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Sample records for reemplazo valvular mitral

  1. [A Case of Mitral Valvular Re-repair in a Patient with Hemolytic Anemia after Mitral Valvular Repair].

    PubMed

    Tomino, Mikiko; Miyata, Kazuto; Takeshita, Yuji; Kaneko, Koki; Kanazawa, Hiroko; Uchino, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted for mitral valvular repair. After folding plasty to A3, a 30 mm Cosgrove-Edwards ring was placed. There was no mitral regurgitation jet observed by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during the operation. However, high blood pressure was monitored and treated in the intensive care unit, hemolytic anemia developed, and the serum lactate dehydrogenase level was elevated. Two weeks after the operation, serum lactate dehydrogenase was again elevated. TEE showed mild mitral regurgitation and the regurgitation jet colliding with the annuloplasty ring. Multiple transfusions of red blood cells were required. Repeat surgery was therefore undertaken. Lam and associates previously studying patients on hemolysis after mitral valvular repair noted high grade mitral regurgitation jets fragmented or accelerated. In the present case, mitral regurgitation was mild, but the high velocity and manner of regurgitation (collision with the annuloplasty ring) could cause hemolytic anemia. In the present case, high blood pressure might have caused chordae rupture. Furthermore, a flexible ring, such as the Cosgrove-Edwards ring, is likely to cause hemolytic anemia. As contributing factors to hemolysis after mitral valvular repair, perioperative blood pressure management and type of ring are significant.

  2. Floppy Mitral Valve (FMV) - Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) - Mitral Valvular Regurgitation and FMV/MVP Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Pitsis, Antonios A; Boudoulas, Harisios

    2016-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) results from the systolic movement of a portion(s) or segment(s) of the mitral valve leaflet(s) into the left atrium during left ventricular (LV) systole. It should be emphasised that MVP alone, as defined by imaging techniques, may comprise a non-specific finding because it also depends on the LV volume, myocardial contractility and other LV hemodynamics. Thus, a floppy mitral valve (FMV) should be the basis for the diagnosis of MVP. Two types of symptoms may be defined in these patients. In one group, symptoms are directly related to progressive mitral regurgitation and its complications. In the other group, symptoms cannot be explained only by the degree of mitral regurgitation alone; neuroendocrine dysfunction has been implicated for the explanation of symptoms in this group of patients that today is referred as the FMV/MVP syndrome. When significant mitral regurgitation is present in a patient with FMV/MVP, surgical intervention is recommended. In patients with a prohibitive risk for surgery, transcatheter mitral valve repair using a mitraclip device may be considered. Furthermore, transcatheter mitral valve replacement may represent an option in the near future as clinical trials are underway. In this brief review, the current concepts related to FMV/MVP and FMV/MVP syndrome will be discussed.

  3. Simultaneous transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement and transcatheter mitral valve replacement for native valvular stenosis.

    PubMed

    Elkharbotly, Ali; Delago, Augustin; El-Hajjar, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is well established for patients who cannot undergo surgery (Leon et al., N Engl J Med 2010;363:1597) or are high risk for surgery (Smith et al., N Engl J Med 2011;364:2187-2198). Experience with the TAVR procedure has led to recent reports of successful transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) procedures (Cheung et al., J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;64:1814; Seiffert et al., J Am Coll Cardiol Interv 2012;5:341-349) separately or simultaneously with the TAVR. However, these reports were of simultaneous valve-in-valve procedures (Cheung Anson, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;61:1759-1766). A recent report from Portugal also reported simultaneous transpical implantation of an inverted transcatheter aortic valve-in-ring in the mitral position and transcatheter aortic valve (Hasan et al., Circulation 2013;128:e74-e76). There has been an experience of TMVR only in native mitral valve for mitral valve stenosis, but none in both aortic and mitral valves. We report the first in human case of simultaneous transapical TAVR and TMVR in native valves secondary to valvular stenosis. Our patient was not a candidate for percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty secondary to a high Wilkins Score. Sizing of the aortic valve was based on the transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), whereas sizing of the mitral valve was based on TEE measurements and balloon inflation during left ventriculography. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Study of left ventricular function in valvular cardiopathies (mitral insufficiency and aortic insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Herreman, F; Brun, P; Cannet, G; Savin, E; Vannier, D

    1974-10-01

    A study of the left ventricular function based on the haemodynamic data combined with those provided by biplane cineangiography was performed in 35 cases with left ventricular volume overload (20 cases of mitral incompetence and 15 of aortic insufficiency). The importance of the haemodynamic changes and of the adaptation mechanisms set up were described. The more intense dilatation-hypertrophy of aortic incompetence than of mitral incompetence plays an essential part. The role of Starling's mechanism is underlined. Estimation of the contractile value of the myocardium, taken into account the mechanical overload and the conditions of late-diastolic lengthening of the fibre and of impedance to left ventricular ejection was determined. An obvious myocardial failure, demonstrated in approximately one third of the cases, by determination of some contractility indices estimated in the ejection phase, Vf sigma max in particular, the only one valid in the presence of valvular regurgitation. In the other cases, the moderate decrease of myocardial contractility was masked by compensatory mechanisms.

  5. Evaluation of serum myeloperoxidase concentration in dogs with heart failure due to chronic mitral valvular insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-In; Suh, Sang-Il; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a leukocyte-derived enzyme involved in the process of heart failure and is found to have good diagnostic and prognostic values in humans with chronic heart failure. This study evaluated the relationship between serum MPO levels and the severity of heart failure (HF) due to chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI) in dogs. Eighty-two client-owned dogs consisting of 69 dogs with different stages of HF due to CMVI and 13 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum MPO concentrations in the healthy and CMVI groups were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a canine-specific monoclonal anti-MPO antibody. Serum MPO concentrations were 273.3 ± 179.6 ng/L in the controls, 140.8 ± 114.1 ng/L in the International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) I group, 109.0 ± 85.2 ng/L in the ISACHC II group, and 106.0 ± 42.3 ng/L in the ISACHC III group. Close negative correlation to serum MPO concentration was found in the severity of heart failure (ISACHC stage). Although this study found a modest relationship between serum MPO levels and the severity of HF due to CMVI in dogs, it also suggested that serum MPO levels decreased as the severity of HF increased.

  6. Ultrastructure of sarcoplasmic reticulum in atrial myocardium of patients with mitral valvular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Thiedermann, K. U.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1976-01-01

    Alterations observed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells in left and right atrial myocardium from 10 patients with mitral valvular disease consisted of: a) proliferation of rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum, which formed large cisterns in perinuclear areas of hypertrophied cells and was considered indicative of increased protein synthesis; b) proliferation of free sarcoplasmic reticulum, a change that occurred in degenerated cells and appeared to be related to loss of contractile elements; c) two types of aggregates of tubules of free SR--one type was associated wtih abnormal Z-band material and was found only in cells showing loss of myofibrils and proliferation of free SR, whereas the other was not associated with either of these changes and occurred in less severely altered cells; and d) proliferation and enlargement of cisterns of extended junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum, which formed two distinct types of complexes: the first of these consisted of large, convoluted (Type A) cisterns that were wide (550 to 650 A in thickness) and did not have a central dense lamina; the second was composed of stacks of concentric or parallel (Type B) cisterns that were narrower (220 to 300 A in thickness), had a central dense lamina, and were separated from one another by layers of glycogen granules. The formation of these complexes of cisterns was regarded as an extreme form of overdevelopment of extended junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum in atrial muscle cells. Images Figure 21 Figures 22-25 Figures 1-3 Figures 26-29 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figures 30 and 31 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figures 32-36 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figures 37-39 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figures 40 and 41 Figure 18 Figures 19 and 20 PMID:1275054

  7. [A new mitral valve prosthesis (Cooley-Cutter). Experiences on 241 cases of valvular replacement (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Sandiford, M; Cooley, D A

    1976-01-01

    A new mitral valve prosthesis (Cooley-Cutter) is described, which incorporated a low profile design, an excentric sewing cuff, a full flow orifice, a controlled regurgitation for self-washing and symmetrical peripheral flow. The new prosthesis has a titanium double-caged frame, a Pyrolite carbon poppet and a Teflon knit sewing cuff. We have attempted to incorporate in the design of this new prosthesis tre most favorable features of each of many types of prosthesis used at the Texas Heart Institute since 1962. Isolated prosthetic mitral valve replacement for severe congenital or acquired valvular disease was performed in 541 patients from June 1971 to ne 1975. Of these, 66 patients received a concomitant aortocoronary bypass and 31 tricuspid annuloplasty. In 72 patients a malfunctioning mitral prosthesis of other types was replaced with the new Cooley-Cutter prosthesis. There were 49 early deaths (9.1%) and 33 late deaths (6.1%). The most gratifying results were a low incidence of late thrombo-embolic phenomena (1.8%) and absence of hemolisis, malfunction, infection and material failure of the prosthesis.

  8. Biomechanical evaluation of the pathophysiologic developmental mechanisms of mitral valve prolapse: effect of valvular morphologic alteration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ahnryul; McPherson, David D; Kim, Hyunggun

    2016-05-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) refers to an excessive billowing of the mitral valve (MV) leaflets across the mitral annular plane into the left atrium during the systolic portion of the cardiac cycle. The underlying mechanisms for the development of MVP and mitral regurgitation in association with MV tissue remodeling are still unclear. We performed computational MV simulations to investigate the pathophysiologic developmental mechanisms of MVP. A parametric MV geometry model was utilized for this study. Posterior leaflet enlargement and posterior chordal elongation models were created by adjusting the geometry of the posterior leaflet and chordae, respectively. Dynamic finite element simulations of MV function were performed over the complete cardiac cycle. Computational simulations demonstrated that enlarging posterior leaflet area increased large stress concentration in the posterior leaflets and chordae, and posterior chordal elongation decreased leaflet coaptation. When MVP was accompanied by both posterior leaflet enlargement and chordal elongation simultaneously, the posterior leaflet was exposed to extremely large prolapse with a substantial lack of leaflet coaptation. These data indicate that MVP development is closely related to tissue alterations of the leaflets and chordae. This biomechanical evaluation strategy can help us better understand the pathophysiologic developmental mechanisms of MVP.

