Decoherence Allows Model Reduction in Nonadiabatic Dynamics Simulations.
Trivedi, Dhara J; Prezhdo, Oleg V
2015-08-20
A nonadiabatic (NA) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation requires calculation of NA coupling matrix elements, the number of which scales as a square of the number of basis states. The basis size can be huge in studies of nanoscale materials, and calculation of the NA couplings can present a significant bottleneck. A quantum-classical approximation, NAMD overestimates coherence in the quantum, electronic subsystem, requiring decoherence correction. Generally, decoherence times decrease with increasing energy separation between pairs of states forming coherent superpositions. Since rapid decoherence stops quantum dynamics, one expects that decoherence-corrected NAMD can eliminate the need for calculation of NA couplings between energetically distant states, notably reducing the computational cost. Considering several types of dynamics in a semiconductor quantum dot, we demonstrate that indeed, decoherence allows one to reduce the number of needed NA coupling matrix elements. If the energy levels are spaced closer than 0.1 eV, one obtains good results while including only three nearest-neighbor couplings, and in some cases even with just the first nearest-neighbor coupling scheme. If the energy levels are spaced by about 0.4 eV, the nearest-neighbor model fails, while three or more nearest-neighbor schemes also provide good results. In comparison, the results of NAMD simulation without decoherence vary continuously with changes in the number of NA couplings. Thus, decoherence effects induced by coupling to a quantum-mechanical environment not only provide the physical mechanism for NAMD trajectory branding and improve the accuracy of NAMD simulations, but also afford significant computational savings.
Dynamical system modeling via signal reduction and neural network simulation
Paez, T.L.; Hunter, N.F.
1997-11-01
Many dynamical systems tested in the field and the laboratory display significant nonlinear behavior. Accurate characterization of such systems requires modeling in a nonlinear framework. One construct forming a basis for nonlinear modeling is that of the artificial neural network (ANN). However, when system behavior is complex, the amount of data required to perform training can become unreasonable. The authors reduce the complexity of information present in system response measurements using decomposition via canonical variate analysis. They describe a method for decomposing system responses, then modeling the components with ANNs. A numerical example is presented, along with conclusions and recommendations.
A neural-network-based method of model reduction for the dynamic simulation of MEMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Y. C.; Lin, W. Z.; Lee, H. P.; Lim, S. P.; Lee, K. H.; Feng, D. P.
2001-05-01
This paper proposes a neuro-network-based method for model reduction that combines the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) with the Galerkin procedure to perform the dynamic simulation and analysis of nonlinear microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). An unsupervised neural network is adopted to find the principal eigenvectors of a correlation matrix of snapshots. It has been shown that the extensive computer results of the principal component analysis using the neural network of GHA can extract an empirical basis from numerical or experimental data, which can be used to convert the original system into a lumped low-order macromodel. The macromodel can be employed to carry out the dynamic simulation of the original system resulting in a dramatic reduction of computation time while not losing flexibility and accuracy. Compared with other existing model reduction methods for the dynamic simulation of MEMS, the present method does not need to compute the input correlation matrix in advance. It needs only to find very few required basis functions, which can be learned directly from the input data, and this means that the method possesses potential advantages when the measured data are large. The method is evaluated to simulate the pull-in dynamics of a doubly-clamped microbeam subjected to different input voltage spectra of electrostatic actuation. The efficiency and the flexibility of the proposed method are examined by comparing the results with those of the fully meshed finite-difference method.
Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue
2016-05-01
A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, De-Qiu; Sohn, H. Y.; Mohassab, Yousef; Elzohiery, Mohamed
2016-12-01
A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the hydrogen reduction of magnetite concentrate particles in a laboratory flash reactor representing a novel flash ironmaking process. The model was used to simulate the fluid flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions involved. The governing equations for the gas phase were solved in the Eulerian frame of reference while the particles were tracked in the Lagrangian framework. The change in the particle mass was related to the chemical reaction and the particle temperature was calculated by taking into consideration the heat of reaction, convection, and radiation. The stochastic trajectory model was used to describe particle dispersion due to turbulence. Partial combustion of H2 by O2 injected through a non-premixed burner was also simulated in this study. The partial combustion mechanism used in this model consisted of seven chemical reactions involving six species. The temperature profiles and reduction degrees obtained from the simulations satisfactorily agreed with the experimental measurements.
Jin, Haiyun; Goyal, Puja; Das, Akshaya Kumar; Gaus, Michael; Meuwly, Markus; Cui, Qiang
2016-03-03
We apply two recently developed computational methods, DFTB3 and VALBOND, to study copper oxidation/reduction processes in solution and protein. The properties of interest include the coordination structure of copper in different oxidation states in water or in a protein (plastocyanin) active site, the reduction potential of the copper ion in different environments, and the environmental response to copper oxidation. The DFTB3/MM and VALBOND simulation results are compared to DFT/MM simulations and experimental results whenever possible. For a copper ion in aqueous solution, DFTB3/MM results are generally close to B3LYP/MM with a medium basis, including both solvation structure and reduction potential for Cu(II); for Cu(I), however, DFTB3/MM finds a two-water coordination, similar to previous Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations using BLYP and HSE, whereas B3LYP/MM leads to a tetrahedron coordination. For a tetraammonia copper complex in aqueous solution, VALBOND and DFTB3/MM are consistent in terms of both structural and dynamical properties of solvent near copper for both oxidation states. For copper reduction in plastocyanin, DFTB3/MM simulations capture the key properties of the active site, and the computed reduction potential and reorganization energy are in fair agreement with experiment, especially when the periodic boundary condition is used. Overall, the study supports the value of VALBOND and DFTB3(/MM) for the analysis of fundamental copper redox chemistry in water and protein, and the results also help highlight areas where further improvements in these methods are desirable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starc, Blaž; Čepon, Gregor; Boltežar, Miha
2017-04-01
A new numerical procedure for efficient dynamics simulations of linear-elastic systems with unilateral contacts is proposed. The method is based on the event-driven integration of a contact problem with a combination of single- and set-valued force laws together with classical model-reduction techniques. According to the contact state, the developed event-driven integration enables the formulation of reduced system matrices. Moreover, to enable the transition among different reduced spaces the formulation of the initial conditions is also presented. The method has been developed separately for each of the four most popular model-reduction techniques (Craig-Bampton, MacNeal, Rubin and dual Craig-Bampton). The applicability of the newly presented method is demonstrated on a simple clamped-beam structure with a unilateral contact, which is excited with a harmonic force at the free end.
Zhang, Liqun
2017-04-01
Human defensins are a class of antimicrobial peptides that are crucial components of the innate immune system. Both human α defensin type 5 (HD5) and human β defensin type 3 (hBD-3) have 6 cysteine residues which form 3 pairs of disulfide bonds in oxidizing condition. Disulfide bond linking is important to the protein structure stabilization, and the disulfide bond linking and breaking order have been shown to influence protein function. In this project, microsecond long molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the structure and dynamics of HD5 and hBD-3 wildtype and analogs which have all 3 disulfide bonds released in reducing condition. The structure of hBD-3 was found to be more dynamic and flexible than HD5, based on RMSD, RMSF, and radius of gyration calculations. The disulfide bridge breaking order of HD5 and hBD-3 in reducing condition was predicted by two kinds of methods, which gave consistent results. It was found that the disulfide bonds breaking pathways for HD5 and hBD-3 are very different. The breaking of disulfide bonds can influence the dimer interface by making the dimer structure less stable for both kinds of defensin. In order to understand the difference in dynamics and disulfide bond breaking pathway, hydrophilic and hydrophobic accessible surface areas (ASA), buried surface area between cysteine pairs, entropy of cysteine pairs, and internal energy were calculated. Comparing to the wildtype, hBD-3 analog is more hydrophobic, while HD5 is more hydrophilic. For hBD-3, the disulfide breaking is mainly entropy driven, while other factors such as the solvation effects may take the major role in controlling HD5 disulfide breaking pathway. Proteins 2017; 85:665-681. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Structured building model reduction toward parallel simulation
Dobbs, Justin R.; Hencey, Brondon M.
2013-08-26
Building energy model reduction exchanges accuracy for improved simulation speed by reducing the number of dynamical equations. Parallel computing aims to improve simulation times without loss of accuracy but is poorly utilized by contemporary simulators and is inherently limited by inter-processor communication. This paper bridges these disparate techniques to implement efficient parallel building thermal simulation. We begin with a survey of three structured reduction approaches that compares their performance to a leading unstructured method. We then use structured model reduction to find thermal clusters in the building energy model and allocate processing resources. Experimental results demonstrate faster simulation and low error without any interprocessor communication.
Process simulation of aluminum reduction cells
Tabsh, I.; Dupuis, M.; Gomes, A.
1996-10-01
A program was developed to model the dynamic behavior of an aluminum reduction cell. The program simulates the physical process by solving the heat and mass balance equations that characterize the behavior of eleven chemical species in the system. It also models operational events (such as metal tapping, anode change, etc.) and the process control logic including various alumina feeding policies and anode effect quenching. The program is a PC based Windows{reg_sign} application that takes full advantage of the Windows user interface. This paper describes the implementation of the process model and the control logic. Various results using the simulation are compared to measured data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
The proceedings of the conference are presented. The objective was to provide a forum for the discussion of the structure and status of existing computer programs which are used to simulate the dynamics of a variety of tether applications in space. A major topic was different simulation models and the process of validating them. Guidance on future work in these areas was obtained from a panel discussion; the panel was composed of resource and technical managers and dynamic analysts in the tether field. The conclusions of this panel are also presented.
Dynamical Simulation of Probabilities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
1996-01-01
It has been demonstrated that classical probabilities, and in particular, probabilistic Turing machine, can be simulated by combining chaos and non-Lipschitz dynamics, without utilization of any man-made devices(such as random number generators). Self-orgainizing properties of systems coupling simulated and calculated probabilities and their link to quantum computations are discussed. Special attention was focused upon coupled stochastic processes, defined in terms of conditional probabilities, for which joint probability does not exist. Simulations of quantum probabilities are also discussed.
Data Systems Dynamic Simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rouff, Christopher; Clark, Melana; Davenport, Bill; Message, Philip
1993-01-01
The Data System Dynamic Simulator (DSDS) is a discrete event simulation tool. It was developed for NASA for the specific purpose of evaluating candidate architectures for data systems of the Space Station era. DSDS provides three methods for meeting this requirement. First, the user has access to a library of standard pre-programmed elements. These elements represent tailorable components of NASA data systems and can be connected in any logical manner. Secondly, DSDS supports the development of additional elements. This allows the more sophisticated DSDS user the option of extending the standard element set. Thirdly, DSDS supports the use of data streams simulation. Data streams is the name given to a technique that ignores packet boundaries, but is sensitive to rate changes. Because rate changes are rare compared to packet arrivals in a typical NASA data system, data stream simulations require a fraction of the CPU run time. Additionally, the data stream technique is considerably more accurate than another commonly-used optimization technique.
2015-10-20
Look-ahead dynamic simulation software system incorporates the high performance parallel computing technologies, significantly reduces the solution time for each transient simulation case, and brings the dynamic simulation analysis into on-line applications to enable more transparency for better reliability and asset utilization. It takes the snapshot of the current power grid status, functions in parallel computing the system dynamic simulation, and outputs the transient response of the power system in real time.
Simulation of dose reduction in tomosynthesis
Svalkvist, Angelica; Baath, Magnus
2010-01-15
Purpose: Methods for simulating dose reduction are valuable tools in the work of optimizing radiographic examinations. Using such methods, clinical images can be simulated to have been collected at other, lower, dose levels without the need of additional patient exposure. A recent technology introduced to healthcare that needs optimization is tomosynthesis, where a number of low-dose projection images collected at different angles is used to reconstruct section images of an imaged object. The aim of the present work was to develop a method of simulating dose reduction for digital radiographic systems, suitable for tomosynthesis. Methods: The developed method uses information about the noise power spectrum (NPS) at the original dose level and the simulated dose level to create a noise image that is added to the original image to produce an image that has the same noise properties as an image actually collected at the simulated dose level. As the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital detectors operating at the low dose levels used for tomosynthesis may show a strong dependency on the dose level, it is important that a method for simulating dose reduction for tomosynthesis takes this dependency into account. By applying an experimentally determined relationship between pixel mean and pixel variance, variations in both dose and DQE in relevant dose ranges are taken into account. Results: The developed method was tested on a chest tomosynthesis system and was shown to produce NPS of simulated dose-reduced projection images that agreed well with the NPS of images actually collected at the simulated dose level. The simulated dose reduction method was also applied to tomosynthesis examinations of an anthropomorphic chest phantom, and the obtained noise in the reconstructed section images was very similar to that of an examination actually performed at the simulated dose level. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present article describes a method for simulating dose
Two-Stage Reduction Of Dynamical Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Allan Y.; Tsuha, Walter S.
1993-01-01
No longer necessary to solve eigenvalue problems of high order. Component-mode projection-and-assembly model-reduction (COMPARE) method provides approximation of dynamics of vibrations of complicated, multiple flexible bodies by use of mathematical models of reduced order. Incorporates component-mode synthesis (CMS) method and enhanced projection-and-assembly (EP&A) method, described in "Enhanced Method of Reduction of Dynamical Models" (NPO-18402), providing for somewhat simplified two-stage process in which order of applicable mathematical models reduced. Reduced-order models used to design algorithms of control systems to suppress vibrations or otherwise control structure.
Remote manipulator dynamic simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wild, E. C.; Donges, P. K.; Garand, W. A.
1972-01-01
A simulator to generate the real time visual scenes required to perform man in the loop investigations of remote manipulator application and design concepts for the space shuttle is described. The simulated remote manipulator consists of a computed display system that uses a digital computer, the electronic scene generator, an operator's station, and associated interface hardware. A description of the capabilities of the implemented simulation is presented. The mathematical models and programs developed for the simulation are included.
Robot arm dynamic model reduction for control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bejczy, A. K.; Lee, S.
1983-01-01
General methods are described by which the mathematical complexities of explicit and exact state equations of robot arms can be reduced to a simplified and compact state equation representation without introducing significant errors into the robot arm dynamic model. The model reduction methods are based on homogeneous coordinates and on the Langrangian algorithm for robot arm dynamics, and utilize matrix, vector and numeric analysis techniques. The derivation of differential vector representation of centripetal and Coriolis forces which has not yet been established in the literature is presented.
Top, Philip; Woodward, Carol; Smith, Steve; Banks, Lawrence; Kelley, Brian
2015-09-14
GridDyn is a part of power grid simulation toolkit. The code is designed using modern object oriented C++ methods utilizing C++11 and recent Boost libraries to ensure compatibility with multiple operating systems and environments.
Breen, Kristin J; DeBlase, Andrew F; Guasco, Timothy L; Voora, Vamsee K; Jordan, Kenneth D; Nagata, Takashi; Johnson, Mark A
2012-01-26
The transition states of a chemical reaction in solution are generally accessed through exchange of thermal energy between the solvent and the reactants. As such, an ensemble of reacting systems approaches the transition state configuration of reactant and surrounding solvent in an incoherent manner that does not lend itself to direct experimental observation. Here we describe how gas-phase cluster chemistry can provide a detailed picture of the microscopic mechanics at play when a network of six water molecules mediates the trapping of a highly reactive "hydrated electron" onto a neutral CO(2) molecule to form a radical anion. The exothermic reaction is triggered from a metastable intermediate by selective excitation of either the reactant CO(2) or the water network, which is evidenced by the evaporative decomposition of the product cluster. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of energized CO(2)·(H(2)O)(6)(-) clusters are used to elucidate the nature of the network deformations that mediate intracluster electron capture, thus revealing the detailed solvent fluctuations implicit in the Marcus theory for electron-transfer kinetics in solution.
Floating orbital molecular dynamics simulations.
Perlt, Eva; Brüssel, Marc; Kirchner, Barbara
2014-04-21
We introduce an alternative ab initio molecular dynamics simulation as a unification of Hartree-Fock molecular dynamics and the floating orbital approach. The general scheme of the floating orbital molecular dynamics method is presented. Moreover, a simple but sophisticated guess for the orbital centers is provided to reduce the number of electronic structure optimization steps at each molecular dynamics step. The conservation of total energy and angular momentum is investigated in order to validate the floating orbital molecular dynamics approach with and without application of the initial guess. Finally, a water monomer and a water dimer are simulated, and the influence of the orbital floating on certain properties like the dipole moment is investigated.
Destination state screening of active spaces in spin dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krzystyniak, M.; Edwards, Luke J.; Kuprov, Ilya
2011-06-01
We propose a novel avenue for state space reduction in time domain Liouville space spin dynamics simulations, using detectability as a selection criterion - only those states that evolve into or affect other detectable states are kept in the simulation. This basis reduction procedure (referred to as destination state screening) is formally exact and can be applied on top of the existing state space restriction techniques. As demonstrated below, in many cases this results in further reduction of matrix dimension, leading to considerable acceleration of many spin dynamics simulation types. Destination state screening is implemented in the latest version of the Spinach library (http://spindynamics.org).
Dynamic dimensionality reduction for hyperspectral imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safavi, Haleh; Liu, Keng-Hao; Chang, Chein-I.
2011-06-01
Data dimensionality (DR) is generally performed by first fixing size of DR at a certain number, say p and then finding a technique to reduce an original data space to a low dimensional data space with dimensionality specified by p. This paper introduces a new concept of dynamic dimensionality reduction (DDR) which considers the parameter p as a variable by varying the value of p to make p adaptive compared to the commonly used DR, referred to as static dimensionality reduction (SDR) with the parameter p fixed at a constant value. In order to materialize the DDR another new concept, referred to as progressive DR (PDR) is also developed so that the DR can be performed progressively to adapt the variable size of data dimensionality determined by varying the value of p. The advantages of the DDR over SDR are demonstrated through experiments conducted for hyperspectral image classification.
Dose reduction using a dynamic, piecewise-linear attenuator
Hsieh, Scott S.; Fleischmann, Dominik; Pelc, Norbert J.
2014-02-15
Purpose: The authors recently proposed a dynamic, prepatient x-ray attenuator capable of producing a piecewise-linear attenuation profile customized to each patient and viewing angle. This attenuator was intended to reduce scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), dynamic range, and dose by redistributing flux. In this work the authors tested the ability of the attenuator to reduce dose and SPR in simulations. Methods: The authors selected four clinical applications, including routine full field-of-view scans of the thorax and abdomen, and targeted reconstruction tasks for an abdominal aortic aneurysm and the pancreas. Raw data were estimated by forward projection of the image volume datasets. The dynamic attenuator was controlled to reduce dose while maintaining peak variance by solving a convex optimization problem, assuminga priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. In targeted reconstruction tasks, the noise in specific regions was given increased weighting. A system with a standard attenuator (or “bowtie filter”) was used as a reference, and used either convex optimized tube current modulation (TCM) or a standard TCM heuristic. The noise of the scan was determined analytically while the dose was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Scatter was also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. The sensitivity of the dynamic attenuator to patient centering was also examined by shifting the abdomen in 2 cm intervals. Results: Compared to a reference system with optimized TCM, use of the dynamic attenuator reduced dose by about 30% in routine scans and 50% in targeted scans. Compared to the TCM heuristics which are typically used withouta priori knowledge, the dose reduction is about 50% for routine scans. The dynamic attenuator gives the ability to redistribute noise and variance and produces more uniform noise profiles than systems with a conventional bowtie filter. The SPR was also modestly reduced by 10% in the thorax and 24% in the abdomen. Imaging with the dynamic
Regional air quality models are frequently used for regulatory applications to predict changes in air quality due to changes in emissions or changes in meteorology. Dynamic model evaluation is thus an important step in establishing credibility in the model predicted pollutant re...
Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction
Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Srinivasan, Shiva; Lynch, John Joseph; Yilmaz, Ertan; Kim, Kwanwoo; Lacy, Benjamin; Crothers, Sarah; Singh, Kapil Kumar
2009-08-25
Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction are provided. A combustion chamber may include a first premixer and a second premixer. Each premixer may include at least one fuel injector, at least one air inlet duct, and at least one vane pack for at least partially mixing the air from the air inlet duct or ducts and fuel from the fuel injector or injectors. Each vane pack may include a plurality of fuel orifices through which at least a portion of the fuel and at least a portion of the air may pass. The vane pack or packs of the first premixer may be positioned at a first axial position and the vane pack or packs of the second premixer may be positioned at a second axial position axially staggered with respect to the first axial position.
Dynamical simulation of gravothermal catastrophe.
Klinko, Peter; Miller, Bruce N
2004-01-16
We investigate the dynamical evolution of gravothermal catastrophe in a model of a spherical cluster where, besides the energy and angular momentum, an additional integral of motion is also taken into account. Using dynamical simulation, we study a system of concentric, rotating, spherical shells employing a precise, event-driven, algorithm that permits the controlled exchange of internal angular momentum. Initially the system starts to relax to a locally stable state that is in good agreement with mean field predictions. This is followed by core collapse with the development of a core-halo structure and gravothermal oscillation.
Accelerated dynamics simulations of nanotubes.
Uberuaga, B. P.; Stuart, S. J.; Voter, A. F.
2002-01-01
We report on the application of accelerated dynamics techniques to the study of carbon nanotubes. We have used the parallel replica method and temperature accelerated dynamics simulations are currently in progress. In the parallel replica study, we have stretched tubes at a rate significantly lower than that used in previous studies. In these preliminary results, we find that there are qualitative differences in the rupture of the nanotubes at different temperatures. We plan on extending this investigation to include nanotubes of various chiralities. We also plan on exploring unique geometries of nanotubes.
Molecular dynamics simulation of pyridine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trumpakaj, Zygmunt; Linde, Bogumił
2015-04-01
Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are used for the investigation of molecular motions in pyridine in the temperature range 20-480 K under normal pressure. The results obtained are analyzed within the frame of the Mori Zwanzig memory function formalism. An analytical approximation of the first memory function K(t) is applied to predict some dependences on temperature. Experimental results of the Rayleigh scattering of depolarized light from liquid pyridine are used as the main base for the comparison.
Dynamic simulations of tissue welding
Maitland, D.J.; Eder, D.C.; London, R.A.; Glinsky, M.E.
1996-02-01
The exposure of human skin to near-infrared radiation is numerically simulated using coupled laser, thermal transport and mass transport numerical models. The computer model LATIS is applied in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometries. Zones within the skin model are comprised of a topical solder, epidermis, dermis, and fatty tissue. Each skin zone is assigned initial optical, thermal and water density properties consistent with values listed in the literature. The optical properties of each zone (i.e. scattering, absorption and anisotropy coefficients) are modeled as a kinetic function of the temperature. Finally, the water content in each zone is computed from water diffusion where water losses are accounted for by evaporative losses at the air-solder interface. The simulation results show that the inclusion of water transport and evaporative losses in the model are necessary to match experimental observations. Dynamic temperature and damage distributions are presented for the skin simulations.
Dynamic Multiscale Simulation of Polyelectrolyte Nanoassemblies
2008-08-21
REPORT Dynamic Multiscale Simulation of Polyelectrolyte Nanoassemblies 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The goal of this project is to...Std. Z39.18 - 31-May-2008 Dynamic Multiscale Simulation of Polyelectrolyte Nanoassemblies Report Title ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to...Total Number: Sub Contractors (DD882) Inventions (DD882) Final Progress Report Dynamic Multiscale Simulation of Polyelectrolyte Nanoassemblies
Reduction of Large Dynamical Systems by Minimization of Evolution Rate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girimaji, Sharath S.
1999-01-01
Reduction of a large system of equations to a lower-dimensional system of similar dynamics is investigated. For dynamical systems with disparate timescales, a criterion for determining redundant dimensions and a general reduction method based on the minimization of evolution rate are proposed.
Reduction and reconstruction methods for simulation and control of fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Zhanhua
In this thesis we develop model reduction/reconstruction methods that are applied to simulation and control of fluids. In the first part of the thesis, we focus on development of dimension reduction methods that compute reduced-order models (at the order of 101˜2) of systems with high-dimensional states (at the order of 105˜8) that are typical in computational fluid dynamics. The reduced-order models are then used for feedback control design for the full systems, as the control design tools are usually applicable only to systems of order up to 10 4. First, we show that a widely-used model reduction method for stable linear timeinvariant (LTI) systems, the approximate balanced truncation method (also called balanced POD), yields identical reduced-order models as Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), a well-known method in system identification. Unlike ERA, Balanced POD generates sets of modes that are useful in controller/observer design and systems analysis. On the other hand, ERA is more computationally efficient and does not need data from adjoint systems, which cannot be constructed in experiments and are often costly to construct and simulate numerically. The equivalence of ERA and balanced POD leads us to further design a version of ERA that works for unstable (linear) systems with one-dimensional unstable eigenspace and is equivalent to a recently developed version of balanced POD for unstable systems. We consider further generalization of balanced POD/ERA methods for linearized time-periodic systems around an unstable orbit. Four algorithms are presented: the lifted balanced POD/lifted ERA and the periodic balanced POD/periodic ERA. The lifting approach generates a LTI reduced-order model that updates the system once every period, and the periodic approach generates a periodic reduced-order model. By construction the lifted ERA is the most computationally efficient algorithm and it does not need adjoint data. By removing periodicity in periodic balanced
Reduction of Tunnel Dynamics at the National Transonic Facility (Invited)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilgore, W. A.; Balakrishna, S.; Butler, D. H.
2001-01-01
This paper describes the results of recent efforts to reduce the tunnel dynamics at the National Transonic Facility. The results presented describe the findings of an extensive data analysis, the proposed solutions to reduce dynamics and the results of implementing these solutions. These results show a 90% reduction in the dynamics around the model support structure and a small impact on reducing model dynamics. Also presented are several continuing efforts to further reduce dynamics.
Simulations of Dynamic Relativistic Magnetospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parfrey, Kyle Patrick
Neutron stars and black holes are generally surrounded by magnetospheres of highly conducting plasma in which the magnetic flux density is so high that hydrodynamic forces are irrelevant. In this vanishing-inertia—or ultra-relativistic—limit, magnetohydrodynamics becomes force-free electrodynamics, a system of equations comprising only the magnetic and electric fields, and in which the plasma response is effected by a nonlinear current density term. In this dissertation I describe a new pseudospectral simulation code, designed for studying the dynamic magnetospheres of compact objects. A detailed description of the code and several numerical test problems are given. I first apply the code to the aligned rotator problem, in which a star with a dipole magnetic field is set rotating about its magnetic axis. The solution evolves to a steady state, which is nearly ideal and dissipationless everywhere except in a current sheet, or magnetic field discontinuity, at the equator, into which electromagnetic energy flows and is dissipated. Magnetars are believed to have twisted magnetospheres, due to internal magnetic evolution which deforms the crust, dragging the footpoints of external magnetic field lines. This twisting may be able to explain both magnetars' persistent hard X-ray emission and their energetic bursts and flares. Using the new code, I simulate the evolution of relativistic magnetospheres subjected to slow twisting through large angles. The field lines expand outward, forming a strong current layer; eventually the configuration loses equilibrium and a dynamic rearrangement occurs, involving large-scale rapid magnetic reconnection and dissipation of the free energy of the twisted magnetic field. When the star is rotating, the magnetospheric twisting leads to a large increase in the stellar spin-down rate, which may take place on the long twisting timescale or in brief explosive events, depending on where the twisting is applied and the history of the system
Dynamical simulations of sedimenting spheres
Ladd, A.J.C. )
1993-02-01
The sedimentation of monodisperse suspensions of rigid spheres has been studied by dynamical simulation; computational techniques are described and numerical results are reported. It has been found that there is a slow relaxation of the suspension microstructure during sedimentation, so that compared with the initial equilibrium distribution, there is an increased number of pairs of particles near contact; this leads to a 5%--10% increase in the average sedimentation velocity. Individual particle velocities fluctuate about the mean fall speed; these fluctuations are large and persist for long times. The resulting hydrodynamically induced dispersion of the particles can be characterized by strongly anisotropic diffusion coefficients; however, the dispersion process is non-Fickian at high solids concentrations.
Risk Reduction and Training using Simulation Based Tools - 12180
Hall, Irin P.
2012-07-01
Process Modeling and Simulation (M and S) has been used for many years in manufacturing and similar domains, as part of an industrial engineer's tool box. Traditionally, however, this technique has been employed in small, isolated projects where models were created from scratch, often making it time and cost prohibitive. Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS) has recognized the value of this predictive technique and what it offers in terms of risk reduction, cost avoidance and on-schedule performance of highly complex work. To facilitate implementation, NNS has been maturing a process and the software to rapidly deploy and reuse M and S based decision support tools in a variety of environments. Some examples of successful applications by NNS of this technique in the nuclear domain are a reactor refueling simulation based tool, a fuel handling facility simulation based tool and a tool for dynamic radiation exposure tracking. The next generation of M and S applications include expanding simulation based tools into immersive and interactive training. The applications discussed here take a tool box approach to creating simulation based decision support tools for maximum utility and return on investment. This approach involves creating a collection of simulation tools that can be used individually or integrated together for a larger application. The refueling simulation integrates with the fuel handling facility simulation to understand every aspect and dependency of the fuel handling evolutions. This approach translates nicely to other complex domains where real system experimentation is not feasible, such as nuclear fuel lifecycle and waste management. Similar concepts can also be applied to different types of simulation techniques. For example, a process simulation of liquid waste operations may be useful to streamline and plan operations, while a chemical model of the liquid waste composition is an important tool for making decisions with respect to waste disposition
Enabling Strain Hardening Simulations with Dislocation Dynamics
Arsenlis, A; Cai, W
2006-12-20
Numerical algorithms for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are investigated for the purpose of enabling strain hardening simulations of single crystals on massively parallel computers. The algorithms investigated include the /(N) calculation of forces, the equations of motion, time integration, adaptive mesh refinement, the treatment of dislocation core reactions, and the dynamic distribution of work on parallel computers. A simulation integrating all of these algorithmic elements using the Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code is performed to understand their behavior in concert, and evaluate the overall numerical performance of dislocation dynamics simulations and their ability to accumulate percents of plastic strain.
Simulation reduction using the Taguchi method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mistree, Farrokh; Lautenschlager, Ume; Erikstad, Stein Owe; Allen, Janet K.
1993-01-01
A large amount of engineering effort is consumed in conducting experiments to obtain information needed for making design decisions. Efficiency in generating such information is the key to meeting market windows, keeping development and manufacturing costs low, and having high-quality products. The principal focus of this project is to develop and implement applications of Taguchi's quality engineering techniques. In particular, we show how these techniques are applied to reduce the number of experiments for trajectory simulation of the LifeSat space vehicle. Orthogonal arrays are used to study many parameters simultaneously with a minimum of time and resources. Taguchi's signal to noise ratio is being employed to measure quality. A compromise Decision Support Problem and Robust Design are applied to demonstrate how quality is designed into a product in the early stages of designing.
Brownian dynamics simulation of DNA condensation.
Sottas, P E; Larquet, E; Stasiak, A; Dubochet, J
1999-01-01
DNA condensation observed in vitro with the addition of polyvalent counterions is due to intermolecular attractive forces. We introduce a quantitative model of these forces in a Brownian dynamics simulation in addition to a standard mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann repulsion. The comparison of a theoretical value of the effective diameter calculated from the second virial coefficient in cylindrical geometry with some experimental results allows a quantitative evaluation of the one-parameter attractive potential. We show afterward that with a sufficient concentration of divalent salt (typically approximately 20 mM MgCl(2)), supercoiled DNA adopts a collapsed form where opposing segments of interwound regions present zones of lateral contact. However, under the same conditions the same plasmid without torsional stress does not collapse. The condensed molecules present coexisting open and collapsed plectonemic regions. Furthermore, simulations show that circular DNA in 50% methanol solutions with 20 mM MgCl(2) aggregates without the requirement of torsional energy. This confirms known experimental results. Finally, a simulated DNA molecule confined in a box of variable size also presents some local collapsed zones in 20 mM MgCl(2) above a critical concentration of the DNA. Conformational entropy reduction obtained either by supercoiling or by confinement seems thus to play a crucial role in all forms of condensation of DNA. PMID:10512808
Molecular dynamics simulations of nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Zaoshi
This dissertation is focused on multimillion-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoscale materials. In the past decade, nanoscale materials have made significant commercial impacts, which will potentially lead to the next industrial revolution. The interest lies in the novel and promising features nanoscale materials exhibit due to their confined sizes. However, not all novel behaviors are understood or controllable. Many uncontrollable parameters, e.g. defects and dangling bonds, are known to hinder the performance of nanodevices. Solutions to these problems rely on our understanding of fundamental elements in nanoscience: isolated individual nanostructures and their assemblies. In this dissertation, we will address atomistic foundations of several problems of technological importance in nanoscience. Specifically, three basic problems are discussed: (1) embrittlement of nanocrystalline metal; (2) novel thermo-mechanical behaviors of nanowires (NWs); and (3) planar defect generation in NWs. With a scalable algorithm implemented on massively parallel computing platforms and various data mining methods, MD simulations can provide valuable insights into these problems. An essential role of sulfur segregation-induced amorphization of crystalline nickel was recently discovered experimentally, but the atomistic mechanism of the amorphization remains unexplained. Our MD simulations reveal that the large steric size of sulfur impurity causes strong sulfur-sulfur interaction mediated by lattice distortion, which leads to amorphization near the percolation threshold at the sulfur-sulfur network in nickel crystal. The generality of the mechanism due to the percolation of an impurity network is further confirmed by a model binary system. In our study of novel behaviors of semiconductor NWs, MD simulations construct a rich size-temperature `phase diagram' for the mechanical response of a zinc-oxide NW under tension. For smaller diameters and higher temperatures, novel
Modeling Nanocomposites for Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations
2015-01-01
Maximum 200 Words) The minimum energy configuration for Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations is found for a carbon nanotube (CNT)/polymer...Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs), Molecular Dynamics Simulations 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 18 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT...fiber composites have shown success in improving mechanical properties. Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based nanocomposites have been studied for
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Supercritical Spray Phenomena
2008-09-26
Dynamics of the Rheological and Structural Properties of Linear and Branched Molecules. Simple Shear and Poiseuille Flows ; Instabilities and Slip...Michael Barrucco Publications: "Comparison of Wall Models for the Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Micro flows ," R. D. Branam and M. M...Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Dec. 2003 - 31 May 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Supercritical
Novel methods for molecular dynamics simulations.
Elber, R
1996-04-01
In the past year, significant progress was made in the development of molecular dynamics methods for the liquid phase and for biological macromolecules. Specifically, faster algorithms to pursue molecular dynamics simulations were introduced and advances were made in the design of new optimization algorithms guided by molecular dynamics protocols. A technique to calculate the quantum spectra of protein vibrations was introduced.
Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations
Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.
2014-01-01
Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near‐fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (Ⓔ see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.
Noise reduction by recycling dynamically coupled time series.
Mera, M Eugenia; Morán, Manuel
2011-12-01
We say that several scalar time series are dynamically coupled if they record the values of measurements of the state variables of the same smooth dynamical system. We show that much of the information lost due to measurement noise in a target time series can be recovered with a noise reduction algorithm by crossing the time series with another time series with which it is dynamically coupled. The method is particularly useful for reduction of measurement noise in short length time series with high uncertainties.
Noise reduction by dynamic signal preemphasis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeda, Kazuyuki; Takegoshi, K.
2011-02-01
In this work we propose an approach to reduce the digitization noise for a given dynamic range, i.e., the number of bits, of an analog to digital converter used in an NMR receiver. In this approach, the receiver gain is dynamically increased so that the free induction decay is recorded in such an emphasized way that the decaying signal is digitized using as many number of bits as possible, and at the stage of data processing, the original signal profile is restored by applying the apodization that compensates the effect of the preemphasis. This approach, which we call APodization after Receiver gain InCrement during Ongoing sequence with Time (APRICOT), is performed in a solid-state system containing a pair of 13C spins, one of which is fully isotopically labeled and the other is naturally abundant. It is demonstrated that the exceedingly smaller peak buried in the digitization noise in the conventional approach can be revealed by employing APRICOT.
Mapping conformational dynamics of proteins using torsional dynamics simulations.
Gangupomu, Vamshi K; Wagner, Jeffrey R; Park, In-Hee; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan
2013-05-07
All-atom molecular dynamics simulations are widely used to study the flexibility of protein conformations. However, enhanced sampling techniques are required for simulating protein dynamics that occur on the millisecond timescale. In this work, we show that torsional molecular dynamics simulations enhance protein conformational sampling by performing conformational search in the low-frequency torsional degrees of freedom. In this article, we use our recently developed torsional-dynamics method called Generalized Newton-Euler Inverse Mass Operator (GNEIMO) to study the conformational dynamics of four proteins. We investigate the use of the GNEIMO method in simulations of the conformationally flexible proteins fasciculin and calmodulin, as well as the less flexible crambin and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. For the latter two proteins, the GNEIMO simulations with an implicit-solvent model reproduced the average protein structural fluctuations and sample conformations similar to those from Cartesian simulations with explicit solvent. The application of GNEIMO with replica exchange to the study of fasciculin conformational dynamics produced sampling of two of this protein's experimentally established conformational substates. Conformational transition of calmodulin from the Ca(2+)-bound to the Ca(2+)-free conformation occurred readily with GNEIMO simulations. Moreover, the GNEIMO method generated an ensemble of conformations that satisfy about half of both short- and long-range interresidue distances obtained from NMR structures of holo to apo transitions in calmodulin. Although unconstrained all-atom Cartesian simulations have failed to sample transitions between the substates of fasciculin and calmodulin, GNEIMO simulations show the transitions in both systems. The relatively short simulation times required to capture these long-timescale conformational dynamics indicate that GNEIMO is a promising molecular-dynamics technique for studying domain motion in
Mapping Conformational Dynamics of Proteins Using Torsional Dynamics Simulations
Gangupomu, Vamshi K.; Wagner, Jeffrey R.; Park, In-Hee; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan
2013-01-01
All-atom molecular dynamics simulations are widely used to study the flexibility of protein conformations. However, enhanced sampling techniques are required for simulating protein dynamics that occur on the millisecond timescale. In this work, we show that torsional molecular dynamics simulations enhance protein conformational sampling by performing conformational search in the low-frequency torsional degrees of freedom. In this article, we use our recently developed torsional-dynamics method called Generalized Newton-Euler Inverse Mass Operator (GNEIMO) to study the conformational dynamics of four proteins. We investigate the use of the GNEIMO method in simulations of the conformationally flexible proteins fasciculin and calmodulin, as well as the less flexible crambin and bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. For the latter two proteins, the GNEIMO simulations with an implicit-solvent model reproduced the average protein structural fluctuations and sample conformations similar to those from Cartesian simulations with explicit solvent. The application of GNEIMO with replica exchange to the study of fasciculin conformational dynamics produced sampling of two of this protein’s experimentally established conformational substates. Conformational transition of calmodulin from the Ca2+-bound to the Ca2+-free conformation occurred readily with GNEIMO simulations. Moreover, the GNEIMO method generated an ensemble of conformations that satisfy about half of both short- and long-range interresidue distances obtained from NMR structures of holo to apo transitions in calmodulin. Although unconstrained all-atom Cartesian simulations have failed to sample transitions between the substates of fasciculin and calmodulin, GNEIMO simulations show the transitions in both systems. The relatively short simulation times required to capture these long-timescale conformational dynamics indicate that GNEIMO is a promising molecular-dynamics technique for studying domain motion in
The Astrometric Model Implementation. Simulations and Data Reduction Compatibility Test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anglada-Escudé, G.; Torra, J.; Masana, E.; Luri, X.
2005-01-01
The aim of this paper is to give a brief description of the astrometric model accuracy at the current stage of the implementation in GASS (simulator) and GDAAS2 (Data Reduction study). The astrometric model described is a set of algorithms which relate the astrometric parameters with the observed directions on the satellite quasi-intertial reference frame. This includes the kinematics of point sources, the relativistic light deflection due to Solar System gravitational field and the aberration. The description of this model was given by Klioner (2002), The form of these algorithms is slightly different in the telemetry simulations (S.A. Klioner, ANSI-C code) and in the data reduction scheme (Lindegren 2002, Fortran90). Both versions make use of the ephemeris for the Solar System by Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (Mignard 2003, Fortran 90). All these algorithms have been wrapped or recoded since the simulations and data reduction both run in a Java environment. All these manipulations required a strict verification since these algorithms constitute the core of the GIS (Global Iterative Solution). We present the compatibility tests performed during last year that helped us to make fully compatible the simulated data with the data reduction scheme.
Simulation and model reduction for the AFW program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buttrill, Carey; Bacon, Barton; Heeg, Jennifer; Houck, Jacob; Wood, David
1992-01-01
The simulation methodology used in the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel test program is described. An overview of the aeroservoelastic modeling used in building the required batch and hot-bench simulations is presented. Successful hot-bench implementation required that the full mathematical model be significantly reduced while assuring that accuracy be maintained for all combinations of 10 inputs and 56 outputs. The reduction was accomplished by using a method based on internally balanced realizations and focussing on the linear, aeroelastic portion of the full mathematical model. The error-bound properties of the internally balanced realization significantly contribute to its utility in the model reduction process. The reduction method and the results achieved are described.
Reduction of artifacts in computer simulation of breast Cooper's ligaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pokrajac, David D.; Kuperavage, Adam; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.
2016-03-01
Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been introduced as a tool for quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Efficacy of the validation results depends on the realism of phantom images. The recursive partitioning algorithm based upon the octree simulation has been demonstrated as versatile and capable of efficiently generating large number of phantoms to support virtual clinical trials of breast imaging. Previously, we have observed specific artifacts, (here labeled "dents") on the boundaries of simulated Cooper's ligaments. In this work, we have demonstrated that these "dents" result from the approximate determination of the closest simulated ligament to an examined subvolume (i.e., octree node) of the phantom. We propose a modification of the algorithm that determines the closest ligament by considering a pre-specified number of neighboring ligaments selected based upon the functions that govern the shape of ligaments simulated in the subvolume. We have qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrated that the modified algorithm can lead to elimination or reduction of dent artifacts in software phantoms. In a proof-of concept example, we simulated a 450 ml phantom with 333 compartments at 100 micrometer resolution. After the proposed modification, we corrected 148,105 dents, with an average size of 5.27 voxels (5.27nl). We have also qualitatively analyzed the corresponding improvement in the appearance of simulated mammographic images. The proposed algorithm leads to reduction of linear and star-like artifacts in simulated phantom projections, which can be attributed to dents. Analysis of a larger number of phantoms is ongoing.
Speckle reduction in laser projection using a dynamic deformable mirror.
Tran, Thi-Kim-Trinh; Chen, Xuyuan; Svensen, Øyvind; Akram, Muhammad Nadeem
2014-05-05
Despite of much effort and significant progress in recent years, speckle removal is still a challenge for laser projection technology. In this paper, speckle reduction by dynamic deformable mirror was investigated. Time varying independent speckle patterns were generated due to the angle diversity introduced by the dynamic mirror, and these speckle patterns were averaged out by the camera or human eyes, thus reducing speckle contrast in the final image. The speckle reduction by the wavelength diversity of the lasers was also studied. Both broadband lasers and narrowband laser were used for experiment. It is experimentally shown that speckle suppression can be attained by the widening of the spectrum of the lasers. Lower speckle contrast reduction was attained by the wavelength diversity for narrowband laser compared to the broadband lasers. This method of speckle reduction is suitable in laser projectors for wide screen applications where high power laser illumination is needed.
Model Order Reduction for Fluid Dynamics with Moving Solid Boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Haotian; Wei, Mingjun
2016-11-01
We extended the application of POD-Galerkin projection for model order reduction from usual fixed-domain problems to more general fluid-solid systems when moving boundary/interface is involved. The idea is similar to numerical simulation approaches using embedded forcing terms to represent boundary motion and domain change. However, such a modified approach will not get away with the unsteadiness of boundary terms which appear as time-dependent coefficients in the new Galerkin model. These coefficients need to be pre-computed for prescribed motion, or worse, to be computed at each time step for non-prescribed motion. The extra computational cost gets expensive in some cases and eventually undermines the value of using reduced-order models. One solution is to decompose the moving boundary/domain to orthogonal modes and derive another low-order model with fixed coefficients for boundary motion. Further study shows that the most expensive integrations resulted from the unsteady motion (in both original and domain-decomposition approaches) have almost negligible impact on the overall dynamics. Dropping these expensive terms reduces the computation cost by at least one order while no obvious effect on model accuracy is noticed. Supported by ARL.
Simulating protein dynamics: Novel methods and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishal, V.
This Ph.D dissertation describes several methodological advances in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Methods like Markov State Models can be used effectively in combination with distributed computing to obtain long time scale behavior from an ensemble of short simulations. Advanced computing architectures like Graphics Processors can be used to greatly extend the scope of MD. Applications of MD techniques to problems like Alzheimer's Disease and fundamental questions in protein dynamics are described.
Visualizing Structure and Dynamics of Disaccharide Simulations
Matthews, J. F.; Beckham, G. T.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.
2012-01-01
We examine the effect of several solvent models on the conformational properties and dynamics of disaccharides such as cellobiose and lactose. Significant variation in timescale for large scale conformational transformations are observed. Molecular dynamics simulation provides enough detail to enable insight through visualization of multidimensional data sets. We present a new way to visualize conformational space for disaccharides with Ramachandran plots.
Simulating Flexible-Spacecraft Dynamics and Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fedor, Joseph
1987-01-01
Versatile program applies to many types of spacecraft and dynamical problems. Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control program (FSD) developed to aid in simulation of large class of flexible and rigid spacecraft. Extremely versatile and used in attitude dynamics and control analysis as well as in-orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. Applicable to inertially oriented spinning, Earth-oriented, or gravity-gradient-stabilized spacecraft. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Simple Liquids
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Speer, Owner F.; Wengerter, Brian C.; Taylor, Ramona S.
2004-01-01
An experiment, in which students were given the opportunity to perform molecular dynamics simulations on a series of molecular liquids using the Amber suite of programs, is presented. They were introduced to both physical theories underlying classical mechanics simulations and to the atom-atom pair distribution function.
Hydrogen Reduction of Lunar Regolith Simulants for Oxygen Production
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegde, U.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Rogers, K.; Reddington, M.; Oryshchyn, L.
2011-01-01
Hydrogen reduction of the lunar regolith simulants JSC-1A and LHT-2M is investigated in this paper. Experiments conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center are described and are analyzed utilizing a previously validated model developed by the authors at NASA Glenn Research Center. The effects of regolith sintering and clumping, likely in actual production operations, on the oxygen production rate are studied. Interpretations of the obtained results on the basis of the validated model are provided and linked to increase in the effective particle size and reduction in the intra-particle species diffusion rates. Initial results on the pressure dependence of the oxygen production rate are also presented and discussed
Observing dynamical SUSY breaking with lattice simulation
Kanamori, Issaku
2008-11-23
On the basis of the recently developed lattice formulation of supersymmetric theories which keeps a part of the supersymmetry, we propose a method of observing dynamical SUSY breaking with lattice simulation. We use Hamiltonian as an order parameter and measure the ground state energy as a zero temperature limit of the finite temperature simulation. Our method provides a way of obtaining a physical result from the lattice simulation for supersymmetric theories.
Molecular dynamics simulations: advances and applications
Hospital, Adam; Goñi, Josep Ramon; Orozco, Modesto; Gelpí, Josep L
2015-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations have evolved into a mature technique that can be used effectively to understand macromolecular structure-to-function relationships. Present simulation times are close to biologically relevant ones. Information gathered about the dynamic properties of macromolecules is rich enough to shift the usual paradigm of structural bioinformatics from studying single structures to analyze conformational ensembles. Here, we describe the foundations of molecular dynamics and the improvements made in the direction of getting such ensemble. Specific application of the technique to three main issues (allosteric regulation, docking, and structure refinement) is discussed. PMID:26604800
Simulation of wetlands forest vegetation dynamics
Phipps, R.L.
1979-01-01
A computer program, SWAMP, was designed to simulate the effects of flood frequency and depth to water table on southern wetlands forest vegetation dynamics. By incorporating these hydrologic characteristics into the model, forest vegetation and vegetation dynamics can be simulated. The model, based on data from the White River National Wildlife Refuge near De Witt, Arkansas, "grows" individual trees on a 20 x 20-m plot taking into account effects on the tree growth of flooding, depth to water table, shade tolerance, overtopping and crowding, and probability of death and reproduction. A potential application of the model is illustrated with simulations of tree fruit production following flood-control implementation and lumbering. ?? 1979.
Methods for variance reduction in Monte Carlo simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bixler, Joel N.; Hokr, Brett H.; Winblad, Aidan; Elpers, Gabriel; Zollars, Byron; Thomas, Robert J.
2016-03-01
Monte Carlo simulations are widely considered to be the gold standard for studying the propagation of light in turbid media. However, due to the probabilistic nature of these simulations, large numbers of photons are often required in order to generate relevant results. Here, we present methods for reduction in the variance of dose distribution in a computational volume. Dose distribution is computed via tracing of a large number of rays, and tracking the absorption and scattering of the rays within discrete voxels that comprise the volume. Variance reduction is shown here using quasi-random sampling, interaction forcing for weakly scattering media, and dose smoothing via bi-lateral filtering. These methods, along with the corresponding performance enhancements are detailed here.
Computational plasticity algorithm for particle dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Vignes, C.
2017-03-01
The problem of particle dynamics simulation is interpreted in the framework of computational plasticity leading to an algorithm which is mathematically indistinguishable from the common implicit scheme widely used in the finite element analysis of elastoplastic boundary value problems. This algorithm provides somewhat of a unification of two particle methods, the discrete element method and the contact dynamics method, which usually are thought of as being quite disparate. In particular, it is shown that the former appears as the special case where the time stepping is explicit while the use of implicit time stepping leads to the kind of schemes usually labelled contact dynamics methods. The framing of particle dynamics simulation within computational plasticity paves the way for new approaches similar (or identical) to those frequently employed in nonlinear finite element analysis. These include mixed implicit-explicit time stepping, dynamic relaxation and domain decomposition schemes.
Spin dynamics simulations at AGS
Huang, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.
2010-05-23
To preserve proton polarization through acceleration, it is important to have a correct model of the process. It has been known that with the insertion of the two helical partial Siberian snakes in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), the MAD model of AGS can not deal with a field map with offset orbit. The stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi provides a tool to represent the real electromagnetic fields in the modeling of the optics and spin dynamics for the AGS. Numerical experiments of resonance crossing, including spin dynamics in presence of the snakes and Q-jump, have been performed in AGS lattice models, using Zgoubi. This contribution reports on various results so obtained.
Peptide crystal simulations reveal hidden dynamics
Janowski, Pawel A.; Cerutti, David S.; Holton, James; Case, David A.
2013-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecular crystals at atomic resolution have the potential to recover information on dynamics and heterogeneity hidden in the X-ray diffraction data. We present here 9.6 microseconds of dynamics in a small helical peptide crystal with 36 independent copies of the unit cell. The average simulation structure agrees with experiment to within 0.28 Å backbone and 0.42 Å all-atom rmsd; a model refined against the average simulation density agrees with the experimental structure to within 0.20 Å backbone and 0.33 Å all-atom rmsd. The R-factor between the experimental structure factors and those derived from this unrestrained simulation is 23% to 1.0 Å resolution. The B-factors for most heavy atoms agree well with experiment (Pearson correlation of 0.90), but B-factors obtained by refinement against the average simulation density underestimate the coordinate fluctuations in the underlying simulation where the simulation samples alternate conformations. A dynamic flow of water molecules through channels within the crystal lattice is observed, yet the average water density is in remarkable agreement with experiment. A minor population of unit cells is characterized by reduced water content, 310 helical propensity and a gauche(−) side-chain rotamer for one of the valine residues. Careful examination of the experimental data suggests that transitions of the helices are a simulation artifact, although there is indeed evidence for alternate valine conformers and variable water content. This study highlights the potential for crystal simulations to detect dynamics and heterogeneity in experimental diffraction data, as well as to validate computational chemistry methods. PMID:23631449
Dynamic simulation of particle sedimentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhongzhen; Prosperetti, Andrea
2004-11-01
The sedimentation of 1024 spheres has been simulated via a recently developed method:Physalis Method. Particles are initially randomly distributed and periodic boundary conditions are assumed. The time evolution of the particle spatial distribution is studied by meassuering the structure factor. Properties of particles velocity distribution, e.g. variance, time autocorrelation, have been studied. The effects of particle rotation and collision are discussed.
Approximate Bisimulation-Based Reduction of Power System Dynamic Models
Stankovic, AM; Dukic, SD; Saric, AT
2015-05-01
In this paper we propose approximate bisimulation relations and functions for reduction of power system dynamic models in differential- algebraic (descriptor) form. The full-size dynamic model is obtained by linearization of the nonlinear transient stability model. We generalize theoretical results on approximate bisimulation relations and bisimulation functions, originally derived for a class of constrained linear systems, to linear systems in descriptor form. An algorithm for transient stability assessment is proposed and used to determine whether the power system is able to maintain the synchronism after a large disturbance. Two benchmark power systems are used to illustrate the proposed algorithm and to evaluate the applicability of approximate bisimulation relations and bisimulation functions for reduction of the power system dynamic models.
Multibody dynamic simulation of knee contact mechanics
Bei, Yanhong; Fregly, Benjamin J.
2006-01-01
Multibody dynamic musculoskeletal models capable of predicting muscle forces and joint contact pressures simultaneously would be valuable for studying clinical issues related to knee joint degeneration and restoration. Current three-dimensional multi-body knee models are either quasi-static with deformable contact or dynamic with rigid contact. This study proposes a computationally efficient methodology for combining multibody dynamic simulation methods with a deformable contact knee model. The methodology requires preparation of the articular surface geometry, development of efficient methods to calculate distances between contact surfaces, implementation of an efficient contact solver that accounts for the unique characteristics of human joints, and specification of an application programming interface for integration with any multibody dynamic simulation environment. The current implementation accommodates natural or artificial tibiofemoral joint models, small or large strain contact models, and linear or nonlinear material models. Applications are presented for static analysis (via dynamic simulation) of a natural knee model created from MRI and CT data and dynamic simulation of an artificial knee model produced from manufacturer’s CAD data. Small and large strain natural knee static analyses required 1 min of CPU time and predicted similar contact conditions except for peak pressure, which was higher for the large strain model. Linear and nonlinear artificial knee dynamic simulations required 10 min of CPU time and predicted similar contact force and torque but different contact pressures, which were lower for the nonlinear model due to increased contact area. This methodology provides an important step toward the realization of dynamic musculoskeletal models that can predict in vivo knee joint motion and loading simultaneously. PMID:15564115
Molecular dynamics simulation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine bilayer with Na+ counterions.
Pandit, Sagar A; Berkowitz, Max L
2002-01-01
We performed a molecular dynamics simulation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS) bilayer with Na+ counterions. We found that hydrogen bonding between the NH group and the phosphate group leads to a reduction in the area per headgroup when compared to the area in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. The Na+ ions bind to the oxygen in the carboxyl group of serine, thus giving rise to a dipolar bilayer similar to dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayer. The results of the simulation show that counterions play a crucial role in determining the structural and electrostatic properties of DPPS bilayer. PMID:11916841
Perspective: chemical dynamics simulations of non-statistical reaction dynamics.
Ma, Xinyou; Hase, William L
2017-04-28
Non-statistical chemical dynamics are exemplified by disagreements with the transition state (TS), RRKM and phase space theories of chemical kinetics and dynamics. The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) is often used for the former two theories, and non-statistical dynamics arising from non-IRC dynamics are often important. In this perspective, non-statistical dynamics are discussed for chemical reactions, with results primarily obtained from chemical dynamics simulations and to a lesser extent from experiment. The non-statistical dynamical properties discussed are: post-TS dynamics, including potential energy surface bifurcations, product energy partitioning in unimolecular dissociation and avoiding exit-channel potential energy minima; non-RRKM unimolecular decomposition; non-IRC dynamics; direct mechanisms for bimolecular reactions with pre- and/or post-reaction potential energy minima; non-TS theory barrier recrossings; and roaming dynamics.This article is part of the themed issue 'Theoretical and computational studies of non-equilibrium and non-statistical dynamics in the gas phase, in the condensed phase and at interfaces'.
Molecular dynamics simulations of substitutional diffusion
Zhou, Xiaowang; Jones, Reese E.; Gruber, Jacob
2016-12-18
In atomistic simulations, diffusion energy barriers are usually calculated for each atomic jump path using a nudged elastic band method. Practical materials often involve thousands of distinct atomic jump paths that are not known a priori. Hence, it is often preferred to determine an overall diffusion energy barrier and an overall pre-exponential factor from the Arrhenius equation constructed through molecular dynamics simulations of mean square displacement of the diffusion species at different temperatures. This approach has been well established for interstitial diffusion, but not for substitutional diffusion at the same confidence. Using In 0.1 Ga 0.9 N as an example, we have identified conditions where molecular dynamics simulations can be used to calculate highly converged Arrhenius plots for substitutional alloys. As a result, this may enable many complex diffusion problems to be easily and reliably studied in the future using molecular dynamics, provided that moderate computing resources are available.
