4.5 and those associated withRCP8.5. This study is part of a larger project on the Benefits of ReducingAnthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE). We consider differential effects on maize andwheat yields at the global scale from expected changes in mean temperature andprecipitation under the two scenarios. We also characterize differential levels ofexposure to damaging heat extremes. Several time horizons are considered,characterizing expected impacts over the short, middle and long terms over the 21stcentury.

  14. Aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Bahr, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced aircraft turbine engine combustor technology was used to reduce low-power emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons to levels significantly lower than those which were achieved with current technology. Three combustor design concepts, which were designated as the hot-wall liner concept, the recuperative-cooled liner concept, and the catalyst converter concept, were evaluated in a series of CF6-50 engine size 40 degree-sector combustor rig tests. Twenty-one configurations were tested at operating conditions spanning the design condition which was an inlet temperature and pressure of 422 K and 304 kPa, a reference velocity of 23 m/s and a fuel-air-ration of 10.5 g/kg. At the design condition typical of aircraft turbine engine ground idle operation, the best configurations of all three concepts met the stringent emission goals which were 10, 1, and 4 g/kg for CO, HC, and Nox, respectively.

  15. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008.

  16. Screening analysis and selection of emission reduction concepts for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Meyers, J. E.; Tucker, J. R.; Stuckas, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to screen, evaluate, and select three engine exhaust emission reduction concepts from a group of 14 candidate alternatives. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to survey the emission reduction technology state-of-the-art and establish contact with firms working on intermittent combustion engine development and pollution reduction problems. Concept development, advantages, disadvantages, and expected emission reduction responses are stated. A set of cost effectiveness criteria was developed, appraised for relative importance, and traded off against each concept so that its merit could be determined. A decision model was used to aid the evaluators in managing the criteria, making consistent judgements, calculating merit scores, and ranking the concepts. An Improved Fuel Injection System, Improved Cooling Combustion Chamber, and a Variable Timing Ignition System were recommended to NASA for approval and further concept development. An alternate concept, Air Injection, was also recommended.

  17. Emission reductions and urban ozone responses under more stringent US standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Nicole; Emery, Chris; Jung, Jaegun; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Hebert, Laura; Blewitt, Doug; Yarwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    We use a photochemical grid model instrumented with the high-order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) to evaluate the response of ozone (O3) to reductions in US-wide anthropogenic emissions, and to estimate emission reductions necessary to meet more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for O3. We simulate hourly O3 response to nationwide reductions in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions throughout 2006 and compare O3 responses in 4 US cities: Los Angeles, Sacramento, St. Louis, and Philadelphia. We compare O3 responses between NOx-rich, O3-inhibited urban core sites and NOx-sensitive, higher O3 suburban sites and analyze projected O3 frequency distributions, which can be used to drive health effect models. We find that 2006 anthropogenic NOx and VOC emissions must be reduced by 60-70% to reach annual 4th highest (H4) maximum daily 8-h (MDA8) O3 of 75 ppb (the current US standard) in Sacramento, St. Louis, and Philadelphia, and by 80-85% to reach an H4 MDA8 of 60 ppb. Los Angeles requires larger emissions reductions and achieves an H4 MDA8 of 75 ppb with 92% reductions and 60 ppb with 97% reductions. As emissions are reduced, hourly and MDA8 frequency distributions tend toward mid-level background distributions. Mid-level O3 exposure is an important driver of O3 health impacts calculated by epidemiological models. A significant fraction (at least 48%) of summertime integrated MDA8 O3 at all sites remains after complete elimination of US anthropogenic NOx and VOC emissions, implying that mid-level O3 exposure due to background will become more important as domestic precursor emissions are controlled.

  18. In-Home Demonstration of the Reduction of Woodstove Emissions from the Use of Densified Logs.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Stockton G.; Bidhouse, Roger D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  19. In-home demonstration of the reduction of woodstove emissions from the use of densified logs

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, S.G.; Bighouse, R.D.

    1992-07-07

    There is a need to reduce emissions from conventional wood stoves in the short-term while stove replacement takes place over the longer term. One possible is to use fuels that would burn cleaner than cordwood. Densified fuels have been commercially available for years and offer such a possibility. The objective of this project was to evaluate the emissions and efficiency performance of two commercially available densified log types in homes and compare their performance with cordwood. Researchers measured particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic matter (VOC) emissions. Both total VOC and methane values are presented. Each home used an Automated Woodstove Emissions Sampler system, developed for the EPA and Bonneville Power Administration, in a series of four week-long tests for each stove. The sequence of tests in each stove was cordwood, Pres-to-Logs, Eco-Logs, and a second, confirming test using Pres-to-Logs. Results show an average reduction of 52% in PM grams per hour emissions overall for the nine stoves using Pres-to-Logs. All nine stoves displayed a reduction in PM emissions. CO emissions were more modestly reduced by 27%, and VOCs were reduced 39%. The emissions reduction percentage was similar for both types of stoves.

  20. Assessing the potential visibility benefits of Clean Air Act Title IV emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, E.C. Jr.; Shannon, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    Assessments are made of the benefits of the 1990 Clean Air Act Title IV (COVE), Phase 2, SO2 and NOX reduction provisions, to the visibility in typical eastern and western Class 1 areas. Probable bands of visibility impairment distribution curves are developed for Shenandoah National Park, Smoky Mountain National Park and the Grand Canyon National Park, based on the existing emissions, ``Base Case``, and for the COVE emission reductions, ``CAAA Case``. Emission projections for 2010 are developed with improved versions of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program emission projection models. Source-receptor transfer matrices created with the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model are used with existing emission inventories and with the emission projections to calculate atmospheric concentrations of sulfate and nitrate at the receptors of interest for existing and projected emission scenarios. The Visibility Assessment Scoping Model (VASM) is then used to develop distributions of visibility impairment. VASM combines statistics of observed concentrations of particulate species and relative humidity with ASTRAP calculations of the relative changes in atmospheric sulfate and nitrate particulate concentrations in a Monte Carlo approach to produce expected distributions of hourly particulate concentrations and RH. Light extinction relationships developed in theoretical and field studies are then used to calculate the resulting distribution of visibility impairment. Successive Monte Carlo studies are carried out to develop sets of visibility impairment distributions with and without the COVE emission reductions to gain insight into the detectability of expected visibility improvements.

  1. Reduction of solvent emissions within a paint booth

    SciTech Connect

    Zirps, N.A.; Wiener, R.K.; Shaver, D.K.

    1988-12-31

    ICF Technology is currently performing a waste minimization study at Vandenberg Air Force Base. As part of the study, ICF has been examining planned freon-113 usage operations within Martin Marietta`s new Titan fairing paint booths. The booths are to be used for painting payload fairing (PLF) for Titan II and Titan IV vehicles. Approximately 1,050 gallons of Freon-113 are planned for use within the paint booths. The following alternatives have been examined to reduce emissions: substitution of the primary coating with an alternative coating such as powder, waterborne, or high solids; recovery of Freon-113 vapors using carbon adsorption or condensation; and use of a different application method.

  2. Search for Gamma-Ray Emission from DES Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Candidates with Fermi-LAT Data

    SciTech Connect

    Drlica-Wagner, A.; et al.

    2015-08-04

    Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses $\\lesssim 20\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$ annihilating via the $b\\bar{b}$ or τ(+)τ(-) channels.

  3. A Method to Exchange Air Nitrogen Emission Reductions for Watershed Nitrogen Load Reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation of the method developed for the Chesapeake Bay Program to estimate changes in nitrogen loading to Chesapeake due to changes in Bay State state-level nitrogen oxide emissions to support air-water trading by the Bay States. Type for SticsUnder AMAD Application QAPP, QA...

  4. Hg2+ reduction and re-emission from simulated wet flue gas desulfurization liquors.

    PubMed

    Wo, Jingjing; Zhang, Meng; Cheng, Xiaoya; Zhong, Xiaohang; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Xinhua

    2009-12-30

    In this study, considering that Hg(2+) in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems can easily be reduced and then released into atmosphere, causing secondary pollution, the researches about Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emission mechanism were carried out. The effects of several experimental parameters on the reduction were studied, including initial pH, temperature, and concentrations of Cl(-) and S(IV). Our experimental results indicated that Cl(-) had a restraining effect on the Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emission, after 24h reaction, only 20.5% of Hg(2+) was reduced with 100mM Cl(-) in simulated desulfurization solution. Cl(-) can slow Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emissions dramatically through changing reaction mechanism, with formation of new intermediate: ClHgSO(3)(-), which can decompose to Hg(0), but much more slowly than Hg(SO(3))(2)(2-) or HgSO(3). Simulating the conditions of the practical application (initial pH 5, T=50 degrees C, S(IV)=5 mM, Cl(-)=100 mM), we also found that Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), F(-), etc. all had obvious effects on reduction rates. Based on the material balance and characteristic of the reactants, the reduction emission mechanism of Hg(2+) has been established, providing theoretical basis for industrial application of mercury control in wet FGD systems.

  5. Strategies for emission reduction from thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Prisyazhniuk, Vitaly A

    2006-07-01

    Major polluters of man's environment are thermal power stations (TPS) and power plants, which discharge into the atmosphere the basic product of carbon fuel combustion, CO2, which results in a build-up of the greenhouse effect and global warm-up of our planet's climate. This paper is intended to show that the way to attain environmental safety of the TPS and to abide by the decisions of the Kyoto Protocol lies in raising the efficiency of the heat power stations and reducing their fuel consumption by using nonconventional thermal cycles. Certain equations have been derived to define the quantitative interrelationship between the growth of efficiency of the TPS, decrease in fuel consumption and reduction of discharge of dust, fuel combustion gases, and heat into the environment. New ideas and new technological approaches that result in raising the efficiency of the TPS are briefly covered: magneto-hydrodynamic resonance, the Kalina cycle, and utilizing the ambient heat by using, as the working medium, low-boiling substances.

  6. 9th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Workshop 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Kukla, P; Wright, J; Harris, G; Ball, A; Gu, F

    2003-08-24

    The PowerTrap{trademark} is a non-exhaust temperature dependent system that cannot become blocked and features a controlled regeneration process independent of the vehicle's drive cycle. The system has a low direct-current power source requirement available in both 12-volt and 24-volt configurations. The system is fully programmable, fully automated and includes Euro IV requirements of operation verification. The system has gained European component-type approval and has been tested with both on- road and off-road diesel fuel up to 2000 parts per million. The device is fail-safe: in the event of a device malfunction, it cannot affect the engine's performance. Accumulated mileage testing is in excess of 640,000 miles to date. Vehicles include London-type taxicabs (Euro 1 and 2), emergency service fire engines (Euro 1, 2, and 3), inner city buses, and light-duty locomotives. Independent test results by Shell Global Solutions have consistently demonstrated 85-99 percent reduction of ultrafines across the 7-35 nanometer size range using a scanning mobility particle sizer with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and off-road high-sulfur fuel.

  7. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  8. Results and status of the NASA aircraft engine emission reduction technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Diehl, L. A.; Petrash, D. A.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an aircraft engine emission reduction study are reviewed in detail. The capability of combustor concepts to produce significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions than present production combustors was evaluated. The development status of each combustor concept is discussed relative to its potential for implementation in aircraft engines. Also, the ability of these combustor concepts to achieve proposed NME and NCE EPA standards is discussed.

  9. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sewage sludge aerobic compost in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, H-t; Zheng, H-x; Chen, T-b; Zheng, G-d; Gao, D

    2014-01-01

    Sewage sludge is an important contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the carbon budget of organic solid waste treatment and disposal. In this case study, total GHG emissions from an auto-control sludge compost system, including direct and indirect emissions and replaceable reduction due to sludge compost being reused as fertilizer, were quantified. The results indicated that no methane generation needed to be considered in the carbon debit because of the advantages of auto-control for monitoring and maintenance of appropriate conditions during the composting process. Indirect emissions were mainly from electricity and fossil fuel consumption, including sludge transportation and mechanical equipment use. Overall, the total carbon replaceable emission reduction owing to sludge being treated by composting rather than landfill, and reuse of its compost as fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer, were calculated to be 0.6204 tCO2e t(-1) relative to baseline. Auto-control compost can facilitate obtaining certified emission reduction warrants, which are essential to accessing financial support with the authentication by the Clean Development Mechanism.

  10. Emission Reduction of Fuel-Staged Aircraft Engine Combustor Using an Additional Premixed Fuel Nozzle.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Shimodaira, Kazuo; Yoshida, Seiji; Kurosawa, Yoji

    2013-03-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is conducting research and development on aircraft engine technologies to reduce environmental impact for the Technology Development Project for Clean Engines (TechCLEAN). As a part of the project, combustion technologies have been developed with an aggressive target that is an 80% reduction over the NOx threshold of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP)/4 standard. A staged fuel nozzle with a pilot mixer and a main mixer was developed and tested using a single-sector combustor under the target engine's landing and takeoff (LTO) cycle conditions with a rated output of 40 kN and an overall pressure ratio of 25.8. The test results showed a 77% reduction over the CAEP/4 NOx standard. However, the reduction in smoke at thrust conditions higher than the 30% MTO condition and of CO emission at thrust conditions lower than the 85% MTO condition are necessary. In the present study, an additional fuel burner was designed and tested with the staged fuel nozzle in a single-sector combustor to control emissions. The test results show that the combustor enables an 82% reduction in NOx emissions relative to the ICAO CAEP/4 standard and a drastic reduction in smoke and CO emissions.

  11. U.S. sulfur dioxide emission reductions: Shifting factors and a carbon dioxide penalty

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Marilyn Ann; Li, Yufei; Massetti, Emanuele; ...

    2017-01-18

    For more than 20 years, the large-scale application of flue gas desulfurization technology has been a dominant cause of SO2 emission reductions. From 1994–2004, electricity generation from coal increased, but the shift to low-sulfur coal eclipsed this. From 2004–2014, electricity generation from coal decreased, but a shift to higher-sulfur subbituminous and lignite coal overshadowed this. Here, the shift in coal quality has also created a CO2 emissions penalty, representing 2% of the sector’s total emissions in 2014.

  12. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-06-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions of 84% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (64%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g. at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the feedstock. As the plume cools downwind of the engine, nucleation-mode aerosols form. For the pure FT fuels, reductions (94% averaged over all powers) in downwind particle number emissions were similar to those measured at the exhaust plane (84

  13. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines... for both locomotive and marine engines. Remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier engines may be...

  14. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines... for both locomotive and marine engines. Remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier engines may be...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines... for both locomotive and marine engines. Remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier engines may be...

  16. 40 CFR 1042.820 - Emission standards and required emission reductions for remanufactured engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines... for both locomotive and marine engines. Remanufactured Tier 2 and earlier engines may be...

  17. Greenhouse gas and criteria emission benefits through reduction of vessel speed at sea.

    PubMed

    Khan, M Yusuf; Agrawal, Harshit; Ranganathan, Sindhuja; Welch, William A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2012-11-20

    Reducing emissions from ocean-going vessels (OGVs) as they sail near populated areas is a widely recognized goal, and Vessel Speed Reduction (VSR) is one of several strategies that is being adopted by regulators and port authorities. The goal of this research was to measure the emission benefits associated with greenhouse gas and criteria pollutants by operating OGVs at reduced speed. Emissions were measured from one Panamax and one post-Panamax class container vessels as their vessel speed was reduced from cruise to 15 knots or below. VSR to 12 knots yielded carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions reductions (in kg/nautical mile (kg/nmi)) of approximately 61% and 56%, respectively, as compared to vessel cruise speed. The mass emission rate (kg/nmi) of PM(2.5) was reduced by 69% with VSR to 12 knots alone and by ~97% when coupled with the use of the marine gas oil (MGO) with 0.00065% sulfur content. Emissions data from vessels while operating at sea are scarce and measurements from this research demonstrated that tidal current is a significant parameter affecting emission factors (EFs) at lower engine loads. Emissions factors at ≤20% loads calculated by methodology adopted by regulatory agencies were found to underestimate PM(2.5) and NO(x) by 72% and 51%, respectively, when compared to EFs measured in this study. Total pollutant emitted (TPE) in the emission control area (ECA) was calculated, and emission benefits were estimated as the VSR zone increased from 24 to 200 nmi. TPE(CO2) and TPE(PM2.5) estimated for large container vessels showed benefits for CO(2) (2-26%) and PM(2.5) (4-57%) on reducing speeds from 15 to 12 knots, whereas TPE(CO2) and TPE(PM2.5) for small and medium container vessels were similar at 15 and 12 knots.

  18. Analyzing and forecasting CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chengkang; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Baohua; Chen, Shan; Qin, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Recent measures of carbon dioxide emissions from the steel industry of China have indicated a high rate of total CO2 emissions from the industry, even compared to the rest of the world. So, CO2 emission reduction in China's steel industry was analyzed, coupling the whole process and scenarios analysis. First, assuming that all available advanced technologies are almost adopted, this study puts forward some key potential-sectors and explores an optimal technical route for reducing CO2 emissions from the Chinese steel industry based on whole process analysis. The results show that in the stages of coking, sintering, and iron making, greater potential for reducing emissions would be fulfilled by taking some technological measures. If only would above well-developed technologies be fulfill, the CO2 emissions from 5 industry production stages would be reduced substantially, and CO2 emissions per ton of steel could be decreased to 1.24 (ton/ton-steel) by 2020. At the same time, the scenarios analysis indicates that if mature carbon-reducing technologies are adopted, and if the difference between steel output growth rate and the GDP growth rate could be controlled below 3%, CO2 emissions from China's steel industry would approach the goal of reducing CO2 emissions per GDP unit by 40%-45% of the 2005 level by 2020. This indicates that the focus of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in China lies in policy adjustments in order to enhance technological application, and lies in reasonably controlling the pace of growth of GDP and steel output.

  19. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996–2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated. PMID:27010658

  20. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

  1. A decision support system for emission reduction assessment: the OPERA LIFE+ project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, Claudio; Bianchessi, Nicola; Finzi, Giovanna; Pederzoli, Anna; Pisoni, Enrico; Volta, Marialuisa; Deserti, Marco; De Munari, Eriberto; Stortini, Michele; Veronesi, Paolo; Gianfreda, Roberta; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Blond, Nadege; Mark-Hummel, Lioba; Clappier, Alain; Perron, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    In last decades, air pollution modelling assumed a key role for the definition and evaluation of suitable emission control strategies, supporting Regional Decision Makers in the design of long-term plans for air quality improvement. This is a complex task, due to the non-linear chemical reactions and physical processes that bring to secondary pollution formation and accumulation, involving precursor emissions, namely VOC, NOx, NH3, primary PM and SO2. The problem is even more complex when constraining policy to a fixed budget. This paper presents the first results of the OPERA (Operational Procedure for Emission Reduction Assessment) LIFE+ project (2010-2013, www.operatool.eu) aiming to design and to implement an enhanced approach to identify efficient regional policies (1) complying with National and EU air quality standards, (2) with local emission and meteorological features, financial, technological and social constraints and (3) considering potential synergies with actions to reduce GHG emissions. The proposed methodology is based on a multi-objective (air quality, internal and external costs) optimization problem. The decision variables are the technical and non-technical emission abatement measures. Artificial neural networks, identified processing long-term 3D deterministic multi-phase modelling system simulation outputs, describe the nonlinear relations between the control variables (precursor emissions reduction) and the air quality indexes (AQIs), defining the air quality objective. The internal costs are due to emission reduction measures implementation, while the external costs assess the damage due to population pollution exposure. The methodology has been implemented in a software tool (RIAT+) and tested on two regional applications, Emilia Romagna (IT) and Alsace (FR).

  2. Study on emission characteristics and reduction strategy of nitrous oxide during wastewater treatment by different processes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shichang; Bao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    Given the inexorable increase in global wastewater treatment, increasing amounts of nitrous oxide are expected to be emitted from wastewater treatment plants and released to the atmosphere. It has become imperative to study the emission and control of nitrous oxide in the various wastewater treatment processes currently in use. In the present investigation, the emission characteristics and the factors affecting the release of nitrous oxide were studied via full- and pilot-scale experiments in anoxic-oxic, sequencing batch reactor and oxidation ditch processes. We propose an optimal treatment process and relative strategy for nitrous oxide reduction. Our results show that both the bio-nitrifying and bio-denitrifying treatment units in wastewater treatment plants are the predominant sites for nitrous oxide production in each process, while the aerated treatment units are the critical sources for nitrous oxide emission. Compared with the emission of nitrous oxide from the anoxic-oxic (1.37% of N-influent) and sequencing batch reactor (2.69% of N-influent) processes, much less nitrous oxide (0.25% of N-influent) is emitted from the oxidation ditch process, which we determined as the optimal wastewater treatment process for nitrous oxide reduction, given the current technologies. Nitrous oxide emissions differed with various operating parameters. Controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at a proper level during nitrification and denitrification and enhancing the utilization rate of organic carbon in the influent for denitrification are the two critical methods for nitrous oxide reduction in the various processes considered.

  3. Emission reductions from woody biomass waste for energy as an alternative to open burning.

    PubMed

    Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Woody biomass waste is generated throughout California from forest management, hazardous fuel reduction, and agricultural operations. Open pile burning in the vicinity of generation is frequently the only economic disposal option. A framework is developed to quantify air emissions reductions for projects that alternatively utilize biomass waste as fuel for energy production. A demonstration project was conducted involving the grinding and 97-km one-way transport of 6096 bone-dry metric tons (BDT) of mixed conifer forest slash in the Sierra Nevada foothills for use as fuel in a biomass power cogeneration facility. Compared with the traditional open pile burning method of disposal for the forest harvest slash, utilization of the slash for fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions by 98% (6 kg PM/BDT biomass), nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 54% (1.6 kg NOx/BDT), nonmethane volatile organics (NMOCs) by 99% (4.7 kg NMOCs/BDT), carbon monoxide (CO) by 97% (58 kg CO/BDT), and carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) by 17% (0.38 t CO2e/BDT). Emission contributions from biomass processing and transport operations are negligible. CO2e benefits are dependent on the emission characteristics of the displaced marginal electricity supply. Monetization of emissions reductions will assist with fuel sourcing activities and the conduct of biomass energy projects.

  4. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    SciTech Connect

    Mccarl, Bruce A.; Schneider, Uwe; Murray, Brian; Williams, Jimmy; Sands, Ronald D.

    2001-05-14

    This paper examines the relative contribution of agricultural and forestry activities in an emission reduction program, focusing in part on the relative desirability of sequestration in forests and agricultural soils. The analysis considers the effects of competition for land and other resources between agricultural activities, forestry activities and traditional production. In addition, the paper examines the influence of saturation and volatility.

  5. Laboratory assessment of emission reduction strategies for the agricultural fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, D J; Ernst, F F; Xuan, R; Yates, S R

    2009-07-01

    With the increased use of the agricultural fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP), it is important that strategies to reduce emissions of these fumigant from soil to the air are assessed to protect air quality. Using an established soil column approach, the following emission reduction strategies were compared to a control: (1) spray application of ammonium thiosulfate to the soil surface; (2) deep injection at 46 cm depth; (3) high density polyethylene sealed over the soil surface; (4) virtually impermeable film sealed over the soil surface; and (5) irrigation with ammonium thiosulfate solution. Relative to the control, 1,3-D emissions were reduced by 26.1, 1.0, 0.01, 94.2, and 42.5%, for treatments 1 through 5, respectively. For CP the reductions were 41.6, 23.3, 94.6, 99.9, and 87.5% for treatments 1 through 5, respectively. Virtually impermeable film gave the greatest reductions for both fumigants, while HDPE was very effective only for CP. Despite offering less significant emission reductions, the lower cost alternatives to tarping, particularly irrigation with ATS solution, may offer substantial benefitwhere tarping is not economically viable.

  6. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Brown, Austin; Newes, Emily; Markel, Tony; Schroeder, Alex; Zhang, Yimin; Chipman, Peter; Johnson, Shawn

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  7. 10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions. 300.12 Section 300.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity...

  8. 10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions. 300.12 Section 300.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity...

  9. 10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions. 300.12 Section 300.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity...

  10. 10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions. 300.12 Section 300.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity...

  11. 10 CFR 300.12 - Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance of reports and registration of entity emission reductions. 300.12 Section 300.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.12 Acceptance of reports and registration of entity...

  12. INVESTIGATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION IMPACT ON MERCURY SPECIATION UNDER SIMULATED NOX EMISSION CONTROL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is being increasingly applied for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired boilers. Some recent field and pilot studies suggest that the operation of SCR could affect the chemical form of mercury in the coal com...

  13. Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

  14. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emission reduction measures relevant for application in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hlawiczka, S.; Fudala, J.

    2008-03-15

    Fuel combustion for heat and power generation, together with cement production, were the most significant sources of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission in Poland in 2003, with 57 and 27% of Hg emission, respectively. It was found that in Poland, Hg emission reduction measures need to be focused on the energy generation sector. Sorbent injection upstream of an electrostatic precipitator or fabric filter, mercury oxidation upstream of a wet or dry flue gas desulphurisation installation, together with Hg capture on sorbents, should be considered as priority in Polish conditions. This refers mainly to fuel combustion processes but also to the production of cement. For economic reasons it seems advisable that, apart from activated carbons as sorbents, application of zeolites obtained from power plant fly ash should also be considered. Application of primary methods seems to be very promising in Polish conditions, although they should be considered rather as an additional option apart from sorbent injection as the best option. Switching from coal to liquid and gaseous fuels shows the highest potential for reducing Hg emission. For chlorine production using the mercury cell electrolysis method, strict monitoring of Hg emissions and good housekeeping of Hg releasing processes seems a promising approach, but the main activity should focus on changing mercury-based technologies into membrane cell methods. Emission abatement potential for the atmospheric mercury in Poland has been roughly assessed, showing that in perspective of 2015, the emission could be reduced to about 25% of the anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emission in 2003.

  15. An Interfacial Europium Complex on SiO2 Nanoparticles: Reduction-Induced Blue Emission System

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Ayumi; Hasegawa, Miki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Eu-coated SiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared, consisting of an interfacial complex of Eu and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) at the solid surfaces of the SiO2/Eu nanostructures. The as-prepared SiO2/Eu/phen nanoparticles exhibits sharp red emission via energy transfer from the phen to the EuIII. After sintering at 200 °C in air, the emission is tuned from red to blue. The blue emission is originated from EuII. This reduction-induced emissive phenomenon resulted from the electron-donating environment created by the surrounding phen and SiO2, which is the first reported fabrication of a stable EuII-based emissive material using mild conditions (reaction in air and at low temperature) and an organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructure. The existence of two different stable oxidation states with characteristic emissions, blue emissive EuII and red emissive EuIII, suggests significant potential applications as novel luminescent materials with inorganic-organic hybrid structures. PMID:26122318

  16. Strategies for emission reduction of air pollutants produced from a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Cho, Sung-Woong

    2003-01-01

    Various air pollution control (APC) techniques were employed in order to reduce emissions of air pollutants produced from chemical plants, which have many different chemical production facilities. For an emission reduction of acid gases, this study employed a method to improve solubility of pollutants by decreasing the operating temperature of the scrubbers, increasing the surface area for effective contact of gas and liquid, and modifying processes in the acid scrubbers. To reduce emission of both amines and acid gases, pollutant gas components were first separated, then condensation and/or acid scrubbing, depending on the chemical and physical properties of pollutant components, were used. To reduce emission of solvents, condensation and activated carbon adsorption were employed. To reduce emission of a mixture gases containing acid gases and solvents, the mixed gases were passed into the first condenser, the acid scrubber, the second condenser, and the activated carbon adsorption tower in sequence. As a strategy to reduce emission of pollutants at the source, this study also employed the simple pollution prevention concept of modification of the previously operating APC control device. Finally, air emissions of pollutants produced from the chemical plants were much more reduced by applying proper APC methods, depending upon the types (physical or chemical properties) and the specific emission situations of pollutants.

  17. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  18. Global Health Benefits from Reductions in Background Tropospheric Ozone due to Methane Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2005-05-01

    Increases in background ozone throughout the troposphere are partially attributed to rising anthropogenic methane concentrations, which are projected to continue to increase in the future. Because methane is long-lived and affects background ozone, controls on methane emissions would reduce surface ozone concentrations fairly uniformly around the globe. Epidemiological research indicates that exposure to ozone increases incidence of respiratory ailments and premature mortality. In addition, exposure to ozone reduces agricultural yields and damages natural ecosystems. We use the MOZART-2 global atmospheric chemistry and transport model to estimate the effects on global surface ozone of perturbations in methane emissions. We consider a baseline scenario for 2000 and the 2030 A2 scenario (emissions from the IPCC AR-4 2030 atmospheric chemistry experiments), and examine the impact on ozone of decreasing anthropogenic methane emissions relative to this baseline by 20%. Using the simulated spatially-distributed decreases in surface ozone concentrations resulting from these reductions in methane emissions, we estimate the global benefits to human health in the methane emission reduction scenario. We focus on human mortality, and consider the sensitivity of our estimates to different assumptions of health effect thresholds at low ozone concentrations.

  19. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin

    2015-09-01

    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning.

  20. Climate and Health Impacts of US Emissions Reductions Consistent with 2 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Lee, Yunha; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-01-01

    An emissions trajectory for the US consistent with 2 C warming would require marked societal changes, making it crucial to understand the associated benefits. Previous studies have examined technological potentials and implementation costs and public health benefits have been quantified for less-aggressive potential emissions-reduction policies, but researchers have not yet fully explored the multiple benefits of reductions consistent with 2 C. We examine the impacts of such highly ambitious scenarios for clean energy and vehicles. US transportation emissions reductions avoid approx.0.03 C global warming in 2030 (0.15 C in 2100), whereas energy emissions reductions avoid approx.0.05-0.07 C 2030 warming (approx.0.25 C in 2100). Nationally, however, clean energy policies produce climate disbenefits including warmer summers (although these would be eliminated by the remote effects of similar policies if they were undertaken elsewhere). The policies also greatly reduce damaging ambient particulate matter and ozone. By 2030, clean energy policies could prevent approx.175,000 premature deaths, with approx.22,000 (11,000-96,000; 95% confidence) fewer annually thereafter, whereas clean transportation could prevent approx.120,000 premature deaths and approx.14,000 (9,000-52,000) annually thereafter. Near-term national benefits are valued at approx.US$250 billion (140 billion to 1,050billion) per year, which is likely to exceed implementation costs. Including longer-term, worldwide climate impacts, benefits roughly quintuple, becoming approx.5-10 times larger than estimated implementation costs. Achieving the benefits, however, would require both larger and broader emissions reductions than those in current legislation or regulations.

  1. Climate and health impacts of US emissions reductions consistent with 2 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Lee, Yunha; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-05-01

    An emissions trajectory for the US consistent with 2 °C warming would require marked societal changes, making it crucial to understand the associated benefits. Previous studies have examined technological potentials and implementation costs and public health benefits have been quantified for less-aggressive potential emissions-reduction policies (for example, refs ,), but researchers have not yet fully explored the multiple benefits of reductions consistent with 2 °C. We examine the impacts of such highly ambitious scenarios for clean energy and vehicles. US transportation emissions reductions avoid ~0.03 °C global warming in 2030 (0.15 °C in 2100), whereas energy emissions reductions avoid ~0.05-0.07 °C 2030 warming (~0.25 °C in 2100). Nationally, however, clean energy policies produce climate disbenefits including warmer summers (although these would be eliminated by the remote effects of similar policies if they were undertaken elsewhere). The policies also greatly reduce damaging ambient particulate matter and ozone. By 2030, clean energy policies could prevent ~175,000 premature deaths, with ~22,000 (11,000-96,000 95% confidence) fewer annually thereafter, whereas clean transportation could prevent ~120,000 premature deaths and ~14,000 (9,000-52,000) annually thereafter. Near-term national benefits are valued at ~US$250 billion (140 billion to 1,050 billion) per year, which is likely to exceed implementation costs. Including longer-term, worldwide climate impacts, benefits roughly quintuple, becoming ~5-10 times larger than estimated implementation costs. Achieving the benefits, however, would require both larger and broader emissions reductions than those in current legislation or regulations.

  2. Emissions Reductions Associated with the Use of Warm-Mix Asphalt as Compared to Hot-Mix Asphalt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    processes generating greenhouse gases. The motivation was to meet strict emissions regulations set forth by the Kyoto Protocol (Prowell et al. 2012...estimating emissions during asphalt production, current protocols to measure and control emissions, and case studies where WMA emissions were measured and...Research Program (NCHRP) funded project 9-47a to update the Protocol for Documenting Emissions and Energy Reductions of WMA and Conventional HMA

  3. Estimating emissions reductions from vehicle retirement programs. Final report, January 1992-December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Deysher, E.; Pickrell, D.

    1997-02-01

    This report assesses the effectiveness of vehicle retirement programs in reducing emissions from the motor vehicle fleets, as well as examining the effect of a program`s timing on the magnitude of these reductions. First, the eastern Massachusetts nonattainment area serves as an example to demonstrate the potential reductios in volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions for retirement of all light-duty vehicles over twenty years old. The assumption that all old vehicles are retired obviously represents and extreme approach to reducing emissions; however, it is meant to test the effectiveness as a policy measure, rather than designing a program specifically for Massachusetts. Second, components of the MOBILE model are examined to assess the model`s capablity to replicate real-world vehicular emissions.

  4. Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, Gregory; Jorgenson, Jennie; Ehlen, Ali; Caldwell, James H.

    2016-01-07

    The California 2030 Low Carbon Grid Study (LCGS) analyzes the grid impacts of a variety of scenarios that achieve 50% carbon emission reductions from California's electric power sector. Impacts are characterized based on several key operational and economic metrics, including production costs, emissions, curtailment, and impacts on the operation of gas generation and imports. The modeling results indicate that achieving a low-carbon grid (with emissions 50% below 2012 levels) is possible by 2030 with relatively limited curtailment (less than 1%) if institutional frameworks are flexible. Less flexible institutional frameworks and a less diverse generation portfolio could lead to higher curtailment (up to 10%), operational costs (up to $800 million higher), and carbon emissions (up to 14% higher).

  5. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lifang; Ashworth, Daniel J.; Šimunek, Jirka; Xuan, Richeng; Yates, Scott R.

    2013-02-01

    The increasing registration of the fumigant methyl iodide within the USA has led to more concerns about its toxicity to workers and bystanders. Emission mitigation strategies are needed to protect the public and environmental health while providing effective pest control. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using a process-based mathematical model in this study. Firstly, comparisons between the simulated and laboratory measured emission fluxes and cumulative emissions were made for methyl iodide (MeI) under four emission reduction treatments: 1) control, 2) using soil with high organic matter content (HOM), 3) being covered by virtually impermeable film (VIF), and 4) irrigating soil surface following fumigation (Irrigation). Then the model was extended to simulate a broader range of emission reduction strategies for MeI, including 5) being covered by high density polyethylene (HDPE), 6) increasing injection depth from 30 cm to 46 cm (Deep), 7) HDPE + Deep, 8) adding a reagent at soil surface (Reagent), 9) Reagent + Irrigation, and 10) Reagent + HDPE. Furthermore, the survivability of three types of soil-borne pests (citrus nematodes [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], barnyard seeds [Echinochloa crus-galli], fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]) was also estimated for each scenario. Overall, the trend of the measured emission fluxes as well as total emission were reasonably reproduced by the model for treatments 1 through 4. Based on the numerical simulation, the ranking of effectiveness in total emission reduction was VIF (82.4%) > Reagent + HDPE (73.2%) > Reagent + Irrigation (43.0%) > Reagent (23.5%) > Deep + HDPE (19.3%) > HOM (17.6%) > Deep (13.0%) > Irrigation (11.9%) > HDPE (5.8%). The order for pest control efficacy suggests, VIF had the highest pest control efficacy, followed by Deep + HDPE, Irrigation, Reagent + Irrigation, HDPE, Deep, Reagent + HDPE, Reagent, and HOM. Therefore, VIF is the optimal method disregarding

  6. Thiosulfate and manure amendment with water application and tarp on 1,3-dichloropropene emission reductions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jason A; Gao, Suduan; Qin, Ruijun; Trout, Thomas J; Hanson, Bradley D

    2008-01-15

    Reducing fumigant emissions is required for minimizing bystander risk and environmental impact. Effective and economic field management methods including commonly used surface sealing technique and soil amendments are needed for achieving emission reductions. This research determined the effectiveness of ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) and composted manure amendments to surface soil in combination with water application or high density polyethylene (HDPE) tarp on reducing emissions of 1,3-D from soil columns. Surface treatments included an untreated control, water seal (single water application at time of fumigant injection), ATS amendments at 1:1 and 2:1 molar ratio of ATS:fumigant, composted steer manure at 3.5 kg m(-2), and HDPE tarp over 1:1 ATS or the manure amendment. Cumulative 1,3-D emission loss over two weeks was greatest for the control (52% of applied). The HDPE tarp over ATS and manure treatments had the lowest 1,3-D emissions at 24 and 16%, respectively. Treatments with ATS or manure alone reduced 1,3-D emissions (29-39%) more effectively than water seal (43%) and further benefit was gained with the addition of HDPE tarp. Amendment of surface soil with organic materials shows greater potential in minimizing fumigant emissions than with chemicals with the need for a better understanding of the organic-fumigant reaction mechanism.