  9. Evaluation of serum cystatin-C and symmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in dogs with heart failure from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bom-Sul; Moon, Hyeong-Sun; Seo, Sang-Hyuk; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-01-20

    Reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common complication in advanced stages of heart failure (HF). The convenient and precise assessment for GFR would be useful for early detection of renal impairment in HF dogs. Our hypothesis of this study was the GFR would be reduced in advanced stages of HF from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI), as indicated by renal markers including serum cystatin-C (Cys-C) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations. Forty-three client-owned dogs consisting of 33 dogs with different stages of HF from CMVI and 10 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations along with other renal (i.e., urea nitrogen and creatinine) and echocardiographic markers were evaluated in healthy and CMVI dogs. Serum Cys-C concentrations were 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/l in control, 2.1 ± 0.9 mg/l in ISACHC I, 2.9 ± 0.8 mg/l in ISACHC II and 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/l in ISACHC III dogs, whereas serum SDMA concentrations were 8 ± 2 µg/dl in control, 14 ± 3 µg/dl in ISACHC I, 18 ± 6 µg/dl in ISACHC II and 22 ± 7 µg/dl in ISACHC III dogs. There was close correlation of serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations to serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and the severity of HF. Our study demonstrated that the GFR was decreased in dogs with CMVI having earlier stages of HF.

  10. Evaluation of serum cystatin-C and symmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in dogs with heart failure from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Bom-Sul; MOON, Hyeong-Sun; SEO, Sang-Hyuk; HYUN, Changbaig

    2016-01-01

    Reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common complication in advanced stages of heart failure (HF). The convenient and precise assessment for GFR would be useful for early detection of renal impairment in HF dogs. Our hypothesis of this study was the GFR would be reduced in advanced stages of HF from chronic mitral valvular insufficiency (CMVI), as indicated by renal markers including serum cystatin-C (Cys-C) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) concentrations. Forty-three client-owned dogs consisting of 33 dogs with different stages of HF from CMVI and 10 age-matched healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations along with other renal (i.e., urea nitrogen and creatinine) and echocardiographic markers were evaluated in healthy and CMVI dogs. Serum Cys-C concentrations were 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/l in control, 2.1 ± 0.9 mg/l in ISACHC I, 2.9 ± 0.8 mg/l in ISACHC II and 3.6 ± 0.6 mg/l in ISACHC III dogs, whereas serum SDMA concentrations were 8 ± 2 µg/dl in control, 14 ± 3 µg/dl in ISACHC I, 18 ± 6 µg/dl in ISACHC II and 22 ± 7 µg/dl in ISACHC III dogs. There was close correlation of serum Cys-C and SDMA concentrations to serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and the severity of HF. Our study demonstrated that the GFR was decreased in dogs with CMVI having earlier stages of HF. PMID:27725349

  11. [Valvular surgery for an exercise-induced functional mitral regurgitation in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: a case study].

    PubMed

    Attari, M; Legrand, M; Philippe, C; Rosak, P

    2013-08-01

    We here report the case of a 67-year-old woman with moderate mitral regurgitation without significant structural abnormalities that get worse during severe recurrent heart failures and preserved ejection fraction with concomitant paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation became permanent and despite a well-controlled cardiac frequency, new heart failure episodes occurred. Exercise doppler echocardiography showed that the mechanism of this mitral regurgitation was a two leaflet mitral tenting. We discuss here the different mechanisms that could induce these kinds of mitral regurgitation with excessive tenting. We emphasize the interest of early detection by exercise doppler echocardiography even when a triggering factor like atrial fibrillation seems to be involved. We also discuss the interest of mitral valve replacement for these patients.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked cardiac valvular dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition congenital valvular heart disease CVD1 filamin-A-associated myxomatous mitral valve disease ... Valves (image) Encyclopedia: Mitral Valve Prolapse Health Topic: Heart Valve Diseases Health Topic: Mitral Valve Prolapse Genetic and Rare ...

  13. Mitral valve surgery - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saunders; 2012:chap 61. Otto CM, Bonow RO. Valvular heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Heart Valve Diseases Mitral Valve Prolapse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  14. Epidemiology of acquired valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Iung, Bernard; Vahanian, Alec

    2014-09-01

    Population-based studies including systematic echocardiographic examinations are required to assess the prevalence of valvular heart disease. In industrialized countries, the prevalence of valvular heart disease is estimated at 2.5%. Because of the predominance of degenerative etiologies, the prevalence of valvular disease increases markedly after the age of 65 years, in particular with regard to aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation, which accounts for 3 in 4 cases of valvular disease. Rheumatic heart disease still represents 22% of valvular heart disease in Europe. The prevalence of secondary mitral regurgitation cannot be assessed reliably but it seems to be a frequent disease. The incidence of infective endocarditis is approximately 30 cases per million individiuals per year. Its stability is associated with marked changes in its presentation. Patients are getting older and staphylococcus is now becoming the microorganism most frequently responsible. Heath care-associated infections are the most likely explanation of changes in the microbiology of infective endocarditis. In developing countries, rheumatic heart disease remains the leading cause of valvular heart disease. Its prevalence is high, between 20 and 30 cases per 1000 subjects when using systematic echocardiographic screening. In conclusion, the temporal and geographical heterogeneity illustrates the effect of socioeconomic status and changes in life expectancy on the frequency and presentation of valvular heart disease. A decreased burden of valvular disease would require the elaboration of preventive strategies in industrialized countries and an improvement in the socioeconomic environment in developing countries.

  15. [Indications for surgery for valvular heart disease].

    PubMed

    Halbach, Marcel; Wahlers, Thorsten; Baldus, Stephan; Rudolph, Volker

    2015-11-01

    Due to the demographic change, chronic valvular heart disease becomes increasingly important - especially age-related primary diseases of the aortic and mitral valve as well as secondary diseases of the mitral and tricuspid valve caused by other age-related cardiac disorders. Medical treatment is limited to symptom relief by use of diuretics. Specific drugs or drugs with a prognostic benefit are not available. Thus, valve repair or replacement are the key options for treatment of relevant valvular heart disease. While open heart surgery was the only approach for a long time, interventional, catheter-based therapies have evolved in the last decade. This article describes up-to-date recommendations on indications for surgery for the most prevalent valvular heart diseases in adults - aortic stenosis, and aortic, mitral and tricuspid regurgitation).

  16. Valve replacement for appetite suppressant-induced valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S S; Donovan, C L; Forbess, J M; Royal, S H; Landolfo, K P

    1999-06-01

    Valvular heart disease associated with the use of appetite-suppressant medication is a recently described clinical entity. Although the mechanism of valvular injury remains elusive pathologically, the valvular abnormalities resemble those observed in carcinoid syndrome. The incidence of clinically evident valvular heart disease is low with short-term (less than 3 months) exposure to appetite-suppressant drugs. Prolonged exposure to higher doses in addition to combination drug therapy confers an excess risk for valvular pathologic changes. We report the case of a patient with severe mitral regurgitation who had short-term exposure (3 weeks) to the combination of fenfluramine (20 mg) and phenteramine (15 mg).

  17. Radiation-associated valvular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.G.; Mayfield, W.R.; Normann, S.; Alexander, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The prevalence of radiation-associated cardiac disease is increasing due to prolonged survival following mediastinal irradiation. Side effects of radiation include pericarditis, accelerated coronary artery disease, myocardial fibrosis and valvular injury. We evaluated the cases of three young patients with evidence of significant valvular disease following mediastinal irradiation. One patient underwent the first reported successful aortic and mitral valve replacement for radiation-associated valvular disease (RAVD) as well as concurrent coronary artery revascularization. A review of the literature revealed 35 reported cases of RAVD, with only one successful case of valve replacement that was limited to the aortic valve. Asymptomatic RAVD is diagnosed 11.5 years after mediastinal irradiation compared with 16.5 years for symptomatic patients, emphasizing that long-term follow-up is important for patients receiving mediastinal irradiation. This study defines a continuum of valvular disease following radiation that begins with mild asymptomatic valvular thickening and progresses to severe valvular fibrosis with hemodynamic compromise requiring surgical intervention. 32 refs.

  18. Valvular heart disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Windram, Jonathan D; Colman, Jack M; Wald, Rachel M; Udell, Jacob A; Siu, Samuel C; Silversides, Candice K

    2014-05-01

    In women with valvular heart disease, pregnancy-associated cardiovascular changes can contribute to maternal, foetal and neonatal complications. Ideally, a woman with valvular heart disease should receive preconception assessment and counselling from a cardiologist with expertise in pregnancy. For women with moderate- and high-risk valve lesions, appropriate risk stratification and management during pregnancy will optimise outcomes. Pregnancy in women with high-risk lesions, such as severe aortic stenosis, severe mitral stenosis and those with mechanical valves, requires careful planning and coordination of antenatal care by a multidisciplinary team. The purpose of this overview is to describe the expected haemodynamic changes in pregnancy, review pregnancy risks for women with valvular heart disease and discuss strategies for management.