Molecular dynamics simulations of substitutional diffusion
Zhou, Xiaowang; Jones, Reese E.; Gruber, Jacob
2016-12-18
In atomistic simulations, diffusion energy barriers are usually calculated for each atomic jump path using a nudged elastic band method. Practical materials often involve thousands of distinct atomic jump paths that are not known a priori. Hence, it is often preferred to determine an overall diffusion energy barrier and an overall pre-exponential factor from the Arrhenius equation constructed through molecular dynamics simulations of mean square displacement of the diffusion species at different temperatures. This approach has been well established for interstitial diffusion, but not for substitutional diffusion at the same confidence. Using In 0.1 Ga 0.9 N as an example,more » we have identified conditions where molecular dynamics simulations can be used to calculate highly converged Arrhenius plots for substitutional alloys. As a result, this may enable many complex diffusion problems to be easily and reliably studied in the future using molecular dynamics, provided that moderate computing resources are available.« less
Dynamic procedure for filtered gyrokinetic simulations
Morel, P.; Banon Navarro, A.; Albrecht-Marc, M.; Carati, D.; Merz, F.; Goerler, T.; Jenko, F.
2012-01-15
Large eddy simulations (LES) of gyrokinetic plasma turbulence are investigated as interesting candidates to decrease the computational cost. A dynamic procedure is implemented in the gene code, allowing for dynamic optimization of the free parameters of the LES models (setting the amplitudes of dissipative terms). Employing such LES methods, one recovers the free energy and heat flux spectra obtained from highly resolved direct numerical simulations. Systematic comparisons are performed for different values of the temperature gradient and magnetic shear, parameters which are of prime importance in ion temperature gradient driven turbulence. Moreover, the degree of anisotropy of the problem, which can vary with parameters, can be adapted dynamically by the method that shows gyrokinetic large eddy simulation to be a serious candidate to reduce numerical cost of gyrokinetic solvers.
Gearbox bearing fault simulation using a finite element model reduction technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deshpande, L.; Sawalhi, N.; Randall, R. B.
2012-05-01
The dynamics of a mechanical system such as a gearbox assembly comprising shafts, gears and bearings can be simulated using Lumped Parameter Models (LPMs). Finite Element Method (FEM) reduction techniques based on the Craig-Bampton method of Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) are useful in creating more accurate dynamic models. These models, despite having more degrees-of-freedom for the individual components than the LPM, make very much larger FE models computationally tractable. In this paper both these approaches, namely LPM and reduced FEM, are compared to create a dynamic model of a gearbox. Earlier simulation models (both LPM and combined LPM and reduced FEM) are further improved to better match the geometry of the bearing faults used in the experimental measurements, and the experimental results from a gearbox test rig. The dynamic model is used to simulate the vibration signals in the presence of localised inner and outer race faults. The new results show better correspondence with the measured signals, in particular with respect to the detailed response to entry and exit from the fault, which can be used to determine fault size. The paper highlights the plausibility of fault simulation in Machine Condition Monitoring (MCM) where a large amount of data can be gathered without experiencing large numbers of actual failures or carrying out costly and time consuming experiments until failure with seeded faults. The simulation data can be used to train neural networks to automate the diagnostic and prognostic processes.
Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders
Arthur, Carly W.; Goto, D. M.
2015-11-30
This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.
Massively-Parallel Dislocation Dynamics Simulations
Cai, W; Bulatov, V V; Pierce, T G; Hiratani, M; Rhee, M; Bartelt, M; Tang, M
2003-06-18
Prediction of the plastic strength of single crystals based on the collective dynamics of dislocations has been a challenge for computational materials science for a number of years. The difficulty lies in the inability of the existing dislocation dynamics (DD) codes to handle a sufficiently large number of dislocation lines, in order to be statistically representative and to reproduce experimentally observed microstructures. A new massively-parallel DD code is developed that is capable of modeling million-dislocation systems by employing thousands of processors. We discuss the general aspects of this code that make such large scale simulations possible, as well as a few initial simulation results.
Choice of timestep in molecular dynamics simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fincham, David
1986-06-01
In molecular dynamics computer simulation of liquids it is important to use as large a timestep as possible in order to sample phase space rapidly and save on computer expense. The effect of the resulting algorithm errors in the trajectories of the molecules is not well understood. An empirical investigation into this question is reported. Several simulations differing only in the timestep used are compared. It is found that much larger timesteps than usual can be employed without producing significant errors in observed thermodynamic, structural or dynamic properties.
Dynamic simulation recalls condensate piping event
Farrell, R.J.; Reneberg, K.O. ); Moy, H.C. )
1994-05-01
This article describes how experience gained from simulating and reconstructing a condensate piping event will be used by Consolidated Edison to analyze control system problems. A cooperative effort by Con Edison and the Chemical Engineering Department at Polytechnic University used modular modeling system to investigate the probable cause of a Con Edison condensate piping event. Con Edison commissioned the work to serve as a case study for the more general problem of control systems analysis using dynamic simulation and MMS.
Numerical simulation of interplanetary dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chin-Chun
This dissertation discusses investigations into the physics of the propagation of solar generated disturbances in the interplanetary medium. The motivation to initiate this study was two-fold: (1) understanding the fundamental physics of the nonlinear interactions of solar generated MHD shocks and non-homogeneous interplanetary medium, and (2) understanding the physics of solar generated disturbance effects on the Earth's environment, (i.e. the solar connection to the geomagnetic storm). In order to achieve these goals, the authors employed two numerical models to encompass these studies. In the first part, a one-dimensional MHD code with adaptive grids is used to study the evolution of interplanetary slow shocks (ISS), the interaction of a forward slow shock with a reverse slow shock, and the interaction of a fast shock with a slow shock. Results show that the slow shocks can be generated by a decreasing density, velocity or temperature perturbation or by a pressure pulse by following a forward fast shock and that slow shocks can propagate over 1 AU; results also show that the ISS never evolves into fast shocks. Interestingly, it is also found that an ISS could be 'eaten up' by an interplanetary fast shock (IFS) catching up from behind. This could be a reason that the slow shock has been difficult to observe near 1 AU. In addition, a forward slow shock could be dissipated by following a strong forward fast shock (Mach number greater than 1.7). In the second part, a fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, MHD interplanetary global model (3D IGM) is used to study the relationship between different forms of solar activity and transient variations of the north-south component, Bx, of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMF, at 1 AU. One form of solar activity, the flare, is simulated by using a pressure pulse at different locations near the solar surface and observing the simulated IMF evolution of Btheta (= -Bx) at 1 AU. Results show that, for a given pressure
Quantum Simulation for Open-System Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong-Sheng; de Oliveira, Marcos Cesar; Berry, Dominic; Sanders, Barry
2013-03-01
Simulations are essential for predicting and explaining properties of physical and mathematical systems yet so far have been restricted to classical and closed quantum systems. Although forays have been made into open-system quantum simulation, the strict algorithmic aspect has not been explored yet is necessary to account fully for resource consumption to deliver bounded-error answers to computational questions. An open-system quantum simulator would encompass classical and closed-system simulation and also solve outstanding problems concerning, e.g. dynamical phase transitions in non-equilibrium systems, establishing long-range order via dissipation, verifying the simulatability of open-system dynamics on a quantum Turing machine. We construct an efficient autonomous algorithm for designing an efficient quantum circuit to simulate many-body open-system dynamics described by a local Hamiltonian plus decoherence due to separate baths for each particle. The execution time and number of gates for the quantum simulator both scale polynomially with the system size. DSW funded by USARO. MCO funded by AITF and Brazilian agencies CNPq and FAPESP through Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia-Informacao Quantica (INCT-IQ). DWB funded by ARC Future Fellowship (FT100100761). BCS funded by AITF, CIFAR, NSERC and USARO.
Molecular dynamic simulations of ocular tablet dissolution.
Ru, Qian; Fadda, Hala M; Li, Chung; Paul, Daniel; Khaw, Peng T; Brocchini, Steve; Zloh, Mire
2013-11-25
Small tablets for implantation into the subconjunctival space in the eye are being developed to inhibit scarring after glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS). There is a need to evaluate drug dissolution at the molecular level to determine how the chemical structure of the active may correlate with dissolution in the nonsink conditions of the conjunctival space. We conducted molecular dynamics simulations to study the dissolution process of tablets derived from two drugs that can inhibit fibrosis after GFS, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and the matrix metalloprotease inhibitor (MMPi), ilomastat. The dissolution was simulated in the presence of simple point charge (SPC) water molecules, and the liquid turnover of the aqueous humor in the subconjunctival space was simulated by removal of the dissolved drug molecules at regular intervals and replacement by new water molecules. At the end of the simulation, the total molecular solvent accessible surface area of 5-FU tablets increased by 60 times more than that of ilomastat as a result of tablet swelling and release of molecules into solution. The tablet dissolution pattern shown in our molecular dynamic simulations tends to correlate with experimental release profiles. This work indicates that a series of molecular dynamic simulations can be used to predict the influence of the molecular properties of a drug on its dissolution profile and could be useful during preformulation where sufficient amounts of the drug are not always available to perform dissolution studies.
Airborne Simulation of Launch Vehicle Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Christopher J.; Orr, Jeb S.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Gilligan, Eric T.
2015-01-01
In this paper we present a technique for approximating the short-period dynamics of an exploration-class launch vehicle during flight test with a high-performance surrogate aircraft in relatively benign endoatmospheric flight conditions. The surrogate vehicle relies upon a nonlinear dynamic inversion scheme with proportional-integral feedback to drive a subset of the aircraft states into coincidence with the states of a time-varying reference model that simulates the unstable rigid body dynamics, servodynamics, and parasitic elastic and sloshing dynamics of the launch vehicle. The surrogate aircraft flies a constant pitch rate trajectory to approximate the boost phase gravity turn ascent, and the aircraft's closed-loop bandwidth is sufficient to simulate the launch vehicle's fundamental lateral bending and sloshing modes by exciting the rigid body dynamics of the aircraft. A novel control allocation scheme is employed to utilize the aircraft's relatively fast control effectors in inducing various failure modes for the purposes of evaluating control system performance. Sufficient dynamic similarity is achieved such that the control system under evaluation is configured for the full-scale vehicle with no changes to its parameters, and pilot-control system interaction studies can be performed to characterize the effects of guidance takeover during boost. High-fidelity simulation and flight-test results are presented that demonstrate the efficacy of the design in simulating the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle dynamics using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Fullscale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST), a modified F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois), over a range of scenarios designed to stress the SLS's Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm.
Airborne Simulation of Launch Vehicle Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.
2014-01-01
In this paper we present a technique for approximating the short-period dynamics of an exploration-class launch vehicle during flight test with a high-performance surrogate aircraft in relatively benign endoatmospheric flight conditions. The surrogate vehicle relies upon a nonlinear dynamic inversion scheme with proportional-integral feedback to drive a subset of the aircraft states into coincidence with the states of a time-varying reference model that simulates the unstable rigid body dynamics, servodynamics, and parasitic elastic and sloshing dynamics of the launch vehicle. The surrogate aircraft flies a constant pitch rate trajectory to approximate the boost phase gravity-turn ascent, and the aircraft's closed-loop bandwidth is sufficient to simulate the launch vehicle's fundamental lateral bending and sloshing modes by exciting the rigid body dynamics of the aircraft. A novel control allocation scheme is employed to utilize the aircraft's relatively fast control effectors in inducing various failure modes for the purposes of evaluating control system performance. Sufficient dynamic similarity is achieved such that the control system under evaluation is optimized for the full-scale vehicle with no changes to its parameters, and pilot-control system interaction studies can be performed to characterize the effects of guidance takeover during boost. High-fidelity simulation and flight test results are presented that demonstrate the efficacy of the design in simulating the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle dynamics using NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST), a modified F/A-18 airplane, over a range of scenarios designed to stress the SLS's adaptive augmenting control (AAC) algorithm.
Multiscale model approach for magnetization dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Lucia, Andrea; Krüger, Benjamin; Tretiakov, Oleg A.; Kläui, Mathias
2016-11-01
Simulations of magnetization dynamics in a multiscale environment enable the rapid evaluation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in a mesoscopic sample with nanoscopic accuracy in areas where such accuracy is required. We have developed a multiscale magnetization dynamics simulation approach that can be applied to large systems with spin structures that vary locally on small length scales. To implement this, the conventional micromagnetic simulation framework has been expanded to include a multiscale solving routine. The software selectively simulates different regions of a ferromagnetic sample according to the spin structures located within in order to employ a suitable discretization and use either a micromagnetic or an atomistic model. To demonstrate the validity of the multiscale approach, we simulate the spin wave transmission across the regions simulated with the two different models and different discretizations. We find that the interface between the regions is fully transparent for spin waves with frequency lower than a certain threshold set by the coarse scale micromagnetic model with no noticeable attenuation due to the interface between the models. As a comparison to exact analytical theory, we show that in a system with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction leading to spin spirals, the simulated multiscale result is in good quantitative agreement with the analytical calculation.
Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator
Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q.; Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C.
2014-01-29
A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.
Simulating Dynamic Equilibria: A Class Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, John A.; Buckley, Paul D.
2000-08-01
A first-order reversible reaction is simulated on an overhead projector using small coins or discs. A simulation is carried out in which initially there are 24 discs representing reactant A and none representing reactant B. At the end of each minute half of the reactant A discs get converted to reactant B, and one quarter of the reactant B discs get converted to reactant A discs. Equilibrium is established with 8 A discs and 16 B discs, and no further net change is observed as the simulation continues. Another simulation beginning with 48 A discs and 0 B discs leads at equilibrium to 16 A discs and 32 B discs. These results illustrate how dynamic equilibria are established and allow the introduction of the concept of an equilibrium constant. Le Châtelier's principle is illustrated by further simulations.
Dynamics Simulation of Langmuir-Blodgett Films
1990-04-01
of water. During the dynamics simulation, theposition of the water molecules are frozen. A 1515 edge effect as shown in Fig. 4: the tilts for...temperature, I.e. 300K, by gradually assigning random understand. The strong edge effect makes it necessary to iintroduce periodic boundaries In future
Digital simulation of stiff linear dynamic systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Kerr, J. H.
1972-01-01
A method is derived for digital computer simulation of linear time-invariant systems when the insignificant eigenvalues involved in such systems are eliminated by an ALSAP root removal technique. The method is applied to a thirteenth-order dynamic system representing a passive RLC network.
Molecular dynamics simulations of magnetized dusty plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piel, Alexander; Reichstein, Torben; Wilms, Jochen
2012-10-01
The combination of the electric field that confines a dust cloud with a static magnetic field generally leads to a rotation of the dust cloud. In weak magnetic fields, the Hall component of the ion flow exerts a drag force that sets the dust in rotation. We have performed detailed molecular-dynamics simulations of the dynamics of torus-shaped dust clouds in anodic plasmas. The stationary flow [1] is characterized by a shell structure in the laminar dust flow and by the spontaneous formation of a shear-flow around a stationary vortex. Here we present new results on dynamic phenomena, among them fluctuations due to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear-flow. The simulations are compared with experimental results. [4pt] [1] T. Reichstein, A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 18, 083705 (2011)
Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K. S.; Abulizi, G.; de Jong, M. P.; van der Wiel, W. G.
2016-01-01
Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.
Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits.
Strambini, E; Makarenko, K S; Abulizi, G; de Jong, M P; van der Wiel, W G
2016-01-06
Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young's double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.
Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits
Strambini, E.; Makarenko, K. S.; Abulizi, G.; de Jong, M. P.; van der Wiel, W. G.
2016-01-01
Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young’s double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing. PMID:26732751
Test of a flexible spacecraft dynamics simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dichmann, Donald; Sedlak, Joseph
1998-01-01
There are a number of approaches one can take to modeling the dynamics of a flexible body. While one can attempt to capture the full dynamical behavior subject to disturbances from actuators and environmental torques, such a detailed description often is unnecessary. Simplification is possible either by limiting the amplitude of motion to permit linearization of the dynamics equations or by restricting the types of allowed motion. In this work, we study the nonlinear dynamics of bending deformations of wire booms on spinning spacecraft. The theory allows for large amplitude excursions from equilibrium while enforcing constraints on the dynamics to prohibit those modes that are physically less relevant or are expected to damp out fast. These constraints explicitly remove the acoustic modes (i.e., longitudinal sound waves and shear waves) while allowing for arbitrary bending and twisting, motions which typically are of lower frequency. As a test case, a spin axis reorientation maneuver by the Polar Plasma Laboratory (POLAR) spacecraft has been simulated. POLAR was chosen as a representative spacecraft because it has flexible wire antennas that extend to a length of 65 meters. Bending deformations in these antennas could be quite large and have a significant effect on the attitude dynamics of the spacecraft body. Summary results from the simulation are presented along, with a comparison with POLAR flight data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauh, Andreas; Kletting, Marco; Aschemann, Harald; Hofer, Eberhard P.
2007-02-01
A novel interval arithmetic simulation approach is introduced in order to evaluate the performance of biological wastewater treatment processes. Such processes are typically modeled as dynamical systems where the reaction kinetics appears as additive nonlinearity in state. In the calculation of guaranteed bounds of state variables uncertain parameters and uncertain initial conditions are considered. The recursive evaluation of such systems of nonlinear state equations yields overestimation of the state variables that is accumulating over the simulation time. To cope with this wrapping effect, innovative splitting and merging criteria based on a recursive uncertain linear transformation of the state variables are discussed. Additionally, re-approximation strategies for regions in the state space calculated by interval arithmetic techniques using disjoint subintervals improve the simulation quality significantly if these regions are described by several overlapping subintervals. This simulation approach is used to find a practical compromise between computational effort and simulation quality. It is pointed out how these splitting and merging algorithms can be combined with other methods that aim at the reduction of overestimation by applying consistency techniques. Simulation results are presented for a simplified reduced-order model of the reduction of organic matter in the activated sludge process of biological wastewater treatment.
Simulation of lead-acid battery using model order reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esfahanian, Vahid; Ansari, Amir Babak; Torabi, Farschad
2015-04-01
In this study, a reduced order model (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method has been applied to the coupled one-dimensional electrochemical transport equations in order to efficiently simulate lead-acid batteries, numerically. The governing equations, including conservation of charge in solid and liquid phases and conservation of species are solved simultaneously. The POD-based method for a lead-acid cell is used to simulate a discharge process to show the capability of the present method. The obtained results show that not only the POD-based ROM of lead-acid battery significantly decreases the computational time but also there is an excellent agreement with the results of previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models.
Mesoscopic Simulation Methods for Polymer Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, Ronald
2015-03-01
We assess the accuracy and efficiency of mesoscopic simulation methods, namely Brownian Dynamics (BD), Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRD) and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD), for polymers in solution at equilibrium and in flows in microfluidic geometries. Both SRD and DPD use solvent ``particles'' to carry momentum, and so account automatically for hydrodynamic interactions both within isolated polymer coils, and with other polymer molecules and with nearby solid boundaries. We assess quantitatively the effects of artificial particle inertia and fluid compressibility and show that they can be made small with appropriate choice of simulation parameters. We then use these methods to study flow-induced migration of polymer chains produced by: 1) hydrodynamic interactions, 2) streamline curvature or stress-gradients, and 3) convection of wall depletion zones. We show that huge concentration gradients can be produced by these mechanisms in microfluidic geometries that can be exploited for separation of polymers by size in periodic contraction-expansion geometries. We also assess the range of conditions for which BD, SRD or DPD is preferable for mesoscopic simulations. Finally, we show how such methods can be used to simulate quantitatively the swimming of micro-organisms such as E. coli. In collaboration with Lei Jiang and Tongyang Zhao, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Reduction of dynamical biochemical reactions networks in computational biology
Radulescu, O.; Gorban, A. N.; Zinovyev, A.; Noel, V.
2012-01-01
Biochemical networks are used in computational biology, to model mechanistic details of systems involved in cell signaling, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Parametric and structural uncertainty, as well as combinatorial explosion are strong obstacles against analyzing the dynamics of large models of this type. Multiscaleness, an important property of these networks, can be used to get past some of these obstacles. Networks with many well separated time scales, can be reduced to simpler models, in a way that depends only on the orders of magnitude and not on the exact values of the kinetic parameters. The main idea used for such robust simplifications of networks is the concept of dominance among model elements, allowing hierarchical organization of these elements according to their effects on the network dynamics. This concept finds a natural formulation in tropical geometry. We revisit, in the light of these new ideas, the main approaches to model reduction of reaction networks, such as quasi-steady state (QSS) and quasi-equilibrium approximations (QE), and provide practical recipes for model reduction of linear and non-linear networks. We also discuss the application of model reduction to the problem of parameter identification, via backward pruning machine learning techniques. PMID:22833754
Network Visualization of Conformational Sampling during Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Ahlstrom, Logan S.; Baker, Joseph Lee; Ehrlich, Kent; Campbell, Zachary T.; Patel, Sunita; Vorontsov, Ivan I.; Tama, Florence; Miyashita, Osamu
2013-01-01
Effective data reduction methods are necessary for uncovering the inherent conformational relationships present in large molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories. Clustering algorithms provide a means to interpret the conformational sampling of molecules during simulation by grouping trajectory snapshots into a few subgroups, or clusters, but the relationships between the individual clusters may not be readily understood. Here we show that network analysis can be used to visualize the dominant conformational states explored during simulation as well as the connectivity between them, providing a more coherent description of conformational space than traditional clustering techniques alone. We compare the results of network visualization against 11 clustering algorithms and principal component conformer plots. Several MD simulations of proteins undergoing different conformational changes demonstrate the effectiveness of networks in reaching functional conclusions. PMID:24211466
SPIRou @ CFHT: data reduction software and simulation tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artigau, Étienne; Bouchy, François; Delfosse, Xavier; Bonfils, Xavier; Donati, Jean-François; Figueira, Pedro; Thanjavur, Karun; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Surace, Christian; Moutou, Claire; Boisse, Isabelle; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Loop, David; Kouach, Driss; Pepe, Francesco; Lovis, Christophe; Hernandez, Olivier; Wang, Shiang-Yu
2012-09-01
SPIRou is a near-infrared, echelle spectropolarimeter/velocimeter under design for the 3.6m Canada-France- Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The unique scientific capabilities and technical design features are described in the accompanying papers at this conference. In this paper we focus on the data reduction software (DRS) and the data simulation tool. The SPIRou DRS builds upon the experience of the existing SOPHIE, HARPS and ESPADONS spectrographs; class-leaders instruments for high-precision RV measurements and spectropolarimetry. While SPIRou shares many characteristics with these instruments, moving to the near- infrared domain brings specific data-processing challenges: the presence of a large number of telluric absorption lines, strong emission sky lines, thermal background, science arrays with poorer cosmetics, etc. In order for the DRS to be fully functional for SPIRou's first light in 2015, we developed a data simulation tool that incorporates numerous instrumental and observational e_ects. We present an overview of the DRS and the simulation tool architectures.
Program For Simulating Dynamics Of Aerospace Vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berning, M. J.; Sagis, K. D.
1995-01-01
SORT (Simulation and Optimization of Rocket Trajectories) is general-purpose three-degree-of-freedom with three axis static moment balance simulation of flight dynamics of arbitrary aerospace vehicle. Modular structure facilitates application to variety of trajectory-analysis problems. Contains math model of aerodynamics completely generalized. Computes both longitudinal and lateral forces and moments. In addition to fore-body coefficients, computes longitudinal base effect aerodynamic forces and moments. Simplified ballistic-coefficient model also available for analysis of ballistic entry. Written using ANSI FORTRAN 77.
Dynamic Multicore Processing for Pandemic Influenza Simulation
Eriksson, Henrik; Timpka, Toomas; Spreco, Armin; Dahlström, Örjan; Strömgren, Magnus; Holm, Einar
2016-01-01
Pandemic simulation is a useful tool for analyzing outbreaks and exploring the impact of variations in disease, population, and intervention models. Unfortunately, this type of simulation can be quite time-consuming especially for large models and significant outbreaks, which makes it difficult to run the simulations interactively and to use simulation for decision support during ongoing outbreaks. Improved run-time performance enables new applications of pandemic simulations, and can potentially allow decision makers to explore different scenarios and intervention effects. Parallelization of infection-probability calculations and multicore architectures can take advantage of modern processors to achieve significant run-time performance improvements. However, because of the varying computational load during each simulation run, which originates from the changing number of infectious persons during the outbreak, it is not useful to us the same multicore setup during the simulation run. The best performance can be achieved by dynamically changing the use of the available processor cores to balance the overhead of multithreading with the performance gains of parallelization. PMID:28269849
Robot-musculoskeletal dynamic biomechanical model in robot-assisted diaphyseal fracture reduction.
Li, Changsheng; Wang, Tianmiao; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Lihai; Zhao, Yanpeng; Du, Hailong; Wang, Lifeng; Tang, Peifu
2015-01-01
A number of issues that exist in common fracture reduction surgeries can be mitigated by robot-assisted fracture reduction. However, the safety of patients and the performance of the robot, which are closely related to the muscle forces, are important indexes that restrict the development of robots. Though researchers have done a great deal of work on the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, the dynamics of the musculoskeletal system, particularly the aspects related to the function of the robot, is not well understood. For this reason, we represent the complex biological system by establishing a dynamic biomechanical model based on the Hill muscle model and the Kane method for the robot that we have developed and the musculoskeletal system. We analyzed the relationship between the motion and force of the bone fragments and the robot during a simulation of a robot-assisted fracture reduction. The influence of the muscle force on the robot system was predicted and managed. The simulation results provide a basis for a fracture reduction path plan that ensures patient safety and a useful reference for the mechanical design of the robot.
Brownian dynamics simulations of amelogenin microribbons formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; Perez Lopez, Anthony; Liu, Ya; Chakrabarti, Amit; Gunton, James
2011-03-01
Recent advances in chemical particle synthesis have emphasized the fundamental role of surface colloidal heterogeneities and their detailed chemical composition, which is particularly significant for an important subclass of colloidal systems, namely, proteins. Recently, the process of self-assembly of amelogenin monomers with a hydrophobic/hydrophilic bipolar nature into ordered ribbon structures has been studied experimentally. In this work, we study this dynamical process by means of a Brownian dynamic simulation of a simple model which represents the bipolar character of the globular amelogenin molecule and the hydrophilic C-terminal tail. We monitor the kinetics of self-assembly through a study of the structure factor. We also calculate the phase diagram of the model using Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulation and thermodynamic perturbation theory. This work is supported by grants from the NSF and Mathers Foundation.
Exploiting Enzymatic Dynamic Reductive Kinetic Resolution (DYRKR) in Stereocontrolled Synthesis
Applegate, Gregory A.; Berkowitz, David B.
2015-01-01
Over the past two decades, the domains of both frontline synthetic organic chemistry and process chemistry and have seen an increase in crosstalk between asymmetric organic/organometallic approaches and enzymatic approaches to stereocontrolled synthesis. This review highlights the particularly auspicious role for dehydrogenase enzymes in this endeavor, with a focus on dynamic reductive kinetic resolutions (DYRKR) to “deracemize” building blocks, often setting two stereocenters in so doing. The scope and limitations of such dehydrogenase-mediated processes are overviewed, as are future possibilities for the evolution of enzymatic DYRKR. PMID:26622223
Irving, Daniel; Sorrentino, Francesco
2012-11-01
We present a general framework to study stability of the synchronous solution for a hypernetwork of coupled dynamical systems. We are able to reduce the dimensionality of the problem by using simultaneous block diagonalization of matrices. We obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the synchronous solution in terms of a set of lower-dimensional problems and test the predictions of our low-dimensional analysis through numerical simulations. Under certain conditions, this technique may yield a substantial reduction of the dimensionality of the problem. For example, for a class of dynamical hypernetworks analyzed in the paper, we discover that arbitrarily large networks can be reduced to a collection of subsystems of dimensionality no more than 2. We apply our reduction technique to a number of different examples, including the class of undirected unweighted hypermotifs with 3 nodes.
Simulation of counterflow pedestrian dynamics using spheropolygons.
Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando; Busch, Jonathan; Chiew, Coraline; Lozano, Celia; Ramírez-Gómez, Álvaro
2014-12-01
Pedestrian dynamic models are typically designed for comfortable walking or slightly congested conditions and typically use a single disk or combination of three disks for the shape of a pedestrian. Under crowd conditions, a more accurate pedestrian shape has advantages over the traditional single or three-disks model. We developed a method for simulating pedestrian dynamics in a large dense crowd of spheropolygons adapted to the cross section of the chest and arms of a pedestrian. Our numerical model calculates pedestrian motion from Newton's second law, taking into account viscoelastic contact forces, contact friction, and ground-reaction forces. Ground-reaction torque was taken to arise solely from the pedestrians' orientation toward their preferred destination. Simulations of counterflow pedestrians dynamics in corridors were used to gain insight into a tragic incident at the Madrid Arena pavilion in Spain, where five girls were crushed to death. The incident took place at a Halloween Celebration in 2012, in a long, densely crowded hallway used as entrance and exit at the same time. Our simulations reconstruct the mechanism of clogging in the hallway. The hypothetical case of a total evacuation order was also investigated. The results highlights the importance of the pedestrians' density and the effect of counterflow in the onset of avalanches and clogging and provides an estimation of the number of injuries based on a calculation of the contact-force network between the pedestrians.
Integrated computer simulation on FIR FEL dynamics
Furukawa, H.; Kuruma, S.; Imasaki, K.
1995-12-31
An integrated computer simulation code has been developed to analyze the RF-Linac FEL dynamics. First, the simulation code on the electron beam acceleration and transport processes in RF-Linac: (LUNA) has been developed to analyze the characteristics of the electron beam in RF-Linac and to optimize the parameters of RF-Linac. Second, a space-time dependent 3D FEL simulation code (Shipout) has been developed. The RF-Linac FEL total simulations have been performed by using the electron beam data from LUNA in Shipout. The number of particles using in a RF-Linac FEL total simulation is approximately 1000. The CPU time for the simulation of 1 round trip is about 1.5 minutes. At ILT/ILE, Osaka, a 8.5MeV RF-Linac with a photo-cathode RF-gun is used for FEL oscillation experiments. By using 2 cm wiggler, the FEL oscillation in the wavelength approximately 46 {mu}m are investigated. By the simulations using LUNA with the parameters of an ILT/ILE experiment, the pulse shape and the energy spectra of the electron beam at the end of the linac are estimated. The pulse shape of the electron beam at the end of the linac has sharp rise-up and it slowly decays as a function of time. By the RF-linac FEL total simulations with the parameters of an ILT/ILE experiment, the dependencies of the start up of the FEL oscillations on the pulse shape of the electron beam at the end of the linac are estimated. The coherent spontaneous emission effects and the quick start up of FEL oscillations have been observed by the RF-Linac FEL total simulations.
Adaptive wavelet simulation of global ocean dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevlahan, N. K.-R.; Dubos, T.; Aechtner, M.
2015-07-01
In order to easily enforce solid-wall boundary conditions in the presence of complex coastlines, we propose a new mass and energy conserving Brinkman penalization for the rotating shallow water equations. This penalization does not lead to higher wave speeds in the solid region. The error estimates for the penalization are derived analytically and verified numerically for linearized one dimensional equations. The penalization is implemented in a conservative dynamically adaptive wavelet method for the rotating shallow water equations on the sphere with bathymetry and coastline data from NOAA's ETOPO1 database. This code could form the dynamical core for a future global ocean model. The potential of the dynamically adaptive ocean model is illustrated by using it to simulate the 2004 Indonesian tsunami and wind-driven gyres.
Brownian dynamics simulation of electrostatically interacting proteins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermakova, E.; Krushelnitsky, A. G.; Fedotov, V. D.
Brownian dynamics simulation software has been developed to study the dynamics of proteins as a whole in solution. The proteins were modelled as spheres with point dipoles embedded in the centre of sphere. A set of Brownian dynamics simulations at different values of the dipole moments, protein concentration and translational diffusion coefficient was performed to investigate the influence of interprotein electrostatic interactions on dynamic protein behaviour in solution. It was shown that these interactions led to the slowing down of protein rotation and a complex non-exponential shape of the rotational correlation function. Analysis of the correlation functions was performed within the frame of the model of electrostatic interprotein interactions advanced earlier on the basis of NMR and dielectric spectroscopy data. This model assumes that, due to electrostatic interactions, protein Brownian rotation becomes anisotropic. The lifetime of this anisotropy is controlled mainly by translational diffusion of proteins. Thus, the correlation function can be decomposed into two components corresponding to anisotropic Brownian rotation and an isotropic motion of an external electric field vector produced by the surrounding proteins.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Network Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drabold, David A.
The following sections are included: * Introduction and Background * History and use of MD * The role of the potential * Scope of the method * Use of a priori information * Appraising a model * MD Method * Equations of motion * Energy minimization and equilibration * Deeper or global minima * Simulated annealing * Genetic algorithms * Activation-relaxation technique * Alternate dynamics * Modeling infinite systems: Periodic boundary conditions * The Interatomic Interactions * Overview * Empirical classical potentials * Potentials from electronic structure * The tight-binding method * Approximate methods based on tight-binding * First principles * Local basis: "ab initio tight binding" * Plane-waves: Car-Parrinello methods * Efficient ab initio methods for large systems * The need for locality of electron states in real space * Avoiding explicit orthogonalization * Connecting Simulation to Experiment * Structure * Network dynamics * Computing the harmonic modes * Dynamical autocorrelation functions * Dynamical structure factor * Electronic structure * Density of states * Thermal modulation of the electron states * Transport * Applications * g-GeSe2 * g-GexSe1-x glasses * Amorphous carbon surface * Where to Get Codes to Get Started * Acknowledgments * References
Molecular dynamics simulation in virus research
Ode, Hirotaka; Nakashima, Masaaki; Kitamura, Shingo; Sugiura, Wataru; Sato, Hironori
2012-01-01
Virus replication in the host proceeds by chains of interactions between viral and host proteins. The interactions are deeply influenced by host immune molecules and anti-viral compounds, as well as by mutations in viral proteins. To understand how these interactions proceed mechanically and how they are influenced by mutations, one needs to know the structures and dynamics of the proteins. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a powerful computational method for delineating motions of proteins at an atomic-scale via theoretical and empirical principles in physical chemistry. Recent advances in the hardware and software for biomolecular simulation have rapidly improved the precision and performance of this technique. Consequently, MD simulation is quickly extending the range of applications in biology, helping to reveal unique features of protein structures that would be hard to obtain by experimental methods alone. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in MD simulations in the study of virus–host interactions and evolution, and present future perspectives on this technique. PMID:22833741
MDLab: a molecular dynamics simulation prototyping environment.
Cickovski, Trevor; Chatterjee, Santanu; Wenger, Jacob; Sweet, Christopher R; Izaguirre, Jesús A
2010-05-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation involves solving Newton's equations of motion for a system of atoms, by calculating forces and updating atomic positions and velocities over a timestep Deltat. Despite the large amount of computing power currently available, the timescale of MD simulations is limited by both the small timestep required for propagation, and the expensive algorithm for computing pairwise forces. These issues are currently addressed through the development of efficient simulation methods, some of which make acceptable approximations and as a result can afford larger timesteps. We present MDLab, a development environment for MD simulations built with Python which facilitates prototyping, testing, and debugging of these methods. MDLab provides constructs which allow the development of propagators, force calculators, and high level sampling protocols that run several instances of molecular dynamics. For computationally demanding sampling protocols which require testing on large biomolecules, MDL includes an interface to the OpenMM libraries of Friedrichs et al. which execute on graphical processing units (GPUs) and achieve considerable speedup over execution on the CPU. As an example of an interesting high level method developed in MDLab, we present a parallel implementation of the On-The-Fly string method of Maragliano and Vanden-Eijnden. MDLab is available at http://mdlab.sourceforge.net.
Molecular-dynamics simulations of lead clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendy, S. C.; Hall, B. D.
2001-08-01
Molecular-dynamics simulations of nanometer-sized lead clusters have been performed using the Lim-Ong-Ercolessi glue potential [Surf. Sci. 269/270, 1109 (1992)]. The binding energies of clusters forming crystalline (fcc), decahedron and icosahedron structures are compared, showing that fcc cuboctahedra are the most energetically favored of these polyhedral model structures. However, simulations of the freezing of liquid droplets produced a characteristic form of surface-reconstructed ``shaved'' icosahedron, in which atoms are absent at the edges and apexes of the polyhedron. This arrangement is energetically favored for 600-4000 atom clusters. Larger clusters favor crystalline structures. Indeed, simulated freezing of a 6525-atom liquid droplet produced an imperfect fcc Wulff particle, containing a number of parallel stacking faults. The effects of temperature on the preferred structure of crystalline clusters below the melting point have been considered. The implications of these results for the interpretation of experimental data is discussed.
Dynamic simulator for PEFC propulsion plant
Hiraide, Masataka; Kaneda, Eiichi; Sato, Takao
1996-12-31
This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The work presented here focuses on a simulation study on PEFC propulsion plant performance, and particularly on the system response to changes in load. Using a dynamic simulator composed of system components including fuel cell, various simulations were executed, to examine the performance of the system as a whole and of the individual system components under quick and large load changes such as occasioned by maneuvering operations and by racing when the propeller emerges above water in heavy sea.
Nanodrop contact angles from molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ravipati, Srikanth; Aymard, Benjamin; Yatsyshin, Petr; Galindo, Amparo; Kalliadasis, Serafim
2016-11-01
The contact angle between three phases being in thermodynamic equilibrium is highly sensitive to the nature of the intermolecular forces as well as to various fluctuation effects. Determining the Young contact angle of a sessile drop sitting on a substrate from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is a highly non-trivial task. Most commonly employed methods for finding droplet contact angles from MD simulation data either require large numbers of particles or are system-dependent. We propose a systematic geometry based methodology for extracting the contact angle from simulated sessile droplets by analysing an appropriately coarse-grained density field. To demonstrate the method, we consider Lennard-Jones (LJ) and SPC/E water nanodroplets of different sizes sitting on planar LJ walls. Our results are in good agreement with Young contact angle values computed employing test-area perturbation method.
Classical Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nuclear Fuel
Devanathan, Ram; Krack, Matthias; Bertolus, Marjorie
2015-10-10
Molecular dynamics simulation is well suited to study primary damage production by irradiation, defect interactions with fission gas atoms, gas bubble nucleation, grain boundary effects on defect and gas bubble evolution in nuclear fuel, and the resulting changes in thermo-mechanical properties. In these simulations, the forces on the ions are dictated by interaction potentials generated by fitting properties of interest to experimental data. The results obtained from the present generation of potentials are qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different. There is a need to refine existing potentials to provide a better representation of the performance of polycrystalline fuel under a variety of operating conditions, and to develop models that are equipped to handle deviations from stoichiometry. In addition to providing insights into fundamental mechanisms governing the behaviour of nuclear fuel, MD simulations can also provide parameters that can be used as inputs for mesoscale models.
Dynamic simulation of regulatory networks using SQUAD
Di Cara, Alessandro; Garg, Abhishek; De Micheli, Giovanni; Xenarios, Ioannis; Mendoza, Luis
2007-01-01
Background The ambition of most molecular biologists is the understanding of the intricate network of molecular interactions that control biological systems. As scientists uncover the components and the connectivity of these networks, it becomes possible to study their dynamical behavior as a whole and discover what is the specific role of each of their components. Since the behavior of a network is by no means intuitive, it becomes necessary to use computational models to understand its behavior and to be able to make predictions about it. Unfortunately, most current computational models describe small networks due to the scarcity of kinetic data available. To overcome this problem, we previously published a methodology to convert a signaling network into a dynamical system, even in the total absence of kinetic information. In this paper we present a software implementation of such methodology. Results We developed SQUAD, a software for the dynamic simulation of signaling networks using the standardized qualitative dynamical systems approach. SQUAD converts the network into a discrete dynamical system, and it uses a binary decision diagram algorithm to identify all the steady states of the system. Then, the software creates a continuous dynamical system and localizes its steady states which are located near the steady states of the discrete system. The software permits to make simulations on the continuous system, allowing for the modification of several parameters. Importantly, SQUAD includes a framework for perturbing networks in a manner similar to what is performed in experimental laboratory protocols, for example by activating receptors or knocking out molecular components. Using this software we have been able to successfully reproduce the behavior of the regulatory network implicated in T-helper cell differentiation. Conclusion The simulation of regulatory networks aims at predicting the behavior of a whole system when subject to stimuli, such as drugs, or
INCORPORATING DYNAMIC 3D SIMULATION INTO PRA
Steven R Prescott; Curtis Smith
2011-07-01
provide superior results and insights. We also couple the state model with the dynamic 3D simulation analysis representing events (such as flooding) to determine which (if any) components fail. Not only does the simulation take into account any failed items from the state model, but any failures caused by the simulation are incorporated back into the state model and factored into the overall results. Using this method we incorporate accurate 3D simulation results, eliminate static-based PRA issues, and have time ordered failure information.
Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Macromolecule Diffusion in a Protocell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ando, Tadashi; Skolnick, Jeffrey
2011-01-01
The interiors of all living cells are highly crowded with macro molecules, which differs considerably the thermodynamics and kinetics of biological reactions between in vivo and in vitro. For example, the diffusion of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in E. coli is ~10-fold slower than in dilute conditions. In this study, we performed Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations of rigid macromolecules in a crowded environment mimicking the cytosol of E. coli to study the motions of macromolecules. The simulation systems contained 35 70S ribosomes, 750 glycolytic enzymes, 75 GFPs, and 392 tRNAs in a 100 nm × 100 nm × 100 nm simulation box, where the macromolecules were represented by rigid-objects of one bead per amino acid or four beads per nucleotide models. Diffusion tensors of these molecules in dilute solutions were estimated by using a hydrodynamic theory to take into account the diffusion anisotropy of arbitrary shaped objects in the BD simulations. BD simulations of the system where each macromolecule is represented by its Stokes radius were also performed for comparison. Excluded volume effects greatly reduce the mobility of molecules in crowded environments for both molecular-shaped and equivalent sphere systems. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the reduction of diffusivity over the entire range of molecular size between two systems. However, the reduction in diffusion of GFP in these systems was still 4-5 times larger than for the in vivo experiment. We will discuss other plausible factors that might cause the large reduction in diffusion in vivo.
Biofilm attachment reduction on bioinspired, dynamic, micro-wrinkling surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epstein, Alexander K.; Hong, Donggyoon; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna
2013-09-01
Most bacteria live in multicellular communities known as biofilms that are adherent to surfaces in our environment, from sea beds to plumbing systems. Biofilms are often associated with clinical infections, nosocomial deaths and industrial damage such as bio-corrosion and clogging of pipes. As mature biofilms are extremely challenging to eradicate once formed, prevention is advantageous over treatment. However, conventional surface chemistry strategies are either generally transient, due to chemical masking, or toxic, as in the case of leaching marine antifouling paints. Inspired by the nonfouling skins of echinoderms and other marine organisms, which possess highly dynamic surface structures that mechanically frustrate bio-attachment, we have developed and tested a synthetic platform based on both uniaxial mechanical strain and buckling-induced elastomer microtopography. Bacterial biofilm attachment to the dynamic substrates was studied under an array of parameters, including strain amplitude and timescale (1-100 mm s-1), surface wrinkle length scale, bacterial species and cell geometry, and growth time. The optimal conditions for achieving up to ˜ 80% Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm reduction after 24 h growth and ˜ 60% reduction after 48 h were combinatorially elucidated to occur at 20% strain amplitude, a timescale of less than ˜ 5 min between strain cycles and a topography length scale corresponding to the cell dimension of ˜ 1 μm. Divergent effects on the attachment of P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms showed that the dynamic substrate also provides a new means of species-specific biofilm inhibition, or inversely, selection for a desired type of bacteria, without reliance on any toxic or transient surface chemical treatments.
Molecular dynamics simulation of fractal aggregate diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pranami, Gaurav; Lamm, Monica H.; Vigil, R. Dennis
2010-11-01
The diffusion of fractal aggregates constructed with the method by Thouy and Jullien [J. Phys. A 27, 2953 (1994)10.1088/0305-4470/27/9/012] comprised of Np spherical primary particles was studied as a function of the aggregate mass and fractal dimension using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that finite-size effects have a strong impact on the apparent value of the diffusion coefficient (D) , but these can be corrected by carrying out simulations using different simulation box sizes. Specifically, the diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to the length of a cubic simulation box, and the constant of proportionality appears to be independent of the aggregate mass and fractal dimension. Using this result, it is possible to compute infinite dilution diffusion coefficients (Do) for aggregates of arbitrary size and fractal dimension, and it was found that Do∝Np-1/df , as is often assumed by investigators simulating Brownian aggregation of fractal aggregates. The ratio of hydrodynamic radius to radius of gyration is computed and shown to be independent of mass for aggregates of fixed fractal dimension, thus enabling an estimate of the diffusion coefficient for a fractal aggregate based on its radius of gyration.
Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Protein Solutions: Structural and Dynamical Properties
Mereghetti, Paolo; Gabdoulline, Razif R.; Wade, Rebecca C.
2010-01-01
The study of solutions of biomacromolecules provides an important basis for understanding the behavior of many fundamental cellular processes, such as protein folding, self-assembly, biochemical reactions, and signal transduction. Here, we describe a Brownian dynamics simulation procedure and its validation for the study of the dynamic and structural properties of protein solutions. In the model used, the proteins are treated as atomically detailed rigid bodies moving in a continuum solvent. The protein-protein interaction forces are described by the sum of electrostatic interaction, electrostatic desolvation, nonpolar desolvation, and soft-core repulsion terms. The linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved to compute electrostatic terms. Simulations of homogeneous solutions of three different proteins with varying concentrations, pH, and ionic strength were performed. The results were compared to experimental data and theoretical values in terms of long-time self-diffusion coefficients, second virial coefficients, and structure factors. The results agree with the experimental trends and, in many cases, experimental values are reproduced quantitatively. There are no parameters specific to certain protein types in the interaction model, and hence the model should be applicable to the simulation of the behavior of mixtures of macromolecules in cell-like crowded environments. PMID:21112303
Monoamine transporters: insights from molecular dynamics simulations
Grouleff, Julie; Ladefoged, Lucy Kate; Koldsø, Heidi; Schiøtt, Birgit
2015-01-01
The human monoamine transporters (MATs) facilitate the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft. Imbalance in monoaminergic neurotransmission is linked to various diseases including major depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Inhibition of the MATs is thus an important strategy for treatment of such diseases. The MATs are sodium-coupled transport proteins belonging to the neurotransmitter/Na+ symporter (NSS) family, and the publication of the first high-resolution structure of a NSS family member, the bacterial leucine transporter LeuT, in 2005, proved to be a major stepping stone for understanding this family of transporters. Structural data allows for the use of computational methods to study the MATs, which in turn has led to a number of important discoveries. The process of substrate translocation across the membrane is an intrinsically dynamic process. Molecular dynamics simulations, which can provide atomistic details of molecular motion on ns to ms timescales, are therefore well-suited for studying transport processes. In this review, we outline how molecular dynamics simulations have provided insight into the large scale motions associated with transport of the neurotransmitters, as well as the presence of external and internal gates, the coupling between ion and substrate transport, and differences in the conformational changes induced by substrates and inhibitors. PMID:26528185
Dimensionality reduction and dynamical filtering: Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers.
Setra, Rafael G; Arroyo-Almanza, Diana A; Ni, Zetian; Murphy, Thomas E; Roy, Rajarshi
2015-08-01
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is a noise-driven nonlinear interaction between acoustical and optical waves. In optical fibers, SBS can be observed at relatively low optical powers and can severely limit signal transmission. Although SBS is initiated by high dimensional noise, it also exhibits many of the hallmarks of a complex nonlinear dynamical system. We report here a comprehensive experimental and numerical study of the fluctuations in the reflected Stokes wave produced by SBS in optical fibers. Using time series analysis, we demonstrate a reduction of dimensionality and dynamical filtering of the Stokes wave. We begin with a careful comparison of the measured average transmitted and reflected intensities from below the SBS threshold to saturation of the transmitted power. Initially the power spectra and correlation functions of the time series of the reflected wave fluctuations at the SBS threshold and above are measured and simulated. Much greater dynamical insight is provided when we study the scaling behavior of the intensity fluctuations using Hurst exponents and detrended fluctuation analysis for time scales extending over six orders of magnitude. At the highest input powers, we notice the emergence of three distinct dynamical scaling regimes: persistent, Brownian, and antipersistent. Next, we explore the Hilbert phase fluctuations of the intensity time series and amplitude-phase coupling. Finally, time-delay embedding techniques reveal a gradual reduction in dimensionality of the spatiotemporal dynamics as the laser input is increased toward saturation of the transmitted power. Through all of these techniques, we find a transition from noisier to smoother dynamics with increasing input power. We find excellent agreement between our experimental measurements and simulations.
Allosteric dynamics of SAMHD1 studied by molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, K. K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bhattacharya, S.
2016-10-01
SAMHD1 is a human cellular enzyme that blocks HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells and non-cycling CD4+T cells. The enzyme is an allosterically regulated triphosphohydrolase that modulates the level of cellular dNTP. The virus restriction is attributed to the lowering of the pool of dNTP in the cell to a point where reverse-transcription is impaired. Mutations in SAMHD1 are also implicated in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome. A mechanistic understanding of the allosteric activation of the enzyme is still elusive. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations to examine the allosteric site dynamics of the protein and to examine the connection between the stability of the tetrameric complex and the Allosite occupancy.
Dynamic transitions in molecular dynamics simulations of supercooled silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Xiaojun; Eapen, Jacob
2013-04-01
Two dynamic transitions or crossovers, one at a low temperature (T* ≈ 1006 K) and the other at a high temperature (T0 ≈ 1384 K), are shown to emerge in supercooled liquid silicon using molecular dynamics simulations. The high-temperature transition (T0) marks the decoupling of stress, density, and energy relaxation mechanisms. At the low-temperature transition (T*), depending on the cooling rate, supercooled silicon can either undergo a high-density-liquid to low-density-liquid (HDL-LDL) phase transition or experience an HDL-HDL crossover. Dynamically heterogeneous domains that emerge with supercooling become prominent across the HDL-HDL transition at 1006 K, with well-separated mobile and immobile regions. Interestingly, across the HDL-LDL transition, the most mobile atoms form large prominent aggregates while the least mobile atoms get spatially dispersed akin to that in a crystalline state. The attendant partial return to spatial uniformity with the HDL-LDL phase transition indicates a dynamic mechanism for relieving the frustration in supercooled states.
Dynamical simulation of dipolar Janus colloids: Dynamical properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagy, Matthew C.; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2013-05-01
The dynamical properties of dipolar Janus particles are studied through simulation using our previously-developed detailed pointwise (PW) model and an isotropically coarse-grained (CG) model [M. C. Hagy and R. Hernandez, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044505 (2012), 10.1063/1.4737432]. The CG model is found to have accelerated dynamics relative to the PW model over a range of conditions for which both models have near identical static equilibrium properties. Physically, this suggests dipolar Janus particles have slower transport properties (such as diffusion) in comparison to isotropically attractive particles. Time rescaling and damping with Langevin friction are explored to map the dynamics of the CG model to that of the PW model. Both methods map the diffusion constant successfully and improve the velocity autocorrelation function and the mean squared displacement of the CG model. Neither method improves the distribution of reversible bond durations f(tb) observed in the CG model, which is found to lack the longer duration reversible bonds observed in the PW model. We attribute these differences in f(tb) to changes in the energetics of multiple rearrangement mechanisms. This suggests a need for new methods that map the coarse-grained dynamics of such systems to the true time scale.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Hypervelocity Impacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owens, Eli T.; Bachlechner, Martina E.
2007-03-01
Outer space silicon solar cells are exposed to impacts with micro meteors that can destroy the surface leading to device failure. A protective coating of silicon nitride will protect against such failure. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to study how silicon/silicon nitride fails due to hypervelocity impacts. Three impactors made of silicon nitride are studied. Their cross-sectional areas, relative to the target, are as follows: the same as the target, half of the target, and a quarter of the target. Impactor speeds from 5 to 11 km/second yield several modes of failure, such as deformation of the target by the impactor and delimitation of the silicon nitride from the silicon at the interface. These simulations will give a much clearer picture of how solar cells composed of a silicon/silicon nitride interface will respond to impacts in outer space. This will ultimately lead to improved devices with longer life spans.
Isotropic MD simulations of dynamic brittle fracture
Espanol, P.; Rubio, M.A.; Zuniga, I.
1996-12-01
The authors present results obtained by molecular dynamics simulations on the propagation of fast cracks in triangular 2D lattices. Their aim is to simulate Mode 1 fracture of brittle isotropic materials. They propose a force law that respects the isotropy of the material. The code yields the correct imposed sound c{sub {parallel}}, shear c{sub {perpendicular}} and surface V{sub R} wave speeds. Different notch lengths are systematically studied. They observed that initially the cracks are linear and always branch at a particular critical velocity c* {approx} 0.8V{sub R} and that this occurs when the crack tip reaches the position of a front emitted from the initial crack tip and propagating at a speed c = 0.68V{sub R}.
Osmosis : a molecular dynamics computer simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lion, Thomas
Osmosis is a phenomenon of critical importance in a variety of processes ranging from the transport of ions across cell membranes and the regulation of blood salt levels by the kidneys to the desalination of water and the production of clean energy using potential osmotic power plants. However, despite its importance and over one hundred years of study, there is an ongoing confusion concerning the nature of the microscopic dynamics of the solvent particles in their transfer across the membrane. In this thesis the microscopic dynamical processes underlying osmotic pressure and concentration gradients are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. I first present a new derivation for the local pressure that can be used for determining osmotic pressure gradients. Using this result, the steady-state osmotic pressure is studied in a minimal model for an osmotic system and the steady-state density gradients are explained using a simple mechanistic hopping model for the solvent particles. The simulation setup is then modified, allowing us to explore the timescales involved in the relaxation dynamics of the system in the period preceding the steady state. Further consideration is also given to the relative roles of diffusive and non-diffusive solvent transport in this period. Finally, in a novel modification to the classic osmosis experiment, the solute particles are driven out-of-equilibrium by the input of energy. The effect of this modification on the osmotic pressure and the osmotic ow is studied and we find that active solute particles can cause reverse osmosis to occur. The possibility of defining a new "osmotic effective temperature" is also considered and compared to the results of diffusive and kinetic temperatures..
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Interface Failure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachlechner, Martina E.; Cao, Deng; Leonard, Robert H.; Owens, Eli T.; Swan, Wm. Trevor, III; Ducatman, Samuel C.
2007-03-01
The mechanical integrity of silicon/silicon nitride interfaces is of great importance in their applications in micro electronics and solar cells. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are an excellent tool to study mechanical and structural failure of interfaces subjected to externally applied stresses and strains. When pulling the system parallel to the interface, cracks in silicon nitride and slip and pit formation in silicon are typical failure mechanisms. Hypervelocity impact perpendicular to the interface plane leads to structural transformation and delamination at the interface. Influence of system temperature, strain rate, impact velocity, and system size on type and characteristics of failure will be discussed.
Dynamic Deployment Simulations of Inflatable Space Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, John T.
2005-01-01
The feasibility of using Control Volume (CV) method and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method in LSDYNA to simulate the dynamic deployment of inflatable space structures is investigated. The CV and ALE methods were used to predict the inflation deployments of three folded tube configurations. The CV method was found to be a simple and computationally efficient method that may be adequate for modeling slow inflation deployment sine the inertia of the inflation gas can be neglected. The ALE method was found to be very computationally intensive since it involves the solving of three conservative equations of fluid as well as dealing with complex fluid structure interactions.
Molecular dynamics simulations of dense plasmas
Collins, L.A.; Kress, J.D.; Kwon, I.; Lynch, D.L.; Troullier, N.
1993-12-31
We have performed quantum molecular dynamics simulations of hot, dense plasmas of hydrogen over a range of temperatures(0.1-5eV) and densities(0.0625-5g/cc). We determine the forces quantum mechanically from density functional, extended Huckel, and tight binding techniques and move the nuclei according to the classical equations of motion. We determine pair-correlation functions, diffusion coefficients, and electrical conductivities. We find that many-body effects predominate in this regime. We begin to obtain agreement with the OCP and Thomas-Fermi models only at the higher temperatures and densities.
Parallel beam dynamics simulation of linear accelerators
Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D.
2002-01-31
In this paper we describe parallel particle-in-cell methods for the large scale simulation of beam dynamics in linear accelerators. These techniques have been implemented in the IMPACT (Integrated Map and Particle Accelerator Tracking) code. IMPACT is being used to study the behavior of intense charged particle beams and as a tool for the design of next-generation linear accelerators. As examples, we present applications of the code to the study of emittance exchange in high intensity beams and to the study of beam transport in a proposed accelerator for the development of accelerator-driven waste transmutation technologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Nicolaï, Ph; Riazuelo, G.; Grech, M.; Breil, J.; Fujioka, S.; Sunahara, A.; Borisenko, N.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.