  7. Modelling nutrient emissions and the impact of nutrient reduction measures in the Weser river basin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Ulrike; Venohr, Markus; Kreins, Peter; Behrendt, Horst

    2008-01-01

    To implement the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) into German law, measures have to be taken to reduce the unacceptably high nutrient input into rivers. To identify the most effective measures, the sources and pathways of nutrient emissions into rivers have to be quantified. Therefore, the MONERIS model is applied, which quantifies nutrients emissions into river basins, via various point and diffuse pathways, as well as nutrient load in rivers. Most nitrogen emissions come from groundwater flow (43%), tile drainages (30%), and point sources (12%), whereas most phosphorus emissions come from groundwater flow (31%), point sources (23%), erosion (13%) and overland flow (12%). Because of their great distance from the river basin outlet, the southern sub-basins Werra and Fulda-Diemel have an 8% reduction in their nitrogen loads and a 15% and 16% reduction in their phosphorus loads, respectively. This reduction is due to retention in the main part of the river Weser. For the choice of the most effective measures, the different retention in the river is relevant.

  8. Climate and mortality changes due to reductions in household cooking emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Tommi; Mielonen, Tero; Arola, Antti; Kokkola, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Household cooking is a significant cause for health and environmental problems in the developing countries. There are more than 3 billion people who use biomass for fuel in cooking stoves in their daily life. These cooking stoves use inadequate ventilation and expose especially women and children to indoor smoke. To reduce problems of the biomass burning, India launched an initiative to provide affordable and clean energy solutions for the poorest households by providing clean next-generation cooking stoves. The improved cooking stoves are expected to improve outdoor air quality and to reduce the climate-active pollutants, thus simultaneously slowing the climate change. Previous research has shown that the emissions of black carbon can be decreased substantially, as much as 90 % by applying better technology in cooking stoves. We have implemented reasonable (50% decrease) and best case (90% decrease) scenarios of the reductions in black and organic carbon due to improved cooking stoves in India into ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model. The global simulations of the scenarios will be used to study how the reductions of emissions in India affect the pollutant concentrations and radiation. The simulated reductions in particulate concentrations will also be used to estimate the decrease in mortality rates. Furthermore, we will study how the emission reductions would affect the global climate and mortality if a similar initiative would be applied in other developing countries.

  9. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSORPTION, EMISSIVITY REDUCTION, AND LOCAL SUPPRESSION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, D.-Y.; Liang, Z.-C.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-05-01

    The power of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions is lower relative to the quiet Sun. Absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of acoustic waves contribute to the observed power reduction in magnetic regions. We propose a model for the energy budget of acoustic waves propagating through a sunspot in terms of the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of the sunspot. Using the property that the waves emitted along the wave path between two points have no correlation with the signal at the starting point, we can separate the effects of these three mechanisms. Applying this method to helioseismic data filtered with direction and phase-velocity filters, we measure the fraction of the contribution of each mechanism to the power deficit in the umbra of the leading sunspot of NOAA 9057. The contribution from absorption is 23.3 {+-} 1.3%, emissivity reduction 8.2 {+-} 1.4%, and local suppression 68.5 {+-} 1.5%, for a wave packet corresponding to a phase velocity of 6.98 x 10{sup -5} rad s{sup -1}.

  10. Savanna burning methodology for fire management and emissions reduction: a critical review of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn; Griffiths, Greg; Apan, Armando

    2016-12-01

    Savanna fire is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Australia, savanna fire contributes about 3% of annual GHG emissions reportable to the Kyoto Protocol. In order to reduce GHG emissions from savanna burning, the Australian government has developed and approved a Kyoto compliant savanna controlled burning methodology-the first legal instrument of this kind at a global level-under its Emission Reduction Fund. However, this approved methodology is currently only applicable to nine vegetation fuel types across northern parts of Australia in areas which receive on average over 600 mm rainfall annually, covering only 15.4% of the total land area in Australia. Savanna ecosystems extend across a large proportion of mainland Australia. This paper provides a critical review of ten key factors that need to be considered in developing a savanna burning methodology applicable to the other parts of Australia. It will also inform discussion in other countries intent on developing similar emissions reduction strategies.

  11. Evaluation of Corona Reactors of Several Geometries for a Plasma Assisted Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction Device

    SciTech Connect

    Herling, Darrell R.; Smith, Monty R.; Hemingway, Mark D.; Goulette, David; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2000-08-09

    Proposed vehicle emissions regulations for the near future have prompted automotive manufactures and component suppliers to focus heavily on developing more efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices to lower emissions from spark and compression ignition engines. One of the primary pollutants from lean-burn engines, especially from diesels, are oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Current three-way catalytic converters will not have adequate performance to meet future emission reduction requirements. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and engineers to develop efficient exhaust aftertreatment devices that will reduce NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. These devices must have very high conversion of NOx gases, be unaffected by exhaust-gas impurity such as sulfur, and have minimal impact on vehicle operations and fuel economy. An effective technology for NOx control that is currently receiving a lot of attention is a non-thermal plasma system. This system is comprised of a two-stage corona generation device (plasma reactor) and reduction catalyst that reduces nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions to nitrogen.

  12. Reduction potentials of total energy consumption and GHG emissions in Xiamen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, C.; Cui, S.

    2009-12-01

    Urban areas contain 40% of the population and contribute 75% of the Chinese national economy. The 35 largest cities in China, which contain 18% of the population, contribute 40% of China’s energy uses and CO2 emissions. Therefore, an insight into energy consumption and quantification of emissions from urban areas are extremely important for identifying effects of energy-saving policies and finding solution to GHG emissions in urban centers. This paper applies the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system for modeling the total energy consumption and associated emissions from Xiamen city. Energy consumption under different sets of policy and technology options are analyzed for a time span of 2007-2020 and GHG emissions are estimated. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of Xiamen city. The ‘Business as Usual’ scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. The ‘Integrated’ scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control and new and renewable energy development and utilization are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen up to 2020 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the ‘Integrated’ scenario and the relative contribution rate of reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated.

  13. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark V. Scotto; Mark A. Perna

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NOx emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of highflammables content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NOx emissions. The actual NOx reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammables content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NOx reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NOx emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NOx emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  14. Evaluation of Reformer Produced Synthesis Gas for Emissions Reductions in Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Scotto

    2010-05-30

    Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) has developed a system that produces synthesis gas from air and natural gas. A near-term application being considered for this technology is synthesis gas injection into reciprocating engines for reducing NO{sub x} emissions. A proof of concept study using bottled synthesis gas and a two-stroke reciprocating engine showed that injecting small amounts of high-flammable content synthesis gas significantly improved combustion stability and enabled leaner engine operation resulting in over 44% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. The actual NO{sub x} reduction that could be achieved in the field is expected to be engine specific, and in many cases may be even greater. RRFCS demonstrated that its synthesis gas generator could produce synthesis gas with the flammable content that was successfully used in the engine testing. An economic analysis of the synthesis gas approach estimates that its initial capital cost and yearly operating cost are less than half that of a competing NO{sub x} reduction technology, Selective Catalytic Reduction. The next step in developing the technology is an integrated test of the synthesis gas generator with an engine to obtain reliability data for system components and to confirm operating cost. RRFCS is actively pursuing opportunities to perform the integrated test. A successful integrated test would demonstrate the technology as a low-cost option to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from approximately 6,000 existing two-stroke, natural gas-fired reciprocating engines used on natural gas pipelines in North America. NO{sub x} emissions reduction made possible at a reasonable price by this synthesis gas technology, if implemented on 25% of these engines, would be on the order of 25,000 tons/year.

  15. Reduction of ammonia emissions from dairy cattle cubicle houses via improved management- or design-based strategies: A modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luciano B; Pieters, Jan G; Snoek, Dennis; Ogink, Nico W M; Brusselman, Eva; Demeyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Given the current scarcity of empirical data on ammonia (NH3) emissions from dairy cattle under different management-based mitigation techniques, a modeling approach to assess potential NH3 emission reduction factors is needed. This paper introduces a process-based model that estimates NH3 emission reduction factors for a dairy cattle barn featuring single or multiple management-based NH3 emission mitigation techniques, as compared to another barn, to which no mitigation measure is applied. The model accounts for the following emission mitigation measures: (a) floor scraping, (b) floor type, (c) floor flushing with water and (d) indoor acidification of manure. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that manure acidification was the most efficient NH3 emission reduction technique. A fair agreement was observed between reduction factors from the model and empirical estimates found in the literature. We propose a list of combinations of techniques that achieve the largest reductions. In order of efficiency, they are: (a) floor scraping combined with manure acidification (reduction efficiency 44-49%); (b) solid floor combined with scraping and flushing (reduction efficiency 21-27%); (c) floor scraping combined with flushing and (d) floor scraping alone (reduction efficiency 17-22%). The model is currently being used to advise the Flemish Government (Belgium), on the performance of certain NH3 emission reduction systems for dairy barns in Flanders.

  16. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  17. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  18. Interactive simulation and analysis of emission reduction systems in commercial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, D.; Freitag, L.; Heath, D.; Herzog, J.; Plassmann, P.; Michels, W.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors describe an interactive virtual environment developed to model an emission reduction system for commercial boilers. The interactive environment is used to optimize the performance of the reduction system through the spatial adjustment and spray reconfiguration of reagent injectors. They describe the three principal components of the system: a computational model for the particle dynamics, a three-dimensional display device and graphics environment, and the communication layer that allows the interaction of the user in the visualization environment with the computational model. Timing results for each component are given for three hardware configurations that demonstrate the real-time performance of this tool.

  19. High emission reduction performance of a novel organic-inorganic composite filters containing sepiolite mineral nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Jinsheng; Tang, Qingguo; Li, Yanxia; Shang, Zengyao

    2017-03-02

    In this work, a new organic-inorganic composite filter was prepared. The thickness, pore size, air permeability, bursting strength and microstructure were characterized systematically, proving that coatings had regulatory effect on filters physical properties. Benefitting from the distinct coatings containing 5% sepiolite nanofibers after five times dilution, the physical properties of corresponding air filter exhibits the most favorable performance and meet the standard of air filter. When used as fuel filter, it satisfies the fuel filter standard and achieves the best performance after six times dilution. The contrast test on engine emission was taken based on auto filters coated with/without as prepared nanofibers. An obvious decrease in the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) can be observed after installation of composite filter on vehicles. Under the high idle condition, gasoline engine emission decreased by 8.13%, 11.35% and 44.91% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. When tested in the low idle condition, engine emission reduced by 0.43%, 1.14% and 85.67% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. The diesel engine emissions of CO, NOx and total amount of HC and NOx decreased by 32.26%, 3.28% and 4.66%, respectively. The results illustrate the composite installation exhibits satisfactory emission reduction effect.

  20. High emission reduction performance of a novel organic-inorganic composite filters containing sepiolite mineral nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Jinsheng; Tang, Qingguo; Li, Yanxia; Shang, Zengyao

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new organic-inorganic composite filter was prepared. The thickness, pore size, air permeability, bursting strength and microstructure were characterized systematically, proving that coatings had regulatory effect on filters physical properties. Benefitting from the distinct coatings containing 5% sepiolite nanofibers after five times dilution, the physical properties of corresponding air filter exhibits the most favorable performance and meet the standard of air filter. When used as fuel filter, it satisfies the fuel filter standard and achieves the best performance after six times dilution. The contrast test on engine emission was taken based on auto filters coated with/without as prepared nanofibers. An obvious decrease in the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) can be observed after installation of composite filter on vehicles. Under the high idle condition, gasoline engine emission decreased by 8.13%, 11.35% and 44.91% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. When tested in the low idle condition, engine emission reduced by 0.43%, 1.14% and 85.67% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. The diesel engine emissions of CO, NOx and total amount of HC and NOx decreased by 32.26%, 3.28% and 4.66%, respectively. The results illustrate the composite installation exhibits satisfactory emission reduction effect. PMID:28252034

  1. High emission reduction performance of a novel organic-inorganic composite filters containing sepiolite mineral nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Jinsheng; Tang, Qingguo; Li, Yanxia; Shang, Zengyao

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new organic-inorganic composite filter was prepared. The thickness, pore size, air permeability, bursting strength and microstructure were characterized systematically, proving that coatings had regulatory effect on filters physical properties. Benefitting from the distinct coatings containing 5% sepiolite nanofibers after five times dilution, the physical properties of corresponding air filter exhibits the most favorable performance and meet the standard of air filter. When used as fuel filter, it satisfies the fuel filter standard and achieves the best performance after six times dilution. The contrast test on engine emission was taken based on auto filters coated with/without as prepared nanofibers. An obvious decrease in the emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) can be observed after installation of composite filter on vehicles. Under the high idle condition, gasoline engine emission decreased by 8.13%, 11.35% and 44.91% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. When tested in the low idle condition, engine emission reduced by 0.43%, 1.14% and 85.67% for CO, HC and NOx, respectively. The diesel engine emissions of CO, NOx and total amount of HC and NOx decreased by 32.26%, 3.28% and 4.66%, respectively. The results illustrate the composite installation exhibits satisfactory emission reduction effect.

  2. Black carbon and fine particle emissions in Finnish residential wood combustion: Emission projections, reduction measures and the impact of combustion practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savolahti, Mikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Tissari, Jarkko; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Sippula, Olli; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2016-09-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is a major source of black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 emissions in Finland. Making a robust assessment of emissions on a national level is a challenge due to the varying heater technologies and the effect of users' combustion practices. In this paper we present an update of the emission calculation scheme for Finnish RWC, including technology-specific emission factors based on national measurements. Furthermore, we introduce a transparent method to assess the impact of poor combustion practices on emissions. Using a Finnish emission model, we assessed the emissions in 2000, 2010 and 2030, as well as the cost-efficiency of potential emission reduction measures. The results show that RWC is the biggest source of both PM2.5 and BC emissions in Finland, accounting for 37% and 55% of the total respective emissions. It will also remain the biggest source in the future, and it's role may become even more pronounced if wood consumption continues to increase. Sauna stoves cause the most emissions and also show the biggest potential for emission reductions. Informational campaigns targeted to improve heater users' combustion practices appear as a highly cost-efficient measure, although their impact on country-level emissions was estimated to be relatively limited.

  3. Emission reduction of NOx, PM, PM-carbon, and PAHs from a generator fuelled by biodieselhols.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Lien-Te

    2014-06-15

    This investigation examines the particulate matter (PM), particulate carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from a generator fueled by petroleum diesel blended with waste-edible-oil-biodiesel and water-containing acetone. Experimental results show that using biodieselhols with water-containing (or pure) acetone as the fuel of generator, in comparison to using petroleum diesel, significantly reduces PM emission; roughly, this reduction increased as percentage of water-containing acetone increased. When the percentages of waste-edible-oil-biodiesel were ≤ 5 vol%, adding pure or water-containing acetone (1-3 vol%) to biodieselhols generated emission reductions of NOx, PM, particle-bound organic carbon (OC), total-PAHs, and total-BaPeq. Consequently, using water-containing acetone biodieselhols as an alternative generator fuel is feasible and helps recycle and reuse waste solvents containing water-containing acetone.

  4. A Method to Measure the Reduction of CO2 Emissions in E-Health Applications.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Håkansson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is perhaps the topmost challenge of our time. To prevent climate change from severely impacting almost every facet of life on the planet, scientific consensus points to a need to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), measured in terms of CO2 equivalents (CO2e), by as much as 80 percent by 2050. So far the focus has centered on incremental reductions of CO2 e emissions in areas in which they are highest, without negatively impacting the economy. But there is also a large untapped opportunity to drive economic growth by applying transformative solutions. In this paper, a method to evaluate CO2e reduction in the e-health applications is presented.

  5. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are

  6. Reduction of isoprene emissions from live oak (Quercus fusiformis) with oak wilt.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laurel J.; Harley, Peter C.; Monson, Russell K.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2000-11-01

    Many plants emit isoprene, a hydrocarbon that has important influences on atmospheric chemistry. Pathogens may affect isoprene fluxes, both through damage to plant tissue and by changing the abundance of isoprene-emitting species. Live oaks (Quercus fusiformis (Small) Sarg. and Q. virginiana Mill) are major emitters of isoprene in the southern United States, and oak populations in Texas are being dramatically reduced by oak wilt, a widespread fungal vascular disease. We investigated the effects of oak wilt on isoprene emissions from live oak leaves (Q. fusiformis) in the field, as a first step in exploring the physiological effects of oak wilt on isoprene production and the implications of these effects for larger-scale isoprene fluxes. Isoprene emission rates per unit dry leaf mass were 44% lower for actively symptomatic leaves than for leaves on healthy trees (P = 0.033). Isoprene fluxes were significantly negatively correlated with rankings of disease activity in the host tree (fluxes in leaves on healthy trees > healthy leaves on survivor trees > healthy leaves on the same branch as symptomatic leaves > symptomatic leaves; isoprene per unit dry mass: Spearman's rho = -0.781, P = 0.001; isoprene per unit leaf area: Spearman's rho = -0.652, P = 0.008). Photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were reduced by 57 and 63%, respectively, in symptomatic relative to healthy leaves (P < 0.05); these reductions were proportionally greater than the reductions in isoprene emissions. Low isoprene emission rates in symptomatic leaves are most simply explained by physiological constraints on isoprene production, such as water stress as a result of xylem blockage, rather than direct effects of the oak wilt fungus on isoprene synthesis. The effects of oak wilt on leaf-level isoprene emission rates are probably less important for regional isoprene fluxes than the reduction in oak leaf area across landscapes.

  7. Dimension reduction of multivariable optical emission spectrometer datasets for industrial plasma processes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; McArdle, Conor; Daniels, Stephen

    2013-12-19

    A new data dimension-reduction method, called Internal Information Redundancy Reduction (IIRR), is proposed for application to Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) datasets obtained from industrial plasma processes. For example in a semiconductor manufacturing environment, real-time spectral emission data is potentially very useful for inferring information about critical process parameters such as wafer etch rates, however, the relationship between the spectral sensor data gathered over the duration of an etching process step and the target process output parameters is complex. OES sensor data has high dimensionality (fine wavelength resolution is required in spectral emission measurements in order to capture data on all chemical species involved in plasma reactions) and full spectrum samples are taken at frequent time points, so that dynamic process changes can be captured. To maximise the utility of the gathered dataset, it is essential that information redundancy is minimised, but with the important requirement that the resulting reduced dataset remains in a form that is amenable to direct interpretation of the physical process. To meet this requirement and to achieve a high reduction in dimension with little information loss, the IIRR method proposed in this paper operates directly in the original variable space, identifying peak wavelength emissions and the correlative relationships between them. A new statistic, Mean Determination Ratio (MDR), is proposed to quantify the information loss after dimension reduction and the effectiveness of IIRR is demonstrated using an actual semiconductor manufacturing dataset. As an example of the application of IIRR in process monitoring/control, we also show how etch rates can be accurately predicted from IIRR dimension-reduced spectral data.

  8. Sharp Reduction of the Secondary Electron Emission Yield from Grooved Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; King, F.K.; Kirby, R.E.; Ruabenheimer, T.O.; Stupakov, G.; Le Pimpec, F.; /PSI, Villigen

    2007-11-28

    The effect of an artificially-enhanced rough surface on the secondary electron emission yield (SEY) was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Analytical studies on triangular and rectangular grooved surfaces show the connection between the characteristic parameters of a given geometry to the SEY reduction. The effect of a strong magnetic field is also discussed. SEY of grooved samples have been measured and the results agree with Monte-Carlo simulations.

  9. On the possibilities of reduction in emission caused by home tile stoves in Cracow

    SciTech Connect

    Szewczyk, W.

    1995-12-31

    The coal-fired tile stoves are still very popular in Poland. The estimated total number of such home stoves operated in Cracow reaches ca. 100 000. Operation of these stoves during the heating season belongs to the most significant sources of air pollution. Type and scale of emission of the most important pollutants, caused by coal combustion in home stoves in Cracow has been determined basing upon the investigations carried out at the laboratory of the Department of Power Engineering Machines and Devices, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow, Poland within the American-Polish Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. Further experiments included in this Program allowed to estimate the attainable efficiency of home tile stoves and possible reduction in pollutant emission resulting from their operation. A short discussion of these data and capacities is presented in this lecture.

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  11. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability, and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions in mass of 86% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (66%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. At 7% power, this corresponds to a reduction from 7.6 mg kg-1 for JP-8 to 1.2 mg kg-1 for the natural gas FT fuel. At full power, soot emissions were reduced from 103 to 24 mg kg-1 (JP-8 and natural gas FT, respectively). The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g., at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the natural gas FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the

  12. The best MSW treatment option by considering greenhouse gas emissions reduction: a case study in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tayyeba, Omid; Olsson, Monika; Brandt, Nils

    2011-08-01

    The grave concern over climate change and new economic incentives such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) have given more weight to the potential of projects for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the Adjara solid waste management project, even though the need for reductions in GHG emissions is acknowledged, it is not one of the key factors for selecting the most appropriate treatment method. This study addresses the benefit of various solid waste treatment methods that could be used in the Adjara project in terms of reducing GHG emissions. Seven different options for solid waste treatment are examined: open dumping as the baseline case, four options for landfill technology (no provision of landfill gas capture, landfill gas capture with open flare system, with enclosed flare system and with electricity generation), composting and anaerobic digestion with electricity production. CDM methodologies were used to quantify the amount of reductions for the scenarios. The study concludes sanitary landfill with capture and burning of landfill gas by an enclosed flare system could satisfy the requirements, including GHG reduction potential. The findings were tested for uncertainty and sensitivity by varying the data on composition and amount of waste and were found to be robust.

  13. Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2008-01-01

    The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant emissions. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of reductions in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant reductions in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The reductions of total PAH flue gas emissions are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant emissions, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers.

  14. [Research on contribution decomposition by industry to China's carbon intensity reduction and carbon emission growth].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-Jing; Ye, Bin; Ji, Jun-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    The binding carbon intensity index and the pilot "cap-and-trade" emission trading scheme are two important approaches currently applied by China to mitigate its greenhouse gases emissions. It is of great significance to research the influence mechanism of related factors by industry on the dynamics of national carbon intensity and emission, not only for setting industry-specified intensity reduction target but also for setting industry coverage of the ETS. Two LMDI models were applied in this paper to decompose industry contributions to the changes of China's carbon intensity and carbon emission during the period of 1996-2010. Empirical results showed that: The decline of national carbon intensity was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value proportions of all industries, and the impact of industry carbon intensities was larger. The increase of national carbon emission was jointly determined by the changes of carbon intensities and the added value of all industries. The former had inhibitory effect whist the latter had decisive promoting effect. The five industries making the largest contribution to the changes of national carbon emission and carbon intensity included industries of electricity, nonmetal mineral, ferrous metal, transportation service, chemical materials, which were followed by the industries of agriculture, coal mining and processing, petroleum and natural gas extraction. Petroleum refining and coking industry and construction industry made small contribution to the decline of national carbon intensity, but made large contribution to the growth of national carbon emission. The contributions of service industries to national carbon emission growth showed a rising trend, especially those of transportation service industry, wholesaling, retailing and catering service industry.

  15. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Jarod C.; Sullivan, John L.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle impacts associated with substituting lightweight materials for those currently found in light-duty passenger vehicles. We determine part-based energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data from both the literature and automotive experts and evaluating that alongside known mass-based energy use and GHG emission ratios associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts, along with full vehicle systems, are examined for lightweighting via material substitution to observe the associated impact on GHG emissions. Results are contextualized by additionally examining fuel-cycle GHG reductions associated with mass reductions relative to the baseline vehicle during the use phase and also determining material pair breakeven driving distances for GHG emissions. The findings show that, while material substitution is useful in reducing vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs depending upon the material substitution pair. However, for a vehicle’s total life cycle, fuel economy benefits are greater than the increased burdens associated with the vehicle manufacturing cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. The vehicle cycle will become increasingly important in total vehicle life-cycle GHGs, since fuel-cycle GHGs will be gradually reduced as automakers ramp up vehicle efficiency to meet fuel economy standards.

  16. Estimates of solid waste disposal rates and reduction targets for landfill gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jon T.; Townsend, Timothy G.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-02-01

    Landfill disposal of municipal solid waste represents one of the largest anthropogenic global methane emission sources, and recent policy approaches have targeted significant reductions of these emissions to combat climate change in the US (ref. ). The efficacy of active gas collection systems in the US was examined by analysing performance data, including fire occurrence, from more than 850 landfills. A generalized linear model showed that the operating status of a landfill--open and actively receiving waste or closed--was the most significant predictor of collection system performance. Gas collection systems at closed landfills were statistically significantly more efficient (p < 0.001) and on average 17 percentage points more efficient than those at open landfills, but open landfills were found to represent 91% of all landfill methane emissions. These results demonstrate the clear need to target open landfills to achieve significant near-term methane emission reductions. This observation is underscored by landfill disposal rates in the US significantly exceeding previously reported national estimates, with this study reporting 262 million tonnes in the year 2012 compared with 122 million tonnes in 2012 as estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

  17. Modeling and optimization of coal and coal-water slurry reburning for NOx emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnescu, V.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of coal and coal-water slurry as reburn fuels in a pilot scale 0.5 MM Btu/hr Down-fired combustor (DFC) was predicted using numerical simulations and compared with measurements. Previous low NOx level burner modeling results have been used together with the whole-furnace design approach. Flow and combustion parameters, fuels and firing configurations and reburning parameters are studied and optimized for maximum NOx reduction performance. Comparisons are made between coal and coal-water slurry and biomass as reburn fuels. A sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to analyze the variation of predictions with respect to model parameters. Modeling results show that improved mixing, burner aerodynamics and flame attachment can contribute significantly to lowering the primary zone NOx levels. This fact, coupled with optimized reburning parameters can result in important NOx emissions reduction. Different scenarios are discussed and recommendations are made for maximum NOx reduction efficiency.

  18. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  19. Comparison of green-house gas emission reductions and landfill gas utilization between a landfill system and an incineration system.

    PubMed

    Haibin Han; Jisheng Long; Shude Li; Guangren Qian

    2010-04-01

    Electricity generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions were researched by making comparisons between municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill and incineration systems with three different electricity generation efficiencies - 10%, 21%, and 24.7%. For MSW landfill systems, it is shown that the total electricity generation is 198,747 MWh, and the total GHG emission reduction is 1,386,081 tonne CO( 2) during a 21-year operation period. For incineration systems, the total electricity generation is 611,801 MWh, and the total GHG emission reduction is 1,339,158 tonne CO(2) during a 10-year operation period even if the electricity generation efficiency is only 10%. It is also shown that electricity generation increases quicker than the GHG emission reductions with the increase of electricity generation efficiency. However, incineration systems show great superiority in LFG utilisation and GHG emission reductions.

  20. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, M. M.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Adelman, Z.; Naik, V.; Collins, W. J.; West, J. J.

    2013-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005). Net radiative forcing (RF) is then estimated using the GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory) standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m-2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100 yr global warming potential (GWP100) are estimated as -0.124 mW m-2 (Tg CO)-1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from -0.115 to -0.131 mW m-2 (Tg CO)-1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S-28° N) followed by the northern midlatitudes (28° N-60° N), independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region. The small variation in CO GWPs among world regions suggests that future international climate agreements could adopt

  1. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, M. M.; Schwarzkopf, M. D.; Adelman, Z.; Naik, V.; Collins, W. J.; West, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005). Net radiative forcing (RF) is then estimated using the GFDL standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m-2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100-yr global warming potential (GWP100) are estimated as -0.124 mW m-2 (Tg CO yr-1)-1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from -0.115 to -0.131 mW m-2 (Tg CO yr-1)-1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S-28° N) followed by the northern mid-latitudes (28° N-60° N), independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region. The small variation in CO GWPs among world regions suggests that future international climate agreements could adopt a globally uniform metric

  2. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  3. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  4. Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia's moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C; Baccini, Alessandro

    2015-02-03

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas ("concessions") for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17-127%, 44-129%, or 3.1-11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia's moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241-615 MtCO2e (2.8-7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213-545 MtCO2e (2.5-6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30-7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95-19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed.

  5. Etude de la Morphologie et de la Cinématique de l'Emission des Raies interdites autour des Etoiles T Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavalley, Claudia

    2000-06-01

    Le phénomène de perte de masse joue un rôle essentiel dès les premières étapes de la formation stellaire et semble être intimement lié à l'accrétion de matière sur l'étoile, probablement par l'intermédiaire de champs magnétiques permettant de convertir l'énergie cinétique accrétée, en puissance d'éjection. Les étoiles T Tauri classiques, âgées de quelques millions d'années et présentant une faible extinction, offrent un excellent cadre pour étudier les régions internes des vents stellaires. Dans ce travail, je présente les premières études sur la morphologie des jets associés aux étoiles DG Tau, CW Tau et RW Aur à une résolution angulaire de 0.1'' et sur la cinématique à deux dimensions de l'émission des raies de [O I]?6300Å, [N II]?6583Å et [S II] ?6716,6731Å dans le jet de DG Tau. Ces données ont été obtenues avec deux techniques d'observation complètement nouvelles, devenues disponibles entre 1994 et 1998 au télescope CFH, et idéalement adaptées à ce problème: l'imagerie en bande étroite derrière l'optique adaptative (PUEO) qui fournit des données à très haute résolution angulaire (~0.1''), et la spectro-imagerie intégrale de champ (TIGRE/OASIS) qui donne accès à l'information spatiale et spectrale à 2D, à haute résolution angulaire (ici ~0.5''-0.75'') et moyenne résolution spectrale (100-170 km/s). Les trois jets étudiés, résolus pour la première fois à partir de 55 u.a. de l'étoile, présentent une largeur similaire (30-35 u.a.) jusqu'à 100 u.a. et une morphologie dominée par des noeuds d'émission. Les jets des étoiles à faible excès infrarouge CW Tau et RW Aur sont très similaires aux deux autres jets des sources peu enfouies observés jusqu'à présent à la même échelle spatiale. Le jet de DG Tau, plus perturbé que les deux autres, et provenant d'une source avec une enveloppe encore importante, est aussi très similaire au seul autre jet associé à une source encore enfouie r

  6. Black carbon emission reduction strategies in healthcare industry for effective global climate change management.

    PubMed

    Raila, Emilia Mmbando; Anderson, David O

    2017-04-01

    Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO2). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14.6 kg. The primary aim was to determine if black carbon emissions from healthcare waste incineration can be lowered by mainstreaming the use of cardboard sharps healthcare waste containers instead of plastic sharps healthcare waste containers. Similarly, the study looks into whether burning temperature was associated with the smoke levels for each case or not. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated significantly lower black carbon emissions during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers (6.81 ± 4.79% smoke) than in plastic containers (17.77 ± 8.38% smoke); a statistically significant increase of 10.96% smoke (95% Confidence Interval ( CI) [4.4 to 17.5% smoke], p = 0.003). Correspondingly, lower bottom burner temperatures occurred during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers than in plastic (95% Cl [16 to 126°C], p = 0.014). Finally, we expect the application of the new quantitative evidence to form the basis for policy formulation, mainstream the use of cardboard sharps containers and opt for non-incineration disposal technologies as urgent steps for going green in healthcare waste management.

  7. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  8. Rainfall reduction amplifies the stimulatory effect of nitrogen addition on N2O emissions from a temperate forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Shicong; Chen, Zhijie; Han, Shijie; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Junhui

    2017-02-01

    Soil is a significant source of atmospheric N2O, and soil N2O emissions at a global scale are greatly affected by environment changes that include continuous deposition of atmospheric nitrogen and changing precipitation distribution. However, to date, field simulations of multiple factors that control the interaction between nitrogen deposition and precipitation on forest soil N2O emissions are scarce. In this study, we conducted a 2-year continuous assessment of N2O emissions from November 2012 to October 2014 at a nitrogen addition and rainfall reduction manipulation platform in an old broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbai Mountain in northeastern China. We found that N2O emissions from control plots were 1.25 ± 0.22 kg N2O-N ha‑1 a‑1. Nitrogen addition significantly increased N2O emissions, with the emission factor of 1.59%. A 30% reduction in rainfall decreased N2O emissions by 17–45%. However, in combination, nitrogen addition and rainfall reduction increased N2O emissions by 58–140%, with the emission factor of 3.19%, and had a larger promotional effect than the addition of nitrogen alone. Our results indicated that drought slightly decreases forest soil N2O emission; however, with increasing deposition of atmospheric N in temperate forest soils, the effect of drought might become altered to increase N2O emission.

  9. Rainfall reduction amplifies the stimulatory effect of nitrogen addition on N2O emissions from a temperate forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Shicong; Chen, Zhijie; Han, Shijie; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Junhui

    2017-01-01

    Soil is a significant source of atmospheric N2O, and soil N2O emissions at a global scale are greatly affected by environment changes that include continuous deposition of atmospheric nitrogen and changing precipitation distribution. However, to date, field simulations of multiple factors that control the interaction between nitrogen deposition and precipitation on forest soil N2O emissions are scarce. In this study, we conducted a 2-year continuous assessment of N2O emissions from November 2012 to October 2014 at a nitrogen addition and rainfall reduction manipulation platform in an old broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbai Mountain in northeastern China. We found that N2O emissions from control plots were 1.25 ± 0.22 kg N2O-N ha−1 a−1. Nitrogen addition significantly increased N2O emissions, with the emission factor of 1.59%. A 30% reduction in rainfall decreased N2O emissions by 17–45%. However, in combination, nitrogen addition and rainfall reduction increased N2O emissions by 58–140%, with the emission factor of 3.19%, and had a larger promotional effect than the addition of nitrogen alone. Our results indicated that drought slightly decreases forest soil N2O emission; however, with increasing deposition of atmospheric N in temperate forest soils, the effect of drought might become altered to increase N2O emission. PMID:28233839

  10. EAF Gas Waste Heat Utilization and Discussion of the Energy Conservation and CO2 Emissions Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Zhu, Rong; Ma, Guo-hong

    2016-02-01

    As a large number of energy was taken away by the high temperature furnace gas during the EAF smelting process, a huge economic and environmental benefits would obtained to recycle and utilize. In this paper, the energy of the EAF was analyzed theoretically with the hot metal ratio of 50%. Combined with the utilization of the gas waste heat during the scrap preheating, electricity generation, production of steam and production of coal gas processes, the effect of the energy saving and emission was calculated with comprehensive utilization of the high temperature furnace gas. An optimal scheme for utilization of the waste heat was proposed based on the calculation. The results show that the best way for energy saving and carbon reduction is the production of coal gas, while the optimal scheme for waste heat utilization is combined the production of coal gas with the scrap preheating, which will save 170 kWh/t of energy and decrease 57.88 kg/t of carbon emission. As hot metal ratio in EAF steelmaking is often more than 50%, which will produce more EAF gas waste heat, optimizing EAF gas waste heat utilization will have more obvious effect on energy saving and emission reduction.

  11. Selective catalytic reduction operation with heavy fuel oil: NOx, NH3, and particle emissions.

    PubMed

    Lehtoranta, Kati; Vesala, Hannu; Koponen, Päivi; Korhonen, Satu

    2015-04-07

    To meet stringent NOx emission limits, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is increasingly utilized in ships, likely also in combination with low-priced higher sulfur level fuels. In this study, the performance of SCR was studied by utilizing NOx, NH3, and particle measurements. Urea decomposition was studied with ammonia and isocyanic acid measurements and was found to be more effective with heavy fuel oil (HFO) than with light fuel oil. This is suggested to be explained by the metals found in HFO contributing to metal oxide particles catalyzing the hydrolysis reaction prior to SCR. At the exhaust temperature of 340 °C NOx reduction was 85-90%, while at lower temperatures the efficiency decreased. By increasing the catalyst loading, the low temperature behavior of the SCR was enhanced. The drawback of this, however, was the tendency of particle emissions (sulfate) to increase at higher temperatures with higher loaded catalysts. The particle size distribution results showed high amounts of nanoparticles (in 25-30 nm size), the formation of which SCR either increased or decreased. The findings of this work provide a better understanding of the usage of SCR in combination with a higher sulfur level fuel and also of ship particle emissions, which are a growing concern.

  12. Impact of fuel quality regulation and speed reductions on shipping emissions: implications for climate and air quality.