  19. Clinical characteristics and outcomes with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation but underlying native mitral and aortic valve disease participating in the ROCKET AF trial

    PubMed Central

    Breithardt, Günter; Baumgartner, Helmut; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Patel, Manesh R.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We investigated clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with significant valvular disease (SVD) in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial. Methods and results ROCKET AF excluded patients with mitral stenosis or artificial valve prostheses. We used Cox regression to adjust comparisons for potential confounders. Among 14 171 patients, 2003 (14.1%) had SVD; they were older and had more comorbidities than patients without SVD. The rate of stroke or systemic embolism with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin was consistent among patients with SVD [2.01 vs. 2.43%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55–1.27] and without SVD (1.96 vs. 2.22%; HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75–1.07; interaction P = 0.76). However, rates of major and non-major clinically relevant bleeding with rivaroxaban vs. warfarin were higher in patients with SVD (19.8% rivaroxaban vs. 16.8% warfarin; HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.05–1.49) vs. those without (14.2% rivaroxaban vs. 14.1% warfarin; HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94–1.10; interaction P = 0.034), even when controlling for risk factors and potential confounders. In intracranial haemorrhage, there was no interaction between patients with and without SVD where the overall rate was lower among those randomized to rivaroxaban. Conclusions Many patients with ‘non-valvular atrial fibrillation’ have significant valve lesions. Their risk of stroke is similar to that of patients without SVD after controlling for stroke risk factors. Efficacy of rivaroxaban vs. warfarin was similar in patients with and without SVD; however, the observed risk of bleeding was higher with rivaroxaban in patients with SVD but was the same among those without SVD. Atrial fibrillation patients with and without SVD experience the same stroke-preventive benefit of oral anticoagulants. PMID:25148838

  20. Valvular and aortic diseases in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Lamanna, Arvin; Fayers, Trevor; Clarke, Sophie; Parsonage, William

    2013-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inheritable connective tissue disorder caused by defective collagen synthesis with the principal manifestations of bone fragility. OI has been associated with left sided valvular regurgitation and aortic dilation. Valve and aortic surgery are technically feasible in patients with OI but are inherently high risk due to the underlying connective tissue defect. This report reviews the valvular and aortic pathology associated with OI and their management. We describe two cases of patients with OI who have significant aortic and mitral valve regurgitation, one of whom has been managed conservatively and the other who has undergone successful mitral valve repair and aortic valve replacement. The latter case represents the fifth case of mitral valve repair in a patient with OI reported in the medical literature.

  1. Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saunders; 2012:chap 61. Otto CM, Bonow RO. Valvular heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heart Surgery Heart Valve Diseases Mitral Valve Prolapse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  2. Role of Imaging Techniques in Percutaneous Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Hion; Arzamendi, Dabit; Carreras, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in the United States and the second most prevalent in Europe. Patients with severe mitral regurgitation have a poor prognosis with medical therapy once they become symptomatic or develop signs of significant cardiac dysfunction. However, as many as half of these patients are inoperable because of advanced age, ventricular dysfunction, or other comorbidities. Studies have shown that surgery increases survival in patients with organic mitral regurgitation due to valve prolapse but has no clinical benefit in those with functional mitral regurgitation. In this scenario, percutaneous repair for mitral regurgitation in native valves provides alternative management of valvular heart disease in patients at high surgical risk. Percutaneous repair for mitral regurgitation is a growing field that relies heavily on imaging techniques to diagnose functional anatomy and guide repair procedures.

  3. The role of cardiac magnetic resonance in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Mattei, Juan C; Shah, Dipan J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of valvular heart disease is increasing as the population ages. In diagnosing individuals with valve disease, echocardiography is the primary imaging modality used by clinicians both for initial assessment and for longitudinal evaluation. However, in some cases cardiovascular magnetic resonance has become a viable alternative in that it can obtain imaging data in any plane prescribed by the scan operator, which makes it ideal for accurate investigation of all cardiac valves: aortic, mitral, pulmonic, and tricuspid. In addition, CMR for valve assessment is noninvasive, free of ionizing radiation, and in most instances does not require contrast administration. The objectives of a comprehensive CMR study for evaluating valvular heart disease are threefold: (1) to provide insight into the mechanism of the valvular lesion (via anatomic assessment), (2) to quantify the severity of the valvular lesion, and (3) to discern the consequences of the valvular lesion.

  4. Ischemic mitral valve prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Cristiano, Spadaccio; Nenna, Antonio; Chello, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic mitral prolapse (IMP) is a pathologic entity encountered in about one-third among the patients undergoing surgery for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). IMP is generally the result of a papillary muscle injury consequent to myocardial, but the recent literature is progressively unveiling a more complex pathogenesis. The mechanisms underlying its development regards the impairment of one or more components of the mitral apparatus, which comprises the annulus, the chordae tendineae, the papillary muscle and the left ventricular wall. IMP is not only a disorder of valvular function, but also entails coexistent aspects of a geometric disturbance of the mitral valve configuration and of the left ventricular function and dimension and a correct understanding of all these aspects is crucial to guide and tailor the correct therapeutic strategy to be adopted. Localization of prolapse, anatomic features of the prolapsed leaflets and the subvalvular apparatus should be carefully evaluated as also constituting the major determinants defining patient’s outcomes. This review will summarize our current understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical evidence on IMP with a particular focus on the surgical treatment. PMID:28149574

  5. [Offer early attention and intervention to patients with valvular heart disease].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shengli; Ren, Chonglei

    2015-02-01

    As a key feature of the updates, early intervention of valvular heart disease is highlighted in the 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. This article reviewed the new guideline in regards to the issue of early intervention of diseases such as aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency, mitral stenosis, mitral insufficiency, tricuspid insufficiency, and infective endocarditis, with discussion on the related topics according to the authors' understanding and practical experience in China. We conclude that valvular heart disease should receive early intervention and attention should also be paid on the progress of disease.

  6. Transcatheter mitral valve repair therapies for primary and secondary mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Al Amri, Ibtihal; van der Kley, Frank; Schalij, Martin J; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Delgado, Victoria

    2015-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation is one of the most prevalent valvular heart diseases and its prevalence is related to population aging. Elderly patients with age-associated co-morbidities have an increased risk for conventional mitral valve surgery. Transcatheter mitral valve repair has emerged as a feasible and safe alternative in patients with contraindications for surgery or high operative risk. Several transcatheter mitral repair technologies have been developed during the last decade. While the development of some devices was abandoned due to suboptimal results, others demonstrated to be safe and effective and have been included in current practice guidelines. Not all technologies are suitable for all mitral anatomies and regurgitation mechanisms. Therefore, accurate evaluation of mitral valve anatomy and function are pivotal to the success of these therapies. Cardiac imaging plays a central role in selecting patients, guiding the procedure and evaluating the durability of the repair at follow-up.

  7. Role of modern 3D echocardiography in valvular heart disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography has been conceived as one of the most promising methods for the diagnosis of valvular heart disease, and recently has become an integral clinical tool thanks to the development of high quality real-time transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). In particular, for mitral valve diseases, this new approach has proven to be the most unique, powerful, and convincing method for understanding the complicated anatomy of the mitral valve and its dynamism. The method has been useful for surgical management, including robotic mitral valve repair. Moreover, this method has become indispensable for nonsurgical mitral procedures such as edge to edge mitral repair and transcatheter closure of paravaluvular leaks. In addition, color Doppler 3D echo has been valuable to identify the location of the regurgitant orifice and the severity of the mitral regurgitation. For aortic and tricuspid valve diseases, this method may not be quite as valuable as for the mitral valve. However, the necessity of 3D echo is recognized for certain situations even for these valves, such as for evaluating the aortic annulus for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. It is now clear that this method, especially with the continued development of real-time 3D TEE technology, will enhance the diagnosis and management of patients with these valvular heart diseases. PMID:25378966

  8. Computational fluid dynamics modelling of left valvular heart diseases during atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca; Anselmino, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although atrial fibrillation (AF), a common arrhythmia, frequently presents in patients with underlying valvular disease, its hemodynamic contributions are not fully understood. The present work aimed to computationally study how physical conditions imposed by pathologic valvular anatomy act on AF hemodynamics. Methods: We simulated AF with different severity grades of left-sided valvular diseases and compared the cardiovascular effects that they exert during AF, compared to lone AF. The fluid dynamics model used here has been recently validated for lone AF and relies on a lumped parameterization of the four heart chambers, together with the systemic and pulmonary circulation. The AF modelling involves: (i) irregular, uncorrelated and faster heart rate; (ii) atrial contractility dysfunction. Three different grades of severity (mild, moderate, severe) were analyzed for each of the four valvulopathies (AS, aortic stenosis, MS, mitral stenosis, AR, aortic regurgitation, MR, mitral regurgitation), by varying–through the valve opening angle–the valve area. Results: Regurgitation was hemodynamically more relevant than stenosis, as the latter led to inefficient cardiac flow, while the former introduced more drastic fluid dynamics variation. Moreover, mitral valvulopathies were more significant than aortic ones. In case of aortic valve diseases, proper mitral functioning damps out changes at atrial and pulmonary levels. In the case of mitral valvulopathy, the mitral valve lost its regulating capability, thus hemodynamic variations almost equally affected regions upstream and downstream of the valve. In particular, the present study revealed that both mitral and aortic regurgitation strongly affect hemodynamics, followed by mitral stenosis, while aortic stenosis has the least impact among the analyzed valvular diseases. Discussion: The proposed approach can provide new mechanistic insights as to which valvular pathologies merit more aggressive treatment of

  9. [Valvular heart disease in women].

    PubMed

    Tornos, Pilar

    2006-08-01

    Very few studies of valvular heart disease have been specifically carried out in women. It is well known that the prevalence of some types of valve disease is influenced by sex: rheumatic mitral stenosis is very common in women but degenerative valve disease affects both sexes similarly. A number of sex differences in the physiopathology of degenerative aortic stenosis have been reported: the degree of calcification is less in women than men and women's ventricles respond to equivalent reductions in valve area with a greater increase in gradient and greater contractility. With regard to prognosis, it is generally accepted that mortality associated with heart surgery is higher in women than men, for both coronary artery and valve surgery. The underlying reasons for the increase in mortality are not clear. Pregnancy presents particular difficulties for women with valvular heart disease. In those with significant valve lesions, it is advisable to correct the valve disease before pregnancy is considered. Anticoagulant treatment involves serious problems for pregnant women with a mechanical prosthesis. They suffer increased risks of prosthetic valve thrombosis and of fetal embryopathy if they take oral anticoagulants during the first trimester.