2013-08-01
The mechanisms of laser imprint reduction on a surface of a planar foil performed using an underdense foam are presented. The consequences on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth at the ablation front when the foil is accelerated are studied. The analysis is based on numerical simulations using a chain of codes: the electromagnetic paraxial code Parax provides the modifications of the intensity perturbation spectrum while the laser beam is crossing the foam. Two-dimensional axially symmetric simulations with the radiation hydrodynamic code CHIC describe the foam expansion and the foil dynamics. Finally, the perturbed flow calculations and the instability growth are investigated with the two-dimensional CHIC version in the planar geometry by using the initial and smoothed perturbation spectra. The dominant role of temporal laser smoothing during the time of foam crossing by the laser beam is demonstrated. Applications to the direct drive targets for inertial confinement fusion are discussed.
Replicative Use of an External Model in Simulation Variance Reduction
1996-03-01
measures used are confidence interval width reduction, realized coverage, and estimated Mean Square Error. Results of this study indicate analytical...control variates achieve comparable confidence interval width reduction with internal and external control variates. However, the analytical control
An Adaptive Multipopulation Differential Evolution With Dynamic Population Reduction.
Ali, Mostafa Z; Awad, Noor H; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam; Reynolds, Robert G
2016-10-25
Developing efficient evolutionary algorithms attracts many researchers due to the existence of optimization problems in numerous real-world applications. A new differential evolution algorithm, sTDE-dR, is proposed to improve the search quality, avoid premature convergence, and stagnation. The population is clustered in multiple tribes and utilizes an ensemble of different mutation and crossover strategies. In this algorithm, a competitive success-based scheme is introduced to determine the life cycle of each tribe and its participation ratio for the next generation. In each tribe, a different adaptive scheme is used to control the scaling factor and crossover rate. The mean success of each subgroup is used to calculate the ratio of its participation for the next generation. This guarantees that successful tribes with the best adaptive schemes are only the ones that guide the search toward the optimal solution. The population size is dynamically reduced using a dynamic reduction method. Comprehensive comparison of the proposed heuristic over a challenging set of benchmarks from the CEC2014 real parameter single objective competition against several state-of-the-art algorithms is performed. The results affirm robustness of the proposed approach compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms.
Yuan, Hongping; Chini, Abdol R; Lu, Yujie; Shen, Liyin
2012-03-01
During the past few decades, construction and demolition (C&D) waste has received increasing attention from construction practitioners and researchers worldwide. A plethora of research regarding C&D waste management has been published in various academic journals. However, it has been determined that existing studies with respect to C&D waste reduction are mainly carried out from a static perspective, without considering the dynamic and interdependent nature of the whole waste reduction system. This might lead to misunderstanding about the actual effect of implementing any waste reduction strategies. Therefore, this research proposes a model that can serve as a decision support tool for projecting C&D waste reduction in line with the waste management situation of a given construction project, and more importantly, as a platform for simulating effects of various management strategies on C&D waste reduction. The research is conducted using system dynamics methodology, which is a systematic approach that deals with the complexity - interrelationships and dynamics - of any social, economic and managerial system. The dynamic model integrates major variables that affect C&D waste reduction. In this paper, seven causal loop diagrams that can deepen understanding about the feedback relationships underlying C&D waste reduction system are firstly presented. Then a stock-flow diagram is formulated by using software for system dynamics modeling. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate the validation and application of the proposed model. Results of the case study not only built confidence in the model so that it can be used for quantitative analysis, but also assessed and compared the effect of three designed policy scenarios on C&D waste reduction. One major contribution of this study is the development of a dynamic model for evaluating C&D waste reduction strategies under various scenarios, so that best management strategies could be identified before being implemented
Hybrid molecular dynamics simulation for plasma induced damage analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsukuma, Masaaki
2016-09-01
In order to enable further device size reduction (also known as Moore's law) and improved power performance, the semiconductor industry is introducing new materials and device structures into the semiconductor fabrication process. Materials now include III-V compounds, germanium, cobalt, ruthenium, hafnium, and others. The device structure in both memory and logic has been evolving from planar to three dimensional (3D). One such device is the FinFET, where the transistor gate is a vertical fin made either of silicon, silicon-germanium or germanium. These changes have brought renewed interests in the structural damages caused by energetic ion bombardment of the fin sidewalls which are exposed to the ion flux from the plasma during the fin-strip off step. Better control of the physical damage of the 3D devices requires a better understanding of the damage formation mechanisms on such new materials and structures. In this study, the damage formation processes by ion bombardment have been simulated for Si and Ge substrate by Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) hybrid simulations and compared to the results from the classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In our QM/MM simulations, the highly reactive region in which the structural damage is created is simulated with the Density Functional based Tight Binding (DFTB) method and the region remote from the primary region is simulated using classical MD with the Stillinger-Weber and Moliere potentials. The learn on the fly method is also used to reduce the computational load. Hence our QM/MM simulation is much faster than the full QC-MD simulations and the original QM/MM simulations. The amorphous layers profile simulated with QM/MM have obvious differences in their thickness for silicon and germanium substrate. The profile of damaged structure in the germanium substrate is characterized by a deeper tail then in silicon. These traits are also observed in the results from the mass selected ion beam
Photodynamics of oxybenzone sunscreen: Nonadiabatic dynamics simulations.
Li, Chun-Xiang; Guo, Wei-Wei; Xie, Bin-Bin; Cui, Ganglong
2016-08-21
Herein we have used combined static electronic structure calculations and "on-the-fly" global-switching trajectory surface-hopping dynamics simulations to explore the photochemical mechanism of oxybenzone sunscreen. We have first employed the multi-configurational CASSCF method to optimize minima, conical intersections, and minimum-energy reaction paths related to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and excited-state decays in the (1)ππ(∗), (1)nπ(∗), and S0 states (energies are refined at the higher MS-CASPT2 level). According to the mapped potential energy profiles, we have identified two ultrafast excited-state deactivation pathways for the initially populated (1)ππ(∗) system. The first is the diabatic ESIPT process along the (1)ππ(∗) potential energy profile. The generated (1)ππ(∗) keto species then decays to the S0 state via the keto (1)ππ(∗)/gs conical intersection. The second is internal conversion to the dark (1)nπ(∗) state near the (1)ππ(∗) /(1)nπ(∗) crossing point in the course of the diabatic (1)ππ(∗) ESIPT process. Our following dynamics simulations have shown that the ESIPT and (1)ππ(∗) → S0 internal conversion times are 104 and 286 fs, respectively. Finally, our present work demonstrates that in addition to the ESIPT process and the (1)ππ(∗) → S0 internal conversion in the keto region, the (1)ππ(∗) → (1)nπ(∗) internal conversion in the enol region plays as well an important role for the excited-state relaxation dynamics of oxybenzone.
Photodynamics of oxybenzone sunscreen: Nonadiabatic dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chun-Xiang; Guo, Wei-Wei; Xie, Bin-Bin; Cui, Ganglong
2016-08-01
Herein we have used combined static electronic structure calculations and "on-the-fly" global-switching trajectory surface-hopping dynamics simulations to explore the photochemical mechanism of oxybenzone sunscreen. We have first employed the multi-configurational CASSCF method to optimize minima, conical intersections, and minimum-energy reaction paths related to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and excited-state decays in the 1ππ∗, 1nπ∗, and S0 states (energies are refined at the higher MS-CASPT2 level). According to the mapped potential energy profiles, we have identified two ultrafast excited-state deactivation pathways for the initially populated 1ππ∗ system. The first is the diabatic ESIPT process along the 1ππ∗ potential energy profile. The generated 1ππ∗ keto species then decays to the S0 state via the keto 1ππ∗/gs conical intersection. The second is internal conversion to the dark 1nπ∗ state near the 1ππ∗ /1nπ∗ crossing point in the course of the diabatic 1ππ∗ ESIPT process. Our following dynamics simulations have shown that the ESIPT and 1ππ∗ → S0 internal conversion times are 104 and 286 fs, respectively. Finally, our present work demonstrates that in addition to the ESIPT process and the 1ππ∗ → S0 internal conversion in the keto region, the 1ππ∗ → 1nπ∗ internal conversion in the enol region plays as well an important role for the excited-state relaxation dynamics of oxybenzone.
The Dynamics of Miscible Interfaces: Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meiburg, Eckart
2005-01-01
This research project focuses on the dynamics of interfacial regions between miscible fluids. While much attention has focused on immiscible interfaces in the past, miscible interfaces have been explored to a much lesser degree, so that there are many open questions regarding their dynamics at this time. Among the more pressing issues is the role that nonconventional stresses can play in such interfacial regions. Such stresses are typically not accounted for in efforts to model the dynamics of miscible flows. Our research aims to clarify under which circumstances these stresses do have to be taken into account, and what quantitative approaches are most suitable in this regard. In order to address these issues, we have focused on conducting linear stability analyses and nonlinear simulations for capillary tube and Hele-Shaw flows, and to compare the results with corresponding experiments performed in the labs of our co-investigators Prof. Maxworthy at USC, and Dr. Balasubramaniam at NASA. Over the duration of the project we have, among other things, focused on the effects of variable diffusion coefficients in such flows, and specifically on their influence in the growth of instabilities. Furthermore, our three-dimensional spectral element simulations have made good progress, so that we have come to a point where we can conduct more detailed comparisons with experimental observations. We are currently focusing our efforts on reproducing the tip-splitting instability observed by Maxworthy. Finally, we have discovered a new core-annular flow instability in the Stokes flow regime during the last year. This represents a significant finding, as this instability does not have an immiscible counterpart.
Dynamical simulations of vesicle growth and division
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz-Herrero, Teresa; Mahadevan, L.
2015-03-01
Prebiotic cells constitute a beautiful and intriguing example of self-replicating vesicles. How these cells managed to grow and divide without sophisticated machinery is still an open question. The properties of these primitive vesicles can shed light on the ways modern cells have evolved by exploiting those characteristics to develop their replication mechanisms. The equilibrium configurations of elastic shells are well understood, however the dynamical behavior during growth still lacks of a deep theoretical understanding. To study vesicle growth from a general perspective, we have developed a minimal generic model where vesicles are represented by a 2D spring network and characterized by a minimum set of magnitudes: growth rate, permeability, bending stiffness, viscosity and temperature. We have performed hybrid molecuar dynamic simulations as a function of a reduced set of dimensionless parameters. Three main outcomes were observed: vesicles that grow without division, vesicles that divide symmetrically, and vesicles that act as generators of daughter vesicles. The type of outcome depends on the system parameters and specifically on its dynamics via two timescales. Furthermore, we found sets of parameters where the system shows size homeostasis. TRH was supported by Ramon Areces Foundation.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of a RNA Aptasensor.
Ruan, Min; Seydou, Mahamadou; Noel, Vincent; Piro, Benoit; Maurel, François; Barbault, Florent
2017-04-14
Single-stranded RNA aptamers have emerged as novel biosensor tools. However, the immobilization procedure of the aptamer onto a surface generally induces a loss of affinity. To understand this molecular process, we conducted a complete simulation study for the Flavin mononucleotide aptamer for which experimental data are available. Several molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of the Flavin in complex with its RNA aptamer were conducted in solution, linked with six thymidines (T6) and, finally, immobilized on an hexanol-thiol-functionalized gold surface. First, we demonstrated that our MD computations were able to reproduce the experimental solution structure and to provide a meaningful estimation of the Flavin free energy of binding. We also demonstrated that the T6 linkage, by itself, does not generate a perturbation of the Flavin recognition process. From the simulation of the complete biosensor system, we observed that the aptamer stays oriented parallel to the surface at a distance around 36 Å avoiding, this way, interaction with the surface. We evidenced a structural reorganization of the Flavin aptamer binding mode related to the loss of affinity and induced by an anisotropic distribution of sodium cationic densities. This means that ionic diffusion is different between the surface and the aptamer than above this last one. We suggest that these findings might be extrapolated to other nucleic acids systems for the future design of biosensors with higher efficiency and selectivity.
Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of dense matter
Collins, L.; Kress, J.; Troullier, N.; Lenosky, T.; Kwon, I.
1997-12-31
The authors have developed a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulation method for investigating the properties of dense matter in a variety of environments. The technique treats a periodically-replicated reference cell containing N atoms in which the nuclei move according to the classical equations-of-motion. The interatomic forces are generated from the quantum mechanical interactions of the (between?) electrons and nuclei. To generate these forces, the authors employ several methods of varying sophistication from the tight-binding (TB) to elaborate density functional (DF) schemes. In the latter case, lengthy simulations on the order of 200 atoms are routinely performed, while for the TB, which requires no self-consistency, upwards to 1000 atoms are systematically treated. The QMD method has been applied to a variety cases: (1) fluid/plasma Hydrogen from liquid density to 20 times volume-compressed for temperatures of a thousand to a million degrees Kelvin; (2) isotopic hydrogenic mixtures, (3) liquid metals (Li, Na, K); (4) impurities such as Argon in dense hydrogen plasmas; and (5) metal/insulator transitions in rare gas systems (Ar,Kr) under high compressions. The advent of parallel versions of the methods, especially for fast eigensolvers, presage LDA simulations in the range of 500--1000 atoms and TB runs for tens of thousands of particles. This leap should allow treatment of shock chemistry as well as large-scale mixtures of species in highly transient environments.
Digital system for structural dynamics simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krauter, A. I.; Lagace, L. J.; Wojnar, M. K.; Glor, C.
1982-01-01
State-of-the-art digital hardware and software for the simulation of complex structural dynamic interactions, such as those which occur in rotating structures (engine systems). System were incorporated in a designed to use an array of processors in which the computation for each physical subelement or functional subsystem would be assigned to a single specific processor in the simulator. These node processors are microprogrammed bit-slice microcomputers which function autonomously and can communicate with each other and a central control minicomputer over parallel digital lines. Inter-processor nearest neighbor communications busses pass the constants which represent physical constraints and boundary conditions. The node processors are connected to the six nearest neighbor node processors to simulate the actual physical interface of real substructures. Computer generated finite element mesh and force models can be developed with the aid of the central control minicomputer. The control computer also oversees the animation of a graphics display system, disk-based mass storage along with the individual processing elements.
Dynamics simulations for engineering macromolecular interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Shinar, Tamar; Silver, Pamela A.; Way, Jeffrey
2013-06-01
The predictable engineering of well-behaved transcriptional circuits is a central goal of synthetic biology. The artificial attachment of promoters to transcription factor genes usually results in noisy or chaotic behaviors, and such systems are unlikely to be useful in practical applications. Natural transcriptional regulation relies extensively on protein-protein interactions to insure tightly controlled behavior, but such tight control has been elusive in engineered systems. To help engineer protein-protein interactions, we have developed a molecular dynamics simulation framework that simplifies features of proteins moving by constrained Brownian motion, with the goal of performing long simulations. The behavior of a simulated protein system is determined by summation of forces that include a Brownian force, a drag force, excluded volume constraints, relative position constraints, and binding constraints that relate to experimentally determined on-rates and off-rates for chosen protein elements in a system. Proteins are abstracted as spheres. Binding surfaces are defined radially within a protein. Peptide linkers are abstracted as small protein-like spheres with rigid connections. To address whether our framework could generate useful predictions, we simulated the behavior of an engineered fusion protein consisting of two 20 000 Da proteins attached by flexible glycine/serine-type linkers. The two protein elements remained closely associated, as if constrained by a random walk in three dimensions of the peptide linker, as opposed to showing a distribution of distances expected if movement were dominated by Brownian motion of the protein domains only. We also simulated the behavior of fluorescent proteins tethered by a linker of varying length, compared the predicted Förster resonance energy transfer with previous experimental observations, and obtained a good correspondence. Finally, we simulated the binding behavior of a fusion of two ligands that could
Dynamics simulations for engineering macromolecular interactions.
Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Shinar, Tamar; Silver, Pamela A; Way, Jeffrey
2013-06-01
The predictable engineering of well-behaved transcriptional circuits is a central goal of synthetic biology. The artificial attachment of promoters to transcription factor genes usually results in noisy or chaotic behaviors, and such systems are unlikely to be useful in practical applications. Natural transcriptional regulation relies extensively on protein-protein interactions to insure tightly controlled behavior, but such tight control has been elusive in engineered systems. To help engineer protein-protein interactions, we have developed a molecular dynamics simulation framework that simplifies features of proteins moving by constrained Brownian motion, with the goal of performing long simulations. The behavior of a simulated protein system is determined by summation of forces that include a Brownian force, a drag force, excluded volume constraints, relative position constraints, and binding constraints that relate to experimentally determined on-rates and off-rates for chosen protein elements in a system. Proteins are abstracted as spheres. Binding surfaces are defined radially within a protein. Peptide linkers are abstracted as small protein-like spheres with rigid connections. To address whether our framework could generate useful predictions, we simulated the behavior of an engineered fusion protein consisting of two 20,000 Da proteins attached by flexible glycine/serine-type linkers. The two protein elements remained closely associated, as if constrained by a random walk in three dimensions of the peptide linker, as opposed to showing a distribution of distances expected if movement were dominated by Brownian motion of the protein domains only. We also simulated the behavior of fluorescent proteins tethered by a linker of varying length, compared the predicted Förster resonance energy transfer with previous experimental observations, and obtained a good correspondence. Finally, we simulated the binding behavior of a fusion of two ligands that could
Reduction of the Gibbs Oscillation in Spectral Model Simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navapra, A.; Stern, W. F.; Miyakoda, K.
1994-08-01
Spectral atmospheric general circulation models (GCMS) have been used for many years for the simulation and prediction of the atmospheric circulation, and their value has been widely recognized. Over the years, however, some deficiencies have been noticed. One of the major drawbacks is the inability of the spectral spherical harmonies transform to represent discontinuous features, resulting in Gibbs oscillations. In particular, precipitation and cloud fields present annoying ripple patterns, which may obscure true drought episodes in climate runs. Other fields, such as the surface winds along the Andes, are also plagued by the fictitious oscillations. On the other hand, it is not certain to what extent the large-scale flow may be affected. An attempt is made in this paper to alleviate this problem by changing the spectral representation of the fields in the GCM. The technique is to apply various filters to reduce the Gibbs oscillations. Lanczos and Cesaro filters are tested for both one and two dimensions. In addition, for two-dimensional applications an isotropic filter is tested. This filter is based on the Cesaro summation principle with a constraint on the total wavenumber. At the end, two-dimensional physical space filters are proposed that can retain high-mountain peak values. Two applications of these filters are presented.In the first application the method is applied to the orography field by filtering out sharp gradients or discontinuities. The numerical results with this method show some improvement in the cloud and precipitation fields, along with some improvement of the surface wind pattern, resulting in an overall better simulation.In the second application, a Gibbs reduction technique is applied to the condensation process. In this paper the moist-adiabatic adjustment scheme is used for the cumulus parameterization, in addition to large-scale condensation. Numerical results with this method to reduce Gibbs oscillations due to condensation show some
Molecular Simulations of Shear-Induced Dynamics in Nitromethane
2016-09-01
the shear response of single-crystal and bicrystal nitromethane (NM) are simulated using molecular dynamics simulations. The atomic interactions are...compressed to 28 GPa and then sheared, Raman studies show that the decomposition is sudden and explosive.5 In addition, structural modifications are...Molecular dynamics simulations are performed using the LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic /Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator) simulation package.9 The
A family of dynamic models for large-eddy simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, D.; Jansen, K.; Lund, T.
1995-01-01
Since its first application, the dynamic procedure has been recognized as an effective means to compute rather than prescribe the unknown coefficients that appear in a subgrid-scale model for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The dynamic procedure is usually used to determine the nondimensional coefficient in the Smagorinsky (1963) model. In reality the procedure is quite general and it is not limited to the Smagorinsky model by any theoretical or practical constraints. The purpose of this note is to consider a generalized family of dynamic eddy viscosity models that do not necessarily rely on the local equilibrium assumption built into the Smagorinsky model. By invoking an inertial range assumption, it will be shown that the coefficients in the new models need not be nondimensional. This additional degree of freedom allows the use of models that are scaled on traditionally unknown quantities such as the dissipation rate. In certain cases, the dynamic models with dimensional coefficients are simpler to implement, and allow for a 30% reduction in the number of required filtering operations.
On sequential dynamical systems and simulation
Barrett, C.L.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.
1999-06-01
The generic structure of computer simulations motivates a new class of discrete dynamical systems that captures this structure in a mathematically precise way. This class of systems consists of (1) a loopfree graph {Upsilon} with vertex set {l_brace}1,2,{hor_ellipsis},n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (2) a vertex labeled set of functions (F{sub i,{Upsilon}}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {r_arrow} F{sub 2}{sup n}){sub i} and (3) a permutation {pi} {element_of} S{sub n}. The function F{sub i,{Upsilon}} updates the state of vertex i as a function of the states of vertex i and its {Upsilon}-neighbors and leaves the states of all other vertices fixed. The permutation {pi} represents the update ordering, i.e., the order in which the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} are applied. By composing the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} in the order given by {pi} one obtains the dynamical system (equation given in paper) which the authors refer to as a sequential dynamical system, or SDS for short. The authors will present bounds for the number of functionally different systems and for the number of nonisomorphic digraphs {Gamma}[F{sub {Upsilon}},{pi}] that can be obtained by varying the update order and applications of these to specific graphs and graph classes. This will be done using both combinatorial/algebraic techniques and probabilistic techniques. Finally the authors give results on dynamical system properties for some special systems.
Chemical complexity in astrophysical simulations: optimization and reduction techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grassi, T.; Bovino, S.; Schleicher, D.; Gianturco, F. A.
2013-05-01
Chemistry plays a key role in the evolution of the interstellar medium, so it is highly important to follow its evolution in numerical simulations. However, it could easily dominate the computational cost when applied to large systems. In this paper we discuss two approaches to reduce these costs: (i) based on computational strategies, and (ii) based on the properties and on the topology of the chemical network. The first methods are more robust, while the second are meant to be giving important information on the structure of large, complex networks. We first discuss the numerical solvers for integrating the system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) associated with the chemical network, and then we propose a buffer method that decreases the computational time spent in solving the ODE system. We further discuss a flux-based method that allows one to determine and then cut on the fly the less active reactions. In addition we also present a topological approach for selecting the most probable species that will be active during the chemical evolution, thus gaining information on the chemical network that otherwise would be difficult to retrieve. This topological technique can also be used as an a priori reduction method for any size network. We implemented these methods into a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamical code to test their effects: both classes lead to large computational speed-ups, ranging from ×2 to ×5. We have also tested some hybrid approaches finding that coupling the flux method with a buffer strategy gives the best trade-off between robustness and speed-up of calculations.
Strategies for the dynamical-optical simulation of high-performance optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Störkle, Johannes; Eberhard, Peter
2016-07-01
In order to simulate and investigate the dynamical-optical behavior of high precision optics, integrated modeling strategies and methods are proposed within this work. For instance, this optical systems can be a telescope optic or a lithographic objective. In order to derive a simplified mechanical model for time simulations with low computational cost, the method of elastic multibody systems in combination with model order reduction methods can be used. For this, software-tools and interfaces are developed. Furthermore, mechanical and optical simulation models are derived and implemented. In order to clarify these methods, an academic mirror example is chosen and the influence of the model order reduction methods is analysed.
Yuan Hongping; Chini, Abdol R.; Lu Yujie; Shen Liyin
2012-03-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposes a model for projecting C and D waste reduction of construction projects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model can simulate effects of various management strategies on waste reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model integrates all essential variables that affect C and D waste reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By using the model, best strategies could be identified before being implemented. - Abstract: During the past few decades, construction and demolition (C and D) waste has received increasing attention from construction practitioners and researchers worldwide. A plethora of research regarding C and D waste management has been published in various academic journals. However, it has been determined that existing studies with respect to C and D waste reduction are mainly carried out from a static perspective, without considering the dynamic and interdependent nature of the whole waste reduction system. This might lead to misunderstanding about the actual effect of implementing any waste reduction strategies. Therefore, this research proposes a model that can serve as a decision support tool for projecting C and D waste reduction in line with the waste management situation of a given construction project, and more importantly, as a platform for simulating effects of various management strategies on C and D waste reduction. The research is conducted using system dynamics methodology, which is a systematic approach that deals with the complexity - interrelationships and dynamics - of any social, economic and managerial system. The dynamic model integrates major variables that affect C and D waste reduction. In this paper, seven causal loop diagrams that can deepen understanding about the feedback relationships underlying C and D waste reduction system are firstly presented. Then a stock-flow diagram is formulated by using software for system dynamics modeling. Finally, a case study is used to
Euclidean lattice simulation for dynamical supersymmetry breaking
Kanamori, Issaku; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Sugino, Fumihiko
2008-05-01
The global supersymmetry is spontaneously broken if and only if the ground-state energy is strictly positive. We propose to use this fact to observe the spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in Euclidean lattice simulations. For lattice formulations that possess a manifest fermionic symmetry, there exists a natural choice of a Hamiltonian operator that is consistent with a topological property of the Witten index. We confirm validity of our idea in models of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics. We then examine a possibility of a dynamical supersymmetry breaking in the two-dimensional N=(2,2) super Yang-Mills theory with the gauge group SU(2), for which the Witten index is unknown. Differently from a recent conjectural claim, our numerical result tempts us to conclude that supersymmetry is not spontaneously broken in this system.
Protein Dynamics from NMR and Computer Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Qiong; Kravchenko, Olga; Kemple, Marvin; Likic, Vladimir; Klimtchuk, Elena; Prendergast, Franklyn
2002-03-01
Proteins exhibit internal motions from the millisecond to sub-nanosecond time scale. The challenge is to relate these internal motions to biological function. A strategy to address this aim is to apply a combination of several techniques including high-resolution NMR, computer simulation of molecular dynamics (MD), molecular graphics, and finally molecular biology, the latter to generate appropriate samples. Two difficulties that arise are: (1) the time scale which is most directly biologically relevant (ms to μs) is not readily accessible by these techniques and (2) the techniques focus on local and not collective motions. We will outline methods using ^13C-NMR to help alleviate the second problem, as applied to intestinal fatty acid binding protein, a relatively small intracellular protein believed to be involved in fatty acid transport and metabolism. This work is supported in part by PHS Grant GM34847 (FGP) and by a fellowship from the American Heart Association (QW).
CADS:Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator.
Moffat, Harry K.
2007-07-01
This manual describes a library for aerosol kinetics and transport, called CADS (Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator), which employs a section-based approach for describing the particle size distributions. CADS is based upon Cantera, a set of C++ libraries and applications that handles gas phase species transport and reactions. The method uses a discontinuous Galerkin formulation to represent the particle distributions within each section and to solve for changes to the aerosol particle distributions due to condensation, coagulation, and nucleation processes. CADS conserves particles, elements, and total enthalpy up to numerical round-off error, in all of its formulations. Both 0-D time dependent and 1-D steady state applications (an opposing-flow flame application) have been developed with CADS, with the initial emphasis on developing fundamental mechanisms for soot formation within fires. This report also describes the 0-D application, TDcads, which models a time-dependent perfectly stirred reactor.
Simulating dynamical features of escape panic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helbing, Dirk; Farkas, Illés; Vicsek, Tamás
2000-09-01
One of the most disastrous forms of collective human behaviour is the kind of crowd stampede induced by panic, often leading to fatalities as people are crushed or trampled. Sometimes this behaviour is triggered in life-threatening situations such as fires in crowded buildings; at other times, stampedes can arise during the rush for seats or seemingly without cause. Although engineers are finding ways to alleviate the scale of such disasters, their frequency seems to be increasing with the number and size of mass events. But systematic studies of panic behaviour and quantitative theories capable of predicting such crowd dynamics are rare. Here we use a model of pedestrian behaviour to investigate the mechanisms of (and preconditions for) panic and jamming by uncoordinated motion in crowds. Our simulations suggest practical ways to prevent dangerous crowd pressures. Moreover, we find an optimal strategy for escape from a smoke-filled room, involving a mixture of individualistic behaviour and collective `herding' instinct.
Fiber lubrication: A molecular dynamics simulation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongyi
Molecular and mesoscopic level description of friction and lubrication remains a challenge because of difficulties in the phenomenological understanding of to the behaviors of solid-liquid interfaces during sliding. Fortunately, there is the computational simulation approach opens an opportunity to predict and analyze interfacial phenomena, which were studied with molecular dynamics (MD) and mesoscopic dynamics (MesoDyn) simulations. Polypropylene (PP) and cellulose are two of most common polymers in textile fibers. Confined amorphous surface layers of PP and cellulose were built successfully with xenon crystals which were used to compact the polymers. The physical and surface properties of the PP and cellulose surface layers were investigated by MD simulations, including the density, cohesive energy, volumetric thermal expansion, and contact angle with water. The topology method was employed to predict the properties of poly(alkylene glycol) (PAG) diblock copolymers and Pluronic triblock copolymers used as lubricants on surfaces. Density, zero shear viscosity, shear module, cohesive energy and solubility parameter were predicted with each block copolymer. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the interaction energy per unit contact area of block copolymer melts with PP and cellulose surfaces. The interaction energy is defined as the ratio of interfacial interaction energy to the contact area. Both poly(proplene oxide) (PPO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments provided a lipophilic character to both PP and cellulose surfaces. The PPO/PEO ratio and the molecular weight were found to impact the interaction energy on both PP and cellulose surfaces. In aqueous solutions, the interaction energy is complicated due to the presence of water and the cross interactions between the multiple molecular components. The polymer-water-surface (PWS) calculation method was proposed to calculate such complex systems. In a contrast with a vacuum condition, the presence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreno, Nicolas; Nunes, Suzana P.; Calo, Victor M.
2015-11-01
We introduce a framework for model reduction of polymer chain models for dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, where the properties governing the phase equilibria such as the characteristic size of the chain, compressibility, density, and temperature are preserved. The proposed methodology reduces the number of degrees of freedom required in traditional DPD representations to model equilibrium properties of systems with complex molecules (e.g., linear polymers). Based on geometrical considerations we explicitly account for the correlation between beads in fine-grained DPD models and consistently represent the effect of these correlations in a reduced model, in a practical and simple fashion via power laws and the consistent scaling of the simulation parameters. In order to satisfy the geometrical constraints in the reduced model we introduce bond-angle potentials that account for the changes in the chain free energy after the model reduction. Following this coarse-graining process we represent high molecular weight DPD chains (i.e., ≥ 200 beads per chain) with a significant reduction in the number of particles required (i.e., ≥ 20 times the original system). We show that our methodology has potential applications modeling systems of high molecular weight molecules at large scales, such as diblock copolymer and DNA.
Simulations of Operation Dynamics of Different Type GaN Particle Sensors
Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Vysniauskas, Juozas
2015-01-01
The operation dynamics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift-diffusion models. The drift-diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The monopolar and bipolar drift regimes have been analyzed by using dynamic models based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. The carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization have been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to introduction of radiation defects into GaN detector material. PMID:25751080
In silico FRET from simulated dye dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoefling, Martin; Grubmüller, Helmut
2013-03-01
Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) experiments probe molecular distances on the nanometer scale. In such experiments, distances are recorded from FRET transfer efficiencies via the Förster formula, E=1/(1+(). The energy transfer however also depends on the mutual orientation of the two dyes used as distance reporter. Since this information is typically inaccessible in FRET experiments, one has to rely on approximations, which reduce the accuracy of these distance measurements. A common approximation is an isotropic and uncorrelated dye orientation distribution. To assess the impact of such approximations, we present the algorithms and implementation of a computational toolkit for the simulation of smFRET on the basis of molecular dynamics (MD) trajectory ensembles. In this study, the dye orientation dynamics, which are used to determine dynamic FRET efficiencies, are extracted from MD simulations. In a subsequent step, photons and bursts are generated using a Monte Carlo algorithm. The application of the developed toolkit on a poly-proline system demonstrated good agreement between smFRET simulations and experimental results and therefore confirms our computational method. Furthermore, it enabled the identification of the structural basis of measured heterogeneity. The presented computational toolkit is written in Python, available as open-source, applicable to arbitrary systems and can easily be extended and adapted to further problems. Catalogue identifier: AENV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPLv3, the bundled SIMD friendly Mersenne twister implementation [1] is provided under the SFMT-License. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 317880 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 54774217 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language
Coarse-grained protein molecular dynamics simulations.
Derreumaux, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand
2007-01-14
A limiting factor in biological science is the time-scale gap between experimental and computational trajectories. At this point, all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) are clearly too expensive to explore long-range protein motions and extract accurate thermodynamics of proteins in isolated or multimeric forms. To reach the appropriate time scale, we must then resort to coarse graining. Here we couple the coarse-grained OPEP model, which has already been used with activated methods, to MD simulations. Two test cases are studied: the stability of three proteins around their experimental structures and the aggregation mechanisms of the Alzheimer's Abeta16-22 peptides. We find that coarse-grained isolated proteins are stable at room temperature within 50 ns time scale. Based on two 220 ns trajectories starting from disordered chains, we find that four Abeta16-22 peptides can form a three-stranded beta sheet. We also demonstrate that the reptation move of one chain over the others, first observed using the activation-relaxation technique, is a kinetically important mechanism during aggregation. These results show that MD-OPEP is a particularly appropriate tool to study qualitatively the dynamics of long biological processes and the thermodynamics of molecular assemblies.
Coarse-grained protein molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derreumaux, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand
2007-01-01
A limiting factor in biological science is the time-scale gap between experimental and computational trajectories. At this point, all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) are clearly too expensive to explore long-range protein motions and extract accurate thermodynamics of proteins in isolated or multimeric forms. To reach the appropriate time scale, we must then resort to coarse graining. Here we couple the coarse-grained OPEP model, which has already been used with activated methods, to MD simulations. Two test cases are studied: the stability of three proteins around their experimental structures and the aggregation mechanisms of the Alzheimer's Aβ16-22 peptides. We find that coarse-grained isolated proteins are stable at room temperature within 50ns time scale. Based on two 220ns trajectories starting from disordered chains, we find that four Aβ16-22 peptides can form a three-stranded β sheet. We also demonstrate that the reptation move of one chain over the others, first observed using the activation-relaxation technique, is a kinetically important mechanism during aggregation. These results show that MD-OPEP is a particularly appropriate tool to study qualitatively the dynamics of long biological processes and the thermodynamics of molecular assemblies.
Molecular dynamics simulations of microscale fluid transport
Wong, C.C.; Lopez, A.R.; Stevens, M.J.; Plimpton, S.J.
1998-02-01
Recent advances in micro-science and technology, like Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), have generated a group of unique liquid flow problems that involve characteristic length scales of a Micron. Also, in manufacturing processes such as coatings, current continuum models are unable to predict microscale physical phenomena that appear in these non-equilibrium systems. It is suspected that in these systems, molecular-level processes can control the interfacial energy and viscoelastic properties at the liquid/solid boundary. A massively parallel molecular dynamics (MD) code has been developed to better understand microscale transport mechanisms, fluid-structure interactions, and scale effects in micro-domains. Specifically, this MD code has been used to analyze liquid channel flow problems for a variety of channel widths, e.g. 0.005-0.05 microns. This report presents results from MD simulations of Poiseuille flow and Couette flow problems and addresses both scaling and modeling issues. For Poiseuille flow, the numerical predictions are compared with existing data to investigate the variation of the friction factor with channel width. For Couette flow, the numerical predictions are used to determine the degree of slip at the liquid/solid boundary. Finally, the results also indicate that shear direction with respect to the wall lattice orientation can be very important. Simulation results of microscale Couette flow and microscale Poiseuille flow for two different surface structures and two different shear directions will be presented.
Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics
Cloutman, L.D.
1991-11-30
A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a ``tulip flame`` in the literature, occurred. The ``tulip flame`` was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.
Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics
Cloutman, L.D.
1991-11-30
A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a tulip flame'' in the literature, occurred. The tulip flame'' was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Ferroelectric Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Rici; Krakauer, Henry
1997-03-01
Based on an analysis of the wavevector dependence of the lattice instabilities in KNbO_3, we proposed a real-space chain-like instability and a scenario of sequential freezing out or onset of coherence of these instabilities, which qualitatively explains the sequence of observed temperature-dependent ferroelectric phases.(R. Yu and H. Krakauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74), 4067 (1995). We suggested that this chain-like instability should also be found in BaTiO_3, and this has been subsequently confirmed by Ghosez et al.(P. Ghosez et al.), Proc. 4th Williamsburg Workshop on First-Principles Calculations for Ferroelectrics, to be published We will present molecular dynamics simulations on BaTiO_3, using effective Hamiltonians constructed from first-principles calculations,(W. Zhong, D. Vanderbilt, and K. M. Rabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73), 1861 (1994). that reproduce the essential features of diffuse x-ray scattering measurements in the cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, and rhombohedral phases. The good agreement supports the interpretation of real-space chain-formation. Simulations for KNbO3 may also be reported.
The Dynamics of Miscible Interfaces: Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meiburg, Eckart
2002-01-01
The goal of this experimental/computational investigation (joint with Prof Maxworthy at USC) has been to study the dynamics of miscible interfaces, both from a scientific and a practical point of view, and to prepare a related experiment to be flown on the International Space Station. In order to address these effects, we have focused experimental and computational investigations on miscible displacements in cylindrical capillary tubes, as well as in Hele-Shaw cells. Regarding the flow in a capillary tube, the question was addressed as to whether Korteweg stresses and/or divergence effects can potentially account for discrepancies observed between conventional Stokes flow simulations and experiments for miscible flows in capillary tubes. An estimate of the vorticity and streamfunction fields induced by the Kortewegs stresses was derived, which shows these stresses to result in the formation of a vortex ring structure near the tip of the concentration front. Through this mechanism the propagation velocity of the concentration front is reduced, in agreement with the experimental observations. Divergence effects, on the other hand, were seen to be very small, and they have a negligible influence on the tip velocity. As a result, it can be concluded that they are not responsible for the discrepancies between experiments and conventional Stokes simulations. A further part of our investigation focussed on the development of high-accuracy three-dimensional spectral element simulation techniques for miscible flows in capillary tubes, including the effects of variable density and viscosity. Towards this end, the conservation equations are treated in cylindrical coordinates.
Consequence modeling using the fire dynamics simulator.
Ryder, Noah L; Sutula, Jason A; Schemel, Christopher F; Hamer, Andrew J; Van Brunt, Vincent
2004-11-11
The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and in particular Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes to model fires provides an efficient tool for the prediction of large-scale effects that include plume characteristics, combustion product dispersion, and heat effects to adjacent objects. This paper illustrates the strengths of the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), an LES code developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), through several small and large-scale validation runs and process safety applications. The paper presents two fire experiments--a small room fire and a large (15 m diameter) pool fire. The model results are compared to experimental data and demonstrate good agreement between the models and data. The validation work is then extended to demonstrate applicability to process safety concerns by detailing a model of a tank farm fire and a model of the ignition of a gaseous fuel in a confined space. In this simulation, a room was filled with propane, given time to disperse, and was then ignited. The model yields accurate results of the dispersion of the gas throughout the space. This information can be used to determine flammability and explosive limits in a space and can be used in subsequent models to determine the pressure and temperature waves that would result from an explosion. The model dispersion results were compared to an experiment performed by Factory Mutual. Using the above examples, this paper will demonstrate that FDS is ideally suited to build realistic models of process geometries in which large scale explosion and fire failure risks can be evaluated with several distinct advantages over more traditional CFD codes. Namely transient solutions to fire and explosion growth can be produced with less sophisticated hardware (lower cost) than needed for traditional CFD codes (PC type computer verses UNIX workstation) and can be solved for longer time histories (on the order of hundreds of seconds of computed time) with
Dynamic Shade and Irradiance Simulation of Aquatic Landscapes and Watersheds
Penumbra is a landscape shade and irradiance simulation model that simulates how solar energy spatially and temporally interacts within dynamic ecosystems such as riparian zones, forests, and other terrain that cast topological shadows. Direct and indirect solar energy accumulate...
Drag reduction and the dynamics of turbulence in simple and complex fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, Michael
2013-11-01
Addition of a small amount of very large polymer molecules or micelle-forming surfactants to a liquid can dramatically reduce the energy dissipation it exhibits in the turbulent flow regime. This rheological drag reduction phenomenon is widely used, for example in the Alaska pipeline, but it is not well-understood, and no comparable technology exists to reduce turbulent energy consumption in flows of gases, in which polymers or surfactants cannot be dissolved. The most striking feature of this phenomenon is the existence of a so-called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote: for a given geometry and driving force, there is a maximum level of drag reduction that can be achieved through addition of polymers. Changing the concentration, molecular weight or even the chemical structure of the additives has no effect on this asymptotic value. This universality is the major puzzle of drag reduction. We describe direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow of Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic polymer solutions. Even in the absence of polymers, we show that there are intervals of ``hibernating'' turbulence that display very low drag as well as many other features of the MDR asymptote observed in polymer solutions. As viscoelasticity increases, the frequency of these intervals also increases, leading to flows that increasingly resemble MDR. A simple theory captures key features of the intermittent dynamics observed in the simulations. Additionally, simulations of ``edge states,'' dynamical trajectories that lie on the boundary between turbulent and laminar flow, display characteristics that are similar to those of hibernating turbulence and thus to the MDR asymptote, again even in the absence of polymer additives. Based on these observations, we propose a tentative unified description of rheological drag reduction. The existence of ``MDR-like'' intervals even in the absence of additives sheds light on the observed universality of MDR and may ultimately lead to new
Drag reduction and the dynamics of turbulence in simple and complex fluidsa)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graham, Michael D.
2014-10-01
Addition of a small amount of very large polymer molecules or micelle-forming surfactants to a liquid can dramatically reduce the energy dissipation it exhibits in the turbulent flow regime. This rheological drag reduction phenomenon is widely used, for example, in the Alaska pipeline, but it is not well-understood, and no comparable technology exists to reduce turbulent energy consumption in flows of gases, in which polymers or surfactants cannot be dissolved. The most striking feature of this phenomenon is the existence of a so-called maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote: for a given geometry and driving force, there is a maximum level of drag reduction that can be achieved through addition of polymers. Changing the concentration, molecular weight or even the chemical structure of the additives has little to no effect on this asymptotic value. This universality is the major puzzle of drag reduction. We describe direct numerical simulations of turbulent minimal channel flow of Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic polymer solutions. Even in the absence of polymers, we show that there are intervals of "hibernating" turbulence that display very low drag as well as many other features of the MDR asymptote observed in polymer solutions. As Weissenberg number increases to moderate values the frequency of these intervals also increases, and a simple theory captures key features of the intermittent dynamics observed in the simulations. At higher Weissenberg number, these intervals are altered - for example, their duration becomes substantially longer and the instantaneous Reynolds shear stress during them becomes very small. Additionally, simulations of "edge states," dynamical trajectories that lie on the boundary between turbulent and laminar flow, display characteristics that are similar to those of hibernating turbulence and thus to the MDR asymptote, again even in the absence of polymer additives. Based on these observations, we propose a tentative unified description
A novel coupling of noise reduction algorithms for particle flow simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimoń, M. J.; Reese, J. M.; Emerson, D. R.
2016-09-01
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and its extension based on time-windows have been shown to greatly improve the effectiveness of recovering smooth ensemble solutions from noisy particle data. However, to successfully de-noise any molecular system, a large number of measurements still need to be provided. In order to achieve a better efficiency in processing time-dependent fields, we have combined POD with a well-established signal processing technique, wavelet-based thresholding. In this novel hybrid procedure, the wavelet filtering is applied within the POD domain and referred to as WAVinPOD. The algorithm exhibits promising results when applied to both synthetically generated signals and particle data. In this work, the simulations compare the performance of our new approach with standard POD or wavelet analysis in extracting smooth profiles from noisy velocity and density fields. Numerical examples include molecular dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics simulations of unsteady force- and shear-driven liquid flows, as well as phase separation phenomenon. Simulation results confirm that WAVinPOD preserves the dimensionality reduction obtained using POD, while improving its filtering properties through the sparse representation of data in wavelet basis. This paper shows that WAVinPOD outperforms the other estimators for both synthetically generated signals and particle-based measurements, achieving a higher signal-to-noise ratio from a smaller number of samples. The new filtering methodology offers significant computational savings, particularly for multi-scale applications seeking to couple continuum informations with atomistic models. It is the first time that a rigorous analysis has compared de-noising techniques for particle-based fluid simulations.
A novel coupling of noise reduction algorithms for particle flow simulations
Zimoń, M.J.; Reese, J.M.; Emerson, D.R.
2016-09-15
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and its extension based on time-windows have been shown to greatly improve the effectiveness of recovering smooth ensemble solutions from noisy particle data. However, to successfully de-noise any molecular system, a large number of measurements still need to be provided. In order to achieve a better efficiency in processing time-dependent fields, we have combined POD with a well-established signal processing technique, wavelet-based thresholding. In this novel hybrid procedure, the wavelet filtering is applied within the POD domain and referred to as WAVinPOD. The algorithm exhibits promising results when applied to both synthetically generated signals and particle data. In this work, the simulations compare the performance of our new approach with standard POD or wavelet analysis in extracting smooth profiles from noisy velocity and density fields. Numerical examples include molecular dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics simulations of unsteady force- and shear-driven liquid flows, as well as phase separation phenomenon. Simulation results confirm that WAVinPOD preserves the dimensionality reduction obtained using POD, while improving its filtering properties through the sparse representation of data in wavelet basis. This paper shows that WAVinPOD outperforms the other estimators for both synthetically generated signals and particle-based measurements, achieving a higher signal-to-noise ratio from a smaller number of samples. The new filtering methodology offers significant computational savings, particularly for multi-scale applications seeking to couple continuum informations with atomistic models. It is the first time that a rigorous analysis has compared de-noising techniques for particle-based fluid simulations.
Large-eddy simulation of combustion dynamics in swirling flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, Christopher Pritchard
The impact of premixer swirl number, S, and overall fuel equivalence ratio, phi, on the stability of a model swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed gas turbine combustor has been numerically investigated using a massively-parallel Large-Eddy Simulations Combustion Dynamics model. Through the use of a premixed combustion model, unsteady vortex-flame and acoustic-flame interactions are captured. It is observed that for flows with swirl intensity high enough to form Vortex-Breakdown (i.e., a phenomena associated with a large region of reverse or recirculating flow along the axis of rotation), the measured rms pressure amplitude (p') are attenuated significantly (over 6.6 dB reduction) compared to flows without this phenomena. The reduced p' amplitudes are accompanied by reduced longitudinal flame-front oscillations and reduced coherence in the shed vortices. Similar p' reduction levels are achieved through changes in the operating equivalence ratio, phi. Compared to the leanest equivalence ratio simulated (phi = 0.52), p' at a stoichiometric mixture is reduced by 6.0 dB. Methodologies for active control based on modulation of the inlet Swirl number (S, a measure of the intensity of swirl) and phi are also investigated. Open-loop control through S variation is demonstrated for a lean mixture with a significant reduction in the fluctuating mass-flow-rate and p' after a convective time-delay. A partially-premixed combustion model, which allows for variations in the local phi, is used to model both temporal and spatial variations in phi. It is found that the response time to changes in phi are much faster than those for changes in S. Also, it is shown that spatial variations in phi (or unmixedness) actually lead to p' attenuation in the current combustor configuration.
Granular Flow and Dynamics of Lunar Simulants in Excavating Implements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Agui, Juan H.; Wilkinson, R. Allen
2010-01-01
The exploration of the lunar surface will rely on properly designed excavation equipment for surface preparations and for collection of lunar regolith in In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) processes. Performance efficiency, i.e minimizing loading forces while maximizing material collection, and mass and volume reductions are major design goals. The NASA Glenn Research Center has embarked on an experimental program to determine the flow characteristics and dynamic forces produced by excavation operations using various excavator bucket designs. A new large scale soil bin facility, 2.27 m x 5.94 m x 0.76 m (nominally 8 ft. x 20 ft. x 27 in.) in size, capable of accommodating moderately large test implements was used for the simulations of lunar operations. The soil bin is filled with GRC-3simulant (a mixture of industrial sands and silt with a particle size distribution and the bulk mechanical (shear) strength representative of an average of lunar regolith from different regions) and uses motorized horizontal rails and a vertical actuator to drive the implement through the lunar simulant soil. A six-axis load cell and encoders provide well resolved measurements of the three dimensional forces and torques and motion of the bucket. In addition, simultaneous video allows for the analysis of the flow behavior and structure formation of the regolith during excavation. The data may be useful in anchoring soil mechanic models and to provide engineering data for design consideration.
Dynamic Simulation of EAF on RTDS for Compensation Sizing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meera, K. S.
2016-06-01
Large sized electric arc furnaces (EAF) causes power quality problems such as flicker, harmonics etc. due to their unbalanced and non-linear behavior characteristics. The rapid swings in real and reactive power of such non-linear loads causes fast repetitive voltage variations with appreciable voltage distortion caused by harmonics and unbalance. Some form of reactive compensation is usually adopted to limit the disturbances caused by EAF in electric power system, in particular the flicker. This paper highlights the results of a case study, where the arc furnace is modelled using statistical dynamic model of the furnace using real time digital simulator which allows more real time simulations tests to be conducted in a shorter time and also provides a more detailed power system representation for the tests. The investigation of the simulation study results showed that static VAR compensators can be successfully used for reduction of flicker levels, compensation of reactive power and for the regulation of voltage levels in the EAF plant under study.
Dynamic Simulation of EAF on RTDS for Compensation Sizing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meera, K. S.
2017-02-01
Large sized electric arc furnaces (EAF) causes power quality problems such as flicker, harmonics etc. due to their unbalanced and non-linear behavior characteristics. The rapid swings in real and reactive power of such non-linear loads causes fast repetitive voltage variations with appreciable voltage distortion caused by harmonics and unbalance. Some form of reactive compensation is usually adopted to limit the disturbances caused by EAF in electric power system, in particular the flicker. This paper highlights the results of a case study, where the arc furnace is modelled using statistical dynamic model of the furnace using real time digital simulator which allows more real time simulations tests to be conducted in a shorter time and also provides a more detailed power system representation for the tests. The investigation of the simulation study results showed that static VAR compensators can be successfully used for reduction of flicker levels, compensation of reactive power and for the regulation of voltage levels in the EAF plant under study.
Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation.
Ilie, Ioana M; den Otter, Wouter K; Briels, Wim J
2014-08-14
The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.
Rotational Brownian Dynamics simulations of clathrin cage formation
Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; Otter, Wouter K. den
2014-08-14
The self-assembly of nearly rigid proteins into ordered aggregates is well suited for modeling by the patchy particle approach. Patchy particles are traditionally simulated using Monte Carlo methods, to study the phase diagram, while Brownian Dynamics simulations would reveal insights into the assembly dynamics. However, Brownian Dynamics of rotating anisotropic particles gives rise to a number of complications not encountered in translational Brownian Dynamics. We thoroughly test the Rotational Brownian Dynamics scheme proposed by Naess and Elsgaeter [Macromol. Theory Simul. 13, 419 (2004); Naess and Elsgaeter Macromol. Theory Simul. 14, 300 (2005)], confirming its validity. We then apply the algorithm to simulate a patchy particle model of clathrin, a three-legged protein involved in vesicle production from lipid membranes during endocytosis. Using this algorithm we recover time scales for cage assembly comparable to those from experiments. We also briefly discuss the undulatory dynamics of the polyhedral cage.
High frequency dynamic engine simulation. [TF-30 engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuerman, J. A.; Fischer, K. E.; Mclaughlin, P. W.
1977-01-01
A digital computer simulation of a mixed flow, twin spool turbofan engine was assembled to evaluate and improve the dynamic characteristics of the engine simulation to disturbance frequencies of at least 100 Hz. One dimensional forms of the dynamic mass, momentum and energy equations were used to model the engine. A TF30 engine was simulated so that dynamic characteristics could be evaluated against results obtained from testing of the TF30 engine at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Dynamic characteristics of the engine simulation were improved by modifying the compression system model. Modifications to the compression system model were established by investigating the influence of size and number of finite dynamic elements. Based on the results of this program, high frequency engine simulations using finite dynamic elements can be assembled so that the engine dynamic configuration is optimum with respect to dynamic characteristics and computer execution time. Resizing of the compression systems finite elements improved the dynamic characteristics of the engine simulation but showed that additional refinements are required to obtain close agreement simulation and actual engine dynamic characteristics.
Simulation of chemical isomerization reaction dynamics on a NMR quantum simulator.
Lu, Dawei; Xu, Nanyang; Xu, Ruixue; Chen, Hongwei; Gong, Jiangbin; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng
2011-07-08
Quantum simulation can beat current classical computers with minimally a few tens of qubits. Here we report an experimental demonstration that a small nuclear-magnetic-resonance quantum simulator is already able to simulate the dynamics of a prototype laser-driven isomerization reaction using engineered quantum control pulses. The experimental results agree well with classical simulations. We conclude that the quantum simulation of chemical reaction dynamics not computable on current classical computers is feasible in the near future.
Nonlinear Resonance Artifacts in Molecular Dynamics Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlick, Tamar; Mandziuk, Margaret; Skeel, Robert D.; Srinivas, K.
1998-02-01
The intriguing phenomenon of resonance, a pronounced integrator-induced corruption of a system's dynamics, is examined for simple molecular systems subject to the classical equations of motion. This source of timestep limitation is not well appreciated in general, and certainly analyses of resonance patterns have been few in connection to biomolecular dynamics. Yet resonances are present in the commonly used Verlet integrator, in symplectic implicit schemes, and also limit the scope of current multiple-timestep methods that are formulated as symplectic and reversible. The only general remedy to date has been to reduce the timestep. For this purpose, we derive method-dependent timestep thresholds (e.g., Tables 1 and 2) that serve as useful guidelines in practice for biomolecular simulations. We also devise closely related symplectic implicit schemes for which the limitation on the discretization stepsize is much less severe. Specifically, we design methods to remove third-order, or both the third- and fourth-order, resonances. These severe low-order resonances can lead to instability or very large energies. Our tests on two simple molecular problems (Morse and Lennard-Jones potentials), as well as a 22-atom molecule, N-acetylalanyl-N '-methylamide, confirm this prediction; our methods can delay resonances so that they occur only at larger timesteps (EW method) or are essentially removed (LIM2 method). Although stable for large timesteps by this approach, trajectories show large energy fluctuations, perhaps due to the coupling with other factors that induce instability in complex nonlinear systems. Thus, the methods developed here may be more useful for conformational sampling of biomolecular structures. The analysis presented here for the blocked alanine model emphasizes that one-dimensional analysis of resonances can be applied to a more complex, multimode system to analyze resonance behavior, but that resonance due to frequency coupling is more complex to pinpoint
Nanoscale deicing by molecular dynamics simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Senbo; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang
2016-07-01
Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice adhesion strength by an aqueous water layer, and provide atomistic details that support previous experimental studies. Our results contribute quantitative comparison of nanoscale adhesion strength of ice on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, and supply for the first time theoretical references for understanding the mechanics at the atomistic origins of macroscale ice adhesion.Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice
Flight Hour Reductions in Fleet Replacement Pilot Training through Simulation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smode, Alfred F.
A project was undertaken to integrate the 2F87F operational flight trainer into the program for training replacement patrol plane pilots. The objectives were to determine the potential of the simulator as a substitute environment for learning aircraft tasks and to effectively utilize the simulator in pilot training. The students involved in the…
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Disordered Zircon
Devanathan, Ram; Corrales, Louis R.; Weber, William J.; Chartier, Alain; Meis, Constantin
2004-02-27
The melting of zircon and the amorphous state produced by quenching from the melt were simulated by molecular dynamics using a new partial charge model combined with the Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark potential. The model has been established for the description of the crystalline and aperiodic structures of zircon in order to be used for the simulation of displacement cascades. It provides an excellent fit to the structure, and accounts with convenient precision the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of zircon. The calculated melting temperature is about 2100 K. The activation energy for self-diffusion of ions in the liquid state was determined to be 190-200 kJ/mole. Melt quenching was employed to produce two different disordered states with distinct densities and structures. In the high density disordered state, the zircon structure is intact but the bond angle distributions are broader, 4% of the Si units are polymerized, and the volume swelling is about 8%. In the low density amorphous state, the Zr and Si coordination numbers are lower, and the Zr-O and Si-O bond lengths are shorter than corresponding values for the crystal. In addition, a highly polymerized Si network, with average connectivity of two, is observed in the low density amorphous state. These features have all been experimentally observed in natural metamict zircon. The present findings, when considered in light of experimental radiation effects studies, suggest that the swelling in zircon arises initially from disorder in the zircon crystal, and at high doses the disordered crystal is unable to accommodate the volume expansion and transforms to the amorphous state.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Trichomonas vaginalis Ferredoxin Show a Loop-Cap Transition
Weksberg, Tiffany E; Lynch, Gillian C; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, Bernard M
2007-05-01
The crystal structure of the oxidized Trichomonas vaginalis ferredoxin (Tvfd) showed a unique crevice that exposed the redox center. Here we have examined the dynamics and solvation of the active site of Tvfd using molecular dynamics simulations of both the reduced and oxidized states. The oxidized simulation stays true to the crystal form with a heavy atom root mean-squared deviation of 2Å . However, within the reduced simulation of Tvfd a profound loop-cap transition into the redox center occurred within 6-ns of the start of the simulation and remained open throughout the rest of the 20-ns simulation. This large opening seen in the simulations supports the hypothesis that the exceptionally fast electron transfer rate between Tvfd and the drug metronidazole is due to the increased access of the antibiotic to the redox center of the protein and not due to the reduction potential.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Trichomonas vaginalis Ferredoxin Show a Loop-Cap Transition.