    PubMed

    Lack, Daniel A; Cappa, Christopher D; Langridge, Justin; Bahreini, Roya; Buffaloe, Gina; Brock, Charles; Cerully, Kate; Coffman, Derek; Hayden, Katherine; Holloway, John; Lerner, Brian; Massoli, Paola; Li, Shao-Meng; McLaren, Robert; Middlebrook, Ann M; Moore, Richard; Nenes, Athanasios; Nuaaman, Ibraheem; Onasch, Timothy B; Peischl, Jeff; Perring, Anne; Quinn, Patricia K; Ryerson, Tom; Schwartz, Joshua P; Spackman, Ryan; Wofsy, Steven C; Worsnop, Doug; Xiang, Bin; Williams, Eric

    2011-10-15

    Atmospheric emissions of gas and particulate matter from a large ocean-going container vessel were sampled as it slowed and switched from high-sulfur to low-sulfur fuel as it transited into regulated coastal waters of California. Reduction in emission factors (EFs) of sulfur dioxide (SO₂), particulate matter, particulate sulfate and cloud condensation nuclei were substantial (≥ 90%). EFs for particulate organic matter decreased by 70%. Black carbon (BC) EFs were reduced by 41%. When the measured emission reductions, brought about by compliance with the California fuel quality regulation and participation in the vessel speed reduction (VSR) program, are placed in a broader context, warming from reductions in the indirect effect of SO₄ would dominate any radiative changes due to the emissions changes. Within regulated waters absolute emission reductions exceed 88% for almost all measured gas and particle phase species. The analysis presented provides direct estimations of the emissions reductions that can be realized by California fuel quality regulation and VSR program, in addition to providing new information relevant to potential health and climate impact of reduced fuel sulfur content, fuel quality and vessel speed reductions.

  13. Reductions in particulate and NO(x) emissions by diesel engine parameter adjustments with HVO fuel.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Matti; Heikkilä, Juha; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-06-05

    Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) diesel fuel is a promising biofuel candidate that can complement or substitute traditional diesel fuel in engines. It has been already reported that by changing the fuel from conventional EN590 diesel to HVO decreases exhaust emissions. However, as the fuels have certain chemical and physical differences, it is clear that the full advantage of HVO cannot be realized unless the engine is optimized for the new fuel. In this article, we studied how much exhaust emissions can be reduced by adjusting engine parameters for HVO. The results indicate that, with all the studied loads (50%, 75%, and 100%), particulate mass and NO(x) can both be reduced over 25% by engine parameter adjustments. Further, the emission reduction was even higher when the target for adjusting engine parameters was to exclusively reduce either particulates or NO(x). In addition to particulate mass, different indicators of particulate emissions were also compared. These indicators included filter smoke number (FSN), total particle number, total particle surface area, and geometric mean diameter of the emitted particle size distribution. As a result of this comparison, a linear correlation between FSN and total particulate surface area at low FSN region was found.

  14. Reduction in air emissions attainable through implementation of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air emissions associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such emissions. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum reductions in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air emissions credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air emissions that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development.

  15. Greenhouse gas emission reductions from domestic anaerobic digesters linked with sustainable sanitation in rural China.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Radhika; Christensen, Erick R; Liu, Yang; Zhong, Bo; Wu, Chang-Fu; Yost, Michael G; Remais, Justin V

    2011-03-15

    Anaerobic digesters provide clean, renewable energy (biogas) by converting organic waste to methane, and are a key part of China's comprehensive rural energy plan. Here, experimental and modeling results are used to quantify the net greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from substituting a household anaerobic digester for traditional energy sources in Sichuan, China. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and radial plume mapping were used to estimate the mass flux of fugitive methane emissions from active digesters. Using household energy budgets, the net improvement in GHG emissions associated with biogas installation was estimated using global warming commitment (GWC) as a consolidated measure of the warming effects of GHG emissions from cooking. In all scenarios biogas households had lower GWC than nonbiogas households, by as much as 54%. Even biogas households with methane leakage exhibited lower GWC than nonbiogas households, by as much as 48%. Based only on the averted GHG emissions over 10 years, the monetary value of a biogas installation was conservatively estimated at US$28.30 ($16.07 ton(-1) CO(2)-eq), which is available to partly offset construction costs. The interaction of biogas installation programs with policies supporting improved stoves, renewable harvesting of biomass, and energy interventions with substantial health cobenefits are discussed.

  16. Greenhouse gas emission reductions from domestic anaerobic digesters linked with sustainable sanitation in rural China

    PubMed Central

    DHINGRA, RADHIKA; CHRISTENSEN, ERICK R.; LIU, YANG; ZHONG, BO; WU, CHANG-FU; YOST, MICHAEL G.; REMAIS, JUSTIN V.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters provide clean, renewable energy (biogas) by converting organic waste to methane, and are a key part of China's comprehensive rural energy plan. Here, experimental and modeling results are used to quantify the net greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from substituting a household anaerobic digester for traditional energy sources in Sichuan, China. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and radial plume mapping were used to estimate the mass flux of fugitive methane emissions from active digesters. Using household energy budgets, the net improvement in GHG emissions associated with biogas installation was estimated using global warming commitment (GWC) as a consolidated measure of the warming effects of GHG emissions from cooking. In all scenarios biogas households had lower GWC than non-biogas households, by as much as 54%. Even biogas households with methane leakage exhibited lower GWC than non-biogas households, by as much as 48%. Based only on the averted GHG emissions over 10 years, the monetary value of a biogas installation was conservatively estimated at US$28.30 ($16.07 ton−1 CO2-eq.), which is available to partly offset construction costs. The interaction of biogas installation programs with policies supporting improved stoves, renewable harvesting of biomass, and energy interventions with substantial health co-benefits, are discussed. PMID:21348471

  17. Scenario analysis for nutrient emission reduction in the European inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouraoui, F.; Thieu, V.; Grizzetti, B.; Britz, W.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-12-01

    Despite a large body of legislation, high nutrient loads are still emitted in European inland waters. In the present study we evaluate a set of alternative scenarios aiming at reducing nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from anthropogenic activities to all European Seas. In particular, we tested the full implementation of the European Urban Waste Water Directive, which controls emissions from point source. In addition, we associated the full implementation of this Directive with a ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents. Then we tested two human diet scenarios and their impacts on nutrient emissions. We also developed a scenario based on an optimal use of organic manure. The impacts of all our scenarios were evaluated using a statistical model of nitrogen and phosphorus fate (GREEN) linked to an agro-economic model (CAPRI). We show that the ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents coupled with the full implementation of the Urban Waste Water Directive is the most effective approach for reducing phosphorus emissions from human based activities. Concerning nitrogen, the highest reductions are obtained with the optimized use of organic manure.

  18. Improvement of electron emission characteristics of porous silicon emitter by using cathode reduction and electrochemical oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, He; Wenjiang, Wang; Xiaoning, Zhang

    2017-03-01

    A new simple and convenient post-treat technique combined the cathode reduction (CR) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO) was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the surface-emitting cold cathodes based on the porous silicon (PS). It is demonstrated here that by introducing this new technique combined CR and ECO, the emission properties of the diode have been significantly improved than those as-prepared samples. The experimental results showed that the emission current densities and efficiencies of sample treated by CR were 62 μA/cm2 and 12.10‰, respectively, nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of as-prepared sample. Furthermore, the CR-treated PS emitter shows higher repeatability and stability compared with the as-prepared PS emitter. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), furier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that the improved mechanism is mainly due to the passivation of the PS, which not only improve the PS morphology by the passivation of the H+ but also improve the uniformity of the oxygen content distribution in the whole PS layer. Therefore, the method combined the CR treatment and ECO is expected to be a valuable technique to enhance the electron emission characteristics of the PS emitter.

  19. Fuel savings and emissions reductions from light duty fuel cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, J.; Ohi, J. M.; Hudson, D. V., Jr.

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cell vehicles (FCV's) operate efficiently, emit few pollutants, and run on nonpetroleum fuels. Because of these characteristics, the large-scale deployment of FCV's has the potential to lessen U.S. dependence on foreign oil and improve air quality. This study characterizes the benefits of large-scale FCV deployment in the light duty vehicle market. Specifically, the study assesses the potential fuel savings and emissions reductions resulting from large-scale use of these FCV's and identifies the key parameters that affect the scope of the benefits from FCV use. The analysis scenario assumes that FCV's will compete with gasoline-powered light trucks and cars in the new vehicle market for replacement of retired vehicles and will compete for growth in the total market. Analysts concluded that the potential benefits from FCV's, measured in terms of consumer outlays for motor fuel and the value of reduced air emissions, are substantial.

  20. Fuel savings and emissions reductions from light duty fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J; Ohi, J M; Hudson, Jr, D V

    1994-04-01

    Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) operate efficiently, emit few pollutants, and run on nonpetroleum fuels. Because of these characteristics, the large-scale deployment of FCVs has the potential to lessen US dependence on foreign oil and improve air quality. This study characterizes the benefits of large-scale FCV deployment in the light duty vehicle market. Specifically, the study assesses the potential fuel savings and emissions reductions resulting from large-scale use of these FCVs and identifies the key parameters that affect the scope of the benefits from FCV use. The analysis scenario assumes that FCVs will compete with gasoline-powered light trucks and cars in the new vehicle market for replacement of retired vehicles and will compete for growth in the total market. Analysts concluded that the potential benefits from FCVs, measured in terms of consumer outlays for motor fuel and the value of reduced air emissions, are substantial.

  1. Environmental guideline for the reduction of volatile organic compound emissions from the plastics processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to environmental regulatory agencies, manufacturers, and operators of plastics processing plants regarding the means of reducing emissions containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are released to the environment in the course of production. Sectors covered by the guideline are expanded polystyrene, cellular polyethylene foams, polyvinyl chloride, and reinforced plastics and composites made from thermoset polyester resins. The guideline focuses on the reduction of VOC emissions from processing and clean-up operations, the handling and storage of VOC-containing materials, and the handling and disposal of wastes. The guideline contains material, equipment, process, and operating standards for plastics processing facilities, record keeping and training standards, recommended operating practices, and testing protocols.

  2. Energy conservation and CO2 emission reductions due to recycling in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenteira, C A P; Pereira, A S; Oliveira, L B; Rosa, L P; Reis, M M; Henriques, R M

    2004-01-01

    The present paper aims to make the energy saving potential provided by waste recycling in Brazil evident by pointing out more specifically the benefits regarding climate change mitigation. In this case, based on the energy saved due to the recycling process of an exogenous amount of waste, we have built two scenarios in order to show the potential for indirectly avoiding CO2 emissions in the country as a result of the recycling process. According to the scenario, 1 Mt and 3.5 Mt of CO2, respectively, would be avoided per year due to solid waste recycling. The international context for greenhouse gas emissions reduction, such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol has been taken into account.

  3. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueying; Peng, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  4. Terms and conditions for all grants in the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act State program (formula grants awarded to States)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    For the purposes of this term and condition, EPA has determined that all construction, alteration, and repair activity involving the following Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) projects is subject to DB.

  5. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, III, William R.; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-12-03

    India’s cement industry is the second largest in the world behind China with annual cement production of 168 Mt in 2010 which accounted for slightly greater than six percent of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. To produce that amount of cement, the industry consumed roughly 700 PJ of fuel and 14.7 TWh of electricity. We identified and analyzed 22 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative cost-effective plant-level electricity savings potential for the Indian cement industry for 2010- 2030 is estimated to be 83 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is 89 TWh during the same period. The grid-level CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 82 Mt CO2 and the electric grid-level CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 88 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 1,029 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 97 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost over the next twenty years.

  6. Capabilities Enhanced for Researching the Reduction of Emissions in Future Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft future aircraft jet engines will run at higher pressures to obtain greater fuel efficiency and performance. This will require new combustor designs to keep the nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions at environmentally acceptable levels. The actual pressures and temperatures found in gas turbine combustors must be duplicated in a laboratory to verify the emissions characteristics of gas turbine engines. Recognizing this, the U.S. aircraft gas turbine industry identified a need for a national facility that could duplicate the severe inlet conditions of future combustors. Because of our expertise in combustion emissions reduction research and in the design and operation of high-pressure test facilities, the NASA Lewis Research Center was seen as the natural location for such a facility. As a national laboratory, Lewis could provide these facilities to all U.S. gas turbine engine manufacturers while protecting their proprietary interests. Called the Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig, the facility will provide up to 60-atm pressures at inlet temperatures up to 1300 F and air flow rates up to 38 lb/sec. Furthermore, it will offer state-of-the-art diagnostic methods for characterizing advanced combustor concepts. Aeronautical combustion research at Lewis provided several significant accomplishments recently in support of both the High Speed Research (HSR) and Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) programs. For example, in the High Speed Research Program, NO_x reductions of up to 90 percent were achieved in prototype combustor hardware. Advanced computational analysis, gas sampling, and laser diagnostic techniques were critical to this success. Working closely with the gas turbine industry, we have successfully transferred this low-emissions combustor technology into engine prototype hardware. This hardware is now being tested at the engine manufacturers facilities. Complementary tests in Lewis currently available 30-atm test facilities are also underway, taking

  7. Assessment Methods for Personal Active Noise Reduction Validated in an International Round Robin (Methodes d’evaluation des protecteurs auditifs a attenuation active du bruit)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    peuvent aussi se comporter de façon non linéaire aux niveaux élevés. De ce fait, les méthodes d’évaluation standard (méthode subjective de mesure des... programmes Ear protectors Helicopters Helmets Human factors engineering Military aircraft Noise (sound) Noise reduction Protective equipment...Virginia 2216 STAR est édité par CASI dans le cadre du programme ETATS-UNIS NASA d’information scientifique et technique (STI) (accessible également

  8. [The response of forest ecosystems to reduction in industrial atmospheric emission in the Kola Subarctic].

    PubMed

    Koptsik, G N; Koptsik, S V; Smirnova, I E; Kudryavtseva, A D; Turbabina, K A

    2016-01-01

    In spite of reduction in atmospheric emission, current state of forest ecosystems within the impact zone of Severonickel enterprise still reflects the entire spectrum of anthropogenic digression stages. As the distance to the enterprise grows shorter, structural-functional changes in forest communities are manifested in dropping out of mosses and lichens, replacement of undershrub by Poaceae, worsening of timber stand and undergrowth conditions and their progressive dying-off, and, as a result, in forming of anthropogenic wastelands. Alterations of elemental composition of fir bark and needles due to exposure to pollutants consist in accumulation of nickel, copper, cobalt, arsenic, and sulfur along with depletion of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc. According to the data obtained by correlation and multiparameter analyses, the accumulation of heavy metals in fir organs is closely related to the increasing of their concentration in root-inhabited soil layers as the distance to the pollution source is getting shorter. By comparison with the background fir grove, concentration of available compounds of nickel and copper in the ground litter of open fir-birch woodland near the enterprise increases by the factor of 30-60, reaching up 280 and 130 mg/kg respectively. With the increasing of anthropogenic stress, the ground litter becomes depleted of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, manganese, and zinc. For the first time, the coupled dynamics of vegetation and soil state in fir forests as a response to reduction in atmospheric emission is tracked back. The most distinguishable response to the reduction appears to be the development of small-leaved plants' young growth within the impact zone. For the last decade, concentration of nickel in fir needles and in ground litter has reduced by the factor of 1.2-2. As for copper, its concentration in needles has reduced by the factor of 2-4, though in ground litter remains the same. By comparison with the period of

  9. Reduction of VOC emission from natural flours filled biodegradable bio-composites for automobile interior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Lee, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Yun, Ju-Ho; Yoo, Seung-Eul; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-03-15

    Various experiments, such as the thermal extract (TE) method, field and emission cell (FLEC) method and 20 L small chamber, were performed to examine the total volatile organic compound (TVOC) emissions from bio-composites. The TVOC of neat poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was ranged from 0.26 mg/m(2)h to 4.11 mg/m(2)h with increasing temperature. For both PLA bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour, the temperature increased from 0.30 mg/m(2)h to 3.72 mg/m(2)h and from 0.19 mg/m(2)h to 8.74 mg/m(2)h, respectively. The TVOC emission factors of all samples increased gradually with increasing temperature. Above 70°C, both PLA-P and PLA-C composites had higher TVOC emission factors than neat PLA due to the rapid emission of natural volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as furfural (2-furancarboxyaldehyde). PLA composites containing 30 wt% flour had high 1,4-dioxane reduction ability, >50%. The TVOC of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was emitted rapidly from 50 °C to 90 °C due to succinic acid from the pyrolysis of PBS. The TVOC emission factors of PLA bio-composite and PBS bio-composites were reduced using the bake-out method (temperature at 70 °C and baking time 5h). The initial TVOC emission factors of the PLA and PBS bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour were reduced by the baking treatment using FLEC. The TVOC factors from PLA and PBS decreased until 5 days and were commonly maintained a relatively constant value after 5 days using 20L small chamber. The decrease in TVOC emission showed a similar trend to that of the TE and FLEC method. This method confirmed the beneficial effect of the baking treatment effect for polypropylene and linear density polyethylene (LDPE).

  10. ALTERNATIVES TO METHYL BROMIDE STUDIES IN GAINESVILLE 2001-2008: SUMMARY OF EMISSIONS REDUCTION STUDIES OF PRE-PLANT SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing emissions of pre-plant soil fumigants is important because EPA is proposing untreated buffer zones around fields for injection applications of current fumigants. Credits will be given to proven emissions reductions practices that would decrease the downwind off-site concentrations of fumiga...

  11. Alternatives to Methyl bromide studies in Gainesville 2001-2008: Summary of emissions reduction studies of pre-plant soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing emissions of pre-plant soil fumigants is important because EPA is proposing untreated buffer zones around fields for injection applications of current fumigants. Credits will be given to proven emissions reductions practices that would decrease the downwind off-site concentrations of fumiga...

  12. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  13. Atmospheric impacts of black carbon emission reductions through the strategic use of biodiesel in California.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Magara-Gomez, Kento T; Olson, Michael R; Okuda, Tomoaki; Walz, Kenneth A; Schauer, James J; Kleeman, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    The use of biodiesel as a replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel has gained interest as a strategy for greenhouse gas emission reductions, energy security, and economic advantage. Biodiesel adoption may also reduce particulate elemental carbon (EC) emissions from conventional diesel engines that are not equipped with after-treatment devices. This study examines the impact of biodiesel blends on EC emissions from a commercial off-road diesel engine and simulates the potential public health benefits and climate benefits. EC emissions from the commercial off-road engine decreased by 76% when ultra-low sulfur commercial diesel (ULSD) fuel was replaced by biodiesel. Model calculations predict that reduced EC emissions translate directly into reduced EC concentrations in the atmosphere, but the concentration of secondary particulate matter was not directly affected by this fuel change. Redistribution of secondary particulate matter components to particles emitted from other sources did change the size distribution and therefore deposition rates of those components. Modification of meteorological variables such as water content and temperature influenced secondary particulate matter formation. Simulations with a source-oriented WRF/Chem model (SOWC) for a severe air pollution episode in California that adopted 75% biodiesel blended with ULSD in all non-road diesel engines reduced surface EC concentrations by up to 50% but changed nitrate and total PM2.5 mass concentrations by less than ±5%. These changes in concentrations will have public health benefits but did not significantly affect radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. The removal of EC due to the adoption of biodiesel produced larger coatings of secondary particulate matter on other atmospheric particles containing residual EC leading to enhanced absorption associated with those particles. The net effect was a minor change in atmospheric optical properties despite a large change in atmospheric EC

  14. Impacts of Emission Reduction Scenarios on Regional Climate and Local Air Quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, J. A.; Wang, Z.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Wu, Q.; Baeck, M.; Michel, A. P.; Yeung, J.; Gustafson, W. I.

    2009-05-01

    Beijing implemented a long term emission reduction program in 2001 when it won the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. During the summer of 2008 Beijing increased its emission reduction effort by integrating short term strategies such as temporally shutting down factories, freezing constructions, and automobile control. Taking advantage of emission reduction measures, numerical simulation experiments are being carried out with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry module (WRF-Chem) to examine aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in the Beijing metropolitan region during the period of the 2008 Olympic Games. Analyses of TRMM 3B42V6 and MODIS Terra L3C5 datasets show that August 2008 was a period of above average precipitation and below average aerosol loadings, relative to observations during the past 10 years. This study is based on numerical simulations with two emission scenarios, business as usual scenario and reduced emission scenario, to examine the impacts of emission reduction measures on regional climate and local air quality in the Beijing metropolitan region, as well as the role of cloud and precipitation processes in controlling the regional distribution of aerosols. Both of the high- resolution emission inventories were developed by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, China, to represent the effects of emission reduction policies for the Olympic period. Intercomparisons with in-situ measurements are used to assess the capability for modeling aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions on a regional scale. Analyses center on assessing "microphysical" and "stability" hypotheses linking aerosols to cloud and precipitation processes and examining the relative roles of precipitation processes, regional transport processes and emission reduction scenarios in producing the favorable air quality conditions during the Olympic period.

  15. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emission control by aerobic sulfate reduction in landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yuyang; Fang, Yuan; Shen, Dongsheng; Feng, Huajun; Chen, Ting

    2016-12-01

    H2S emissions from landfill sites resulting from sulfate reduction has become a serious human health and ecological safety issue. This study investigated H2S emission behavior and sulfate metabolism occurring in simulated landfills under different operating conditions. Under aerobic conditions, great attenuation of the original sulfate content (from around 6000 mg kg‑1 dropped to below 800 mg kg‑1) with corresponding accumulation of sulfides and elemental sulfur were observed, indicating that sulfate reduction processes were intense under such conditions. Analysis of the bacterial community in these landfills showed great abundance (1.10%) and diversity of sulfur reducing types, confirming their active involvement in this process. In particular, the total abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased nearly 30 times under aerobic conditions, leading to the transformation of sulfate to sulfide and other reduced sulfur species. Although exposure to air promoted the accumulation of sulfide, it did not lead to an increase in H2S release in these landfills.

  17. “APEC Blue”: Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-02-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61–67% and 51–57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2–3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as “APEC Blue”. We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emission control by aerobic sulfate reduction in landfill

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yuyang; Fang, Yuan; Shen, Dongsheng; Feng, Huajun; Chen, Ting

    2016-01-01

    H2S emissions from landfill sites resulting from sulfate reduction has become a serious human health and ecological safety issue. This study investigated H2S emission behavior and sulfate metabolism occurring in simulated landfills under different operating conditions. Under aerobic conditions, great attenuation of the original sulfate content (from around 6000 mg kg−1 dropped to below 800 mg kg−1) with corresponding accumulation of sulfides and elemental sulfur were observed, indicating that sulfate reduction processes were intense under such conditions. Analysis of the bacterial community in these landfills showed great abundance (1.10%) and diversity of sulfur reducing types, confirming their active involvement in this process. In particular, the total abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria increased nearly 30 times under aerobic conditions, leading to the transformation of sulfate to sulfide and other reduced sulfur species. Although exposure to air promoted the accumulation of sulfide, it did not lead to an increase in H2S release in these landfills. PMID:27909309

  19. “APEC Blue”: Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61–67% and 51–57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2–3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as “APEC Blue”. We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution. PMID:26891104

  20. The effect of future reduction in aerosol emissions on climate extremes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhili; Lin, Lei; Yang, Meilin; Xu, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of reduced aerosol emissions on projected temperature and precipitation extremes in China during 2031-2050 and 2081-2100 relative to present-day conditions using the daily data output from the Community Earth System Model ensemble simulations under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 with an applied aerosol reduction and RCP8.5 with fixed 2005 aerosol emissions (RCP8.5_FixA) scenarios. The reduced aerosol emissions of RCP8.5 magnify the warming effect due to greenhouse gases (GHG) and lead to significant increases in temperature extremes, such as the maximum of daily maximum temperature (TXx), minimum of daily minimum temperature (TNn), and tropical nights (TR), and precipitation extremes, such as the maximum 5-day precipitation amount, number of heavy precipitation days, and annual total precipitation from days ˃95th percentile, in China. The projected TXx, TNn, and TR averaged over China increase by 1.2 ± 0.2 °C (4.4 ± 0.2 °C), 1.3 ± 0.2 °C (4.8 ± 0.2 °C), and 8.2 ± 1.2 (30.9 ± 1.4) days, respectively, during 2031-2050 (2081-2100) under the RCP8.5_FixA scenario, whereas the corresponding values are 1.6 ± 0.1 °C (5.3 ± 0.2 °C), 1.8 ± 0.2 °C (5.6 ± 0.2 °C), and 11.9 ± 0.9 (38.4 ± 1.0) days under the RCP8.5 scenario. Nationally averaged increases in all of those extreme precipitation indices above due to the aerosol reduction account for more than 30 % of the extreme precipitation increases under the RCP8.5 scenario. Moreover, the aerosol reduction leads to decreases in frost days and consecutive dry days averaged over China. There are great regional differences in changes of climate extremes caused by the aerosol reduction. When normalized by global mean surface temperature changes, aerosols have larger effects on temperature and precipitation extremes over China than GHG.

  1. Photochemical modeling in California with two chemical mechanisms: model intercomparison and response to emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chenxia; Kelly, James T; Avise, Jeremy C; Kaduwela, Ajith P; Stockwell, William R

    2011-05-01

    An updated version of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC) chemical mechanism (SAPRC07C) was implemented into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.6. CMAQ simulations using SAPRC07C and the previously released version, SAPRC99, were performed and compared for an episode during July-August, 2000. Ozone (O3) predictions of the SAPRC07C simulation are generally lower than those of the SAPRC99 simulation in the key areas of central and southern California, especially in areas where modeled concentrations are greater than the federal 8-hr O3 standard of 75 parts per billion (ppb) and/or when the volatile organic compound (VOC)/nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratio is less than 13. The relative changes of ozone production efficiency (OPE) against the VOC/NOx ratio at 46 sites indicate that the OPE is reduced in SAPRC07C compared with SAPRC99 at most sites by as much as approximately 22%. The SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C mechanisms respond similarly to 20% reductions in anthropogenic VOC emissions. The response of the mechanisms to 20% NOx emissions reductions can be grouped into three cases. In case 1, in which both mechanisms show a decrease in daily maximum 8-hr O3 concentration with decreasing NOx emissions, the O3 decrease in SAPRC07C is smaller. In case 2, in which both mechanisms show an increase in O3 with decreasing NOx emissions, the O3 increase is larger in SAPRC07C. In case 3, SAPRC07C simulates an increase in O3 in response to reduced NOx emissions whereas SAPRC99 simulates a decrease in O3 for the same region. As a result, the areas where NOx controls would be disbeneficial are spatially expanded in SAPRC07C. Although the results presented here are valuable for understanding differences in predictions and model response for SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C, the study did not evaluate the impact of mechanism differences in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guidance for using numerical models in demonstrating air quality attainment

  2. Real-world energy use and emission rates for idling long-haul trucks and selected idle reduction technologies.

    PubMed

    Frey, H Christopher; Kuo, Po-Yao

    2009-07-01

    Long-haul freight trucks typically idle for 2000 or more hours per year, motivating interest in reducing idle fuel use and emissions using auxiliary power units (APUs) and shore-power (SP). Fuel-use rates are estimated based on electronic control unit (ECU) data for truck engines and measurements for APU engines. Engine emission factors were measured using a portable emission measurement system. Indirect emissions from SP were based on average utility grid emission factors. Base engine fuel use and APU and SP electrical load were analyzed for 20 trucks monitored for more than 1 yr during 2.76 million mi of activity within 42 U.S. states. The average base engine fuel use varied from 0.46 to 0.65 gal/hr. The average APU fuel use varied from 0.24 to 0.41 gal/hr. Fuel-use rates are typically lowest in mild weather, highest in hot or cold weather, and depend on engine speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]). Compared with the base engine, APU fuel use and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are lower by 36-47%. Oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions are lower by 80-90%. Reductions in particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbon emissions vary from approximately 10 to over 50%. SP leads to more substantial reductions, except for SO2. The actual achievable reductions will be lower because only a fraction of base engine usage will be replaced by APUs, SP, or both. Recommendations are made for reducing base engine fuel use and emissions, accounting for variability in fuel use and emissions reductions, and further work to quantify real-world avoided fuel use and emissions.

  3. A modeling comparison of deep greenhouse gas emissions reduction scenarios by 2030 in California

    DOE PAGES

    Yeh, Sonia; Yang, Christopher; Gibbs, Michael; ...

    2016-10-21

    California aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. We compare six energy models that have played various roles in informing the state policymakers in setting climate policy goals and targets. These models adopt a range of modeling structures, including stock-turnover back-casting models, a least-cost optimization model, macroeconomic/macro-econometric models, and an electricity dispatch model. Results from these models provide useful insights in terms of the transformations in the energy system required, including efficiency improvements in cars, trucks, and buildings, electrification of end-uses, low- or zero-carbon electricity and fuels, aggressive adoptions of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs),more » demand reduction, and large reductions of non-energy GHG emissions. Some of these studies also suggest that the direct economic costs can be fairly modest or even generate net savings, while the indirect macroeconomic benefits are large, as shifts in employment and capital investments could have higher economic returns than conventional energy expenditures. These models, however, often assume perfect markets, perfect competition, and zero transaction costs. They also do not provide specific policy guidance on how these transformative changes can be achieved. Greater emphasis on modeling uncertainty, consumer behaviors, heterogeneity of impacts, and spatial modeling would further enhance policymakers' ability to design more effective and targeted policies. Here, this paper presents an example of how policymakers, energy system modelers and stakeholders interact and work together to develop and evaluate long-term state climate policy targets. Lastly, even though this paper focuses on California, the process of dialogue and interactions, modeling results, and lessons learned can be generally adopted across different regions and scales.« less

  4. A modeling comparison of deep greenhouse gas emissions reduction scenarios by 2030 in California

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Sonia; Yang, Christopher; Gibbs, Michael; Roland-Holst, David; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Mahone, Amber; Wei, Dan; Brinkman, Gregory; Cunningham, Joshua; Eggert, Anthony; Haley, Ben; Hart, Elaine; Williams, Jim

    2016-10-21

    California aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. We compare six energy models that have played various roles in informing the state policymakers in setting climate policy goals and targets. These models adopt a range of modeling structures, including stock-turnover back-casting models, a least-cost optimization model, macroeconomic/macro-econometric models, and an electricity dispatch model. Results from these models provide useful insights in terms of the transformations in the energy system required, including efficiency improvements in cars, trucks, and buildings, electrification of end-uses, low- or zero-carbon electricity and fuels, aggressive adoptions of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), demand reduction, and large reductions of non-energy GHG emissions. Some of these studies also suggest that the direct economic costs can be fairly modest or even generate net savings, while the indirect macroeconomic benefits are large, as shifts in employment and capital investments could have higher economic returns than conventional energy expenditures. These models, however, often assume perfect markets, perfect competition, and zero transaction costs. They also do not provide specific policy guidance on how these transformative changes can be achieved. Greater emphasis on modeling uncertainty, consumer behaviors, heterogeneity of impacts, and spatial modeling would further enhance policymakers' ability to design more effective and targeted policies. Here, this paper presents an example of how policymakers, energy system modelers and stakeholders interact and work together to develop and evaluate long-term state climate policy targets. Lastly, even though this paper focuses on California, the process of dialogue and interactions, modeling results, and lessons learned can be generally adopted across different regions and scales.

  5. Test methods and reduction of organic pollutant compound emissions from wood-based building and furniture materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sumin; Choi, Yoon-Ki; Park, Kyung-Won; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews different methods for the analysis of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood-based panel materials for furniture and building interiors and highlights research on reduction of emission from wood-based panels that can adversely affect indoor air quality. In Korea, standard test methods have been developed to determine formaldehyde and VOC emissions from building products, and the Ministry of Environment regulates the use of building materials with pollutant emissions. Desiccator and perforator methods are being used for formaldehyde and the chamber and field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) methods for VOC and formaldehyde emissions. The VOC analyzer is a suitable pre-test method for application as a total VOC (TVOC) emission test and bake-out is a useful method to reduce TVOC and formaldehyde emissions from furniture materials in indoor environments.

  6. Potential of municipal solid waste for renewable energy production and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Changkook

    2010-02-01

    Energy from waste (EfW) for nonrecyclable wastes is a suitable method of waste management and is important for renewable energy production. South Korea currently recycles 57% of household waste and landfills 26%. The remaining 17% is incinerated, mainly for heat production. In this study, the potential for energy production and reduction of corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) in Korea was estimated without accounting for the lifecycle impact of waste management. The properties of the MSW were established from data available in national-scale waste surveys and reports. The potential of EfW for GHG emission reduction was calculated considering (1) the direct release of anthropogenic carbon, nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4); and (2) the reduction in indirect GHG emissions by fossil fuel displacement. CH4 emissions from landfilling were also estimated from biogenic carbon in waste. Applying the resulting emission factors to various EfW cases suggests that the current level of GHG emissions is significant but can be substantially reduced by increased use of EfW. A net reduction in GHG emissions can be achieved only by EfW with combined heat and power (CHP).

  7. The Production, Value, and Reduction Responsibility of Carbon Emissions through Electricity Consumption of Manufacturing Industries in South Korea and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitikun, Medhawin

    This dissertation provides a new method of measuring efforts by manufacturing industries to reduce their emissions by curtailing electricity consumption. Employing comprehensive firm-level data from the National Manufacture Annual Surveys of South Korea and Thailand, I construct the measure from estimates of revenue functions by industry. The data consists of firms from more than 20 industries in each year from 1982 to 2005 for Korea and from 2001 to 2008 for Thailand. With a total of more than two million observations, I estimate revenue functions for each industry and year. Here, I use three inputs: number of employees(L), fixed asset stock(K), and electricity consumption(E) and two types of functional forms to represent each industry's revenue function. Second, under market competitive condition, I find that profit maximizing firms deviated their level of electricity usage in production from the profit-maximizing level during the time period for both countries, and I develop a theoretical framework to explain this behavior. Then, I tested the theory using my empirical models. Results support the notion of a hidden environmental value expressed by firms in the form of voluntary deviations from profit-maximizing levels of input demand. The measure used is the gap between the marginal revenue product of electricity and its price. This gap should increase with income, consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve literature. My current model provides considerable support for this proposition. Estimates indicate, in most industries, a negative relationship between per-capita income and emissions. In the final section of the dissertation, I consider the equitable distribution of emissions reduction burden under an international agreement such as the reduction effort, Kyoto Protocol. Both developed and developing countries have to cut their emissions to a specific reduction percentage target. Domestically, I present two extreme scenarios. In the first scenario

  8. Atmospheric pollution reduction effect and regional predicament: An empirical analysis based on the Chinese provincial NOx emissions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Liu, Chao; Chen, Kunlun; Huang, Yalin; Diao, Beidi

    2017-03-09

    Atmospheric pollution emissions have become a matter of public concern in recent years. However, most of the existing researches on NOx pollution are from the natural science and technology perspective, few studies have been conducted from an economic point, and regional differences have not been given adequate attention. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2006 to 2013 and the LMDI model to analyze the key driving factors and regional dilemmas of NOx emissions. The results show that significant regional disparities still exit on NOx emissions and its reduction effect 27 provinces didn't accomplish their corresponding reduction targets. Economic development factor is the dominating driving factor of NOx emissions during the study period, while energy efficiency and technology improvement factors offset total NOx emissions in the majority of provinces. In addition, the industrial structure factor plays a more significant role in reducing the NOx emissions after 2011. Therefore, the government should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in developing appropriate pollution mitigating policies. It's necessary to change NOx emissions control attitude from original key areas control to divided-zone control, not only attaches great importance to the reduction of the original key areas, but also emphasizes the new potential hotspots with high NOx emissions.

  9. Detection de l'initiation de la delamination des materiaux composites par suivi de l'emission acoustique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silversides, Ian

    Cette étude, basée sur la surveillance des ondes d'émission acoustique (E.A.), présente le développement d'une approche de prédiction de l'initiation de la délamination de pièces composites soumises à des chargements statiques et en fatigue. La surveillance des ondes d'E.A. fait parti d'un nombre restreint de méthodes pouvant détecter, en continu, l'apparition et la croissance de dommages dans les matériaux composites. L'approche est comparée à des méthodes conventionnelles ainsi qu'à une modélisation numérique pour des composites à fibre de carbone unidirectionnels et tissés, sur une gamme de rapports de mode mixte. Le présent mémoire met en lumière les différentes étapes abordées durant l'étude. L'utilisation des matériaux composites est mise en contexte au premier chapitre. La complexité des matériaux composites ainsi que la nécessité de modèles de prédiction fiables sont soulignées. Le deuxième chapitre contient une revue de la littérature et présente les outils disponibles pour analyser le délaminage et bâtir un modèle prédictif de sa propagation. Les sujets traités sont la délamination dans un contexte de mécanique de la rupture, la modélisation numérique d'une propagation de fissure, l'approche du monitorage par émission acoustique puis l'analyse fractographiques des surfaces de rupture. Les résultats des essais mécaniques et de la modélisation sont présentés sous forme d'article dans le troisième chapitre. Des essais statiques et en fatigue ont permis de calculer le taux de restitution d'énergie de déformation à l'initiation de la délamination selon des méthodes classiques pour ensuite les comparer à une méthode développée, basée sur le suivi des ondes d'émission acoustique. Une série d'essais de propagation de la délamination en fatigue ont permis d'observer des corrélations entre les émissions acoustiques, la longueur de la délamination, la vitesse de croissance des fissures et la s

  10. Effect of power plant emission reductions on a nearby wilderness area: a case study in northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Ely, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of emission reductions at two coal-fired power plants in northwestern Colorado on a nearby wilderness area. Control equipment was installed at both plants during 1999–2004 to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions. One challenge was separating the effects of local from regional emissions, which also declined during the study period. The long-term datasets examined confirm that emission reductions had a beneficial effect on air and water quality in the wilderness. Despite a 75 % reduction in SO2 emissions, sulfate aerosols measured in the wilderness decreased by only 20 %. Because the site is relatively close to the power plants (2 to sulfate, particularly under conditions of low relative humidity, might account for this less than one-to-one response. On the clearest days, emissions controls appeared to improve visibility by about 1 deciview, which is a small but perceptible improvement. On the haziest days, however, there was little improvement perhaps reflecting the dominance of regional haze and other components of visibility degradation particularly organic carbon and dust. Sulfate and acidity in atmospheric deposition decreased by 50 % near the southern end of the wilderness of which 60 % was attributed to power plant controls and the remainder to reductions in regional sources. Lake water sulfate responded rapidly to trends in deposition declining at 28 lakes monitored in and near the wilderness. Although no change in the acid–base status was observed, few of the lakes appear to be at risk from chronic or episodic acidification.