  10. Impact of valvular heart disease on oral anticoagulant therapy in non-valvular atrial fibrillation: results from the RAMSES study.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Özcan; Dogan, Volkan; Beton, Osman; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Aykan, Ahmet Çağrı; Kalaycıoğlu, Ezgi; Bolat, Ismail; Taşar, Onur; Şafak, Özgen; Kalçık, Macit; Yaman, Mehmet; İnci, Sinan; Altıntaş, Bernas; Kalkan, Sedat; Kırma, Cevat; Biteker, Murat

    2017-02-01

    The definition of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is controversial. We aimed to assess the impact of valvular heart disease on stroke prevention strategies in NVAF patients. The RAMSES study was a multicenter and cross-sectional study conducted on NVAF patients (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02344901). The study population was divided into patients with significant valvular disease (SVD) and non-significant valvular disease (NSVD), whether they had at least one moderate valvular disease or not. Patients with a mechanical prosthetic valve and mitral stenosis were excluded. Baseline characteristics and oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapies were compared. In 5987 patients with NVAF, there were 3929 (66%) NSVD and 2058 (34%) SVD patients. The predominant valvular disease was mitral regurgitation (58.1%), followed by aortic regurgitation (24.1%) and aortic stenosis (17.8%). Patients with SVD had higher CHA2DS2VASc [3.0 (2.0; 4.0) vs. 4.0 (2.0; 5.0), p < 0.001] and HAS-BLED [2.0 (1.0; 2.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0; 2.0), p = 0.004] scores compared to patients with NSVD. Overall, 2763 (71.2%) of NSVD and 1515 (73.8%) of SVD patients were on OAC therapy (p = 0.035). When the patients with SVD were analyzed separately, the mean CHA2DS2VASc and HAS-BLED scores were higher in patients with mitral regurgitation compared to patients with aortic regurgitation and aortic stenosis [4.0 (3.0; 5.0), 3.0 (2.0; 4.0), 3.0 (2.0; 4.0) p < 0.001 and 2.0 (1.0; 3.0), 1.0 (1.0; 2.0), 1.0 (0.0; 2.0) p < 0.001, respectively]. In patients with SVD, 65.7% of mitral regurgitation, 82.6% of aortic regurgitation and 88.0% of aortic stenosis patients were on OAC therapy. One out of three NVAF patients had at least one moderate valvular heart disease with the predominance of mitral regurgitation. Patients with SVD were at greater risk of stroke and bleeding compared to patients with NSVD. Although patients with mitral regurgitation should be given more aggressive anticoagulant therapy

  11. Three-dimensional Echocardiography in Valvular Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Kurklinsky, Andrew; Mankad, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Recent technologic advances in 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, using parallel processing to scan a pyramidal volume, have allowed for a superior ability to describe valvular anatomy using both transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Although still in evolution and at an early phase of adaptation with respect to its clinical application, 3D echocardiography has emerged as an important clinical tool in the assessment of valvular heart disease. Three-dimensional echocardiography provides unique perspectives of valvular structures by presenting "en face" views of valvular structures, allowing for a better understanding of the topographical aspects of pathology, and a refined definition of the spatial relationships of intracardiac structures. Three-dimensional echocardiography makes available indices not described by 2D echocardiography and has been demonstrated to be superior to 2D echocardiography in a variety of valvular disease scenarios. The information gained from 3D echocardiography has especially made an impact in guiding clinical decisions in the evaluation of mitral valve (MV) disease. The decision of early surgery in degenerative MV disease is based on the suitability of repair, and the suitability of repair is generally based on echocardiography. The superior understanding of MV anatomy afforded by 3D echocardiography has been shown to be quite valuable in this setting. This review will describe the contemporary use of 3D echocardiography in the assessment of valvular heart disease, including MV, aortic, tricuspid, and prosthetic valve abnormalities. This article illustrates how 3D echocardiography can complement current echocardiography techniques in the management of valvular heart disease.

  12. Mitral valve disease--morphology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Levine, Robert A; Hagége, Albert A; Judge, Daniel P; Padala, Muralidhar; Dal-Bianco, Jacob P; Aikawa, Elena; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Bischoff, Joyce; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bruneval, Patrick; Butcher, Jonathan T; Carpentier, Alain; Chaput, Miguel; Chester, Adrian H; Clusel, Catherine; Delling, Francesca N; Dietz, Harry C; Dina, Christian; Durst, Ronen; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Handschumacher, Mark D; Jensen, Morten O; Jeunemaitre, Xavier P; Le Marec, Hervé; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Markwald, Roger R; Mérot, Jean; Messas, Emmanuel; Milan, David P; Neri, Tui; Norris, Russell A; Peal, David; Perrocheau, Maelle; Probst, Vincent; Pucéat, Michael; Rosenthal, Nadia; Solis, Jorge; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Song, Jae-Kwan; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2015-12-01

    Mitral valve disease is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Emerging evidence indicates that the mitral valve is not a passive structure, but--even in adult life--remains dynamic and accessible for treatment. This concept motivates efforts to reduce the clinical progression of mitral valve disease through early detection and modification of underlying mechanisms. Discoveries of genetic mutations causing mitral valve elongation and prolapse have revealed that growth factor signalling and cell migration pathways are regulated by structural molecules in ways that can be modified to limit progression from developmental defects to valve degeneration with clinical complications. Mitral valve enlargement can determine left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and might be stimulated by potentially modifiable biological valvular-ventricular interactions. Mitral valve plasticity also allows adaptive growth in response to ventricular remodelling. However, adverse cellular and mechanobiological processes create relative leaflet deficiency in the ischaemic setting, leading to mitral regurgitation with increased heart failure and mortality. Our approach, which bridges clinicians and basic scientists, enables the correlation of observed disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to the discovery of new opportunities for improving the natural history of mitral valve disease.

  13. [Valvular heart disease: preoperative assessment and postoperative care].

    PubMed

    Nägele, Reto; Kaufmann, Beat A

    2013-10-30

    Patients with valvular heart disease or with a prosthetic heart valve replacement are seen with increasing frequency in clinical practice. The medical care and evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease before valve surgery, but also the post-operative treatment is complex and managed by general practitioners, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons. In this mini-review we will first discuss the preoperative assessment of the two most common valvulopathies, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. Then we will discuss the post-operative care, which includes the management of anticoagulation, serial follow up and as well as the diagnostic assessment of complications such as thromboembolism, hemolysis, endocarditis and valve dysfunction.

  14. Pathophysiology of valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y I; Sun, Rongrong; Li, Xianchi; Liu, Min; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Peiying

    2016-04-01

    Valvular heart disease (VHD) is caused by either damage or defect in one of the four heart valves, aortic, mitral, tricuspid or pulmonary. Defects in these valves can be congenital or acquired. Age, gender, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and type II diabetes contribute to the risk of disease. VHD is an escalating health issue with a prevalence of 2.5% in the United States alone. Considering the likely increase of the aging population worldwide, the incidence of acquired VHD is expected to increase. Technological advances are instrumental in identifying congenital heart defects in infants, thereby adding to the growing VHD population. Almost one-third of elderly individuals have echocardiographic or radiological evidence of calcific aortic valve (CAV) sclerosis, an early and subclinical form of CAV disease (CAVD). Of individuals ages >60, ~2% suffer from disease progression to its most severe form, calcific aortic stenosis. Surgical intervention is therefore required in these patients as no effective pharmacotherapies exist. Valvular calcium load and valve biomineralization are orchestrated by the concerted action of diverse cell-dependent mechanisms. Signaling pathways important in skeletal morphogenesis are also involved in the regulation of cardiac valve morphogenesis, CAVD and the pathobiology of cardiovascular calcification. CAVD usually occurs without any obvious symptoms in early stages over a long period of time and symptoms are identified at advanced stages of the disease, leading to a high rate of mortality. Aortic valve replacement is the only primary treatment of choice. Biomarkers such as asymmetric dimethylarginine, fetuin-A, calcium phosphate product, natriuretic peptides and osteopontin have been useful in improving outcomes among various disease states. This review, highlights the current understanding of the biology of VHD, with particular reference to molecular and cellular aspects of its regulation. Current clinical questions

  15. Standard transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography views of mitral pathology that every surgeon should know

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    The mitral valve is the most commonly diseased heart valve and the prevalence of mitral valve disease increases proportionally with age. Echocardiography is the primary diagnostic imaging modality used in the assessment of patients with mitral valve disease. It is a noninvasive method which provides accurate anatomic and functional information regarding the mitral valve and can identify the mechanism of mitral valve pathology. This is especially useful as it may guide surgical repair. This is increasingly relevant given the growing trend of patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Collaboration between cardiac surgeons and echocardiographers is critical in the evaluation of mitral valve disease and for identification of complex valvular lesions that require advanced surgical skill to repair. This article will provide an overview of transthoracic and transesophageal assessment of common mitral valve pathology that aims to aid surgical decision making. PMID:26539350

  16. Mitral stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... may then collect in the lung tissue (pulmonary edema), making it hard to breathe. In adults, mitral ... kidneys, or other areas Congestive heart failure Pulmonary edema Pulmonary hypertension When to Contact a Medical Professional ...

  17. Role of echocardiography for catheter-based management of valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Catheter-based treatment of valvular heart disease, such as transvalvular aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or mitral clip procedure, has been increasingly accepted as a treatment choice for the past several years. Such new treatment options have been changing the management of patients with valvular heart disease drastically while socio-economic factors regarding their application need to be taken into consideration. The use of echocardiography, including transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), for such catheter-based treatments is essential for the success of the procedures. Severe hypotension after TAVR is a life-threatening emergency. Rapid assessment and diagnosis in the catheterization or hybrid laboratory is essential for safety and a positive outcome. Possible diagnoses in this critical situation would include severe left ventricular dysfunction due to coronary obstruction, cardiac tamponade, aortic rupture, acute severe aortic and/or mitral valve regurgitation, and hypovolemia due to bleeding. Although new types of TAVR valves reduce para-valvular aortic regurgitation (AR) significantly, it is still important to judge the severity of para-valvular AR correctly in the laboratory. As for mitral clip procedure, TEE is vital for guiding and monitoring the entire process. Accurate identification of the location and the geometry of the regurgitant orifice is necessary for proper placement of the clip. Real-time 3D TEE provides helpful en face view of the mitral valve and clip together to this end. Residual mitral regurgitation (MR) after the first clip is not uncommon. Quick and precise imaging of the residual MR (location and severity) with TEE is extremely important for the interventionist to place the second clip and possibly third clip properly. After the completion of the clip procedure, mitral valve stenosis and also iatrogenic atrial septal defect need to be checked by TEE. Echocardiography, especially TEE, is also vital for the success of other newer trans

  18. Percutaneous Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Patient-specific Three-dimensional Computer-based Heart Model and Prototyping.