Weksberg, Tiffany E; Lynch, Gillian C; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, Bernard M
2007-05-01
The crystal structure of the oxidized Trichomonas vaginalis ferredoxin (Tvfd) showed a unique crevice that exposed the redox center. Here we have examined the dynamics and solvation of the active site of Tvfd using molecular dynamics simulations of both the reduced and oxidized states. The oxidized simulation stays true to the crystal form with a heavy atom root mean-squared deviation of 2Å. However, within the reduced simulation of Tvfd a profound loop-cap transition into the redox center occurred within 6-ns of the start of the simulation and remained open throughout the rest of the 20-ns simulation. This large opening seen in the simulations supports the hypothesis that the exceptionally fast electron transfer rate between Tvfd and the drug metronidazole is due to the increased access of the antibiotic to the redox center of the protein and not due to the reduction potential.
Expansion techniques for collisionless stellar dynamical simulations
Meiron, Yohai; Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Spurzem, Rainer
2014-09-10
We present graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of two fast force calculation methods based on series expansions of the Poisson equation. One method is the self-consistent field (SCF) method, which is a Fourier-like expansion of the density field in some basis set; the other method is the multipole expansion (MEX) method, which is a Taylor-like expansion of the Green's function. MEX, which has been advocated in the past, has not gained as much popularity as SCF. Both are particle-field methods and optimized for collisionless galactic dynamics, but while SCF is a 'pure' expansion, MEX is an expansion in just the angular part; thus, MEX is capable of capturing radial structure easily, while SCF needs a large number of radial terms. We show that despite the expansion bias, these methods are more accurate than direct techniques for the same number of particles. The performance of our GPU code, which we call ETICS, is profiled and compared to a CPU implementation. On the tested GPU hardware, a full force calculation for one million particles took ∼0.1 s (depending on expansion cutoff), making simulations with as many as 10{sup 8} particles fast for a comparatively small number of nodes.
Dynamical simulation of an abrasive wear process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elalem, Khaled; Li, D. Y.
1999-05-01
A dynamic computer model was developed to simulate wear behavior of materials on micro-scales. In this model, a material system is discretized and mapped onto a lattice or grid. Each lattice site represents a small volume of the material. During a wear process, a lattice site may move under the influence of external force and the interaction between the site and its adjacent sites. The site-site interaction is a function of mechanical properties of the material such as the elastic modulus, yield strength, work hardening and the fracture strain. Newton's law of motion is used to determine the movement of lattice sites during a wear process. The strain between a pair of sites is recoverable if it is within the elastic deformation range; otherwise plastic deformation takes place. A bond between two adjacent sites is broken when its strain exceeds a critical value. A site or a cluster of sites is worn away if all bonds connecting the site or the cluster to its nearest neighbors are broken. The model well describes the strain distribution in a contact region, in consistence with a finite element analysis. This model was applied to several metallic materials abraded under the ASTM G65 abrasion condition, and the results were compared to experimental observations. Good agreement between the modeling and the experiment was found.
Annual Report 1999 Environmental Dynamics and Simulation
NS Foster-Mills
2000-06-28
This annual report describes selected 1999 research accomplishments for the Environmental Dynamics and Simulation (ED and S) directorate, one of six research organizations in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). These accomplishments are representative of the different lines of research underway in the ED and S directorate. EMSL is one of US Department of Energy's (DOE) national scientific user facilities and is the centerpiece of DOE's commitment to providing world-class experimental, theoretical, and computational capabilities for solving the nation's environmental problems. Capabilities in the EMSL include over 100 major instrument systems for use by the resident research staff, their collaborators, and users of the EMSL. These capabilities are used to address the fundamental science that will be the basis for finding solutions to national environmental issues such as cleaning up contamianted areas at DOE sites across the country and developing green technologies that will reduce or eliminate future pollution production. The capabilities are also used to further the understanding of global climate change and environmental issues relevant to energy production and use and health effects resulting from exposure to contaminated environments.
Dynamic Simulation over Long Time Periods with 100% Solar Generation.
Concepcion, Ricky James; Elliott, Ryan Thomas
2015-12-01
This project aimed to identify the path forward for dynamic simulation tools to accommodate these needs by characterizing the properties of power systems (with high PV penetration), analyzing how these properties affect dynamic simulation software, and offering solutions for potential problems.
Application of control theory to dynamic systems simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Young, G. E.
1982-01-01
The application of control theory is applied to dynamic systems simulation. Theory and methodology applicable to controlled ecological life support systems are considered. Spatial effects on system stability, design of control systems with uncertain parameters, and an interactive computing language (PARASOL-II) designed for dynamic system simulation, report quality graphics, data acquisition, and simple real time control are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zañudo, Jorge G. T.; Albert, Réka
2013-06-01
Discrete dynamic models are a powerful tool for the understanding and modeling of large biological networks. Although a lot of progress has been made in developing analysis tools for these models, there is still a need to find approaches that can directly relate the network structure to its dynamics. Of special interest is identifying the stable patterns of activity, i.e., the attractors of the system. This is a problem for large networks, because the state space of the system increases exponentially with network size. In this work, we present a novel network reduction approach that is based on finding network motifs that stabilize in a fixed state. Notably, we use a topological criterion to identify these motifs. Specifically, we find certain types of strongly connected components in a suitably expanded representation of the network. To test our method, we apply it to a dynamic network model for a type of cytotoxic T cell cancer and to an ensemble of random Boolean networks of size up to 200. Our results show that our method goes beyond reducing the network and in most cases can actually predict the dynamical repertoire of the nodes (fixed states or oscillations) in the attractors of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Virshup, Aaron M.; Chen, Jiahao; Martínez, Todd J.
2012-12-01
Conical intersections play a critical role in the nonadiabatic relaxation of excited electronic states. However, there are an infinite number of these intersections and it is difficult to predict which are actually relevant. Furthermore, traditional descriptors such as intrinsic reaction coordinates and steepest descent paths often fail to adequately characterize excited state reactions due to their highly nonequilibrium nature. To address these deficiencies in the characterization of excited state mechanisms, we apply a nonlinear dimensionality reduction scheme (diffusion mapping) to generate reaction coordinates directly from ab initio multiple spawning dynamics calculations. As illustrated with various examples of photoisomerization dynamics, excited state reaction pathways can be derived directly from simulation data without any a priori specification of relevant coordinates. Furthermore, diffusion maps also reveal the influence of intersection topography on the efficiency of electronic population transfer, providing further evidence that peaked intersections promote nonadiabatic transitions more effectively than sloped intersections. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques as powerful tools for elucidating reaction mechanisms beyond the statistical description of processes on ground state potential energy surfaces.
A dynamic simulation of a lead blast furnace
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chao, John T.
1981-06-01
A dynamic model has been developed to simulate the operation of the stack zone of a lead blast furnace. The mathematical formulation of the governing equations of change leads to a system of 2nd order partial differential equations, which is solved by finite difference methods. A reduction model of ash-layer diffusion controlled mechanism, which allows the stepwise reduction to the lowest oxide or metal thermodynamically possible for the local gas composition within the sinter, is employed in this model. The surface reaction and the internal diffusion in the porous solid particles are taken into account in the coke gasification reaction. The profiles of the temperatures of gases and solids, solid compositions, and gas compositions and pressure in both radial and axial directions are predicted by the model. The results provide a good representation of the experimental data obtained for the blast furnace at Brunswick Mining and Smelting Corp., Ltd., New Brunswick, Canada and also of the less extensive data available for the Cominco blast furnace at Trail, British Columbia, Canada. In addition to the modelling of the stack, a mass and energy balance for the bosh zone is also included in the present calculation. The improvement of coke efficiency due to oxygen enrichment in the blast air for the Brunswick Furnace were interpreted semiquantitatively. The effect of sinter size distribution on the furnace performance has also been studied.
Controlled multibody dynamics simulation for large space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Housner, J. M.; Wu, S. C.; Chang, C. W.
1989-01-01
Multibody dynamics discipline, and dynamic simulation in control structure interaction (CSI) design are discussed. The use, capabilities, and architecture of the Large Angle Transient Dynamics (LATDYN) code as a simulation tool are explained. A generic joint body with various types of hinge connections; finite element and element coordinate systems; results of a flexible beam spin-up on a plane; mini-mast deployment; space crane and robotic slewing manipulations; a potential CSI test article; and multibody benchmark experiments are also described.
Kinetic distance and kinetic maps from molecular dynamics simulation.
Noé, Frank; Clementi, Cecilia
2015-10-13
Characterizing macromolecular kinetics from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations requires a distance metric that can distinguish slowly interconverting states. Here, we build upon diffusion map theory and define a kinetic distance metric for irreducible Markov processes that quantifies how slowly molecular conformations interconvert. The kinetic distance can be computed given a model that approximates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors (reaction coordinates) of the MD Markov operator. Here, we employ the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA). The TICA components can be scaled to provide a kinetic map in which the Euclidean distance corresponds to the kinetic distance. As a result, the question of how many TICA dimensions should be kept in a dimensionality reduction approach becomes obsolete, and one parameter less needs to be specified in the kinetic model construction. We demonstrate the approach using TICA and Markov state model (MSM) analyses for illustrative models, protein conformation dynamics in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and protein-inhibitor association in trypsin and benzamidine. We find that the total kinetic variance (TKV) is an excellent indicator of model quality and can be used to rank different input feature sets.
Modal reduction strategies for interconnected flexible bodies simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eke, F. O.; Man, G. K.
1989-01-01
Multi-body dynamics programs require characterization of each body. The Galileo spacecraft system modes to be retained were determined using available criteria, modal influence coefficients, and bode. The descent to component level was achieved via a two-phase diagonalization process starting with submatrices of truncated augmented system modal matrix.
A Simulation Program for Dynamic Infrared (IR) Spectra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zoerb, Matthew C.; Harris, Charles B.
2013-01-01
A free program for the simulation of dynamic infrared (IR) spectra is presented. The program simulates the spectrum of two exchanging IR peaks based on simple input parameters. Larger systems can be simulated with minor modifications. The program is available as an executable program for PCs or can be run in MATLAB on any operating system. Source…
Post-processing interstitialcy diffusion from molecular dynamics simulations
Bhardwaj, U.; Bukkuru, S.; Warrier, M.
2016-01-15
An algorithm to rigorously trace the interstitialcy diffusion trajectory in crystals is developed. The algorithm incorporates unsupervised learning and graph optimization which obviate the need to input extra domain specific information depending on crystal or temperature of the simulation. The algorithm is implemented in a flexible framework as a post-processor to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We describe in detail the reduction of interstitialcy diffusion into known computational problems of unsupervised clustering and graph optimization. We also discuss the steps, computational efficiency and key components of the algorithm. Using the algorithm, thermal interstitialcy diffusion from low to near-melting point temperatures is studied. We encapsulate the algorithms in a modular framework with functionality to calculate diffusion coefficients, migration energies and other trajectory properties. The study validates the algorithm by establishing the conformity of output parameters with experimental values and provides detailed insights for the interstitialcy diffusion mechanism. The algorithm along with the help of supporting visualizations and analysis gives convincing details and a new approach to quantifying diffusion jumps, jump-lengths, time between jumps and to identify interstitials from lattice atoms. -- Graphical abstract:.
Virtual-Wall Model for Molecular Dynamics Simulation.
Qian, Lijuan; Tu, Chengxu; Bao, Fubing; Zhang, Yonghao
2016-12-09
A large number of molecules are usually required to model atomic walls in molecular dynamics simulations. A virtual-wall model is proposed in this study to describe fluid-wall molecular interactions, for reducing the computational time. The infinite repetition of unit cell structures within the atomic wall causes the periodicity of the force acting on a fluid molecule from the wall molecules. This force is first calculated and then stored in the memory. A fluid molecule appearing in the wall force field is subjected to the force from the wall molecules. The force can then be determined by the position of the molecule relative to the wall. This model avoids excessive calculations of fluid-wall interactions and reduces the computational time drastically. The time reduction is significant for small fluid density and channel height. The virtual-wall model is applied to Poiseuille and Couette flows, and to a flow in a channel with a rough surface. Results of the virtual and atomic wall simulations agree well with each other, thereby indicating the usefulness of the virtual-wall model. The appropriate bin size and cut-off radius in the virtual-wall model are also discussed.
Molecular dynamics simulations of He bubble nucleation at grain boundaries
Yongfeng Zhang; Paul C Millett; Michael Tonks; Liangzhe Zhang; Bulent Biner
2012-08-01
The nucleation behavior of He bubbles in nano-grained body-centered-cubic (BCC) Mo is simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a bicrystal model, focusing on the effect of grain boundary (GB) structure. Three types of GBs, the (100) twist S29, the ?110? symmetrical tilt (tilt angle of 10.1?), and the (112) twin boundaries, are studied as representatives of random GB, low angle GB with misfit dislocations, and special sigma boundaries. With the same amount of He, more He clusters form in nano-grained Mo with smaller average size compared to that in bulk. The effects of the GB structure originate from the excess volume in GBs. Trapping by excess volume results in reduction in mobility of He atoms, which enhances the nucleation with higher density of bubbles, and impedes the growth of He bubbles by absorption of mobile He atoms. Furthermore, the distribution of excess volume in GBs determines the distribution of He clusters. The effect of GBs becomes less pronounced with increasing vacancy concentration in the matrix.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seltzer, S. M.
1974-01-01
Some means of combining both computer simulation and anlytical techniques are indicated in order to mutually enhance their efficiency as design tools and to motivate those involved in engineering design to consider using such combinations. While the idea is not new, heavy reliance on computers often seems to overshadow the potential utility of analytical tools. Although the example used is drawn from the area of dynamics and control, the principles espoused are applicable to other fields. In the example the parameter plane stability analysis technique is described briefly and extended beyond that reported in the literature to increase its utility (through a simple set of recursive formulas) and its applicability (through the portrayal of the effect of varying the sampling period of the computer). The numerical values that were rapidly selected by analysis were found to be correct for the hybrid computer simulation for which they were needed. This obviated the need for cut-and-try methods to choose the numerical values, thereby saving both time and computer utilization.
A POLLUTION REDUCTION METHODOLOGY FOR CHEMICAL PROCESS SIMULATORS
A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has be...
Johnson, Todd; Bartol, Tom; Sejnowski, Terrence; Mjolsness, Eric
2015-06-18
A stochastic reaction network model of Ca(2+) dynamics in synapses (Pepke et al PLoS Comput. Biol. 6 e1000675) is expressed and simulated using rule-based reaction modeling notation in dynamical grammars and in MCell. The model tracks the response of calmodulin and CaMKII to calcium influx in synapses. Data from numerically intensive simulations is used to train a reduced model that, out of sample, correctly predicts the evolution of interaction parameters characterizing the instantaneous probability distribution over molecular states in the much larger fine-scale models. The novel model reduction method, 'graph-constrained correlation dynamics', requires a graph of plausible state variables and interactions as input. It parametrically optimizes a set of constant coefficients appearing in differential equations governing the time-varying interaction parameters that determine all correlations between variables in the reduced model at any time slice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roten, D.; Olsen, K. B.; Cui, Y.; Day, S. M.
2015-12-01
We explore the effects of fault zone nonlinearity on peak ground velocities (PGVs) by simulating a suite of surface rupturing earthquakes in a visco-plastic medium. Our simulations, performed with the AWP-ODC 3D finite difference code, cover magnitudes from 6.5 to 8.0, with several realizations of the stochastic stress drop for a given magnitude. We test three different models of rock strength, with friction angles and cohesions based on criteria which are frequently applied to fractured rock masses in civil engineering and mining. We use a minimum shear-wave velocity of 500 m/s and a maximum frequency of 1 Hz. In rupture scenarios with average stress drop (~3.5 MPa), plastic yielding reduces near-fault PGVs by 15 to 30% in pre-fractured, low-strength rock, but less than 1% in massive, high quality rock. These reductions are almost insensitive to the scenario earthquake magnitude. In the case of high stress drop (~7 MPa), however, plasticity reduces near-fault PGVs by 38 to 45% in rocks of low strength and by 5 to 15% in rocks of high strength. Because plasticity reduces slip rates and static slip near the surface, these effects can partially be captured by defining a shallow velocity-strengthening layer. We also perform a dynamic nonlinear simulation of a high stress drop M 7.8 earthquake rupturing the southern San Andreas fault along 250 km from Indio to Lake Hughes. With respect to the viscoelastic solution (a), nonlinearity in the fault damage zone and in near-surface deposits would reduce long-period (> 1 s) peak ground velocities in the Los Angeles basin by 15-50% (b), depending on the strength of crustal rocks and shallow sediments. These simulation results suggest that nonlinear effects may be relevant even at long periods, especially for earthquakes with high stress drop.
Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Nair, Bindu; Williams, Thomas; Quinn, Michael; Sizov, Yuri; Nazarov, Alexei; Pavlovsky, Andrey
2011-04-07
Medical imaging has recently expanded into the dual- or multi-modality fusion of anatomical and functional imaging modalities. This significantly improves the diagnostic power while simultaneously increasing the cost of already expensive medical devices or investigations and decreasing their mobility. We are introducing a novel imaging concept of four-dimensional (4D) microwave tomographic (MWT) functional imaging: three dimensional (3D) in the spatial domain plus one dimensional (1D) in the time, functional dynamic domain. Instead of a fusion of images obtained by different imaging modalities, 4D MWT fuses absolute anatomical images with dynamic, differential images of the same imaging technology. The approach was successively validated in animal experiments with short-term arterial flow reduction and a simulated compartment syndrome in an initial simplified experimental setting using a dedicated MWT system. The presented fused images are not perfect as MWT is a novel imaging modality at its early stage of the development and ways of reading reconstructed MWT images need to be further studied and understood. However, the reconstructed fused images present clear evidence that microwave tomography is an emerging imaging modality with great potentials for functional imaging.
Jiménez-Delgado, Juan J; Paulano-Godino, Félix; PulidoRam-Ramírez, Rubén; Jiménez-Pérez, J Roberto
2016-05-01
The development of support systems for surgery significantly increases the likelihood of obtaining satisfactory results. In the case of fracture reduction interventions these systems enable surgery planning, training, monitoring and assessment. They allow improvement of fracture stabilization, a minimizing of health risks and a reduction of surgery time. Planning a bone fracture reduction by means of a computer assisted simulation involves several semiautomatic or automatic steps. The simulation deals with the correct position of osseous fragments and fixation devices for a fracture reduction. Currently, to the best of our knowledge there is no computer assisted methods to plan an entire fracture reduction process. This paper presents an overall scheme of the computer based process for planning a bone fracture reduction, as described above, and details its main steps, the most common proposed techniques and their main shortcomings. In addition, challenges and new trends of this research field are depicted and analyzed.
1991-03-01
Adjusted Estimators for Variance 1Redutilol in Computer Simutlation by Riichiardl L. R’ r March, 1991 D~issertation Advisor: Peter A.W. Lewis Approved for...OF NONLINEAR CONTROLS AND REGRESSION-ADJUSTED ESTIMATORS FOR VARIANCE REDUCTION IN COMPUTER SIMULATION 12. Personal Author(s) Richard L. Ressler 13a...necessary and identify by block number) This dissertation develops new techniques for variance reduction in computer simulation. It demonstrates that
Model order reduction applied to a hot-bench simulation of an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buttrill, Carey S.; Bacon, Barton J.
1991-01-01
Simulations of an aeroelastically scaled wind-tunnel model were developed for hot-bench testing of a digital controller. The digital controller provided active flutter-suppression, rolling-maneuver-load alleviation, and plant estimation. To achieve an acceptable time scale for the hot-bench application, the mathematical model of the wind-tunnel model was reduced from 220 states to approximately 130 states while assuring that the required accuracy was preserved for all combinations of 10 inputs and 56 outputs. The reduction was achieved by focussing on a linear, aeroelastic submodel of the full mathematical model and by applying a method based on the internally balanced realization of a dynamic system. The error-bound properties of the internally balanced realization significantly contribute to its utility in the model reduction process. The reduction method and the results achieved are described.
Stochastic rotation dynamics simulation of electro-osmosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceratti, Davide R.; Obliger, Amaël; Jardat, Marie; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Dahirel, Vincent
2015-09-01
Stochastic Rotation Dynamics (SRD) is a mesoscale simulation technique that captures hydrodynamic couplings in simple and complex fluids. It can be used in various hydrodynamic regimes and it is not restricted to specific geometries. We show here that SRD using the collisional coupling approach to capture momentum transfer between the semi-implicit solvent and the explicit counterions, is able to describe electro-kinetic effects, i.e. coupled electrostatic and hydrodynamic phenomena occurring at charged solid-liquid interfaces. The method is first validated for electro-osmosis in the simple case of a slit pore without added salt, for which an analytical solution of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski theory is known, in a physical regime where this mean-field theory is valid. We then discuss the predictions of SRD for electro-osmosis beyond the range of validity of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski (or Poisson-Nernst-Planck) theory, in particular due to ion-ion correlations at the surface, to charge localisation on discrete sites at the solid surface and to surface charge heterogeneity, that all contribute to a reduction of the electro-osmotic flow. In order to disentangle these last two aspects, we also investigate at the mean-field level a simple system with alternate charged and neutral stripes, using lattice-Boltzmann electro-kinetics simulations. Overall, this work opens new perspectives for the use of SRD as a generic mesoscopic simulation method for soft matter problems, in particular under confinement, since in practice many interfaces between fluids and solids are charged.
Multimillion atom molecular dynamics simulations of glasses and ceramic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vashishta, Priya; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro
1999-11-01
Molecular dynamics simulations are a powerful tool for studying physical and chemical phenomena in materials. In these lectures we shall review the molecular dynamics method and its implementation on parallel computer architectures. Using the molecular dynamics method we will study a number of materials in different ranges of density, temperature, and uniaxial strain. These include structural correlations in silica glass under pressure, crack propagation in silicon nitride films, sintering of silicon nitride nanoclusters, consolidation of nanophase materials, and dynamic fracture. Multimillion atom simulations of oxidation of aluminum nanoclusters and nanoindentation in silicon nitride will also be discussed.
Dynamically Tuned Blade Pitch Links for Vibration Reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milgram, Judah; Chopra, Inderjit; Kottapalli, Sesi
1994-01-01
A passive vibration reduction device in which the conventional main rotor blade pitch link is replaced by a spring/damper element is investigated using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. A case study is conducted for a modern articulated helicopter main rotor. Correlation of vibratory pitch link loads with wind tunnel test data is satisfactory for lower harmonics. Inclusion of unsteady aerodynamics had little effect on the correlation. In the absence of pushrod damping, reduction in pushrod stiffness from the baseline value had an adverse effect on vibratory hub loads in forward flight. However, pushrod damping in combination with reduced pushrod stiffness resulted in modest improvements in fixed and rotating system hub loads.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimoń, M. J.; Prosser, R.; Emerson, D. R.; Borg, M. K.; Bray, D. J.; Grinberg, L.; Reese, J. M.
2016-11-01
Filtering of particle-based simulation data can lead to reduced computational costs and enable more efficient information transfer in multi-scale modelling. This paper compares the effectiveness of various signal processing methods to reduce numerical noise and capture the structures of nano-flow systems. In addition, a novel combination of these algorithms is introduced, showing the potential of hybrid strategies to improve further the de-noising performance for time-dependent measurements. The methods were tested on velocity and density fields, obtained from simulations performed with molecular dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics. Comparisons between the algorithms are given in terms of performance, quality of the results and sensitivity to the choice of input parameters. The results provide useful insights on strategies for the analysis of particle-based data and the reduction of computational costs in obtaining ensemble solutions.
Protein dynamics and enzyme catalysis: insights from simulations.
McGeagh, John D; Ranaghan, Kara E; Mulholland, Adrian J
2011-08-01
The role of protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis is one of the most active and controversial areas in enzymology today. Some researchers claim that protein dynamics are at the heart of enzyme catalytic efficiency, while others state that dynamics make no significant contribution to catalysis. What is the biochemist - or student - to make of the ferocious arguments in this area? Protein dynamics are complex and fascinating, as molecular dynamics simulations and experiments have shown. The essential question is: do these complex motions have functional significance? In particular, how do they affect or relate to chemical reactions within enzymes, and how are chemical and conformational changes coupled together? Biomolecular simulations can analyse enzyme reactions and dynamics in atomic detail, beyond that achievable in experiments: accurate atomistic modelling has an essential part to play in clarifying these issues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Dynamics: Experimental and Computational Approaches.
Dynamics modeling and simulation of autonomous underwater vehicles with appendages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yumin; Zhao, Jinxin; Cao, Jian; Zhang, Guocheng
2013-03-01
To provide a simulation system platform for designing and debugging a small autonomous underwater vehicle's (AUV) motion controller, a six-degree of freedom (6-DOF) dynamic model for AUV controlled by thruster and fins with appendages is examined. Based on the dynamic model, a simulation system for the AUV's motion is established. The different kinds of typical motions are simulated to analyze the motion performance and the maneuverability of the AUV. In order to evaluate the influences of appendages on the motion performance of the AUV, simulations of the AUV with and without appendages are performed and compared. The results demonstrate the AUV has good maneuverability with and without appendages.
Comparisons of Kinematics and Dynamics Simulation Software Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiue, Yeu-Sheng Paul
2002-01-01
Kinematic and dynamic analyses for moving bodies are essential to system engineers and designers in the process of design and validations. 3D visualization and motion simulation plus finite element analysis (FEA) give engineers a better way to present ideas and results. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) system engineering researchers are currently using IGRIP from DELMIA Inc. as a kinematic simulation tool for discrete bodies motion simulations. Although IGRIP is an excellent tool for kinematic simulation with some dynamic analysis capabilities in robotic control, explorations of other alternatives with more powerful dynamic analysis and FEA capabilities are necessary. Kinematics analysis will only examine the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the mechanism without considering effects from masses of components. With dynamic analysis and FEA, effects such as the forces or torques at the joint due to mass and inertia of components can be identified. With keen market competition, ALGOR Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), MSC visualNastran 4D, Unigraphics Motion+, and Pro/MECHANICA were chosen for explorations. In this study, comparisons between software tools were presented in terms of following categories: graphical user interface (GUI), import capability, tutorial availability, ease of use, kinematic simulation capability, dynamic simulation capability, FEA capability, graphical output, technical support, and cost. Propulsion Test Article (PTA) with Fastrac engine model exported from IGRIP and an office chair mechanism were used as examples for simulations.
Mosquito population dynamics from cellular automata-based simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Syafarina, Inna; Sadikin, Rifki; Nuraini, Nuning
2016-02-01
In this paper we present an innovative model for simulating mosquito-vector population dynamics. The simulation consist of two stages: demography and dispersal dynamics. For demography simulation, we follow the existing model for modeling a mosquito life cycles. Moreover, we use cellular automata-based model for simulating dispersal of the vector. In simulation, each individual vector is able to move to other grid based on a random walk. Our model is also capable to represent immunity factor for each grid. We simulate the model to evaluate its correctness. Based on the simulations, we can conclude that our model is correct. However, our model need to be improved to find a realistic parameters to match real data.
A pollution reduction methodology for chemical process simulators
Mallick, S.K.; Cabezas, H.; Bare, J.C.; Sikdar, S.K.
1996-11-01
A pollution minimization methodology was developed for chemical process design using computer simulation. It is based on a pollution balance that at steady state is used to define a pollution index with units of mass of pollution per mass of products. The pollution balance has been modified by weighing the mass flowrate of each pollutant by its potential environmental impact score. This converts the mass balance into an environmental impact balance. This balance defines an impact index with units of environmental impact per mass of products. The impact index measures the potential environmental effects of process wastes. Three different schemes for chemical ranking were considered: (1) no ranking, (2) simple ranking from 0 to 3, and (3) ranking by a scientifically derived measure of human health and environmental effects. Use of the methodology is illustrated with two examples from the production of (1) methyl ethyl ketone and (2) synthetic ammonia.
Inorganic nitrogen reduction and stability under simulated hydrothermal conditions.
Brandes, Jay A; Hazen, Robert M; Yoder, Hatten S
2008-12-01
Availability of reduced nitrogen is considered a prerequisite for the genesis of life from prebiotic precursors. Most atmospheric and oceanic models for the Hadean Earth predict a mildly oxidizing environment that is conducive to the formation and stability of only oxidized forms of nitrogen. A possible environment where reduction of oxidized nitrogen to ammonium has been speculated to occur is aqueous hydrothermal systems. We examined a suite of transition metal oxides and sulfides for their ability to reduce nitrate and nitrite, as well as oxidize ammonia, under hot (300 degrees C) high-pressure (50-500 MPa) aqueous conditions. In general, iron sulfides exhibited the most rapid and complete conversion noted, followed by nickel and copper sulfides to a much lower degree. Of the oxides examined, only magnetite exhibited any ability to reduce NO(3)(-) or NO(2)(-). Ammonium was stable or exhibited small losses (<20%) in contact with all the mineral phases and conditions tested. The results support the idea that hydrothermal systems could have provided significant amounts of reduced nitrogen to their immediate environments. The enhanced availability of reduced nitrogen in hydrothermal systems also has important implications for prebiotic metabolic pathways where nitrogen availability is critical to the production of amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds.
A Landing Gear Noise Reduction Study Based on Computational Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockard, David P.
2006-01-01
Landing gear is one of the more prominent airframe noise sources. Techniques that diminish gear noise and suppress its radiation to the ground are highly desirable. Using a hybrid computational approach, this paper investigates the noise reduction potential of devices added to a simplified main landing gear model without small scale geometric details. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict the noise at far-field observer locations from surface pressure data provided by unsteady CFD calculations. Because of the simplified nature of the model, most of the flow unsteadiness is restricted to low frequencies. The wheels, gear boxes, and oleo appear to be the primary sources of unsteadiness at these frequencies. The addition of fairings around the gear boxes and wheels, and the attachment of a splitter plate on the downstream side of the oleo significantly reduces the noise over a wide range of frequencies, but a dramatic increase in noise is observed at one frequency. The increased flow velocities, a consequence of the more streamlined bodies, appear to generate extra unsteadiness around other parts giving rise to the additional noise. Nonetheless, the calculations demonstrate the capability of the devices to improve overall landing gear noise.
Naghibi Beidokhti, Hamid; Janssen, Dennis; Khoshgoftar, Mehdi; Sprengers, Andre; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Van den Boogaard, Ton; Verdonschot, Nico
2016-10-01
The finite element (FE) method has been widely used to investigate knee biomechanics. Time integration algorithms for dynamic problems in finite element analysis can be classified as either implicit or explicit. Although previously both static/dynamic implicit and dynamic explicit method have been used, a comparative study on the outcomes of both methods is of high interest for the knee modeling community. The aim of this study is to compare static, dynamic implicit and dynamic explicit solutions in analyses of the knee joint to assess the prediction of dynamic effects, potential convergence problems, the accuracy and stability of the calculations, the difference in computational time, and the influence of mass-scaling in the explicit formulation. The heel-strike phase of fast, normal and slow gait was simulated for two different body masses in a model of the native knee. Our results indicate that ignoring the dynamic effect can alter joint motion. Explicit analyses are suitable to simulate dynamic loading of the knee joint in high-speed simulations, as this method offers a substantial reduction of the computational time with a similar prediction of cartilage stresses and meniscus strains. Although mass-scaling can provide even more gain in computational time, it is not recommended for high-speed activities, in which inertial forces play a significant role.
A new simulation model building process for use in dynamic systems integration research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Buttrill, Carey S.; Zeiler, Thomas A.
1987-01-01
A framework to build simulation models for aircraft dynamic systems integration is described. The objective of the framework is increased simulation model fidelity and reduced time required to develop and modify these models. The equations of motion for an elastic aircraft and their impact on the framework are discussed in broad terms. A software tool which automatically generates FORTRAN routines for tabular data lookups, the language used to develop a simulation model, and the structures for passing information into a simulation are discussed. A simulation variable nomenclature is presented. The framework has been applied to build an open-loop F/A-18 simulation model. This example model is used to illustrate model reduction issues. Current deficiencies in the framework are identified as areas for future research.
Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun
2016-02-28
The properties of water under confinement are of practical and fundamental interest. In this work, we study the properties of water in the self-assembled lyotropic phases of Gemini surfactants with a focus on testing the standard analysis of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments. In QENS experiments, the dynamic structure factor is measured and fit to models to extract the translational diffusion constant, D(T), and rotational relaxation time, τ(R). We test this procedure by using simulation results for the dynamic structure factor, extracting the dynamic parameters from the fit as is typically done in experiments, and comparing the values to those directly measured in the simulations. We find that the de-coupling approximation, where the intermediate scattering function is assumed to be a product of translational and rotational contributions, is quite accurate. The jump-diffusion and isotropic rotation models, however, are not accurate when the degree of confinement is high. In particular, the exponential approximations for the intermediate scattering function fail for highly confined water and the values of D(T) and τ(R) can differ from the measured value by as much as a factor of two. Other models have more fit parameters, however, and with the range of energies and wave-vectors accessible to QENS, the typical analysis appears to be the best choice. In the most confined lamellar phase, the dynamics are sufficiently slow that QENS does not access a large enough time scale.
Simulating Hamiltonian Dynamics with a Truncated Taylor Series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somma, Rolando
2015-03-01
One of the main motivations for quantum computers is their ability to efficiently simulate the dynamics of quantum systems. Since the mid-1990s, many algorithms have been developed to simulate Hamiltonian dynamics on a quantum computer, with applications to problems such as simulating spin models and quantum chemistry. While it is now well known that quantum computers can efficiently simulate Hamiltonian dynamics, ongoing work has improved the performance and expanded the scope of such simulations. In this talk, I will describe a very simple and efficient algorithm for simulating Hamiltonian dynamics on a quantum computer by approximating the truncated Taylor series of the evolution operator. This algorithm can simulate the time evolution of a wide variety of physical systems. The cost of this algorithm depends only logarithmically on the inverse of the desired precision, and can be shown to be optimal. Such a cost also represents an exponential improvement over known methods for Hamiltonian simulation based on, e.g., Trotter-Suzuki approximations. Roughly speaking, doubling the number of digits of accuracy of the simulation only doubles the complexity. The new algorithm and its analysis are highly simplified due to a technique for implementing linear combinations of unitary operations to directly apply the truncated Taylor series. This is joint work with Dominic Berry, Andrew Childs, Richard Cleve, and Robin Kothari.
Optimized reduction of uncertainty in bursty human dynamics.
Jo, Hang-Hyun; Moon, Eunyoung; Kaski, Kimmo
2012-01-01
Human dynamics is known to be inhomogeneous and bursty but the detailed understanding of the role of human factors in bursty dynamics is still lacking. In order to investigate their role we devise an agent-based model, where an agent in an uncertain situation tries to reduce the uncertainty by communicating with information providers while having to wait time for responses. Here the waiting time can be considered as cost. We show that the optimal choice of the waiting time under uncertainty gives rise to the bursty dynamics, characterized by the heavy tailed distribution of optimal waiting time. We find that in all cases the efficiency for communication is relevant to the scaling behavior of the optimal waiting time distribution. On the other hand, the cost turns out in some cases to be irrelevant depending on the degree of uncertainty and efficiency.
Dynamics of adaptive structures: Design through simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, K. C.; Alexander, S.
1993-01-01
The use of a helical bi-morph actuator/sensor concept by mimicking the change of helical waveform in bacterial flagella is perhaps the first application of bacterial motions (living species) to longitudinal deployment of space structures. However, no dynamical considerations were analyzed to explain the waveform change mechanisms. The objective is to review various deployment concepts from the dynamics point of view and introduce the dynamical considerations from the outset as part of design considerations. Specifically, the impact of the incorporation of the combined static mechanisms and dynamic design considerations on the deployment performance during the reconfiguration stage is studied in terms of improved controllability, maneuvering duration, and joint singularity index. It is shown that intermediate configurations during articulations play an important role for improved joint mechanisms design and overall structural deployability.
Stochastic simulation of patterns using ISOMAP for dimensionality reduction of training images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ting; Du, Yi; Huang, Tao; Yang, Jiaqing; Li, Xue
2015-06-01
Most data in the real world are normally nonlinear or difficult to determine whether they are linear or not beforehand. Some linear dimensionality reduction algorithms, e.g., principal component analysis (PCA) and multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) are only suitable for linear dimensionality reduction of spatial data. The patterns extracted from training images (TIs) used in MPS simulation mostly are probably nonlinear, so for some MPS simulation methods based on dimensionality reduction, e.g., FILTERSIM using some filters created via the idea of PCA and DisPAT using MDS as a tool of dimensionality reduction, those linear methods for dimensionality reduction are not appropriate when realizing the dimensionality reduction of nonlinear data of patterns. Therefore, isometric mapping (ISOMAP) working as a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method used in manifold learning is introduced to map those patterns, regardless of being linear or nonlinear, into low-dimensional space. However, because the original ISOMAP has some disadvantages in computing speed and accuracy, landmark points of patterns are selected to improve the speed and neighborhoods of patterns are set to guarantee the quality of dimensionality reduction. Next, the sequential simulation similar to FILTERSIM is performed after low-dimensional data of patterns are classified by a density-based clustering algorithm. The comparisons with FILTERSIM and DisPAT show the improvement of pattern reproductivity and computing speed of our method for both continuous and categorical variables.
Perspective: Computer simulations of long time dynamics
Elber, Ron
2016-02-14
Atomically detailed computer simulations of complex molecular events attracted the imagination of many researchers in the field as providing comprehensive information on chemical, biological, and physical processes. However, one of the greatest limitations of these simulations is of time scales. The physical time scales accessible to straightforward simulations are too short to address many interesting and important molecular events. In the last decade significant advances were made in different directions (theory, software, and hardware) that significantly expand the capabilities and accuracies of these techniques. This perspective describes and critically examines some of these advances.
Perspective: Computer simulations of long time dynamics
Elber, Ron
2016-01-01
Atomically detailed computer simulations of complex molecular events attracted the imagination of many researchers in the field as providing comprehensive information on chemical, biological, and physical processes. However, one of the greatest limitations of these simulations is of time scales. The physical time scales accessible to straightforward simulations are too short to address many interesting and important molecular events. In the last decade significant advances were made in different directions (theory, software, and hardware) that significantly expand the capabilities and accuracies of these techniques. This perspective describes and critically examines some of these advances. PMID:26874473
Large-Scale Hybrid Dynamic Simulation Employing Field Measurements
Huang, Zhenyu; Guttromson, Ross T.; Hauer, John F.
2004-06-30
Simulation and measurements are two primary ways for power engineers to gain understanding of system behaviors and thus accomplish tasks in system planning and operation. Many well-developed simulation tools are available in today's market. On the other hand, large amount of measured data can be obtained from traditional SCADA systems and currently fast growing phasor networks. However, simulation and measurement are still two separate worlds. There is a need to combine the advantages of simulation and measurements. In view of this, this paper proposes the concept of hybrid dynamic simulation which opens up traditional simulation by providing entries for measurements. A method is presented to implement hybrid simulation with PSLF/PSDS. Test studies show the validity of the proposed hybrid simulation method. Applications of such hybrid simulation include system event playback, model validation, and software validation.
The effects of gear reduction on robot dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J.
1989-01-01
The effect of the joint drive system with gear reduction for a generic two-link system is studied. It is done by comparing the kinetic energy of such a system with that of a direct drive two-link system. The only difference are two terms involving the inertia of the motor rotor and gear ratio. Modifications of the equations of motion from a direct drive system are then developed and generalized to various cases encountered in robot manipulators.
Climate dynamics experiments using a GCM simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fitzjarrald, Dan; Robertson, Franklin R.; Christy, John R.; Lu, H.-I.; Sohn, B.; Srikishen, J.
1991-01-01
The study of surface-atmosphere interactions has begun with studies of the effect of altering the ocean and land boundaries. A ten year simulation of global climate using observed sea surface temperature anomalies has begun using the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM1). The results for low resolution (R15) were computed for the first 8 years of the simulation and compared with the observed surface temperatures and the MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) observations of tropospheric temperature. A simulation at higher resolution (T42) was done to ascertain the effect of interactive soil hydrology on the system response to an El Nino sea surface temperature perturbation. Initial analysis of this simulations was completed.
Large-eddy simulation of a turbulent flow over a heavy vehicle with drag reduction devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sangseung; Kim, Myeongkyun; You, Donghyun
2015-11-01
Aerodynamic drag contributes to a considerable amount of energy loss of heavy vehicles. To reduce the energy loss, drag reduction devices such as side skirts and boat tails, are often installed to the side and the rear of a heavy vehicle. In the present study, turbulent flow around a heavy vehicle with realistic geometric details is simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES), which is capable of providing unsteady flow physics responsible for aerodynamic in sufficient detail. Flow over a heavy vehicle with and without a boat tail and side skirts as drag reduction devices is simulated. The simulation results are validated against accompanying in-house experimental measurements. Effects of a boat tail and side skirts on drag reduction are discussed in detail. Supported by the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA) Grant NTIS 1615007940.
Temporal image stacking for noise reduction and dynamic range improvement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atanassov, Kalin; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio; Ramachandra, Vikas; Siddiqui, Hasib
2013-03-01
The dynamic range of an imager is determined by the ratio of the pixel well capacity to the noise floor. As the scene dynamic range becomes larger than the imager dynamic range, the choices are to saturate some parts of the scene or "bury" others in noise. In this paper we propose an algorithm that produces high dynamic range images by "stacking" sequentially captured frames which reduces the noise and creates additional bits. The frame stacking is done by frame alignment subject to a projective transform and temporal anisotropic diffusion. The noise sources contributing to the noise floor are the sensor heat noise, the quantization noise, and the sensor fixed pattern noise. We demonstrate that by stacking images the quantization and heat noise are reduced and the decrease is limited only by the fixed pattern noise. As the noise is reduced, the resulting cleaner image enables the use of adaptive tone mapping algorithms which render HDR images in an 8-bit container without significant noise increase.
Flow Dynamics and Nutrient Reduction in Rain Gardens
The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...
Simulating food web dynamics along a gradient: quantifying human influence.
Jordán, Ferenc; Gjata, Nerta; Mei, Shu; Yule, Catherine M
2012-01-01
Realistically parameterized and dynamically simulated food-webs are useful tool to explore the importance of the functional diversity of ecosystems, and in particular relations between the dynamics of species and the whole community. We present a stochastic dynamical food web simulation for the Kelian River (Borneo). The food web was constructed for six different locations, arrayed along a gradient of increasing human perturbation (mostly resulting from gold mining activities) along the river. Along the river, the relative importance of grazers, filterers and shredders decreases with increasing disturbance downstream, while predators become more dominant in governing eco-dynamics. Human activity led to increased turbidity and sedimentation which adversely impacts primary productivity. Since the main difference between the study sites was not the composition of the food webs (structure is quite similar) but the strengths of interactions and the abundance of the trophic groups, a dynamical simulation approach seemed to be useful to better explain human influence. In the pristine river (study site 1), when comparing a structural version of our model with the dynamical model we found that structurally central groups such as omnivores and carnivores were not the most important ones dynamically. Instead, primary consumers such as invertebrate grazers and shredders generated a greater dynamical response. Based on the dynamically most important groups, bottom-up control is replaced by the predominant top-down control regime as distance downstream and human disturbance increased. An important finding, potentially explaining the poor structure to dynamics relationship, is that indirect effects are at least as important as direct ones during the simulations. We suggest that our approach and this simulation framework could serve systems-based conservation efforts. Quantitative indicators on the relative importance of trophic groups and the mechanistic modeling of eco-dynamics
Temperature dependence of protein hydration hydrodynamics by molecular dynamics simulations.
Lau, E Y; Krishnan, V V
2007-07-18
The dynamics of water molecules near the protein surface are different from those of bulk water and influence the structure and dynamics of the protein itself. To elucidate the temperature dependence hydration dynamics of water molecules, we present results from the molecular dynamic simulation of the water molecules surrounding two proteins (Carboxypeptidase inhibitor and Ovomucoid) at seven different temperatures (T=273 to 303 K, in increments of 5 K). Translational diffusion coefficients of the surface water and bulk water molecules were estimated from 2 ns molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. Temperature dependence of the estimated bulk water diffusion closely reflects the experimental values, while hydration water diffusion is retarded significantly due to the protein. Protein surface induced scaling of translational dynamics of the hydration waters is uniform over the temperature range studied, suggesting the importance protein-water interactions.
A Process for Comparing Dynamics of Distributed Space Systems Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cures, Edwin Z.; Jackson, Albert A.; Morris, Jeffery C.
2009-01-01
The paper describes a process that was developed for comparing the primary orbital dynamics behavior between space systems distributed simulations. This process is used to characterize and understand the fundamental fidelities and compatibilities of the modeling of orbital dynamics between spacecraft simulations. This is required for high-latency distributed simulations such as NASA s Integrated Mission Simulation and must be understood when reporting results from simulation executions. This paper presents 10 principal comparison tests along with their rationale and examples of the results. The Integrated Mission Simulation (IMSim) (formerly know as the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)) is a NASA research and development project focusing on the technologies and processes that are related to the collaborative simulation of complex space systems involved in the exploration of our solar system. Currently, the NASA centers that are actively participating in the IMSim project are the Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Kennedy Space Center, the Langley Research Center and the Marshall Space Flight Center. In concept, each center participating in IMSim has its own set of simulation models and environment(s). These simulation tools are used to build the various simulation products that are used for scientific investigation, engineering analysis, system design, training, planning, operations and more. Working individually, these production simulations provide important data to various NASA projects.
Student Diagnostic Strategies in a Dynamic Simulation Environment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Recker, Mimi M.; Govindaraj, T.; Vasandani, Vijay
1998-01-01
Demonstrates the use of simulation systems for studying diagnostic problem solving and presents results from two empirical studies in which undergraduates diagnosed faults that occurred in a computer-based, dynamic simulation. Discusses dual problem space search that includes generating and testing hypotheses; suggests implications for designing…
Dynamics Simulation Model for Space Tethers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levin, E. M.; Pearson, J.; Oldson, J. C.
2006-01-01
This document describes the development of an accurate model for the dynamics of the Momentum Exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) system. The MXER is a rotating tether about 100-km long in elliptical Earth orbit designed to catch payloads in low Earth orbit and throw them to geosynchronous orbit or to Earth escape. To ensure successful rendezvous between the MXER tip catcher and a payload, a high-fidelity model of the system dynamics is required. The model developed here quantifies the major environmental perturbations, and can predict the MXER tip position to within meters over one orbit.
Semiconductor nanostructure properties. Molecular Dynamic Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podolska, N. I.; Zhmakin, A. I.
2013-08-01
The need for research is based on the fact that development of non-planar semiconductor nanosystems and nanomaterials with controlled properties is an important scientific and industrial problem. So, final scientific and technological problem is the creation of adequate modern methods and software for growth and properties simulation and optimization of various III-V (GaAs, InAs, InP, InGaAs etc.) nanostructures (e.g. nanowires) with controlled surface morphology, crystal structure, optical, transport properties etc. Accordingly, now we are developing a specialized computer code for atomistic simulation of structural (distribution of atoms and impurities, elastic and force constants, strain distribution etc.) and thermodynamic (mixing energy, interaction energy, surface energy etc.) properties of the nanostructures. Some simulation results are shown too.
Movement Characteristics Analysis and Dynamic Simulation of Collaborative Measuring Robot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
guoqing, MA; li, LIU; zhenglin, YU; guohua, CAO; yanbin, ZHENG
2017-03-01
Human-machine collaboration is becoming increasingly more necessary, and so collaborative robot applications are also in high demand. We selected a UR10 robot as our research subject for this study. First, we applied D-H coordinate transformation of the robot to establish a link system, and we then used inverse transformation to solve the robot’s inverse kinematics and find all the joints. Use Lagrange method to analysis UR robot dynamics; use ADAMS multibody dynamics simulation software to dynamic simulation; verifying the correctness of the derived kinetic models.
Gamma ray observatory dynamics simulator in Ada (GRODY)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1990-01-01
This experiment involved the parallel development of dynamics simulators for the Gamma Ray Observatory in both FORTRAN and Ada for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of Ada to the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's flight dynamics environment. The experiment successfully demonstrated that Ada is a viable, valuable technology for use in this environment. In addition to building a simulator, the Ada team evaluated training approaches, developed an Ada methodology appropriate to the flight dynamics environment, and established a baseline for evaluating future Ada projects.
Gamma ray observatory dynamics simulator in Ada (GRODY)
Not Available
1990-09-01
This experiment involved the parallel development of dynamics simulators for the Gamma Ray Observatory in both FORTRAN and Ada for the purpose of evaluating the applicability of Ada to the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's flight dynamics environment. The experiment successfully demonstrated that Ada is a viable, valuable technology for use in this environment. In addition to building a simulator, the Ada team evaluated training approaches, developed an Ada methodology appropriate to the flight dynamics environment, and established a baseline for evaluating future Ada projects.
Computer simulation of multigrid body dynamics and control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swaminadham, M.; Moon, Young I.; Venkayya, V. B.
1990-01-01
The objective is to set up and analyze benchmark problems on multibody dynamics and to verify the predictions of two multibody computer simulation codes. TREETOPS and DISCOS have been used to run three example problems - one degree-of-freedom spring mass dashpot system, an inverted pendulum system, and a triple pendulum. To study the dynamics and control interaction, an inverted planar pendulum with an external body force and a torsional control spring was modeled as a hinge connected two-rigid body system. TREETOPS and DISCOS affected the time history simulation of this problem. System state space variables and their time derivatives from two simulation codes were compared.
AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.
Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G
2015-05-26
We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.
Robust state preparation in quantum simulations of Dirac dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Xue-Ke; Deng, Fu-Guo; Lamata, Lucas; Muga, J. G.
2017-02-01
A nonrelativistic system such as an ultracold trapped ion may perform a quantum simulation of a Dirac equation dynamics under specific conditions. The resulting Hamiltonian and dynamics are highly controllable, but the coupling between momentum and internal levels poses some difficulties to manipulate the internal states accurately in wave packets. We use invariants of motion to inverse engineer robust population inversion processes with a homogeneous, time-dependent simulated electric field. This exemplifies the usefulness of inverse-engineering techniques to improve the performance of quantum simulation protocols.
Dynamics of nitrogen dissociation from direct molecular simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valentini, Paolo; Schwartzentruber, Thomas E.; Bender, Jason D.; Candler, Graham V.
2016-08-01
We present a molecular-level investigation of nitrogen dissociation at high temperature. The computational technique, called direct molecular simulation (DMS), solely relies on an ab initio potential energy surface and both N2+N2 and N +N2 processes are simulated as they concurrently take place in an evolving nonequilibrium gas system. Quasiclassical trajectory calculations (QCT) reveal that dissociation rate coefficients calculated at thermal equilibrium, i.e., assuming Boltzmann energy distributions, are approximately equal (within less than 15%) for both N2+N2 and N +N2 collisions for the range of temperatures considered. The DMS (nonequilibrium) results indicate, however, that the presence of atomic nitrogen significantly affects the dissociation rate of molecular nitrogen, but indirectly. In fact, the presence of atomic nitrogen causes an important reduction of the vibrational relaxation time of N2, by almost one order of magnitude. This, in turn, speeds up the replenishment of high-v states that are otherwise significantly depleted if only N2+N2 collisions are considered. Because of the strong favoring of dissociation from high-v states, this results in dissociation rates that are 2-3 times higher when significant atomic nitrogen is present compared to systems composed of mainly diatomic nitrogen, such as during the initial onset of dissociation. Specifically, we find that exchange events occur frequently during N +N2 collisions and that such exchange collisions constitute an effective mechanism of scrambling the internal energy states, resulting in multiquantum jumps in vibrational energy levels that effectively promote energy transfers. The resulting vibrational relaxation time constant we calculate for N +N2 collisions is significantly lower than the widely used Millikan-White model. Significant discrepancies are found between predictions of the Park two-temperature model (using the Millikan-White vibrational relaxation model) and the DMS results for
Test and validation for robot arm control dynamics simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yae, K. Harold; Kim, Sung-Soo; Haug, Edward J.; Seering, Warren; Sundaram, Kamala; Thompson, Bruce; Turner, James; Chun, Hon; Frisch, Harold P.; Schnurr, Richard
1989-01-01
The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) program will require an ability to develop, in a cost effective manner, many simulation models for design, analysis, performance evaluation, and crew training. Computational speed and the degree of modeling fidelity associated with each simulation must be commensurate with problem objectives. To demonstrate evolving state-of-the-art general purpose multibody modeling capabilities, to validate these by laboratory testing, and to expose their modeling shortcomings, two focus problems at the opposite ends of the simulation spectrum are defined: (1) Coarse Acquisition Control Dynamics. Create a real time man-in-the-control-loop simulator. Provide animated graphical display of robot arm dynamics and tactile feedback sufficient for cueing the operator. Interface simulator software with human operated tactile feedback controller; i.e., the Kraft mini-master. (2) Fine, Precision Mode Control Dynamics. Create a high speed, high fidelity simulation model for the design, analysis, and performance evaluation of autonomous 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) trajectory control algorithms. This model must contain detail dynamic models for all significant dynamics elements within the robot arm, such as joint drive mechanisms.
Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Dynamical Magnetic Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A.
2016-02-01
We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B0 = 0.5.
SIMULATIONS OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES INTERACTING WITH DYNAMICAL MAGNETIC TURBULENCE
Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A. E-mail: husseinm@myumanitoba.ca
2016-02-01
We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B{sub 0} = 0.5.
SSME-HAS dynamic load simulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The space shuttle main engine propellant valve actuators (SSME) were designed to simulate the loads reflected into the SSME by the chamber coolant valve, the fuel preburner, and the oxidizer. The design, and functional description are included along with a list of the drawings. The load fixture control transform, friction torque, and flow calculations are reported.
SIMULATING FISH ASSEMBLAGE DYNAMICS IN RIVER NETWORKS
My recently retired colleague, Joan Baker, and I have developed a prototype computer simulation model for studying the effects of human and non-human alterations of habitats and species availability on fish assemblage populations. The fish assemblage model, written in R, is a sp...
Monte Carlo simulations of surface reactions: NO reduction by CO or H{sub 2}
Álvarez-Falcón, L.; Vicente, L.
2014-01-14
The development of surface science has given an opportunity to investigate the process of heterogeneous catalysis at a molecular level. In this way there has been a great progress in understanding the mechanism in NO decomposition. Modeling has been an very important tool in this goal. In this work we analyze the reactions NO+H{sub 2} and NO+CO. The extremely narrow production peak of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} which occurs in the reaction of NO+CO on Pt(100), a phenomenon known as “surface explosion,” is studied using a dynamic Monte Carlo method on a square lattice at low pressure under isothermal conditions. The catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by hydrogen over a Pt surface is also studied by using a dynamic Monte Carlo. Using a Langmuir-Hinshelwod mechanism of reaction, a simplified model with only four adsorbed species (NO, H, O, and N) is constructed. The effect on NO dissociation rate, the limiting step in the whole reaction, is inhibited by coadsorbed NO and H{sub 2} molecules, and is enhanced both by the presence of empty sites and adsorbed N atoms as nearest-neighbors. In these simulations experimental parameters values are included, such as: adsorption, desorption and diffusion of the reactants. The phenomenon is studied changing the temperature in the range of 300–550 K. The modeling reproduces well observed TPD and TPR experimental results and allows a visualization of the spatial development of the surface explosion.
PSF halo reduction in adaptive optics using dynamic pupil masking.
Osborn, James; Myers, Richard M; Love, Gordon D
2009-09-28
We describe a method to reduce residual speckles in an adaptive optics system which add to the halo of the point spread function (PSF). The halo is particularly problematic in astronomical applications involving the detection of faint companions. Areas of the pupil are selected where the residual wavefront aberrations are large and these are masked using a spatial light modulator. The method is also suitable for smaller telescopes without adaptive optics as a relatively simple method to increase the resolution of the telescope. We describe the principle of the technique and show simulation results.
Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of Large Transport Airplanes in Upset Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foster, John V.; Cunningham, Kevin; Fremaux, Charles M.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William
2005-01-01
As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, research has been in progress to develop aerodynamic modeling methods for simulations that accurately predict the flight dynamics characteristics of large transport airplanes in upset conditions. The motivation for this research stems from the recognition that simulation is a vital tool for addressing loss-of-control accidents, including applications to pilot training, accident reconstruction, and advanced control system analysis. The ultimate goal of this effort is to contribute to the reduction of the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control. Research activities have involved accident analyses, wind tunnel testing, and piloted simulation. Results have shown that significant improvements in simulation fidelity for upset conditions, compared to current training simulations, can be achieved using state-of-the-art wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic modeling methods. This paper provides a summary of research completed to date and includes discussion on key technical results, lessons learned, and future research needs.
Group theoretic reduction of Laplacian dynamical problems on fractal lattices
Schwalm, W.A.; Schwalm, M.K.; Giona, M.