  11. Quantification of emission reduction potentials of primary air pollutants from residential solid fuel combustion by adopting cleaner fuels in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng

    2015-11-01

    Residential low efficient fuel burning is a major source of many air pollutants produced during incomplete combustions, and household air pollution has been identified as one of the top environmental risk factors. Here we compiled literature-reported emission factors of pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSPs), PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for different household energy sources, and quantified the potential for emission reduction by clean fuel adoption. The burning of crop straws, firewood and coal chunks in residential stoves had high emissions per unit fuel mass but lower thermal efficiencies, resulting in high levels of pollution emissions per unit of useful energy, whereas pelletized biofuels and coal briquettes had lower pollutant emissions and higher thermal efficiencies. Briquetting coal may lead to 82%-88% CO, 74%-99% TSP, 73%-76% PM2.5, 64%-98% OC, 92%-99% EC and 80%-83% PAH reductions compared to raw chunk coal. Biomass pelletizing technology would achieve 88%-97% CO, 73%-87% TSP, 79%-88% PM2.5, 94%-96% OC, 91%-99% EC and 63%-96% PAH reduction compared to biomass burning. The adoption of gas fuels (i.e., liquid petroleum gas, natural gas) would achieve significant pollutant reduction, nearly 96% for targeted pollutants. The reduction is related not only to fuel change, but also to the usage of high efficiency stoves.

  12. Reduction of fine particle emissions from wood combustion with optimized condensing heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Gröhn, Arto; Suonmaa, Valtteri; Auvinen, Ari; Lehtinen, Kari E J; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2009-08-15

    In this study, we designed and built a condensing heat exchanger capable of simultaneous fine particle emission reduction and waste heat recovery. The deposition mechanisms inside the heat exchanger prototype were maximized using a computer model which was later compared to actual measurements. The main deposition mechanisms were diffusio- and thermophoresis which have previously been examined in similar conditions only separately. The obtained removal efficiency in the experiments was measured in the total number concentration and ranged between 26 and 40% for the given pellet stove and the heat exchanger. Size distributions and number concentrations were measured with a TSI Fast mobility particle sizer (FMPS). The computer model predicts that there exists a specific upper limit for thermo- and diffusiophoretic deposition for each temperature and water vapor concentration in the flue gas.

  13. Reduction of PM emissions from specific sources reflected on key components concentrations of ambient PM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguillon, M. C.; Querol, X.; Monfort, E.; Alastuey, A.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Miro, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM10 components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits (middle product for the manufacture of ceramic glaze) are produced. The PM10 emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000 to 2007 taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems (mainly bag filters) were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/CE, leading to a marked decrease in PM10 emissions. On the other hand, ambient PM10 sampling was carried out from April 2002 to July 2008 at three urban sites and one suburban site of the area and a complete chemical analysis was made for about 35 % of the collected samples, by means of different techniques (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Ion Chromatography, selective electrode and elemental analyser). The series of chemical composition of PM10 allowed us to apply a source contribution model (Principal Component Analysis), followed by a multilinear regression analysis, so that PM10 sources were identified and their contribution to bulk ambient PM10 was quantified on a daily basis, as well as the contribution to bulk ambient concentrations of the identified key components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl). The contribution of the sources identified as the manufacture and use of ceramic glaze components, including the manufacture of ceramic frits, accounted for more than 65, 75, 58, 53, and 53% of ambient Zn, As, Pb, Cs and Tl levels, respectively (with the exception of Tl contribution at one of the sites). The important emission reductions of these sources during the study period had an impact on ambient key components levels, such that there was a high

  14. Modeling carbon dioxide emissions reductions for three commercial reference buildings in Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucich, Stephen M.

    In the United States, the buildings sector is responsible for approximately 40% of the national carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. CO2 is created during the generation of heat and electricity, and has been linked to climate change, acid rain, a variety of health threats, surface water depletion, and the destruction of natural habitats. Building energy modeling is a powerful educational tool that building owners, architects, engineers, city planners, and policy makers can use to make informed decisions. The aim of this thesis is to simulate the reduction in CO2 emissions that may be achieved for three commercial buildings located in Salt Lake City, UT. The following two questions were used to guide this process: 1. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through a specific energy efficiency upgrade or policy? 2. How much can a building's annual CO2 emissions be reduced through the addition of a photovoltaic (PV) array? How large should the array be? Building energy simulations were performed with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlus software, commercial reference building models, and TMY3 weather data. The chosen models were a medium office building, a primary school, and a supermarket. Baseline energy consumption data were simulated for each model in order to identify changes that would have a meaningful impact. Modifications to the buildings construction and operation were considered before a PV array was incorporated. These modifications include (1) an improved building envelope, (2) reduced lighting intensity, and (3) modified HVAC temperature set points. The PV array sizing was optimized using a demand matching approach based on the method of least squares. The arrays tilt angle was optimized using the golden section search algorithm. Combined, energy efficiency upgrades and the PV array reduced building CO2 emissions by 58.6, 54.0, and 52.2% for the medium office, primary school, and supermarket, respectively. However, for these models, it was

  15. Reduction in trace particulate matter emissions due to adoption of clean diesel technology at a major port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwayama, Toshihiro

    Air pollution emissions from major ports around the world contribute to airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure in surrounding communities. The Port of Oakland is one of three major shipping ports in California that collectively account for 39% of all the goods movement in the United States. The current study is the first to perform relatively complete chemical speciation on the real-world reduction in primary PM emissions from heavy duty trucks at a major shipping Port during the implementation of a retrofit and replacement program. Measurements of fine PM composition at the Port were analyzed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify five dominant PM sources: shipping, port truck traffic, distant on-road traffic, background sea spray, and road dust. Changes to port truck traffic related PM concentration on days with similar meteorological conditions during and after implementation of the controls programs were used as a direct indication of emissions reductions. Primary PM mass emissions from port trucks decreased by 75% due to the control program which meets the target inherent in the Emissions Reduction Plan for Ports and Goods Movement in California. Contributions of PM components attributed to Port truck activities decreased by amounts ranging from 66-86% (elemental carbon (EC) = 66%, organic carbon (OC) = 78%, Na = 82%, Ba = 84%, Fe = 87%). These reductions include contributions from both tailpipe emissions and brake/tire wear. Prior to implementation of the control program, port trucks accounted for approximately 56% of the ambient EC concentrations in the vicinity of the Port while ships accounted for approximately 12% of the EC concentrations. After implementation of the control program, port trucks and ships accounted for approximately 23% and 29% of the ambient EC concentrations at the Port, respectively. This estimate does not account for rail emissions that were downwind of the sampling site. The current study provides an example of how

  16. Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter and NO(x) emissions using 4-way catalyzed filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jacob J; Watts, Winthrop F; Newman, Robert A; Ziebarth, Robin R; Kittelson, David B

    2013-05-07

    The next generation of diesel emission control devices includes 4-way catalyzed filtration systems (4WCFS) consisting of both NOx and diesel particulate matter (DPM) control. A methodology was developed to simultaneously evaluate the NOx and DPM control performance of miniature 4WCFS made from acicular mullite, an advanced ceramic material (ACM), that were challenged with diesel exhaust. The impact of catalyst loading and substrate porosity on catalytic performance of the NOx trap was evaluated. Simultaneously with NOx measurements, the real-time solid particle filtration performance of catalyst-coated standard and high porosity filters was determined for steady-state and regenerative conditions. The use of high porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 99% and solid and total particulate matter by 95% when averaged over 10 regeneration cycles. A "regeneration cycle" refers to an oxidizing ("lean") exhaust condition followed by a reducing ("rich") exhaust condition resulting in NOx storage and NOx reduction (i.e., trap "regeneration"), respectively. Standard porosity ACM 4-way catalyzed filtration systems reduced NOx by 60-75% and exhibited 99.9% filtration efficiency. The rich/lean cycling used to regenerate the filter had almost no impact on solid particle filtration efficiency but impacted NOx control. Cycling resulted in the formation of very low concentrations of semivolatile nucleation mode particles for some 4WCFS formulations. Overall, 4WCFS show promise for significantly reducing diesel emissions into the atmosphere in a single control device.

  17. Mamizu climate policy: an evaluation of Japanese carbon emissions reduction targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielke, Roger A., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    This letter evaluates Japan's so-called 'Mamizu' climate policies proposed in mid-2009 in terms of the implied rates of decarbonization of the Japanese economy for short-term and long-term targets. The letter uses the Kaya identity to structure the evaluation, employing both a bottom up approach (based on projections of future Japanese population, economic growth, and technology) and a top down approach (deriving implied rates of decarbonization consistent with the targets and various rates of economic growth). Both approaches indicate that the Japanese economy would have to achieve rates of decarbonization of 2.6% to meet a 2020 target of reducing emissions by 15% below 2005 levels, and 5.0% to meet a 2050 target of an 80% reduction below 2005 levels. A target of 25% below 1990 emissions proposed by the opposition party (which subsequently formed a government following elections in August 2009) implies a rate of decarbonization of 4.6% annually to 2020. The letter argues that international criticism of Japanese Mamizu climate policy proposals as being too weak was unfounded, and if anything, the proposals may have been too ambitious. In either case, climate policy would be strengthened through the support of a diversity of approaches to decarbonization.

  18. Emission reduction from diesel engine using fumigation methanol and diesel oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z H; Cheung, C S; Chan, T L; Yao, C D

    2009-07-15

    This study is aimed to investigate the combined application of fumigation methanol and a diesel oxidation catalyst for reducing emissions of an in-use diesel engine. Experiments were performed on a 4-cylinder naturally-aspirated direct-injection diesel engine operating at a constant speed of 1800 rev/min for five engine loads. The experimental results show that at low engine loads, the brake thermal efficiency decreases with increase in fumigation methanol; but at high loads, it slightly increases with increase in fumigation methanol. The fumigation method results in a significant increase in hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emissions, but decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), smoke opacity and the particulate mass concentration. For the submicron particles, the total number of particles decreases. In all cases, there is little change in geometrical mean diameter of the particles. After catalytic conversion, the HC, CO, NO(2), particulate mass and particulate number concentrations were significantly reduced at medium to high engine loads; while the geometrical mean diameter of the particles becomes larger. Thus, the combined use of fumigation methanol and diesel oxidation catalyst leads to a reduction of HC, CO, NO(x), particulate mass and particulate number concentrations at medium to high engine loads.

  19. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Suder, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney, an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney FAA and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  20. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Suder, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are: a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney; an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney and FAA; and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  1. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  2. Willingness to engage in energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction: An empirical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eluwa, S. E.; Siong, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Africa's response to climate change has largely been focused on adaptation rather than mitigation. The reason for this is based on the fact that the continent contributes very little to global CO2 emission. Again, mitigation policies like carbon tax as being practised in developed countries may be costly and difficult to implement in a continent where most economies are fragile. Using behavioural change as an adaptation approach, we examined the opinion of Ibadan city residents towards energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction. A total of 822 respondents were sampled across the three residential neighbourhoods of the city. Results from the study showed that female and male respondents differed in their opinion towards energy conservation. However, the female respondents tended to record higher mean scores on majority of the items used to capture energy conservation behaviour than their male counterparts. Also, those with higher level of education seemed to be more conscious of the environmental consequences arising from energy use at home than those with lower educational background. However, very slight variations were recorded in the mean value score across the different age groups, those respondents above 50 years scored a bit higher than other age groups.

  3. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  4. Greenhouse gas emission reduction and environmental quality improvement from implementation of aerobic waste treatment systems in swine farms.

    PubMed

    Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; Vives, C A

    2008-01-01

    Trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions is an attractive approach to help producers implement cleaner treatment technologies to replace current anaerobic lagoons. Our objectives were to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions from implementation of aerobic technology in USA swine farms. Emission reductions were calculated using the approved United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) methodology in conjunction with monitoring information collected during full-scale demonstration of the new treatment system in a 4360-head swine operation in North Carolina (USA). Emission sources for the project and baseline manure management system were methane (CH4) emissions from the decomposition of manure under anaerobic conditions and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during storage and handling of manure in the manure management system. Emission reductions resulted from the difference between total project and baseline emissions. The project activity included an on-farm wastewater treatment system consisting of liquid-solid separation, treatment of the separated liquid using aerobic biological N removal, chemical disinfection and soluble P removal using lime. The project activity was completed with a centralized facility that used aerobic composting to process the separated solids. Replacement of the lagoon technology with the cleaner aerobic technology reduced GHG emissions 96.9%, from 4972 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) to 153 tonnes CO2-eq/year. Total net emission reductions by the project activity in the 4360-head finishing operation were 4776.6 tonnes CO2-eq per year or 1.10 tonnes CO2-eq/head per year. The dollar value from implementation of this project in this swine farm was US$19,106/year using current Chicago Climate Exchange trading values of US$4/t CO2. This translates into a direct economic benefit to the producer of US$1.75 per finished pig. Thus, GHG emission reductions and credits can help compensate for the

  5. Emission reduction of NOx and CO by optimization of the automatic control system in a coal-fired stoker boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Schnelle, K.B.; Laungphairojana, A.; Debelak, K.A.

    2006-07-15

    To date research on NO, and CO emission reduction in stoker-fired boilers has been devoted to combustion modification to the overfire air, diverting air to a selected set of burners, using modified low-NOx, burners, using flue gas recirculation or flue gas treatment with specially controlled catalyst and additives. This study introduces a concept that focuses on the dynamics of the boiler and the automatic control system. The objective of this study was to reduce the NO and CO emissions by restructuring the automatic control system and then tuning the control system with parameters that have been optimized with emission reduction as the objective. Dynamic data were obtained from a step-input test of either the underfire air or the overfire air. These data were used to model the boiler with a transfer function describing the emissions. The analyzer dynamic response was included in the overall model. The control parameters were determined from this overall emissions transfer function by mathematical optimization. These control parameters constituted the initial values in the automatic control system used for the final tests in the boiler. Additional adjustments to reduce the emissions were carried out during boiler operation. A low controller gain and a fast reset time were found to be the most suitable setting for the control system. The NO emissions controlled by the overfire air and CO emissions controlled by the underfire air produced the best results.

  6. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  7. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  8. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  9. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  10. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    King, Megan F.; Gutberlet, Jutta

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  11. Reduction of CO2 diffuse emissions from the traditional ceramic industry by the addition of Si-Al raw material.

    PubMed

    González, I; Barba-Brioso, C; Campos, P; Romero, A; Galán, E

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of ceramics can produce the emission of several gases, denominated exhaust gases, and also vapours resulting from firing processes, which usually contain metals and toxic substances affecting the environment and the health of workers. Especially harmful are the diffuse emissions of CO2, fluorine, chlorine and sulphur from the ceramics industry, which, in highly industrialized areas, can suppose an important emission focus of dangerous effects. Concerning CO2, factories that use carbonate-rich raw materials (>30% carbonates) can emit high concentrations of CO2 to the atmosphere. Thus, carbonate reduction or substitution with other raw materials would reduce the emissions. In this contribution, we propose the addition of Al-shales to the carbonated ceramic materials (marls) for CO2 emission reduction, also improving the quality of the products. The employed shales are inexpensive materials of large reserves in SW-Spain. The ceramic bodies prepared with the addition of selected Al-shale to marls in variable proportions resulted in a 40%-65% CO2 emission reduction. In addition, this research underlines at the same time that the use of a low-price raw material can also contribute to obtaining products with higher added value.

  12. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  13. Dynamic Evaluation of Regional Air Quality Model's Response to Emission Reductions in the Presence of Uncertain Emission Inventories

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is presented and applied for evaluating an air quality model’s changes in pollutant concentrations stemming from changes in emissions while explicitly accounting for the uncertainties in the base emission inventory. Specifically, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMA...

  14. Satellite-observed U.S. power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S. A.; Frost, G. J.; Hsie, E.-Y.; Trainer, M. K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Peckham, S. E.; Grell, G. A.

    2006-11-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O3). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O3 across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  15. Aerosol exposure versus aerosol cooling of climate: what is the optimal emission reduction strategy for human health?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löndahl, J.; Swietlicki, E.; Lindgren, E.; Loft, S.

    2010-10-01

    Particles, climate change, and health have thought-provoking interactions. Air pollution is one of the largest environmental problems concerning human health. On the other hand, aerosol particles can have a cooling effect on climate and a reduction of those emissions may result in an increased temperature globally, which in turn may have negative health effects. The objective of this work was to investigate the "total health effects" of aerosol emissions, which include both exposure to particles and consequences for climate change initiated by particles. As a case study the "total health effect" from ship emissions was derived by subtracting the number of deaths caused by exposure with the estimated number of lives saved from the cooling effect of the emissions. The analysis showed that, with current level of scientific understanding, it could not be determined whether ship emissions are negative or positive for human health on a short time scale. This first attempt to approximate the combined effect of particle emissions on health shows that reductions of particulate air pollution will in some cases (black carbon) have win-win effects on health and climate, but sometimes also cause a shift from particle exposure-related health effects towards an increasing risk of health consequences from climate change. Thus, measures to reduce aerosol emissions have to be coupled with climate change mitigation actions to achieve a full health benefit on a global level.

  16. The impact of transportation control measures on emission reductions during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Ye; Yang, Liu; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Chen, Jinchuan; Li, Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    Traffic congestion and air pollution were two major challenges for the planners of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The Beijing municipal government implemented a package of temporary transportation control measures during the event. In this paper, we report the results of a recent research project that investigated the effects of these measures on urban motor vehicle emissions in Beijing. Bottom-up methodology has been used to develop grid-based emission inventories with micro-scale vehicle activities and speed-dependent emission factors. The urban traffic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) during the 2008 Olympics were reduced by 55.5%, 56.8%, 45.7% and 51.6%, respectively, as compared to the grid-based emission inventory before the Olympics. Emission intensity was derived from curbside air quality monitoring at the North 4th Ring Road site, located about 7 km from the National Stadium. Comparison between the emission intensity before and during the 2008 Olympics shows a reduction of 44.5% and 49.0% in daily CO and NO x emission from motor vehicles. The results suggest that reasonable traffic system improvement strategies along with vehicle technology improvements can contribute to controlling total motor vehicle emissions in Beijing after the Olympic Games.

  17. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

  18. FUGITIVE EMISSION REDUCTIONS DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive emission reductions resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Initial Compliance Demonstration Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements 2 Table 2 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate initial... (98 percent for new sources) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less. a. Perform a...

  20. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Initial Compliance Demonstration Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements 2 Table 2 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate initial... (98 percent for new sources) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less. a. Perform a...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Initial Compliance Demonstration Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements 2 Table 2 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate initial... (98 percent for new sources) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less. a. Perform a...

  2. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Initial Compliance Demonstration Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Methods With the Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements 2 Table 2 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part... Concentration Requirements If you are demonstrating compliance with the * * * You must demonstrate initial... (98 percent for new sources) or an outlet concentration of 0.03 gr/dscf or less. a. Perform a...

  3. Lifetime Reduction and Enhanced Emission of Single Photon Color Centers in Nanodiamond via Surrounding Refractive Index Modification

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Asma; Chung, Kelvin; Rajasekharan, Ranjith; Lau, Desmond W.M.; Karle, Timothy J.; Gibson, Brant C.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana

    2015-01-01

    The negatively-charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is of great interest for quantum information processing and quantum key distribution applications due to its highly desirable long coherence times at room temperature. One of the challenges for their use in these applications involves the requirement to further optimize the lifetime and emission properties of the centers. Our results demonstrate the reduction of the lifetime of NV− centers, and hence an increase in the emission rate, achieved by modifying the refractive index of the environment surrounding the nanodiamond (ND). By coating the NDs in a polymer film, experimental results and numerical calculations show an average of 63% reduction in the lifetime and an average enhancement in the emission rate by a factor of 1.6. This strategy is also applicable for emitters other than diamond color centers where the particle refractive index is greater than the refractive index of the surrounding media. PMID:26109500

  4. Reduction of soot emissions by iron pentacarbonyl in isooctane diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.B.; Masiello, K.A.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-07-15

    Light-scattering measurements, in situ laser-induced fluorescence, and thermophoretic sampling with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, were performed in laboratory isooctane diffusion flames seeded with 4000 ppm iron pentacarbonyl. These measurements allowed the determination of the evolution of the size, number density, and volume fraction of soot particles through the flame. Comparison to unseeded flame data provided a detailed assessment of the effects of iron addition on soot particle inception, growth, and oxidation processes. Iron was found to produce a minor soot-enhancing effect at early residence times, while subsequent soot particle growth was largely unaffected. It is concluded that primarily elemental iron is incorporated within the soot particles during particle inception and growth. However, iron addition was found to enhance the rate of soot oxidation during the soot burnout regime, yielding a two-thirds reduction in overall soot emissions. In situ spectroscopic measurements probed the transient nature of elemental iron throughout the flame, revealing significant loss of elemental iron, presumably to iron oxides, with increasing flame residence, suggesting catalysis of soot oxidation via iron oxide species. (author)

  5. 77 FR 2677 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Aluminum Reduction Plants; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Primary Aluminum Reduction Plants'' is being extended for 12...

  6. Effects of emission reductions on organic aerosol in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, C. L.; Hidy, G. M.; Shaw, S.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term (1999 to 2013) data from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network are used to show that anthropogenic emission reductions led to important decreases in fine-particle organic aerosol (OA) concentrations in the southeastern US On average, 45 % (range 25 to 63 %) of the 1999 to 2013 mean organic carbon (OC) concentrations are attributed to combustion processes, including fossil fuel use and biomass burning, through associations of measured OC with combustion products such as elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The 2013 mean combustion-derived OC concentrations were 0.5 to 1.4 µg m-3 at the five sites operating in that year. Mean annual combustion-derived OC concentrations declined from 3.8 ± 0.2 µg m-3 (68 % of total OC) to 1.4 ± 0.1 µg m-3 (60 % of total OC) between 1999 and 2013 at the urban Atlanta, Georgia, site (JST) and from 2.9 ± 0.4 µg m-3 (39 % of total OC) to 0.7 ± 0.1 µg m-3 (30 % of total OC) between 2001 and 2013 at the urban Birmingham, Alabama (BHM), site. The urban OC declines coincide with reductions of motor vehicle emissions between 2006 and 2010, which may have decreased mean OC concentrations at the urban SEARCH sites by > 2 µg m-3. BHM additionally exhibits a decline in OC associated with SO2 from 0.4 ± 0.04 µg m-3 in 2001 to 0.2 ± 0.03 µg m-3 in 2013, interpreted as the result of reduced emissions from industrial sources within the city. Analyses using non-soil potassium as a biomass burning tracer indicate that biomass burning OC occurs throughout the year at all sites. All eight SEARCH sites show an association of OC with sulfate (SO4) ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 µg m-3 on average, representing ˜ 25 % of the 1999 to 2013 mean OC concentrations. Because the mass of OC identified with SO4 averages 20 to 30 % of the SO4 concentrations, the mean SO4-associated OC declined by ˜ 0.5 to 1 µg m-3 as SO4 concentrations decreased throughout the SEARCH region. The

  7. Effects of emission reductions on organic aerosol in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, C. L.; Hidy, G. M.; Shaw, S.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E. S.

    2015-06-01

    Long-term (1999 to 2013) data from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network are used to characterize the effects of anthropogenic emission reductions on fine particle organic aerosol (OA) concentrations in the southeastern US. On average, 45 % (range 25 to 63 %) of the 1999 to 2013 mean organic carbon (OC) concentrations are attributed to combustion processes, including fossil-fuel use and biomass burning, through associations of measured OC with combustion products such as elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The 2013 mean combustion-derived OC concentrations were 0.5 to 1.4 μg m-3 at the five sites operating in that year. Mean annual combustion-derived OC concentrations declined from 3.8 ± 0.2 μg m-3 (68 % of total OC) to 1.4 ± 0.1 μg m-3 (60 % of total OC) between 1999 and 2013 at the urban Atlanta, Georgia, site (JST) and from 2.9 ± 0.4 μg m-3 (39 % of total OC) to 0.7 ± 0.1 μg m-3 (30 % of total OC) between 2001 and 2013 at the urban Birmingham, Alabama, site (BHM). The urban OC declines coincide with reductions of motor-vehicle emissions between 2006 and 2010, which may have decreased mean OC concentrations at the urban SEARCH sites by > 2 μg m-3. BHM additionally exhibits a decline in OC associated with SO2 from 0.4 ± 0.04 μg m-3 in 2001 to 0.2 ± 0.03 μg m-3 in 2013, interpreted as the result of reduced emissions from industrial sources within the city. Analyses using non-soil potassium as a biomass-burning tracer indicate that biomass-burning OC occurs throughout the year at all sites. All eight SEARCH sites show an association of OC with sulfate (SO4) ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 μg m-3 on average, representing ~ 25 % of the 1999 to 2013 mean OC concentrations. Because the mass of OC associated with SO4 averages 20 to 30 % of the SO4 concentrations, the mean SO4-associated OC declined by ~ 0.5 to 1 μg m-3 as SO4 decreased throughout the SEARCH region. The 2013 mean SO4

  8. Estimating the climate and air quality benefits of aviation fuel and emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorbian, Christopher S.; Wolfe, Philip J.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-05-01

    In this study we consider the implications of our current understanding of aviation climate impacts as it relates to the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 effects from aviation. We take as inputs recent estimates from the literature of the magnitude of the component aviation impacts and associated uncertainties. We then employ a simplified probabilistic impulse response function model for the climate and a range of damage functions to estimate the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation for a range of different metrics, scientific assumptions, future background emissions scenarios, economic growth scenarios, and discount rates. We take cost-benefit analysis as our primary context and thus focus on integral metrics that can be related to damages: the global warming potential, the time-integrated change in surface temperature, and the net present value of damages. We also present results based on an endpoint metric, the global temperature change potential. These latter results would be more appropriate for use in a cost-effectiveness framework (e.g., with a well-defined policy target for the anthropogenic change in surface temperature at a specified time in the future). We find that the parameter that most influences the ratio of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts of aviation is the discount rate, or analogously the time window used for physical metrics; both are expressions of the relative importance of long-lived versus short-lived impacts. Second to this is the influence of the radiative forcing values that are assumed for aviation-induced cloudiness effects. Given the large uncertainties in short-lived effects from aviation, and the dominating influence of discounting or time-windowing, we find that the choice of metric is relatively less influential. We express the ratios of non-CO 2 to CO 2 impacts on a per unit fuel burn basis so that they can be multiplied by a social cost of carbon to estimate the additional benefits of fuel burn reductions from aviation beyond those

  9. Effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on fine particle emission from two coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission abatement of coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) requires large-scaled installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which would reduce secondary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) (by reducing nitrate aerosol) in the atmosphere. However, our field measurement of two CFPPs equipped with SCR indicates a significant increase of SO42- and NH4+ emission in primary PM2.5, due to catalytic enhancement of SO2 oxidation to SO3 and introducing of NH3 as reducing agent. The subsequent formation of (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4 aerosol is commonly concentrated in sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) with a bimodal pattern. The measurement at the inlet of stack also showed doubled primary PM2.5 emission by SCR operation. This effect should therefore be considered when updating emission inventory of CFPPs. By rough estimation, the enhanced primary PM2.5 emission from CFPPs by SCR operation would offset 12% of the ambient PM2.5 concentration reduction in cities as the benefit of national NOx emission abatement, which should draw attention of policy-makers for air pollution control.

  10. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  11. The impacts of electricity dispatch protocols on the emission reductions due to wind power and carbon tax.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Rajagopal, Ram

    2015-02-17

    Two dispatch protocols have been adopted by electricity markets to deal with the uncertainty of wind power but the effects of the selection between the dispatch protocols have not been comprehensively analyzed. We establish a framework to compare the impacts of adopting different dispatch protocols on the efficacy of using wind power and implementing a carbon tax to reduce emissions. We suggest that a market has high potential to achieve greater emission reduction by adopting the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the static protocol when the wind energy in the market is highly uncertain or the market has enough adjustable generators, such as gas-fired combustion generators. Furthermore, the carbon-tax policy is more cost-efficient for reducing CO2 emission when the market operates according to the stochastic protocol rather than the static protocol. An empirical study, which is calibrated according to the data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas market, confirms that using wind energy in the Texas market results in a 12% CO2 emission reduction when the market uses the stochastic dispatch protocol instead of the 8% emission reduction associated with the static protocol. In addition, if a 6$/ton carbon tax is implemented in the Texas market operated according to the stochastic protocol, the CO2 emission is similar to the emission level from the same market with a 16$/ton carbon tax operated according to the static protocol. Correspondingly, the 16$/ton carbon tax associated with the static protocol costs 42.6% more than the 6$/ton carbon tax associated with the stochastic protocol.

  12. Non-exhaust emissions of PM and the efficiency of emission reduction by road sweeping and washing in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Keuken, Menno; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; van der Valk, Karin

    2010-09-15

    From research on PM(2.5) and PM(10) in 2007/2008 in the Netherlands, it was concluded that the coarse fraction (PM(2.5-10)) attributed 60% and 50% respectively, to the urban-regional and street-urban increments of PM(10). Contrary to Scandinavian and Mediterranean countries which exhibit significant seasonal variation in the coarse fraction of particulate matter (PM), in the Netherlands the coarse fraction in PM at a street location is rather constant during the year. Non-exhaust emissions by road traffic are identified as the main source for coarse PM in urban areas. Non-exhaust emissions mainly originate from re-suspension of accumulated deposited PM and road wear related particles, while primary tire and brake wear hardly contribute to the mass of non-exhaust emissions. However, tire and brake wear can clearly be identified in the total mass through the presence of the heavy metals: zinc, a tracer for tire wear and copper, a tracer for brake wear. The efficiency of road sweeping and washing to reduce non-exhaust emissions in a street-canyon in Amsterdam was investigated. The increments of the coarse fraction at a kerbside location and a housing façade location versus the urban background were measured at days with and without sweeping and washing. It was concluded that this measure did not significantly reduce non-exhaust emissions.

  13. Emissions and reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture and food manufacturing -- A summary white paper

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.

    1999-12-01

    This paper summarizes the current scientific and technological knowledge about greenhouse gas emissions from various agricultural practices and the manufacturing of food. The study also provides estimates that compare agriculture-related alternatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Reduction of ruminant methane emissions - a win-win-win opportunity for business, development, and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes research efforts of The Global Livestock Producers Program (GLPP) in establishing self-sustaining enterprises for cost-effective technologies (i.e., animal nutrition and genetic improvement) and global methane emissions reductions in developing world nations. The US Environmental Protection Agency has funded several studies to examine the possibilities of reducing ruminant methane emissions in India, Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Brazil. The results of the studies showed that: (1) many developing countries` production systems are inefficient, and (2) great potential exists for decreasing global methane emissions through increasing animal productivity. From this effort, the GLPP established livestock development projects in India, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania, and is developing projects for Bangladesh, Nepal, and Brazil. The GLPP has developed a proven methodology for assessing ruminant methane and incorporating methane emissions monitoring into viable projects.

  15. A Consideration on Service Business Model for Saving Energy and Reduction of CO2 Emissions Using Inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Michitaka; Yabutani, Takashi

    This paper considers the effectiveness of service business approach for reducing CO2 emission. “HDRIVE” is a service business using inverters to reduce energy consumption of motor drive. The business model of this service is changed for finding new opportunities of CO2 emission reduction by combining various factors such as financial service or long-term service contract. Risk analysis of this business model is very important for giving stable services to users for long term. HDRIVE business model is found to be suitable for this objective. This service can be applied to the industries such as chemical or steel industry effectively, where CO2 emission is very large, and has the possibility of creating new business considering CDM or trading CO2 emission right. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through several examples in real business.

  16. Reduction of CO2 and orbital debris: can CO2 emission trading principles be applied to debris reduction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Giovanni; Kinnersley, Mark; Starke, Juergen; Hugel, Sebastian; Hartner, Gloria; Singh, Sanjay; Loubiere, Vincent; Staebler, Dominik-Markus; O'Brien-Organ, Christopher; Schwindt, Stefan; Serreau, Francois; Sharma, Mohit

    In the past years global pollution and the specific situation of global warming changes have been strongly influencing public opinion and thus obliged politicians to initiate/ negotiate in-ternational agreements to control, avoid or at least reduce the impact of CO2 emissions e.g. The Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the International Copenhagen conference on Climate Change (2009). In the orbital debris area the collision between the Iridium33 and Cosmos 2251 satel-lites in 2009 has again pushed to the forefront the discussion of the space pollution by space debris and the increasing risk of critical and catastrophic events during the nominal life time of space objects. It is shown by simulations that for Low Earth Orbits the critical debris situation is already achieved and the existing space objects will probably produce sufficient space debris elements -big enough -to support the cascade effect (Kessler Syndrome). In anal-ogy with CO2 emissions, potential recommendations / regulations to reduce the production of Space Debris or its permanence in orbit, are likely to open new markets involving Miti-gation and Removal of Space Debris. The principle approach for the CO2 emission trading model will be investigated and the applicability for the global space debris handling will be analysed. The major differences of the two markets will be derived and the consequences in-dicated. Potential alternative solutions will be proposed and discussed. For the example of the CO2 emission trading principles within EU and worldwide legal conditions for space debris (national / international laws and recommendations) will be considered as well as the commer-cial approach from the controlled situation of dedicated orders to a free / competitive market in steps. It is of interest to consider forms of potential industrial organisations and interna-tional co-operations to react on a similar architecture for the debris removal trading including incentives and penalties for the different

  17. Sensitivity of Surface Air Quality and Global Mortality to Global, Regional, and Sectoral Black Carbon Emission Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S.; Talgo, K.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; Arunachalam, S.; West, J.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) released during incomplete combustion, is associated with atmospheric warming and deleterious health impacts, including premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality. A growing body of literature suggests that controlling emissions may therefore have dual benefits for climate and health. Several studies have focused on quantifying the potential impacts of reducing BC emissions from various world regions and economic sectors on radiative forcing. However, the impacts of these reductions on human health have been less well studied. Here, we use a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4) and a health impact function to quantify the surface air quality and human health benefits of controlling BC emissions. We simulate a base case and several emission control scenarios, where anthropogenic BC emissions are reduced by half globally, individually in each of eight world regions, and individually from the residential, industrial, and transportation sectors. We also simulate a global 50% reduction of both BC and organic carbon (OC) together, since they are co-emitted and both are likely to be impacted by actual control measures. Meteorology and biomass burning emissions are for the year 2002 with anthropogenic BC and OC emissions for 2000 from the IPCC AR5 inventory. Model performance is evaluated by comparing to global surface measurements of PM2.5 components. Avoided premature mortalities are calculated using the change in PM2.5 concentration between the base case and emission control scenarios and a concentration-response factor for chronic mortality from the epidemiology literature.

  18. Effectiveness of selective catalytic reduction systems on reducing gaseous emissions from an engine using diesel and biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Borillo, Guilherme C; Tadano, Yara S; Godoi, Ana F L; Santana, Simone S M; Weronka, Fernando M; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Potgieter, Johannes H; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2015-03-03

    The aim of this investigation was to quantify organic and inorganic gas emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. Using a bench dynamometer, the emissions from the following mixtures were evaluated using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer: low-sulfur diesel (LSD), ultralow-sulfur diesel (ULSD), and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel and 80% ULSD (B20). For all studied fuels, the use of the SCR system yielded statistically significant (p < 0.05) lower NOx emissions. In the case of the LSD and ULSD fuels, the SCR system also significantly reduced emissions of compounds with high photochemical ozone creation potential, such as formaldehyde. However, for all tested fuels, the SCR system produced significantly (p < 0.05) higher emissions of N2O. In the case of LSD, the NH3 emissions were elevated, and in the case of ULSD and B20 fuels, the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and total hydrocarbon of diesel (HCD) emissions were significantly higher.