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo, Beatriz; Theriault-Lauzier, Pascal; Piazza, Nicolo

    2015-12-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease worldwide. Despite the widespread availability of curative surgical intervention, a considerable proportion of patients with severe mitral regurgitation are not referred for treatment, largely due to the presence of left ventricular dysfunction, advanced age, and comorbid illnesses. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement is a promising therapeutic alternative to traditional surgical valve replacement. The complex anatomical and pathophysiological nature of the mitral valvular complex, however, presents significant challenges to the successful design and implementation of novel transcatheter mitral replacement devices. Patient-specific 3-dimensional computer-based models enable accurate assessment of the mitral valve anatomy and preprocedural simulations for transcatheter therapies. Such information may help refine the design features of novel transcatheter mitral devices and enhance procedural planning. Herein, we describe a novel medical image-based processing tool that facilitates accurate, noninvasive assessment of the mitral valvular complex, by creating precise three-dimensional heart models. The 3-dimensional computer reconstructions are then converted to a physical model using 3-dimensional printing technology, thereby enabling patient-specific assessment of the interaction between device and patient. It may provide new opportunities for a better understanding of the mitral anatomy-pathophysiology-device interaction, which is of critical importance for the advancement of transcatheter mitral valve replacement.

  19. [Interventional mitral valve replacement. Current status].

    PubMed

    Lutter, G; Frank, D

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 30 % of patients suffering from severe valvular heart disease, such as mitral valve regurgitation are non-compliant to the gold standard of minimally invasive surgery, reconstruction or valve replacement. The number of these mostly old patients with severe comorbidities is increasing; therefore, transcatheter interventions have been developed to address an unmet clinical need and may be an alternative therapeutic option to the reference standard. Apart from the successful MitraClip therapy, alternative transcatheter reconstruction technologies are being developed. As with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures, the off-pump implantation of a valved stent into the mitral position mainly via a transapical approach will be of great benefit. Recently, the feasibility of transcatheter mitral valved stent implantation in high-risk patients has already been reported.

  20. Coconut Atrium in Long-Standing Rheumatic Valvular Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Takahisa; Idei, Yuka; Otsui, Kazunori; Iwata, Sachiyo; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ozawa, Toru; Domoto, Koji; Takei, Asumi; Inamoto, Shinya; Inoue, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 76 Final Diagnosis: Rheumatic valvular heart disease Symptoms: Breathlessness and leg edema Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Medical treatment for heart failure Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Complete calcification of the left atrium (LA) is called “coconut atrium”, which decreases the compliance of LA, leading to the elevation of LA pressure that is transmitted to the right-side of the heart. The pathogenesis of LA calcification in patients with rheumatic heart disease is unknown; however, possible mechanisms include chronic strain force in the atrial wall and inflammation. We report here a patient with long-standing rheumatic valvular heart disease with coconut atrium. Case Report: A 76-year-old man presented with breathlessness and leg edema due to right-sided heart failure. He was diagnosed with rheumatic fever at 8 years of age. Mitral commissurotomy and the mitral and aortic valve replacement were previously performed to treat mitral and aortic valvular stenosis. The profile view of the chest X-ray indicated a diffuse calcified outline of the LA wall. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed pulmonary hyper-tension and dilatation of both atria. Moreover, computed tomography showed nearly circumferential calcification of the LA wall. Despite intense medical treatment, he succumbed to heart failure. An autopsy demonstrated that the LA was markedly dilated, its wall was calcified, and its appearance was similar to the surface of an atherosclerotic aorta. Microscopic examination revealed intensive calcification in the endocardium. Minimal accumulation of inflammatory cells was noted. Although slight fibrosis was observed, the cardiac musculature was preserved. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies the histological changes of LA calcification associated with long-standing rheumatic valvular heart disease. PMID:25819539

  1. Myxomatous Mitral Valve with Prolapse and Flail Scallop

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jerry; Timbrook, Alexa; Said, Sarmad; Babar, Kamran; Teleb, Mohamed; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Abbas, Aamer

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Myxomatous mitral valve with prolapse are classically seen with abnormal leaflet apposition during contraction of the heart. Hemodynamic disorders can result from eccentric mitral regurgitation usually caused by chordae tendinae rupture or papillary muscle dysfunction. Echocardiography is the gold standard for evaluation of leaflet flail and prolapse due to high sensitivity and specificity. Though most mitral valve prolapse are asymptomatic those that cause severe regurgitation need emergent surgical intervention to prevent disease progression. Case Report We report a 54 year old Hispanic male who presented with progressively worsening dyspnea and palpitations. Initial evaluation was significant for atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram with subsequent echocardiography revealing myxomatous mitral valve with prolapse. Following surgical repair of the mitral valve, the dyspnea and palpitations resolved. Conclusions Mitral valve prolapse is a common valvular abnormality but the pathogenic cause of myxomatous valves has not been elucidated. Several theories describe multiple superfamilies of proteins to be involved in the process. Proper identification of these severe mitral regurgitation due to these disease valves will help relieve symptomatic mitral valve prolapse patients. PMID:27279924

  2. Exercise testing and stress imaging in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Henri, Christine; Piérard, Luc A; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe; Basmadjian, Arsène J

    2014-09-01

    The role of exercise testing and stress imaging in the management of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) is reviewed in this article. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology/European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery have recently put emphasis on the role of exercise testing to clarify symptom status and the use of stress imaging to assess the dynamic component of valvular abnormalities and unmask subclinical myocardial dysfunction that could be missed at rest. Recent studies have demonstrated the incremental prognostic value of exercise echocardiography for asymptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, moderate-severe mitral stenosis, and severe primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis, dobutamine stress echocardiography is recommended to differentiate true severe from pseudosevere aortic stenosis. Data on the prognostic value of stress echocardiography in aortic regurgitation and functional mitral regurgitation are less robust. Data are sparse on the use of stress imaging in right-sided VHD, however recent studies using stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging offer some prognostic information. Although the strongest recommendations for surgical treatment continue to be based on symptom status and resting left ventricular repercussions, stress imaging can be useful to optimize risk stratification and timing of surgery in VHD. Randomized clinical trials are required to confirm that clinical decision-making based on stress imaging can lead to improved outcomes.

  3. A pathoanatomic approach to the management of mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, Vinay; Smith, Anson J C; Cavalcante, João L

    2016-02-01

    Mitral regurgitation remains the most common global valvular heart disease. From otherwise unsuspecting healthy patients without overt symptoms to those with recalcitrant heart failure, mitral valve (MV) disease touches millions of patients per year. While MV prolapse without regurgitation remains benign, once regurgitation begins, quantification of severity is related to prognosis. Understanding the mechanism of regurgitation guides appropriate treatment. Current management guidelines emphasize early therapy after careful assessment of both anatomy and severity of mitral regurgitation. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the treatment of MV disease and to offer additional granularity on pathoanatomic decision making that may aid a more precise application of optimal guideline-directed therapy of primary and secondary mitral regurgitation.

  4. MitraClip catheter-based mitral valve repair system.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Anders; Settergren, Magnus

    2010-07-01

    The ongoing evolution of transcatheter valve technology is impressive. Mitral valve regurgitation is the most common type of heart valve insufficiency and mitral valve surgery is, next to aortic valve surgery, the second leading valvular surgical procedure in the western world. However, there is a large patient population suffering from mitral valve regurgitation that is currently not treated with heart surgery because of significant morbidity and mortality risks. This large underserved patient population could benefit from a less invasive treatment. The MitraClip system (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA, USA) is the first commercially available medical technology providing a catheter-based nonsurgical repair alternative for patients suffering from mitral valve regurgitation and has the greatest clinical experience compared with other alternative devices. The device is currently in late-stage clinical trials in the USA and has received the CE mark.

  5. Severe mitral regurgitation unmasked after bilateral lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Udoji, Timothy N; Force, Seth D; Pelaez, Andres

    2013-09-01

    Abstract A 33-year-old female patient with advanced idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension underwent bilateral lung transplantation. The postsurgical course was complicated by prolonged mechanical ventilation and acute hypoxemia with recurrent episodes of pulmonary edema. An echocardiogram revealed improved right-sided pressures along with a dilated left atrium, a structurally normal mitral valve, and a new posterior-oriented severe mitral regurgitation. The patient's condition improved after treatment with arterial vasodilators and diuretics, and she has remained in World Health Organization functional class I after almost 36 months of follow-up. We hypothesize that cardiac ventricle remodeling and a geometric change in mitral valve apparatus after transplantation led to the hemodynamic changes and recurrent pulmonary edema seen in our patient. Our case is, to our knowledge, the second report of severe valvular regurgitation in a structurally normal mitral valve apparatus in the postoperative period and the first of a patient to be treated without valve replacement.

  6. RVOT mural and mitral valve endocarditis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Maadh; Cardozo, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Mural endocarditis is a very rare condition. This entity involves bacterial growth on cardiac walls. In addition, concomitant valvular endocarditis, along with mural endocarditis, is an extremely rare combination. The diagnosis of mural endocarditis is difficult and requires more advanced cardiac imaging, such as a transesophageal echocardiogram. The differential diagnoses of mural masses include vegetations, thrombi, metastasis, and benign and malignant tumors. We present a rare and unusual case of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with findings of both right ventricular outflow tract mural endocarditis and valvular endocarditis involving the mitral valve.