1997-06-01
Discrete forms of the Schr{umlt o}dinger equation, the diffusion equation, the linearized Landau-Ginzburg equation, and discrete models for vibrations and spin dynamics belong to a class of Laplacian-based finite difference models. Real-space renormalization of such models on finitely ramified regular fractals is known to give exact recursion relations. It is shown that these recursions commute with Lie groups representing continuous symmetries of the discrete models. Each such symmetry reduces the order of the renormalization recursions by one, resulting in a system of recursions with one fewer variable. Group trajectories are obtained from inverse images of fixed and invariant sets of the recursions. A subset of the Laplacian finite difference models can be mapped by change of boundary conditions and time dependence to a diffusion problem with closed boundaries. In such cases conservation of mass simplifies the group flow and obtaining the groups becomes easier. To illustrate this, the renormalization recursions for Green functions on four standard examples are decoupled. The examples are (1) the linear chain, (2) an anisotropic version of Dhar{close_quote}s 3-simplex, similar to a model dealt with by Hood and Southern, (3) the fourfold coordinated Sierpi{acute n}ski lattice of Rammal and of Domany {ital et al.}, and (4) a form of the Vicsek lattice. Prospects for applying the group theoretic method to more general dynamical systems are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Flicker reduction in tone mapped high dynamic range video
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guthier, Benjamin; Kopf, Stephan; Eble, Marc; Effelsberg, Wolfgang
2011-01-01
In order to display a high dynamic range (HDR) video on a regular low dynamic range (LDR) screen, it needs to be tone mapped. A great number of tone mapping (TM) operators exist - most of them designed to tone map one image at a time. Using them on each frame of an HDR video individually leads to flicker in the resulting sequence. In our work, we analyze three tone mapping operators with respect to flicker. We propose a criterion for the automatic detection of image flicker by analyzing the log average pixel brightness of the tone mapped frame. Flicker is detected if the difference between the averages of two consecutive frames is larger than a threshold derived from Stevens' power law. Fine-tuning of the threshold is done in a subjective study. Additionally, we propose a generic method to reduce flicker as a post processing step. It is applicable to all tone mapping operators. We begin by tone mapping a frame with the chosen operator. If the flicker detection reports a visible variation in the frame's brightness, its brightness is adjusted. As a result, the brightness variation is smoothed over several frames, becoming less disturbing.
Classical trajectory simulations of post-transition state dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Park, Kyoyeon; Hase, William L.
Classical chemical dynamics simulations of post-transition state dynamics are reviewed. Most of the simulations involve direct dynamics for which the potential energy and gradient are obtained directly from an electronic structure theory. The chemical reaction attributes and chemical systems presented are product energy partitioning for Cl- ··· CH3Br → ClCH3 + Br- and C2H5F → C2H4 + HF dissociation, non-RRKM dynamics for cyclopropane stereomutation and the Cl- ··· CH3Cl complexes mediating the Cl- + CH3Cl SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction, and non-IRC dynamics for the OH- + CH3F and F- + CH3OOH chemical reactions. These studies illustrate the important role of chemical dynamics simulations in understanding atomic-level reaction dynamics and interpreting experiments. They also show that widely used paradigms and model theories for interpreting reaction kinetics and dynamics are often inaccurate and are not applicable.
Simulating the dynamic response of magnesium alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lloyd, Jeffrey; Becker, Richard
Unlike several conventional metals, the mechanical response of magnesium is severely anisotropic for quasistatic and dynamic loading conditions. In this work we present a crystal-based strength model that is the same order of magnitude in computational cost as rate-dependent isotropic strength models, yet is able to capture essential features exhibited by textured magnesium polycrystals. The model demarcates plastic deformation into contributions from basal slip, extension twinning, and non-basal slip mechanisms. Comparisons are made between model predictions and experiments for two magnesium alloys with differing processing histories. The model is then used to explore and quantify the dependence of metallurgical and processing variations for several dynamic experiments that probe propensity for localization and failure under complex loading conditions.
A reduction for spiking integrate-and-fire network dynamics ranging from homogeneity to synchrony.
Zhang, J W; Rangan, A V
2015-04-01
In this paper we provide a general methodology for systematically reducing the dynamics of a class of integrate-and-fire networks down to an augmented 4-dimensional system of ordinary-differential-equations. The class of integrate-and-fire networks we focus on are homogeneously-structured, strongly coupled, and fluctuation-driven. Our reduction succeeds where most current firing-rate and population-dynamics models fail because we account for the emergence of 'multiple-firing-events' involving the semi-synchronous firing of many neurons. These multiple-firing-events are largely responsible for the fluctuations generated by the network and, as a result, our reduction faithfully describes many dynamic regimes ranging from homogeneous to synchronous. Our reduction is based on first principles, and provides an analyzable link between the integrate-and-fire network parameters and the relatively low-dimensional dynamics underlying the 4-dimensional augmented ODE.
Hybrid Dynamics Simulation Engine for Metalloproteins
Sparta, Manuel; Shirvanyants, David; Ding, Feng; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Alexandrova, Anastassia N.
2012-01-01
Quality computational description of metalloproteins is a great challenge due to the vast span of time- and lengthscales characteristic of their existence. We present an efficient new method that allows for robust characterization of metalloproteins. It combines quantum mechanical (QM) description of the metal-containing active site, and extensive dynamics of the protein captured by discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) (QM/DMD). DMD samples the entire protein, including the backbone, and most of the active site, except for the immediate coordination region of the metal. QM operates on the part of the protein of electronic and chemical significance, which may include tens to hundreds of atoms. The breathing quantum-classical boundary provides a continuous mutual feedback between the two machineries. We test QM/DMD using the Fe-containing electron transporter protein, rubredoxin, and its three mutants as a model. QM/DMD can provide a reliable balanced description of metalloproteins’ structure, dynamics, and electronic structure in a reasonable amount of time. As an illustration of QM/DMD capabilities, we then predict the structure of the Ca2+ form of the enzyme catechol O-methyl transferase, which, unlike the native Mg2+ form, is catalytically inactive. The Mg2+ site is ochtahedral, but the Ca2+ is 7-coordinate and features the misalignment of the reacting parts of the system. The change is facilitated by the backbone adjustment. QM/DMD is ideal and fast for providing this level of structural insight. PMID:22947938
šponer, Jiří; Cang, Xiaohui; Cheatham, Thomas E.
2013-01-01
The article reviews the application of biomolecular simulation methods to understand the structure, dynamics and interactions of nucleic acids with a focus on explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of guanine quadruplex (G-DNA and G-RNA) molecules. While primarily dealing with these exciting and highly relevant four-stranded systems, where recent and past simulations have provided several interesting results and novel insight into G-DNA structure, the review provides some general perspectives on the applicability of the simulation techniques to nucleic acids. PMID:22525788
Using integrated multi-body systems for dynamical-optical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Störkle, Johannes; Eberhard, Peter
2016-08-01
In this work, the in uence of model order reduction methods on optical aberrations is analysed within an dynamical-optical simulation of a high precision optomechanical system. Therefore, an integrated modeling process and new methods have to be introduced for the computation and investigation of the dynamical-optical behaviour. For instance, this optical system can be a telescope optic or a lithographic objective. In order to derive a simplified mechanical model for transient time simulations with low computational cost, the method of elastic multibody systems in combination with model order reduction methods can be used. For this, software-tools and interfaces are utilized. Furthermore, mechanical and optical simulation models are derived and implemented. With these, on the one hand, the mechanical sensitivity can be investigated for arbitrary external excitations and on the other hand, the related optical behaviour can be predicted. In order to clarify these methods, academic examples are chosen and the influences of the model order reduction methods and simulation strategies are analysed. Finally, the systems are investigated with respect to the mechanical-optical frequency responses.
Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun
2016-02-24
The properties of water under confinement are of practical and fundamental interest. Here in this work we study the properties of water in the self-assembled lyotropic phases of gemini surfactants with a focus on testing the standard analysis of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments. In QENS experiments the dynamic structure factor is measured and fit to models to extract the translational diffusion constant, DT , and rotational relaxation time, τR. We test this procedure by using simulation results for the dynamic structure factor, extracting the dynamic parameters from the fit as is typically done in experiments, and comparing the valuesmore » to those directly measured in the simulations. We find that the decoupling approximation, where the intermediate scattering function is assumed to be a product of translational and rotational contributions, is quite accurate. The jump-diffusion and isotropic rotation models, however, are not accurate when the degree of confinement is high. In particular, the exponential approximations for the intermediate scattering function fail for highly confined water and the values of DT and τR can differ from the measured value by as much as a factor of two. Other models have more fit parameters, however, and with the range of energies and wave-vectors accessible to QENS, the typical analysis appears to be the best choice. In the most confined lamellar phase, the dynamics are sufficiently slow that QENS does not access a large enough time scale and neutron spin echo measurements would be a valuable technique in addition to QENS.« less
Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun
2016-02-24
The properties of water under confinement are of practical and fundamental interest. Here in this work we study the properties of water in the self-assembled lyotropic phases of gemini surfactants with a focus on testing the standard analysis of quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments. In QENS experiments the dynamic structure factor is measured and fit to models to extract the translational diffusion constant, D_{T} , and rotational relaxation time, τ_{R}. We test this procedure by using simulation results for the dynamic structure factor, extracting the dynamic parameters from the fit as is typically done in experiments, and comparing the values to those directly measured in the simulations. We find that the decoupling approximation, where the intermediate scattering function is assumed to be a product of translational and rotational contributions, is quite accurate. The jump-diffusion and isotropic rotation models, however, are not accurate when the degree of confinement is high. In particular, the exponential approximations for the intermediate scattering function fail for highly confined water and the values of D_{T} and τ_{R} can differ from the measured value by as much as a factor of two. Other models have more fit parameters, however, and with the range of energies and wave-vectors accessible to QENS, the typical analysis appears to be the best choice. In the most confined lamellar phase, the dynamics are sufficiently slow that QENS does not access a large enough time scale and neutron spin echo measurements would be a valuable technique in addition to QENS.
Simulation in a dynamic prototyping environment: Petri nets or rules?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Loretta A.; Price, Shannon; Hale, Joseph P.
1994-01-01
An evaluation of a prototyped user interface is best supported by a simulation of the system. A simulation allows for dynamic evaluation of the interface rather than just a static evaluation of the screen's appearance. This allows potential users to evaluate both the look (in terms of the screen layout, color, objects, etc.) and feel (in terms of operations and actions which need to be performed) of a system's interface. Because of the need to provide dynamic evaluation of an interface, there must be support for producing active simulations. The high-fidelity training simulators are delivered too late to be effectively used in prototyping the displays. Therefore, it is important to build a low fidelity simulator, so that the iterative cycle of refining the human computer interface based upon a user's interactions can proceed early in software development.
Improvement of surgical simulation using dynamic volume rendering.
Radetzky, A; Schröcker, F; Auer, L M
2000-01-01
In the last years high efforts have been taken to develop surgical simulators for computer assisted training. However, most of these simulators use simple models of the human's anatomy, which are manually created using modeling software. Nevertheless, medical experts need to perform the training directly with the patient's complex anatomy, which can be received, for example, from digital imaging datasets (CT, MR). A common technique to display these datasets is volume rendering. However, even with high-end hardware only static models can be handled interactively. In surgical simulators a dynamic component is also needed because tissues must be deformed and partially removed. With the combination of springmass models, which are improved by neuro-fuzzy systems, and the recently developed OpenGL Volumizer, surgical simulation using real-time deformable (or dynamic) volume rendering became possible. As an application example the simulator ROBOSIM for minimally invasive neurosurgery is presented.
Strong Analog Classical Simulation of Coherent Quantum Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dong-Sheng
2017-02-01
A strong analog classical simulation of general quantum evolution is proposed, which serves as a novel scheme in quantum computation and simulation. The scheme employs the approach of geometric quantum mechanics and quantum informational technique of quantum tomography, which applies broadly to cases of mixed states, nonunitary evolution, and infinite dimensional systems. The simulation provides an intriguing classical picture to probe quantum phenomena, namely, a coherent quantum dynamics can be viewed as a globally constrained classical Hamiltonian dynamics of a collection of coupled particles or strings. Efficiency analysis reveals a fundamental difference between the locality in real space and locality in Hilbert space, the latter enables efficient strong analog classical simulations. Examples are also studied to highlight the differences and gaps among various simulation methods. Funding support from NSERC of Canada and a research fellowship at Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia are acknowledged
Simulation in a dynamic prototyping environment: Petri nets or rules?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Loretta A.; Price, Shannon W.; Hale, Joseph P.
1994-01-01
An evaluation of a prototyped user interface is best supported by a simulation of the system. A simulation allows for dynamic evaluation of the interface rather than just a static evaluation of the screen's appearance. This allows potential users to evaluate both the look (in terms of the screen layout, color, objects, etc.) and feel (in terms of operations and actions which need to be performed) of a system's interface. Because of the need to provide dynamic evaluation of an interface, there must be support for producing active simulations. The high-fidelity training simulators are normally delivered too late to be effectively used in prototyping the displays. Therefore, it is important to build a low fidelity simulator, so that the iterative cycle of refining the human computer interface based upon a user's interactions can proceed early in software development.
Gas dynamics for accretion disk simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitehurst, R.
1994-01-01
The behavior of accretion disks can largely be understood in terms of the basic physical processes of mass, energy, and momentum conservation. Despite this, detailed modeling of these systems using modern computational techniques is challenging and controversial. Disturbing differences exist between methods used widely in astrophysics, namely Eulerian finite-difference techniques and particle codes such as SPH. Therefore neither technique is fully satisfactory for accretion disk simulations. This paper describes a new fully Lagrangian method designed to resolve these difficulties.
Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mullins, M.
1982-01-01
Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.
Multilevel model reduction for uncertainty quantification in computational structural dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ezvan, O.; Batou, A.; Soize, C.; Gagliardini, L.
2017-02-01
This work deals with an extension of the reducedorder models (ROMs) that are classically constructed by modal analysis in linear structural dynamics for which the computational models are assumed to be uncertain. It is based on a multilevel projection strategy consisting in introducing three reduced-order bases that are obtained by using a spatial filtering methodology of local displacements. This filtering involves global shape functions for the kinetic energy. The proposed multilevel stochastic ROM is constructed by using the nonparametric probabilistic approach of uncertainties. It allows for affecting a specific level of uncertainties to each type of displacements associated with the corresponding vibration regime. The proposed methodology is applied to the computational model of an automobile structure, for which the multilevel stochastic ROM is identified with respect to experimental measurements. This identification is performed by solving a statistical inverse problem.
Passive Vibration Reduction with Silicone Springs and Dynamic Absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ji-hoon; Dong, Yanlu; Lee, Moon G.
In the precision manufacturing field, the major structural components are often made of rigid and massive elements. Those mechanisms are so fluctuated by swaying of building and resonating of ground floor that the precision gets lower. As a result, quality of products is declined. So far, to minimize the influences of result from external irregular vibration, various technical methods of the absorbing vibration are used. For example, vibration isolation table which use air damper and heavy granite surface plate are used. But, these devices need high cost and low mobility. In this paper, our target is to analyze the external vibration and then to develop a mechanism which is able to reduce the effect. It is also able to be produced at a lower cost. Firstly, a silicone support is proposed as a simple vibration isolating mechanism. Swaying and resonating of a building have 2∼4 Hz vibrating frequency when a person is running on a treadmill, similar phenomena happen. Therefore, the supports are mounted under the running pad of a treadmill. This is a passive vibration isolator. The support is designed to have low stiffness and high deformation to isolate and absorb the vibration. As a result, it reduces the peak amplitude of vibration by about 80%. Secondly, a dynamic vibration absorber is developed to minimize the repetitive vibration. The absorber has a fundamental resonating frequency by its spring and mass. The resonating frequency is designed to have close value to the vibrating frequency of the treadmill. The length of beam can be adjusted to have variable resonance according to the external vibration. This absorber also reduces vibration by 84%. The passive vibration isolator and dynamic vibration absorber can be applied to precision equipments with repetitive motion or with disturbance of swaying of building.
Insights from molecular dynamics simulations for computational protein design.
Childers, Matthew Carter; Daggett, Valerie
2017-02-01
A grand challenge in the field of structural biology is to design and engineer proteins that exhibit targeted functions. Although much success on this front has been achieved, design success rates remain low, an ever-present reminder of our limited understanding of the relationship between amino acid sequences and the structures they adopt. In addition to experimental techniques and rational design strategies, computational methods have been employed to aid in the design and engineering of proteins. Molecular dynamics (MD) is one such method that simulates the motions of proteins according to classical dynamics. Here, we review how insights into protein dynamics derived from MD simulations have influenced the design of proteins. One of the greatest strengths of MD is its capacity to reveal information beyond what is available in the static structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. In this regard simulations can be used to directly guide protein design by providing atomistic details of the dynamic molecular interactions contributing to protein stability and function. MD simulations can also be used as a virtual screening tool to rank, select, identify, and assess potential designs. MD is uniquely poised to inform protein design efforts where the application requires realistic models of protein dynamics and atomic level descriptions of the relationship between dynamics and function. Here, we review cases where MD simulations was used to modulate protein stability and protein function by providing information regarding the conformation(s), conformational transitions, interactions, and dynamics that govern stability and function. In addition, we discuss cases where conformations from protein folding/unfolding simulations have been exploited for protein design, yielding novel outcomes that could not be obtained from static structures.
GRODY - GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY DYNAMICS SIMULATOR IN ADA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stark, M.
1994-01-01
Analysts use a dynamics simulator to test the attitude control system algorithms used by a satellite. The simulator must simulate the hardware, dynamics, and environment of the particular spacecraft and provide user services which enable the analyst to conduct experiments. Researchers at Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division developed GRODY alongside GROSS (GSC-13147), a FORTRAN simulator which performs the same functions, in a case study to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the Ada programming language for flight dynamics software development. They used popular object-oriented design techniques to link the simulator's design with its function. GRODY is designed for analysts familiar with spacecraft attitude analysis. The program supports maneuver planning as well as analytical testing and evaluation of the attitude determination and control system used on board the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) satellite. GRODY simulates the GRO on-board computer and Control Processor Electronics. The analyst/user sets up and controls the simulation. GRODY allows the analyst to check and update parameter values and ground commands, obtain simulation status displays, interrupt the simulation, analyze previous runs, and obtain printed output of simulation runs. The video terminal screen display allows visibility of command sequences, full-screen display and modification of parameters using input fields, and verification of all input data. Data input available for modification includes alignment and performance parameters for all attitude hardware, simulation control parameters which determine simulation scheduling and simulator output, initial conditions, and on-board computer commands. GRODY generates eight types of output: simulation results data set, analysis report, parameter report, simulation report, status display, plots, diagnostic output (which helps the user trace any problems that have occurred during a simulation), and a permanent log of all runs and errors. The
A new battery-charging method suggested by molecular dynamics simulations.
Abou Hamad, Ibrahim; Novotny, M A; Wipf, D O; Rikvold, P A
2010-03-20
Based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a new charging method that should be capable of charging a lithium-ion battery in a fraction of the time needed when using traditional methods. This charging method uses an additional applied oscillatory electric field. Our simulation results show that this charging method offers a great reduction in the average intercalation time for Li(+) ions, which dominates the charging time. The oscillating field not only increases the diffusion rate of Li(+) ions in the electrolyte but, more importantly, also enhances intercalation by lowering the corresponding overall energy barrier.
Dynamic computer simulations of electrophoresis: three decades of active research.
Thormann, Wolfgang; Caslavska, Jitka; Breadmore, Michael C; Mosher, Richard A
2009-06-01
Dynamic models for electrophoresis are based upon model equations derived from the transport concepts in solution together with user-inputted conditions. They are able to predict theoretically the movement of ions and are as such the most versatile tool to explore the fundamentals of electrokinetic separations. Since its inception three decades ago, the state of dynamic computer simulation software and its use has progressed significantly and Electrophoresis played a pivotal role in that endeavor as a large proportion of the fundamental and application papers were published in this periodical. Software is available that simulates all basic electrophoretic systems, including moving boundary electrophoresis, zone electrophoresis, ITP, IEF and EKC, and their combinations under almost exactly the same conditions used in the laboratory. This has been employed to show the detailed mechanisms of many of the fundamental phenomena that occur in electrophoretic separations. Dynamic electrophoretic simulations are relevant for separations on any scale and instrumental format, including free-fluid preparative, gel, capillary and chip electrophoresis. This review includes a historical overview, a survey of current simulators, simulation examples and a discussion of the applications and achievements of dynamic simulation.
Parametrizing linear generalized Langevin dynamics from explicit molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gottwald, Fabian; Karsten, Sven; Ivanov, Sergei D.; Kühn, Oliver
2015-06-01
Fundamental understanding of complex dynamics in many-particle systems on the atomistic level is of utmost importance. Often the systems of interest are of macroscopic size but can be partitioned into a few important degrees of freedom which are treated most accurately and others which constitute a thermal bath. Particular attention in this respect attracts the linear generalized Langevin equation, which can be rigorously derived by means of a linear projection technique. Within this framework, a complicated interaction with the bath can be reduced to a single memory kernel. This memory kernel in turn is parametrized for a particular system studied, usually by means of time-domain methods based on explicit molecular dynamics data. Here, we discuss that this task is more naturally achieved in frequency domain and develop a Fourier-based parametrization method that outperforms its time-domain analogues. Very surprisingly, the widely used rigid bond method turns out to be inappropriate in general. Importantly, we show that the rigid bond approach leads to a systematic overestimation of relaxation times, unless the system under study consists of a harmonic bath bi-linearly coupled to the relevant degrees of freedom.
Multiscale Simulation of Microbe Structure and Dynamics
Joshi, Harshad; Singharoy, Abhishek; Sereda, Yuriy V.; Cheluvaraja, Srinath C.; Ortoleva, Peter J.
2012-01-01
A multiscale mathematical and computational approach is developed that captures the hierarchical organization of a microbe. It is found that a natural perspective for understanding a microbe is in terms of a hierarchy of variables at various levels of resolution. This hierarchy starts with the N -atom description and terminates with order parameters characterizing a whole microbe. This conceptual framework is used to guide the analysis of the Liouville equation for the probability density of the positions and momenta of the N atoms constituting the microbe and its environment. Using multiscale mathematical techniques, we derive equations for the co-evolution of the order parameters and the probability density of the N-atom state. This approach yields a rigorous way to transfer information between variables on different space-time scales. It elucidates the interplay between equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium processes underlying microbial behavior. It also provides framework for using coarse-grained nanocharacterization data to guide microbial simulation. It enables a methodical search for free-energy minimizing structures, many of which are typically supported by the set of macromolecules and membranes constituting a given microbe. This suite of capabilities provides a natural framework for arriving at a fundamental understanding of microbial behavior, the analysis of nanocharacterization data, and the computer-aided design of nanostructures for biotechnical and medical purposes. Selected features of the methodology are demonstrated using our multiscale bionanosystem simulator DeductiveMultiscaleSimulator. Systems used to demonstrate the approach are structural transitions in the cowpea chlorotic mosaic virus, RNA of satellite tobacco mosaic virus, virus-like particles related to human papillomavirus, and iron-binding protein lactoferrin. PMID:21802438
Multiscale simulation of microbe structure and dynamics.
Joshi, Harshad; Singharoy, Abhishek; Sereda, Yuriy V; Cheluvaraja, Srinath C; Ortoleva, Peter J
2011-10-01
A multiscale mathematical and computational approach is developed that captures the hierarchical organization of a microbe. It is found that a natural perspective for understanding a microbe is in terms of a hierarchy of variables at various levels of resolution. This hierarchy starts with the N -atom description and terminates with order parameters characterizing a whole microbe. This conceptual framework is used to guide the analysis of the Liouville equation for the probability density of the positions and momenta of the N atoms constituting the microbe and its environment. Using multiscale mathematical techniques, we derive equations for the co-evolution of the order parameters and the probability density of the N-atom state. This approach yields a rigorous way to transfer information between variables on different space-time scales. It elucidates the interplay between equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium processes underlying microbial behavior. It also provides framework for using coarse-grained nanocharacterization data to guide microbial simulation. It enables a methodical search for free-energy minimizing structures, many of which are typically supported by the set of macromolecules and membranes constituting a given microbe. This suite of capabilities provides a natural framework for arriving at a fundamental understanding of microbial behavior, the analysis of nanocharacterization data, and the computer-aided design of nanostructures for biotechnical and medical purposes. Selected features of the methodology are demonstrated using our multiscale bionanosystem simulator DeductiveMultiscaleSimulator. Systems used to demonstrate the approach are structural transitions in the cowpea chlorotic mosaic virus, RNA of satellite tobacco mosaic virus, virus-like particles related to human papillomavirus, and iron-binding protein lactoferrin.
Dynamic Simulation of Airborne High Power Systems.
1982-11-01
42, 43 and 44. These curves give the secondary current of phase A, IL11, the primary K current of phase A, IL22 , and the magnetizing current of phase...A, due to ILll I" and IL22 , PIX. The simulation was for wye-wye connection of three single phase trans- formers. The data used was not for any...plot of a single variable, the statement "PLOT" is used IL11, IL22 , IL33, PLOT K 185 This statement will provide a separate plot of each variable
Numerical simulations of blobs with ion dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Madsen, J.; Xu, G. S.; Naulin, V.; Olsen, J. M. B.; Løiten, M.; Hansen, S. K.; Yan, N.; Tophøj, L.; Wan, B. N.
2017-02-01
The transport of particles and energy into the scrape-off layer (SOL) region at the outboard midplane of medium-sized tokamaks, operating in low confinement mode, is investigated by applying the first-principle HESEL (hot edge-sol-electrostatic) model. HESEL is a four-field drift-fluid model including finite electron and ion temperature effects, drift wave dynamics on closed field lines, and sheath dynamics on open field lines. Particles and energy are mainly transported by intermittent blobs. Therefore, blobs have a significant influence on the corresponding profiles. The formation of a ‘shoulder’ in the SOL density profile can be obtained by increasing the collisionality or connection length, thus decreasing the efficiency of the SOL’s ability to remove plasma. As the ion pressure has a larger perpendicular but smaller parallel dissipation rate compared to the electron pressure, ion energy is transported far into the SOL. This implies that the ion temperature in the SOL exceeds the electron temperature by a factor of 2-4 and significantly broadens the power deposition profile.
Using Simulation and Optimization to Inform Army Force Structure Reduction Decisions
2014-12-01
reductions elsewhere. In recent TAAs, the Army has used output data from the Marathon model to help inform force structure decisions, in particular with...respect to the rotational operating force. This simulation model is described below. The data from Marathon help focus the task on SRCs with...decisions. 2.4 Marathon Marathon is a simulation model that applies ARFORGEN rules to units in order to fill demands. Inputs include demand; supply, or
Gas dynamic simulations of galaxy formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evrard, August E.
1993-01-01
Results are presented from a simulation modeling the formation of a group of galaxies in a 'standard' cold, dark matter universe with delta = 1, h sub 0 = 50 km/(s(Mpc)), baryon fraction omega sub b = 0.1 and spectrum normalization sigma sub 8 = 0.6 (bias parameter b = 1.7). Initial conditions are generated within a periodic box with comoving length 16 Mpc in a manner constrained to produce a small cluster of total mass approximately 10 exp 14 solar mass. Two sets of 643 particles are used to model the dark matter and baryon fluids. Each gas particle represents 1.08 x 10 exp -8 solar mass, implying an L* galaxy is resolved by approximately 1000 particles. The system is evolved self-consistently in three dimensions using the combined N-body/hydrodynamic scheme P3MSPH up to a final redshift z = 1. Evolving to the present is prohibited by the fact that the mean density in the simulated volume is above critical and the entire volume would be going nonlinear beyond this point, We are currently analyzing another run with somewhat poorer mass resolution which was evolved to the present.
Distortion and flow of nematics simulated by dissipative particle dynamics.
Zhao, Tongyang; Wang, Xiaogong
2014-05-14
In this study, we simulated distortion and flow of nematics by dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The nematics were modeled by a binary mixture that contained rigid rods composed of DPD particles as mesogenic units and normal DPD particles as solvent. Elastic distortions were investigated by monitoring director orientation in space under influences of boundary anchoring and external fields. Static distortion demonstrated by the simulation is consistent with the prediction of Frank elastic theory. Spatial distortion profile of the director was examined to obtain static elastic constants. Rotational motions of the director under influence of the external field were simulated to understand the dynamic process. The rules revealed by the simulation are in a good agreement with those obtained from dynamical experiments and classical theories for nematics. Three Miesowicz viscosities were obtained by using external fields to hold the orientation of the rods in shear flows. The simulation showed that the Miesowicz viscosities have the order of ηc > ηa > ηb and the rotational viscosity γ1 is about two orders larger than the Miesowicz viscosity ηb. The DPD simulation correctly reproduced the non-monotonic concentration dependence of viscosity, which is a unique property of lyotropic nematic fluids. By comparing simulation results with classical theories for nematics and experiments, the DPD nematic fluids are proved to be a valid model to investigate the distortion and flow of lyotropic nematics.
Repetition-Related Reductions in Neural Activity during Emotional Simulations of Future Events
2015-01-01
Simulations of future experiences are often emotionally arousing, and the tendency to repeatedly simulate negative future outcomes has been identified as a predictor of the onset of symptoms of anxiety. Nonetheless, next to nothing is known about how the healthy human brain processes repeated simulations of emotional future events. In this study, we present a paradigm that can be used to study repeated simulations of the emotional future in a manner that overcomes phenomenological confounds between positive and negative events. The results show that pulvinar nucleus and orbitofrontal cortex respectively demonstrate selective reductions in neural activity in response to frequently as compared to infrequently repeated simulations of negative and positive future events. Implications for research on repeated simulations of the emotional future in both non-clinical and clinical populations are discussed. PMID:26390294
Simulation of ceramics fracture due to high rate dynamic impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazarinov, N. A.; Bratov, V. A.; Petrov, Y. V.
2015-11-01
In this paper dynamic fracture process due to high-speed impact of steel plunger into ceramic sample is simulated. The developed numerical model is based on finite element method and a concept of incubation time criterion, which is proven applicable in order to predict brittle fracture under high-rate deformation. Simulations were performed for ZrO2(Y2O3) ceramic plates. To characterize fracture process quantitatively fracture surface area parameter is introduced and controlled. This parameter gives the area of new surface created during dynamic fracture of a sample and is essentially connected to energetic peculiarities of fracture process. Multiple simulations with various parameters made it possible to explore dependencies of fracture area on plunger velocity and material properties. Energy required to create unit of fracture area at fracture initiation (dynamic analogue of Griffith surface energy) was evaluated and was found to be an order of magnitude higher as comparing to its static value.
Simulation of nanofractal dynamics with MBN Explorer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2013-06-01
One of the goals of nanotechnology is the development of controlled, reproducible, and industrially transposable nanostructured materials. In this context, controlling of the final architecture of such materials by tuneable parameters is one of the fundamental problems. Post-growth processes occurring in patterns grown on a surface were studied using a multi-purpose computer code MBN EXPLORER introduced in the present paper. The package allows to model molecular systems of varied level of complexity, and in the present paper was used, in particular, to study dynamics of silver nanofractal formation and fragmentation on graphite surface. We demonstrate that the detachment of particles from the fractal and their diffusion within the fractal and over the surface determines the shape of the islands remaining on a surface after the fractal fragmentation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvetti, Maria Vittoria; Mariotti, Alessandro; Buresti, Guido
2016-11-01
The present work focuses on strategies for aerodynamic drag reduction of elongated axisymmetric bluff bodies, which can be viewed as simplified models of a road vehicles. We combine boat-tailing, i.e. a gradual reduction of the body cross-section before a sharp-edged base, with properly contoured transverse grooves. The effectiveness of this strategy was assessed through experiments and simulations. Experiments showed that the introduction of a single groove leads to a further delay of boundary-layer separation and to a reduction of drag compared with the boat-tail configuration without grooves. In this talk, we present Large-Eddy Simulations (LES). LES results agree with the experimental findings. The success of the proposed flow control strategy is due to the relaxation of the no-slip condition in the small recirculation region inside the groove, which reduces the momentum losses near the wall and thus delays boundary layer separation. The effects of the introduction of the groove on the mean topology and on the dynamics of the near wake are also highlighted. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the proposed control strategy efficiency to the groove location and to the boat-tail geometry is shown.
Molecular dynamics simulation of interfacial adhesion
Yarovsky, I.; Chaffee, A.L.
1996-12-31
Chromium salts are often used in the pretreatment stages of steel painting processes in order to improve adhesion at the metal oxide/primer interface. Although well established empirically, the chemical basis for the improved adhesion conferred by chromia is not well understood. A molecular level understanding of this behaviour should provide a foundation for the design of materials offering improved adhesion control. Molecular modelling of adhesion involves simulation and analysis of molecular behaviour at the interface between two interacting phases. The present study concerns behaviour at the boundary between the metal coated steel surface (with or without chromium pretreatment) and an organic primer based on a solid epoxide resin produced from bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. An epoxy resin oligomer of molecular weight 3750 was used as the model for the primer.
Analytical Dynamics and Nonrigid Spacecraft Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Likins, P. W.
1974-01-01
Application to the simulation of idealized spacecraft are considered both for multiple-rigid-body models and for models consisting of combination of rigid bodies and elastic bodies, with the elastic bodies being defined either as continua, as finite-element systems, or as a collection of given modal data. Several specific examples are developed in detail by alternative methods of analytical mechanics, and results are compared to a Newton-Euler formulation. The following methods are developed from d'Alembert's principle in vector form: (1) Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle for independent generalized coordinates; (2) Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle for simply constrained systems; (3) Kane's quasi-coordinate formulation of D'Alembert's principle; (4) Lagrange's equations for independent generalized coordinates; (5) Lagrange's equations for simply constrained systems; (6) Lagrangian quasi-coordinate equations (or the Boltzmann-Hamel equations); (7) Hamilton's equations for simply constrained systems; and (8) Hamilton's equations for independent generalized coordinates.
Robotic Simulation of Flexible-Body Spacecraft Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brannan, Justin C.; Carignan, Craig R.
2016-01-01
A robotic testbed has been developed to conduct hardware-in-the-loop simulations of a robotic servicer interacting with a client satellite on-orbit. By creating an analytical model of a satellite with flexible appendages, it is possible to simulate the system response to external force and torque inputs and compare the predicted system motion to a robot mass simulator outfitted with physical appendages. This validation effort includes multiple test cases that encompass the types of interaction forces a satellite might experience during a nominal on-orbit servicing mission and aims to show the simulation's ability to capture the physical system response. After incorporating the flexible-body dynamics into the robotic mass simulator at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), a hardware-in-the-loop simulation can be used to characterize the potential impact of structural flexibility on an end-to-end satellite servicing mission.
Hybrid simulations with dynamical quarks: Spectra, screening and thermodynamics
Sinclair, D.K.
1987-11-18
We summarize simulations made by the Argonne/University of Illinois group using the Hybrid algorithm to include dynamical staggered fermions. Recent work on the mass spectrum and screening effects due to the inclusion of four light flavors of dynamical quarks is presented. We also present a brief overview of what we have learned about the finite temperature chiral phase transition. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture and failure in solids
Chen, E.P.
1994-05-01
Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture and failure processes in solid continua using Lagrangian finite element techniques is the subject of discussion in this investigation. The specific configurations in this study include penetration of steel projectiles into aluminum blocks and concrete slabs. The failure mode in the aluminum block is excessive deformation while the concrete slab fails by hole growth, spallation, and scabbing. The transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA2D was used for the numerical analysis. The erosion capability in LS-DYNA2D was exercised to carry out the fracture and failure simulations. Calculated results were compared to the experimental data. Good correlations were obtained.
Simulation of Naval Guns' Breechblock System Dynamics Based on ADAMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Bo; Liu, Hui-Min; Liu, Kai
In order to study the dynamical characteristics of the breechblock system during gun firing, a virtual prototype model was established based on ADAMS, in which motion and force transmission among mechanisms are realized by collision. By simulation, kinematics and dynamics properties of main components are obtained, and the relationships between the motion of breechblock and the position of breechblock opening plate are analyzed. According to the simulation results, the collision among the breechblock opening plate and the roller is discontinuous, which may make the breechblock system fail to hitch the breechblock reliably. And within allowable scope of the structure, the breechblock opening template should be installed near the upside as much as possible.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Gas Transport in Polymer Films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitley, David; Butler, Simon; Adolf, David
2010-03-01
Parallel molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to determine the permeability of O2 and N2 through polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene and cis(1-4) polybutadiene. The permeability of both mixed and unmixed gas penetrants is studied within films of these well known gas barrier polymers. Results are obtained either through the solubility and diffusion (i.e. P=D*S) or via the permeability directly. Encouraging results are obtained. Additional analysis focuses on ``unmixed/mixed gas'' intracomparisons of the simulated permeability data in addition to corresponding penetrant and host polymer local dynamics.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Laser Powered Carbon Nanotube Gears
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, Deepak; Globus, Al; Han, Jie; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
Dynamics of laser powered carbon nanotube gears is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations with Brenner's hydrocarbon potential. We find that when the frequency of the laser electric field is much less than the intrinsic frequency of the carbon nanotube, the tube exhibits an oscillatory pendulam behavior. However, a unidirectional rotation of the gear with oscillating frequency is observed under conditions of resonance between the laser field and intrinsic gear frequencies. The operating conditions for stable rotations of the nanotube gears, powered by laser electric fields are explored, in these simulations.
Lessons Learned From Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles
Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen E. Matthern; David E. Shropshire
2009-04-01
Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe “lessons learned” from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the “so what” question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof.
Enhanced Sampling Techniques in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Biological Systems
Bernardi, Rafael C.; Melo, Marcelo C. R.; Schulten, Klaus
2014-01-01
Background Molecular Dynamics has emerged as an important research methodology covering systems to the level of millions of atoms. However, insufficient sampling often limits its application. The limitation is due to rough energy landscapes, with many local minima separated by high-energy barriers, which govern the biomolecular motion. Scope of review In the past few decades methods have been developed that address the sampling problem, such as replica-exchange molecular dynamics, metadynamics and simulated annealing. Here we present an overview over theses sampling methods in an attempt to shed light on which should be selected depending on the type of system property studied. Major Conclusions Enhanced sampling methods have been employed for a broad range of biological systems and the choice of a suitable method is connected to biological and physical characteristics of the system, in particular system size. While metadynamics and replica-exchange molecular dynamics are the most adopted sampling methods to study biomolecular dynamics, simulated annealing is well suited to characterize very flexible systems. The use of annealing methods for a long time was restricted to simulation of small proteins; however, a variant of the method, generalized simulated annealing, can be employed at a relatively low computational cost to large macromolecular complexes. General Significance Molecular dynamics trajectories frequently do not reach all relevant conformational substates, for example those connected with biological function, a problem that can be addressed by employing enhanced sampling algorithms. PMID:25450171
The Simulation of an Oxidation-Reduction Titration Curve with Computer Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whiteley, Richard V., Jr.
2015-01-01
Although the simulation of an oxidation/reduction titration curve is an important exercise in an undergraduate course in quantitative analysis, that exercise is frequently simplified to accommodate computational limitations. With the use of readily available computer algebra systems, however, such curves for complicated systems can be generated…
Combined molecular dynamics-spin dynamics simulations of bcc iron
Perera, Meewanage Dilina N; Yin, Junqi; Landau, David P; Nicholson, Don M; Stocks, George Malcolm; Eisenbach, Markus; Brown, Greg
2014-01-01
Using a classical model that treats translational and spin degrees of freedom on an equal footing, we study phonon-magnon interactions in BCC iron with combined molecular and spin dynamics methods. The atomic interactions are modeled via an empirical many-body potential while spin dependent interactions are established through a Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg form with a distance dependent magnetic exchange interaction obtained from first principles electronic structure calculations. The temporal evolution of translational and spin degrees of freedom was determined by numerically solving the coupled equations of motion, using an algorithm based on the second order Suzuki-Trotter decomposition of the exponential operators. By calculating Fourier transforms of space- and time-displaced correlation functions, we demonstrate that the the presence of lattice vibrations leads to noticeable softening and damping of spin wave modes. As a result of the interplay between lattice and spin subsystems, we also observe additional longitudinal spin wave excitations, with frequencies which coincide with that of the longitudinal lattice vibrations.
Dynamical QCD+QED simulation with staggered quarks
Zhou, Ran; Gottlieb, Steven
2014-11-15
Electromagnetic effects play an important role in many phenomena such as isospin-symmetry breaking in the hadron spectrum and the hadronic contributions to g-2. We have generalized the MILC QCD code to include the electromagnetic field. In this work, we focus on simulations including charged sea quarks using the RHMC algorithm. We show details of the dynamical QCD+QED simulation algorithm with compact QED. We analyze the code performance and results for hadron-spectrum observables.
Molecular dynamics simulation of carbon disulphide with a Gaussian correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trumpakaj, Zygmunt; Linde, Bogumił B. J.
2017-02-01
Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of liquid carbon disulphide (CS2) in the temperature range 164-318 K under normal pressure and at experimental density were performed using an expa-6 potential with a Gaussian correction plus electrostatic interactions. This correction allowed to modify the curvature of the potential. The results of the MD simulation are compared with available experimental data. The agreement is good.
Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation of colloidal suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jamali, Safa; Boromand, Arman; Maia, Joao
2014-03-01
DPD as a mesoscale method was firstly proposed to study dynamics of suspensions under flow condition. However the proposed method failed to capture shear properties of suspensions because it lacked: first a potential to reproduce lubrication forces and second a clear definition for the colloid surface. Recently we reported a modified DPD method which defines colloidal particles as particles with hard core and a dissipative coat. An additional lubrication force was introduced to include the short-range hydrodynamics that are not captured in original DPD. The model was found to be able to reproduce shear properties of suspensions for a wide range of different systems, from monodisperse to bimodal with different volume fractions, compositions and size ratios. In present work our modified DPD method is employed to study both equilibrium and flow properties of colloidal suspension. Zero shear viscosity of suspension is measured using Green-Kubo expressions and the results are compared to theoretical predictions. Furthermore, structure formation in suspensions is studied in respect to energy landscape of the fluid both at rest and under flow.
Effects of Mg2+ on the bivalent mercury reduction behaviors in simulated wet FGD absorbents.
Wang, Yuejun; Liu, Yue; Mo, Jiansong; Wu, Zhongbiao
2012-10-30
This paper studied the bivalent mercury reduction behaviors after Mg(2+) addition in the simulated Ca-based and Dual-Alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbents. Experimental results showed that the reduction of bivalent mercury was increased in the Ca-based FGD absorbent and inhibited in the Dual-Alkali FGD absorbent. It was proposed that the former was mainly attributed to the enhanced dissolution and recrystallization of CaSO(3) particles by Mg(2+) addition, which provided more active surface for mercury adsorption and reduction, whilst the latter was mainly due to the formation of neutral MgSO(3)(0) ion pair, which tended to lower the active sulfite concentration in the simulated solution.
Hg2+ reduction and re-emission from simulated wet flue gas desulfurization liquors.
Wo, Jingjing; Zhang, Meng; Cheng, Xiaoya; Zhong, Xiaohang; Xu, Jiang; Xu, Xinhua
2009-12-30
In this study, considering that Hg(2+) in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems can easily be reduced and then released into atmosphere, causing secondary pollution, the researches about Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emission mechanism were carried out. The effects of several experimental parameters on the reduction were studied, including initial pH, temperature, and concentrations of Cl(-) and S(IV). Our experimental results indicated that Cl(-) had a restraining effect on the Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emission, after 24h reaction, only 20.5% of Hg(2+) was reduced with 100mM Cl(-) in simulated desulfurization solution. Cl(-) can slow Hg(2+) reduction and Hg(0) re-emissions dramatically through changing reaction mechanism, with formation of new intermediate: ClHgSO(3)(-), which can decompose to Hg(0), but much more slowly than Hg(SO(3))(2)(2-) or HgSO(3). Simulating the conditions of the practical application (initial pH 5, T=50 degrees C, S(IV)=5 mM, Cl(-)=100 mM), we also found that Ca(2+), NO(3)(-), F(-), etc. all had obvious effects on reduction rates. Based on the material balance and characteristic of the reactants, the reduction emission mechanism of Hg(2+) has been established, providing theoretical basis for industrial application of mercury control in wet FGD systems.
Dynamic simulation of coronal mass ejections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steinolfson, R. S.; Wu, S. T.
1980-01-01
A model is developed for the formation and propagation through the lower corona of the loop-like coronal transients in which mass is ejected from near the solar surface to the outer corona. It is assumed that the initial state for the transient is a coronal streamer. The initial state for the streamer is a polytropic, hydrodynamic solution to the steady-state radial equation of motion coupled with a force-free dipole magnetic field. The numerical solution of the complete time-dependent equations then gradually approaches a stationary coronal streamer configuration. The streamer configuration becomes the initial state for the coronal transient. The streamer and transient simulations are performed completely independent of each other. The transient is created by a sudden increase in the pressure at the base of the closed-field region in the streamer configuration. Both coronal streamers and coronal transients are calculated for values of the plasma beta (the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure) varying from 0.1 to 100.
Molecular dynamics simulations: Parameter evaluation, application and development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jin
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a theoretical technique for investigating the physical properties of a wide variety of molecules. This dissertation contains my studies on three important parts of the MD simulation: evaluation of parameters in empirical energy functions widely used in MD simulations, application of MD simulation on experimentally interested biological molecules and development of new methods for constraint dynamics simulations. All the work in this thesis made use of CHARMM as an MD simulation tool. The MD simulation uses empirical energy functions parameterized by a set of parameters. These parameters play an important role in the quality of the simulations. I evaluated nine parameter sets from Harvard University and Molecular Simulations, Inc. for protein simulations by the MD simulations of hydrated form of carboxy- myoglobin and interleukin-1/beta, which are rich in two typical protein structure motifs, helix and β sheet structures respectively. It is found that some sets are good at representing helical structure proteins while others are good at β sheet proteins. But all of them need improvement on representing motions at low temperature. Experimental evidence indicates that the 1A coiled-coil domains of the Intermediate Filament (IF) proteins consisting of coiled human keratins 1 and 10 (K1 and K10) are 'hot spots' for substitutional mutations. Some of these mutations are correlated to the human skin diseases-epidermolytic hyperkeratiosis (EH) and epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS). The MD simulation technique is used here for the first time to model and simulate these proteins to elucidate the molecular-level effects of these mutations. Lacking the experimental crystal structures, the initial structure of 1A domain of the wild type Intermediate Filament protein and its mutants were modeled from scratch to reproduce the well- known properties of the proteins of this kind followed by identical MD simulations. The important result is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawamura, Kohei; Ueno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yoshiaki
In the present study we have developed a numerical method to simulate the flight dynamics of a small flying body with unsteady motion, where both aerodynamics and flight dynamics are fully considered. A key point of this numerical code is to use computational fluid dynamics and computational flight dynamics at the same time, which is referred to as CFD2, or double CFDs, where several new ideas are adopted in the governing equations, the method to make each quantity nondimensional, and the coupling method between aerodynamics and flight dynamics. This numerical code can be applied to simulate the unsteady motion of small vehicles such as micro air vehicles (MAV). As a sample calculation, we take up Taketombo, or a bamboo dragonfly, and its free flight in the air is demonstrated. The eventual aim of this research is to virtually fly an aircraft with arbitrary motion to obtain aerodynamic and flight dynamic data, which cannot be taken in the conventional wind tunnel.
Papaleo, Elena
2015-01-01
In the last years, we have been observing remarkable improvements in the field of protein dynamics. Indeed, we can now study protein dynamics in atomistic details over several timescales with a rich portfolio of experimental and computational techniques. On one side, this provides us with the possibility to validate simulation methods and physical models against a broad range of experimental observables. On the other side, it also allows a complementary and comprehensive view on protein structure and dynamics. What is needed now is a better understanding of the link between the dynamic properties that we observe and the functional properties of these important cellular machines. To make progresses in this direction, we need to improve the physical models used to describe proteins and solvent in molecular dynamics, as well as to strengthen the integration of experiments and simulations to overcome their own limitations. Moreover, now that we have the means to study protein dynamics in great details, we need new tools to understand the information embedded in the protein ensembles and in their dynamic signature. With this aim in mind, we should enrich the current tools for analysis of biomolecular simulations with attention to the effects that can be propagated over long distances and are often associated to important biological functions. In this context, approaches inspired by network analysis can make an important contribution to the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations.
Papaleo, Elena
2015-01-01
In the last years, we have been observing remarkable improvements in the field of protein dynamics. Indeed, we can now study protein dynamics in atomistic details over several timescales with a rich portfolio of experimental and computational techniques. On one side, this provides us with the possibility to validate simulation methods and physical models against a broad range of experimental observables. On the other side, it also allows a complementary and comprehensive view on protein structure and dynamics. What is needed now is a better understanding of the link between the dynamic properties that we observe and the functional properties of these important cellular machines. To make progresses in this direction, we need to improve the physical models used to describe proteins and solvent in molecular dynamics, as well as to strengthen the integration of experiments and simulations to overcome their own limitations. Moreover, now that we have the means to study protein dynamics in great details, we need new tools to understand the information embedded in the protein ensembles and in their dynamic signature. With this aim in mind, we should enrich the current tools for analysis of biomolecular simulations with attention to the effects that can be propagated over long distances and are often associated to important biological functions. In this context, approaches inspired by network analysis can make an important contribution to the analysis of molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:26075210
Efficient dynamic simulation for multiple chain robotic mechanisms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lilly, Kathryn W.; Orin, David E.
1989-01-01
An efficient O(mN) algorithm for dynamic simulation of simple closed-chain robotic mechanisms is presented, where m is the number of chains, and N is the number of degrees of freedom for each chain. It is based on computation of the operational space inertia matrix (6 x 6) for each chain as seen by the body, load, or object. Also, computation of the chain dynamics, when opened at one end, is required, and the most efficient algorithm is used for this purpose. Parallel implementation of the dynamics for each chain results in an O(N) + O(log sub 2 m+1) algorithm.
Dose reduction in CT using bismuth shielding: measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.
Chang, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Wonho; Choo, Dong-Myung; Lee, Choon-Sik; Kim, Youhyun
2010-03-01
In this research, using direct measurements and Monte Carlo calculations, the potential dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding in computed tomography was evaluated. The patient dose was measured using an ionisation chamber in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom that had five measurement points at the centre and periphery. Simulations were performed using the MCNPX code. For both the bare and the bismuth-shielded phantom, the differences of dose values between experiment and simulation were within 9%. The dose reductions due to the bismuth shielding were 1.2-55% depending on the measurement points, X-ray tube voltage and the type of shielding. The amount of dose reduction was significant for the positions covered by the bismuth shielding (34 - 46% for head and 41 - 55% for body phantom on average) and negligible for other peripheral positions. The artefact on the reconstructed images were minimal when the distance between the shielding and the organs was >1 cm, and hence the shielding should be selectively located to protect critical organs such as the eye lens, thyroid and breast. The simulation results using the PMMA phantom was compared with those using a realistically voxelised phantom (KTMAN-2). For eye and breast, the simulation results using the PMMA and KTMAN-2 phantoms were similar with each other, while for thyroid the simulation results were different due to the discrepancy of locations and the sizes of the phantoms. The dose reductions achieved by bismuth and lead shielding were compared with each other and the results showed that the difference of the dose reductions achieved by the two materials was less than 2-3%.
Dose reduction in CT using bismuth shielding: measurements and Monte Carlo simulations
Chang, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Wonho; Choo, Dong-Myung; Lee, Choon-Sik; Kim, Youhyun
2010-01-01
In this research, using direct measurements and Monte Carlo calculations, the potential dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding in computed tomography was evaluated. The patient dose was measured using an ionisation chamber in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom that had five measurement points at the centre and periphery. Simulations were performed using the MCNPX code. For both the bare and the bismuth-shielded phantom, the differences of dose values between experiment and simulation were within 9 %. The dose reductions due to the bismuth shielding were 1.2–55 % depending on the measurement points, X-ray tube voltage and the type of shielding. The amount of dose reduction was significant for the positions covered by the bismuth shielding (34 − 46 % for head and 41 − 55 % for body phantom on average) and negligible for other peripheral positions. The artefact on the reconstructed images were minimal when the distance between the shielding and the organs was >1 cm, and hence the shielding should be selectively located to protect critical organs such as the eye lens, thyroid and breast. The simulation results using the PMMA phantom was compared with those using a realistically voxelised phantom (KTMAN-2). For eye and breast, the simulation results using the PMMA and KTMAN-2 phantoms were similar with each other, while for thyroid the simulation results were different due to the discrepancy of locations and the sizes of the phantoms. The dose reductions achieved by bismuth and lead shielding were compared with each other and the results showed that the difference of the dose reductions achieved by the two materials was less than 2–3 %. PMID:19959602
Selection of Solar Simulator for Solar Dynamic Ground Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tolbert, Carol M.
1994-01-01
The 2 kWe Solar Dynamic (SD) Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) experiment will be conducted in 1995 at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). This solar dynamic power system test will be conducted in a simulated space environment and will require an artificial sun. To address the solar simulator requirements for the GTD, Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was hired under contract to review and visit four existing solar simulator facilities. The four facilities included, AEDC's Mark 1 Chamber, NASA-JSC Chamber A, AEDC's 12V Chamber, and NASA-JPL Space Simulator Chamber. Two design concepts were considered following several months of evaluating existing solar simulator facilities throughout the United States. To satisfy system requirements for the SD GTD experiment the solar simulator needs to provide a uniform light flux to the SD concentrator, provide the light within a subtense angle of one degree, and provide an intensity of one solar constant (1.37 kW/sq m) at airmass zero. Most solar simulators are designed for supplying heat loads to spacecraft where a cone angle as large as 3 degrees is acceptable. It was also concluded that a solar simulator, such like these considered in the AEDC study, would require major facility modifications for NASA LeRC and result in significant impacts to the program. The advanced solar simulator concept developed by NASA LeRC will meet the system requirements for the SD GTD experiment Since SD GTD solar simulator requirements could not be addressed by existing simulator, an advanced concept was considered.
PISCES High Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph Simulations and Data Reduction Pipeline
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Llop Sayson, Jorge Domingo; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; McElwain, Michael W.; Gong, Qian; Perrin, Marshall; Brandt, Timothy; Grammer, Bryan; Greeley, Bradford; Hilton, George; Marx, Catherine
2015-01-01
The PISCES (Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrograph (IFS) designed to advance the technology readiness of the WFIRST (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope)-AFTA (Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets) high contrast Coronagraph Instrument. We present the end to end optical simulator and plans for the data reduction pipeline (DRP). The optical simulator was created with a combination of the IDL (Interactive Data Language)-based PROPER (optical propagation) library and Zemax (a MatLab script), while the data reduction pipeline is a modified version of the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI) IDL pipeline. The simulations of the propagation of light through the instrument are based on Fourier transform algorithms. The DRP enables transformation of the PISCES IFS data to calibrated spectral data cubes.
Westermann, P.; Ahring, B.K.
1987-10-01
The dynamics of sulfate reduction, methane production, and denitrification were investigated in a permanently waterlogged alder swamp. Molybdate, an inhibitor of sulfate reduction, stimulated methane production in soil slurries, thus suggesting competition for common substrates between sulfate-reducing and methane-producing bacteria. Acetate, hydrogen, and methanol were found to stimulate both sulfate reduction and methane production, while trimethylamine mainly stimulated methane production. Nitrate addition reduced both methane production and sulfate reduction, either as a consequence of competition of poisoning of the bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were only slightly limited by the availability of electron acceptors, while denitrifying bacteria were seriously limited by low nitrate concentrations. Arrhenius plots of the three processes revealed different responses to temperature changes in the slurries. Methane production was most sensitive to temperature changes, followed by denitrification and sulfate reduction. No significant differences between slope patterns were observed when comparing summer and winter measurements, indicating similar populations regarding temperature responses.
Molecular dynamics simulation study of binary fullerene mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruberto, R.; Abramo, M. C.; Caccamo, C.
2004-10-01
We report constant-pressure molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of binary C60/Cn fullerene-mixtures ( n=70 , 76, 84, 96) modeled in terms of a spherically symmetric two-body potential. By starting from a liquid configuration of the system, we cool mixtures down to freezing and beyond, until room temperature is reached, in order to verify the formation of solid solutions, namely, of configurations characterized by a unique crystalline lattice whose sites are randomly occupied by the two component fullerene species. We first explore the entire concentration range of the C60x/C70(1-x)(0
Determining equilibrium constants for dimerization reactions from molecular dynamics simulations.
De Jong, Djurre H; Schäfer, Lars V; De Vries, Alex H; Marrink, Siewert J; Berendsen, Herman J C; Grubmüller, Helmut
2011-07-15
With today's available computer power, free energy calculations from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations "via counting" become feasible for an increasing number of reactions. An example is the dimerization reaction of transmembrane alpha-helices. If an extended simulation of the two helices covers sufficiently many dimerization and dissociation events, their binding free energy is readily derived from the fraction of time during which the two helices are observed in dimeric form. Exactly how the correct value for the free energy is to be calculated, however, is unclear, and indeed several different and contradictory approaches have been used. In particular, results obtained via Boltzmann statistics differ from those determined via the law of mass action. Here, we develop a theory that resolves this discrepancy. We show that for simulation systems containing two molecules, the dimerization free energy is given by a formula of the form ΔG ∝ ln(P(1) /P(0) ). Our theory is also applicable to high concentrations that typically have to be used in molecular dynamics simulations to keep the simulation system small, where the textbook dilute approximations fail. It also covers simulations with an arbitrary number of monomers and dimers and provides rigorous error estimates. Comparison with test simulations of a simple Lennard Jones system with various particle numbers as well as with reference free energy values obtained from radial distribution functions show full agreement for both binding free energies and dimerization statistics.