  19. Reduction on NOx emissions on urban areas by changing specific vehicle fleets: effects on NO2 and O3 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, M.; Jimenez, P.; Baldasano, J.

    2007-12-01

    The largest amount of NOx emissions in urban areas comes from on-road traffic, which is the largest contributor to urban air pollution (Colvile et al., 2001). Currently different strategies are being tested in order to reduce its effects; many of them oriented to the reduction of the unitary vehicles emissions, by alternative fuels use (such as biofuels, natural gas or hydrogen) or introduction of new technologies (such as hybrid electric vehicles or fuel cells). Atmospheric modelling permits to predict their consequences on tropospheric chemistry (Vautard et al., 2007). Hence, this work assesses the changes on NO2 and O3 concentrations when substituting a 10 per cent of the urban private cars fleets by petrol hybrid electric cars (HEC) or by natural gas cars (NGC) in Madrid and Barcelona urban areas (Spain). These two cities are selected in order to highlight the different patterns of pollutants transport (inland vs. coastal city) and the different responses to emissions reductions. The results focus on a typical summertime episode of air pollution, by means of the Eulerian air quality model ARW- WRF/HERMES/CMAQ, applied with high resolution (1-hr, 1km2) since of the complexity of both areas under study. The detailed emissions scenarios are implemented in the HERMES traffic emissions module, based on the Copert III-EEA/EMEP-CORINAIR (Nztiachristos and Samaras, 2000) methodology. The HEC introduction reduces NOx emissions from on-road traffic in a 10.8 per cent and 8.2 per cent; and the NGC introduction in a 10.3 per cent and 7.8 per cent, for Madrid and Barcelona areas, respectively. The scenarios also affect the NMVOCs reduction (ranging from -3.1 to -6.9 per cent), influencing the tropospheric photochemistry through the NOx/NMVOCs ratio. The abatement of the NO photooxidation but also to the reduction on primary NO2 involves a decrease on NO2 levels centred on urban areas. For example, the NO2 24-hr average concentration in downtown areas reduces up to 8 per

  20. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: a case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil.

    PubMed

    King, Megan F; Gutberlet, Jutta

    2013-12-01

    Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  1. Measurements of black and organic carbon emission factors for household coal combustion in China: implication for emission reduction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingjun; Zhi, Guorui; Feng, Yanli; Liu, Dongyan; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2009-12-15

    Household coal combustion is considered as the greatest emission source for black carbon (BC) and an important source for organic carbon (OC) in China. However, measurements on BC and OC emission factors (EF(BC) and EF(OC)) are still scarce, which result in large uncertainties in emission estimates. In this study, a detailed data set of EF(BC) and EF(OC) for household coal burning was presented on the basis of 38 coal/stove combination experiments. These experiments included 13 coals with a wide coverage of geological maturity which were tested in honeycomb-coal-briquette and raw-coal-chunk forms in three typical coal stoves. Averaged values of EF(BC) are 0.004 and 0.007 g/kg for anthracite in briquette and chunk forms and 0.09 and 3.05 g/kg for bituminous coal, respectively; EF(OC) are 0.06 and 0.10 g/kg for anthracite and 3.74 and 5.50 g/kg for bituminous coal in both forms, respectively. Coal maturity was found to be the most important influencing factor relative to coal's burning forms and the stove's burning efficiency, and when medium-volatile bituminous coals (MVB) are excluded from use, averaged EF(BC) and EF(OC) for bituminous coal decrease by 50% and 30%, respectively. According to these EFs, China's BC and OC emissions from the household sector in 2000 were 94 and 244 gigagrams (Gg), respectively. Compared with previous BC emission estimates for this sector (e.g., 465 Gg by Ohara et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2007, 7, 4419-4444), a dramatic decrease was observed and was mainly attributed to the update of EFs. As suggested by this study, if MVB is prohibited as household fuel together with further promotion of briquettes, BC and OC emissions in this sector will be reduced by 80% and 34%, respectively, and then carbonaceous emissions can be controlled to a large extent in China.

  2. [Synergistic emission reduction of chief air pollutants and greenhouse gases-based on scenario simulations of energy consumptions in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-bo; Li, Wei

    2013-05-01

    It is one of the common targets and important tasks for energy management and environmental control of Beijing to improve urban air quality while reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Here, based on the interim and long term developmental planning and energy structure of the city, three energy consumption scenarios in low, moderate and high restrictions were designed by taking the potential energy saving policies and environmental targets into account. The long-range energy alternatives planning (LEAP) model was employed to predict and evaluate reduction effects of the chief air pollutants and GHG during 2010 to 2020 under the three given scenarios. The results showed that if urban energy consumption system was optimized or adjusted by exercising energy saving and emission reduction and pollution control measures, the predicted energy uses will be reduced by 10 to 30 million tons of coal equivalents by 2020. Under the two energy scenarios with moderate and high restrictions, the anticipated emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, VOC and GHG will be respectively reduced to 71 to 100.2, 159.2 to 218.7, 89.8 to 133.8, 51.4 to 96.0, 56.4 to 74.8 and 148 200 to 164 700 thousand tons. Correspondingly, when compared with the low-restriction scenario, the reducing rate will be 53% to 67% , 50% to 64% , 33% to 55% , 25% to 60% , 41% to 55% and 26% to 34% respectively. Furthermore, based on a study of synergistic emission reduction of the air pollutants and GHG, it was proposed that the adjustment and control of energy consumptions shall be intensively developed in the three sectors of industry, transportation and services. In this way the synergistic reduction of the emissions of chief air pollutants and GHG will be achieved; meanwhile the pressures of energy demands may be deliberately relieved.

  3. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ding; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Chen, Wenying

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  4. U.S. onroad transportation CO2 emissions analysis comparing highly resolved CO2 emissions and a national average approach : mitigation options and uncertainty reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    significantly from the national average. We calculate the state-specific uncertainty of the Vulcan onroad emissions as a fraction of the state total emissions for each of the three sources; VMT, Age Distribution, and Fuel Efficiency. Uncertainty is largest for LD vehicles and urban roads that display more irregular and fuel-consuming start-and-go driving patterns. Therefore, states with greater urbanization levels (eg. New Jersey) and a larger proportion of LD vehicles (eg. California) generally display the largest levels of combined uncertainty. The disparity between expected and real emissions reductions, were policy to neglect spatial differences, highlights the importance of emissions mitigation strategies that incorporate the unique characteristics of geography in order to achieve consistently effective mitigation. In order to have measurable impact, mitigation must also ensure that potential reductions exceed the uncertainty associated with quantifying emissions. Thus climate agreements that fully account for uncertainties in emission estimates as well as regional differences will be best suited to enact the most effective policy.

  5. Emission reduction potential of using gas-to-liquid and dimethyl ether fuels on a turbocharged diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Xinling, Li; Zhen, Huang

    2009-03-15

    A study of engine performance characteristics and both of regulated (CO, HC, NO(x), and smoke) and unregulated (ultrafine particle number, mass concentrations and size distribution) emissions for a turbocharged diesel engine fueled with conventional diesel, gas-to-liquid (GTL) and dimethyl ether (DME) fuels respectively at different engine loads and speeds have been carried out. The results indicated that fuel components significantly affected the engine performance and regulated/unregulated emissions. GTL exhibited almost the same power and torque output as diesel, while improved fuel economy. GTL significantly reduced regulated emissions with average reductions of 21.2% in CO, 15.7% in HC, 15.6% in NO(x) and 22.1% in smoke in comparison to diesel, as well as average reductions in unregulated emissions of total ultrafine particle number (N(tot)) and mass (M(tot)) emissions by 85.3% and 43.9%. DME can significantly increase torque and power, compared with the original diesel engine, as well as significantly reduced regulated emissions of 40.1% in HC, 48.2% in NO(x) and smoke free throughout all the engine conditions. However, N(tot) for DME is close to that for diesel. The reason is that the accumulation mode particle number emissions for DME are very low due to the characteristics of oxygen content and no C-C bond, which promotes the processes of nucleation and condensation of the semi-volatile compounds in the exhaust gas, as a result, a lot of nucleation mode particles produce.

  6. Power plant emissions: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative emission reduction scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.

    2004-06-15

    This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total emissions from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the emissions inventory estimates, and the changes in the emissions associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.

  7. Effectiveness in the use of natural gas for the reduction of atmospheric emissions: case study--industrial sector in the metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Corvalán, Roberto M; Galecio, Javier I; Salim, José A

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the potential of natural gas to reduce emissions from stationary combustion sources by analyzing the case study of the metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile. For such purposes, referential base scenarios have been defined that represent with and without natural gas settings. The method to be applied is an emission estimate based on emission factors. The results for this case study reveal that stationary combustion sources that replaced their fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions by 61%, sulfur oxides (SOx) by 91%, nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 40%, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) by 10%. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were reduced by 1%. As a result of this emission reduction, in addition to reductions caused by other factors, such as a shift to cleaner fuels other than natural gas, technological improvements, and sources which are not operative, emission reduction goals set forth by the environmental authorities were broadly exceeded.

  8. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting

  9. Coal-fired power plant and its emission reduction in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntjoro, D.

    1994-12-31

    Power generation availability is one important key to the rapid growth of Indonesia`s industrial sector. To secure future national energy needs, coal-fired power generation has been set up as a primary energy source. There are environmental concerns related to the emission of gases, particulates, and ash resulting from coal combustion. This paper discusses emission controls from burning high calorie, low sulfur coal and the national strategy to reduce emissions.

  10. Emissions reduction by varying the swirler airflow split in advanced gas turbine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micklow, Gerald J.; Roychoudhury, Subir; Nguyen, H. L.; Cline, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    A rich burn/quick mix/lean burn (RQL) combustor concept for reducing pollutant emissions is currently under investigation at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The current study investigates the effect of varying the mass flow rate split between the swirler passages for an equivalance ratio of 2.0 on fuel distribution, temperature distribution, and emissions for the fuel nozzle/rich burn section of an RQL combustor. It is seen that optimizing these parameters can substantially improve combustor performance and reduce combustor emissions. The optimal mass flow rate split for reducing NO(x) emissions based on the numerical study was the same as found by experiment.

  11. Impacts of reductions in emissions of multipollutants over 2005-2030 on regional air quality and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, H.; Yang, Y.; Chang, W.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Many societal activities lead to emissions to the atmosphere that affect both air quality and climate. We examine how particular policies may be able to provide benefits in both these areas using three coupled global chemistry-climate models (CACTUS, GISS-PUCCINI, and NCAR-CESM). The anthropogenic emissions for years 2005 and 2030 are taken from the datasets generated by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) GAINS (Greenhouse gas-Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. The 2030 emissions scenarios include (1) a reference scenario, (2) a low GWP scenario, and (3) the lowest emissions scenario. The reference scenario assumes that all agreed air pollution policies are being implemented, and the other two scenarios have additional reductions in emissions based on a selected set of measures. We firstly evaluate the model predictions for 2005, and then investigate the simulated year 2030 concentrations of ozone, sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon, aerosol optical depth, as well as year 2030 radiative forcing relative to 2005. Both direct and indirect radiative forcings of aerosols are considered. Our model results suggest that taking measures to reduce emissions in China can reduce year 2030 PM2.5 concentrations in China by 20-60% and help to mitigate near-term regional climate change.

  12. Emission reduction potential of using ethanol-biodiesel-diesel fuel blend on a heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Pang, Xiaobing; Mu, Yujing; He, Hong; Shuai, Shijin; Wang, Jianxin; Chen, Hu; Li, Rulong

    Oxygenated diesel fuel blends have a potential to reduce the emission of particulate matter (PM) and to be an alternative to diesel fuel. This paper describes the emission characteristics of a three compounds oxygenated diesel fuel blend (BE-diesel), on a Cummins-4B diesel engine. BE-diesel is a new form of oxygenated diesel fuel blends consisted of ethanol, methyl soyate and petroleum diesel fuel. The blend ratio used in this study was 5:20:75 (ethanol: methyl soyate: diesel fuel) by volume. The results from the operation of diesel engine with BE-diesel showed a significant reduction in PM emissions and 2%-14% increase of NO x emissions. The change of CO emission was not conclusive and depended on operating conditions. Total hydrocarbon (THC) from BE-diesel was lower than that from diesel fuel under most tested conditions. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetone in the exhaust were measured, and the results indicated that use of BE-diesel led to a slight increase of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetone emissions. A small amount of ethanol was also detected in the exhaust from burning BE-diesel.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of controlling emissions for various alternative-fuel vehicle types, with vehicle and fuel price subsidies estimated on the basis of monetary values of emission reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1993-12-31

    Emission-control cost-effectiveness is estimated for ten alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV) types (i.e., vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline, M85 flexible-fuel vehicles [FFVs], M100 FFVs, dedicated M85 vehicles, dedicated M100 vehicles, E85 FFVS, dual-fuel liquefied petroleum gas vehicles, dual-fuel compressed natural gas vehicles [CNGVs], dedicated CNGVs, and electric vehicles [EVs]). Given the assumptions made, CNGVs are found to be most cost-effective in controlling emissions and E85 FFVs to be least cost-effective, with the other vehicle types falling between these two. AFV cost-effectiveness is further calculated for various cases representing changes in costs of vehicles and fuels, AFV emission reductions, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions, among other factors. Changes in these parameters can change cost-effectiveness dramatically. However, the rank of the ten AFV types according to their cost-effectiveness remains essentially unchanged. Based on assumed dollars-per-ton emission values and estimated AFV emission reductions, the per-vehicle monetary value of emission reductions is calculated for each AFV type. Calculated emission reduction values ranged from as little as $500 to as much as $40,000 per vehicle, depending on AFV type, dollar-per-ton emission values, and baseline gasoline vehicle emissions. Among the ten vehicle types, vehicles fueled with reformulated gasoline have the lowest per-vehicle value, while EVs have the highest per-vehicle value, reflecting the magnitude of emission reductions by these vehicle types. To translate the calculated per-vehicle emission reduction values to individual AFV users, AFV fuel or vehicle price subsidies are designed to be equal to AFV emission reduction values. The subsidies designed in this way are substantial. In fact, providing the subsidies to AFVs would change most AFV types from net cost increases to net cost decreases, relative to conventional gasoline vehicles.

  14. Reduction in NO(x) emission trends over China: regional and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Liu, Zhen

    2013-11-19

    We analyzed satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over China from 2005 to 2010 in order to estimate the top-down anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission trends. Since NOx emissions were affected by the economic slowdown in 2009, we removed one year of abnormal data in the analysis. The estimated average emission trend is 4.01 ± 1.39% yr(-1), which is slower than the trend of 5.8-10.8% yr(-1) reported for previous years. We find large regional, seasonal, and urban-rural variations in emission trends. The average NOx emission trend of 3.47 ± 1.07% yr(-1) in warm season (June-September) is less than the trend of 5.03 ± 1.92% yr(-1) in cool season (October-May). The regional annual emission trends decrease from 4.76 ± 1.61% yr(-1) in North China Plain to 3.11 ± 0.98% yr(-1) in Yangtze River Delta and further down to -4.39 ± 1.81% yr(-1) in Pearl River Delta. The annual emission trends of the four largest megacities, Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen are -0.76 ± 0.29%, 0.69 ± 0.27%, -4.46 ± 1.22%, and -7.18 ± 2.88% yr(-1), considerably lower than the regional averages or surrounding rural regions. These results appear to suggest that a number of factors, including emission control measures of thermal power plants, increased hydro-power usage, vehicle emission regulations, and closure or migration of high-emission industries, have significantly reduced or even reversed the increasing trend of NOx emissions in more economically developed megacities and southern coastal regions, but their effects are not as significant in other major cities or less economically developed regions.

  15. Environmental effect of antioxidant additives on exhaust emission reduction in compression ignition engine fuelled with Annona methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Senthil, R; Silambarasan, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of antioxidant l-ascorbic acid on engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of Annona oil (MEAO). The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (100-400 mg) with MEAO. Result shows that the antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+LA200) is effective in control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission of MEAO-fuelled engine without doing any engine modification. In this study by using MEAO, the NOx emission is reduced by about 23.38% at full load while compared with neat diesel fuel. Likewise there is a reduction in carbon monoxide, smoke, and HC by about 48%, 28.57% and 29.71% at full load condition compared with neat diesel fuel.

  16. Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the California Transportation Sector: Dynamics in Vehicle Fleet and Energy Supply Transitions to Achieve 80% Reduction in Emissions from 1990 Levels by 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighty, Wayne Waterman

    California's "80in50" target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80 percent below 1990 levels by the year 2050 is based on climate science rather than technical feasibility of mitigation. As such, it raises four fundamental questions: is this magnitude of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions possible, what energy system transitions over the next 40 years are necessary, can intermediate policy goals be met on the pathway toward 2050, and does the path of transition matter for the objective of climate change mitigation? Scenarios for meeting the 80in50 goal in the transportation sector are modelled. Specifically, earlier work defining low carbon transport scenarios for the year 2050 is refined by incorporating new information about biofuel supply. Then transition paths for meeting 80in50 scenarios are modelled for the light-duty vehicle sub-sector, with important implications for the timing of action, rate of change, and cumulative greenhouse gas emissions. One aspect of these transitions -- development in the California wind industry to supply low-carbon electricity for plug-in electric vehicles -- is examined in detail. In general, the range of feasible scenarios for meeting the 80in50 target is narrow enough that several common themes are apparent: electrification of light-duty vehicles must occur; continued improvements in vehicle efficiency must be applied to improving fuel economy; and energy carriers must de-carbonize to less than half of the carbon intensity of gasoline and diesel. Reaching the 80in50 goal will require broad success in travel demand reduction, fuel economy improvements and low-carbon fuel supply, since there is little opportunity to increase emission reductions in one area if we experience failure in another. Although six scenarios for meeting the 80in50 target are defined, only one also meets the intermediate target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2020. Furthermore, the transition path taken to reach any

  17. Inventory of PCBs in Chicago and Opportunities for Reduction in Airborne Emissions and Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Caitlin E; Spak, Scott N; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are important regional sources of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and population-scale airborne exposure, yet a comprehensive bottom-up source inventory of PCB emissions has never been quantified at urban scales in the United States. Here we report a comprehensive parcel level inventory of PCB stocks and emissions for Chicago, Illinois, developed with a transferable method from publicly available data. Chicago's legacy stocks hold 276 ± 147 tonnes ∑PCBs, with 0.2 tonnes added annually. Transformers and building sealants represent the largest legacy categories at 250 and 20 tonnes, respectively. From these stocks, annual emissions rates of 203 kg for ∑PCBs and 3 kg for PCB 11 explain observed concentrations in Chicago air. Sewage sludge drying contributes 25% to emissions, soils 31%, and transformers 21%. Known contaminated sites account for <1% of stocks and 17% of emissions to air. Paint is responsible for 0.00001% of stocks but up to 7% of ∑PCBs emissions. Stocks and emissions are highly concentrated and not correlated with population density or demographics at the neighborhood scale. Results suggest that strategies to further reduce exposure and ecosystem deposition must focus on the largest emissions sources rather than the most contaminated sites or the largest closed source legacy stocks.

  18. SIMULATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION STRATEGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farming practices can have a large impact on the soil carbon cycle and the resulting net emission of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide (CO**2), methane and nitrous oxide. Primary sources of CO**2 emission on dairy farms are soil, plant, and animal respiration with smaller contributions from ...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND REDUCTION OF FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS FROM A LOW-VOC LATEX PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the measurment and analysis of the patterns of formaldehyde emission from a low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex paint applied to gypsum board, using small environmental chamber tests. The formaldehyde emissions resulted in sharp increase of chamber air...

  20. CHARACTERIZATION AND REDUCTION OF FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS FROM A LOW-VOC LATEX PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The patterns of formaldehyde emission from a low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex paint applied to gypsum board were measured and analyzed by small environmental chamber tests. It was found that the formaldehyde emissions resulted in sharp increase of chamber air formaldehy...

  1. Avco Lycoming/NASA contract status. [on reduction of emissions from aircraft piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions were the basis in a study of ways to reduce emissions from aircraft piston engines. A variable valve timing system, ultrasonic fuel atomization, and ignition system changes were postulated.

  2. Modeling ambient carbon monoxide trends to evaluate mobile-source emissions reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.L.; Downton, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Regression models have been used with poor success to detect the effect of emission-control programs in ambient-concentration measurements of carbon monoxide. An advance CO regression model is developed, based on an understanding of the physical processes of dispersion. Its performance is shown to be superior to the more traditionally developed regression and time-series models. The model reliably separates the effects of emissions change from the effects of fluctuations in meteorological conditions. The model has sufficient precision to identify present trends in emissions from ambient concentration data. The model should be useful for detecting changes in emission trends due to implementation of a control program on vehicular emissions such as an inspection and maintenance program.

  3. Modeling ambient carbon monoxide trends to evaluate mobile source emissions reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.L.; Downton, M.W.

    1987-10-01

    Regression models have been used with poor success to detect the effect of emission control programs in ambient concentration measurements of carbon monoxide. An advanced CO regression model is developed whose form is based on an understanding of the physical processes of dispersion. Its performance is shown to be superior to the more traditionally developed regression and time series models. The model separates the effects of emissions change from the effects of fluctuations in meteorological conditions. The separation appears to be most reliable for winter conditions. The model has sufficient precision to identify present trends in emissions from ambient concentration data. This model should be useful for detecting changes in emission trends due to implementation of a control program on vehicular emissions such as an inspection and maintenance program.

  4. Modeling Ambient Carbon Monoxide Trends to Evaluate Mobile Source Emissions Reductions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Robin L.; Downton, Mary W.

    1987-10-01

    Regression models have been used with poor success to detect the effect of emission control programs in ambient concentration measurements of carbon monoxide. An advanced CO regression model is developed whose form is based on an understanding of the physical processes of dispersion. Its performance is shown to be superior to the more traditionally developed regression and time series models. The model separates the effects of emissions change from the effects of fluctuations in meteorological conditions. The separation appears to be most reliable for winter conditions. The model has sufficient precision to identify present trends in emissions ambient concentration data. This model should be useful for detecting changes in emission trends due to implementation of a control program on vehicular emissions such as an inspection and maintenance program.

  5. Direct observation of single layer graphene oxide reduction through spatially resolved, single sheet absorption/emission microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Denis A; Morozov, Yurii V; McDonald, Matthew P; Vietmeyer, Felix; Hodak, Jose H; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-06-11

    Laser reduction of graphene oxide (GO) offers unique opportunities for the rapid, nonchemical production of graphene. By tuning relevant reduction parameters, the band gap and conductivity of reduced GO can be precisely controlled. In situ monitoring of single layer GO reduction is therefore essential. In this report, we show the direct observation of laser-induced, single layer GO reduction through correlated changes to its absorption and emission. Absorption/emission movies illustrate the initial stages of single layer GO reduction, its transition to reduced-GO (rGO) as well as its subsequent decomposition upon prolonged laser illumination. These studies reveal GO's photoreduction life cycle and through it native GO/rGO absorption coefficients, their intrasheet distributions as well as their spatial heterogeneities. Extracted absorption coefficients for unreduced GO are α405 nm ≈ 6.5 ± 1.1 × 10(4) cm(-1), α520 nm ≈ 2.1 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1), and α640 nm ≈ 1.1 ± 0.3 × 10(4) cm(-1) while corresponding rGO α-values are α405 nm ≈ 21.6 ± 0.6 × 10(4) cm(-1), α520 nm ≈ 16.9 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1), and α640 nm ≈ 14.5 ± 0.4 × 10(4) cm(-1). More importantly, the correlated absorption/emission imaging provides us with unprecedented insight into GO's underlying photoreduction mechanism, given our ability to spatially resolve its kinetics and to connect local rate constants to activation energies. On a broader level, the developed absorption imaging is general and can be applied toward investigating the optical properties of other two-dimensional materials, especially those that are nonemissive and are invisible to current single molecule optical techniques.

  6. How China achieved its 11th Five-Year Plan emissions reduction target: A structural decomposition analysis of industrial SO2 and chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaoling; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    To curb the increasing pollutant emissions that have accompanied rapid economic growth, China implemented a mandatory emissions control system since the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) period, and the emission reduction targets have been met and even exceeded. This article explores how China achieved its emissions reduction targets by systematically identifying the main emission reduction pathways, including both the environmental and economic factors, and evaluates the contribution of each factor using structure decomposition analysis. A study of the two key controlled pollutants, industrial sulfur dioxide (SO2) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), during the 11th FYP period showed that (i) changes in the end-of-pipe treatment and pollutant generation coefficient were the dominant contributors to emissions reduction. The power and metal smelting sectors played important roles in SO2 abatement, while the paper products and food products sectors were important in COD reduction; (ii) changes to the input coefficient increased overall emissions although there was a decrease in SO2 emissions in 2007-2010 mainly due to input structure improvements in the construction sector; (iii) the trade effect largely offset the domestic emission reduction effects, although the trade effect declined during the study period; (iv) domestic demand was the main factor increasing domestic emissions; domestic investment changes (especially in the construction sector) were the major contributor to increases in SO2 emissions, and final consumption changes (especially consumption in the food production sector) were the main contributor to the increase in COD emissions. The results yield important implications for China's pollution emissions control policies.

  7. Reduction of the Livestock Ammonia Emission under the Changing Temperature during the Initial Manure Nitrogen Biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Bagdonienė, Indrė; Baležentienė, Ligita

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data were applied for the modelling optimal cowshed temperature environment in laboratory test bench by a mass-flow method. The principal factor affecting exponent growth of ammonia emission was increasing air and manure surface temperature. With the manure temperature increasing from 4°C to 30°C, growth in the ammonia emission grew fourfold, that is, from 102 to 430 mg m−2h−1. Especial risk emerges when temperature exceeds 20°C: an increase in temperature of 1°C contributes to the intensity of ammonia emission by 17 mg m−2h−1. The temperatures of air and manure surface as well as those of its layers are important when analysing emission processes from manure. Indeed, it affects the processes occurring on the manure surface, namely, dehydration and crust formation. To reduce ammonia emission from cowshed, it is important to optimize the inner temperature control and to manage air circulation, especially at higher temperatures, preventing the warm ambient air from blowing direct to manure. Decrease in mean annual temperature of 1°C would reduce the annual ammonia emission by some 5.0%. The air temperature range varied between −15°C and 30°C in barns. The highest mean annual temperature (14.6°C) and ammonia emission (218 mg m−2h−1) were observed in the semideep cowshed. PMID:24453912

  8. Satellite-Observed US Power Plant NOx Emission Reductions and Their Impact on Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.; Frost, G.; Hsie, E.; Trainer, M.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.; Peckham, S.; Grell, G.

    2005-05-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O3). O3 exceedances in the northeast US have been associated with NOx emissions from point sources, especially coal-burning power plants. As a result, numerous programs to control point source NOx emissions in the eastern US have been implemented over the past decade. Here we assess the change of regional NOx emissions in the eastern US by comparing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns derived from the satellite instruments with three-dimensional regional scale chemical transport model results that include the estimated NOx emission changes. SCIAMACHY measurements are used in comparisons with WRF-Chem model simulations for 2004 because of their availability and similar horizontal resolution to the model simulations. However, to get the long term evolution of NO2 columns between 1997 and 2005, both GOME and SCIAMACHY data are utilized. Satellite observations clearly detect both year-to-year and summertime NO2 column decreases in regions impacted by power plants that have implemented NOx controls over the past decade. In the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emission, satellite-retrieved summertime NO2 columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases than in the northeast US urban corridor.

  9. Satellite-Observed US Power Plant NOx Emission Reductions and Their Impact on Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.; Frost, G.; Hsie, E.; Trainer, M.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.; Peckham, S.; Grell, G.

    2006-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O3). O3 exceedances in the northeast US have been associated with NOx emissions from point sources, especially coal-burning power plants. As a result, numerous programs to control point source NOx emissions in the eastern US have been implemented over the past decade. Here we assess the change of regional NOx emissions in the eastern US by comparing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns derived from the satellite instruments with three-dimensional regional scale chemical transport model results that include the estimated NOx emission changes. SCIAMACHY measurements are used in comparisons with WRF-Chem model simulations for 2004 because of their availability and similar horizontal resolution to the model simulations. However, to get the long term evolution of NO2 columns between 1997 and 2005, both GOME and SCIAMACHY data are utilized. Satellite observations clearly detect both year-to-year and summertime NO2 column decreases in regions impacted by power plants that have implemented NOx controls over the past decade. In the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emission, satellite-retrieved summertime NO2 columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases than in the northeast US urban corridor.

  10. Is faster economic growth compatible with reductions in carbon emissions? The role of diminished population growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Gregory; Galor, Oded

    2017-01-01

    We provide evidence that lower fertility can simultaneously increase income per capita and lower carbon emissions, eliminating a trade-off central to most policies aimed at slowing global climate change. We estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the fact that changes in fertility patterns affect carbon emissions through three channels: total population, the age structure of the population, and economic output. Our analysis proceeds in two steps. First, we estimate the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to population and income per capita in an unbalanced yearly panel of cross-country data from 1950-2010. We demonstrate that the elasticity with respect to population is nearly seven times larger than the elasticity with respect to income per capita and that this difference is statistically significant. Thus, the regression results imply that 1% slower population growth could be accompanied by an increase in income per capita of nearly 7% while still lowering carbon emissions. In the second part of our analysis, we use a recently constructed economic-demographic model of Nigeria to estimate the effect of lower fertility on carbon emissions, accounting for the impacts of fertility on population growth, population age structure, and income per capita. We find that by 2100 C.E. moving from the medium to the low variant of the UN fertility projection leads to 35% lower yearly emissions and 15% higher income per capita. These results suggest that population policies could be part of the approach to combating global climate change.

  11. Insights into the emission reductions of multiple unintentional persistent organic pollutants from industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu

    2016-02-01

    Industrial activities result in unintentional production of multiple types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at various concentrations. Because of the potential adverse effect of these POPs on the environment, biota and human health, methods for controlling emission of POPs are required. Development and application of techniques for controlling emissions of POPs can be a technical and economic burden for the industry involved. Therefore, from the point of view of cost-benefit analysis, reducing emissions of multiple pollutants at the same time is optimal for sustainable industrial development. Although techniques have been developed for reducing the emissions of individual POPs, such as dioxins, further work is required on multi-POP control emissions from industrial activities. This paper discusses three important aspects that need to be taken to achieve multi-POP control. These aspects include the establishment of a comprehensive system for evaluating the risk from emissions of multiple POPs, determination of indicators for total emissions of multiple POPs, and the preparation and application of functional materials to inhibit formation of multiple POPs. These discussion might be helpful for the future research on the multi-POP control in industry.

  12. Reduction of the livestock ammonia emission under the changing temperature during the initial manure nitrogen biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Bleizgys, Rolandas; Bagdonienė, Indrė; Baležentienė, Ligita

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data were applied for the modelling optimal cowshed temperature environment in laboratory test bench by a mass-flow method. The principal factor affecting exponent growth of ammonia emission was increasing air and manure surface temperature. With the manure temperature increasing from 4°C to 30°C, growth in the ammonia emission grew fourfold, that is, from 102 to 430 mg m(-2)h(-1). Especial risk emerges when temperature exceeds 20°C: an increase in temperature of 1°C contributes to the intensity of ammonia emission by 17 mg m(-2)h(-1). The temperatures of air and manure surface as well as those of its layers are important when analysing emission processes from manure. Indeed, it affects the processes occurring on the manure surface, namely, dehydration and crust formation. To reduce ammonia emission from cowshed, it is important to optimize the inner temperature control and to manage air circulation, especially at higher temperatures, preventing the warm ambient air from blowing direct to manure. Decrease in mean annual temperature of 1°C would reduce the annual ammonia emission by some 5.0%. The air temperature range varied between -15°C and 30°C in barns. The highest mean annual temperature (14.6°C) and ammonia emission (218 mg m(-2)h(-1)) were observed in the semideep cowshed.

  13. Modelisation 0D/1D des emissions de particules de suie dans les turbines a gaz aeronautiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisson, Jeremie

    Because of more stringent regulations of aircraft particle emissions as well as strong uncertainties about their formation and their effects on the atmosphere, a better understanding of particle microphysical mechanisms and their interactions with the engine components is required. This thesis focuses on the development of a 0D/1D combustion model with soot production in an aeronautical gas turbine. A major objective of this study is to assess the quality of soot particle emission predictions for different flight configurations. The model should eventually allow performing parametric studies on current or future engines with a minimal computation time. The model represents the combustor as well as turbines and nozzle with a chemical reactor network (CRN) that is coupled with a detailed combustion chemistry for kerosene (Jet A-1) and a soot particle dynamics model using the method of moments. The CRN was applied to the CFM56-2C1 engine during flight configurations of the LTO cycle (Landing-Take-Off) as in the APEX-1 study on aircraft particle emissions. The model was mainly validated on gas turbine thermodynamic data and pollutant concentrations (H2O, COX, NOx, SOX) which were measured in the same study. Once the first validation completed, the model was subsequently used for the computation of mass and number-based emissions indices of the soot particulate population and average diameter. Overall, the model is representative of the thermodynamic conditions and succeeds in predicting the emissions of major pollutants, particularly at high power. Concerning soot particulate emissions, the model's ability to predict simultaneously the emission indices as well as mean diameter has been partially validated. Indeed, the mass emission indices have remained higher than experimental results particularly at high power. These differences on particulate emission index may be the result of uncertainties on thermodynamic parameters of the CRN and mass air flow distribution in

  14. Combined Catalyzed Soot Filter and SCR Catalyst System for Diesel Engine Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.

    2000-08-20

    Substantially reduces particulate emission for diesel vehicles Up to 90% effective against carbonaceous particulate matter Significantly reduces CO and HC Filter regenerates at normal diesel operation temperatures Removable design for easy cleaning and maintenance.

  15. Reduction of gaseous pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors using hydrogen-enriched jet fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    Recent progress in an evaluation of the applicability of the hydrogen enrichment concept to achieve ultralow gaseous pollutant emission from gas turbine combustion systems is described. The target emission indexes for the program are 1.0 for oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide, and 0.5 for unburned hydrocarbons. The basic concept utilizes premixed molecular hydrogen, conventional jet fuel, and air to depress the lean flammability limit of the mixed fuel. This is shown to permit very lean combustion with its low NOx production while simulataneously providing an increased flame stability margin with which to maintain low CO and HC emission. Experimental emission characteristics and selected analytical results are presented for a cylindrical research combustor designed for operation with inlet-air state conditions typical for a 30:1 compression ratio, high bypass ratio, turbofan commercial engine.

  16. Reductions in emissions from deforestation from Indonesia’s moratorium on new oil palm, timber, and logging concessions

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Jonah; Ferretti-Gallon, Kalifi; Engelmann, Jens; Wright, Max; Austin, Kemen G.; Stolle, Fred; Turubanova, Svetlana; Potapov, Peter V.; Margono, Belinda; Hansen, Matthew C.; Baccini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation, Indonesia instituted a nationwide moratorium on new license areas (“concessions”) for oil palm plantations, timber plantations, and logging activity on primary forests and peat lands after May 2011. Here we indirectly evaluate the effectiveness of this policy using annual nationwide data on deforestation, concession licenses, and potential agricultural revenue from the decade preceding the moratorium. We estimate that on average granting a concession for oil palm, timber, or logging in Indonesia increased site-level deforestation rates by 17–127%, 44–129%, or 3.1–11.1%, respectively, above what would have occurred otherwise. We further estimate that if Indonesia’s moratorium had been in place from 2000 to 2010, then nationwide emissions from deforestation over that decade would have been 241–615 MtCO2e (2.8–7.2%) lower without leakage, or 213–545 MtCO2e (2.5–6.4%) lower with leakage. As a benchmark, an equivalent reduction in emissions could have been achieved using a carbon price-based instrument at a carbon price of $3.30–7.50/tCO2e (mandatory) or $12.95–19.45/tCO2e (voluntary). For Indonesia to have achieved its target of reducing emissions by 26%, the geographic scope of the moratorium would have had to expand beyond new concessions (15.0% of emissions from deforestation and peat degradation) to also include existing concessions (21.1% of emissions) and address deforestation outside of concessions and protected areas (58.7% of emissions). Place-based policies, such as moratoria, may be best thought of as bridge strategies that can be implemented rapidly while the institutions necessary to enable carbon price-based instruments are developed. PMID:25605880

  17. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 of Subpart Bbbbbbb... - Emission Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Concentration Requirements 1 Table 1 of Subpart BBBBBBB of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Reduction and PM Concentration Requirements For each * * * You must * * * Using * * * 1. Process Vent Stream... percent reduction efficiency of 95 percent (98 percent for new sources), or b. An outlet concentration...

  3. [Analysis on effect of inspection and maintenance (I/M) program for vehicle emission reduction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Fu, L; Hao, J; Zhou, Z; Wang, X

    2001-01-01

    An Inspection and maintenance(I/M) programme aims to ensure that motor vehicle emission control systems are functioning properly throughout the two stage idle test. Based on three factors including data from inspection, standard for inspection and failure rate, the effectiveness of the current I/M program was studied through the cumulative distributions. The disadvantages of the cutpoints, institution settings, management, and supervision was also analyzed. The fundamental law of emission limits was proposed.