  7. RVOT mural and mitral valve endocarditis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Maadh; Cardozo, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Mural endocarditis is a very rare condition. This entity involves bacterial growth on cardiac walls. In addition, concomitant valvular endocarditis, along with mural endocarditis, is an extremely rare combination. The diagnosis of mural endocarditis is difficult and requires more advanced cardiac imaging, such as a transesophageal echocardiogram. The differential diagnoses of mural masses include vegetations, thrombi, metastasis, and benign and malignant tumors. We present a rare and unusual case of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with findings of both right ventricular outflow tract mural endocarditis and valvular endocarditis involving the mitral valve. PMID:26702695

  8. Minimally invasive surgical treatment of valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Andrew B; Joseph Woo, Y

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac surgery is in the midst of a practice revolution. Traditionally, surgery for valvular heart disease consisted of valve replacement via conventional sternotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass. However, over the past 20 years, the increasing popularity of less-invasive procedures, accompanied by advancements in imaging, surgical instrumentation, and robotic technology, has motivated and enabled surgeons to develop and perform complex cardiac surgical procedures through small incisions, often eliminating the need for sternotomy or cardiopulmonary bypass. In addition to the benefits of improved cosmesis, minimally invasive mitral valve surgery was pioneered with the intent of reducing morbidity, postoperative pain, blood loss, hospital length of stay, and time to return to normal activity. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art of minimally invasive approaches to the surgical treatment of valvular heart disease.

  9. En bloc aortic and mitral valve replacement and left ventricular outflow tract enlargement using a combined transaortic and trans-septal atrial approach.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammed; Windsor, Jimmy; Ricci, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Aortic and mitral valve replacement with division and reconstruction of the inter-valvular fibrous body has been described in clinical situations involving infective endocarditis, extensive annular calcifications and diminutive valve annuli. Herein, we describe a combined transaortic and trans-septal approach with division of the inter-valvular fibrosa for combined aortic and mitral valve replacement. The reconstruction of the inter-valvular fibrous body, atrial walls and aortic root was carried out using a 'three-patch' technique with bovine pericardium.

  10. Transventricular mitral valve operations.

    PubMed

    Joseph Woo, Y; McCormick, Ryan C

    2011-10-01

    We report transventricular mitral valve operations in 2 patients with severe mitral regurgitation and postinfarction left ventricular rupture and pseudoaneurysm. The first patient had direct papillary muscle involvement necessitating replacement of the mitral valve. The second patient had indirect mitral involvement allowing for placement of an atrial mitral annuloplasty ring via the left ventricle. Both patients showed no mitral valve regurgitation after replacement or repair and had uneventful postoperative recoveries. These cases demonstrate a feasible, alternative, transventricular approach to mitral valve replacement and repair.

  11. Fatal postoperative systemic pulmonary hypertension in benfluorex-induced valvular heart disease surgery

    PubMed Central

    Baufreton, Christophe; Bruneval, Patrick; Rousselet, Marie-Christine; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Fouquet, Olivier; Giraud, Raphael; Banfi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Drug-induced valvular heart disease (DI-VHD) remains an under-recognized entity. Patient concerns: This report describes a heart valve replacement which was complicated by intractable systemic pulmonary arterial hypertension in a 61-year-old female with severe restrictive mitral and aortic disease. The diagnosis of valvular disease was preceded by a history of unexplained respiratory distress. The patient had been exposed to benfluorex for 6.5 years. Diagnoses: The diagnostic procedure documented specific drug-induced valvular fibrosis. Interventions: Surgical mitral and aortic valve replacement was performed. Outcomes: Heart valve replacement was postoperatively complicated by unanticipated disproportionate pulmonary hypertension. This issue was fatal despite intensive care including prolonged extracorporeal life support. Lessons: Benfluorex is a fenfluramine derivative which has been marketed between 1976 and 2009. Although norfenfluramine is the common active and toxic metabolite of all fenfluramine derivatives, the valvular and pulmonary arterial toxicity of benfluorex was much less known than that of fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine. The vast majority of benfluorex-induced valvular heart disease remains misdiagnosed as hypothetical rheumatic fever due to similarities between both etiologies. Better recognition of DI-VHD is likely to improve patient outcome. PMID:28079786

  12. A quantitative approach to the intraoperative echocardiographic assessment of the mitral valve for repair.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Feroze; Matyal, Robina

    2015-07-01

    Intraoperative echocardiography of the mitral valve has evolved from a qualitative assessment of flow-dependent variables to quantitative geometric analyses before and after repair. In addition, 3-dimensional echocardiographic data now allow for a precise assessment of mitral valve apparatus. Complex structures, such as the mitral annulus, can be interrogated comprehensively without geometric assumptions. Quantitative analyses of mitral valve apparatus are particularly valuable for identifying indices of left ventricular and mitral remodeling to establish the chronicity and severity of mitral regurgitation. This can help identify patients who may be unsuitable candidates for repair as the result of irreversible remodeling of the mitral valve apparatus. Principles of geometric analyses also have been extended to the assessment of repaired mitral valves. Changes in mitral annular shape and size determine the stress exerted on the mitral leaflets and, therefore, the durability of repair. Given this context, echocardiographers may be expected to diagnose and quantify valvular dysfunction, assess suitability for repair, assist in annuloplasty ring sizing, and determine the success and failure of the repair procedure. As a result, anesthesiologists have progressed from being mere service providers to participants in the decision-making process. It is therefore prudent for them to acquaint themselves with the principles of intraoperative quantitative mitral valve analysis to assist in rational and objective decision making.

  13. Mitral valve repair for traumatic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Taro; Kogure, Shuhei; Muro, Takashi; Okada, Yukikatsu

    2016-06-01

    Mitral valve injury after blunt chest trauma is a rare clinical condition. We describe a case of mitral valve repair for severe mitral regurgitation due to blunt chest trauma 5 years previously. A 22-year-old man was referred to our hospital for surgical correction of severe mitral regurgitation. Echocardiography demonstrated a partial tear of the anterolateral papillary muscle which lacerated to the apex. The entire anterolateral part of the mitral valve including the anterior commissure and posterior leaflets had prolapsed. Reimplantation of the papillary muscle to the posterior left ventricular wall and ring annuloplasty were successfully performed without residual regurgitation.

  14. Study of Effectiveness and Safety of Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvulotomy for Treatment of Pregnant Patients with Severe Mitral Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hasit Sureshbhai; Deshmukh, Jagjeet Kishanrao; Prajapati, Jayesh Somabhai; Sahoo, Sibasis Shahsikant; Vyas, Pooja Maheshbhai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In pregnant women mitral stenosis is the commonest cardiac valvular lesion. When it is present in majorly severe condition it leads to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In mitral stenosis pregnancy can lead to development of heart failure. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of balloon mitral valvulotomy (BMV) in pregnant females with severe mitral stenosis. Materials and Methods A total of 30 pregnant patients who underwent BMV were included in the study from July 2011 to November 2013. Clinical follow-up during pregnancy was done every 3 months until delivery and after delivery. The mean follow up time after BMV was 6.72±0.56 months. Results From the 30 pregnant females 14 (46.67%) and 16 (53.3%) patients underwent BMV during the third and second trimester of pregnancy respectively. The mean mitral valve area was 0.85+0.16 cm2 before BMV that increased to 1.60+0.27 cm2 (p<0.0001) immediately after BMV. Peak and mean diastolic gradients had decreased significantly within 48 hours after the procedure (p<0.001) but remained very much unchanged at 6.72 month period of follow-up. Two patients had an increase in mitral regurgitation by 2 grades. Conclusion During pregnancy BMV technique is safe and effective in patients with severe mitral stenosis. This results in marked symptomatic relief along with long term maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:26816932

  15. A comparison of different feature extraction methods for diagnosis of valvular heart diseases using PCG signals.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, M; Abdoli, R

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for diagnosis of valvular heart disease (VHD) based on phonocardiography (PCG) signals. Application of the pattern classification and feature selection and reduction methods in analysing normal and pathological heart sound was investigated. After signal preprocessing using independent component analysis (ICA), 32 features are extracted. Those include carefully selected linear and nonlinear time domain, wavelet and entropy features. By examining different feature selection and feature reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), genetic algorithms (GA), genetic programming (GP) and generalized discriminant analysis (GDA), the four most informative features are extracted. Furthermore, support vector machines (SVM) and neural network classifiers are compared for diagnosis of pathological heart sounds. Three valvular heart diseases are considered: aortic stenosis (AS), mitral stenosis (MS) and mitral regurgitation (MR). An overall accuracy of 99.47% was achieved by proposed algorithm.

  16. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) occurs when one of your heart's valves doesn't work properly. The flaps of ... Migraine headaches Chest discomfort Most people who have mitral valve prolapse (MVP) don't need treatment because they ...

  17. Review of mitral valve insufficiency: repair or replacement

    PubMed Central

    Madesis, Athanasios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Kesisis, George; Tsiouda, Theodora; Beleveslis, Thomas; Koletas, Alexander; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve (MV) dysfunction is the second-most common clinically significant form of valvular defect in adults. MV regurgitation occurs with the increasing frequency of degenerative changes of the aging process. Moreover, other causes of clinically significant MV regurgitation include cardiac ischemia, infective endocarditis and rhematic disease more frequently in less developed countries. Recent evidence suggests that the best outcomes after repair of severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) are achieved in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, who are selected for surgery soon after diagnosis on the basis of echocardiography. This review will focus on the surgical management of mitral insufficiency according to its aetiology today and will give insight to some of the perspectives that lay in the future. PMID:24672698

  18. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Walter W.

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses the pathophysiology of mitral valve prolapse and provides guidelines to identify and treat low-to high-risk mitral valve prolapse. An approach to diagnosing bacterial endocarditis and its prophylaxis are also discussed. The author reviews mitral valve prolapse syndrome and the risk of sudden death.

  19. [Diagnosis and differential therapy of mitral stenosis].