Dynamic simulation and validation of a satellite docking system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hays, Anthony B.; Tchoryk, Peter, Jr.; Pavlich, Jane C.; Wassick, Gregory
2003-08-01
In recent years, Michigan Aerospace has approached the problem of gentle autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking using a flexible soft-dock cable that is extended from the docking spacecraft to the target spacecraft. Because of the nature of a soft-dock cable, testing and validation of the technology is difficult in normal gravity. To properly emulate the behavior of this soft-dock cable, we have performed dynamic computer simulations so that the effects of micro-gravity could be simulated. The Autonomous Satellite Docking System (ASDS) was initially prototyped and tested at Marshall Space Flight Center"s air-bearing floor facility. The test data was compared to the simulations and used to validate the model. Once a good correlation between the simulation"s predicted results and the actual data was shown, the model was used to predict future performance of the ASDS mechanism on several potential spacecraft for the Orbital Express program. A new dynamic simulation model was created and compared to test data from a recent KC-135 flight test to further validate the modeling approach used. This paper will describe the methodology used in modeling and simulating the ASDS mechanism. Correlation between the models and the test data will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chunxi; Zhang, Shuo; Xue, Quanxi; Ye, Xuemin
2016-10-01
Based on the given parabolic gas-liquid interfaces, a two-dimensional fluid flow in superhydrophobic microchannels is numerically simulated with the steady volume of fluid model in the laminar regime. The influence of several crucial parameters on drag reduction effect is discussed. The results indicate that the superhydrophobic microchannel containing rectangular cavities displays significant drag reduction effect. With increasing inlet velocity, the pressure drop reduction decreases slightly. Augments in the pressure drop reduction tend to be large with the increase of the cavity fraction or the decrease of the channel height. The results also reveal that the variation of the normalized slip length with the cavity fraction tends to be more dramatic when the channel height is smaller. As the parabolic height of the gas-liquid interface is enlarged, both the pressure drop reduction and the normalized slip length decrease linearly, while fRe increases linearly. The impact of the cavity depth on the normalized slip length, fRe, and the pressure drop reduction is minimal supposing the depth of the cavity is greater than 40% of its width. The drag reduction effect corresponding to the dovetail cavity model is the best, and the consequence of the rectangular, trapezoidal, and triangular cavity models sequentially worsens.
Molecular dynamics simulation of aqueous solutions of glycine betaine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Civera, Monica; Fornili, Arianna; Sironi, Maurizio; Fornili, Sandro L.
2003-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate hydration properties of glycine betaine in a large range of solute concentrations. Statistical analyses of the system trajectories evidence microscopic details suggesting an interpretation of experimental results recently obtained for aqueous solutions of trimethylamine- N-oxide, a bioprotectant closely related to glycine betaine.
The 3-axis Dynamic Motion Simulator (DMS) system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
A three-axis dynamic motion simulator (DMS) consisting of a test table with three degrees of freedom and an electronics control system was designed, constructed, delivered, and tested. Documentation, as required in the Data Requirements List (DRL), was also provided.
Simulating Poverty and Inequality Dynamics in Developing Countries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara
2012-01-01
This article considers how the simulation game of DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY provides insight into poverty and inequality dynamics in a development context. It first discusses how the game is rooted in theoretical and conceptual frameworks on poverty and inequality. Subsequently, it reflects on selected playing experiences, with special focus on the…
Evaluating the Accuracy of Hessian Approximations for Direct Dynamics Simulations.
Zhuang, Yu; Siebert, Matthew R; Hase, William L; Kay, Kenneth G; Ceotto, Michele
2013-01-08
Direct dynamics simulations are a very useful and general approach for studying the atomistic properties of complex chemical systems, since an electronic structure theory representation of a system's potential energy surface is possible without the need for fitting an analytic potential energy function. In this paper, recently introduced compact finite difference (CFD) schemes for approximating the Hessian [J. Chem. Phys.2010, 133, 074101] are tested by employing the monodromy matrix equations of motion. Several systems, including carbon dioxide and benzene, are simulated, using both analytic potential energy surfaces and on-the-fly direct dynamics. The results show, depending on the molecular system, that electronic structure theory Hessian direct dynamics can be accelerated up to 2 orders of magnitude. The CFD approximation is found to be robust enough to deal with chaotic motion, concomitant with floppy and stiff mode dynamics, Fermi resonances, and other kinds of molecular couplings. Finally, the CFD approximations allow parametrical tuning of different CFD parameters to attain the best possible accuracy for different molecular systems. Thus, a direct dynamics simulation requiring the Hessian at every integration step may be replaced with an approximate Hessian updating by tuning the appropriate accuracy.
Combining molecular dynamics with mesoscopic Green’s function reaction dynamics simulations
Vijaykumar, Adithya; Bolhuis, Peter G.; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter
2015-12-07
In many reaction-diffusion processes, ranging from biochemical networks, catalysis, to complex self-assembly, the spatial distribution of the reactants and the stochastic character of their interactions are crucial for the macroscopic behavior. The recently developed mesoscopic Green’s Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD) method enables efficient simulation at the particle level provided the microscopic dynamics can be integrated out. Yet, many processes exhibit non-trivial microscopic dynamics that can qualitatively change the macroscopic behavior, calling for an atomistic, microscopic description. We propose a novel approach that combines GFRD for simulating the system at the mesoscopic scale where particles are far apart, with a microscopic technique such as Langevin dynamics or Molecular Dynamics (MD), for simulating the system at the microscopic scale where reactants are in close proximity. This scheme defines the regions where the particles are close together and simulated with high microscopic resolution and those where they are far apart and simulated with lower mesoscopic resolution, adaptively on the fly. The new multi-scale scheme, called MD-GFRD, is generic and can be used to efficiently simulate reaction-diffusion systems at the particle level.
Molecular dynamics simulation: A tool for exploration and discovery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rapaport, Dennis C.
2009-03-01
The exploratory and didactic aspects of science both benefit from the ever-growing role played by computer simulation. One particularly important simulational approach is the molecular dynamics method, used for studying the nature of matter from the molecular to much larger scales. The effectiveness of molecular dynamics can be enhanced considerably by employing visualization and interactivity during the course of the computation and afterwards, allowing the modeler not only to observe the detailed behavior of the systems simulated in different ways, but also to steer the computations in alternative directions by manipulating parameters that govern the actual behavior. This facilitates the creation of potentially rich simulational environments for examining a multitude of complex phenomena, as well as offering an opportunity for enriching the learning process. A series of relatively advanced examples involving molecular dynamics will be used to demonstrate the value of this approach, in particular, atomistic simulations of spontaneously emergent structured fluid flows (the classic Rayleigh--B'enard and Taylor--Couette problems), supramolecular self-assembly of highly symmetric shell structures (involved in the formation of viral capsids), and that most counterintuitive of phenomena, granular segregation (e.g., axial and radial separation in a rotating cylinder).
Acoustic properties in glycerol glass-former: Molecular dynamics simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busselez, Remi; Pezeril, Thomas; Institut des Materiaux et Molecules du Mans Team
2013-03-01
Study of high-frequency collective dynamics around TeraHertz region in glass former has been a subject of intense investigations and debates over the past decade. In particular, the presence of the Boson peak characteristic of glassy material and its relation to other glass anomalies. Recently, experiments and simulations have underlined possible relation between Boson peak and transverse acoustic modes in glassy materials. In particular, simulations of simple Lennard Jones glass former have shown a relation between Ioffe-Regel criterion in transverse modes and Boson peak. We present here molecular dynamics simulation on high frequency dynamics of glycerol. In order to study mesoscopic order (0.5-5nm-1), we made use of large simulation box containing 80000 atoms. Analysis of collective longitudinal and transverse acoustic modes shows striking similarities in comparison with simulation of Lennard-Jones particles. In particular, it seems that a connection may exist between Ioffe-Regel criterion for transverse modes and Bose Peak frequency. However,in our case we show that this connection may be related with structural correlation arising from molecular clusters.
Interactive simulation and analysis of emission reduction systems in commercial boilers
Diachin, D.; Freitag, L.; Heath, D.; Herzog, J.; Plassmann, P.; Michels, W.
1996-12-31
In this paper the authors describe an interactive virtual environment developed to model an emission reduction system for commercial boilers. The interactive environment is used to optimize the performance of the reduction system through the spatial adjustment and spray reconfiguration of reagent injectors. They describe the three principal components of the system: a computational model for the particle dynamics, a three-dimensional display device and graphics environment, and the communication layer that allows the interaction of the user in the visualization environment with the computational model. Timing results for each component are given for three hardware configurations that demonstrate the real-time performance of this tool.
4D simulation of explosive eruption dynamics at Vesuvius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neri, Augusto; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Menconi, Gianluca; De'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Cavazzoni, Carlo; Erbacci, Giovanni; Baxter, Peter J.
2007-02-01
We applied a new simulation model, based on multiphase transport laws, to describe the 4D (3D spatial coordinates plus time) dynamics of explosive eruptions. Numerical experiments, carried out on a parallel supercomputer, describe the collapse of the volcanic eruption column and the propagation of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), for selected medium scale (sub-Plinian) eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius, Italy. Simulations provide crucial insights into the effects of the generation mechanism of the flows - partial collapse vs boiling-over - on their evolution and hazard potential, the unstable dynamics of the fountain, and the influence of Mount Somma on the propagation of PDCs into the circum-Vesuvian area, one of the world's most hazardous volcanic settings. Results also show that it is possible to characterize the volcanic column behavior in terms of percentage of the mass of pyroclasts collapsed to the ground and how this parameter strongly influences the dynamics and hazard of the associated PDCs.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Perylenediimide DNA Base Surrogates.
Markegard, Cade B; Mazaheripour, Amir; Jocson, Jonah-Micah; Burke, Anthony M; Dickson, Mary N; Gorodetsky, Alon A; Nguyen, Hung D
2015-09-03
Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimides (PTCDIs) are a well-known class of organic materials. Recently, these molecules have been incorporated within DNA as base surrogates, finding ready applications as probes of DNA structure and function. However, the assembly dynamics and kinetics of PTCDI DNA base surrogates have received little attention to date. Herein, we employ constant temperature molecular dynamics simulations to gain an improved understanding of the assembly of PTCDI dimers and trimers. We also use replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the energetic landscape dictating the formation of stacked PTCDI structures. Our studies provide insight into the equilibrium configurations of multimeric PTCDIs and hold implications for the construction of DNA-inspired systems from perylene-derived organic semiconductor building blocks.
Quantum Dynamics Simulations for Modeling Experimental Pump-Probe Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, Brett; Nayyar, Sahil; Liss, Kyle; Weinacht, Thomas
2016-05-01
Time-resolved studies of quantum dynamics have benefited greatly from developments in ultrafast table-top and free electron lasers. Advances in computer software and hardware have lowered the barrier for performing calculations such that relatively simple simulations allow for direct comparison with experimental results. We describe here a set of quantum dynamics calculations in low-dimensional molecular systems. The calculations incorporate coupled electronic-nuclear dynamics, including two interactions with an applied field and nuclear wave packet propagation. The simulations were written and carried out by undergraduates as part of a senior research project, with the specific goal of allowing for detailed interpretation of experimental pump-probe data (in additional to the pedagogical value).
Multiscale and multimodel simulation of Bloch-point dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreas, Christian; Kákay, Attila; Hertel, Riccardo
2014-04-01
We present simulation results on the structure and dynamics of micromagnetic point singularities with atomistic resolution. This is achieved by embedding an atomistic computational region into a standard micromagnetic algorithm. Several length scales are bridged by means of an adaptive mesh refinement and a seamless coupling between the continuum theory and a Heisenberg formulation for the atomistic region. The code operates on graphical processing units and is able to detect and track the position of strongly inhomogeneous magnetic regions. This enables us to reliably simulate the dynamics of Bloch points, which means that a fundamental class of micromagnetic switching processes can be analyzed with unprecedented accuracy. We test the code by comparing it with established results and present its functionality with the example of a simulated field-driven Bloch-point motion in a soft-magnetic cylinder.
Understanding water: Molecular dynamics simulations of solubilized and crystallized myoglobin
Wei Gu; Garcia, A.E.; Schoenborn, B.P.
1994-12-31
Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on CO myoglobin to evaluate the stability of the bound water molecules as determined in a neutron diffraction analysis. The myoglobin structure derived from the neutron analysis provided the starting coordinate set used in the simulations. The simulations show that only a few water molecules are tightly bound to protein atoms, while most solvent molecules are labile, breaking and reforming hydrogen bonds. Comparison between myoglobin in solution and in a single crystal highlighted some of the packing effects on the solvent structure and shows that water solvent plays an indispensable role in protein dynamics and structural stability. The described observations explain some of the differences in the experimental results of protein hydration as observed in NMR, neutron and X-ray diffraction studies.
Linear Optics Simulation of Quantum Non-Markovian Dynamics
Chiuri, Andrea; Greganti, Chiara; Mazzola, Laura; Paternostro, Mauro; Mataloni, Paolo
2012-01-01
The simulation of open quantum dynamics has recently allowed the direct investigation of the features of system-environment interaction and of their consequences on the evolution of a quantum system. Such interaction threatens the quantum properties of the system, spoiling them and causing the phenomenon of decoherence. Sometimes however a coherent exchange of information takes place between system and environment, memory effects arise and the dynamics of the system becomes non-Markovian. Here we report the experimental realisation of a non-Markovian process where system and environment are coupled through a simulated transverse Ising model. By engineering the evolution in a photonic quantum simulator, we demonstrate the role played by system-environment correlations in the emergence of memory effects. PMID:23236588
Linear Optics Simulation of Quantum Non-Markovian Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiuri, Andrea; Greganti, Chiara; Mazzola, Laura; Paternostro, Mauro; Mataloni, Paolo
2012-12-01
The simulation of open quantum dynamics has recently allowed the direct investigation of the features of system-environment interaction and of their consequences on the evolution of a quantum system. Such interaction threatens the quantum properties of the system, spoiling them and causing the phenomenon of decoherence. Sometimes however a coherent exchange of information takes place between system and environment, memory effects arise and the dynamics of the system becomes non-Markovian. Here we report the experimental realisation of a non-Markovian process where system and environment are coupled through a simulated transverse Ising model. By engineering the evolution in a photonic quantum simulator, we demonstrate the role played by system-environment correlations in the emergence of memory effects.
Ultrascale simulations of non-smooth granular dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preclik, Tobias; Rüde, Ulrich
2015-06-01
This article presents new algorithms for massively parallel granular dynamics simulations on distributed memory architectures using a domain partitioning approach. Collisions are modelled with hard contacts in order to hide their micro-dynamics and thus to extend the time and length scales that can be simulated. The global multi-contact problem is solved using a non-linear block Gauss-Seidel method that is conforming to the subdomain structure. The parallel algorithms employ a sophisticated protocol between processors that delegate algorithmic tasks such as contact treatment and position integration uniquely and robustly to the processors. Communication overhead is minimized through aggressive message aggregation, leading to excellent strong and weak scaling. The robustness and scalability is assessed on three clusters including two peta-scale supercomputers with up to 458,752 processor cores. The simulations can reach unprecedented resolution of up to ten billion () non-spherical particles and contacts.
Software life cycle dynamic simulation model: The organizational performance submodel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tausworthe, Robert C.
1985-01-01
The submodel structure of a software life cycle dynamic simulation model is described. The software process is divided into seven phases, each with product, staff, and funding flows. The model is subdivided into an organizational response submodel, a management submodel, a management influence interface, and a model analyst interface. The concentration here is on the organizational response model, which simulates the performance characteristics of a software development subject to external and internal influences. These influences emanate from two sources: the model analyst interface, which configures the model to simulate the response of an implementing organization subject to its own internal influences, and the management submodel that exerts external dynamic control over the production process. A complete characterization is given of the organizational response submodel in the form of parameterized differential equations governing product, staffing, and funding levels. The parameter values and functions are allocated to the two interfaces.
ParaDiS-FEM dislocation dynamics simulation code primer
Tang, M; Hommes, G; Aubry, S; Arsenlis, A
2011-09-27
The ParaDiS code is developed to study bulk systems with periodic boundary conditions. When we try to perform discrete dislocation dynamics simulations for finite systems such as thin films or cylinders, the ParaDiS code must be extended. First, dislocations need to be contained inside the finite simulation box; Second, dislocations inside the finite box experience image stresses due to the free surfaces. We have developed in-house FEM subroutines to couple with the ParaDiS code to deal with free surface related issues in the dislocation dynamics simulations. This primer explains how the coupled code was developed, the main changes from the ParaDiS code, and the functions of the new FEM subroutines.
Molecular dynamics simulation of friction of hydrocarbon thin films
Tamura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Muneo; Kusakabe, Kenichi
1999-10-26
Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the dynamic behavior of hydrocarbon molecules under shear conditions. Frictional properties of cyclohexane, n-hexane, and iso-hexane thin films confirmed between two solid surfaces were calculated. Because the affinity of the solid surfaces in these simulations is strong, slippages occurred at inner parts of the confined films, whereas no slippages were observed at the solid boundaries. The hexagonal closest packing structure was observed for the adsorbed cyclohexane molecular layers. The branched methyl groups in the iso-hexane molecules increase the shear stress between the molecular layers. For the n-hexane monolayer, molecules were observed to roll during the sliding simulations. Rolling of the n-hexane molecules decreased the shear stress.
The dynamical influences of cloud shading on simulated supercell thunderstorms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frame, Jeffrey
2008-10-01
Numerical simulations of supercell thunderstorms which include parameterized radiative transfer and surface fluxes are performed using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model. The tilted independent column approximation (TICA) is adopted for use in the ARPS model because the existing method of parameterized radiative transfer, the independent column approximation (ICA), permits only the vertical transfer of shortwave radiation. The computed radiative fluxes from both the TICA and ICA are compared to output from a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer solver and it is determined that the TICA fluxes more closely match those from the Monte Carlo model than do those from the ICA. Additionally, the TICA is able to capture the extensions of shadows that occur when the solar zenith angle deviates significantly from zero, which cannot be captured by the ICA. The maximum low-level air temperature deficits within the modeled cloud shadows is 1.5 to 2.0 K, which is only about half that previously observed. The loss of strong solar heating of the model surface within the shaded regions cools the surface temperatures, and changes the sign of the sensible heat flux near the edge of the shadow. This stabilizes the model surface layer and suppresses vertical mixing at low levels within the shaded area. This reduction in vertical mixing means that higher momentum air from aloft is prevented from mixing with air near the surface that has lost momentum to surface friction. The net result of this is a shallower, but more intense vertically-sheared layer near the surface. As the supercell's rear-flank gust front propagates into this modified shear layer, the layer of cold outflow air becomes shallower and it accelerates eastward. In the case of a stationary storm, the cold outflow undercuts the updraft and mesocyclone, depriving them of warm and moist inflow, and ultimately weakening the storm. These results are not likely applicable to all simulations of
Molecular dynamics simulation of triclinic lysozyme in a crystal lattice.
Janowski, Pawel A; Liu, Chunmei; Deckman, Jason; Case, David A
2016-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of crystals can enlighten interpretation of experimental X-ray crystallography data and elucidate structural dynamics and heterogeneity in biomolecular crystals. Furthermore, because of the direct comparison against experimental data, they can inform assessment of molecular dynamics methods and force fields. We present microsecond scale results for triclinic hen egg-white lysozyme in a supercell consisting of 12 independent unit cells using four contemporary force fields (Amber ff99SB, ff14ipq, ff14SB, and CHARMM 36) in crystalline and solvated states (for ff14SB only). We find the crystal simulations consistent across multiple runs of the same force field and robust to various solvent equilibration schemes. However, convergence is slow compared with solvent simulations. All the tested force fields reproduce experimental structural and dynamic properties well, but Amber ff14SB maintains structure and reproduces fluctuations closest to the experimental model: its average backbone structure differs from the deposited structure by 0.37Å; by contrast, the average backbone structure in solution differs from the deposited by 0.65Å. All the simulations are affected by a small progressive deterioration of the crystal lattice, presumably due to imperfect modeling of hydrogen bonding and other crystal contact interactions; this artifact is smallest in ff14SB, with average lattice positions deviating by 0.20Å from ideal. Side-chain disorder is surprisingly low with fewer than 30% of the nonglycine or alanine residues exhibiting significantly populated alternate rotamers. Our results provide helpful insight into the methodology of biomolecular crystal simulations and indicate directions for future work to obtain more accurate energy models for molecular dynamics.
Information diversity in structure and dynamics of simulated neuronal networks.
Mäki-Marttunen, Tuomo; Aćimović, Jugoslava; Nykter, Matti; Kesseli, Juha; Ruohonen, Keijo; Yli-Harja, Olli; Linne, Marja-Leena
2011-01-01
Neuronal networks exhibit a wide diversity of structures, which contributes to the diversity of the dynamics therein. The presented work applies an information theoretic framework to simultaneously analyze structure and dynamics in neuronal networks. Information diversity within the structure and dynamics of a neuronal network is studied using the normalized compression distance. To describe the structure, a scheme for generating distance-dependent networks with identical in-degree distribution but variable strength of dependence on distance is presented. The resulting network structure classes possess differing path length and clustering coefficient distributions. In parallel, comparable realistic neuronal networks are generated with NETMORPH simulator and similar analysis is done on them. To describe the dynamics, network spike trains are simulated using different network structures and their bursting behaviors are analyzed. For the simulation of the network activity the Izhikevich model of spiking neurons is used together with the Tsodyks model of dynamical synapses. We show that the structure of the simulated neuronal networks affects the spontaneous bursting activity when measured with bursting frequency and a set of intraburst measures: the more locally connected networks produce more and longer bursts than the more random networks. The information diversity of the structure of a network is greatest in the most locally connected networks, smallest in random networks, and somewhere in between in the networks between order and disorder. As for the dynamics, the most locally connected networks and some of the in-between networks produce the most complex intraburst spike trains. The same result also holds for sparser of the two considered network densities in the case of full spike trains.
Method for inserting noise in digital mammography to simulate reduction in radiation dose
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borges, Lucas R.; de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Nunes, Polyana F.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.
2015-03-01
The quality of clinical x-ray images is closely related to the radiation dose used in the imaging study. The general principle for selecting the radiation is ALARA ("as low as reasonably achievable"). The practical optimization, however, remains challenging. It is well known that reducing the radiation dose increases the quantum noise, which could compromise the image quality. In order to conduct studies about dose reduction in mammography, it would be necessary to acquire repeated clinical images, from the same patient, with different dose levels. However, such practice would be unethical due to radiation related risks. One solution is to simulate the effects of dose reduction in clinical images. This work proposes a new method, based on the Anscombe transformation, which simulates dose reduction in digital mammography by inserting quantum noise into clinical mammograms acquired with the standard radiation dose. Thus, it is possible to simulate different levels of radiation doses without exposing the patient to new levels of radiation. Results showed that the achieved quality of simulated images generated with our method is the same as when using other methods found in the literature, with the novelty of using the Anscombe transformation for converting signal-independent Gaussian noise into signal-dependent quantum noise.
Evaluation of Airframe Noise Reduction Concepts via Simulations Using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano; Khorrami, Mehdi R.
2015-01-01
Unsteady computations are presented for a high-fidelity, 18% scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration, i.e. flap deflected at 39 degree and main landing gear deployed. The simulations employ the lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW® to simultaneously capture the flow physics and acoustics in the near field. Sound propagation to the far field is obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. In addition to the baseline geometry, which was presented previously, various noise reduction concepts for the flap and main landing gear are simulated. In particular, care is taken to fully resolve the complex geometrical details associated with these concepts in order to capture the resulting intricate local flow field thus enabling accurate prediction of their acoustic behavior. To determine aeroacoustic performance, the farfield noise predicted with the concepts applied is compared to high-fidelity simulations of the untreated baseline configurations. To assess the accuracy of the computed results, the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic impact of the noise reduction concepts is evaluated numerically and compared to experimental results for the same model. The trends and effectiveness of the simulated noise reduction concepts compare well with measured values and demonstrate that the computational approach is capable of capturing the primary effects of the acoustic treatment on a full aircraft model.
Dynamic simulation for distortion image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Huijie; Fei, Jindong; Qing, Duzheng; Zhao, Hongming; Yu, Hong; Cheng, Chen
2013-09-01
The imaging through atmospheric turbulence is an inevitable problem encountered by infrared imaging sensors working in the turbulence atmospheric environment. Before light-rays enter the window of the imaging sensors, the atmospheric turbulence will randomly interfere with the transmission of the light waves came from the objects, causing the distribution of image intensity values on the focal plane to diffuse, the peak value to decrease, the image to get blurred, and the pixels to deviate, and making image identification very difficult. Owing to the fact of the long processing time and that the atmospheric turbulent flow field is unknown and hard to be described by mathematical models, dynamic simulation for distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects is much more difficult and challenging in the world. This paper discusses the dynamic simulation for distortion Image of turbulence atmospheric transmission effect. First of all, with the data and the optical transmission model of the turbulence atmospheric, the ray-tracing method is applied to obtain the propagation path of optical ray which propagates through the high-speed turbulent flow field, and then to calculate the OPD from the reference wave to the reconverted wave front and obtain the point spread function (PSF). Secondly, infrared characteristics models of typical scene were established according to the theory of infrared physics and heat conduction, and then the dynamic infrared image was generated by OpenGL. The last step is to obtain the distortion Image with turbulence atmospheric transmission effects .With the data of atmospheric transmission computation, infrared simulation image of every frame was processed according to the theory of image processing and the real-time image simulation, and then the dynamic distortion simulation images with effects of blurring, jitter and shifting were obtained. Above-mentioned simulation method can provide the theoretical bases for recovering
Simulating Field-Scale Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics Using EPIC
Causarano, Hector J.; Shaw, Joey N.; Franzluebbers, A. J.; reeves, D. W.; Raper, Randy L.; Balkcom, Kipling S.; Norfleet, M. L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar
2007-07-01
Simulation models integrate our knowledge of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration; yet, they require local calibration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, and evaluate its performance for simulating SOC fractions as affected by soil landscape and management. An automated parameter optimization procedure was used to calibrate the model for a site-specific experiment in the Coastal Plain of central Alabama. The ability of EPIC to predict corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields and SOC dynamics on different soil landscape positions (summit, sideslope and drainageway) during the initial period of conservation tillage adoption (5 years) was evaluated using regression and mean squared deviations. Simulated yield explained 88% of measured yield variation, with greatest disagreement on the sideslope position and highest agreement in the drainageway. Simulations explained approximately 1, 34 and 40% of the total variation in microbial biomass C (MBC), particulate organic C (POC) and total organic C (TOC), respectively. Lowest errors on TOC simulations (0-20 cm) were found on the sideslope and summit. We conclude that the automated parameterization was generally successful, although further work is needed to refine the MBC and POC fractions, and to improve EPIC predictions of SOC dynamics with depth. Overall, EPIC was sensitive to spatial differences in C fractions that resulted from differing soil landscape positions. The model needs additional refinement for accurate simulations of field-scale SOC dynamics affected by short-term management decisions.
Blöchliger, Nicolas; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas
2015-11-10
Data mining techniques depend strongly on how the data are represented and how distance between samples is measured. High-dimensional data often contain a large number of irrelevant dimensions (features) for a given query. These features act as noise and obfuscate relevant information. Unsupervised approaches to mine such data require distance measures that can account for feature relevance. Molecular dynamics simulations produce high-dimensional data sets describing molecules observed in time. Here, we propose to globally or locally weight simulation features based on effective rates. This emphasizes, in a data-driven manner, slow degrees of freedom that often report on the metastable states sampled by the molecular system. We couple this idea to several unsupervised learning protocols. Our approach unmasks slow side chain dynamics within the native state of a miniprotein and reveals additional metastable conformations of a protein. The approach can be combined with most algorithms for clustering or dimensionality reduction.
A description of Lax type integrable dynamical systems via the Marsden-Weinstein reduction method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prykarpatsky, Yarema A.
2013-09-01
A Lie-algebraic approach to constructing nonlinear Lax type integrable dynamical systems of modern mathematical and theoretical physics, based on the Marsden-Weinstein reduction method on canonically symplectic manifolds with group symmetry, is proposed. Its natural relationship with the well known Adler-Kostant-Souriau-Berezin-Kirillov method and the associated R-matrix approach is analyzed.
Human Sensibility Ergonomics Approach to Vehicle Simulator Based on Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Son, Kwon; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Yoon, Ji-Sup
Simulators have been used to evaluate drivers' reactions to various transportation products. Most research, however, has concentrated on their technical performance. This paper considers driver's motion perception on a vehicle simulator through the analysis of human sensibility ergonomics. A sensibility ergonomic method is proposed in order to improve the reliability of vehicle simulators. A simulator in a passenger vehicle consists of three main modules such as vehicle dynamics, virtual environment, and motion representation modules. To evaluate drivers' feedback, human perceptions are categorized into a set verbal expressions collected and investigated to find the most appropriate ones for translation and angular accelerations of the simulator. The cut-off frequency of the washout filter in the representation module is selected as one sensibility factor. Sensibility experiments were carried out to find a correlation between the expressions and the cut-off frequency of the filter. This study suggests a methodology to obtain an ergonomic database that can be applied to the sensibility evaluation of dynamic simulators.
Dynamic Simulation of a Wave Rotor Topped Turboshaft Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greendyke, R. B.; Paxson, D. E.; Schobeiri, M. T.
1997-01-01
The dynamic behavior of a wave rotor topped turboshaft engine is examined using a numerical simulation. The simulation utilizes an explicit, one-dimensional, multi-passage, CFD based wave rotor code in combination with an implicit, one-dimensional, component level dynamic engine simulation code. Transient responses to rapid fuel flow rate changes and compressor inlet pressure changes are simulated and compared with those of a similarly sized, untopped, turboshaft engine. Results indicate that the wave rotor topped engine responds in a stable, and rapid manner. Furthermore, during certain transient operations, the wave rotor actually tends to enhance engine stability. In particular, there is no tendency toward surge in the compressor of the wave rotor topped engine during rapid acceleration. In fact, the compressor actually moves slightly away from the surge line during this transient. This behavior is precisely the opposite to that of an untopped engine. The simulation is described. Issues associated with integrating CFD and component level codes are discussed. Results from several transient simulations are presented and discussed.
Research on hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Dandan; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei
2016-10-01
This paper presents a simulation method of hyper-spectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyper-spectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyper-spectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyper-spectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyper-spectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyper-spectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyper-spectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.
Research on hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Dandan; Liu, Fang; Gao, Jiaobo; Sun, Kefeng; Hu, Yu; Li, Yu; Xie, Junhu; Zhang, Lei
2016-10-01
This paper presents a simulation method of hyperspectral dynamic scene and image sequence for hyperspectral equipment evaluation and target detection algorithm. Because of high spectral resolution, strong band continuity, anti-interference and other advantages, in recent years, hyperspectral imaging technology has been rapidly developed and is widely used in many areas such as optoelectronic target detection, military defense and remote sensing systems. Digital imaging simulation, as a crucial part of hardware in loop simulation, can be applied to testing and evaluation hyperspectral imaging equipment with lower development cost and shorter development period. Meanwhile, visual simulation can produce a lot of original image data under various conditions for hyperspectral image feature extraction and classification algorithm. Based on radiation physic model and material characteristic parameters this paper proposes a generation method of digital scene. By building multiple sensor models under different bands and different bandwidths, hyperspectral scenes in visible, MWIR, LWIR band, with spectral resolution 0.01μm, 0.05μm and 0.1μm have been simulated in this paper. The final dynamic scenes have high real-time and realistic, with frequency up to 100 HZ. By means of saving all the scene gray data in the same viewpoint image sequence is obtained. The analysis results show whether in the infrared band or the visible band, the grayscale variations of simulated hyperspectral images are consistent with the theoretical analysis results.
Numerical Simulation of High Drag Reduction in a Turbulent Channel Flow with Polymer Additives
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dubief, Yves
2003-01-01
The addition of small amounts of long chain polymer molecules to wall-bounded flows can lead to dramatic drag reduction. Although this phenomenon has been known for about fifty years, the action of the polymers and its effect on turbulent structures are still unclear. Detailed experiments have characterized two distinct regimes (Warholic et al. 1999), which are referred to as low drag reduction (LDR) and high drag reduction (HDR). The first regime exhibits similar statistical trends as Newtonian flow: the log-law region of the mean velocity profile remains parallel to that of the Newtonian ow but its lower bound moves away from the wall and the upward shift of the log-region is a function of drag reduction, DR. Although streamwise fluctuations are increased and transverse ones are reduced, the shape of the rms velocity profiles is not qualitatively modified. At higher drag reductions, of the order of 40-50%, the ow enters the HDR regime for which the slope of the log-law is dramatically augmented and the Reynolds shear stress is small (Warholic et al. 1999; Ptasinski et al. 2001). The drag reduction is eventually bounded by a maximum drag reduction (MDR) (Virk & Mickley 1970) which is a function of the Reynolds number. While several experiments report mean velocity profiles very close to the empirical profile of Virk & Mickley (1970) for MDR conditions, the observations regarding the structure of turbulence can differ significantly. For instance, Warholic et al. (1999) measured a near-zero Reynolds shear stress, whereas a recent experiment (Ptasinski et al. 2001) shows evidence of non-negligible Reynolds stress in their MDR flow. To the knowledge of the authors, only the LDR regime has been documented in numerical simulations (Sureshkumar et al. 1997; Dimitropoulos et al. 1998; Min et al. 2001; Dubief & Lele 2001; Sibilla & Baron 2002). This paper discusses the simulation of polymer drag reduced channel ow at HDR using the FENE-P (Finite Elastic non
The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem: Simulation and modern dynamics
Weissert, T.P.
1992-01-01
In 1952, Enrico Fermi, John Pasta and Stanislaw Ulam (FPU) simulated the loaded string model, perturbed with small, nonlinear interaction terms. Because Poincare's theorem guarantees the non-existence of a complete set of integrals for three-body problem, they expected to see the diffusion of energy from its single-mode initial condition to all other modes of the string. But for every combination of initial conditions, the energy remained bounded within the lowest few modes. No theoretical explanation existed for this failure of the underlying hypothesis that erogidicity follows from the lack of a complete set of integrals of the motion in a Hamiltonian model. The author traces the history of this problem from the FPU simulation to the point that a consensus was reached concerning its solution twenty years later. During this period, the simulation of nonlinearly-perturbed integral models became the methodology for a new era in dynamics. Through the use of simulation, dynamicists discovered deterministic chaos, in which the exponential separation of pair orbits generate randomness in deterministic macroscopic systems, and a new kind of structure-related to the KAM theorem-that provides limited order in the absence of analytic integrals of the motions. The author maps the set of conceptually-related journal articles into a chronological inference topology that tracks the understanding of this problem of dynamics. Simulating non-integrable models on a digital computer requires the discretization of time and space. These approximations affect what the simulation can reveal about the model, and the model about reality. Simulations play the role of experiments on mathematical models. A discussion is presented of the issues that emerge with the use of simulation as a heuristic device and the groundwork is laid for an epistemology of simulation.
Wang, Shaobu; Lu, Shuai; Zhou, Ning; Lin, Guang; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Pai, M. A.
2014-09-04
In interconnected power systems, dynamic model reduction can be applied on generators outside the area of interest to mitigate the computational cost with transient stability studies. This paper presents an approach of deriving the reduced dynamic model of the external area based on dynamic response measurements, which comprises of three steps, dynamic-feature extraction, attribution and reconstruction (DEAR). In the DEAR approach, a feature extraction technique, such as singular value decomposition (SVD), is applied to the measured generator dynamics after a disturbance. Characteristic generators are then identified in the feature attribution step for matching the extracted dynamic features with the highest similarity, forming a suboptimal ‘basis’ of system dynamics. In the reconstruction step, generator state variables such as rotor angles and voltage magnitudes are approximated with a linear combination of the characteristic generators, resulting in a quasi-nonlinear reduced model of the original external system. Network model is un-changed in the DEAR method. Tests on several IEEE standard systems show that the proposed method gets better reduction ratio and response errors than the traditional coherency aggregation methods.
Dynamic order reduction of thin-film deposition kinetics models: A reaction factorization approach
Adomaitis, Raymond A.
2016-01-15
A set of numerical tools for the analysis and dynamic dimension reduction of chemical vapor and atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface reaction models is developed in this work. The approach is based on a two-step process where in the first, the chemical species surface balance dynamic equations are factored to effectively decouple the (nonlinear) reaction rates, a process that eliminates redundant dynamic modes and that identifies conserved quantities. If successful, the second phase is implemented to factor out redundant dynamic modes when species relatively minor in concentration are omitted; if unsuccessful, the technique points to potential model structural problems. An alumina ALD process is used for an example consisting of 19 reactions and 23 surface and gas-phase species. Using the approach developed, the model is reduced by nineteen modes to a four-dimensional dynamic system without any knowledge of the reaction rate values. Results are interpreted in the context of potential model validation studies.
The fractional-nonlinear robotic manipulator: Modeling and dynamic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, S. A.; Balthazar, J. M.; Julio, B. H. S.; Oliveira, C.
2012-11-01
In this paper, we applied the Riemann-Liouville approach and the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations in order to obtain the fractional-order nonlinear dynamics equations of a two link robotic manipulator. The aformentioned equations have been simulated for several cases involving: integer and non-integer order analysis, with and without external forcing acting and some different initial conditions. The fractional nonlinear governing equations of motion are coupled and the time evolution of the angular positions and the phase diagrams have been plotted to visualize the effect of fractional order approach. The new contribution of this work arises from the fact that the dynamics equations of a two link robotic manipulator have been modeled with the fractional Euler-Lagrange dynamics approach. The results reveal that the fractional-nonlinear robotic manipulator can exhibit different and curious behavior from those obtained with the standard dynamical system and can be useful for a better understanding and control of such nonlinear systems.
Generic solar photovoltaic system dynamic simulation model specification
Ellis, Abraham; Behnke, Michael Robert; Elliott, Ryan Thomas
2013-10-01
This document is intended to serve as a specification for generic solar photovoltaic (PV) system positive-sequence dynamic models to be implemented by software developers and approved by the WECC MVWG for use in bulk system dynamic simulations in accordance with NERC MOD standards. Two specific dynamic models are included in the scope of this document. The first, a Central Station PV System model, is intended to capture the most important dynamic characteristics of large scale (> 10 MW) PV systems with a central Point of Interconnection (POI) at the transmission level. The second, a Distributed PV System model, is intended to represent an aggregation of smaller, distribution-connected systems that comprise a portion of a composite load that might be modeled at a transmission load bus.
Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Structural Dynamic Frequency Characteristics Control
Zhang, Xingwu; Chen, Xuefeng; You, Shangqin; He, Zhengjia; Li, Bing
2012-01-01
In general, mechanical equipment such as cars, airplanes, and machine tools all operate with constant frequency characteristics. These constant working characteristics should be controlled if the dynamic performance of the equipment demands improvement or the dynamic characteristics is intended to change with different working conditions. Active control is a stable and beneficial method for this, but current active control methods mainly focus on vibration control for reducing the vibration amplitudes in the time domain or frequency domain. In this paper, a new method of dynamic frequency characteristics active control (DFCAC) is presented for a flat plate, which can not only accomplish vibration control but also arbitrarily change the dynamic characteristics of the equipment. The proposed DFCAC algorithm is based on a neural network including two parts of the identification implement and the controller. The effectiveness of the DFCAC method is verified by several simulation and experiments, which provide desirable results. PMID:22666072
Dynamic model of the vergence eye movement system: simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Hung, G K
1998-01-01
A dynamic model of the vergence eye movement system was developed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The model was based on a dual-mode dynamic model previously written in FORTRAN. It consisted of a fast open-loop component and a slow closed-loop component. The new model contained several important modifications. For example, in the fast component, a zero-order hold element replaced the sampler and the target trajectory estimator in the earlier model to provide more stable and accurate responses. Also, a periodicity detector was added to automatically detect periodicity in the stimulus waveform. The stored periodic stimulus, with a reduction in latency, was used to drive the fast component output. Moreover, a connection representing the efference copy signal was added from the fast component output to the disparity input to provide an accurate estimate of the stimulus waveform. Further, Robinson's model of the extraocular muscles replaced the earlier 2nd-order plant to provide more realistic muscle dynamics. The entire model, containing the fast and slow components, was simulated using a variety of stimuli such as pulses, positive and negative ramps, square-wave, and sine-wave. The responses showed dynamic characteristics similar to experimental results. Thus, this new MATLAB/SIMULINK program provides a relatively easy-to-use, versatile, and powerful simulation environment for investigating the basic as well as clinical aspects of vergence dynamics. Moreover, the simulation program has general characteristics that can be modified to represent other oculomotor systems such as the versional and accommodation systems. This provides a framework for future investigation of dynamic interactions between oculomotor systems.
Noe, F; Diadone, Isabella; Lollmann, Marc; Sauer, Marcus; Chondera, John D; Smith, Jeremy C
2011-01-01
There is a gap between kinetic experiment and simulation in their views of the dynamics of complex biomolecular systems. Whereas experiments typically reveal only a few readily discernible exponential relaxations, simulations often indicate complex multistate behavior. Here, a theoretical framework is presented that reconciles these two approaches. The central concept is dynamical fingerprints which contain peaks at the time scales of the dynamical processes involved with amplitudes determined by the experimental observable. Fingerprints can be generated from both experimental and simulation data, and their comparison by matching peaks permits assignment of structural changes present in the simulation to experimentally observed relaxation processes. The approach is applied here to a test case interpreting single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments on a set of fluorescent peptides with molecular dynamics simulations. The peptides exhibit complex kinetics shown to be consistent with the apparent simplicity of the experimental data. Moreover, the fingerprint approach can be used to design new experiments with site-specific labels that optimally probe specific dynamical processes in the molecule under investigation.
NETIMIS: Dynamic Simulation of Health Economics Outcomes Using Big Data.
Johnson, Owen A; Hall, Peter S; Hulme, Claire
2016-02-01
Many healthcare organizations are now making good use of electronic health record (EHR) systems to record clinical information about their patients and the details of their healthcare. Electronic data in EHRs is generated by people engaged in complex processes within complex environments, and their human input, albeit shaped by computer systems, is compromised by many human factors. These data are potentially valuable to health economists and outcomes researchers but are sufficiently large and complex enough to be considered part of the new frontier of 'big data'. This paper describes emerging methods that draw together data mining, process modelling, activity-based costing and dynamic simulation models. Our research infrastructure includes safe links to Leeds hospital's EHRs with 3 million secondary and tertiary care patients. We created a multidisciplinary team of health economists, clinical specialists, and data and computer scientists, and developed a dynamic simulation tool called NETIMIS (Network Tools for Intervention Modelling with Intelligent Simulation; http://www.netimis.com ) suitable for visualization of both human-designed and data-mined processes which can then be used for 'what-if' analysis by stakeholders interested in costing, designing and evaluating healthcare interventions. We present two examples of model development to illustrate how dynamic simulation can be informed by big data from an EHR. We found the tool provided a focal point for multidisciplinary team work to help them iteratively and collaboratively 'deep dive' into big data.
Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Graphene Sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolev, S.; Balchev, I.; Cvetkov, K.; Tinchev, S.; Milenov, T.
2017-01-01
The study of graphene is important because it is a promising material for a variety of applications in the electronic industry. In the present work, the properties of а 2D periodic graphene sheet are studied with the use of ab initio molecular dynamics. DFT in the generalized gradient approximation is used in order to carry out the dynamical simulations. The PBE functional and DZVP-MOLOPT basis set are implemented in the CP2K/Quickstep package. A periodic box, consisting of 288 carbon atoms is chosen for the simulations. After geometry optimization it has dimensions 2964 x 2964 x 1500 pm and form angles of 90, 90, 60 degrees. The dynamical simulation is run for 1 ps in the NPT ensemble, at temperature T = 298.15 K. The radial distribution function shows a first peak at 142 pm, marking the bond length between carbon atoms. The density of states for the periodic systems is simulated as occupied orbitals represent the valence band and unoccupied ones the conduction band. The calculated bandgap, as expected is close to 0 eV.
Climate Simulations with an Isentropic Finite Volume Dynamical Core
Chen, Chih-Chieh; Rasch, Philip J.
2012-04-15
This paper discusses the impact of changing the vertical coordinate from a hybrid pressure to a hybrid-isentropic coordinate within the finite volume dynamical core of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Results from a 20-year climate simulation using the new model coordinate configuration are compared to control simulations produced by the Eulerian spectral and FV dynamical cores of CAM which both use a pressure-based ({sigma}-p) coordinate. The same physical parameterization package is employed in all three dynamical cores. The isentropic modeling framework significantly alters the simulated climatology and has several desirable features. The revised model produces a better representation of heat transport processes in the atmosphere leading to much improved atmospheric temperatures. We show that the isentropic model is very effective in reducing the long standing cold temperature bias in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, a deficiency shared among most climate models. The warmer upper troposphere and stratosphere seen in the isentropic model reduces the global coverage of high clouds which is in better agreement with observations. The isentropic model also shows improvements in the simulated wintertime mean sea-level pressure field in the northern hemisphere.
Analysis of utilization of desert habitats with dynamic simulation
Williams, B.K.
1986-01-01
The effects of climate and herbivores on cool desert shrubs in north-western Utah were investigated with a dynamic simulation model. Cool desert shrublands are extensively managed as grazing lands, and are defoliated annually by domestic livestock. A primary production model was used to simulate harvest yields and shrub responses under a variety of climatic regimes and defoliation patterns. The model consists of six plant components, and it is based on equations of growth analysis. Plant responses were simulated under various combinations of 20 annual weather patterns and 14 defoliation strategies. Results of the simulations exhibit some unexpected linearities in model behavior, and emphasize the importance of both the pattern of climate and the level of plant vigor in determining optimal harvest strategies. Model behaviors are interpreted in terms of shrub morphology, physiology and ecology.
Survey of Dynamic Simulation Programs for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing
Troy J. Tranter; Daryl R. Haefner
2008-06-01
The absence of any industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other industries. Modeling programs to simulate the dynamic behavior of nuclear fuel separations and processing were originally developed to support the US government’s mission of weapons production and defense fuel recovery. Consequently there has been little effort is the US devoted towards improving this specific process simulation capability during the last two or three decades. More recent work has been focused on elucidating chemical thermodynamics and developing better models of predicting equilibrium in actinide solvent extraction systems. These equilibrium models have been used to augment flowsheet development and testing primarily at laboratory scales. The development of more robust and complete process models has not kept pace with the vast improvements in computational power and user interface and is significantly behind simulation capability in other chemical processing and separation fields.
Molecular-dynamics simulation of a ceramide bilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandit, Sagar A.; Scott, H. Larry
2006-01-01
Ceramide is the simplest lipid in the biologically important class of glycosphingolipids. Ceramide is an important signaling molecule and a major component of the strateum corneum layer in the skin. In order to begin to understand the biophysical properties of ceramide, we have carried out a molecular-dynamics simulation of a hydrated 16:0 ceramide lipid bilayer at 368K (5° above the main phase transition). In this paper we describe the simulation and present the resulting properties of the bilayer. We compare the properties of the simulated ceramide bilayer to an earlier simulation of 18:0 sphingomyelin, and we discuss the results as they relate to experimental data for ceramide and other sphingolipids. The most significant differences arise at the lipid/water interface, where the lack of a large ceramide polar group leads to a different electron density and a different electrostatic potential but, surprisingly, not a different overall "dipole potential," when ceramide is compared to sphingomyelin.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Carbon Nanotubes in Water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walther, J. H.; Jaffe, R.; Halicioglu, T.; Koumoutsakos, P.
2000-01-01
We study the hydrophobic/hydrophilic behavior of carbon nanotubes using molecular dynamics simulations. The energetics of the carbon-water interface are mainly dispersive but in the present study augmented with a carbon quadrupole term acting on the charge sites of the water. The simulations indicate that this contribution is negligible in terms of modifying the structural properties of water at the interface. Simulations of two carbon nanotubes in water display a wetting and drying of the interface between the nanotubes depending on their initial spacing. Thus, initial tube spacings of 7 and 8 A resulted in a drying of the interface whereas spacing of > 9 A remain wet during the course of the simulation. Finally, we present a novel particle-particle-particle-mesh algorithm for long range potentials which allows for general (curvilinear) meshes and "black-box" fast solvers by adopting an influence matrix technique.
Advanced beam-dynamics simulation tools for RIA.
Garnett, R. W.; Wangler, T. P.; Billen, J. H.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; Crandall, K. R.; Ostroumov, P.; York, R.; Zhao, Q.; Physics; LANL; LBNL; Tech Source; Michigan State Univ.
2005-01-01
We are developing multi-particle beam-dynamics simulation codes for RIA driver-linac simulations extending from the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line to the end of the linac. These codes run on the NERSC parallel supercomputing platforms at LBNL, which allow us to run simulations with large numbers of macroparticles. The codes have the physics capabilities needed for RIA, including transport and acceleration of multiple-charge-state beams, beam-line elements such as high-voltage platforms within the linac, interdigital accelerating structures, charge-stripper foils, and capabilities for handling the effects of machine errors and other off-normal conditions. This year will mark the end of our project. In this paper we present the status of the work, describe some recent additions to the codes, and show some preliminary simulation results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrmann, Jan; Maess, Matthias; Gaul, Lothar
2010-01-01
The operation of pumps and valves leads to strong acoustic excitation in fluid-filled piping systems. Efficient substructuring and model order reduction strategies are required for the sound prediction in piping systems, and in order to reduce the sound transmission to attached components, such as the floor panel in vehicles, for example. This research presents a finite element based automatic substructuring and component mode synthesis technique, which is a combination of an extended Craig-Bampton method for fluid-structure coupled piping systems and a novel, consecutive interface reduction. Hereby, the remaining interface degrees of freedom between different substructures are further reduced using appropriate Ritz vectors. The proposed model order reduction strategy accelerates the computation of transfer functions in fluid-filled extended piping systems. In order to validate the simulation results, experimental results are obtained by a hydraulic test bench for dynamic measurements, where fluid pulsation is induced by piezo-driven transducers. The observed fluid-structure interaction phenomena correspond to the predictions by the proposed computation approach.
Lattice Boltzmann simulations of multiple-droplet interaction dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Wenchao; Loney, Drew; Fedorov, Andrei G.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Rosen, David W.
2014-03-01
A lattice Boltzmann (LB) formulation, which is consistent with the phase-field model for two-phase incompressible fluid, is proposed to model the interface dynamics of droplet impingement. The interparticle force is derived by comparing the macroscopic transport equations recovered from LB equations with the governing equations of the continuous phase-field model. The inconsistency between the existing LB implementations and the phase-field model in calculating the relaxation time at the phase interface is identified and an approximation is proposed to ensure the consistency with the phase-field model. It is also shown that the commonly used equilibrium velocity boundary for the binary fluid LB scheme does not conserve momentum at the wall boundary and a modified scheme is developed to ensure the momentum conservation at the boundary. In addition, a geometric formulation of the wetting boundary condition is proposed to replace the popular surface energy formulation and results show that the geometric approach enforces the prescribed contact angle better than the surface energy formulation in both static and dynamic wetting. The proposed LB formulation is applied to simulating droplet impingement dynamics in three dimensions and results are compared to those obtained with the continuous phase-field model, the LB simulations reported in the literature, and experimental data from the literature. The results show that the proposed LB simulation approach yields not only a significant speed improvement over the phase-field model in simulating droplet impingement dynamics on a submillimeter length scale, but also better accuracy than both the phase-field model and the previously reported LB techniques when compared to experimental data. Upon validation, the proposed LB modeling methodology is applied to the study of multiple-droplet impingement and interactions in three dimensions, which demonstrates its powerful capability of simulating extremely complex interface
A reliable simulator for dynamic flux balance analysis.
Höffner, K; Harwood, S M; Barton, P I
2013-03-01
Dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA) provides a platform for detailed design, control and optimization of biochemical process technologies. It is a promising modeling framework that combines genome-scale metabolic network analysis with dynamic simulation of the extracellular environment. Dynamic flux balance analysis assumes that the intracellular species concentrations are in equilibrium with the extracellular environment. The resulting underdetermined stoichiometric model is solved under the assumption of a biochemical objective such as growth rate maximization. The model of the metabolism is coupled with the dynamic mass balance equations of the extracellular environment via expressions for the rates of substrate uptake and product excretion, which imposes additional constraints on the linear program (LP) defined by growth rate maximization of the metabolism. The linear program is embedded into the dynamic model of the bioreactor, and together with the additional constraints this provides an accurate model of the substrate consumption, product secretion, and biomass production during operation. A DFBA model consists of a system of ordinary differential equations for which the evaluation of the right-hand side requires not only function evaluations, but also the solution of one or more linear programs. The numerical tool presented here accurately and efficiently simulates large-scale dynamic flux balance models. The main advantages that this approach has over existing implementation are that the integration scheme has a variable step size, that the linear program only has to be solved when qualitative changes in the optimal flux distribution of the metabolic network occur, and that it can reliably simulate behavior near the boundary of the domain where the model is defined. This is illustrated through large-scale examples taken from the literature.
Autoinhibitory mechanisms of ERG studied by molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yan; Salsbury, Freddie R.
2015-01-01
ERG, an ETS-family transcription factor, acts as a regulator of differentiation of early hematopoietic cells. It contains an autoinhibitory domain, which negatively regulates DNA-binding. The mechanism of autoinhibitory is still illusive. To understand the mechanism, we study the dynamical properties of ERG protein by molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations suggest that DNA binding autoinhibition associates with the internal dynamics of ERG. Specifically, we find that (1), The N-C terminal correlation in the inhibited ERG is larger than that in uninhibited ERG that contributes to the autoinhibition of DNA-binding. (2), DNA-binding changes the property of the N-C terminal correlation from being anti-correlated to correlated, that is, changing the relative direction of the correlated motions and (3), For the Ets-domain specifically, the inhibited and uninhibited forms exhibit essentially the same dynamics, but the binding of the DNA decreases the fluctuation of the Ets-domain. We also find from PCA analysis that the three systems, even with quite different dynamics, do have highly similar free energy surfaces, indicating that they share similar conformations.
Trotter-based simulation of quantum-classical dynamics.
Kernan, Dónal Mac; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Kapral, Raymond
2008-01-17
Quantum rate processes in condensed phase systems are often computed by combining quantum and classical descriptions of the dynamics. An algorithm for simulating the quantum-classical Liouville equation, which describes the dynamics of a quantum subsystem coupled to a classical bath, is presented in this paper. The algorithm is based on a Trotter decomposition of the quantum-classical propagator, in conjunction with Monte Carlo sampling of quantum transitions, to yield a surface-hopping representation of the dynamics. An expression for the nonadiabatic propagator that is responsible for quantum transitions and associated bath momentum changes is derived in a form that is convenient for Monte Carlo sampling and exactly conserves the total energy of the system in individual trajectories. The expectation values of operators or quantum correlation functions can be evaluated by initial sampling of quantum states and use of quantum-classical Liouville dynamics for the time evolution. The algorithm is tested by calculations on the spin-boson model, for which exact quantum results are available, and is shown to reproduce the exact results for stronger nonadiabatic coupling and much longer times using fewer trajectories than other schemes for simulating quantum-classical Liouville dynamics.
Spectral Element Simulations of Rupture Dynamics along kinked faults
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilotte, J.; Festa, G.; Madariaga, R.
2005-12-01
Numerical simulation of earthquake source dynamics provides key elements for ground-motion prediction and insights into the physics of dynamic rupture propagation. Faulting is controlled by non-linear frictional interactions and damage within the fault zone. Important features of the earthquakes dynamics, such as rupture velocity, arrest phase and high-frequency radiation are believed to be strongly influenced by the geometry of the faults (kinks, jogs and forks). Data analysis as well as kinematic inversions have pointed out potential links between super-shear and geometry, as in the case of the Denali and Izmit earthquakes. Finally, recent laboratory experiments of sub- and super-shear rupture propagation along kink interfaces have shed new lights on these phenomena. We present here spectral element simulations of the dynamic rupture propagation along kinked and curved fault interfaces, a problem that has been experimentally investigated by Rousseau and Rosakis (2003). Depending on the state of the initial stress, we numerically analyze the mechanics of the dynamical fault branching for sub- and super-shear rupture propagation. Special interest is devoted to source directivity effects and high frequency generation related to the branching process. Implications for strong motion analysis will be discussed. This work was supported by the SPICE - Research and Training project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalbacher, T.; Jang, E.; He, W.; Savoy, H.; Schueth, C.; Kolditz, O.