  4. A Preliminary Study of the Carbon Emissions Reduction Effects of Land Use Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Qi, Xinxian; Li, Jiasheng; Zuo, Tianhui; Lu, Qinli; Li, Jianbao; Wu, Changyan; Zhao, Rongqin

    2016-11-01

    Land use change not only directly influences carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems but can also cause energy-related carbon emissions. This study examined spatiotemporal land use change across Jiangsu Province, China; calculated vegetation carbon storage loss caused by land use change and energy-related carbon emissions; analysed the relationship among land use change, carbon emissions and social-economic development; and optimized land use structure to maximize carbon storage. Our study found that 13.61% of the province’s land area underwent a change in type of land use between 1995 and 2010, mainly presented as built-up land expansion and cropland shrinkage, especially in southern Jiangsu. Land use change caused a 353.99 × 104 t loss of vegetation carbon storage loss. Energy-related carbon emissions increased 2.5 times from 1995 to 2013; the energy consumption structure has been improved to some extent while still relying on coal. The selected social-economic driving forces have strong relationships with carbon emissions and land use changes, while there are also other determinants driving land use change, such as land use policy. The optimized land use structure will slow the rate of decline in vegetation carbon storage compared with the period between 1995 and 2010 and will also reduce energy-related carbon emissions by 12%.

  5. A Preliminary Study of the Carbon Emissions Reduction Effects of Land Use Control

    PubMed Central

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Qi, Xinxian; Li, Jiasheng; Zuo, Tianhui; Lu, Qinli; Li, Jianbao; Wu, Changyan; Zhao, Rongqin

    2016-01-01

    Land use change not only directly influences carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems but can also cause energy-related carbon emissions. This study examined spatiotemporal land use change across Jiangsu Province, China; calculated vegetation carbon storage loss caused by land use change and energy-related carbon emissions; analysed the relationship among land use change, carbon emissions and social-economic development; and optimized land use structure to maximize carbon storage. Our study found that 13.61% of the province’s land area underwent a change in type of land use between 1995 and 2010, mainly presented as built-up land expansion and cropland shrinkage, especially in southern Jiangsu. Land use change caused a 353.99 × 104 t loss of vegetation carbon storage loss. Energy-related carbon emissions increased 2.5 times from 1995 to 2013; the energy consumption structure has been improved to some extent while still relying on coal. The selected social-economic driving forces have strong relationships with carbon emissions and land use changes, while there are also other determinants driving land use change, such as land use policy. The optimized land use structure will slow the rate of decline in vegetation carbon storage compared with the period between 1995 and 2010 and will also reduce energy-related carbon emissions by 12%. PMID:27845428

  6. A Preliminary Study of the Carbon Emissions Reduction Effects of Land Use Control.

    PubMed

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Qi, Xinxian; Li, Jiasheng; Zuo, Tianhui; Lu, Qinli; Li, Jianbao; Wu, Changyan; Zhao, Rongqin

    2016-11-15

    Land use change not only directly influences carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems but can also cause energy-related carbon emissions. This study examined spatiotemporal land use change across Jiangsu Province, China; calculated vegetation carbon storage loss caused by land use change and energy-related carbon emissions; analysed the relationship among land use change, carbon emissions and social-economic development; and optimized land use structure to maximize carbon storage. Our study found that 13.61% of the province's land area underwent a change in type of land use between 1995 and 2010, mainly presented as built-up land expansion and cropland shrinkage, especially in southern Jiangsu. Land use change caused a 353.99 × 10(4) t loss of vegetation carbon storage loss. Energy-related carbon emissions increased 2.5 times from 1995 to 2013; the energy consumption structure has been improved to some extent while still relying on coal. The selected social-economic driving forces have strong relationships with carbon emissions and land use changes, while there are also other determinants driving land use change, such as land use policy. The optimized land use structure will slow the rate of decline in vegetation carbon storage compared with the period between 1995 and 2010 and will also reduce energy-related carbon emissions by 12%.

  7. Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) emission reductions of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked emission reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region, but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to reductions in primary emissions. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40 % in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85 %) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass, and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  8. Trends in concentrations of atmospheric gaseous and particulate species in rural eastern Tennessee as related to primary emissions reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, R. L.; Bairai, S. T.; Mueller, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Air quality measurements at Look Rock, Tennessee - on the western edge of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park - were begun in 1980 and expanded during the 1980s to a National Park Service (NPS) IMPROVE network station. Measurements were expanded again by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, 1999-2007) to examine the effects of electric generating unit (EGU) emission reductions of SO2 and NOx on air quality at the station. Analysis of temporal trends (1999-2013) has been conducted at the site in collaboration with activities related to the 2013 Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) at Look Rock and other southeastern US locations. Key findings from these trend studies include the observation that primary pollutant levels have consistently tracked emissions reductions from EGUs and other primary sources in the region but reductions in secondary pollutants such as particulate sulfate and, specifically, ozone have been smaller compared to reductions in primary emissions. Organic carbonaceous material (OM) remains a major contributor (30-40% in the period 2009-2013) to fine particulate mass at the site, as confirmed by ACSM measurements at the site in 2013. A large portion (65-85%) of carbon in OM derives from modern carbon sources based on 14C measurements. Important parameters affecting ozone levels, fine mass and visibility also include the specific diurnal meteorology at this ridge-top site, its location in a predominantly mixed-deciduous forest, and the presence of primary sources of precursors at distances of 50-500 km from the site in all directions.

  9. Development of a health effects-based priority ranking system for air emissions reductions from oil refineries in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gower, Stephanie; Hicks, John; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; McColl, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) is currently engaged in a process to determine how best to reduce air emissions from oil refineries. The National Framework for Petroleum Refineries Emissions Reduction (NFPRER) is being developed with the input of stakeholders, including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), industry, and regulatory jurisdictions. One component of this framework is the development of a tool to prioritize emissions for reduction based on estimated health impacts. HEIDI II (Health Effects Indicators Decision Index II) is a spreadsheet-based model that prioritizes a series of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic air toxicicants and criteria air contaminants commonly emitted from Canadian oil refineries. A generic meteorological dispersion model was applied to reported annual emissions data for each of Canada's 20 refineries. Photodegradation rates and ambient levels of each substance were accounted for, and air concentrations were calculated for 20 geographic zones around each refinery. These were coupled to toxicity data derived mainly from Health Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and applied to target populations of children, adults and seniors. HEIDI II predicts incidence of relevant disease endpoints from each substance emitted, except for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which were treated as chemical mixtures. Rankings were based on predicted case incidence or the application of a common health impact metric, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), to the predicted incidence. Using the DALY approach, priority rankings can be made within each of the chemical classes, or across all three classes together. HEIDI II incorporates several switches that allow the user to investigate alternate scenarios based on stack height, average daily sunlight hours (for calculating photodegradation), and the possibility of emissions below

  10. Effect of liming on sulfate transformation and sulfur gas emissions in degraded vegetable soil treated by reductive soil disinfestation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tianzhu; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Jinbo; Cai, Zucong

    2015-10-01

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD), namely amending organic materials and mulching or flooding to create strong reductive status, has been widely applied to improve degraded soils. However, there is little information available about sulfate (SO4(2-)) transformation and sulfur (S) gas emissions during RSD treatment to degraded vegetable soils, in which S is generally accumulated. To investigate the effects of liming on SO4(2-) transformation and S gas emissions, two SO4(2-)-accumulated vegetable soils (denoted as S1 and S2) were treated by RSD, and RSD plus lime, denoted as RSD0 and RSD1, respectively. The results showed that RSD0 treatment reduced soil SO4(2-) by 51% and 61% in S1 and S2, respectively. The disappeared SO4(2-) was mainly transformed into the undissolved form. During RSD treatment, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were detected, but the total S gas emission accounted for <0.006% of total S in both soils. Compared to RSD0, lime addition stimulated the conversion of SO4(2-) into undissolved form, reduced soil SO4(2-) by 81% in S1 and 84% in S2 and reduced total S gas emissions by 32% in S1 and 57% in S2, respectively. In addition to H2S, COS and DMS, the emissions of carbon disulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl disulfide were also detected in RSD1 treatment. The results indicated that RSD was an effective method to remove SO4(2-), liming stimulates the conversion of dissolved SO4(2-) into undissolved form, probably due to the precipitation with calcium.

  11. Reduction of Methane Emission during Slurry Storage by the Addition of Effective Microorganisms and Excessive Carbon Source from Brewing Sugar.

    PubMed

    Bastami, Mohd Saufi B; Jones, Davey L; Chadwick, David R

    2016-11-01

    Storing livestock manure is the primary stage of manure management where microbial processes and chemical reactions result in the release of methane (CH), nitrous oxide (NO), ammonia (NH), and carbon dioxide (CO). This study examined the reduction of CH emissions from slurry storage under two temperatures (cool [10°C] and warm [30°C]) when a glucose-rich substrate (brewing sugar) and activated effective microorganisms were applied at 10% (w/w) and 5% (v/w), respectively. Brewing sugar addition influenced microbial anaerobic respiration, resulting in a reduction of slurry pH to <5.0, through "self-acidification" caused by lactic acid production. Subsequently, CH emissions were significantly reduced by 87 and 99% in the cool and warm environments, respectively. The effective microorganism treatment did not change the chemical characteristics of the slurry but reduced CH emissions by 17 and 27% ( < 0.05) in the cool and warm environments, respectively. These results suggest that self-acidification after addition of a carbon source may be a promising alternative to slurry acidification using concentrated acids.

  12. Planning for future uncertainties in electric power generation; An analysis of transitional strategies for reduction of carbon and sulfur emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Tabors, R.D.; Monroe, B.L. III . Lab. for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems)

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify strategies for the U.S. electric utility industry for reduction of both acid rain producing and global warming gasses. The research used the EPRI Electric Generation Expansion Analysis System (EGEAS) utility optimization/simulation modeling structure and the EPRI developed regional utilities. It focuses on the North East and East Central region of the U.S. Strategies identified were fuel switching -- predominantly between coal and natural gas, mandated emission limits, and a carbon tax. The overall conclusions of the study are that using less (conservation) will always benefit Carbon Emissions but may or may not benefit Acid Rain emissions by the off setting forces of improved performance of new plant as opposed to reduced overall consumption of final product. Results of the study are highly utility and regional demand specific. The study showed, however, that significant reductions in both acid rain and global warming gas production could be achieved with relatively small increases in the overall cost of production of electricity and that the current dispatch logics available to the utility control rooms were adequate to reschedule dispatch to meet these objectives.

  13. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  14. Assessment of Co-benefits of vehicle emission reduction measures for 2015-2020 in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Hong; Liao, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Xiao-Fang; Li, Li; Zeng, Xue-Lan

    2017-04-01

    Vehicle emissions have become one of the key factors affecting the urban air quality and climate change in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, so it is important to design policies of emission reduction based on quantitative Co-benefits for air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG). Emissions of air pollutants and GHG by 2020 was predicted firstly based on the no-control scenario, and five vehicle emissions reduction scenarios were designed in view of the economy, technology and policy, whose emissions reduction were calculated. Then Co-benefits between air pollutants and GHG were quantitatively analyzed by the methods of coordinate system and cross-elasticity. Results show that the emissions reduction effects and the Co-benefits of different measures vary greatly in 2015-2020. If no control scheme was applied, most air pollutants and GHG would increase substantially by 20-64% by 2020, with the exception of CO, VOC and PM2.5. Different control measures had different reduction effects for single air pollutant and GHG. The worst reduction measure was Eliminating Motorcycles with average reducing rate 0.09% for air pollutants and GHG, while the rate from Updated Emission Standard was 41.74%. Eliminating Yellow-label Vehicle scenario had an obvious reduction effect for every single pollutant in the earlier years, but Co-benefits would descent to zero in later by 2020. From the perspective of emission reductions and co-control effect, Updated Emission Standard scenario was best for reducing air pollutants and GHG substantially (tanα=1.43 and Els=1.77).

  15. Methane mitigation in cities: how new measurements and partnerships can contribute to emissions reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Wiggins, E. B.; Miu, J. C. L.; Carranza, V.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Cities generate a large fraction of anthropogenic methane emissions that are increasing with urbanization and greater reliance on natural gas as fuel. New measurements of methane in cities suggest an as-yet unrealized potential for city-scale methane mitigation. We present high-resolution methane observations from four cities in North America to demonstrate the utility of methane surveys for identifying urban methane sources. We used portable, continuous on-road measurements to determine the spatial distribution of methane in Fairbanks, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, and San Diego. Across cities, methane tended to be highly concentrated in space, suggesting discrete, point emission sources. Elevated methane levels were found near known emission sources, such as landfills, wastewater treatment facilities, and natural gas-fueled power plants, and revealed the location of fugitive leaks in natural gas infrastructure. The mix of sources and sizes of methane leaks varied among cities, highlighting a need for locally adaptive emissions regulation. Urban methane observations can inform anthropogenic processes in development of methane mitigation strategies. We discuss specific examples of how continuous atmospheric measurements can enhance the design of mitigation strategies in these cities, and potential contributions of these approaches to cross-sectoral efforts to reduce methane emissions at the city level.

  16. Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions be detected by atmospheric observations?

    PubMed

    Levin, Ingeborg; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The lower troposphere is an excellent receptacle, which integrates anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions over large areas. Therefore, atmospheric concentration observations over populated regions would provide the ultimate proof if sustained emissions changes have occurred. The most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), also shows large natural concentration variations, which need to be disentangled from anthropogenic signals to assess changes in associated emissions. This is in principle possible for the fossil fuel CO(2) component (FFCO(2)) by high-precision radiocarbon ((14)C) analyses because FFCO(2) is free of radiocarbon. Long-term observations of (14)CO(2) conducted at two sites in south-western Germany do not yet reveal any significant trends in the regional fossil fuel CO(2) component. We rather observe strong inter-annual variations, which are largely imprinted by changes of atmospheric transport as supported by dedicated transport model simulations of fossil fuel CO(2). In this paper, we show that, depending on the remoteness of the site, changes of about 7-26% in fossil fuel emissions in respective catchment areas could be detected with confidence by high-precision atmospheric (14)CO(2) measurements when comparing 5-year averages if these inter-annual variations were taken into account. This perspective constitutes the urgently needed tool for validation of fossil fuel CO(2) emissions changes in the framework of the Kyoto protocol and successive climate initiatives.

  17. Apparatus For Linewidth Reduction in Distributed Feedback or Distributed Bragg Reflector Semiconductor Lasers Using Vertical Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony L. (Inventor); Hendricks, Herbert D. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The linewidth of a distributed feedback semiconductor laser or a distributed Bragg reflector laser having one or more second order gratings is reduced by using an external cavity to couple the vertical emission back into the laser. This method and device prevent disturbance of the main laser beam, provide unobstructed access to laser emission for the formation of the external cavity, and do not require a very narrow heat sink. Any distributed Bragg reflector semiconductor laser or distributed feedback semiconductor laser that can produce a vertical emission through the epitaxial material and through a window in the top metallization can be used. The external cavity can be formed with an optical fiber or with a lens and a mirror or grating.

  18. Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2010-11-15

    The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

  19. Estimates of ozone response to various combinations of NO(x) and VOC emission reductions in the eastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roselle, Shawn J.; Schere, Kenneth L.; Chu, Shao-Hang

    1994-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that controls on NO(x) emissions may be necessary, in addition to existing and future Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) controls, for the abatement of ozone (O3) over portions of the United States. This study compares various combinations of anthropogenic NO(x) and VOC emission reductions through a series of model simulations. A total of 6 simulations were performed with the Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) for a 9-day period in July 1988. Each simulation reduced anthropogenic NO(x) and VOC emissions across-the-board by different amounts. Maximum O3 concentrations for the period were compared between the simulations. Comparison of the simulations suggests that: (1) NO(x) controls may be more effective than VOC controls in reducing peak O3 over most of the eastern United States; (2) VOC controls are most effective in urban areas having large sources of emissions; (3) NO(x) controls may increase O3 near large point sources; and (4) the benefit gained from increasing the amount of VOC controls may lessen as the amount of NO(x) control is increased. This paper has been reviewed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's peer and administrative review policies and approved for presentation and publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  20. A fair compromise to break the climate impasse. A major economies forum approach to emissions reductions budgeting

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, Marco; J. Roberts, Timmons

    2013-04-15

    Key messages of the study are: Given the stalemate in U.N. climate negotiations, the best arena to strike a workable deal is among the members the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate (MEF); The 13 MEF members—including the EU-27 (but not double-counting the four EU countries that are also individual members of the MEF)—account for 81.3 percent of all global emissions; This proposal devises a fair compromise to break the impasse to develop a science-based approach for fairly sharing the carbon budget in order to have a 75 percent chance of avoiding dangerous climate change; To increase the likelihood of a future climate agreement, carbon accounting must shift from production-based inventories to consumption-based ones; The shares of a carbon budget to stay below 2 deg C through 2050 are calculated by cumulative emissions since 1990, i.e. according to a short-horizon polluter pays principle, and national capability (income), and allocated to MEF members through emission rights. This proposed fair compromise addresses key concerns of major emitters; According to this accounting, no countries have negative carbon budgets, there is substantial time for greening major developing economies, and some developed countries need to institute very rapid reductions in emissions; and, To provide a 'green ladder' to developing countries and to ensure a fair global deal, it will be crucial to agree how to extend sufficient and predictable financial support and the rapid transfer of technology.

  1. Potential of solar domestic hot water systems in rural areas for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Skowronski, P.; Wisniewski, G.

    1996-09-01

    Application of solar energy for preparing domestic hot water is one of the easiest methods of utilization of this energy. At least part of the needs for warm tap water could be covered by solar systems. At present, mainly coal is used for water heating at dwellings in rural areas in Poland. Warm tap water consumption will increase significantly in the future as standards of living are improved. This can result in the growth of electricity use and an increase in primary fuel consumption. Present and future methods of warm sanitary water generation in rural areas in Poland is discussed, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are estimated. It is predicted that the emission of CO{sub 2} and NOx will increase. The emission of CO and CH{sub 4} will decrease because of changes in the structure of the final energy carriers used. The economic and market potentials of solar energy for preparing warm water in rural areas are discussed. It is estimated that solar systems can meet 30%-45% of the energy demand for warm water generation in rural areas at a reasonable cost, with a corresponding CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The rate of realization of the economic potential of solar water heaters depends on subsidies for the installation of equipment. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

  2. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  3. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  4. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  5. Fumigation efficacy and emission reduction using low-permeability film in orchard soil fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Many orchards in California, USA, apply fumigants to soil before replanting to reduce the impact of pest pressure or replanting disease on new tree establishment. Emission control of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide is mandatory in air quality (ozone) non-attainment areas. This s...

  6. Combustion efficiency: Greenhouse gas emission reductions from the power generation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.; South, D.W.; Fish, A.L.

    1993-12-31

    Concern for the possibility of an enhanced greenhouse effect and global climate change (GCC) has often been associated with energy use in general, and fossil fuel combustion in particular, because of associated emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases (GHG). Therefore, energy policies play a significant role in determining greenhouse gas emissions. The generation of electricity and power from more efficient fossil energy technologies provides an opportunity to significantly lower GHG emissions, together with other pollutants. The U.S. government oversees a broad-based program to facilitate the development, demonstration, and deployment of these technologies. Advanced fossil technologies offer other benefits as well, in that they permit continued use of widely available fuels such as coal. An international perspective is critical for assessing the role of these fuels, since countries differ in terms of their ability to maximize these benefits. Often, new technologies are considered the domain of industrialized countries. Yet more efficient technologies may have their greatest potential - to concurrently permit the utilization of indigenous fuels and to lower global GHG emissions in developing countries, especially those in the Asia-Pacific region.

  7. SIMULATION OF NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY FARMS TO ASSESS GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION STRATEGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farming practices can have a large impact on the net emission of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide (N**2O). The primary sources of N**2O from dairy farms are nitrification and denitrification processes in soil, with smaller contributions from manure storage and ba...

  8. Assessment of Current and Future Air Pollutant Emission Reduction Technologies for Marine Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    33 6.3.1 Biodiesel ...6.3 Alternative Fuels There is some consideration of alternatives to liquid fossil oil fuels for the marine industry. Three of these are biodiesel ...Liquefied Natural Gas and Methanol – Dimethyl Ether. 6.3.1 Biodiesel An extensive review across many transportation sectors of the emissions of

  9. Emission reduction of 1,3-dichloropropene by soil amendment with biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil fumigation is important for growing many fruits and vegetable crops, but fumigant emissions may contaminate the atmosphere. Biochar as soil amendments has the potential of mitigating climate change effects. In addition, its high surface area and porosity enable it to adsorb or retain nutrients,...

  10. CO-DEPENDENCIES OF REACTIVE AIR TOXIC AND CRITERIA POLLUTANTS ON EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is important to understand the effect of emission controls on the concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and hazardous air pollutants simultaneously, in order to evaluate the full range of both health related and economic effects. Until recently, the capability of simultan...

  11. Policy Attribute Framing: A Comparison between Three Policy Instruments for Personal Emissions Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parag, Yael; Capstick, Stuart; Poortinga, Wouter

    2011-01-01

    A comparative experiment in the UK examined people's willingness to change energy consumption behavior under three different policy framings: energy tax, carbon tax, and personal carbon allowances (PCA). PCA is a downstream cap-and-trade policy proposed in the UK, in which emission rights are allocated to individuals. We hypothesized that due to…

  12. REDUCTION OF COAL-BASED METAL EMISSIONS BY FURNACE SORBENT INJECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of sorbent injection technology to reduce the potential for trace metal emissions from coal combustion was researched. Pilot scale tests of high-temperature furnace sorbent injection were accompanied by stack sampling for coal-based, metallic air toxics. Tested sorben...

  13. Reconciling NOx emissions reductions and ozone trends in the U.S., 2002–2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic evaluation seeks to assess the ability of photochemical models to replicate changes in air quality as emissions and other conditions change. When a model fails to replicate an observed change, a key challenge is to discern whether the discrepancy is caused by errors in me...

  14. AN INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTIVENESS OF MERCURY EMISSION REDUCTION STRATEGIES IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using atmospheric transport and fate models, it has been possible to link the changes in emissions to to the change in atmospheric deposition for the last thirty years for the criteria air pollutants, but it has only been in the last decade that advances have been made to allow t...

  15. Feasibility of Applying Clean Development Mechanism and GHGs Emission Reductions in the Gold Mining Industry: A Case of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat

    2015-12-01

    There is presently overwhelming scientific consensus that global climate change is indeed occurring, and that human activities are the primary driver. An increasingly resource and carbon constrained world will continue to pose formidable challenges to major industries, including mining. Understanding the implications of climate change mitigation for the mining industry, however, remains limited. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study on the implementation of a clean development mechanism and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission reductions in the gold mining industry. It draws upon and extends the analysis of a case study conducted on gold mining operations in Thailand. The results from the case study indicated that total GHGs emissions by company A were approximately 36,886 tons carbon dioxide equivalents (tCO2e) per annual gold production capacity that meet the eligibility criteria for small-scaled clean development mechanism (CDM) projects. The electrostatic separation process was found to release the lowest amount of GHGs, whereas comminution (i.e. crushing and grinding) generated the highest GHGs emissions. By scope, the emission from purchased electricity (scope 2) is the most significant source. Opportunities for CDM projects implementation in the gold mining sector can be found in employing energy efficiency measures. Through innovation, some technical efficiency and technological development in gold processing (i.e. high pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), vertical roller mills (VRM), gravity pre-concentration and microwave heating technologies) that have the potential to reduce energy use and also lower carbon footprint of the gold mining were further discussed. The evidence reviews found that HPGR and VRM abatement technologies have shown energy and climate benefits as electricity savings and CO2 reduction of about 8-25.93 kWh/ton ore processed and 1.8-26.66 kgCO2/ton ore processed, respectively. Implications for further research and practice were

  16. A study of cooling time reduction of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-emissivity coating

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S.

    2014-01-29

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  17. Uncle Sam goes to market: Federal agency disposal of emission reduction credits under the Federal property management regulations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, V.J.

    1994-01-30

    With the realignment and closure of Federal facilities, especially Department of Defense installations, Federal agencies have been presented with a unique opportunity: the chance to create and dispose of air emission reduction credits (ERCs). This situation and current commitments by the Congress and EPA to expand the use of market based pollution control programs have generated interest in certain circles as to whether and how Federal agencies can dispose of ERCs and similar pollution rights and allowances. This paper will discuss ERCs, why the disposal of ERCs by Federal agencies is a pressing issue, and how Federal agencies can dispose of ERCs under existing Federal property laws and regulations.

  18. Health And Economic Impact Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction In Indonesia: SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susandi, A.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess Indonesia's air quality. This comprised an assessment of Indonesia's air pollution levels and their impact on the development of health and the economics. Estimates are given of concentrations of one of the major pollutants: sulfur dioxide (SO2). Emissions are estimated for Indonesian region, based on energy consumption, derived from the MERGE simulation model. The air pollution levels projection for the year 2000 to the year 2100 are based on the IPCC scenarios, extended with some mitigation scenarios for the energy sector. If the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries reduce their emissions, Indonesian oil consumption increases, and the emissions of SO2 are higher than in the baseline scenario. Health problems increase substantially, peaking to the middle of century in the A1B and B1 scenarios, and rising to the end of century in the A2 and B2 scenarios, while the health problem costs will be the highest during the middle of century in the A1B and B1 scenarios and toward the end of century in the A2 and B2 scenarios. With international trade in emission permits, Indonesia would be higher than in the baseline scenario, since more and more oil and coal using in domestic sources of energy, followed by higher of health problem cases and higher of health problem costs. The total cases of health problem are higher 18.5% than in the baseline scenario. If all countries reduce their emission, including Indonesia, the total concentrations of SO2 are lower than previous scenarios. The cases of health problem associated with SO2 are lower than in the baseline scenario and follow by the lower of the health problem costs. The costs of health problem associated with SO2 are to 35% lower than in the baseline scenario during the simulation period.

  19. Assessment of the impact of emissions reductions on air quality over North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen

    2016-04-01

    The production rate of secondary pollutants was highly non-linear with the emission intensity of their precursors. In this study, the air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ with zero-out sensitivity test was applied to conduct source sensitivity approaches of PM2.5 for four source categories (industry, power plants, transport, and residential) over the North China Plain (NCP) in January and July of 2013. The results show that the residential and industry emission sector were the greatest contributors to domain-wide PM2.5 in January and July, respectively. The largest variation could exceed 200 μg m-3 attributed to the residential sector in January when a heavy pollution period appeared, and could reach 40-60 μg m-3 attributed to the industry sector in July in the heavy pollution area, respectively. The nonlinear relationship between the secondary pollutant formation and its precursors was reflected by this source sensitivity approaches, as the summation of the secondary pollutant variations attributed to the four sources was obviously different from the simulated baseline concentration and the mass burden of nitrate would increase upon removal of the power plants or transport emission sector in the heavy pollution regions in January. Further analysis indicated that the improvement of atmospheric oxidation capacity due to emission sector removal coupled with the sufficient precursor nitrogen oxide under severe pollution background should be the main reason of the negative variation of nitrate appeared in the sensitivity test. This feature indicates that the atmospheric oxidation capacity is an important impact factor in determining the production rate of nitrate formation, and could further influence the variation feature of PM2.5 mass burden during the pollution episode. Thus, it is suggested that the comprehensive pollution control strategies should be implemented based on the specific pollution condition. Additionally, the nonlinearity of secondary pollutants

  20. Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions during anoxic wastewater treatment by strengthening nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ru; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Liping; Ru, Dongyun

    2017-03-20

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a recently discovered process performed by NC10 phylum, which plays an important role in greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction. In this study, co-existence of n-damo bacteria and methanogens was successfully achieved by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Reactor with inorganic carbon source (CO2/H2) showed the highest abundance of n-damo bacteria and the highest n-damo potential activity, resulted in its highest nitrogen removal rate. Significant reduction in GHG was obtained after introduction of n-damo process, especially for N2O. Furthermore, GHG emissions decreased with the increase of n-damo bacteria abundance. Community structure analysis found carbon source could influence the diversity of n-damo bacteria indirectly. And phylogenetic analysis showed that all the obtained sequences were assigned to group B, mainly due to in situ production and consumption of CH4.

  1. Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L

    2009-05-15

    Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further

  2. Monitoring Persistent Volcanic Emissions from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and geothermal emissions are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic emissions to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic emissions and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic emissions monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.

  3. Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from biological nutrient removal processes by thermal decomposition.

    PubMed

    Pedros, Philip B; Askari, Omid; Metghalchi, Hameed

    2016-12-01

    During the last decade municipal wastewater treatment plants have been regulated with increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements including nitrogen. Typically biological treatment processes are employed to meet these limits. Although the nitrogen in the wastewater stream is reduced, certain steps in the biological processes allow for the release of gaseous nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas (GHG). A comprehensive study was conducted to investigate the potential to mitigate N2O emissions from biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes by means of thermal decomposition. The study examined using the off gases from the biological process, instead of ambient air, as the oxidant gas for the combustion of biomethane. A detailed analysis was done to examine the concentration of N2O and 58 other gases that exited the combustion process. The analysis was based on the assumption that the exhaust gases were in chemical equilibrium since the residence time in the combustor is sufficiently longer than the chemical characteristics. For all inlet N2O concentrations the outlet concentrations were close to zero. Additionally, the emission of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ten commonly occurring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also examined as a means of odor control for biological secondary treatment processes or as potential emissions from an anaerobic reactor of a BNR process. The sulfur released from the H2S formed sulfur dioxide (SO2) and eight of the ten VOCs were destroyed.

  4. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  5. Off-Highway Heavy Vehicle Diesel Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Rumsey

    2005-12-31

    Cummins Inc. is a world leader in the development and production of diesel engines for on-highway vehicles, off-highway industrial machines, and power generation units. Cummins Inc. diesel products cover a 50-3000 HP range. The power range for this project includes 174-750 HP to achieve EPA's Tier 3 emission levels of 4.0 NOx+NMHC gm/kW-hr and 0.2 PM gm/kWhr and Tier 4 Interim emission levels of 2.0 gm/kW-hr NOx and 0.02 gm/kW-hr PM. Cummins' anticipated product offerings for Tier 4 in this range include the following: QSB6.7, QSC8.3, QSL9, QSM11, QSX15, QSK19. (For reference, numerical values indicate engine displacement in liters, the letter designation ns indicate the product model). A summary of the EPA's mobile off-highway emissions requirements is given in Figure 1.

  6. Coordinated EV adoption: double-digit reductions in emissions and fuel use for $40/vehicle-year.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Gu; Kreikebaum, Frank; Thomas, Valerie M; Divan, Deepak

    2013-09-17

    Adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) would affect the costs and sources of electricity and the United States efficiency requirements for conventional vehicles (CVs). We model EV adoption scenarios in each of six regions of the Eastern Interconnection, containing 70% of the United States population. We develop electricity system optimization models at the multidecade, day-ahead, and hour-ahead time scales, incorporating spatial wind energy modeling, endogenous modeling of CV efficiencies, projections for EV efficiencies, and projected CV and EV costs. We find two means to reduce total consumer expenditure (TCE): (i) controlling charge timing and (ii) unlinking the fuel economy regulations for CVs from EVs. Although EVs provide minimal direct GHG reductions, controlled charging provides load flexibility, lowering the cost of renewable electricity. Without EVs, a 33% renewable electricity standard (RES) would cost $193/vehicle-year more than the reference case (10% RES). Combining a 33% RES, EVs with controlled charging and unlinking would reduce combined electric- and vehicle-sector CO2 emissions by 27% and reduce gasoline consumption by 59% for $40/vehicle-year more than the reference case. Coordinating EV adoption with adoption of controlled charging, unlinked fuel economy regulations, and renewable electricity standards would provide low-cost reductions in emissions and fuel usage.

  7. Reduction of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas emission components from diesel engines running with rapeseedmethylester using oxidation catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect

    May, H.; Huettenberger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Up to now all engine research was based on engines, which are adapted to Diesel fuel but not to vegetableoilmethylester (VME). Caused by the special climate conditions in Europe rapeseed and sunflowers, in the US soya-beans and in the tropical countries palm trees are the favorable plants for vegetable oil production. The physical and chemical properties of Diesel fuel and VME are quite different. Therefore an engine adaption and redesign to VME is a suitable way of further reduction of noxious and climate-influencing emissions. To prove the effectiveness of the emission reduction the European test-cycle ECE/EUDC, the US-FTP 75 test for passenger cars and the European 13-stage-test-cycle for heavy duty-truck-engines has been used with and without an oxidation catalyst in each case. The results of the exhaust gas measurement both concerning regulated and unregulated components are shown. A comparison between engines fueled with fossil diesel fuel and rapeseedmethylester (RME) is given.

  8. Energy Saving and GHG Emission Reduction in a Micro-CCHP System by Use of Solar Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ion, Ion V.; Ciocea, Gheorghe; Popescu, Florin

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and the energy saving by integrating solar collectors and photovoltaic panels in a Stirling engine based microcombined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) system are studied. The mCCHP system consists of a natural gas Stirling CHP and an adsorber chiller. When the thermal outputs of the Stirling CHP and solar collectors are not sufficient to cover the heat demand for domestic hot water (DHW), heating/cooling, an auxiliary heating boiler starts to operate. The energy saving by using solar energy varies from 13.35% in December to 59.62% in April, in the case of solar collectors usage and from 7.47% in December to 28.27% in July, in the case of photovoltaic panels usage. By using solar energy the annual GHG emission decreases by 31.98% and the fuel cost reduction varies from 12.73% in December to 49.78% in June.

  9. A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward emission reduction and resource utilization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-01-01

    Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of emission reduction and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, emission reduction and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively. PMID:26923104

  10. A Fe-C-Ca big cycle in modern carbon-intensive industries: toward emission reduction and resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Wang, Hao; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2016-02-01

    Herein a big Fe-C-Ca cycle, clarifying the basic element flows and energy flows in modern carbon-intensive industries including the metallurgical industry and the cement industry, was proposed for the first time in the contexts of emission reduction and iron ore degradation nowadays. This big cycle was focused on three industrial elements of Fe, C and Ca and thus it mainly comprised three interdependent loops, i.e., a C-cycle, a Fe-cycle and a Ca-path. As exemplified, we started from the integrated disposal of hot steel slags, a man-made iron resource via char gasification and the employment of hematite, a natural iron resource greatly extended the application area of this idea. Accordingly, based on this concept, the theoretical potentials for energy saving, emission reduction and Fe resource recovery achieved in modern industry are estimated up to 7.66 Mt of standard coal, 63.9 Mt of CO2 and 25.2 Mt of pig iron, respectively.

  11. Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Air Pollutant Emission Reductions from Forest Fuel Treatment Projects in Placer County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saah, D. S.; Moritz, M.; Ganz, D. J.; Stine, P. A.; Moody, T.

    2010-12-01

    Years of successful fire suppression activities have left forests unnaturally dense, overstocked, and with high hazardous fuel loads. Wildfires, particularly those of high severity, may dramatically reduce carbon stocks and convert forested lands from carbon sinks to decades-long carbon sources . Forest resource managers are currently pursuing fuels reduction and mitigation strategies to reduce wildfire risk and maintain carbon stocks. These projects include selective thinning and removal of trees and brush to return forest ecosystems to more natural stocking levels, resulting in a more fire-resilient forest that in theory would retain higher carry capacity for standing above ground carbon. Resource managers are exploring the possibility of supporting these local forest management projects by offering greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets to project developers that require GHG emissions mitigation. Using robust field data, this research project modeled three types of carbon benefits that could be realized from forest management: 1. Fuels treatments in the study area were shown to reduce the GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant emissions from wildfires by decreasing the probability, extent, and severity of fires and the corresponding loss in forest carbon stocks; 2. Biomass utilization from fuel treatment was shown to reduce GHG and Criteria Air Pollutant emissions over the duration of the fuels treatment project compared to fossil fuel energy. 3. Management and thinning of forests in order to stimulate growth, resulting in more rapid uptake of atmospheric carbon and approaching a carbon carrying capacity stored in a forest ecosystem under prevailing environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes.

  12. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.V.

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  13. How to reach haze control targets by air pollutants emission reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China?

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Xiang, Nan; Higano, Yoshiro

    2017-01-01

    Currently, Haze is one of the greatest environmental problems with serious impacts on human health in China, especially in capital region (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region). To alleviate this problem, the Chinese government introduced a National Air Pollution Control Action Plan (NAPCAP) with air pollutants reduction targets by 2017. However, there is doubt whether these targets can be achieved once the plan is implemented. In this work, the effectiveness of NAPCAP is analyzed by developing models of the statistical relationship between PM2.5 concentrations and air pollutant emissions (SO2, NOx, smoke and dust), while taking into account wind and neighboring transfer impacts. The model can also identify ways of calculating the intended emission levels in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area. The results indicate that haze concentration control targets will not be attained by following the NAPCAP, and that the amount of progress needed to meet the targets is unrealistic. A more appropriate approach to reducing air emissions is proposed, which addresses joint regional efforts.