    PubMed

    Fassbender, D; Schmidt, H K; Seggewiss, H; Mannebach, H; Bogunovic, N

    1998-11-01

    Clinical symptoms and diagnostic findings in patients with mitral stenosis are usually determined by the extent of the stenosis. Compared to a normal mitral valve area (MVA) of > 4 cm2, MVA in patients with severe mitral stenosis is usually reduced to < 1.5 cm2. In older patients symptoms are frequently influenced by concomitant diseases (e.g. atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension or lung disease). An important diagnostic element besides anamnesis, auscultation, ECG and chest X-ray is echocardiography, which is required in order to measure non-invasively and reliably the mitral valve gradient (MVG), the MVA and morphologic changes to the valves, as well as concomitant valvular disease, ventricular functions and, where appropriate, left-atrial thrombi. In addition to the surgical treatment of patients with severe mitral stenosis, which has been an established procedure for 50 years, percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (MVP) has recently established itself as an alternative option. At the current time, the Inoue technique seems to display the most advantages. Following transseptal puncture, the Inoue balloon is guided transvenously into the left atrium and then into the left ventricle using a special support wire. The balloon is short and soft. Its special unfolding character enables it to be placed securely in the mitral valve without any risk of ventricular perforation (Figure 1). As with surgical commissurotomy, balloon valvuloplasty leads to a separation of fused commissures. This results in a significant reduction of MVG, accompanied by an increase in the MVA (Figure 2). The results and success of MVP are influenced by the morphology of the valves and the changes to the subvalvular apparatus. In randomized studies, the results of surgical commissurotomy were comparable with those of balloon mitral valvulotomy. In our hospital, an increase in MVA from 1.0 to 1.8 cm2 could be achieved in 899 patients (mean age 56 +/- 3 years). In younger patients with

  20. Atypical Early Aspergillus Endocarditis Post Prosthetic Mitral Valve Repair: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Abuzaid, Ahmed AbdulAziz; Zaki, Mahmood; Tarif, Habib

    2015-01-01

    A 64-year-old female operated 1 month previous for mitral valve repair presented with acute respiratory distress and dyspnea. Echocardiography showed large echogenic valvular mass measuring 2.3 × 1.3 cm with severe mitral regurgitation and dehiscence of the mitral ring posteriorly. The mass was attached subvalvularly to the ventricular septal-free wall and eroding through it, which required complete aggressive dissection of the infected tissues. Diagnosis was confirmed after resection of the valve by multiple negative blood cultures and positive valvular tissue for Aspergillus fumigatus endocarditis. She was treated with high dose of voriconazole for 3 months. Her postoperative period was complicated by acute-on-chronic renal failure. She responded very well to the management. PMID:25838877

  1. Mitral valve prolapse in Cavalier King Charles spaniel: a review and case study.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Changbaig

    2005-03-01

    A 5 year-old spayed female Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was presented after a 3- to 5-day onset of severe respiratory distress. The dog also had a history of several episodes of syncope prior to presentation. A comprehensive diagnostic investigation revealed a midsystolic click sound on cardiac auscultation, signs of left sided cardiac enlargement in ECG and thoracic radiography, mitral valvular leaflet protrusion into left the atrium, decreased E-point-to septal separation (EPSS) and mitral regurgitated flow in echocardiography, all of which are characteristic signs of mitral valvular prolapse. After intensive care with diuretics [corrected] and a vasodilator with oxygen supplement, the condition of the dog was stabilized. The dog was then released and is being medicated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor with regular follow-up.

  2. Valvular heart disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Anthony, John; Osman, Ayesha; Sani, Mahmoud U

    2016-01-01

    Valvular heart disease may be a pre-existing complication of pregnancy or it may be diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Accurate diagnosis, tailored therapy and an understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy are necessary components of management, best achieved through the use of multidisciplinary clinics. This review outlines the management of specific lesions, with particular reference to post-rheumatic valvular heart disease.

  3. High sensitivity troponin and valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cian P; Donnellan, Eoin; Phelan, Dermot; Griffin, Brian P; Sarano, Maurice Enriquez-; McEvoy, John W

    2017-01-16

    Blood-based biomarkers have been extensively studied in a range of cardiovascular diseases and have established utility in routine clinical care, most notably in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (e.g., troponin) and the management of heart failure (e.g., brain-natriuretic peptide). The role of biomarkers is less well established in the management of valvular heart disease (VHD), in which the optimal timing of surgical intervention is often challenging. One promising biomarker that has been the subject of a number of recent VHD research studies is high sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn). Novel high-sensitivity assays can detect subclinical myocardial damage in asymptomatic individuals. Thus, hs-cTn may have utility in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with severe VHD who do not have a clear traditional indication for surgical intervention. In this state-of-the-art review, we examine the current evidence for hs-cTn as a potential biomarker in the most commonly encountered VHD conditions, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation. This review provides a synopsis of early evidence indicating that hs-cTn has promise as a biomarker in VHD. However, the impact of its measurement on clinical practice and VHD outcomes needs to be further assessed in prospective studies before routine clinical use becomes a reality.

  4. Advanced imaging in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Bax, Jeroen J; Delgado, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Although echocardiography remains the mainstay imaging technique for the evaluation of patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), innovations in noninvasive imaging in the past few years have provided new insights into the pathophysiology and quantification of VHD, early detection of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and advanced prognostic assessment. The severity grading of valve dysfunction has been refined with the use of Doppler echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and CT imaging. LV ejection fraction remains an important criterion when deciding whether patients should be referred for surgery. However, echocardiographic strain imaging can now detect impaired LV systolic function before LV ejection fraction reduces, thus provoking the debate on whether patients with severe VHD should be referred for surgery at an earlier stage (before symptom onset). Impaired LV strain correlates with the amount of myocardial fibrosis detected with CMR techniques. Furthermore, accumulating data show that the extent of fibrosis associated with severe VHD has important prognostic implications. The present Review focuses on using these novel imaging modalities to assess pathophysiology, early LV dysfunction, and prognosis of major VHDs, including aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and aortic regurgitation.

  5. Genetic predisposition to calcific aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification.

    PubMed

    Kutikhin, Anton G; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Brusina, Elena B; Ponasenko, Anastasia V; Golovkin, Alexey S; Barbarash, Olga L

    2014-09-01

    Valvular calcification precedes the development of valvular stenosis and may represent an important early phenotype for valvular heart disease. It is known that development of valvular calcification is likely to occur among members of a family. However, the knowledge about the role of genomic predictive markers in valvular calcification is still elusive. Aims of this review are to assess the impact of gene polymorphisms on risk and severity of aortic stenosis and mitral annular calcification. According to the results of the investigations carried out, all polymorphisms may be divided into the three groups conferring the level of evidence of their association with valvular stenosis. It is possible to conclude that apoB (XbaI, rs1042031, and rs6725189), ACE (rs4340), IL10 (rs1800896 and rs1800872), and LPA (rs10455872) gene polymorphisms may be associated with valvular calcific stenosis with a relatively high level of evidence. A number of other polymorphisms, such as PvuII polymorphism within the ORα gene, rs1042636 polymorphism within the CaSR gene, rs3024491, rs3021094, rs1554286, and rs3024498 polymorphisms within the IL10 gene, rs662 polymorphism within the PON1 gene, rs2276288 polymorphism within the MYO7A gene, rs5194 polymorphism within the AGTR1 gene, rs2071307 polymorphism within the ELN gene, rs17659543 and rs13415097 polymorphisms within the IL1F9 gene may correlate with a risk of calcific valve stenosis with moderate level of evidence. Finally, rs1544410 polymorphism within the VDR gene, E2 and E4 alleles within the apoE gene, rs6254 polymorphism within the PTH gene, and rs1800871 polymorphism within the IL10 gene may be associated with aortic stenosis with low level of evidence.

  6. Stroke prevention strategies in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart valve abnormalities: perceptions of 'valvular' atrial fibrillation: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey.

    PubMed

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Lip, Gregory Y H; Larsen, Torben B; Madrid, Antonio; Dobreanu, Dan; Jędrzejczyk-Patej, Ewa; Dagres, Nikolaos

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) Survey was to assess the perceptions of 'valvular' atrial fibrillation (AF) and management of AF patients with various heart valve abnormalities in daily clinical practice in European electrophysiology (EP) centres. Questionnaire survey was sent via the Internet to the EHRA-EP Research Network Centres. Of the 52 responding centres, 42 (80.8%) were university hospitals. Choosing the most comprehensive definition of valvular AF, a total of 49 centres (94.2%) encountered a mechanical prosthetic heart valve and significant rheumatic mitral stenosis, 35 centres (67.3%) also considered bioprosthetic valves, and 25 centres (48.1%) included any significant valvular heart disease, requiring surgical repair in the definition of valvular AF. Only three centres (5.8%) would define valvular AF as the presence of any (even mild) valvular abnormality. None of the centres would use non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in AF patients with mechanical prosthetic valves, only 5 centres (9.8%) would use NOACs in patients with significant mitral stenosis, 17 centres (32.7%) would consider the use of NOACs in patients with bioprosthetic valves, and 21 centres (41.2%) would use NOACs in patients with a non-recent transcatheter valve replacement/implantation, while 13 centres (25.5%) would never consider the use of NOACs in AF patients with even mild native heart valve abnormality. Our survey showed marked heterogeneity in the definition of valvular AF and thromboprophylactic treatments, with the use of variable NOACs in patients with valvular heart disease other than prosthetic heart valves or significant mitral stenosis, indicating that this term may be misleading and should not be used.

  7. [Moderate or severe aquired valvular heart disease in pregnancy--what does determine the management? Experence, intuition or guidelines?].

    PubMed

    Greszata, Lidia; Stępińska, Janina

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology of acquired valvular heart diseases has changed significantly over last decades. Degenerative aortic valve stenosis is the most common acquired valvular disease with high prevalence in elderly population. Another common disorder is ischemic mitral regurgitation secondary to myocardial infarction. Both above-mentioned heart disorders are not typical for women in reproductive age. Rheumatic heart valve disease has become infrequent in Polish population. Mitral stenosis, the most prevalent of rheumatic valvular disorders, affects 5% of pregnant women with heart disease and rheumatic aortic stenosis is responsible for 0.5-3% of heart diseases in this population. Despite the fact that acquired valvular disorders are becoming less common among pregnant women, they still remain an important issue and their management should be well known. Discussion about pregnancy should be a part of management of young women with valvular heart disease. Severe valve disorders should be corrected when planning pregnancy. The final management should always be based on collaborative decision made by the patient and health professionals.

  8. Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Jahan; Chen, Frederick Y

    2015-05-01

    Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral valve regurgitation remains controversial. In moderate mitral regurgitation (MR), controversy exists whether revascularization alone will be adequate to restore native valve geometry or whether intervention on the valve (repair) should be performed concomitantly. When MR is severe, the need for valve intervention is not disputed. Rather, the controversy is whether repair versus replacement should be undertaken. In contrast to degenerative or myxomatous disease that directly affects leaflet integrity and morphology, ischemic FMR results from a distortion and dilation of native ventricular geometry that normally supports normal leaflet coaptation. To address this, the first and most crucial step in successful valve repair is placement of an undersized, complete remodeling annuloplasty ring to restore the annulus to its native geometry. The following article outlines the steps for repair of ischemic mitral regurgitation.