2015-12-01
Nitrate reduction reactions, as one of the most important redox reactions in a subsurface system, are strongly influenced by various heterogeneity factors which influence transport of chemical species and spatial distribution of redox substances and consequently have an effect on overall nitrate reduction capacity. In this presented work, the influence of two heterogeneity factors, spatially heterogeneity of hydrological parameters versus spatial heterogeneity of geochemical reactive substances distribution, are discussed with a focus on nitrate transport and redox transformation processes. For this purpose, a coupling interface OGS#IPhreeqc is employed. This code combines Finite-Element groundwater flow and multi-species transport code of OpenGeoSys (OGS) with the IPhreeqc module of open source geochemical solver PHREEQC. The resulting coupled model is applied for simulation of nitrate reduction processes with a series of hypothetical aquifer systems, built using exponentially-correlated log-normal distributed hydraulic conductivity and reactive substances. The spatially heterogeneous aquifer system is realized by a RandomFields package using a statistical program R. Results show that the heterogeneous hydraulics conductivity field has larger impact on nitrate reduction capacity than heterogeneous reactive substances distribution. Moreover, nitrate reduction capacity can be increased by enhanced mixing in heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity field however its overall reduction capacity has gradually decreased as a degree of heterogeneity has increased since accessibility of the chemical species by the reactive substances may be limited. These results support that appropriate characterization of the variance of hydraulic conductivity within the aquifer is important to predict contaminant fate and transport and quantify the impact of uncertainty on numerical groundwater simulation.
Nonholonomic Hamiltonian method for molecular dynamics simulations of reacting shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bass, Joseph; Fahrenthold, Eric P.
2017-01-01
Conventional molecular dynamics simulations of reacting shocks employ a holonomic Hamiltonian formulation: the breaking and forming of covalent bonds is described by potential functions. In general the potential functions: (a) are algebraically complex, (b) must satisfy strict smoothness requirements, and (c) contain many fitted parameters. In recent research the authors have developed a new nonholonomic formulation of reacting molecular dynamics. In this formulation bond orders are determined by rate equations, and the bonding-debonding process need not be described by differentiable functions. This simplifies the representation of complex chemistry and reduces the number of fitted parameters.
Molecular dynamical simulations of melting behaviors of metal clusters
Hamid, Ilyar; Fang, Meng; Duan, Haiming
2015-04-15
The melting behaviors of metal clusters are studied in a wide range by molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated results show that there are fluctuations in the heat capacity curves of some metal clusters due to the strong structural competition; For the 13-, 55- and 147-atom clusters, variations of the melting points with atomic number are almost the same; It is found that for different metal clusters the dynamical stabilities of the octahedral structures can be inferred in general by a criterion proposed earlier by F. Baletto et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 116 3856 (2002)] for the statically stable structures.
Beam Dynamics Design and Simulation in Ion Linear Accelerators (
Ostroumov, Peter N.; Asseev, Vladislav N.; Mustapha, and Brahim
2006-08-01
Orginally, the ray tracing code TRACK has been developed to fulfill the many special requirements for the Rare Isotope Accelerator Facility known as RIA. Since no available beam-dynamics code met all the necessary requirements, modifications to the code TRACK were introduced to allow end-to-end (from the ion souce to the production target) simulations of the RIA machine, TRACK is a general beam-dynamics code and can be applied for the design, commissioning and operation of modern ion linear accelerators and beam transport systems.
Investigation of Ribosomes Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation Methods.
Makarov, G I; Makarova, T M; Sumbatyan, N V; Bogdanov, A A
2016-12-01
The ribosome as a complex molecular machine undergoes significant conformational changes while synthesizing a protein molecule. Molecular dynamics simulations have been used as complementary approaches to X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy, as well as biochemical methods, to answer many questions that modern structural methods leave unsolved. In this review, we demonstrate that all-atom modeling of ribosome molecular dynamics is particularly useful in describing the process of tRNA translocation, atomic details of behavior of nascent peptides, antibiotics, and other small molecules in the ribosomal tunnel, and the putative mechanism of allosteric signal transmission to functional sites of the ribosome.
Multi-Scale Dynamics, Control, and Simulation of Granular Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quadrelli, Marco B.; Basinger, Scott; Swartzlander, Grover
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present some ideas regarding the modeling, dynamics and control aspects of granular spacecraft. Granular spacecraft are complex multibody systems composed of a spatially disordered distribution of a large number of elements, for instance a cloud of grains in orbit. An example of application is a spaceborne observatory for exoplanet imaging, where the primary aperture is a cloud instead of a monolithic aperture. A model is proposed of a multi-scale dynamics of the grains and cloud in orbit, as well as a control approach for cloud shape maintenance and alignment, and preliminary simulation studies are carried out for the representative imaging system.
Hybrid molecular-continuum simulations using smoothed dissipative particle dynamics.
Petsev, Nikolai D; Leal, L Gary; Shell, M Scott
2015-01-28
We present a new multiscale simulation methodology for coupling a region with atomistic detail simulated via molecular dynamics (MD) to a numerical solution of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations obtained from smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD). In this approach, chemical potential gradients emerge due to differences in resolution within the total system and are reduced by introducing a pairwise thermodynamic force inside the buffer region between the two domains where particles change from MD to SDPD types. When combined with a multi-resolution SDPD approach, such as the one proposed by Kulkarni et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234105 (2013)], this method makes it possible to systematically couple atomistic models to arbitrarily coarse continuum domains modeled as SDPD fluids with varying resolution. We test this technique by showing that it correctly reproduces thermodynamic properties across the entire simulation domain for a simple Lennard-Jones fluid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this approach is also suitable for non-equilibrium problems by applying it to simulations of the start up of shear flow. The robustness of the method is illustrated with two different flow scenarios in which shear forces act in directions parallel and perpendicular to the interface separating the continuum and atomistic domains. In both cases, we obtain the correct transient velocity profile. We also perform a triple-scale shear flow simulation where we include two SDPD regions with different resolutions in addition to a MD domain, illustrating the feasibility of a three-scale coupling.
Hybrid molecular-continuum simulations using smoothed dissipative particle dynamics
Petsev, Nikolai D.; Leal, L. Gary; Shell, M. Scott
2015-01-28
We present a new multiscale simulation methodology for coupling a region with atomistic detail simulated via molecular dynamics (MD) to a numerical solution of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations obtained from smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD). In this approach, chemical potential gradients emerge due to differences in resolution within the total system and are reduced by introducing a pairwise thermodynamic force inside the buffer region between the two domains where particles change from MD to SDPD types. When combined with a multi-resolution SDPD approach, such as the one proposed by Kulkarni et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234105 (2013)], this method makes it possible to systematically couple atomistic models to arbitrarily coarse continuum domains modeled as SDPD fluids with varying resolution. We test this technique by showing that it correctly reproduces thermodynamic properties across the entire simulation domain for a simple Lennard-Jones fluid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this approach is also suitable for non-equilibrium problems by applying it to simulations of the start up of shear flow. The robustness of the method is illustrated with two different flow scenarios in which shear forces act in directions parallel and perpendicular to the interface separating the continuum and atomistic domains. In both cases, we obtain the correct transient velocity profile. We also perform a triple-scale shear flow simulation where we include two SDPD regions with different resolutions in addition to a MD domain, illustrating the feasibility of a three-scale coupling.
Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation for EAST Helium Refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Xiaofei; Fu, Peng; Zhuang, Ming; Qiu, Lilong; Hu, Liangbing
2016-06-01
In this paper, the process modeling and dynamic simulation for the EAST helium refrigerator has been completed. The cryogenic process model is described and the main components are customized in detail. The process model is controlled by the PLC simulator, and the realtime communication between the process model and the controllers is achieved by a customized interface. Validation of the process model has been confirmed based on EAST experimental data during the cool down process of 300-80 K. Simulation results indicate that this process simulator is able to reproduce dynamic behaviors of the EAST helium refrigerator very well for the operation of long pulsed plasma discharge. The cryogenic process simulator based on control architecture is available for operation optimization and control design of EAST cryogenic systems to cope with the long pulsed heat loads in the future. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51306195) and Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS (No. CRYO201408)
Methods for simulating the dynamics of complex biological processes.
Schilstra, Maria J; Martin, Stephen R; Keating, Sarah M
2008-01-01
In this chapter, we provide the basic information required to understand the central concepts in the modeling and simulation of complex biochemical processes. We underline the fact that most biochemical processes involve sequences of interactions between distinct entities (molecules, molecular assemblies), and also stress that models must adhere to the laws of thermodynamics. Therefore, we discuss the principles of mass-action reaction kinetics, the dynamics of equilibrium and steady state, and enzyme kinetics, and explain how to assess transition probabilities and reactant lifetime distributions for first-order reactions. Stochastic simulation of reaction systems in well-stirred containers is introduced using a relatively simple, phenomenological model of microtubule dynamic instability in vitro. We demonstrate that deterministic simulation [by numerical integration of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODE)] produces trajectories that would be observed if the results of many rounds of stochastic simulation of the same system were averaged. In Section V, we highlight several practical issues with regard to the assessment of parameter values. We draw some attention to the development of a standard format for model storage and exchange, and provide a list of selected software tools that may facilitate the model building process, and can be used to simulate the modeled systems.
Petascale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Polymers and Liquid Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Trung Dac; Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Brown, W. Michael
2014-03-01
The availability of faster and larger supercomputers and more efficient parallel algorithms now enable us to perform unprecedented simulations approaching experimental scales. Here we present two examples of our latest large-scale molecular dynamics simulations using the Titan supercomputer in the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). In the first study, we address the rupture origin of liquid crystal thin films wetting a solid substrate. Our simulations show the key signatures of spinodal instability in isotropic and nematic films on top of thermal nucleation. Importantly, we found evidence of a common rupture mechanism independent of initial thickness and LC orientational ordering. In the second study, we used coarse-grained molecular dynamics to simulate the thermal annealing of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends in the presence of a silicon substrate found in organic solar cells. Our simulations show different phase segregated morphologies dependent on the P3HT chain length and PCBM volume fraction in the blend. Furthermore, the ternary blend of short and long P3HT chains with PCBM affects the vertical phase segregation of PCBM decreasing its concentration in the vicinity of the substrate. U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725.
Quantum dynamical simulations of local field enhancement in metal nanoparticles.
Negre, Christian F A; Perassi, Eduardo M; Coronado, Eduardo A; Sánchez, Cristián G
2013-03-27
Field enhancements (Γ) around small Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are calculated using a quantum dynamical simulation formalism and the results are compared with electrodynamic simulations using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) in order to address the important issue of the intrinsic atomistic structure of NPs. Quite remarkably, in both quantum and classical approaches the highest values of Γ are located in the same regions around single NPs. However, by introducing a complete atomistic description of the metallic NPs in optical simulations, a different pattern of the Γ distribution is obtained. Knowing the correct pattern of the Γ distribution around NPs is crucial for understanding the spectroscopic features of molecules inside hot spots. The enhancement produced by surface plasmon coupling is studied by using both approaches in NP dimers for different inter-particle distances. The results show that the trend of the variation of Γ versus inter-particle distance is different for classical and quantum simulations. This difference is explained in terms of a charge transfer mechanism that cannot be obtained with classical electrodynamics. Finally, time dependent distribution of the enhancement factor is simulated by introducing a time dependent field perturbation into the Hamiltonian, allowing an assessment of the localized surface plasmon resonance quantum dynamics.
Generation of linear dynamic models from a digital nonlinear simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniele, C. J.; Krosel, S. M.
1979-01-01
The results and methodology used to derive linear models from a nonlinear simulation are presented. It is shown that averaged positive and negative perturbations in the state variables can reduce numerical errors in finite difference, partial derivative approximations and, in the control inputs, can better approximate the system response in both directions about the operating point. Both explicit and implicit formulations are addressed. Linear models are derived for the F 100 engine, and comparisons of transients are made with the nonlinear simulation. The problem of startup transients in the nonlinear simulation in making these comparisons is addressed. Also, reduction of the linear models is investigated using the modal and normal techniques. Reduced-order models of the F 100 are derived and compared with the full-state models.
Rare event simulation of the chaotic Lorenz 96 dynamical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wouters, Jeroen; Bouchet, Freddy
2015-04-01
The simulation of rare events is becoming increasingly important in the climate sciences. Several sessions are devoted to rare and extreme events at this meeting and the IPCC has devoted a special report to risk management of extreme events (SREX). Brute force simulation of rare events can however be very costly. To obtain satisfactory statistics on a 1/1000y event, one needs to perform simulations over several thousands of years. Recently, a class of rare event simulation algorithms has been introduced that could yield significant increases in performance with respect to brute force simulations (see e.g. [1]). In these algorithms an ensemble of simulations is evolved in parallel, while at certain interaction times ensemble members are killed and cloned so as to have better statistics in the region of phase space that is relevant to the rare event of interest. We will discuss the implementational issues and performance gains for these algorithms. We also present results on a first application of a rare event simulation algorithm to a toy model for chaos in the atmosphere, the Lorenz 96 model. We demonstrate that for the estimation of the histogram tail of the energy observable, the algorithm gives a significant error reduction. We will furthermore discuss first results and an outlook on the application of rare event simulation algorithms to study blocking atmospheric circulation and heat wave events in the PlaSim climate model [2]. [1] Del Moral, P. & Garnier, J. Genealogical particle analysis of rare events. The Annals of Applied Probability 15, 2496-2534 (2005). [2] http://www.mi.uni-hamburg.de/Planet-Simul.216.0.html
Frank, Martin
2015-01-01
Complex carbohydrates usually have a large number of rotatable bonds and consequently a large number of theoretically possible conformations can be generated (combinatorial explosion). The application of systematic search methods for conformational analysis of carbohydrates is therefore limited to disaccharides and trisaccharides in a routine analysis. An alternative approach is to use Monte-Carlo methods or (high-temperature) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the conformational space of complex carbohydrates. This chapter describes how to use MD simulation data to perform a conformational analysis (conformational maps, hydrogen bonds) of oligosaccharides and how to build realistic 3D structures of large polysaccharides using Conformational Analysis Tools (CAT).
The architecture of Newton, a general-purpose dynamics simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cremer, James F.; Stewart, A. James
1989-01-01
The architecture for Newton, a general-purpose system for simulating the dynamics of complex physical objects, is described. The system automatically formulates and analyzes equations of motion, and performs automatic modification of this system equations when necessitated by changes in kinematic relationships between objects. Impact and temporary contact are handled, although only using simple models. User-directed influence of simulations is achieved using Newton's module, which can be used to experiment with the control of many-degree-of-freedom articulated objects.
Research of TREETOPS Structural Dynamics Controls Simulation Upgrade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, Rose M.
1996-01-01
Under the provisions of contract number NAS8-40194, which was entitled 'TREETOPS Structural Dynamics and Controls Simulation System Upgrade', Oakwood College contracted to produce an upgrade to the existing TREETOPS suite of analysis tools. This suite includes the main simulation program, TREETOPS, two interactive preprocessors, TREESET and TREEFLX, an interactive post processor, TREEPLOT, and an adjunct program, TREESEL. A 'Software Design Document', which provides descriptions of the argument lists and internal variables for each subroutine in the TREETOPS suite, was established. Additionally, installation guides for both DOS and UNIX platforms were developed. Finally, updated User's Manuals, as well as a Theory Manual, were generated.
Periodic boundary conditions for dislocation dynamics simulations in three dimensions
Bulatov, V V; Rhee, M; Cai, W
2000-11-20
This article presents an implementation of periodic boundary conditions (PBC) for Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations in three dimensions (3D). We discuss fundamental aspects of PBC development, including preservation of translational invariance and line connectivity, the choice of initial configurations compatible with PBC and a consistent treatment of image stress. On the practical side, our approach reduces to manageable proportions the computational burden of updating the long-range elastic interactions among dislocation segments. The timing data confirms feasibility and practicality of PBC for large-scale DD simulations in 3D.
Using collective variables to drive molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiorin, Giacomo; Klein, Michael L.; Hénin, Jérôme
2013-12-01
A software framework is introduced that facilitates the application of biasing algorithms to collective variables of the type commonly employed to drive massively parallel molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The modular framework that is presented enables one to combine existing collective variables into new ones, and combine any chosen collective variable with available biasing methods. The latter include the classic time-dependent biases referred to as steered MD and targeted MD, the temperature-accelerated MD algorithm, as well as the adaptive free-energy biases called metadynamics and adaptive biasing force. The present modular software is extensible, and portable between commonly used MD simulation engines.
Molecular dynamics simulation of threshold displacement energies in zircon
Moreira, Pedro A.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Yu, Jianguo; Weber, William J.
2009-10-15
Molecular-dynamics simulations were used to examine the displacement threshold energy (Ed) surface for Zr, Si and O in zircon using two different interatomic potentials. For each sublattice, the simulation was repeated from different initial conditions to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated value of Ed. The displacement threshold energies vary considerably with crystallographic direction and sublattice. The average displacement energy calculated with a recently developed transferable potential is about 120 and 60 eV for cations and anions, respectively. The oxygen displacement energy shows good agreement with experimental estimates in ceramics.
Superionicity in Na3 PO4 : A molecular dynamics simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, Wei-Guo; Liu, Jianjun; Duan, Chun-Gang; Mei, W. N.; Smith, R. W.; Hardy, J. R.
2004-08-01
Fast ionic conduction in solid Na3PO4 is studied by use of molecular dynamics simulation based on the modified Lu -Hardy approach. We obtain reasonable agreement with experiment for the structural transition and diffusion of the sodium ions. All the sodium ions are found to contribute comparably to the high ionic conductivity. The results of the simulation are discussed in terms of the relative magnitude of the two proposed transport mechanisms: percolation and paddle-wheel. It appears to us that the percolation mechanism dominates the sodium diffusion.
The very local Hubble flow: Computer simulations of dynamical history
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernin, A. D.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Makarov, D. I.
2004-02-01
The phenomenon of the very local (≤3 Mpc) Hubble flow is studied on the basis of the data of recent precision observations. A set of computer simulations is performed to trace the trajectories of the flow galaxies back in time to the epoch of the formation of the Local Group. It is found that the ``initial conditions'' of the flow are drastically different from the linear velocity-distance relation. The simulations enable one also to recognize the major trends of the flow evolution and identify the dynamical role of universal antigravity produced by the cosmic vacuum.
Structural considerations for a software life cycle dynamic simulation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tausworthe, R. C.; Mckenzie, M.; Lin, C. Y.
1983-01-01
This paper presents the results of a preliminary study into the prospects for simulating the software implementation and maintenance life cycle process, with the aim of producing a computerized tool for use by management and software engineering personnel in project planning, tradeoff studies involving product, environmental, situational, and technological factors, and training. The approach taken is the modular application of a 'flow of resource' concept to the systems dynamics simulation modeling technique. The software life cycle process is represented as a number of stochastic, time-varying, interacting work tasks that each achieves one of the project milestones. Each task is characterized by the item produced, the personnel applied, and the budgetary profile.
Classical molecular dynamics simulations for non-equilibrium correlated plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferri, S.; Calisti, A.; Talin, B.
2017-03-01
A classical molecular dynamics model was recently extended to simulate neutral multi-component plasmas where various charge states of the same atom and electrons coexist. It is used to investigate the plasma effects on the ion charge and on the ionization potential in dense plasmas. Different simulated statistical properties will show that the concept of isolated particles is lost in such correlated plasmas. The charge equilibration is discussed for a carbon plasma at solid density and investigation on the charge distribution and on the ionization potential depression (IPD) for aluminum plasmas is discussed with reference to existing experiments.
Finite-size effects in dissipative particle dynamics simulations.
Velázquez, María Eugenia; Gama-Goicochea, Armando; González-Melchor, Minerva; Neria, Maricela; Alejandre, José
2006-02-28
We have performed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to evaluate the effect that finite size of transversal area has on stress anisotropy and interfacial tension. The simulations were carried out in one phase and two phases in parallelepiped cells. In one-phase simulations there is no finite-size effect on stress anisotropy when the simulation is performed using repulsive forces. However, an oscillatory function of stress anisotropy is found for attractive-repulsive interactions. In the case of liquid-liquid interfaces with repulsive interaction between molecules, there is only a small effect of surface area on interfacial tension when the simulations are performed using the Monte Carlo method at constant temperature and normal pressure. An important but artificial finite-size effect of interfacial area on surface tension is found in simulations in the canonical ensemble. Reliable results of interfacial tension from DPD simulations can be obtained using small systems, less than 2000 particles, when they interact exclusively with repulsive forces.
Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales
Zhou, Caizhi
2010-01-01
As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.
Method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography using the Anscombe transformation
Borges, Lucas R.; de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Nunes, Polyana F.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.
2016-01-01
Purpose: This work proposes an accurate method for simulating dose reduction in digital mammography starting from a clinical image acquired with a standard dose. Methods: The method developed in this work consists of scaling a mammogram acquired at the standard radiation dose and adding signal-dependent noise. The algorithm accounts for specific issues relevant in digital mammography images, such as anisotropic noise, spatial variations in pixel gain, and the effect of dose reduction on the detective quantum efficiency. The scaling process takes into account the linearity of the system and the offset of the detector elements. The inserted noise is obtained by acquiring images of a flat-field phantom at the standard radiation dose and at the simulated dose. Using the Anscombe transformation, a relationship is created between the calculated noise mask and the scaled image, resulting in a clinical mammogram with the same noise and gray level characteristics as an image acquired at the lower-radiation dose. Results: The performance of the proposed algorithm was validated using real images acquired with an anthropomorphic breast phantom at four different doses, with five exposures for each dose and 256 nonoverlapping ROIs extracted from each image and with uniform images. The authors simulated lower-dose images and compared these with the real images. The authors evaluated the similarity between the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and power spectrum (PS) of simulated images and real images acquired with the same dose. The maximum relative error was less than 2.5% for every ROI. The added noise was also evaluated by measuring the local variance in the real and simulated images. The relative average error for the local variance was smaller than 1%. Conclusions: A new method is proposed for simulating dose reduction in clinical mammograms. In this method, the dependency between image noise and image signal is addressed using a novel application of the Anscombe
Grain-level simulation of dynamic failure in ceramic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiti, Spandan
2002-04-01
Advanced ceramic materials are finding increasing use in different adverse mechanical and chemical situations due to their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and thermal stability. Their wider use is however impeded by their brittleness, especially in applications involving dynamic loads, in which dynamic fracture and fragmentation events are often observed. Most of the research aimed at the understanding of dynamic crack initiation and propagation mechanisms in this class of materials do not take into account the inherent granular microstructure of ceramics. In this project, we develop a grain-based finite element scheme that allows for the mesoscale study of a range of dynamic failure events in granular media, including propagation and branching of inter-granular cracks and fragmentation. The scheme relies on Voronoi tessellation to generate the granular microstructure and on a 2-D explicit cohesive/volumetric finite element (CVFE) scheme to simulate the constitutive and failure response of the material under dynamic loads. A non-linear kinematics description is used in our analysis to account for the possible large deformations and/or rotations of the grains during the fracture event. A viscoplastic update algorithm is also introduced to model problems (such as dynamic indentation and grinding) for which localized plasticity plays a key role. The numerical scheme finally relies on robust contact search and enforcement algorithms to capture the complex contact events between fracture surfaces, between individual grains and between the impactor/tool and the ceramic specimen. To demonstrate the capabilities and versatility of the grain-based CVFE code, we investigate four dynamic fracture problems. The first one is concerned with the propagation of dynamic intergranular cracks under mode I loading, with special emphasis on the effect of the microstructure on the branching instability of the crack motion. The second problem is that of dynamic fracture
Hydrodynamics in adaptive resolution particle simulations: Multiparticle collision dynamics
Alekseeva, Uliana; Winkler, Roland G.; Sutmann, Godehard
2016-06-01
A new adaptive resolution technique for particle-based multi-level simulations of fluids is presented. In the approach, the representation of fluid and solvent particles is changed on the fly between an atomistic and a coarse-grained description. The present approach is based on a hybrid coupling of the multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC) method and molecular dynamics (MD), thereby coupling stochastic and deterministic particle-based methods. Hydrodynamics is examined by calculating velocity and current correlation functions for various mixed and coupled systems. We demonstrate that hydrodynamic properties of the mixed fluid are conserved by a suitable coupling of the two particle methods, and that the simulation results agree well with theoretical expectations.
Description of ferrocenylalkylthiol SAMs on gold by molecular dynamics simulations.
Goujon, F; Bonal, C; Limoges, B; Malfreyt, P
2009-08-18
Molecular dynamics simulations of mixed monolayers consisting of Fc(CH2)12S-/C10S-Au SAMs are carried out to calculate structural (density profiles, angular distributions, positions of atoms) and energetic properties. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible inhomogeneity of the neutral ferrocene moieties within the monolayer. Five systems have been studied using different grafting densities for the ferrocenylalkylthiolates. The angular distributions are described in terms of the relative contributions from isolated and clustered ferrocene moieties in the binary SAMs. It is shown that the energetic contributions strongly depend on the state of the ferrocene. The ability of molecular dynamics simulations to enable better understanding the SAM structure is illustrated in this work.
Spin dynamics simulations for a nanoscale Heisenberg antiferromagnet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Zhuofei; Landau, D. P.; Brown, G.; Stocks, G. M.
2010-03-01
Thermoinduced magnetization(TiM) is a novel response which was predicted to occur in nanoscale antiferromagnetic materials. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations footnotetextG. Brown, A. Janotti, M. Eisenbach, and G. M. Stocks, Phys.Rev.B 72, 140405(2005) have shown that TiM is an intrinsic property of the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model below the Neel temperature. To obtain a fundamental understanding of TiM, spin dynamics(SD) simulations are performed to study the spin wave behavior, which seems to be the cause of TiM. A classical Heisenberg model with an antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor exchange interaction and uniaxial single-site anisotropy is studied. Simple-cubic lattices with free boundary conditions are used. We employed the fast spin dynamics algorithms with fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decompositions of the exponential operator. Additional small excitation peaks due to surface effects are found in transverse S(q,w).
Molecular dynamics simulation of radiation damage cascades in diamond
Buchan, J. T.; Robinson, M.; Christie, H. J.; Roach, D. L.; Ross, D. K.; Marks, N. A.
2015-06-28
Radiation damage cascades in diamond are studied by molecular dynamics simulations employing the Environment Dependent Interaction Potential for carbon. Primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies up to 2.5 keV are considered and a uniformly distributed set of 25 initial PKA directions provide robust statistics. The simulations reveal the atomistic origins of radiation-resistance in diamond and provide a comprehensive computational analysis of cascade evolution and dynamics. As for the case of graphite, the atomic trajectories are found to have a fractal-like character, thermal spikes are absent and only isolated point defects are generated. Quantitative analysis shows that the instantaneous maximum kinetic energy decays exponentially with time, and that the timescale of the ballistic phase has a power-law dependence on PKA energy. Defect recombination is efficient and independent of PKA energy, with only 50% of displacements resulting in defects, superior to graphite where the same quantity is nearly 75%.
Multiscale simulation of ideal mixtures using smoothed dissipative particle dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petsev, Nikolai D.; Leal, L. Gary; Shell, M. Scott
2016-02-01
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) [P. Español and M. Revenga, Phys. Rev. E 67, 026705 (2003)] is a thermodynamically consistent particle-based continuum hydrodynamics solver that features scale-dependent thermal fluctuations. We obtain a new formulation of this stochastic method for ideal two-component mixtures through a discretization of the advection-diffusion equation with thermal noise in the concentration field. The resulting multicomponent approach is consistent with the interpretation of the SDPD particles as moving volumes of fluid and reproduces the correct fluctuations and diffusion dynamics. Subsequently, we provide a general multiscale multicomponent SDPD framework for simulations of molecularly miscible systems spanning length scales from nanometers to the non-fluctuating continuum limit. This approach reproduces appropriate equilibrium properties and is validated with simulation of simple one-dimensional diffusion across multiple length scales.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase Using AMBER Force Field
2015-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulation of the oxygenase component of nitrobenzene dioxygenase (NBDO) system, a member of the naphthalene family of Rieske nonheme iron dioxygenases, has been carried out using the AMBER force field combined with a new set of parameters for the description of the mononuclear nonheme iron center and iron–sulfur Rieske cluster. Simulation results provide information on the structure and dynamics of nitrobenzene dioxygenase in an aqueous environment and shed light on specific interactions that occur in its catalytic center. The results suggest that the architecture of the active site is stabilized by key hydrogen bonds, and Asn258 positions the substrate for oxidation. Analysis of protein–water interactions reveal the presence of a network of solvent molecules at the entrance to the active site, which could be of potential catalytic importance. PMID:24955078
Dislocation dynamics: simulation of plastic flow of bcc metals
Lassila, D H
2001-02-20
This is the final report for the LDRD strategic initiative entitled ''Dislocation Dynamic: Simulation of Plastic Flow of bcc Metals'' (tracking code: 00-SI-011). This report is comprised of 6 individual sections. The first is an executive summary of the project and describes the overall project goal, which is to establish an experimentally validated 3D dislocation dynamics simulation. This first section also gives some information of LLNL's multi-scale modeling efforts associated with the plasticity of bcc metals, and the role of this LDRD project in the multiscale modeling program. The last five sections of this report are journal articles that were produced during the course of the FY-2000 efforts.
Extrapolated gradientlike algorithms for molecular dynamics and celestial mechanics simulations.
Omelyan, I P
2006-09-01
A class of symplectic algorithms is introduced to integrate the equations of motion in many-body systems. The algorithms are derived on the basis of an advanced gradientlike decomposition approach. Its main advantage over the standard gradient scheme is the avoidance of time-consuming evaluations of force gradients by force extrapolation without any loss of precision. As a result, the efficiency of the integration improves significantly. The algorithms obtained are analyzed and optimized using an error-function theory. The best among them are tested in actual molecular dynamics and celestial mechanics simulations for comparison with well-known nongradient and gradient algorithms such as the Störmer-Verlet, Runge-Kutta, Cowell-Numerov, Forest-Ruth, Suzuki-Chin, and others. It is demonstrated that for moderate and high accuracy, the extrapolated algorithms should be considered as the most efficient for the integration of motion in molecular dynamics simulations.
A review of the analytical simulation of aircraft crash dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fasanella, Edwin L.; Carden, Huey D.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Hayduk, Robert J.
1990-01-01
A large number of full scale tests of general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and one unique air-to-ground controlled impact of a transport aircraft were performed. Additionally, research was also conducted on seat dynamic performance, load-limiting seats, load limiting subfloor designs, and emergency-locator-transmitters (ELTs). Computer programs were developed to provide designers with methods for predicting accelerations, velocities, and displacements of collapsing structure and for estimating the human response to crash loads. The results of full scale aircraft and component tests were used to verify and guide the development of analytical simulation tools and to demonstrate impact load attenuating concepts. Analytical simulation of metal and composite aircraft crash dynamics are addressed. Finite element models are examined to determine their degree of corroboration by experimental data and to reveal deficiencies requiring further development.
A dynamical formulation for multiflexible controlled spacecraft simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corrado, G.; Ravazzotti, M. T.
1981-09-01
The dynamic behavior of highly flexible, rotating spacecraft is described by a method which does not require any particular approximation and is not limited to any particular arrangement of the bodies constituting the system. The analytical technique is based on the formalism of the DISCOS computer program (Bodley, 1978), a powerful tool for the dynamic simulation of complex spacecraft. The state equations, described in a general format, are applicable to any complex spacecraft under any environmental load. The approach takes into account the distributed flexibility, the relative motion of the bodies, the automatic coupling of the momentum wheels, the system control laws, and their interaction with the structure. Synthesis and analysis of the linearized system are used to solve time and frequency equations. The required computing times for different program options are listed, along with the number of equations and the integration step size. A block diagram of the DISCOS package structure is given, showing the development from problem definition to simulation results.
Gohlke, Holger; Hergert, Ulrike; Meyer, Tatu; Mulnaes, Daniel; Grieshaber, Manfred K; Smits, Sander H J; Schmitt, Lutz
2013-10-28
Opine dehydrogenases catalyze the reductive condensation of pyruvate with L-amino acids. Biochemical characterization of alanopine dehydrogenase from Arenicola marina revealed that this enzyme is highly specific for L-alanine. Unbiased molecular dynamics simulations with a homology model of alanopine dehydrogenase captured the binding of L-alanine diffusing from solvent to a putative binding region near a distinct helix-kink-helix motif. These results and sequence comparisons reveal how mutations and insertions within this motif dictate the L-amino acid specificity.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membranes and a Transmembrane Helix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duong, Tap Ha; Mehler, Ernest L.; Weinstein, Harel
1999-05-01
Three molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 1.5-ns length were carried out on fully hydrated patches of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers in the liquid-crystalline phase. The simulations were performed using different ensembles and electrostatic conditions: a microcanonical ensemble or constant pressure-temperature ensemble, with or without truncated electrostatic interactions. Calculated properties of the membrane patches from the three different protocols were compared to available data from experiments. These data include the resulting overall geometrical dimensions, the order characteristics of the lipid hydrocarbon chains, as well as various measures of the conformations of the polar head groups. The comparisons indicate that the simulation carried out within the microcanonical ensemble with truncated electrostatic interactions yielded results closest to the experimental data, provided that the initial equilibration phase preceding the production run was sufficiently long. The effects of embedding a non-ideal helical protein domain in the membrane patch were studied with the same MD protocols. This simulation was carried out for 2.5 ns. The protein domain corresponds to the seventh transmembrane segment (TMS7) of the human serotonin 5HT 2Areceptor. The peptide is composed of two α-helical segments linked by a hinge domain around a perturbing Asn-Pro motif that produces at the end of the simulation a kink angle of nearly 80° between the two helices. Several aspects of the TMS7 structure, such as the bending angle, backbone Φ and Ψ torsion angles, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and the overall conformation, were found to be very similar to those determined by NMR for the corresponding transmembrane segment of the tachykinin NK-1 receptor. In general, the simulations were found to yield structural and dynamic characteristics that are in good agreement with experiment. These findings support the application of simulation methods to the study
The Dynamics of Simulated Convective Storms in Hurricane Environments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCaul, Eugene Williamson, Jr.
Numerical simulations of convection in selected hurricane environments show that supercell storms are possible, even when buoyancy is relatively small. In one simulated supercell, the dynamic pressure force is found to reach a maximum about three times as strong as that of buoyancy in the late stages of the simulation. Updrafts reach peak intensity at low levels, often around 2-3 km AGL, and may exceed magnitudes expected from consideration of moist CAPE alone. Interactions between updraft and ambient vertical shear, and, later, growing contributions from vorticity, appear to dominate the development of the dynamic pressure field. Although the weak buoyancy tends to restrict storm intensity, a favorable matching of the vertical distribution of buoyancy with that of the vertical shear allows the pressure forces to become strong enough to take up the slack. Terms in the disturbance kinetic energy budget are correspondingly more strongly influenced by pressure effects than by buoyancy. Although the simulated supercells display the very strong, organized rotation characteristic of tornadic storms, many of the multicell storms which appear in the simulations also contain local concentrations of vorticity intense enough to suggest tornado potential. Simulations with differing background rotation (Coriolis) rates "f" show that convection which was multicellular at low f can become supercellular at higher f. The enhanced vertical vorticity that develops naturally in decaying tropical cyclones when angular momentum disperses under the influence of weakening pressure gradients may, by analogy, help explain why dissipating tropical cyclones are an especially fertile breeding ground for tornadic storms. Test simulations in which surface drag and a slightly modified subgrid mixing formulation were used show that the details of storm behavior can be quite sensitive to changes in these model parameters, although updraft and vorticity statistics are not altered greatly. In general
Modeling and Simulation of the MIDREX Shaft Furnace: Reduction, Transition and Cooling Zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shams, Alireza; Moazeni, Faegheh
2015-11-01
Metallic iron used in steel industries is mostly obtained from a direct reduction process. The focus of this study is to simulate the furnace of the MIDREX technology. MIDREX technology which is the most important gas-based direct reduced iron (DRI) process in the world, includes reduction, transition and cooling zones. The reduction zone considered as a counter current gas-solid reactor produces sponge iron from iron ore pellets. The transition zone has sufficient height to isolate the reduction zone and cooling zone from each other and the cooling zone cools the solid product down to around 50°C. Each zone has a system of reactions. Simultaneous mass and energy balances along the reduction zone lead to a set of ordinary differential equations with two points of boundary conditions. The transitions and cooling zone are investigated at the equilibrium condition leading to a set of algebraic equations. By solving these systems of equations, we determined the materials concentration, temperature, and pressure along the furnace. Our results are in a good agreement with data reported by Parisi and Laborde (2004) for a real MIDREX plant. Using this model, the effect of reactor length and cooling gas flow on the metallization and the effect of cooling gas flow on the outlet temperature of the solid phase have been studied. These new findings can be used to minimize the consumed energy.
Soddemann, Thomas; Dünweg, Burkhard; Kremer, Kurt
2003-10-01
We discuss dissipative particle dynamics as a thermostat to molecular dynamics, and highlight some of its virtues: (i) universal applicability irrespective of the interatomic potential; (ii) correct and unscreened reproduction of hydrodynamic correlations; (iii) stabilization of the numerical integration of the equations of motion; and (iv) the avoidance of a profile bias in boundary-driven nonequilibrium simulations of shear flow. Numerical results on a repulsive Lennard-Jones fluid illustrate our arguments.
Algorithm for simulation of quantum many-body dynamics using dynamical coarse-graining
Khasin, M.; Kosloff, R.
2010-04-15
An algorithm for simulation of quantum many-body dynamics having su(2) spectrum-generating algebra is developed. The algorithm is based on the idea of dynamical coarse-graining. The original unitary dynamics of the target observables--the elements of the spectrum-generating algebra--is simulated by a surrogate open-system dynamics, which can be interpreted as weak measurement of the target observables, performed on the evolving system. The open-system state can be represented by a mixture of pure states, localized in the phase space. The localization reduces the scaling of the computational resources with the Hilbert-space dimension n by factor n{sup 3/2}(ln n){sup -1} compared to conventional sparse-matrix methods. The guidelines for the choice of parameters for the simulation are presented and the scaling of the computational resources with the Hilbert-space dimension of the system is estimated. The algorithm is applied to the simulation of the dynamics of systems of 2x10{sup 4} and 2x10{sup 6} cold atoms in a double-well trap, described by the two-site Bose-Hubbard model.
Towards optimum permeability reduction in porous media using biofilm growth simulations.
Pintelon, T R R; Graf von der Schulenburg, D A; Johns, M L
2009-07-01
While biological clogging of porous systems can be problematic in numerous processes (e.g., microbial enhanced oil recovery-MEOR), it is targeted during bio-barrier formation to control sub-surface pollution plumes in ground water. In this simulation study, constant pressure drop (CPD) and constant volumetric flow rate (CVF) operational modes for nutrient provision for biofilm growth in a porous system are considered with respect to optimum (minimum energy requirement for nutrient provision) permeability reduction for bio-barrier applications. Biofilm growth is simulated using a Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulation platform complemented with an individual-based biofilm model (IbM). A biomass detachment technique has been included using a fast marching level set (FMLS) method that models the propagation of the biofilm-liquid interface with a speed proportional to the adjacent velocity shear field. The porous medium permeability reduction is simulated for both operational modes using a range of biofilm strengths. For stronger biofilms, less biomass deposition and energy input are required to reduce the system permeability during CPD operation, whereas CVF is more efficient at reducing the permeability of systems containing weaker biofilms.
The Architecture of Newton, a General-Purpose Dynamics Simulator
1989-01-01
11 N The Architecture of Newton, a General-Purpose Dynamics 0 Simulator OTIC James F. Cremer ELECTE A. James Stewart JUL 141989f l Computer Science...173SS, ONR grant N00t4.SK-0281 and DARPA grant N0014-OOK.0S91 Support for James Stewart is provided in part by U.S. Army Math-4.3 Control matica Sciences
Simulational nanoengineering: Molecular dynamics implementation of an atomistic Stirling engine.
Rapaport, D C
2009-04-01
A nanoscale-sized Stirling engine with an atomistic working fluid has been modeled using molecular dynamics simulation. The design includes heat exchangers based on thermostats, pistons attached to a flywheel under load, and a regenerator. Key aspects of the behavior, including the time-dependent flows, are described. The model is shown to be capable of stable operation while producing net work at a moderate level of efficiency.
Using Soft Computing Technologies for the Simulation of LCAC Dynamics
2011-09-01
real-time, time-domain predictions of the vehicle’s dynamics as a function of the control signals given by the driver. Results are presented...free- running LCAC model, faster-than-real-time simulation, soft computing technology 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Maneuvering and Control Division (MCD...like all hovercraft , rides on a cushion of air. The air is supplied to the cushion by four centrifugal fans driven by the craft’s gas turbine
Simulated dynamic response of a servovalve controlled hydraulic actuator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Babcock, Dale A.
1990-01-01
A general purpose math model of a servovalve controlled hydraulic actuator system is derived. The system consists of a linear actuator with unequal piston areas, a single stage servovalve, a gas charged hydraulic accumulator, and the interconnecting piping. The state equations are integrated using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) for determining the system's dynamic response characteristics. Using this generalized hydraulic actuator system model, response characteristics were determined for various servovalve commands.
Simulation of dynamic material response with the PAGOSA code
Holian, K.S.; Adams, T.F.
1993-08-01
The 3D Eulerian PAGOSA hydrocode is being run on the massively parallel Connection Machine (CM) to simulate the response of materials to dynamic loading, such as by high explosives or high velocity impact. The code has a variety of equation of state forms, plastic yield models, and fracture and fragmentation models. The numerical algorithms in PAGOSA and the implementation of material models are discussed briefly.
Molecular dynamics simulations of ordering of polydimethylsiloxane under uniaxial extension
Lacevic, N M; Gee, R H
2005-03-11
Molecular dynamics simulations of a bulk melts of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are utilized to study chain conformation and ordering under constant uniaxial tension. We find that large extensions induce chain ordering in the direction of applied tension. We also find that voids are created via a cavitation mechanism. This study represents a validation of the current model for PDMS and benchmark for the future study of mechanical properties of PDMS melts enriched with fillers under tension.
Simulating market dynamics: interactions between consumer psychology and social networks.
Janssen, Marco A; Jager, Wander
2003-01-01
Markets can show different types of dynamics, from quiet markets dominated by one or a few products, to markets with continual penetration of new and reintroduced products. In a previous article we explored the dynamics of markets from a psychological perspective using a multi-agent simulation model. The main results indicated that the behavioral rules dominating the artificial consumer's decision making determine the resulting market dynamics, such as fashions, lock-in, and unstable renewal. Results also show the importance of psychological variables like social networks, preferences, and the need for identity to explain the dynamics of markets. In this article we extend this work in two directions. First, we will focus on a more systematic investigation of the effects of different network structures. The previous article was based on Watts and Strogatz's approach, which describes the small-world and clustering characteristics in networks. More recent research demonstrated that many large networks display a scale-free power-law distribution for node connectivity. In terms of market dynamics this may imply that a small proportion of consumers may have an exceptional influence on the consumptive behavior of others (hubs, or early adapters). We show that market dynamics is a self-organized property depending on the interaction between the agents' decision-making process (heuristics), the product characteristics (degree of satisfaction of unit of consumption, visibility), and the structure of interactions between agents (size of network and hubs in a social network).
4D Simulation of Explosive Eruption Dynamics at Vesuvius
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neri, A.; Esposti Ongaro, T.; Menconi, G.; de'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Cavazzoni, C.; Erbacci, G.; Baxter, P. J.
2006-12-01
We applied, using a supercomputer, a new simulation model based on fundamental transport laws to describe the 4D (3D spatial co-ordinates plus time) multiphase flow dynamics of explosive eruptions. The model solves the fundamental transport equations for a multiphase mixture formed by a continuous multi-component gas phase and n solid particulate phases representative of magma fragments (such as ash, crystals, and lapilli). Numerical simulations describe the collapse of the volcanic eruption column and the propagation of pyroclastic density currents, for selected medium scale (sub-Plinian) eruptive scenarios at Vesuvius, Italy. The study shows that 4D multiphase numerical models can illuminate the non-intuitive and internal dynamics of explosive eruptions that cannot otherwise be studied by direct observation or using previous models. In particular, simulations provide crucial insights into the effects of the generation mechanism of the flows - partial collapse vs boiling-over - on their hazard potential, the complex dynamics of the collapsing column, and the influence of Mount Somma on the propagation of PDCs into the circum-Vesuvian area, one of the world's most hazardous volcanic settings.
Direct identification of predator-prey dynamics in gyrokinetic simulations
Kobayashi, Sumire Gürcan, Özgür D; Diamond, Patrick H.
2015-09-15
The interaction between spontaneously formed zonal flows and small-scale turbulence in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations is explored in a shearless closed field line geometry. It is found that when clear limit cycle oscillations prevail, the observed turbulent dynamics can be quantitatively captured by a simple Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model. Fitting the time traces of full gyrokinetic simulations by such a reduced model allows extraction of the model coefficients. Scanning physical plasma parameters, such as collisionality and density gradient, it was observed that the effective growth rates of turbulence (i.e., the prey) remain roughly constant, in spite of the higher and varying level of primary mode linear growth rates. The effective growth rate that was extracted corresponds roughly to the zonal-flow-modified primary mode growth rate. It was also observed that the effective damping of zonal flows (i.e., the predator) in the parameter range, where clear predator-prey dynamics is observed, (i.e., near marginal stability) agrees with the collisional damping expected in these simulations. This implies that the Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability may be negligible in this range. The results imply that when the tertiary instability plays a role, the dynamics becomes more complex than a simple Lotka-Volterra predator prey.
Molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water: Hybrid density functionals
Todorova, T; Seitsonen, A; Hutter, J; Kuo, W; Mundy, C
2005-09-12
The structure, dynamical and electronic properties of liquid water utilizing different hybrid density functionals were tested within the plane wave framework of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. The computational approach, which employs modified functionals with short-ranged Hartree-Fock exchange, was first tested in calculations of the structural and bonding properties of the water dimer and cyclic water trimer. Liquid water simulations were performed at the state point of 350 K at the experimental density. Simulations included three different hybrid functionals, a meta functional, four gradient corrected functionals, the local density and Hartree-Fock approximation. It is found that hybrid functionals are superior in reproducing the experimental structure and dynamical properties as measured by the radial distribution function and self diffusion constant when compared to the pure density functionals. The local density and Hartree-Fock approximations show strongly over- and under-structured liquids, respectively. Hydrogen bond analysis shows that the hybrid functionals give slightly smaller averaged numbers of hydrogen bonds and similar hydrogen bond populations as pure density functionals. The average molecular dipole moments in the liquid from the three hybrid functionals are lower than from the corresponding pure density functionals.
NETL's IGCC Dynamic Simulator Reserach and Training Center
Erbes, M.; Zitney, S.
2008-01-01
The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is collaborating with software, industry, and university partners to establish a world-class Dynamic Simulator Research and Training (DSR&T) Center dedicated to the operation and control of advanced energy plants with carbon capture capabilities. The DSR&T Center will offer a collaborative R&D program and comprehensive hands-on training built around a portfolio of non-proprietary, high-fidelity, real-time dynamic simulators. The simulators will provide full-scope operator training system (OTS) capabilities for normal and faulted operations, as well as plant start-up, shutdown, and load following. Immersive three-dimensional (3-D) virtual reality will add another dimension of realism to the dynamic OTS systems and extend the training scope to both control room and outside operators, allowing them to work as a team. The benefits of high-fidelity immersive training systems (ITS) include more realistic training scenarios, improved communication and collaboration among work crews, off-line evaluations of procedures, and training for safety-critical tasks and rare abnormal situations.
MCNPX--PoliMi Variance Reduction Techniques for Simulating Neutron Scintillation Detector Response
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, Shikha
Scintillation detectors have emerged as a viable He-3 replacement technology in the field of nuclear nonproliferation and safeguards. The scintillation light produced in the detectors is dependent on the energy deposited and the nucleus with which the interaction occurs. For neutrons interacting with hydrogen in organic liquid scintillation detectors, the energy-to-light conversion process is nonlinear. MCNPX-PoliMi is a Monte Carlo Code that has been used for simulating this detailed scintillation physics; however, until now, simulations have only been done in analog mode. Analog Monte Carlo simulations can take long times to run, especially in the presence of shielding and large source-detector distances, as in the case of typical nonproliferation problems. In this thesis, two nonanalog approaches to speed up MCNPX-PoliMi simulations of neutron scintillation detector response have been studied. In the first approach, a response matrix method (RMM) is used to efficiently calculate neutron pulse height distributions (PHDs). This method combines the neutron current incident on the detector face with an MCNPX-PoliMi-calculated response matrix to generate PHDs. The PHD calculations and their associated uncertainty are compared for a polyethylene-shielded and lead-shielded Cf-252 source for three different techniques: fully analog MCNPX-PoliMi, the RMM, and the RMM with source biasing. The RMM with source biasing reduces computation time or increases the figure-of-merit on an average by a factor of 600 for polyethylene and 300 for lead shielding (when compared to the fully analog calculation). The simulated neutron PHDs show good agreement with the laboratory measurements, thereby validating the RMM. In the second approach, MCNPX-PoliMi simulations are performed with the aid of variance reduction techniques. This is done by separating the analog and nonanalog components of the simulations. Inside the detector region, where scintillation light is produced, no variance
Pavement nondestructive evaluation using finite-element dynamic simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uddin, W.; Hackett, R. M.
1996-11-01
This paper describes the nondestructive evaluation devices, visual distress survey and coring used to investigate jointed concrete pavement performance in northern Mississippi. 3D finite-element models were developed to simulate in-service conditions and to characterize in-situ material properties. Reasonable good agreement is found between in-situ moduli backcalculated from the dynamic analysis of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) deflections measured on selected pavements and laboratory moduli. Effects of load pulse shape, cracking, and discontinuities on the surface deflection response of pavements subjected to FWD load wee also investigated. It is shown that 3D analysis of temperature distribution and resulting thermal stresses play a significant role int he performance of concrete pavements. The study results demonstrated the extensive usefulness of the finite-element dynamic analysis and limitations of the static multilayered analysis and other pavement analysis programs which do not allow for crack modeling and dynamic analysis.
Simulating fast and slow dynamic effects in power systems
de Mello, F.P.; Feltes, J.W.; Laskowski, T.F.; Oppel, L.J. )
1992-07-01
Electric power systems comprise a nearly infinite number of devices, exhibiting dynamic characteristics in a wide range of bandwidths and with significant nonlinear effects. Historically, the nature of these devices, the robust configuration of the electric power system, and its loading were such that the interaction between devices became relatively unimportant in system performance several seconds after disturbances. Greater utilization of electric plant, through heavier system loadings, interconnections, and increasing use of controls, has at times necessitated predictions of system performance through simulation extending over a time range of tens of seconds to several minutes. The phenomena occurring over this extended time frame has been referred to as long-term dynamics. There are basically two classes of problems involving long-term dynamics. One is the problem of islanding with significant imbalances between load and generation where prime mover action in response to frequency deviations is significant. The other concerns problems of insufficient damping and/or synchronizing power, and voltage collapse.
Reweighted ensemble dynamics simulations: Theory, improvement, and application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Lin-Chen; Zhou, Xin; Ouyang, Zhong-Can
2015-06-01
Based on multiple parallel short molecular dynamics simulation trajectories, we designed the reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method to more efficiently sample complex (biopolymer) systems, and to explore their hierarchical metastable states. Here we further present an improvement to depress statistical errors of the RED and we discuss a few keys in practical application of the RED, provide schemes on selection of basis functions, and determination of the free parameter in the RED. We illustrate the application of the improvements in two toy models and in the solvated alanine dipeptide. The results show the RED enables us to capture the topology of multiple-state transition networks, to detect the diffusion-like dynamical behavior in an entropy-dominated system, and to identify solvent effects in the solvated peptides. The illustrations serve as general applications of the RED in more complex biopolymer systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175250).
Molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in water/sugar solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lerbret, A.; Affouard, F.; Bordat, P.; Hédoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Descamps, M.
2008-04-01
Structural and dynamical properties of the solvent at the protein/solvent interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in trehalose, maltose and sucrose solutions. Results are discussed in the framework of the bioprotection phenomena. The analysis of the relative concentration of water oxygen atoms around lysozyme suggests that lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. When comparing the three sugars, trehalose is seen more excluded than maltose and sucrose. The preferential exclusion of sugars from the protein surface induces some differences in the behavior of trehalose and maltose, particularly at 50 and 60 wt% concentrations, that are not observed experimentally in binary sugar/mixtures. The dynamical slowing down of the solvent is suggested to mainly arise from the homogeneity of the water/sugar matrices controlled by the percolation of the sugar hydrogen bonds networks. Furthermore, lysozyme strongly increases relaxation times of solvent molecules at the protein/solvent interface.
Dynamic regulation of phenylalanine hydroxylase by simulated redox manipulation.
Fuchs, Julian E; Huber, Roland G; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Wallnoefer, Hannes G; Spitzer, Gudrun M; Fuchs, Dietmar; Liedl, Klaus R
2012-01-01
Recent clinical studies revealed increased phenylalanine levels and phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios in patients suffering from infection, inflammation and general immune activity. These data implicated down-regulation of activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase by oxidative stress upon in vivo immune activation. Though the structural damage of oxidative stress is expected to be comparably small, a structural rationale for this experimental finding was lacking. Hence, we investigated the impact of side chain oxidation at two vicinal cysteine residues on local conformational flexibility in the protein by comparative molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of backbone dynamics revealed a highly flexible loop region (Tyr138-loop) in proximity to the active center of phenylalanine hydroxylase. We observed elevated loop dynamics in connection with a loop movement towards the active site in the oxidized state, thereby partially blocking access for the substrate phenylalanine. These findings were confirmed by extensive replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations and serve as a first structural explanation for decreased enzyme turnover in situations of oxidative stress.
Thermostats and thermostat strategies for molecular dynamics simulations of nanofluidics.
Yong, Xin; Zhang, Lucy T
2013-02-28
The thermostats in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of highly confined channel flow may have significant influences on the fidelity of transport phenomena. In this study, we exploit non-equilibrium MD simulations to generate Couette flows with different combinations of thermostat algorithms and strategies. We provide a comprehensive analysis on the effectiveness of three thermostat algorithms Nosé-Hoover chain (NHC), Langevin (LGV) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) when applied in three thermostat strategies, thermostating either walls (TW) or fluid (TF), and thermostating both the wall and fluid (TWTF). Our results of thermal and mechanical properties show that the TW strategy more closely resembles experimental conditions. The TF and TWTF systems also produce considerably similar behaviors in weakly sheared systems, but deviate the dynamics in strongly sheared systems due to the isothermal condition. The LGV and DPD thermostats used in the TF and TWTF systems provide vital ways to yield correct dynamics in coarse-grained systems by tuning the fluid transport coefficients. Using conventional NHC thermostat to thermostat fluid only produces correct thermal behaviors in weakly sheared systems, and breaks down due to significant thermal inhomogeneity in strongly sheared systems.
Two-Speed Gearbox Dynamic Simulation Predictions and Test Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewicki, David G.; DeSmidt, Hans; Smith, Edward C.; Bauman, Steven W.
2010-01-01
Dynamic simulations and experimental validation tests were performed on a two-stage, two-speed gearbox as part of the drive system research activities of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Rotary Wing Project. The gearbox was driven by two electromagnetic motors and had two electromagnetic, multi-disk clutches to control output speed. A dynamic model of the system was created which included a direct current electric motor with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) speed control, a two-speed gearbox with dual electromagnetically actuated clutches, and an eddy current dynamometer. A six degree-of-freedom model of the gearbox accounted for the system torsional dynamics and included gear, clutch, shaft, and load inertias as well as shaft flexibilities and a dry clutch stick-slip friction model. Experimental validation tests were performed on the gearbox in the NASA Glenn gear noise test facility. Gearbox output speed and torque as well as drive motor speed and current were compared to those from the analytical predictions. The experiments correlate very well with the predictions, thus validating the dynamic simulation methodologies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krebs, Derek; Budynas, Richard G.
A common procedure for performing a cross orthogonality check for the purpose of modal correlation between the test and the finite element analysis results incorporates the Guyan reduction method to obtain a reduced mass matrix. This paper describes a procedure which uses NASTRAN's Generalized Dynamic Reduction solution routine which is much more accurate than the standard Guyan reduction solution and which offers the advantage of not requiring the selection of mdof. Using NASTRAN's DMAP programming methods, a modal reduction of the full analytical mass matrix is performed based on the accelerometer locations and the analytical modal matrix results. The accuracy of the procedure is illustrated in two case studies.
Krivov, Sergei V
2011-07-01
Dimensionality reduction is ubiquitous in the analysis of complex dynamics. The conventional dimensionality reduction techniques, however, focus on reproducing the underlying configuration space, rather than the dynamics itself. The constructed low-dimensional space does not provide a complete and accurate description of the dynamics. Here I describe how to perform dimensionality reduction while preserving the essential properties of the dynamics. The approach is illustrated by analyzing the chess game--the archetype of complex dynamics. A variable that provides complete and accurate description of chess dynamics is constructed. The winning probability is predicted by describing the game as a random walk on the free-energy landscape associated with the variable. The approach suggests a possible way of obtaining a simple yet accurate description of many important complex phenomena. The analysis of the chess game shows that the approach can quantitatively describe the dynamics of processes where human decision-making plays a central role, e.g., financial and social dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivov, Sergei V.