  14. Is There a Future for Nuclear Power? Wind and Emission Reduction Targets in Fossil-Fuel Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jun; Lynch, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the viability of relying on wind power to replace upwards of 60% of electricity generation in Alberta that would be lost if coal-fired generation is phased out. Using hourly wind data from 17 locations across Alberta, we are able to simulate the potential wind power output available to the Alberta grid when modern, 3.5 MW-capacity wind turbines are spread across the province. Using wind regimes for the years 2006 through 2015, we find that available wind power is less than 60% of installed capacity 98% of the time, and below 30% of capacity 74% of the time. There is only a small amount of correlation between wind speeds at different locations, but yet it remains necessary to rely on fossil fuel generation. Then, based on the results from a grid allocation model, we find that CO2 emissions can be reduced by about 30%, but only through a combination of investment in wind energy and reliance on purchases of hydropower from British Columbia. Only if nuclear energy is permitted into the generation mix would Alberta be able to meet its CO2-emissions reduction target in the electricity sector. With nuclear power, emissions can be reduced by upwards of 85%. PMID:27902712

  15. How to reach haze control targets by air pollutants emission reduction in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region of China?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Xiang, Nan; Higano, Yoshiro

    2017-01-01

    Currently, Haze is one of the greatest environmental problems with serious impacts on human health in China, especially in capital region (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region). To alleviate this problem, the Chinese government introduced a National Air Pollution Control Action Plan (NAPCAP) with air pollutants reduction targets by 2017. However, there is doubt whether these targets can be achieved once the plan is implemented. In this work, the effectiveness of NAPCAP is analyzed by developing models of the statistical relationship between PM2.5 concentrations and air pollutant emissions (SO2, NOx, smoke and dust), while taking into account wind and neighboring transfer impacts. The model can also identify ways of calculating the intended emission levels in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei area. The results indicate that haze concentration control targets will not be attained by following the NAPCAP, and that the amount of progress needed to meet the targets is unrealistic. A more appropriate approach to reducing air emissions is proposed, which addresses joint regional efforts. PMID:28282464

  16. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Arens, Marlene

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  17. Is There a Future for Nuclear Power? Wind and Emission Reduction Targets in Fossil-Fuel Alberta.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, G Cornelis; Duan, Jun; Lynch, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the viability of relying on wind power to replace upwards of 60% of electricity generation in Alberta that would be lost if coal-fired generation is phased out. Using hourly wind data from 17 locations across Alberta, we are able to simulate the potential wind power output available to the Alberta grid when modern, 3.5 MW-capacity wind turbines are spread across the province. Using wind regimes for the years 2006 through 2015, we find that available wind power is less than 60% of installed capacity 98% of the time, and below 30% of capacity 74% of the time. There is only a small amount of correlation between wind speeds at different locations, but yet it remains necessary to rely on fossil fuel generation. Then, based on the results from a grid allocation model, we find that CO2 emissions can be reduced by about 30%, but only through a combination of investment in wind energy and reliance on purchases of hydropower from British Columbia. Only if nuclear energy is permitted into the generation mix would Alberta be able to meet its CO2-emissions reduction target in the electricity sector. With nuclear power, emissions can be reduced by upwards of 85%.

  18. Implications of the recent reductions in natural gas prices for emissions of CO2 from the US power sector.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Salovaara, Jackson; McElroy, Michael B

    2012-03-06

    CO(2) emissions from the US power sector decreased by 8.76% in 2009 relative to 2008 contributing to a decrease over this period of 6.59% in overall US emissions of greenhouse gases. An econometric model, tuned to data reported for regional generation of US electricity, is used to diagnose factors responsible for the 2009 decrease. More than half of the reduction is attributed to a shift from generation of power using coal to gas driven by a recent decrease in gas prices in response to the increase in production from shale. An important result of the model is that, when the cost differential for generation using gas rather than coal falls below 2-3 cents/kWh, less efficient coal fired plants are displaced by more efficient natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) generation alternatives. Costs for generation using NGCC decreased by close to 4 cents/kWh in 2009 relative to 2008 ensuring that generation of electricity using gas was competitive with coal in 2009 in contrast to the situation in 2008 when gas prices were much higher. A modest price on carbon could contribute to additional switching from coal to gas with further savings in CO(2) emissions.

  19. Joint carbon footprint assessment and data envelopment analysis for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture production.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Leiva, Ricardo; Angulo-Meza, Lidia; Iriarte, Alfredo; González-Araya, Marcela C

    2017-03-22

    Operations management tools are critical in the process of evaluating and implementing action towards a low carbon production. Currently, a sustainable production implies both an efficient resource use and the obligation to meet targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The carbon footprint (CF) tool allows estimating the overall amount of GHG emissions associated with a product or activity throughout its life cycle. In this paper, we propose a four-step method for a joint use of CF assessment and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Following the eco-efficiency definition, which is the delivery of goods using fewer resources and with decreasing environmental impact, we use an output oriented DEA model to maximize production and reduce CF, taking into account simultaneously the economic and ecological perspectives. In another step, we stablish targets for the contributing CF factors in order to achieve CF reduction. The proposed method was applied to assess the eco-efficiency of five organic blueberry orchards throughout three growing seasons. The results show that this method is a practical tool for determining eco-efficiency and reducing GHG emissions.

  20. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  1. Reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications -- Canam Steel Corporation Point of Rocks, MD case study

    SciTech Connect

    Monfet, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications is not an environmental constraint, it is an economic opportunity. This case study shows how the industry can reap economic benefits from VOC reductions while improving air quality. The Canam Steel Corporation plant located in Point of Rocks, MD operates dip tanks for primer application on fabricated steel joists and joist girders. This process is presently subject to a regulation that limits the paint VOC content to 3.5 pounds per gallon of coating less water. As a result of the high paint viscosity associated with that regulation, the paint thickness of the dipped steel is thicker than the customers` specifications. Most of the VOC emissions can therefore be associated with the excess of paint applied to the products rather than to the required thickness of the coating. The higher paint usage rate has more than environmental consequences, it increases the cost of the applied coating. The project is to reduce the paint usage by controlling the viscosity of the coating in the tank. Experimental results as well as actual mass balance calculations show that using a higher VOC content paint would reduce the overall VOC emissions. The author explained the project to the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) Air and Radiation Management Administration. First, the MDE agreed to develop a new RACT determination for fabricated steel dipping operations. The new regulation would limit the amount of VOC than can be emitted to dip coat a ton of fabricated steel. Second, the MDE agreed to allow experimentation of the higher VOC content paint as a pilot project for the new regulation. This paper demonstrates the need for a RACT determination specific to fabricated steel dipping operations.

  2. Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaquat, A. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Jayed, M. H.

    2010-10-01

    Use of biofuels as transport fuel has high prospect in developing countries as most of them are facing severe energy insecurity and have strong agricultural sector to support production of biofuels from energy crops. Rapid urbanization and economic growth of developing countries have spurred air pollution especially in road transport sector. The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines have adverse effect on air quality, human health and global warming. Air pollution causes respiratory problems, adverse effects on pulmonary function, leading to increased sickness absenteeism and induces high health care service costs, premature birth and even mortality. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated automotives. Some of the developing countries have started biofuel production and utilization as transport fuel in local market. This paper critically reviews the facts and prospects of biofuel production and utilization in developing countries to reduce environmental pollution and petro dependency. Expansion of biofuel industries in developing countries can create more jobs and increase productivity by non-crop marginal lands and wastelands for energy crops plantation. Contribution of India and China in biofuel industry in production and utilization can dramatically change worldwide biofuel market and leap forward in carbon cut as their automotive market is rapidly increasing with a souring proportional rise of GHG emissions.

  3. Reduction of nitrous oxide emissions from partial nitrification process by using innovative carbon source (mannitol).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyu; Wei, Dong; Lan, Wei; Hu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol as carbon source on nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during partial nitrification (PN) process. Laboratory-scale PN sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated with mannitol and sodium acetate as carbon sources, respectively. Results showed that mannitol could remarkably reduce N2O-N emission by 41.03%, without influencing the removal efficiency of NH4(+)-N. However, it has a significant influence on nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR) and TN removal, which were 19.97% and 13.59% lower than that in PN with sodium acetate, respectively. Microbial analysis showed that the introduction of mannitol could increase the abundance of bacteria encoding nosZ genes. In addition, anti-oxidant enzymes (T-SOD, POD and CAT) activities were significantly reduced and the dehydrogenase activity had an obvious increase in mannitol system, indicating that mannitol could alleviate the inhibition of N2O reductase (N2OR) activities caused by high NO2(-)-N concentration.

  4. Reduction of CO(2)-emissions by using biomass in combustion and digestion plants.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Gaston; Schingnitz, Daniel; Schnapke, Antje; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    Climate protection is one of the main aims of environmental policy. One way to advance and push the progress is to reduce the use of fossil fuels for energy production through an increasing production of renewable and CO(2)-neutral energy for example through application of biomass. This paper sets the focus on biomass streams that can be used both thermal and biological for energy production like grass or energy crops. To calculate the potentials of decrease of CO(2)-emissions for treatment of biomass in either combustion or digestion plants some scenarios were set up with different assumptions regarding degree of efficiency of treatment plants which depends on size of plants and the treatment process itself. The energetic utilisation of the considered biomass streams is divided in different utilisation scenarios: combined heat and power generation (CHP) and heat generation or power generation only. Additionally four groups of plant sizes referring to electrical power (from 0.1 up to 10.0MW) were taken into consideration. The calculations of potential savings of CO(2)-emission in both types of treatment scenarios lead to the result that in comparison to biological technologies thermal processes show a much higher utilisation of the energy content in biomass.

  5. PM2.5 from the Guanzhong Plain: Chemical composition and implications for emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xinyi; Cao, Junji; Shen, Zhenxing; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Tie, Xuexi; Zhao, Shuyu; Xu, Hongmei; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Rujin

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) affects important environmental issues including air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A one-year sampling campaign for PM2.5 was conducted at six locations in Guanzhong Plain, including the cities of Xi'an, Weinan and Baoji, from March 2012 to March 2013. The 24-h average PM2.5 mass concentration was 134.7 μg m-3, that substantially exceeds the National Ambient Air Quality Standard level of 35 μg m-3. The highest loadings of both organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) occurred in winter: EC co-varied with OC but showed less variability, presumably due to more stable emissions. The greatest contributions of secondary inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3- and NH4+) to the total quantified ions also were seen in winter, presumably due to gaseous precursors from coal combustion and biomass burning. Two high PM episodes occurred, one in the autumn and the other in winter. During the autumn episode, regional pollution from biomass burning raised the concentrations of secondary ions while coal combustion was a strong influence during the winter episode. Modeling simulations suggest that the control measures on both primary emissions and secondary aerosol precursors including SO2, NOx, and NH3 are needed to reduce the PM levels of the region.

  6. The abatement strategies assessment model—ASAM: Applications to reductions of sulphur dioxide emissions across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ApSimon, H. M.; Warren, R. F.; Wilson, J. J. N.

    In May 1991 the 34 nations of the UN ECE region agreed that strategies for the abatement of SO 2 and NO x should be designed in the most cost-effective way, and that the concept of critical loads should serve as a guideline to formulate these strategies where science has provided the necessary information. The ASAM model has been developed in this context, as a computer tool to aid in guiding policy through investigation of the effectiveness of potential abatement strategies in Europe. In evaluating the environmental consequences, it takes into account the geographical distribution of emissions and the patterns of atmospheric transport and deposition; with the introduction of costs of reducing the different emissions, it provides a stepwise optimized approach to attaining specified target loads or critical loads for deposition across Europe, subject to flexible constraints in different countries. This paper describes the ASAM model, and work undertaken to establish the robustness of the model with regard to the assumptions made and uncertainties in the data used; and explores a range of scenarios currently being addressed.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Sulfur cycling of intertidal Wadden Sea sediments (Konigshafen, Island of Sylt, Germany): sulfate reduction and sulfur gas emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, E.; Bodenbender, J.; Jensen, M. H.; Rennenberg, H.; Jensen, K. M.

    2000-05-01

    Sulfate reduction rates (SRR t) and reduced inorganic sulfur pools (RIS) in Wadden Sea sediment as well as sulfur gas emissions directly to the atmosphere were measured at intervals of 2 to 12 months from 1991 to 1994. Three stations were chosen in the intertidal embayment, Königshafen, representing the range of sediments found in the Wadden Sea: Organic-poor coarse sand, organic-poor and Arenicola marina inhabited medium sand, and organic-rich muddy sand. Maximum SRR t were 2 to 5 times higher in muddy sand than in the sandy sediments. The depth-integrated SRR t varied 12 to 13-fold on a seasonal basis at the three stations. Although temperature controls biochemical processes, the overall control is more complex due to the simultaneous influence of other seasonal factors such as availability of organic matter and oxidation level of surface sediment. The sedimentary RIS pools were low due to iron limitation and contained only 30% acid volatile sulfur (AVS). Muddy sand had up to an order of magnitude more RIS than the two sandy sediments. The turnover of RIS was rapid (turnover time from ˜1 to 32 h), fastest during summer and at the sandy stations. The emission of S-gases was dominated by H 2S during summer (45-67% of the total), and was highest in muddy and lowest in coarse sand. H 2S was less important in early spring (3-49% of the total). Other sulfur gases, such as COS, DMS and CS 2, each accounted for less than 20% of the total sulfur emissions with no specific temporal and spatial pattern. Due to the low content of metals in the sediment, the reduced sulfur pools are cycled rapidly with chemical and biological reoxidation at oxic-anoxic boundaries as a major sink. Thus, the emissions of H 2S account for less than 1‰ of the sulfide produced.

  10. CFD methods for the reduction of reactive gas emission from a paper laminating machine.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Andras; Jordan, Christian; Forstner, Gerhard; Altacher, Peter; Harasek, Michael

    2007-06-18

    In cooperation with the world's second largest manufacturer of beverage cartons (SIG Combibloc) for liquid foodstuffs an innovative off-take for neutralisation of reactive gas in a paper laminating machine was constructed. A great challenge during engineering work was ensuring a high concentration of the reactive gas where needed and at the same time minimising work place impact in a machine basically without housing. Preliminary 2D-models of the machine geometry proved to be insufficient in describing all the governing flow phenomena. A simplified 3D-geometry containing all important parts of the complex machinery was necessary for accurate predictions. It was found that the driving force of air movement and transport of reactive gas (which acts as an adhesive agent) from the reaction zone in the interior of the laminating machine to the outside is a boundary flow caused by the rapid movement of carton material and rotating cylinders. A physically correct simulation result of the boundary flow is a premise for correct prediction of air flow in and around the machinery. Lacking experimental data (due to an inaccessible geometry) a worst case scenario was constructed by generating a grid and using turbulence models that maximised mass transport in the boundary layer region and thus emission of (tracer)gas from the machine. CFD simulations were done using the geometry preprocessor Gambit, and the finite volume solver Fluent. The results of the analysis of the emission paths from the machine were surprising and led to the construction of an effective off-take relatively far away from the emission source. The chosen position ensures low disturbance of highly sensitive flow patterns inside the machine and diffusive mixing, dilution and contamination of the surroundings. The effect of the new off-take is an immediate and significant rise in air quality in the vicinity of the laminating machine and ensures maximum allowed concentration in the plant area. The product

  11. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  12. Air plasma gasification of RDF as a prospective method for reduction of carbon dioxide emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratsev, A. N.; Kumkova, I. I.; Kuznetsov, V. A.; Popov, V. E.; Shtengel', S. V.; Ufimtsev, A. A.

    2011-03-01

    Waste disposal dumps are one of sources of carbonic gas penetration in the atmosphere. The waste is treated into RDF (refuse-derived fuel) and used in boilers for electric power or heat generation for decrease in carbonic gas emissions in the atmosphere. In industry power stations on the basis of the combined cycle have the highest efficiency of burning. The paper deals with the application of an air-plasma gasifier using the down draft scheme of RDF transformation into synthesis gas, which afterwards can be used in the combined cycle. Results of calculations of the process characteristics for various RDF compositions are presented. The advantage of the plasma method in comparison with autothermal one is shown. Experimental data are shown.

  13. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Due to Improvement of Biodegradable Waste Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendere, R.; Teibe, I.; Arina, D.; Lapsa, J.

    2014-12-01

    To reduce emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) from landfills, the European Union (EU) Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC requires that there be a progressive decrease in the municipal biodegradable waste disposal. The main problem of waste management (WM) in Latvia is its heavy dependence on the waste disposal at landfills. The poorly developed system for the sorted municipal waste collection and the promotion of landfilling as a major treatment option led to the disposal of 84% of the total collected municipal waste in 2012, with a high biodegradable fraction. In Latvia, the volume of emissions due to activities of the WM branch was 5.23% (632.6 CO2 eq.) of the total GHG emissions produced in the National economy in 2010 (12 097 Gg CO2 eq., except the land use, land-use change and forestry). Having revised the current situation in the management of biodegradable waste in Latvia, the authors propose improvements in this area. In the work, analysis of environmental impact was carried out using Waste Management Planning System (WAMPS) software in the WM modelling scenarios. The software computes the emissions, energy and turnover of waste streams for the processes within the WM system such as waste collection and transportation, composting, anaerobic digestion, and the final disposal (landfilling or incineration). The results of WAMPS modelling are presented in four categories associated with the environmental impact: acidification, global warming, eutrophication and photo-oxidant formation, each characterised by a particular emission. These categories cover an integrated WM system, starting with the point when products turn to waste which is then thrown into the bin for waste at its generation source, and ending with the point where the waste transforms either into useful material (recycled material, biogas or compost) or contributes to emissions into environment after the final disposal at a landfill or an incineration plant Rakstā veikts pašvaldības bioloģiski no

  15. The impacts of future climate change and sulphur emission reductions on acidification recovery at Plastic Lake, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aherne, J.; Futter, M. N.; Dillon, P. J.

    2008-03-01

    Climate-induced drought events have a significant influence on sulphate export from forested catchments in central Ontario, subsequently delaying the recovery of surface waters from acidification. In the current study, a model chain that employed a statistical downscaling model, a hydrological model and two hydrochemical models was used to forecast the chemical recovery of Plastic Lake sub-catchment 1 (PC1) from acidification under proposed deposition reductions and the A2 emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Any predicted recovery in stream acid neutralising capacity and pH owing to deposition reductions were clearly offset by large acid effluxes from climate-induced drought events. By 2100, ANC is predicted to show large variations ranging between 10 and -30 μmolc L-1. Similarly, predicted pH in 2100 is lower (>0.05 of a pH unit) than the value simulated for 2000 (pH 4.35). Despite emission reductions, the future scenario paints a bleak picture of reacidification at PC1 to levels commensurate with those of the late 1970s. The principal process behind this reacidification is the oxidation of previously stored (reduced) sulphur compounds in wetlands during periods of low-flow (or drought), with subsequent efflux of sulphate upon re-wetting. Simulated catchment runoff under the A2 emissions scenario predictes increased intensity and frequency of low-flow events from approximately 2030 onwards. The Integrated Catchments model for Carbon indicated that stream DOC concentrations at PC1 will also increase under the future climate scenario, with temperature being the principal driver. Despite the predicted (significant) increase in DOC, pH is not predicted to further decline (beyond the climate-induced oxidation scenario), instead pH shows greater variability throughout the simulation. As echoed by many recent studies, hydrochemical models and model frameworks need to incorporate the drivers and mechanisms (at appropriate time-scales) that

  16. The impacts of future climate change and sulphur emission reductions on acidification recovery at Plastic Lake, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aherne, J.; Futter, M. N.; Dillon, P. J.

    2007-09-01

    Climate-induced drought events have a significant influence on sulphate export from forested catchments in central Ontario, subsequently delaying the recovery of surface waters from acidification. In the current study, a model chain that employed a statistical downscaling model, a hydrological model and two hydrochemical models was used to forecast the chemical recovery of Plastic Lake sub-catchment 1 (PC1) from acidification under proposed deposition reductions and the A2 emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Any predicted recovery in stream acid neutralising capacity and pH owing to deposition reductions were clearly offset by large acid effluxes from climate-induced drought events. By 2100, ANC is predicted to show large variations ranging between 10 and -30 μmolc L-1. Similarly, predicted pH in 2100 is lower (>0.05 of a pH unit) than the value simulated for 2000 (pH 4.35). Despite emission reductions, the future scenario paints a bleak picture of reacidification at PC1 to levels commensurate with those of the late 1970s. The principal process behind this reacidification is the oxidation of previously stored (reduced) sulphur compounds in wetlands during periods of low-flow (or drought), with subsequent efflux of sulphate upon re-wetting. Simulated catchment runoff under the A2 emissions scenario predictes increased intensity and frequency of low-flow events from approximately 2030 onwards. The Integrated Catchments model for Carbon indicated that stream DOC concentrations at PC1 will also increase under the future climate scenario, with temperature being the principal driver. Despite the predicted (significant) increase in DOC, pH is not predicted to further decline (beyond the climate-induced oxidation scenario), instead pH shows greater variability throughout the simulation. As echoed by many recent studies, hydrochemical models and model frameworks need to incorporate the drivers and mechanisms (at appropriate time-scales) that

  17. Factors controlling peat chemistry and vegetation composition in Sudbury peatlands after 30 years of pollution emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sophie E; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this research was to assess factors controlling peat and plant chemistry, and vegetation composition in 18 peatlands surrounding Sudbury after more than 30 years of large (>95%) pollution emission reductions. Sites closer to the main Copper Cliff smelter had more humified peat and the surface horizons were greatly enriched in copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper and Ni concentrations in peat were significantly correlated with that in the plant tissue of Chamaedaphne calyculata. The pH of peat was the strongest determining factor for species richness, diversity, and community composition, although percent vascular plant cover was strongly negatively correlated with surface Cu and Ni concentrations in peat. Sphagnum frequency was also negatively related to peat Cu and Ni concentrations indicating sites close to Copper Cliff smelter remain adversely impacted by industrial activities.

  18. Estimating Energy and Cost Savings and Emissions Reductions for the State Energy Program Based on Enumeration Indicators Data

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M.

    2003-02-06

    As part of an effort to produce metrics for quantifying the effects of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) State Energy Program (SEP), staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a classification scheme for describing the various state activities supported by SEP funds. This involved identifying a number of distinct program areas into which all of the various state SEP activities could be placed. Then, a set of ''enumeration indicators'' was developed to describe key activities within each of those areas. Although originally developed to count program activities, the enumeration indicators are used here as a basis for estimating the savings and emissions reductions achieved by the SEP. While there are additional benefits associated with the SEP, such as increased energy security and economic well-being, they are not addressed in this study.

  19. Risk of multiple interacting tipping points should encourage rapid CO2 emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yongyang; Lenton, Timothy M.; Lontzek, Thomas S.

    2016-05-01

    Evidence suggests that several elements of the climate system could be tipped into a different state by global warming, causing irreversible economic damages. To address their policy implications, we incorporated five interacting climate tipping points into a stochastic-dynamic integrated assessment model, calibrating their likelihoods and interactions on results from an existing expert elicitation. Here we show that combining realistic assumptions about policymakers’ preferences under uncertainty, with the prospect of multiple future interacting climate tipping points, increases the present social cost of carbon in the model nearly eightfold from US$15 per tCO2 to US$116 per tCO2. Furthermore, passing some tipping points increases the likelihood of other tipping points occurring to such an extent that it abruptly increases the social cost of carbon. The corresponding optimal policy involves an immediate, massive effort to control CO2 emissions, which are stopped by mid-century, leading to climate stabilization at <1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.

  20. Simultaneous reductions in emissions of black carbon and co-emitted species will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), a distinct type of carbonaceous material formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass based fuels under certain conditions, can interact with solar radiation and clouds through its strong light-absorption ability, thereby warming the Earth's climate system. Some studies have even suggested that global warming could be slowed down in the short term by eliminating BC emission due to its short lifetime. In this study, we estimate the influence of removing some sources of BC and other co-emitted species on the aerosol radiative effect by using an aerosol-climate atmosphere-only model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero with prescribed sea surface temperature and sea ice cover, in combination with the aerosol emissions from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. We find that the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) will be enhanced by 0.12 W m-2 compared with recent past year 2000 levels if the emissions of only BC are reduced to the level projected for 2100 based on the RCP2.6 scenario. This will be beneficial~for the mitigation of global warming. However, both aerosol negative direct and indirect radiative effects are weakened when BC and its co-emitted species (sulfur dioxide and organic carbon) are simultaneously reduced. Relative to year 2000 levels, the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the TOA will be weakened by 1.7-2.0 W m-2 if the emissions of all these aerosols are decreased to the levels projected for 2100 in different ways based on the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. Because there are no effective ways to remove the BC exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth's climate system in the future.

  1. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, III, William R.; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-12-03

    India’s 2010 annual crude steel production was 68 Mt which accounted for nearly five percent of the world’s annual steel production in the same year. In 2007, roughly 1600 PJ were consumed by India’s iron and steel industry to produce 53 Mt of steel. We identified and analyzed 25 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the Indian iron and steel industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model and compared to an electricity price forecast the cumulative plant-level cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Indian iron and steel industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 66 TWh, and the cumulative plant-level technical electricity saving potential is only slightly greater than 66 TWh for the same period. The primary energy related CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 65 Mt CO2. Compared to a fuel price forecast, an estimated cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 768 PJ with associated CO2 emission reduction of 67 Mt CO2 during 2010-2030 is possible. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Indian iron and steel industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  2. Health Cobenefits and Transportation-Related Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Co, Sean; Ostro, Bart; Fanai, Amir; Fairley, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Methods. Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-emission automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose–response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. Results: Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32 466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. Conclusions: Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE reductions sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates. PMID:23409903

  3. Effect of advanced aftertreatment for PM and NOx reduction on heavy-duty diesel engine ultrafine particle emissions.

    PubMed

    Herner, Jorn Dinh; Hu, Shaohua; Robertson, William H; Huai, Tao; Chang, M-C Oliver; Rieger, Paul; Ayala, Alberto

    2011-03-15

    Four heavy-duty and medium-duty diesel vehicles were tested in six different aftertreament configurations using a chassis dynamometer to characterize the occurrence of nucleation (the conversion of exhaust gases to particles upon dilution). The aftertreatment included four different diesel particulate filters and two selective catalytic reduction (SCR) devices. All DPFs reduced the emissions of solid particles by several orders of magnitude, but in certain cases the occurrence of a volatile nucleation mode could increase total particle number emissions. The occurrence of a nucleation mode could be predicted based on the level of catalyst in the aftertreatment, the prevailing temperature in the aftertreatment, and the age of the aftertreatment. The particles measured during nucleation had a high fraction of sulfate, up to 62% of reconstructed mass. Additionally the catalyst reduced the toxicity measured in chemical and cellular assays suggesting a pathway for an inverse correlation between particle number and toxicity. The results have implications for exposure to and toxicity of diesel PM.

  4. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products.

  5. Creating rigorous pathways to monetize methane and nitrous oxide emission reductions at small scale rice farms in three states of semi-arid peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritee, K.; Tiwari, R.; Nair, D.; Adhya, T. K.; Rudek, J.

    2014-12-01

    As a part of a joint undertaking by Environmental Defense Fund and the Fair Climate Network, we have measured reduction in methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to alternate "low carbon" rice cultivation practices for three ago-ecological zones in India for the past two years. Sampling for nitrous oxide and methane emissions was done on approximately 60-80% of the total number of days in a growing season and was based on modified GRACEnet protocol. In recognition of farmer's economic interest and global food security demands, we also measured the effect of rice cultivation practices on farm economics and yields. Our data from three agro-ecological zones for 2012-2014 suggest that, for semi-arid peninsular India, low-carbon rice cultivation practices offer large range of emission reduction potential (0.5-5 metric tons CO2e/acre/year). The regions with sandy soils (Alfisols) had high rates of nitrous oxide emissions even under baseline "flooded" rice cultivation regimes and, thus, the Tier 1 IPCC emissions factors grossly underestimate both the amount of nitrous oxide emission from conventional rice cultivation practices, and the extent to which it can be reduced through better fertilizer management. Also, the IPCC factors overestimate the methane emission reduction possible due to water management for rice paddies. Therefore, it is crucial to customize N and water management to each region such that yields and net GHG emission reduction are maximized. These practices also have the potential to decrease water use by 10-30% and improve long term soil health by optimizing organic matter and increasing water-holding capacity. In addition, through GPS based demarcation of farmer plots, recording baseline practices through extensive surveys, documenting the parameters required to aggregate and prove implementation of low carbon rice farming practices, and to model the GHG emission reduction over large scales, we have put forward a path for better monetization of GHG

  6. Climate-driven increase of natural wetland methane emissions offset by human-induced wetland reduction in China over the past three decades

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Jiang, Hong; Fang, Xiuqin; Chen, Huai; Niu, Zhenguo; Gong, Peng; Lin, Guanghui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Han; Yang, Yanzheng; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying; Xiang, Wenhua; Deng, Xiangwen; He, Jin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Both anthropogenic activities and climate change can affect the biogeochemical processes of natural wetland methanogenesis. Quantifying possible impacts of changing climate and wetland area on wetland methane (CH4) emissions in China is important for improving our knowledge on CH4 budgets locally and globally. However, their respective and combined effects are uncertain. We incorporated changes in wetland area derived from remote sensing into a dynamic CH4 model to quantify the human and climate change induced contributions to natural wetland CH4 emissions in China over the past three decades. Here we found that human-induced wetland loss contributed 34.3% to the CH4 emissions reduction (0.92 TgCH4), and climate change contributed 20.4% to the CH4 emissions increase (0.31 TgCH4), suggesting that decreasing CH4 emissions due to human-induced wetland reductions has offset the increasing climate-driven CH4 emissions. With climate change only, temperature was a dominant controlling factor for wetland CH4 emissions in the northeast (high latitude) and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (high altitude) regions, whereas precipitation had a considerable influence in relative arid north China. The inevitable uncertainties caused by the asynchronous for different regions or periods due to inter-annual or seasonal variations among remote sensing images should be considered in the wetland CH4 emissions estimation. PMID:27892535

  7. Climate-driven increase of natural wetland methane emissions offset by human-induced wetland reduction in China over the past three decades.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Jiang, Hong; Fang, Xiuqin; Chen, Huai; Niu, Zhenguo; Gong, Peng; Lin, Guanghui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Han; Yang, Yanzheng; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying; Xiang, Wenhua; Deng, Xiangwen; He, Jin-Sheng

    2016-11-28

    Both anthropogenic activities and climate change can affect the biogeochemical processes of natural wetland methanogenesis. Quantifying possible impacts of changing climate and wetland area on wetland methane (CH4) emissions in China is important for improving our knowledge on CH4 budgets locally and globally. However, their respective and combined effects are uncertain. We incorporated changes in wetland area derived from remote sensing into a dynamic CH4 model to quantify the human and climate change induced contributions to natural wetland CH4 emissions in China over the past three decades. Here we found that human-induced wetland loss contributed 34.3% to the CH4 emissions reduction (0.92 TgCH4), and climate change contributed 20.4% to the CH4 emissions increase (0.31 TgCH4), suggesting that decreasing CH4 emissions due to human-induced wetland reductions has offset the increasing climate-driven CH4 emissions. With climate change only, temperature was a dominant controlling factor for wetland CH4 emissions in the northeast (high latitude) and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (high altitude) regions, whereas precipitation had a considerable influence in relative arid north China. The inevitable uncertainties caused by the asynchronous for different regions or periods due to inter-annual or seasonal variations among remote sensing images should be considered in the wetland CH4 emissions estimation.

  8. Climate-driven increase of natural wetland methane emissions offset by human-induced wetland reduction in China over the past three decades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Jiang, Hong; Fang, Xiuqin; Chen, Huai; Niu, Zhichun; Gong, Peng; Lin, Guanghui; Wang, Meng; Yang, Yanzheng; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying; Xiang, Wenhua; Deng, Xiangwen; He, Jin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Both anthropogenic activities and climate change can affect the biogeochemical processes of natural wetland methanogenesis. Quantifying possible impacts of changing climate and wetland area on wetland methane (CH4) emissions in China is important for improving our knowledge on CH4 budgets locally and globally. However, their respective and combined effects are uncertain. We incorporated changes in wetland area derived from remote sensing into a dynamic CH4 model to quantify the human and climate change induced contributions to natural wetland CH4 emissions in China over the past three decades. Here we found that human-induced wetland loss contributed 34.3% to the CH4 emissions reduction (0.92 TgCH4), and climate change contributed 20.4% to the CH4 emissions increase (0.31 TgCH4), suggesting that decreasing CH4 emissions due to human-induced wetland reductions has offset the increasing climate-driven CH4 emissions. With climate change only, temperature was a dominant controlling factor for wetland CH4 emissions in the northeast (high latitude) and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (high altitude) regions, whereas precipitation had a considerable influence in relative arid north China. The inevitable uncertainties caused by the asynchronous for different regions or periods due to inter-annual or seasonal variations among remote sensing images should be considered in the wetland CH4 emissions estimation.

  9. Climate-driven increase of natural wetland methane emissions offset by human-induced wetland reduction in China over the past three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiuan; Peng, Changhui; Liu, Jinxun; Jiang, Hong; Fang, Xiuqin; Chen, Huai; Niu, Zhenguo; Gong, Peng; Lin, Guanghui; Wang, Meng; Wang, Han; Yang, Yanzheng; Chang, Jie; Ge, Ying; Xiang, Wenhua; Deng, Xiangwen; He, Jin-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Both anthropogenic activities and climate change can affect the biogeochemical processes of natural wetland methanogenesis. Quantifying possible impacts of changing climate and wetland area on wetland methane (CH4) emissions in China is important for improving our knowledge on CH4 budgets locally and globally. However, their respective and combined effects are uncertain. We incorporated changes in wetland area derived from remote sensing into a dynamic CH4 model to quantify the human and climate change induced contributions to natural wetland CH4 emissions in China over the past three decades. Here we found that human-induced wetland loss contributed 34.3% to the CH4 emissions reduction (0.92 TgCH4), and climate change contributed 20.4% to the CH4 emissions increase (0.31 TgCH4), suggesting that decreasing CH4 emissions due to human-induced wetland reductions has offset the increasing climate-driven CH4 emissions. With climate change only, temperature was a dominant controlling factor for wetland CH4 emissions in the northeast (high latitude) and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (high altitude) regions, whereas precipitation had a considerable influence in relative arid north China. The inevitable uncertainties caused by the asynchronous for different regions or periods due to inter-annual or seasonal variations among remote sensing images should be considered in the wetland CH4 emissions estimation.

  10. Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.

    This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented

  11. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that

  12. Decreased N2O reduction by low soil pH causes high N2O emissions in a riparian ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Van den Heuvel, R N; Bakker, S E; Jetten, M S M; Hefting, M M

    2011-05-01

    Quantification of harmful nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soils is essential for mitigation measures. An important N(2)O producing and reducing process in soils is denitrification, which shows deceased rates at low pH. No clear relationship between N(2)O emissions and soil pH has yet been established because also the relative contribution of N(2)O as the denitrification end product decreases with pH. Our aim was to show the net effect of soil pH on N(2)O production and emission. Therefore, experiments were designed to investigate the effects of pH on NO(3)(-) reduction, N(2)O production and reduction and N(2) production in incubations with pH values set between 4 and 7. Furthermore, field measurements of soil pH and N(2)O emissions were carried out. In incubations, NO(3)(-) reduction and N(2) production rates increased with pH and net N(2)O production rate was highest at pH 5. N(2)O reduction to N(2) was halted until NO(3)(-) was depleted at low pH values, resulting in a built up of N(2)O. As a consequence, N(2)O:N(2) production ratio decreased exponentially with pH. N(2)O reduction appeared therefore more important than N(2)O production in explaining net N(2)O production rates. In the field, a negative exponential relationship for soil pH against N(2)O emissions was observed. Soil pH could therefore be used as a predictive tool for average N(2)O emissions in the studied ecosystem. The occurrence of low pH spots may explain N(2)O emission hotspot occurrence. Future studies should focus on the mechanism behind small scale soil pH variability and the effect of manipulating the pH of soils.

  13. Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Corbus, D; Martinez, M; Rodriguez, L; Mark, J

    1994-08-01

    Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.