2011-07-01
Dimensionality reduction is ubiquitous in the analysis of complex dynamics. The conventional dimensionality reduction techniques, however, focus on reproducing the underlying configuration space, rather than the dynamics itself. The constructed low-dimensional space does not provide a complete and accurate description of the dynamics. Here I describe how to perform dimensionality reduction while preserving the essential properties of the dynamics. The approach is illustrated by analyzing the chess game—the archetype of complex dynamics. A variable that provides complete and accurate description of chess dynamics is constructed. The winning probability is predicted by describing the game as a random walk on the free-energy landscape associated with the variable. The approach suggests a possible way of obtaining a simple yet accurate description of many important complex phenomena. The analysis of the chess game shows that the approach can quantitatively describe the dynamics of processes where human decision-making plays a central role, e.g., financial and social dynamics.
Numerical simulation of landfill aeration using computational fluid dynamics.
Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Voudrias, Evangelos A
2014-04-01
The present study is an application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the numerical simulation of landfill aeration systems. Specifically, the CFD algorithms provided by the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent 14.0, combined with an in-house source code developed to modify the main solver, were used. The unsaturated multiphase flow of air and liquid phases and the biochemical processes for aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste were simulated taking into consideration their temporal and spatial evolution, as well as complex effects, such as oxygen mass transfer across phases, unsaturated flow effects (capillary suction and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), temperature variations due to biochemical processes and environmental correction factors for the applied kinetics (Monod and 1st order kinetics). The developed model results were compared with literature experimental data. Also, pilot scale simulations and sensitivity analysis were implemented. Moreover, simulation results of a hypothetical single aeration well were shown, while its zone of influence was estimated using both the pressure and oxygen distribution. Finally, a case study was simulated for a hypothetical landfill aeration system. Both a static (steadily positive or negative relative pressure with time) and a hybrid (following a square wave pattern of positive and negative values of relative pressure with time) scenarios for the aeration wells were examined. The results showed that the present model is capable of simulating landfill aeration and the obtained results were in good agreement with corresponding previous experimental and numerical investigations.
Molecular dynamics simulation of pervaporation in zeolite membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, W.; Murad, S.
The pervaporation separation of liquid mixtures of water/ethanol and water/methanol using three zeolite (Silicalite, NaA and Chabazite) membranes has been examined using the method of molecular dynamics. The main goal of this study was to identify intermolecular interactions between water, methanol, ethanol and the membrane surface that play a critical role in the separations. This would then allow better membranes to be designed more efficiently and systematically than the trial-and-error procedures often being used. Our simulations correctly exhibited all the qualitative experimental observations for these systems, including the hydrophobic or hydrophilic behaviour of zeolite membranes. The simulations showed that, for Silicalite zeolite, the separation is strongly influenced by the selective adsorption of ethanol. The separation factor, as a consequence, increases almost exponentially as the ethanol composition decreases. For ethanol dehydration in NaA and Chabazite, pore size was found to play a very important role in the separation; very high separation factors were therefore possible. Simulations were also used to investigate the effect of pore structure, feed compositions and operating conditions on the pervaporation efficiency. Finally, our simulations also demonstrated that molecular simulations could serve as a useful screening tool to determine the suitability of a membrane for potential pervaporation separation applications. Simulations can cost only a small fraction of an experiment, and can therefore be used to design experiments most likely to be successful.
King, Sharla; Carbonaro, Michael; Greidanus, Elaine; Ansell, Dawn; Foisy-Doll, Colette; Magus, Sam
2014-08-01
The purpose of this study was to develop, deliver, and assess relevant interprofessional (IP) simulation experiences for prelicensure students from multiple disciplines in certificate, diploma, and degree programs. Seventy-eight students from four post-secondary institutions participated in either a high-fidelity mannequin postoperative simulation experience (dynamic simulation) or a standardized patient homecare simulation experience (routine simulation). The University of West England Questionnaire was used pre- and post-simulation experience to determine the change in communication and teamwork. Overall, students' perceptions of their communication and teamwork skills increased after completing either simulation. Students from certificate, diploma, and degree programs participating in the same simulations demonstrated improvements on self-report measures of communication and teamwork. The key was creating a simulation learning experience that reflected the realities of practice, rather than the participants' credentials. Placing students in teams that are relevant for practice, rather than grouping them by academic credentials, is necessary and can provide positive learning experiences for all participants, as demonstrated by these results.
How to identify dislocations in molecular dynamics simulations?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Duo; Wang, FengChao; Yang, ZhenYu; Zhao, YaPu
2014-12-01
Dislocations are of great importance in revealing the underlying mechanisms of deformed solid crystals. With the development of computational facilities and technologies, the observations of dislocations at atomic level through numerical simulations are permitted. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation suggests itself as a powerful tool for understanding and visualizing the creation of dislocations as well as the evolution of crystal defects. However, the numerical results from the large-scale MD simulations are not very illuminating by themselves and there exist various techniques for analyzing dislocations and the deformed crystal structures. Thus, it is a big challenge for the beginners in this community to choose a proper method to start their investigations. In this review, we summarized and discussed up to twelve existing structure characterization methods in MD simulations of deformed crystal solids. A comprehensive comparison was made between the advantages and disadvantages of these typical techniques. We also examined some of the recent advances in the dynamics of dislocations related to the hydraulic fracturing. It was found that the dislocation emission has a significant effect on the propagation and bifurcation of the crack tip in the hydraulic fracturing.
Simulated impacts of insect defoliation on forest carbon dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvigy, D.; Clark, K. L.; Skowronski, N. S.; Schäfer, K. V. R.
2012-12-01
Many temperate and boreal forests are subject to insect epidemics. In the eastern US, over 41 million meters squared of tree basal area are thought to be at risk of gypsy moth defoliation. However, the decadal-to-century scale implications of defoliation events for ecosystem carbon dynamics are not well understood. In this study, the effects of defoliation intensity, periodicity and spatial pattern on the carbon cycle are investigated in a set of idealized model simulations. A mechanistic terrestrial biosphere model, ecosystem demography model 2, is driven with observations from a xeric oak-pine forest located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Simulations indicate that net ecosystem productivity (equal to photosynthesis minus respiration) decreases linearly with increasing defoliation intensity. However, because of interactions between defoliation and drought effects, aboveground biomass exhibits a nonlinear decrease with increasing defoliation intensity. The ecosystem responds strongly with both reduced productivity and biomass loss when defoliation periodicity varies from 5 to 15 yr, but exhibits a relatively weak response when defoliation periodicity varies from 15 to 60 yr. Simulations of spatially heterogeneous defoliation resulted in markedly smaller carbon stocks than simulations with spatially homogeneous defoliation. These results show that gypsy moth defoliation has a large effect on oak-pine forest biomass dynamics, functioning and its capacity to act as a carbon sink.
An undergraduate laboratory activity on molecular dynamics simulations.
Spitznagel, Benjamin; Pritchett, Paige R; Messina, Troy C; Goadrich, Mark; Rodriguez, Juan
2016-01-01
Vision and Change [AAAS, 2011] outlines a blueprint for modernizing biology education by addressing conceptual understanding of key concepts, such as the relationship between structure and function. The document also highlights skills necessary for student success in 21st century Biology, such as the use of modeling and simulation. Here we describe a laboratory activity that allows students to investigate the dynamic nature of protein structure and function through the use of a modeling technique known as molecular dynamics (MD). The activity takes place over two lab periods that are 3 hr each. The first lab period unpacks the basic approach behind MD simulations, beginning with the kinematic equations that all bioscience students learn in an introductory physics course. During this period students are taught rudimentary programming skills in Python while guided through simple modeling exercises that lead up to the simulation of the motion of a single atom. In the second lab period students extend concepts learned in the first period to develop skills in the use of expert MD software. Here students simulate and analyze changes in protein conformation resulting from temperature change, solvation, and phosphorylation. The article will describe how these activities can be carried out using free software packages, including Abalone and VMD/NAMD.
Lightweight computational steering of very large scale molecular dynamics simulations
Beazley, D.M.; Lomdahl, P.S.
1996-09-01
We present a computational steering approach for controlling, analyzing, and visualizing very large scale molecular dynamics simulations involving tens to hundreds of millions of atoms. Our approach relies on extensible scripting languages and an easy to use tool for building extensions and modules. The system is extremely easy to modify, works with existing C code, is memory efficient, and can be used from inexpensive workstations and networks. We demonstrate how we have used this system to manipulate data from production MD simulations involving as many as 104 million atoms running on the CM-5 and Cray T3D. We also show how this approach can be used to build systems that integrate common scripting languages (including Tcl/Tk, Perl, and Python), simulation code, user extensions, and commercial data analysis packages.
Simulation of Tailrace Hydrodynamics Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Models
Cook, Christopher B.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2001-05-01
This report investigates the feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to investigate hydrodynamic flow fields surrounding the tailrace zone below large hydraulic structures. Previous and ongoing studies using CFD tools to simulate gradually varied flow with multiple constituents and forebay/intake hydrodynamics have shown that CFD tools can provide valuable information for hydraulic and biological evaluation of fish passage near hydraulic structures. These studies however are incapable of simulating the rapidly varying flow fields that involving breakup of the free-surface, such as those through and below high flow outfalls and spillways. Although the use of CFD tools for these types of flow are still an active area of research, initial applications discussed in this report show that these tools are capable of simulating the primary features of these highly transient flow fields.
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Acoustic Properties of Colloidal Suspensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noguez, Cecilia; Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Ramírez-Santiago, Guillermo
1998-03-01
Recent experiments of ultrasound waves in colloidal suspensions [1] have found that the acoustic velocity and attenuation exhibit an anomalous behavior close to the solid volume concentration of 40%. Currently, there appears that there is no clear understanding of these results. Motivated by these observations we have carried out extensive non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study the propagation of pressure waves through a colloidal suspension. The simulations consider the far from equilibrium corrections and calculate the viscosity and attenuation of sound waves traveling in the suspension. These quantities are studied as functions of frecuency and volume fraction. The possible relation between the results from the simulations and the experimental observatios is briefly discussed. [1] R. Esquivel-Sirvent and D. H. Green, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3087 (1995); ibid, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. 407, p. 99 (1996).
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Iron — A Review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chui, C. P.; Liu, Wenqing; Xu, Yongbing; Zhou, Yan
2015-12-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a technique of atomistic simulation which has facilitated scientific discovery of interactions among particles since its advent in the late 1950s. Its merit lies in incorporating statistical mechanics to allow for examination of varying atomic configurations at finite temperatures. Its contributions to materials science from modeling pure metal properties to designing nanowires is also remarkable. This review paper focuses on the progress of MD in understanding the behavior of iron — in pure metal form, in alloys, and in composite nanomaterials. It also discusses the interatomic potentials and the integration algorithms used for simulating iron in the literature. Furthermore, it reveals the current progress of MD in simulating iron by exhibiting some results in the literature. Finally, the review paper briefly mentions the development of the hardware and software tools for such large-scale computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vijaykumar, Adithya; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Bolhuis, Peter G.
2017-03-01
The modeling of complex reaction-diffusion processes in, for instance, cellular biochemical networks or self-assembling soft matter can be tremendously sped up by employing a multiscale algorithm which combines the mesoscopic Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD) method with explicit stochastic Brownian, Langevin, or deterministic molecular dynamics to treat reactants at the microscopic scale [A. Vijaykumar, P. G. Bolhuis, and P. R. ten Wolde, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 214102 (2015)]. Here we extend this multiscale MD-GFRD approach to include the orientational dynamics that is crucial to describe the anisotropic interactions often prevalent in biomolecular systems. We present the novel algorithm focusing on Brownian dynamics only, although the methodology is generic. We illustrate the novel algorithm using a simple patchy particle model. After validation of the algorithm, we discuss its performance. The rotational Brownian dynamics MD-GFRD multiscale method will open up the possibility for large scale simulations of protein signalling networks.
Hybrid simulation theory for a classical nonlinear dynamical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drazin, Paul L.; Govindjee, Sanjay
2017-03-01
Hybrid simulation is an experimental and computational technique which allows one to study the time evolution of a system by physically testing a subset of it while the remainder is represented by a numerical model that is attached to the physical portion via sensors and actuators. The technique allows one to study large or complicated mechanical systems while only requiring a subset of the complete system to be present in the laboratory. This results in vast cost savings as well as the ability to study systems that simply can not be tested due to scale. However, the errors that arise from splitting the system in two requires careful attention, if a valid simulation is to be guaranteed. To date, efforts to understand the theoretical limitations of hybrid simulation have been restricted to linear dynamical systems. In this work we consider the behavior of hybrid simulation when applied to nonlinear dynamical systems. As a model problem, we focus on the damped, harmonically-driven nonlinear pendulum. This system offers complex nonlinear characteristics, in particular periodic and chaotic motions. We are able to show that the application of hybrid simulation to nonlinear systems requires a careful understanding of what one expects from such an experiment. In particular, when system response is chaotic we advocate the need for the use of multiple metrics to characterize the difference between two chaotic systems via Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimensions, as well as correlation exponents. When system response is periodic we advocate the use of L2 norms. Further, we are able to show that hybrid simulation can falsely predict chaotic or periodic response when the true system has the opposite characteristic. In certain cases, we are able to show that control system parameters can mitigate this issue.
An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.
2012-07-01
Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.
Monte Carlo-based simulation of dynamic jaws tomotherapy
Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Q.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Vynckier, S.
2011-09-15
Purpose: Original TomoTherapy systems may involve a trade-off between conformity and treatment speed, the user being limited to three slice widths (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 cm). This could be overcome by allowing the jaws to define arbitrary fields, including very small slice widths (<1 cm), which are challenging for a beam model. The aim of this work was to incorporate the dynamic jaws feature into a Monte Carlo (MC) model called TomoPen, based on the MC code PENELOPE, previously validated for the original TomoTherapy system. Methods: To keep the general structure of TomoPen and its efficiency, the simulation strategy introduces several techniques: (1) weight modifiers to account for any jaw settings using only the 5 cm phase-space file; (2) a simplified MC based model called FastStatic to compute the modifiers faster than pure MC; (3) actual simulation of dynamic jaws. Weight modifiers computed with both FastStatic and pure MC were compared. Dynamic jaws simulations were compared with the convolution/superposition (C/S) of TomoTherapy in the ''cheese'' phantom for a plan with two targets longitudinally separated by a gap of 3 cm. Optimization was performed in two modes: asymmetric jaws-constant couch speed (''running start stop,'' RSS) and symmetric jaws-variable couch speed (''symmetric running start stop,'' SRSS). Measurements with EDR2 films were also performed for RSS for the formal validation of TomoPen with dynamic jaws. Results: Weight modifiers computed with FastStatic were equivalent to pure MC within statistical uncertainties (0.5% for three standard deviations). Excellent agreement was achieved between TomoPen and C/S for both asymmetric jaw opening/constant couch speed and symmetric jaw opening/variable couch speed, with deviations well within 2%/2 mm. For RSS procedure, agreement between C/S and measurements was within 2%/2 mm for 95% of the points and 3%/3 mm for 98% of the points, where dose is greater than 30% of the prescription dose (gamma analysis
Coupling a geodynamic seismic cycling model to rupture dynamic simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabriel, Alice; van Dinther, Ylona
2014-05-01
The relevance and results of dynamic rupture scenarios are implicitly linked to the geometry and pre-existing stress and strength state on a fault. The absolute stresses stored along faults during interseismic periods, are largely unquantifiable. They are, however, pivotal in defining coseismic rupture styles, near-field ground motion, and macroscopic source properties (Gabriel et al., 2012). Obtaining these in a physically consistent manner requires seismic cycling models, which directly couple long-term deformation processes (over 1000 year periods), the self-consistent development of faults, and the resulting dynamic ruptures. One promising approach to study seismic cycling enables both the generation of spontaneous fault geometries and the development of thermo-mechanically consistent fault stresses. This seismo-thermo-mechanical model has been developed using a methodology similar to that employed to study long-term lithospheric deformation (van Dinther et al., 2013a,b, using I2ELVIS of Gerya and Yuen, 2007). We will innovatively include the absolute stress and strength values along physically consistent evolving non-finite fault zones (regions of strain accumulation) from the geodynamic model into dynamic rupture simulations as an initial condition. The dynamic rupture simulations will be performed using SeisSol, an arbitrary high-order derivative Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) scheme (Pelties et al., 2012). The dynamic rupture models are able to incorporate the large degree of fault geometry complexity arising in naturally evolving geodynamic models. We focus on subduction zone settings with and without a splay fault. Due to the novelty of the coupling, we first focus on methodological challenges, e.g. the synchronization of both methods regarding the nucleation of events, the localization of fault planes, and the incorporation of similar frictional constitutive relations. We then study the importance of physically consistent fault stress, strength, and
Lee, Kyoung O; Holmes, Thomas W; Calderon, Adan F; Gardner, Robin P
2012-05-01
Using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, random walks were used for pebble tracking in a two-dimensional geometry in the presence of a biased gravity field. We investigated the effect of viscosity damping in the presence of random Gaussian fluctuations. The particle tracks were generated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation for a Pebble Bed Reactor. The MD simulations were conducted in the interaction of noncohesive Hertz-Mindlin theory where the random walk MC simulation has a correlation with the MD simulation. This treatment can easily be extended to include the generation of transient gamma-ray spectra from a single pebble that contains a radioactive tracer. Then the inverse analysis thereof could be made to determine the uncertainty of the realistic measurement of transient positions of that pebble by any given radiation detection system designed for that purpose.
Hashido, Masanori; Kidera, Akinori; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori
2007-01-01
Single-channel osmotic water permeability (pf) is a key quantity for investigating the transport capability of the water channel protein, aquaporin. However, the direct connection between the single scalar quantity pf and the channel structure remains unclear. In this study, based on molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a pf-matrix method, in which pf is decomposed into contributions from each local region of the channel. Diagonal elements of the pf matrix are equivalent to the local permeability at each region of the channel, and off-diagonal elements represent correlated motions of water molecules in different regions. Averaging both diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the pf matrix recovers pf for the entire channel; this implies that correlated motions between distantly-separated water molecules, as well as adjacent water molecules, influence the osmotic permeability. The pf matrices from molecular dynamics simulations of five aquaporins (AQP0, AQP1, AQP4, AqpZ, and GlpF) indicated that the reduction in the water correlation across the Asn-Pro-Ala region, and the small local permeability around the ar/R region, characterize the transport efficiency of water. These structural determinants in water permeation were confirmed in molecular dynamics simulations of three mutants of AqpZ, which mimic AQP1. PMID:17449664
Spin Dynamics simulations of the dynamic properties of classical models for magnetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunker, Alex; Landau, D. P.
1998-03-01
The Spin Dynamics simulation technique, which has had considerable success for the study of critical properties of classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets(A. Bunker, K. Chen, and D. P. Landau Phys. Rev. B) \\underline54, 9259 (1996), has been used to determine more general properties for a wider range of materials. A general spin dynamics program has been developed which can determine the dynamic structure factor, S(q,ω), in the [100], [110], and [111] directions for a wide range of classical magnetic models at any temperature desired. We have simulated the magnetic dynamics in the ordered phase of the isotropic Heisenberg model with both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling on L×L×L BCC and SC lattices. Outside of the critical regime relatively small lattice sizes of L = 12, 24 could be used. From our simulation we have determined the stiffness coefficient and the spin relaxation rate which were compared to both experimental(J. Als-Nielsen in Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena), ed. C. Domb, M. S. Green, Academic Press, (1976) and theoretical results. We have performed the same simulation with anisotropy appropriate for MnF2 and FeF_2. Research supported in part by the NSF
Mixed models and reduction method for dynamic analysis of anisotropic shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.
1985-01-01
A time-domain computational procedure is presented for predicting the dynamic response of laminated anisotropic shells. The two key elements of the procedure are: (1) use of mixed finite element models having independent interpolation (shape) functions for stress resultants and generalized displacements for the spatial discretization of the shell, with the stress resultants allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries; and (2) use of a dynamic reduction method, with the global approximation vectors consisting of the static solution and an orthogonal set of Lanczos vectors. The dynamic reduction is accomplished by means of successive application of the finite element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite element method is first used to generate the global approximation vectors. Then the Rayleigh-Ritz technique is used to generate a reduced system of ordinary differential equations in the amplitudes of these modes. The temporal integration of the reduced differential equations is performed by using an explicit half-station central difference scheme (Leap-frog method). The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by means of a numerical example and its advantages over reduction methods used with the displacement formulation are discussed.
Isotopic hydration of cellobiose: vibrational spectroscopy and dynamical simulations.
Pincu, Madeleine; Cocinero, Emilio J; Mayorkas, Nitzan; Brauer, Brina; Davis, Benjamin G; Gerber, R Benny; Simons, John P
2011-09-01
The conformation and structural dynamics of cellobiose, one of the fundamental building blocks in nature, its C4' epimer, lactose, and their microhydrated complexes, isolated in the gas phase, have been explored through a combination of experiment and theory. Their structures at low temperature have been determined through double resonance, IR-UV vibrational spectroscopy conducted under molecular beam conditions, substituting D(2)O for H(2)O to separate isotopically, the carbohydrate (OH) bands from the hydration (OD) bands. Car-Parrinello (CP2K) simulations, employing dispersion corrected density functional potentials and conducted "on-the-fly" from ∼20 to ∼300 K, have been used to explore the consequences of raising the temperature. Comparisons between the experimental data, anharmonic vibrational self-consistent field calculations based upon ab initio potentials, and the CP2K simulations have established the role of anharmonicity; the reliability of classical molecular dynamics predictions of the vibrational spectra of carbohydrates and the accuracy of the dispersion corrected (BLYP-D) force fields employed; the structural consequences of increasing hydration; and the dynamical consequences of increasing temperature. The isolated and hydrated cellobiose and lactose units both present remarkably rigid structures: their glycosidic linkages adopt a "cis" (anti-ϕ and syn-ψ) conformation bound by inter-ring hydrogen bonds. This conformation is maintained when the temperature is increased to ∼300 K and it continues to be maintained when the cellobiose (or lactose) unit is hydrated by one or two explicitly bound water molecules. Despite individual fluctuations in the intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding pattern and some local structural motions, the water molecules remain locally bound and the isolated carbohydrates remain trapped within the cis potential well. The Car-Parrinello dynamical simulations do not suggest any accessible pathway to the trans
Recovering position-dependent diffusion from biased molecular dynamics simulations
Ljubetič, Ajasja; Urbančič, Iztok; Štrancar, Janez
2014-02-28
All atom molecular dynamics (MD) models provide valuable insight into the dynamics of biophysical systems, but are limited in size or length by the high computational demands. The latter can be reduced by simulating long term diffusive dynamics (also known as Langevin dynamics or Brownian motion) of the most interesting and important user-defined parts of the studied system, termed collective variables (colvars). A few hundred nanosecond-long biased MD trajectory can therefore be extended to millisecond lengths in the colvars subspace at a very small additional computational cost. In this work, we develop a method for determining multidimensional anisotropic position- and timescale-dependent diffusion coefficients (D) by analysing the changes of colvars in an existing MD trajectory. As a test case, we obtained D for dihedral angles of the alanine dipeptide. An open source Mathematica{sup ®} package, capable of determining and visualizing D in one or two dimensions, is available at https://github.com/lbf-ijs/DiffusiveDynamics . Given known free energy and D, the package can also generate diffusive trajectories.
Simulation of all-scale atmospheric dynamics on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Szmelter, Joanna; Xiao, Feng
2016-10-01
The advance of massively parallel computing in the nineteen nineties and beyond encouraged finer grid intervals in numerical weather-prediction models. This has improved resolution of weather systems and enhanced the accuracy of forecasts, while setting the trend for development of unified all-scale atmospheric models. This paper first outlines the historical background to a wide range of numerical methods advanced in the process. Next, the trend is illustrated with a technical review of a versatile nonoscillatory forward-in-time finite-volume (NFTFV) approach, proven effective in simulations of atmospheric flows from small-scale dynamics to global circulations and climate. The outlined approach exploits the synergy of two specific ingredients: the MPDATA methods for the simulation of fluid flows based on the sign-preserving properties of upstream differencing; and the flexible finite-volume median-dual unstructured-mesh discretisation of the spatial differential operators comprising PDEs of atmospheric dynamics. The paper consolidates the concepts leading to a family of generalised nonhydrostatic NFTFV flow solvers that include soundproof PDEs of incompressible Boussinesq, anelastic and pseudo-incompressible systems, common in large-eddy simulation of small- and meso-scale dynamics, as well as all-scale compressible Euler equations. Such a framework naturally extends predictive skills of large-eddy simulation to the global atmosphere, providing a bottom-up alternative to the reverse approach pursued in the weather-prediction models. Theoretical considerations are substantiated by calculations attesting to the versatility and efficacy of the NFTFV approach. Some prospective developments are also discussed.
Ice formation on kaolinite: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sosso, Gabriele C.; Tribello, Gareth A.; Zen, Andrea; Pedevilla, Philipp; Michaelides, Angelos
2016-12-01
The formation of ice affects many aspects of our everyday life as well as important technologies such as cryotherapy and cryopreservation. Foreign substances almost always aid water freezing through heterogeneous ice nucleation, but the molecular details of this process remain largely unknown. In fact, insight into the microscopic mechanism of ice formation on different substrates is difficult to obtain even if state-of-the-art experimental techniques are used. At the same time, atomistic simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation frequently face extraordinary challenges due to the complexity of the water-substrate interaction and the long time scales that characterize nucleation events. Here, we have investigated several aspects of molecular dynamics simulations of heterogeneous ice nucleation considering as a prototypical ice nucleating material the clay mineral kaolinite, which is of relevance in atmospheric science. We show via seeded molecular dynamics simulations that ice nucleation on the hydroxylated (001) face of kaolinite proceeds exclusively via the formation of the hexagonal ice polytype. The critical nucleus size is two times smaller than that obtained for homogeneous nucleation at the same supercooling. Previous findings suggested that the flexibility of the kaolinite surface can alter the time scale for ice nucleation within molecular dynamics simulations. However, we here demonstrate that equally flexible (or non flexible) kaolinite surfaces can lead to very different outcomes in terms of ice formation, according to whether or not the surface relaxation of the clay is taken into account. We show that very small structural changes upon relaxation dramatically alter the ability of kaolinite to provide a template for the formation of a hexagonal overlayer of water molecules at the water-kaolinite interface, and that this relaxation therefore determines the nucleation ability of this mineral.
Merchant, Kusai A.; Noid, W. G.; Akiyama, Ryo; Finkelstein, Ilya J.; Goun, Alexei; McClain, Brian L.; Loring, Roger F.; Fayer, M. D.
2008-01-01
Spectrally resolved infrared stimulated vibrational echo data were obtained for sperm whale carbonmonoxymyoglobin (MbCO) at 300 K. The measured dephasing dynamics of the CO ligand are in agreement with dephasing dynamics calculated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for MbCO with the residue histidine-64 (His64) having its imidazole ε nitrogen protonated (Nε–H). The two conformational substate structures Bε and Rε observed in the MD simulations are assigned to the spectroscopic A1 and A3 conformational substates of MbCO, respectively, based on the agreement between the experimentally measured and calculated dephasing dynamics for these substates. In the A1 substate, the Nε–H proton and Nδ of His64 are approximately equidistant from the CO ligand, while in the A3 substate, the Nε–H of His64 is oriented toward the CO, and the Nδ is on the surface of the protein. The MD simulations show that dynamics of His64 represent the major source of vibrational dephasing of the CO ligand in the A3 state on both femtosecond and picosecond time scales. Dephasing in the A1 state is controlled by His64 on femtosecond time scales, and by the rest of the protein and the water solvent on longer time scales. PMID:14599220
Monte Carlo simulations of safeguards neutron counter for oxide reduction process feed material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Hee; Lee, Chaehun; Oh, Jong-Myeong; An, Su Jung; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Park, Se-Hwan; Ku, Jeong-Hoe
2016-10-01
One of the options for spent-fuel management in Korea is pyroprocessing whose main process flow is the head-end process followed by oxide reduction, electrorefining, and electrowining. In the present study, a well-type passive neutron coincidence counter, namely, the ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) safeguards neutron counter (ASNC), was redesigned for safeguards of a hot-cell facility related to the oxide reduction process. To this end, first, the isotopic composition, gamma/neutron emission yield and energy spectrum of the feed material ( i.e., the UO2 porous pellet) were calculated using the OrigenARP code. Then, the proper thickness of the gammaray shield was determined, both by irradiation testing at a standard dosimetry laboratory and by MCNP6 simulations using the parameters obtained from the OrigenARP calculation. Finally, the neutron coincidence counter's calibration curve for 100- to 1000-g porous pellets, in consideration of the process batch size, was determined through simulations. Based on these simulation results, the neutron counter currently is under construction. In the near future, it will be installed in a hot cell and tested with spent fuel materials.
Validation of Bubble Dynamics Equation for a Nano-scale Bubble via Molecular Dynamics Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuda, S.; Hyodo, H.; Watanabe, S.
2015-12-01
For a validation of the application of conventional bubble dynamics to a nano-scale bubble behaviour, we simulated a nano-scale bubble collapsing or vibration by Molecular Dynamics (MD) method and compared the result with the solution of Rayleigh-Plesset (RP) equation and that of Confined RP (CRP) equation, whose boundary condition was corrected to be consistent with that of MD simulation. As a result, a good coincidence was obtained between MD, RP, and CRP in the case of one-component fluid. In addition, also a good correspondence was obtained particularly in the comparison between MD and CRP in the case of two-component fluid containing non-condensable gas. The present results indicate that conventional bubble dynamics equation can be applied even to a nano-scale tiny bubble.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Hiroaki; Higuchi, Yuji; Shimokawa, Naofumi
2016-10-01
Biomembranes, which are mainly composed of neutral and charged lipids, exhibit a large variety of functional structures and dynamics. Here, we report a coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the phase separation and morphological dynamics in charged lipid bilayer vesicles. The screened long-range electrostatic repulsion among charged head groups delays or inhibits the lateral phase separation in charged vesicles compared with neutral vesicles, suggesting the transition of the phase-separation mechanism from spinodal decomposition to nucleation or homogeneous dispersion. Moreover, the electrostatic repulsion causes morphological changes, such as pore formation, and further transformations into disk, string, and bicelle structures, which are spatiotemporally coupled to the lateral segregation of charged lipids. Based on our coarse-grained MD simulation, we propose a plausible mechanism of pore formation at the molecular level. The pore formation in a charged-lipid-rich domain is initiated by the prior disturbance of the local molecular orientation in the domain.
Molecular Dynamics, Monte Carlo Simulations, and Langevin Dynamics: A Computational Review
Paquet, Eric; Viktor, Herna L.
2015-01-01
Macromolecular structures, such as neuraminidases, hemagglutinins, and monoclonal antibodies, are not rigid entities. Rather, they are characterised by their flexibility, which is the result of the interaction and collective motion of their constituent atoms. This conformational diversity has a significant impact on their physicochemical and biological properties. Among these are their structural stability, the transport of ions through the M2 channel, drug resistance, macromolecular docking, binding energy, and rational epitope design. To assess these properties and to calculate the associated thermodynamical observables, the conformational space must be efficiently sampled and the dynamic of the constituent atoms must be simulated. This paper presents algorithms and techniques that address the abovementioned issues. To this end, a computational review of molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulations, Langevin dynamics, and free energy calculation is presented. The exposition is made from first principles to promote a better understanding of the potentialities, limitations, applications, and interrelations of these computational methods. PMID:25785262
Measurement of human pilot dynamic characteristics in flight simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reedy, James T.
1987-01-01
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Least Square Error (LSE) estimation techniques were applied to the problem of identifying pilot-vehicle dynamic characteristics in flight simulation. A brief investigation of the effects of noise, input bandwidth and system delay upon the FFT and LSE techniques was undertaken using synthetic data. Data from a piloted simulation conducted at NASA Ames Research Center was then analyzed. The simulation was performed in the NASA Ames Research Center Variable Stability CH-47B helicopter operating in fixed-basis simulator mode. The piloting task consisted of maintaining the simulated vehicle over a moving hover pad whose motion was described by a random-appearing sum of sinusoids. The two test subjects used a head-down, color cathode ray tube (CRT) display for guidance and control information. Test configurations differed in the number of axes being controlled by the pilot (longitudinal only versus longitudinal and lateral), and in the presence or absence of an important display indicator called an 'acceleration ball'. A number of different pilot-vehicle transfer functions were measured, and where appropriate, qualitatively compared with theoretical pilot- vehicle models. Some indirect evidence suggesting pursuit behavior on the part of the test subjects is discussed.
Integrated Turbine-Based Combined Cycle Dynamic Simulation Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haid, Daniel A.; Gamble, Eric J.
2011-01-01
A Turbine-Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) dynamic simulation model has been developed to demonstrate all modes of operation, including mode transition, for a turbine-based combined cycle propulsion system. The High Mach Transient Engine Cycle Code (HiTECC) is a highly integrated tool comprised of modules for modeling each of the TBCC systems whose interactions and controllability affect the TBCC propulsion system thrust and operability during its modes of operation. By structuring the simulation modeling tools around the major TBCC functional modes of operation (Dry Turbojet, Afterburning Turbojet, Transition, and Dual Mode Scramjet) the TBCC mode transition and all necessary intermediate events over its entire mission may be developed, modeled, and validated. The reported work details the use of the completed model to simulate a TBCC propulsion system as it accelerates from Mach 2.5, through mode transition, to Mach 7. The completion of this model and its subsequent use to simulate TBCC mode transition significantly extends the state-of-the-art for all TBCC modes of operation by providing a numerical simulation of the systems, interactions, and transient responses affecting the ability of the propulsion system to transition from turbine-based to ramjet/scramjet-based propulsion while maintaining constant thrust.
Thermostat artifacts in replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.
Rosta, Edina; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel; Hummer, Gerhard
2009-01-01
We explore the effects of thermostats in replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations. For thermostats that do not produce a canonical ensemble, REMD simulations are found to distort the configuration-space distributions. For bulk water, we find small deviations of the average potential energies, the buildup of tails in the potential energy distributions, and artificial correlations between the energies at different temperatures. If a solute is present, as in protein folding simulations, its conformational equilibrium can be altered. In REMD simulations of a helix-forming peptide with a weak-coupling (Berendsen) thermostat, we find that the folded state is overpopulated by about 10% at low temperatures, and underpopulated at high temperatures. As a consequence, the enthalpy of folding deviates by almost 3 kcal/mol from the correct value. The reason for this population shift is that non-canonical ensembles with narrowed potential energy fluctuations artificially bias toward replica exchanges between low-energy folded structures at the high temperature and high-energy unfolded structures at the low temperature. We conclude that REMD simulations should only be performed in conjunction with thermostats that produce a canonical ensemble.
Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K
2012-01-01
We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
Finite element simulation of laser scribed electrical steel for core loss reduction
Gurusamy, R.; Mohammed, M.; Molian, P.
1996-12-31
Laser scribing of electrical steels reduced core losses through magnetic domain refinement that occurred when thermal stresses were induced by laser heating. An experimental study with a 15 W, continuous wave diode laser for scribing and a finite element simulation model for determining the thermal stress distribution of cold-rolled, 3% silicon-steel were performed. The results showed that the maximum core loss reduction was attained only when the stresses reached the yield strength. In contrast, previous researchers attributed the maximum core loss reduction to the localized plastic deformation. This study also provided quantitative distribution of stresses in all three directions and clarified a controversy surrounding the type of stresses in the laser-scribed and rolled directions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimamura, K.; Shibuta, Y.; Ohmura, S.; Arifin, R.; Shimojo, F.
2016-04-01
The atomistic mechanism of dissociative adsorption of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster is investigated by ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. The activation free energy to dehydrogenate an ethylene molecule on the Ni cluster and the corresponding reaction rate is estimated. A remarkable finding is that the adsorption energy of ethylene molecules on the Ni cluster is considerably larger than the activation free energy, which explains why the actual reaction rate is faster than the value estimated based on only the activation free energy. It is also found from the dynamic simulations that hydrogen molecules and an ethane molecule are formed from the dissociated hydrogen atoms, whereas some exist as single atoms on the surface or in the interior of the Ni cluster. On the other hand, the dissociation of the C-C bonds of ethylene molecules is not observed. On the basis of these simulation results, the nature of the initial stage of carbon nanotube growth is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, Tuan Anh; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Lau, Edmond Y.; Schwegler, Eric
2016-10-01
Establishing an accurate and predictive computational framework for the description of complex aqueous solutions is an ongoing challenge for density functional theory based first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations. In this context, important advances have been made in recent years, including the development of sophisticated exchange-correlation functionals. On the other hand, simulations based on simple generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals remain an active field, particularly in the study of complex aqueous solutions due to a good balance between the accuracy, computational expense, and the applicability to a wide range of systems. Such simulations are often performed at elevated temperatures to artificially "correct" for GGA inaccuracies in the description of liquid water; however, a detailed understanding of how the choice of temperature affects the structure and dynamics of other components, such as solvated ions, is largely unknown. To address this question, we carried out a series of FPMD simulations at temperatures ranging from 300 to 460 K for liquid water and three representative aqueous solutions containing solvated Na+, K+, and Cl- ions. We show that simulations at 390-400 K with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional yield water structure and dynamics in good agreement with experiments at ambient conditions. Simultaneously, this computational setup provides ion solvation structures and ion effects on water dynamics consistent with experiments. Our results suggest that an elevated temperature around 390-400 K with the PBE functional can be used for the description of structural and dynamical properties of liquid water and complex solutions with solvated ions at ambient conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grest, Gary S.
2008-03-01
Twenty years ago at the APS March Meeting, Kurt Kremer and I presented the first numerical evidence from computer simulations that the reptation model of Edwards and de Gennes correctly describes the dynamics of entangled linear polymer melts. For chains longer than the entanglement length Ne, the monomers of a chain move predominantly along their own contour. The distinctive signature of reptation dynamics, which we observed, was that on intermediate time scales, the mean squared displacement of a monomer increases with time as t^ 1/4. Though these early simulations were limited to chains of a few Ne, they demonstrated the potential of computer simulations to contribute to our understanding of polymer dynamics. Here I will review the progress over the past twenty years and present an outlook for the future in modeling entangled polymer melts and networks. With present day computers coupled with efficient parallel molecular dynamics codes, it is now possible to follow the equilibrium dynamics of chains of length 10-20Ne from the early Rouse regime to the long time diffusive regime. Result of these simulations support the earlier results obtained on chains of only a few Ne. Further evidence for the tube models of polymer dynamics has been obtained by identifying the primitive path mesh that characterizes the microscopic topological state of the computer- generated conformations of the chains. In particular, the plateau moduli derived on the basis of this analysis quantitatively reproduce experimental data for a wide spectrum of entangled polymer liquids including semi-dilute theta solutions of synthetic polymers, the corresponding dense melts, and solutions of semi-flexible (bio)polymers such as f-actin or suspensions of rodlike viruses. We also find that in agreement with the reptation model, the stress, end-to-end distance and entanglement length of an entangled melt subjected to uniaxial elongation, all relax on the same time scale.
Plimpton, Steve; Thompson, Aidan; Crozier, Paul
LAMMPS (http://lammps.sandia.gov/index.html) stands for Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator and is a code that can be used to model atoms or, as the LAMMPS website says, as a parallel particle simulator at the atomic, meso, or continuum scale. This Sandia-based website provides a long list of animations from large simulations. These were created using different visualization packages to read LAMMPS output, and each one provides the name of the PI and a brief description of the work done or visualization package used. See also the static images produced from simulations at http://lammps.sandia.gov/pictures.html The foundation paper for LAMMPS is: S. Plimpton, Fast Parallel Algorithms for Short-Range Molecular Dynamics, J Comp Phys, 117, 1-19 (1995), but the website also lists other papers describing contributions to LAMMPS over the years.
Molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen diffusion in aluminum
Zhou, X. W.; El Gabaly, F.; Stavila, V.; Allendorf, M. D.
2016-03-23
In this study, hydrogen diffusion impacts the performance of solid-state hydrogen storage materials and contributes to the embrittlement of structural materials under hydrogen-containing environments. In atomistic simulations, the diffusion energy barriers are usually calculated using molecular statics simulations where a nudged elastic band method is used to constrain a path connecting the two end points of an atomic jump. This approach requires prior knowledge of the “end points”. For alloy and defective systems, the number of possible atomic jumps with respect to local atomic configurations is tremendous. Even when these jumps can be exhaustively studied, it is still unclear how they can be combined to give an overall diffusion behavior seen in experiments. Here we describe the use of molecular dynamics simulations to determine the overall diffusion energy barrier from the Arrhenius equation. This method does not require information about atomic jumps, and it has additional advantages, such as the ability to incorporate finite temperature effects and to determine the pre-exponential factor. As a test case for a generic method, we focus on hydrogen diffusion in bulk aluminum. We find that the challenge of this method is the statistical variation of the results. However, highly converged energy barriers can be achieved by an appropriate set of temperatures, output time intervals (for tracking hydrogen positions), and a long total simulation time. Our results help elucidate the inconsistencies of the experimental diffusion data published in the literature. The robust approach developed here may also open up future molecular dynamics simulations to rapidly study diffusion properties of complex material systems in multidimensional spaces involving composition and defects.
Molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen diffusion in aluminum
Zhou, X. W.; El Gabaly, F.; Stavila, V.; ...
2016-03-23
In this study, hydrogen diffusion impacts the performance of solid-state hydrogen storage materials and contributes to the embrittlement of structural materials under hydrogen-containing environments. In atomistic simulations, the diffusion energy barriers are usually calculated using molecular statics simulations where a nudged elastic band method is used to constrain a path connecting the two end points of an atomic jump. This approach requires prior knowledge of the “end points”. For alloy and defective systems, the number of possible atomic jumps with respect to local atomic configurations is tremendous. Even when these jumps can be exhaustively studied, it is still unclear howmore » they can be combined to give an overall diffusion behavior seen in experiments. Here we describe the use of molecular dynamics simulations to determine the overall diffusion energy barrier from the Arrhenius equation. This method does not require information about atomic jumps, and it has additional advantages, such as the ability to incorporate finite temperature effects and to determine the pre-exponential factor. As a test case for a generic method, we focus on hydrogen diffusion in bulk aluminum. We find that the challenge of this method is the statistical variation of the results. However, highly converged energy barriers can be achieved by an appropriate set of temperatures, output time intervals (for tracking hydrogen positions), and a long total simulation time. Our results help elucidate the inconsistencies of the experimental diffusion data published in the literature. The robust approach developed here may also open up future molecular dynamics simulations to rapidly study diffusion properties of complex material systems in multidimensional spaces involving composition and defects.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, E.; He, W.; Savoy, H.; Dietrich, P.; Kolditz, O.; Rubin, Y.; Schüth, C.; Kalbacher, T.
2017-01-01
Nitrate reduction reactions in groundwater systems are strongly influenced by various aquifer heterogeneity factors that affect the transport of chemical species, spatial distribution of redox reactive substances and, as a result, the overall nitrate reduction efficiency. In this study, we investigated the influence of physical and chemical aquifer heterogeneity, with a focus on nitrate transport and redox transformation processes. A numerical modeling study for simulating coupled hydrological-geochemical aquifer heterogeneity was conducted in order to improve our understanding of the influence of the aquifer heterogeneity on the nitrate reduction reactions and to identify the most influential aquifer heterogeneity factors throughout the simulation. Results show that the most influential aquifer heterogeneity factors could change over time. With abundant presence of electron donors in the high permeable zones (initial stage), physical aquifer heterogeneity significantly influences the nitrate reduction since it enables the preferential transport of nitrate to these zones and enhances mixing of reactive partners. Chemical aquifer heterogeneity plays a comparatively minor role. Increasing the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity also increases the nitrate removal efficiency of the system. However, ignoring chemical aquifer heterogeneity can lead to an underestimation of nitrate removals in long-term behavior. With the increase of the spatial variability of the electron donor, i.e. chemical heterogeneity, the number of the "hot spots" i.e. zones with comparably higher reactivity, should also increase. Hence, nitrate removal efficiencies will also be spatially variable but overall removal efficiency will be sustained if longer time scales are considered and nitrate fronts reach these high reactivity zones.
Automatic variance reduction for Monte Carlo simulations via the local importance function transform
Turner, S.A.
1996-02-01
The author derives a transformed transport problem that can be solved theoretically by analog Monte Carlo with zero variance. However, the Monte Carlo simulation of this transformed problem cannot be implemented in practice, so he develops a method for approximating it. The approximation to the zero variance method consists of replacing the continuous adjoint transport solution in the transformed transport problem by a piecewise continuous approximation containing local biasing parameters obtained from a deterministic calculation. He uses the transport and collision processes of the transformed problem to bias distance-to-collision and selection of post-collision energy groups and trajectories in a traditional Monte Carlo simulation of ``real`` particles. He refers to the resulting variance reduction method as the Local Importance Function Transform (LIFI) method. He demonstrates the efficiency of the LIFT method for several 3-D, linearly anisotropic scattering, one-group, and multigroup problems. In these problems the LIFT method is shown to be more efficient than the AVATAR scheme, which is one of the best variance reduction techniques currently available in a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo code. For most of the problems considered, the LIFT method produces higher figures of merit than AVATAR, even when the LIFT method is used as a ``black box``. There are some problems that cause trouble for most variance reduction techniques, and the LIFT method is no exception. For example, the author demonstrates that problems with voids, or low density regions, can cause a reduction in the efficiency of the LIFT method. However, the LIFT method still performs better than survival biasing and AVATAR in these difficult cases.
A Dual Model-Reduction Approach to Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanko, Z.; Boyce, S. E.; Yeh, W. W. G.
2014-12-01
Mathematical-model reduction using singular value decomposition (SVD) has been shown to be an effective method for reducing the computer runtime of linear and nonlinear groundwater-flow models without sacrificing accuracy. The discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) is an alternate method of model reduction better suited for nonlinear systems. In this research, both methods are applied simultaneously to reduce the dimensionality of a 3-D unconfined groundwater-flow model: SVD to reduce the column space and DEIM to reduce the row space. The results of the dimensional reduction can approach several orders of magnitude, resulting in significantly faster simulation runtimes. The implementation and benefit of SVD/DEIM model reduction is demonstrated through its application to a synthetic, groundwater-flow and solute-transport model with groundwater extraction wells that influence of seawater intrusion. The developed methodology identifies the dominant locations (i.e. the discrete points) of the model that have the most influence on the water levels and saltwater concentrations. The result is a reduced model constructed from fewer equations (row dimension) and is projected into a reduced subspace (column dimension). The methodology first independently constructs the reduced flow and transport models such that their errors are minimized for a flow-only model and transport-only model, respectively. Once the two reduced models have been established, a density-dependent flow simulation is preformed by iterating between the flow and transport models for each time step. Further analysis of the SVD/DEIM method illustrates the tradeoff between magnitude of the reduced dimension and corresponding errors in model output, with respect to the unreduced and independently reduced models. The application of this method shows that runtime can be significantly decreased for models of this type while still maintaining control of desired model accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pochelon, Antoine
2010-11-01
Due to turbulence, core energy transport in tokamaks generally exceeds collisional transport by at least an order of magnitude. It is therefore crucial to understand the instabilities driving the turbulent state and to find ways to control them. Shaping the plasma is one of these fundamental tools. In low collisionality plasmas, such as in a reactor, changing triangularity from positive (delta=+0.4) to negative triangularity (delta=-0.4) is shown on TCV to reduce the energy transport by a factor two. This opens the possibility of having H-mode-like confinement time within an L-mode edge, or reduced ELMs. An optimum triangularity can be sought between steep edge barriers (delta>0), plagued by large ELMs, and improved core confinement (delta<0). Recent correlation ECE measurements show that the reduction of transport at negative delta is reflected in a reduction by a factor of two of both the amplitude of temperature fluctuations in the broadband frequency range 30-150 kHz, and the fluctuation correlation length, measured at mid-radius. In addition, the fluctuations amplitude is reduced with increasing collisionality, consistent with a reduction of the Trapped Electron Modes (TEM) drive. The effect of negative triangularity on turbulence and transport is compared to gyrokinetic code results: First, global linear simulations predict shorter radial TEM wavelength, consistent with the shorter radial turbulence correlation length observed. Second, at least close to the strongly shaped plasma boundary, local nonlinear simulations predict lower TEM induced transport with decreased triangularity. Calculations are now being extended to global nonlinear simulations.
A dynamic motion simulator for future European docking systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brondino, G.; Marchal, PH.; Grimbert, D.; Noirault, P.
1990-01-01
Europe's first confrontation with docking in space will require extensive testing to verify design and performance and to qualify hardware. For this purpose, a Docking Dynamics Test Facility (DDTF) was developed. It allows reproduction on the ground of the same impact loads and relative motion dynamics which would occur in space during docking. It uses a 9 degree of freedom, servo-motion system, controlled by a real time computer, which simulates the docking spacecraft in a zero-g environment. The test technique involves and active loop based on six axis force and torque detection, a mathematical simulation of individual spacecraft dynamics, and a 9 degree of freedom servomotion of which 3 DOFs allow extension of the kinematic range to 5 m. The configuration was checked out by closed loop tests involving spacecraft control models and real sensor hardware. The test facility at present has an extensive configuration that allows evaluation of both proximity control and docking systems. It provides a versatile tool to verify system design, hardware items and performance capabilities in the ongoing HERMES and COLUMBUS programs. The test system is described and its capabilities are summarized.
Computer simulation of methanol exchange dynamics around cations and anions
Roy, Santanu; Dang, Liem X.
2016-03-03
In this paper, we present the first computer simulation of methanol exchange dynamics between the first and second solvation shells around different cations and anions. After water, methanol is the most frequently used solvent for ions. Methanol has different structural and dynamical properties than water, so its ion solvation process is different. To this end, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using polarizable potential models to describe methanol-methanol and ion-methanol interactions. In particular, we computed methanol exchange rates by employing the transition state theory, the Impey-Madden-McDonald method, the reactive flux approach, and the Grote-Hynes theory. We observed that methanol exchange occurs at a nanosecond time scale for Na+ and at a picosecond time scale for other ions. We also observed a trend in which, for like charges, the exchange rate is slower for smaller ions because they are more strongly bound to methanol. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.
Pattern Recognition for a Flight Dynamics Monte Carlo Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Restrepo, Carolina; Hurtado, John E.
2011-01-01
The design, analysis, and verification and validation of a spacecraft relies heavily on Monte Carlo simulations. Modern computational techniques are able to generate large amounts of Monte Carlo data but flight dynamics engineers lack the time and resources to analyze it all. The growing amounts of data combined with the diminished available time of engineers motivates the need to automate the analysis process. Pattern recognition algorithms are an innovative way of analyzing flight dynamics data efficiently. They can search large data sets for specific patterns and highlight critical variables so analysts can focus their analysis efforts. This work combines a few tractable pattern recognition algorithms with basic flight dynamics concepts to build a practical analysis tool for Monte Carlo simulations. Current results show that this tool can quickly and automatically identify individual design parameters, and most importantly, specific combinations of parameters that should be avoided in order to prevent specific system failures. The current version uses a kernel density estimation algorithm and a sequential feature selection algorithm combined with a k-nearest neighbor classifier to find and rank important design parameters. This provides an increased level of confidence in the analysis and saves a significant amount of time.
Molecular dynamics simulations of solutions at constant chemical potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perego, C.; Salvalaglio, M.; Parrinello, M.
2015-04-01
Molecular dynamics studies of chemical processes in solution are of great value in a wide spectrum of applications, which range from nano-technology to pharmaceutical chemistry. However, these calculations are affected by severe finite-size effects, such as the solution being depleted as the chemical process proceeds, which influence the outcome of the simulations. To overcome these limitations, one must allow the system to exchange molecules with a macroscopic reservoir, thus sampling a grand-canonical ensemble. Despite the fact that different remedies have been proposed, this still represents a key challenge in molecular simulations. In the present work, we propose the Constant Chemical Potential Molecular Dynamics (CμMD) method, which introduces an external force that controls the environment of the chemical process of interest. This external force, drawing molecules from a finite reservoir, maintains the chemical potential constant in the region where the process takes place. We have applied the CμMD method to the paradigmatic case of urea crystallization in aqueous solution. As a result, we have been able to study crystal growth dynamics under constant supersaturation conditions and to extract growth rates and free-energy barriers.
Weighted-ensemble Brownian dynamics simulations for protein association reactions.
Huber, G A; Kim, S
1996-01-01
A new method, weighted-ensemble Brownian dynamics, is proposed for the simulation of protein-association reactions and other events whose frequencies of outcomes are constricted by free energy barriers. The method features a weighted ensemble of trajectories in configuration space with energy levels dictating the proper correspondence between "particles" and probability. Instead of waiting a very long time for an unlikely event to occur, the probability packets are split, and small packets of probability are allowed to diffuse almost immediately into regions of configuration space that are less likely to be sampled. The method has been applied to the Northrup and Erickson (1992) model of docking-type diffusion-limited reactions and yields reaction rate constants in agreement with those obtained by direct Brownian simulation, but at a fraction of the CPU time (10(-4) to 10(-3), depending on the model). Because the method is essentially a variant of standard Brownian dynamics algorithms, it is anticipated that weighted-ensemble Brownian dynamics, in conjunction with biophysical force models, can be applied to a large class of association reactions of interest to the biophysics community. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:8770190
Helicopter flight dynamics simulation with refined aerodynamic modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theodore, Colin Rhys
This dissertation describes the development of a coupled rotor-fuselage flight dynamic simulation that includes a maneuvering free wake model and a coupled flap-lag-torsion flexible blade representation. This mathematical model is used to investigate effects of main rotor inflow and blade modeling on various flight dynamics characteristics for both articulated and hingeless rotor helicopters. The inclusion of the free wake model requires the development of new numerical procedures for the calculation of trim equilibrium positions, for the extraction of high-order, constant coefficient linearized models, and for the calculation of the free flight responses to arbitrary pilot inputs. The free wake model, previously developed by other investigators at the University of Maryland, is capable of modeling the changes in rotor wake geometry resulting from maneuvers, and the effects of such changes on the main rotor inflow. The overall flight dynamic model is capable of simulating the helicopter behavior during maneuvers that can be arbitrarily large. The combination of sophisticated models of rotor wake and blade flexibility enables the flight dynamics model to capture the effects of maneuvers with unprecedented accuracy for simulations based on first principles: this is the main contribution of the research presented in this dissertation. The increased accuracy brought about by the free wake model significantly improves the predictions of the helicopter trim state for both helicopter configurations considered in this study. This is especially true in low speed flight and hover. The most significant improvements are seen in the predictions of the main rotor collective and power required by the rotor, which can be significantly underpredicted using traditional linear inflow models. Results show that the free-flight on-axis responses to pilot inputs can be predicted with good accuracy with a relatively unsophisticated models that do not include either a free wake nor a
Molecular dynamic simulations of the water absorbency of hydrogels.
Ou, Xiang; Han, Qiang; Dai, Hui-Hui; Wang, Jiong
2015-09-01
A polymer gel can imbibe solvent molecules through surface tension effect. When the solvent happens to be water, the gel can swell to a large extent and forms an aggregate called hydrogel. The large deformation caused by such swelling makes it difficult to study the behaviors of hydrogels. Currently, few molecular dynamic simulation works have been reported on the water absorbing mechanism of hydrogels. In this paper, we first use molecular dynamic simulation to study the water absorbing mechanism of hydrogels and propose a hydrogel-water interface model to study the water absorbency of the hydrogel surface. Also, the saturated water content and volume expansion rate of the hydrogel are investigated by building a hydrogel model with different cross-linking degree and by comparing the water absorption curves under different temperatures. The sample hydrogel model used consists of Polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) as epoxy and the Jeffamine, poly-oxy-alkylene-amines, as curing agent. The conclusions obtained are useful for further investigation on PEGDGE/Jeffamine hydrogel. Moreover, the simulation methods, including hydrogel-water interface modeling, we first propose are also suitable to study the water absorbing mechanism of other hydrogels.
Thermostat for nonequilibrium multiparticle-collision-dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chien-Cheng; Varghese, Anoop; Gompper, Gerhard; Winkler, Roland G.
2015-01-01
Multiparticle collision dynamics (MPC), a particle-based mesoscale simulation technique for complex fluid, is widely employed in nonequilibrium simulations of soft matter systems. To maintain a defined thermodynamic state, thermalization of the fluid is often required for certain MPC variants. We investigate the influence of three thermostats on the nonequilibrium properties of a MPC fluid under shear or in Poiseuille flow. In all cases, the local velocities are scaled by a factor, which is either determined via a local simple scaling approach (LSS), a Monte Carlo-like procedure (MCS), or by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energy (MBS). We find that the various scaling schemes leave the flow profile unchanged and maintain the local temperature well. The fluid viscosities extracted from the various simulations are in close agreement. Moreover, the numerically determined viscosities are in remarkably good agreement with the respective theoretically predicted values. At equilibrium, the calculation of the dynamic structure factor reveals that the MBS method closely resembles an isothermal ensemble, whereas the MCS procedure exhibits signatures of an adiabatic system at larger collision-time steps. Since the velocity distribution of the LSS approach is non-Gaussian, we recommend to apply the MBS thermostat, which has been shown to produce the correct velocity distribution even under nonequilibrium conditions.