  14. Anaerobic Co-digestion for Enhanced Renewable Energy and Green House Gas Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Navaratnam, Navaneethan; Zitomer, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The need to develop renewable energy is important for replacing fossil fuel, which is limited in quantity and also tends to increase in price over time. The addition of high strength organic wastes in municipal anaerobic digesters is growing and tends to increase renewable energy production. In addition, conversion of wastes to energy significantly reduces uncontrolled greenhouse gas emissions. Co-digestion of municipal sludge with any combination of wastes can result in synergistic, antagonistic or neutral outcomes. The objectives of this study were to identify potential co-digestates, determine synergistic, antagonistic and neutral effects, determine economic benefits, quantify performance of bench scale co-digesters, identify influence of co-digestion on microbial communities and implement appropriate co-digestion, if warranted, after full-scale testing. A market study was used to identify promising co-digestates. Most promising wastes were determined by biochemical methane potential (BMP) and other testing followed by a simple economic analysis. Performance was investigated using bench-scale digesters receiving synthetic primary sludge with and without co-digestates. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were performed on the gene encoding the α subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) to compare methanogen communities among the digesters. One significant band contributing to the greatest difference in banding patterns was excised, cloned, amplified and sequenced. Full- scale co-digestion was conducted using the most promising co-digestate at South Shore Wastewater Reclamation Facility (Oak Creek, WI). Over 80 wastes were identified from 54 facilities within 160 km of an existing municipal digester. A simple economic comparison identified the greatest benefits for seven co-digestates. Methane production rates of two co- digester systems increased by 105% and 66% in comparison to a control

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    the Gordon Conference on Modern Development in Thermodynamics. The results obtained are very encouraging for the development of the RCSC as a commercial burner for significant reduction of NO{sub x} emissions, and highly warrants further study and development.

  16. Estimating energy intensity and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials in the manufacturing sectors in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Wangskarn, P.; Khummongkol, P.; Schrattenholzer, L.

    1996-12-31

    The final energy consumption in Thailand increased at about ten percent annually within the last 10 years. To slow the energy demand growth rate while maintaining the country`s economic advance and environmental sustainability, the Energy Conservation Promotion Act (ECPA) was adopted in 1992. With this Act, a comprehensive Energy Conservation Program (ENCON) was initiated. ENCON commits the government to promoting energy conservation, to developing appropriate regulations, and to providing financial and organizational resources for program implementation. Due to this existing ENCON program a great benefit is expected not only to reducing energy consumption, but also to decreasing GHGs emissions substantially. This study is a part of the ENCON research program which was supported by the German Federal Government under the program called Prompt-Start Measures to Implement the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The basic activities carried out during the project included (1) An assessment of Thailand`s total and specific energy consumption in the industrial sectors and commercial buildings; (2) Identification of existing and candidate technologies for GHG emission reduction and energy efficiency improvements in specific factories and commercial buildings; and (3) Identification of individual factories and commercial buildings as candidates for detailed further study. Although the energy assessment had been carried out for the commercial buildings also, this paper will cover only the work on the manufacturing sector. On the basis of these steps, 14 factories were visited by the project team and preliminary energy audits were performed. As a result, concrete measures and investments were proposed and classified into two groups according to their economic characteristics. Those investments with a payback time of less than four years were considered together in a Moderate scenario, and those with longer payback times in an Intensive scenario.

  17. Increased Use of Natural Gas for Power Generation in the U.S. and the Resulting Reductions in Emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gouw, J. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Trainer, M.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decades, natural gas has increasingly replaced coal as a fuel for electrical power generation in the U.S. As a result, there have been significant reductions in the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Power plant emissions are continuously measured at the stack using continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) required by the EPA. Previous studies using airborne measurements have shown these CEMS measurements to be accurate. Here, we use annual emissions since 1995 from all point sources included in the CEMS database to quantify the changes in CO2, NOx and SO2 emissions that have resulted from the changing use of fuels and technologies for power generation. In 1997, 83% of electrical power in the CEMS database was generated from coal-fired power plants. In 2012, the contribution from coal had decreased to 59%, and natural gas contributed 34% of the electrical power. Natural gas-fired power plants, in particular those equipped with combined cycle technology, emit less than 50% of CO2 per kWh produced compared to coal-fired plants. As a result of the increased use of natural gas, total CO2 emissions from U.S. power plants have decreased since 2008. In addition, natural gas-fired power plants emit less NOx and far less SO2 per kWh produced than coal-fired power plants. The increased use of natural gas has therefore led to significant emissions reductions of NOx and SO2 in addition to those obtained from the implementation of emissions control systems on coal-fired power plants. The increased use of natural gas for power generation has led to significant reductions in CO2 emissions as well as improvements in U.S. air quality. We will illustrate these points with examples from airborne measurements made using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft in the Southeastern U.S. in 2013 as part of the NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study. The emissions reductions from U.S. power plants due to the increased use of natural gas will

  18. Projected response of East Asian summer monsoon system to future reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2016-09-01

    The response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system to reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols and their precursors at the end of the twenty-first century projected by Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 is studied using an aerosol-climate model with aerosol direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects included. Our results show that the global annual mean aerosol effective radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is +1.45 W m-2 from 2000 to 2100. The summer mean net all-sky shortwave fluxes averaged over the East Asian monsoon region (EAMR) at the TOA and surface increased by +3.9 and +4.0 W m-2, respectively, due to the reductions of aerosols in 2100 relative to 2000. Changes in radiations affect local thermodynamic and dynamic processes and the hydrological cycle. The summer mean surface temperature and pressure averaged over the EAMR are shown to increase by 1.7 K and decreased by 0.3 hPa, respectively, due to the reduced aerosols. The magnitudes of these changes are larger over land than ocean, causing a marked increase in the contrast of land-sea surface temperature and pressure in the EAMR, thus strengthening the EASM. The summer mean southwest and south winds at 850 hPa are enhanced over eastern and southern China and the surrounding oceans, and the East Asian subtropical jet shifted northward due to the decreases of aerosols. These factors also indicate enhanced EASM circulation, which in turn causes a 10 % increase in summer mean precipitation averaged over the EAMR.

  19. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  20. MODELING ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTIONS ON OZONE AIR QUALITY IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: OFFSETTING INCREASES IN ENERGY USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in ambient ozone concentrations estimated by a photochemical air quality model in response to the NOx emission reductions imposed on the utility sector. To accomplish this task, CMAQ air quality model simulations were performe...

  1. Integrated control of emission reductions, energy-saving, and cost-benefit using a multi-objective optimization technique in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zongguo; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xueying

    2015-03-17

    Reduction of water pollutant emissions and energy consumption is regarded as a key environmental objective for the pulp and paper industry. The paper develops a bottom-up model called the Industrial Water Pollutant Control and Technology Policy (IWPCTP) based on an industrial technology simulation system and multiconstraint technological optimization. Five policy scenarios covering the business as usual (BAU) scenario, the structural adjustment (SA) scenario, the cleaner technology promotion (CT) scenario, the end-treatment of pollutants (EOP) scenario, and the coupling measures (CM) scenario have been set to describe future policy measures related to the development of the pulp and paper industry from 2010-2020. The outcome of this study indicates that the energy saving amount under the CT scenario is the largest, while that under the SA scenario is the smallest. Under the CT scenario, savings by 2020 include 70 kt/year of chemical oxygen demand (COD) emission reductions and savings of 7443 kt of standard coal, 539.7 ton/year of ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) emission reductions, and savings of 7444 kt of standard coal. Taking emission reductions, energy savings, and cost-benefit into consideration, cleaner technologies like highly efficient pulp washing, dry and wet feedstock preparation, and horizontal continuous cooking, medium and high consistency pulping and wood dry feedstock preparation are recommended.

  2. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450–1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society. PMID:26558350

  3. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-11-01

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 oC) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society.

  4. Integration of coal gasification and waste heat recovery from high temperature steel slags: an emerging strategy to emission reduction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-11-12

    With the continuous urbanization and industrialization in the world, energy saving and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction have been serious issues to be addressed, for which heat recovery from traditional energy-intensive industries makes up a significant strategy. Here we report a novel approach to extract the waste heat and iron from high temperature steel slags (1450-1650 (o)C) produced in the steel industry, i.e., integration of coal gasification and steel slag treatment. Both the thermodynamics and kinetics of the pertinent reactions were identified. It was clarified that the kinetic mechanism for gasification varied from A2 model to A4 model (Avrami-Erofeev) in the presence of slags. Most importantly, the steel slags acted not only as good heat carriers but also as effective catalysts where the apparent activation energy for char gasification got remarkably reduced from 95.7 kJ/mol to 12.1 kJ/mol (A2 model). Furthermore, the FeO in the slags was found to be oxidized into Fe3O4, with an extra energy release, which offered a potential for magnetic separation. Moreover, based on the present research results, an emerging concept, composed of multiple industrial sectors, was proposed, which could serve as an important route to deal with the severe environmental problems in modern society.

  5. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  6. Calculation of energy recovery and greenhouse gas emission reduction from palm oil mill effluent treatment by an anaerobic granular-sludge process.

    PubMed

    Show, K Y; Ng, C A; Faiza, A R; Wong, L P; Wong, L Y

    2011-01-01

    Conventional aerobic and low-rate anaerobic processes such as pond and open-tank systems have been widely used in wastewater treatment. In order to improve treatment efficacy and to avoid greenhouse gas emissions, conventional treatment can be upgraded to a high performance anaerobic granular-sludge system. The anaerobic granular-sludge systems are designed to capture the biogas produced, rendering a potential for claims of carbon credits under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) would be issued, which can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market prices. As the advanced anaerobic granular systems are capable of handling high organic loadings concomitant with high strength wastewater and short hydraulic retention time, they render more carbon credits than other conventional anaerobic systems. In addition to efficient waste degradation, the carbon credits can be used to generate revenue and to finance the project. This paper presents a scenario on emission avoidance based on a methane recovery and utilization project. An example analysis on emission reduction and an overview of the global emission market are also outlined.

  7. Study of Reciprocal Effects between Mandatory Pollutant Emissions Reduction Policy and Structural Change within the Manufacturing Sector in a Chinese Coastal Area.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Guo, Xianglin; Tian, Jinping; Chen, Lujun

    2015-11-03

    We develop a multicriteria decision-making model coupled with scenario analysis to quantitatively elucidate the reciprocal effect between a mandatory pollutant emissions reduction policy and industrial structure change within the manufacturing sector on the basis of an in-depth study of a well-developed coastal area in East China, Ningbo City, toward 2020. First, 18 two-digit level industries (TDLIs) in the manufacturing sector are screened out due to intensive emissions of the four pollutants (COD, NH3-N, SO2, and NOx). Second, a model is established to identify the optimal solution for the industrial structure adjustment of the 18 TDLIs under two scenarios, the "business-as-usual" scenario and the "industrial structure adjustment" scenario. Both scenarios are expanded into three subscenarios. Quantitative constraint conditions and two criteria are formulated to screen out the optimal solutions. We propose a coefficient of industrial structure adjustment, Ki, which could clearly reflect the policy preference in terms of industrial development and reallocate the quota of the four-pollutant emission among the 18 TDLIs with regards to the different expectations of economy development in 2020. The model will help local authorities make tailored policies to reduce pollution emissions effectively through industrial structure change by delicately allocating the pollutant emission quota and setting reasonable targets of emission intensity reduction among TDLIs.

  8. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  9. A Multimodel Assessment of the Influence of Regional Anthropogenic Emission Reductions on Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and the Role of Intercontinental Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; West, Jason; Atherton, Cynthia S.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Forberth, Gerd; Hess, Peter; Schulz, Michael; Shindell, Drew; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tan, Qian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we assess changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and direct radiative forcing (DRF) in response to the reduction of anthropogenic emissions in four major pollution regions in the Northern Hemisphere by using results from nine global models in the framework of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP). DRF at top of atmosphere (TOA) and surface is estimated based on AOD results from the HTAP models and AOD-normalized DRF (NDRF) from a chemical transport model. The multimodel results show that, on average, a 20% reduction of anthropogenic emissions in North America, Europe, East Asia, and South Asia lowers the global mean AOD (all-sky TOA DRF) by 9.2% (9.0%), 3.5% (3.0%), and 9.4% (10.0%) for sulfate, particulate organic matter (POM), and black carbon (BC), respectively. Global annual average TOA all-sky forcing efficiency relative to particle or gaseous precursor emissions from the four regions (expressed as multimodel mean +/- one standard deviation) is -3.5 +/-0.8, -4.0 +/- 1.7, and 29.5+/-18.1mW / sq m per Tg for sulfate (relative to SO2), POM, and BC, respectively. The impacts of the regional emission reductions on AOD and DRF extend well beyond the source regions because of intercontinental transport (ICT). On an annual basis, ICT accounts for 11 +/- 5% to 31 +/- 9% of AOD and DRF in a receptor region at continental or subcontinental scale, with domestic emissions accounting for the remainder, depending on regions and species. For sulfate AOD, the largest ICT contribution of 31 +/- 9% occurs in South Asia, which is dominated by the emissions from Europe. For BC AOD, the largest ICT contribution of 28 +/- 18% occurs in North America, which is dominated by the emissions from East Asia. The large spreads among models highlight the need to improve aerosol processes in models, and evaluate and constrain models with observations.

  10. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Preble, Chelsea V; Dallmann, Timothy R; Kreisberg, Nathan M; Hering, Susanne V; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2015-07-21

    Effects of fleet modernization and use of diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on heavy-duty diesel truck emissions were studied at the Port of Oakland in California. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon (BC), particle number (PN), and size distributions were measured in the exhaust plumes of ∼1400 drayage trucks. Average NOx, BC, and PN emission factors for newer engines (2010-2013 model years) equipped with both DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32%, and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than 2004-2006 engines without these technologies. Intentional oxidation of NO to NO2 for DPF regeneration increased tailpipe NO2 emissions, especially from older (1994-2006) engines with retrofit DPFs. Increased deployment of advanced controls has further skewed emission factor distributions; a small number of trucks emit a disproportionately large fraction of total BC and NOx. The fraction of DPF-equipped drayage trucks increased from 2 to 99% and the median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years between 2009 and 2013. Over this period, fleet-average BC and NOx emission factors decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. Emission changes occurred rapidly compared to what would have been observed due to natural (i.e., unforced) turnover of the Port truck fleet. These results provide a preview of more widespread emission changes expected statewide and nationally in the coming years.

  11. A case study of the relative effects of power plant nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emission reductions on atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Seigneur, Christian; Bronson, Rochelle; Chen, Shu-Yun; Karamchandani, Prakash; Walters, Justin T; Jansen, John J; Brandmeyer, Jo Ellen; Knipping, Eladio M

    2010-03-01

    The contrasting effects of point source nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) air emission reductions on regional atmospheric nitrogen deposition are analyzed for the case study of a coal-fired power plant in the southeastern United States. The effect of potential emission reductions at the plant on nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and its watershed on the Florida-Alabama border is simulated using the three-dimensional Eulerian Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. A method to quantify the relative and individual effects of NOx versus SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition using air quality modeling results obtained from the simultaneous application of NOx and SO2 emission controls is presented and discussed using the results from CMAQ simulations conducted with NOx-only and SO2-only emission reductions; the method applies only to cases in which ambient inorganic nitrate is present mostly in the gas phase; that is, in the form of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3). In such instances, the individual effects of NOx and SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition can be approximated by the effects of combined NOx + SO2 controls on the deposition of NOy, (the sum of oxidized nitrogen species) and reduced nitrogen species (NHx), respectively. The benefit of controls at the plant in terms of the decrease in nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and watershed is less than 6% of the overall benefit due to regional Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) controls.

  12. Scope for future CO{sub 2} emission reductions from electricity generation through the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Gibbins; Stuart Haszeldine; Sam Holloway; Jonathan Pearce; John Oakey; Simon Shackley; Carol Turley

    2006-02-15

    Ongoing work on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) from fossil fuel power stations in the UK suggests that this technology may be capable of supplying significant amounts of low-emission electricity within one or two decades. Renewable generation is also planned to increase over similar time scales and there is the additional possibility of nuclear replacements being built. If the political justification for significant UK CO{sub 2} emission reductions emerges from global post-Kyoto negotiations, it is therefore possible that large ({approximately}45%) reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from UK electricity generation could be achieved by as early as 2020. Both the technical and the political aspects are, however, changing rapidly, with perhaps the conclusion of the post-Kyoto negotiations in 2007 as the first clear pointer for the future. CCS technologies also have considerable potential for future emission reductions world wide, especially in regions where large numbers of new fossil fuel power plants are being built within {approximately}500 km of sedimentary basins. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A HTAP Multi-Model Assessment of the Influence of Regional Anthropogenic Emission Reductions on Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and the Role of Intercontinental Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; West, J. Jason; Atherton, Cynthia S.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bergmann, Dan; Bey, Isabelle; Bian, Huisheng; Diehl, Thomas; Forberth, Gerd; Hess, Peter; Schulz, Michael; Shindell, Drew; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tan, Qian

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we assess changes of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and direct radiative forcing (DRF) in response to the reduction of anthropogenic emissions in four major pollution regions in the northern hemisphere by using results from 10 global chemical transport models in the framework of the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP). The multi-model results show that on average, a 20% reduction of anthropogenic emissions in North America, Europe, East Asia and South Asia lowers the global mean AOD and DRF by about 9%, 4%, and 10% for sulfate, organic matter, and black carbon aerosol, respectively. The impacts of the regional emission reductions on AOD and DRF extend well beyond the source regions because of intercontinental transport. On an annual basis, intercontinental transport accounts for 10-30% of the overall AOD and DRF in a receptor region, with domestic emissions accounting for the remainder, depending on regions and species. While South Asia is most influenced by import of sulfate aerosol from Europe, North America is most influenced by import of black carbon from East Asia. Results show a large spread among models, highlighting the need to improve aerosol processes in models and evaluate and constrain models with observations.

  14. Greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission reduction potentials of renewable energy--case studies on photovoltaic and wind power introduction considering interactions among technologies in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Ming; Fukushima, Yasuhiro

    2009-03-01

    To achieve higher energy security and lower emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pollutants, the development of renewable energy has attracted much attention in Taiwan. In addition to its contribution to the enhancement of reliable indigenous resources, the introduction of renewable energy such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power systems reduces the emission of GHGs and air pollutants by substituting a part of the carbon- and pollutant-intensive power with power generated by methods that are cleaner and less carbon-intensive. To evaluate the reduction potentials, consequential changes in the operation of different types of existing power plants have to be taken into account. In this study, a linear mathematical programming model is constructed to simulate a power mix for a given power demand in a power market sharing a cost-minimization objective. By applying the model, the emission reduction potentials of capacity extension case studies, including the enhancement of PV and wind power introduction at different scales, were assessed. In particular, the consequences of power mix changes in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and particulates were discussed. Seasonally varying power demand levels, solar irradiation, and wind strength were taken into account. In this study, we have found that the synergetic reduction of carbon dioxide emission induced by PV and wind power introduction occurs under a certain level of additional installed capacity. Investigation of a greater variety of case studies on scenario development with emerging power sources becomes possible by applying the model developed in this study.

  15. Harm reduction

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Jacques; Li, Jih-Heng; Thomson, Nicholas; Jarlais, Don Des

    2014-01-01

    The “Harm Reduction” session was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The three presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Don Des Jarlais (High Coverage Needle/Syringe Programs for People Who Inject Drugs in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review), Dr. Nicholas Thomson (Harm Reduction History, Response, and Current Trends in Asia), and Dr. Jih-Heng Li (Harm Reduction Strategies in Taiwan). PMID:25278732

  16. Reduction in the intensity of solar X-ray emission in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range and heating of the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzoeva, I. K.

    2013-04-15

    The time profiles of the energy spectra of low-intensity flares and the structure of the thermal background of the soft X-ray component of solar corona emission over the period of January-February, 2003, are investigated using the data of the RHESSI project. A reduction in the intensity of X-ray emission of the solar flares and the corona thermal background in the 2- to 15-keV photon energy range is revealed. The RHESSI data are compared with the data from the Interball-Geotail project. A new mechanism of solar corona heating is proposed on the basis of the results obtained.

  17. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  18. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sorge, J.N.; Menzies, B.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide NOx emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objective of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control/optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  19. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-04-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally, from eight world regions, and from three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8%) and avoids 157 000 (95% confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. While most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving East Asian emissions (54%), followed by South Asian emissions (31%), South Asian emissions have 50% greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, the contribution of residential, industrial, and transportation BC emissions to PM2.5-related mortality is 1.3, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's contribution to anthropogenic BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population. Impacts of residential BC emissions are underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ~8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting that these results greatly underestimate the full air pollution-related mortality benefits of BC mitigation strategies which generally decrease both BC and OC. Confidence in our results would be strengthened by reducing uncertainties in emissions, model parameterization of aerosol processes, grid resolution, and PM2

  20. Antioxidant (A-tocopherol acetate) effect on oxidation stability and NOx emission reduction in methyl ester of Annona oil operated diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-11-01

    There is a major drawback while using biodiesel as a alternate fuel for compression ignition diesel engine due to lower heating value, higher viscosity, higher density and higher oxides of nitrogen emission. To minimize these drawbacks, fuel additives can contribute towards engine performance and exhaust emission reduction either directly or indirectly. In this current work, the test was conducted to investigate the effect of antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) on oxidation stability and NOx emission in a of Annona methyl ester oil (MEAO) fueled diesel engine. The A-tocopherol acetate is mixed in different concentrations such as 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04% with 100% by vol MEAO. It is concluded that the antioxidant additive very effective in increasing the oxidation stability and in controlling the NOx emission. Further, the addition of antioxidant additive is slight increase the HC, CO and smoke emissions. Hence, A-tocopherol acetate is very effective in controlling the NOx emission with MEAO operated diesel engine without any major modification.

  1. Evaluation of the Impact of Low Emission Zone and Heavy Traffic Ban in Munich (Germany) on the Reduction of PM10 in Ambient Air

    PubMed Central

    Fensterer, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Breitner, Susanne; Peters, Annette; Gu, Jianwei; Cyrys, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of ambient fine particles (PM10: particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm) are still exceeding current air quality standards in many European cities. In Munich (Germany), low emission zone and transit bans for heavy-duty vehicles were introduced in 2008 aiming at reduction of traffic emissions contribution to PM10. The effects of those measures on PM10 mass concentrations in Munich were investigated with a semiparametric regression model for modeling PM10 levels adjusted for time, background pollution, public holidays and wind direction. The reduction of PM10 concentration after the introduction of the measures was larger at a traffic monitoring site (13.0 %, 19.6 % in summer, and 6.8 % in winter) and smaller in urban background (4.5 %, 5.7 % in summer, and 3.2 % in winter). The effect was most pronounced on Fridays and on the weekends in summer. PMID:24828081

  2. Environmental Assessment for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Finney County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    n /a

    2003-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Sunflower Electric Power Corporation (Sunflower), to demonstrate the commercial application of Low-NO{sub x} Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve NO{sub x} emission reduction to the level of 0.15 to 0.22 pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MM Btu). The proposed project station is Sunflower's 360 MW coal-fired generation station, Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station). The station, fueled by coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, is located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The period of performance is expected to last approximately 2 years. The Holcomb Station, Sunflower LNB/SOFA integrated system would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO{sub x} control technologies. Once modified, the station would demonstrate that a unit equipped with an existing low-NO{sub x} burner system can be retrofitted with a new separated over-fire air (SOFA) system, coal flow measurement and control, and enhanced combustion monitoring to achieve about 45 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology alternative to Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. While SCR does generally achieve high reductions in NO{sub x} emissions (from about 0.8 lb/MM to 0.12 lb/MM Btu), it does so at higher capital and operating cost, requires the extensive use of critical construction labor, requires longer periods of unit outage for deployment, and generally requires longer periods of time to complete shakedown and full-scale operation. Cost of the proposed project technology would be on the order of 15-25 percent of that for SCR, with consequential benefits derived from reductions in construction manpower requirements and periods of power outages. This proposed technology demonstration would generally be applicable to boilers using opposed-wall burners

  3. Long-term source apportionment of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the Los Angeles Basin: a focus on emissions reduction from vehicular sources.

    PubMed

    Hasheminassab, Sina; Daher, Nancy; Ostro, Bart D; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-10-01

    Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was utilized to quantify sources of ambient PM2.5 in central Los Angeles (LA) and Rubidoux, using the Speciation Trends Network data, collected between 2002 and 2013. Vehicular emissions (including gasoline and diesel vehicles) were the second major contributor to PM2.5, following secondary aerosols, with about 20% contribution to total mass in both sites. Starting in 2007, several major federal, state, and local regulations on vehicular emissions were implemented. To assess the effect of these regulations, daily-resolved vehicular source contributions from 2002 to 2006 were pooled together and compared to the combination of 2008 to 2012 datasets. Compared to the 2002-2006 dataset, the median values of vehicular emissions in 2008-2012 statistically significantly decreased by 24 and 21% in LA and Rubidoux, respectively. These reductions were noted despite an overall increase or similarity in the median values of the daily flow of vehicles after 2007, at the sites.

  4. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tavoulareas, E.S.; Hardman, R.; Eskinazi, D.; Smith, L.

    1994-02-01

    This report provides the key findings of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration project at Gulf Power`s Lansing Smith Unit No. 2 and the implications for other tangentially-fired boilers. L. Smith Unit No. 2 is a 180 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning Eastern Bituminous coal, which was retrofitted with Asea Brown Boveri/Combustion Engineering Services` (ABB/CE) LNCFS I, II, and III technologies. An extensive test program was carried-out with US Department of Energy, Southern Company and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) funding. The LNCFS I, II, and III achieved 37 percent, 37 percent, and 45 percent average long-term NO{sub x} emission reduction at full load, respectively (see following table). Similar NO{sub x} reduction was achieved within the control range (100--200 MW). However, below the control point (100 MW), NO{sub x} emissions with the LNCFS technologies increased significantly, reaching pre-retrofit levels at 70 MW. Short-term testing proved that low load NO{sub x} emissions could be reduced further by using lower excess O{sub 2} and burner tilt, but with adversed impacts on unit performance, such as lower steam outlet temperatures and, potentially, higher CO emissions and LOI.

  5. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO[sub x] emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO[sub x] emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO[sub x] emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO[sub x] emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO[sub x] emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  6. Model study of the impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and the effectiveness of emission reduction scenarios over eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Ueda, Hiromasa; Matsuda, Kazuhide

    2005-02-01

    The impact of biogenic emission on regional ozone and emission control scenarios has been numerically studied through a series of sensitivity model simulations. A typical episode with elevated ozone over eastern China from 12 to 16 August 2001 was investigated by using a tropospheric chemistry and transport model (TCTM), driven by a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model MM5. The meteorological conditions during this period were characterized by high-pressure systems associated with low wind speeds, high temperatures and clear skies. Afternoon ozone concentrations exceeding 80 parts per billion (ppb) occurred over broad areas of eastern China. There is a generally good agreement between simulation and observation, indicating that the TCTM is able to represent major physical and chemical processes of tropospheric ozone and well reproduce the diurnal and day-to-day variability associated with synoptic conditions. The sensitivity analysis reveals a significant influence of biogenic hydrocarbons on regional ozone. Ozone levels are apparently enhanced by biogenic emission over large areas of eastern China. The largest increase up to 30 ppb in daytime average concentration is found in portions of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, Yangtze Delta and northeast China. However, the response of ozone to biogenic emission varies spatially, showing more sensitivity in polluted areas than that in clean rural areas. The regimes limited by nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic carbon (VOC) in eastern China are further investigated with respect to biogenic emission. Ozone shows a clear tendency to shift from VOC limitation to NOx limitation as it moves from urban and industrial areas to rural areas. Most of the rural areas in southern China tend to be NOx limited, whereas most of the northern parts of China appear to be VOC limited. By considering biogenic emission, ozone tends to become more NOx limited and less VOC limited, both in extent and intensity, over eastern china

  7. Identifying sensitive sources and key control handles for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-10-01

    This research investigates the effects of adjusting control handle values on greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment, and reveals critical control handles and sensitive emission sources for control through the combined use of local and global sensitivity analysis methods. The direction of change in emissions, effluent quality and operational cost resulting from variation of control handles individually is determined using one-factor-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, and corresponding trade-offs are identified. The contribution of each control handle to variance in model outputs, taking into account the effects of interactions, is then explored using a variance-based sensitivity analysis method, i.e., Sobol's method, and significant second order interactions are discovered. This knowledge will assist future control strategy development and aid an efficient design and optimisation process, as it provides a better understanding of the effects of control handles on key performance indicators and identifies those for which dynamic control has the greatest potential benefits. Sources with the greatest variance in emissions, and therefore the greatest need to monitor, are also identified. It is found that variance in total emissions is predominantly due to changes in direct N2O emissions and selection of suitable values for wastage flow rate and aeration intensity in the final activated sludge reactor is of key importance. To improve effluent quality, costs and/or emissions, it is necessary to consider the effects of adjusting multiple control handles simultaneously and determine the optimum trade-off.

  8. The reduction of formaldehyde and VOCs emission from wood-based flooring by green adhesive using cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-10-15

    To discuss the reduction of formaldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from engineered flooring, cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL)-formaldehyde (CF) resin and CF/PVAc resin were applied for the maple face of the veneer bonding on plywood. The CF resin was used to replace urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin in the formaldehyde-based resin system in order to reduce formaldehyde and VOC emissions from the adhesives used between the plywoods and fancy veneers. For the CF/PVAc resins, 5, 10, 20 or 30% of PVAc was added to the CF resin. The CF/PVAc resins showed better bonding than the commercial natural tannin adhesive with a higher level of wood penetration. The standard formaldehyde emission test and a VOC analyzer were used to determine the formaldehyde and VOC emissions, respectively, from the engineered floorings. The CF resin and CF/PVAc resin systems with UV coating satisfied the E(1) and E(0) grades of the Korean Standard. TVOC emission was slightly increased by the PVAc addition.

  9. Gas entrapment and microbial N2O reduction reduce N2O emissions from a biochar-amended sandy clay loam soil

    PubMed Central

    Harter, Johannes; Guzman-Bustamante, Ivan; Kuehfuss, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Well, Reinhard; Spott, Oliver; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that is produced during microbial nitrogen transformation processes such as nitrification and denitrification. Soils represent the largest sources of N2O emissions with nitrogen fertilizer application being the main driver of rising atmospheric N2O concentrations. Soil biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising tool to mitigate N2O emissions from soils. However, the underlying processes that cause N2O emission suppression in biochar-amended soils are still poorly understood. We set up microcosm experiments with fertilized, wet soil in which we used 15N tracing techniques and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the impact of biochar on mineral and gaseous nitrogen dynamics and denitrification-specific functional marker gene abundance and expression. In accordance with previous studies our results showed that biochar addition can lead to a significant decrease in N2O emissions. Furthermore, we determined significantly higher quantities of soil-entrapped N2O and N2 in biochar microcosms and a biochar-induced increase in typical and atypical nosZ transcript copy numbers. Our findings suggest that biochar-induced N2O emission mitigation is based on the entrapment of N2O in water-saturated pores of the soil matrix and concurrent stimulation of microbial N2O reduction resulting in an overall decrease of the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio. PMID:28008997

  10. Gas entrapment and microbial N2O reduction reduce N2O emissions from a biochar-amended sandy clay loam soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, Johannes; Guzman-Bustamante, Ivan; Kuehfuss, Stefanie; Ruser, Reiner; Well, Reinhard; Spott, Oliver; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that is produced during microbial nitrogen transformation processes such as nitrification and denitrification. Soils represent the largest sources of N2O emissions with nitrogen fertilizer application being the main driver of rising atmospheric N2O concentrations. Soil biochar amendment has been proposed as a promising tool to mitigate N2O emissions from soils. However, the underlying processes that cause N2O emission suppression in biochar-amended soils are still poorly understood. We set up microcosm experiments with fertilized, wet soil in which we used 15N tracing techniques and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate the impact of biochar on mineral and gaseous nitrogen dynamics and denitrification-specific functional marker gene abundance and expression. In accordance with previous studies our results showed that biochar addition can lead to a significant decrease in N2O emissions. Furthermore, we determined significantly higher quantities of soil-entrapped N2O and N2 in biochar microcosms and a biochar-induced increase in typical and atypical nosZ transcript copy numbers. Our findings suggest that biochar-induced N2O emission mitigation is based on the entrapment of N2O in water-saturated pores of the soil matrix and concurrent stimulation of microbial N2O reduction resulting in an overall decrease of the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio.

  11. VOC emission-reduction study at the Hill Air Force Base Building 515 painting facility. Final report, Dec 88-Feb 90

    SciTech Connect

    Aver, J.; Hyde, C.

    1990-09-01

    The goal of this project was to develop safe and cost effective strategies for controlling volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from Air Force painting facilities. To this end, a series of sampling and analysis tests were conducted to measure hazardous constituent compound concentrations in a typical crossdraft Air Force paint booth during painting; pollutant emission rates were simultaneously measured. Particulate, isocyanate, and VOC emission rates were measured in booth exhaust; concentration profiles of these constituents within the booth were determined during painting. The results of these tests indicate that significant pollutant stratification occurs in the crossdraft booth during painting. Based on these results, a cost effective means of controlling VOC emissions was developed in which the exhaust from the zone of the booth having the highest VOC concentrations is passed to an emission control device. The remainder is vented to the outside. This flow reduction/control technology requires the installation of a split flow ventilation system, which separates the exhaust from the high concentration zone from the remainder of the exhaust.

  12. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region.

  13. Particulate matters emitted from maize straw burning for winter heating in rural areas in Guanzhong Plain, China: Current emission and future reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Qian; Yin, Xiuli; Lei, Yali; Huang, Yu; Huang, R.-J.; Liu, Suixin; Han, Yongming; Xu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chunli; Liu, Pingping

    2017-02-01

    Maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang" is the traditional way for heating in winter in rural areas of Guanzhong Plain. This smolder procedure produced large quantities of pollutants and got more and more concern from both public and researchers. In this study, on-site measurements of straw smoldering in a residence with a Chinese 'Heated Kang' (Scenario 1) were done to determine the emissions factors (EFs) for pollutants. Moreover, EFs of pollutants from an advanced stove fired with maize straw (Scenario 2) and maize-straw pellet (Scenario 3) had been conducted in a laboratory to find the new measure to reduce the pollution emissions. The results showed that the EFs of PM2.5 for three scenarios were 38.26 ± 13.94 g·kg- 1, 17.50 ± 8.29 g·kg- 1 and 2.95 ± 0.71 g·kg- 1, respectively. Comparing EFs of pollutants from 3 scenarios indicates that both briquetting of straw and advanced stove with air distribution system could efficiently reduce pollutants emission especially for Scenario 3. In detail, EFs of PM2.5, OC, EC and water soluble ions all have over 90% reduction between Scenarios 1 and 3. All particle-size distributions were unimodal, and all peaked in particle sizes < 0.47 μm. The EFs for K+ and Cl- were the highest of cations and anions for the majority of size groups. Converting to pellets and advanced stoves for residential heating could reduce PM2.5 emission from 48.3 Gg to 3.59 Gg, OC from 19.0 Gg to 0.91 Gg, EC from 1.7 Gg to 0.17 Gg and over 90% reduction on total water soluble ions in the whole region. A box model simulation for the Guanzhong Plain indicated that this conversion would lead to a 7.7% reduction in PM2.5 (from 130 to 120 μg·m- 3) in normal conditions and a 14.2% reduction (from 350 to 300 μg·m- 3) in hazy conditions. The results highlighted that the straw pellets burning in advanced stove can effectively reduce pollutants emitted and improve the energy use efficiency in comparison with maize straw smoldering in "Heated Kang

  14. Comparative estimation of soil and plant pollution in the impact area of air emissions from an aluminium plant after technogenic load reduction.

    PubMed

    Evdokimova, Galina A; Mozgova, Natalya P

    2015-01-01

    The work provides a comparative analysis of changes in soil properties in the last 10-13 years along the pollution gradient of air emissions from Kandalaksha aluminium plant in connection with the reduction of their volume. The content of the priority pollutant fluorine (F) in atmospheric precipitation and in the organic horizon of soil in the plant impact zone significantly decreased in 2011-2013 compared to 2001. The aluminium concentrations reduced only in immediate proximity to the plant (2 km). The fluorine, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations are higher in liquid phase compared to solid phase thus these elements can migrated to greater distances from the pollution source (up to 15-20 km). Silicon (Si), aluminium (Al), iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) can be found only in solid phases and in fall-out within the 5 km. The acidity of soil litter reduced by 2 pH units in the proximity to the plot within the 2 km. The zone of maximum soil contamination decreased from 2.5 km to 1.5 km from the emission source, the zones of heavy and moderate pollution reduced by 5 km in connection with the reduction of pollutant emissions in the plant. A high correlation between the fluorine concentrations in vegetables and litter was found. Higher fluorine concentrations in the soil result in its accumulation in plants. Mosses accumulate fluorine most intensively.

  15. Reduction in NO{sub x} emissions from an industrial sewage sludge incineration plant by employing primary measures in a fluidized bed furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, P.; Stamer, F.

    1999-07-01

    The results of an inquiry in 1997 show that the percentage of sewage sludge disposed of by incineration in Germany is 19%. Legal developments in Germany clearly show that this percentage amount is expected to increase in the next few years. According to legislation, the treatment of the sewage sludge will have to achieve a result of {le}5% combustible (according to TA-Siedlungsabfall, i.e., Technical guideline for handling and disposal of urban waste). Sewage