  9. The "Polar Light Sign" is a useful tool to detect discrete membranous supravalvular mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Christine; Haas, Nikolaus A; Habash, Sheeraz; Hanslik, Andreas; Kececioglu, Deniz; Sandica, Eugen; Laser, Kai-Thorsten

    2015-02-01

    Mitral valve stenosis caused by a discrete supravalvular membrane is a rare congenital malformation haemodynamically leading to significant mitral valve stenosis. When the supravalvular mitral stenosis consists of a discrete supravalvular membrane adherent to the mitral valve, it is usually not clearly detectable by routine echocardiography. We report about the typical echocardiographic finding in three young patients with this rare form of a discrete membranous supravalvular stenosis caused by a membrane adherent to the mitral valve. These cases present a typical echocardiographic feature in colour Doppler generated by the pathognomonic supramitral flow acceleration. Whereas typical supravalvular mitral stenosis caused by cor triatriatum or a clearly visible supravalvular ring is easily detectable by echocardiography, a discrete supravalvular membrane adjacent to the mitral valve leaflets resembling valvular mitral stenosis is difficult to differentiate by routine echocardiography. In our opinion, this colour phenomenon does resemble the visual impression of polar lights in the northern hemisphere; owing to its typical appearance, it may therefore be named as "Polar Light Sign". This phenomenon may help to detect this anatomical entity by echocardiography in time and therefore improve the prognosis for repair.

  10. Chest ultrasonography in emergency Cesarean delivery in multi-valvular heart disease with pulmonary edema during spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Sukhen; Samanta, Sujay; Ghatak, Tanmoy; Grover, V K

    2014-05-01

    Valvular heart disease in a parturient presenting for Cesarean section is challenging. A 25 year old primigravida parturient with severe mitral stenosis, mild mitral regurgitation, mild aortic regurgitation, and mild pulmonary arterial hypertension required Cesarean delivery after developing pulmonary edema. Low-dose spinal with hyperbaric bupivacine 0.5% 1.8 mL plus 25 μg of fentanyl was used for anesthesia. Chest ultrasonography (US) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were used for monitoring purposes. Spinal-induced preload reduction improved the pulmonary edema, as evidenced by chest US. Chest US and TTE helped in fluid management.

  11. Mitral valve repair is not always needed in patients with functional mitral regurgitation undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, J.E.; Jaarsma, W.; Kelder, J.C.; Morshuis, W.J.; Visser, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background and aim Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is defined as mitral regurgitation in the absence of intrinsic valvular abnormalities. We prospectively evaluated the effect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or aortic valve replacement (AVR), without additional mitral valve repair, on the degree of moderate or severe FMR. Study design and methods From a cohort of 2829 patients undergoing CABG and/or AVR in the St. Antonius Hospital, 67 patients were identified with moderate or severe FMR by transthoracic and transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography. Results Two out of the 67 patients (3%) died perioperatively. During follow-up (3-18 months) mitral regurgitation decreased by one grade in 29 patients, by two grades in 28, by three grades in five patients and remained unchanged in one patient (p=0.0001). Of all patients, 85% had grade I mitral regurgitation or less. Grade II mitral regurgitation remained in nine patients with a previous large myocardial infarction and/or annular calcifications. NYHA class improved from 3.1+0.5 to 1.4+0.4 (p=0.0001). Ejection fraction increased from 46 to 55% (p=0.0001). Overall, left atrial and left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions decreased significantly. In contrast, no decrease in dimensions was seen in patients with postoperative grade II mitral regurgitation. Conclusion FMR may improve significantly following CABG and/or AVR, although a previous large myocardial infarction and/or annular calcifications may affect outcome. PMID:25696484

  12. [Modern mitral valve surgery].

    PubMed

    Bothe, W; Beyersdorf, F

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, Cutler and Levine performed the first successful surgical treatment of a stenotic mitral valve, which was the only treatable heart valve defect at that time. Mitral valve surgery has evolved significantly since then. The introduction of the heart-lung machine in 1954 not only reduced the surgical risk, but also allowed the treatment of different mitral valve pathologies. Nowadays, mitral valve insufficiency has become the most common underlying pathomechanism of mitral valve disease and can be classified into primary and secondary mitral insufficiency. Primary mitral valve insufficiency is mainly caused by alterations of the valve (leaflets and primary order chords) itself, whereas left ventricular dilatation leading to papillary muscle displacement and leaflet tethering via second order chords is the main underlying pathomechanism for secondary mitral valve regurgitation. Valve reconstruction using the "loop technique" plus annuloplasty is the surgical strategy of choice and normalizes life expectancy in patients with primary mitral regurgitation. In patients with secondary mitral regurgitation, implanting an annuloplasty is not superior to valve replacement and results in high rates of valve re-insufficiency (up to 30 % after 3 months) due to ongoing ventricular dilatation. In order to improve repair results in these patients, we add a novel subvalvular technique (ring-noose-string) to the annuloplasty that aims to prevent ongoing ventricular remodeling and re-insufficiency. In modern mitral surgery, a right lateral thoracotomy is the approach of choice with excellent repair and cosmetic results.

  13. Sinus Rhythm in Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis after Balloon Mitral Valvotomy: Is it Feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anand N; Shah, Saurin; Nayak, Vidya; Prabhu, Sridevi; Pai, Umesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is largely present in patients with rheumatic valvular disease, leading to hospitalizations. Aim We aimed to study the restoration and maintenance of Sinus Rhythm (SR) in rheumatic patients with Mitral Stenosis (MS) and AF after Balloon Mitral Valvotomy (BMV) and evaluated the factors which affect the maintenance of SR. Materials and Methods A total of 50 patients who underwent BMV at U. N. Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Centre from 2010 November to 2013 January were included in the study. Subsequently, all patients were treated with amiodarone and electrical cardioversion was applied in patients in whom it was necessary. The patients were followed for six months for conversion and maintenance of SR. Results Total 34 (68%) patients reverted to SR. Twelve patients reverted to SR with amiodarone and 22 patients with electrical cardioversion and amiodarone. Out of the total, 29 patients and 26 patients remained in SR at the end of follow up at 3 months and 6 months respectively. Conclusion Smaller Left Atrial (LA) size and greater Mitral Valve Area (MVA) are the chief predictors of restoration and maintenance of SR. Combining BMV with an aggressive anti-arrhythmic strategy offers the best prospect of rhythm control. PMID:28384905

  14. Direct oral anticoagulant use in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation with valvular heart disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Owens, Ryan E; Kabra, Rajesh; Oliphant, Carrie S

    2016-12-22

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are indicated for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), which, according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Rhythm Society atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines, excludes patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis, a mechanical or bioprosthetic heart valve, or mitral valve repair. However, the data regarding use of DOACs in AF patients with other types of valvular heart disease (VHD) are unclear. We aimed to summarize and evaluate the literature regarding the safety and efficacy of DOAC use in NVAF patients with other types of VHD. After an extensive literature search, a total of 1 prospective controlled trial, 4 subanalyses, and 1 abstract were identified. Efficacy of the DOAC agents in NVAF patients with VHD mirrored the overall trial results. Bleeding risk was significantly increased in VHD patients treated with rivaroxaban, but not for dabigatran or apixaban. Of the bioprosthetic valve patients enrolled in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial, no safety or efficacy concerns were identified. In conclusion, subanalyses of DOAC landmark AF trials revealed that dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban may be safely used in AF patients with certain types of VHD: aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and mitral regurgitation. More evidence is needed before routinely recommending these agents for patients with bioprosthetic valves or mild mitral stenosis. Patients with moderate to severe mitral stenosis or mechanical valves should continue to receive warfarin, as these patients were excluded from all landmark AF trials.

  15. Dynamic heart phantom with functional mitral and aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannelli, Claire; Moore, John; McLeod, Jonathan; Ceh, Dennis; Peters, Terry

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac valvular stenosis, prolapse and regurgitation are increasingly common conditions, particularly in an elderly population with limited potential for on-pump cardiac surgery. NeoChord©, MitraClipand numerous stent-based transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices provide an alternative to intrusive cardiac operations; performed while the heart is beating, these procedures require surgeons and cardiologists to learn new image-guidance based techniques. Developing these visual aids and protocols is a challenging task that benefits from sophisticated simulators. Existing models lack features needed to simulate off-pump valvular procedures: functional, dynamic valves, apical and vascular access, and user flexibility for different activation patterns such as variable heart rates and rapid pacing. We present a left ventricle phantom with these characteristics. The phantom can be used to simulate valvular repair and replacement procedures with magnetic tracking, augmented reality, fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance. This tool serves as a platform to develop image-guidance and image processing techniques required for a range of minimally invasive cardiac interventions. The phantom mimics in vivo mitral and aortic valve motion, permitting realistic ultrasound images of these components to be acquired. It also has a physiological realistic left ventricular ejection fraction of 50%. Given its realistic imaging properties and non-biodegradable composition—silicone for tissue, water for blood—the system promises to reduce the number of animal trials required to develop image guidance applications for valvular repair and replacement. The phantom has been used in validation studies for both TAVI image-guidance techniques1, and image-based mitral valve tracking algorithms2.

  16. Prognosis of patients with carcinoid heart disease after valvular surgery.

    PubMed

    Manoly, Imthiaz; McAnelly, Sarah-Louise; Sriskandarajah, Sanjeevan; McLaughlin, Kenneth Edward

    2014-08-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. We addressed the following question: in patients who are diagnosed with carcinoid heart disease (CHD), do valvular surgeries improve their prognosis? Fifty percent of the patients with clinically diagnosed carcinoid syndrome had cardiac involvement which was present either as valvular dysfunction or as cardiac metastases. These patients often require surgery due to their heightened risk of cardiac disease. Altogether 217 relevant papers were identified as a result of the below-mentioned search, of which 10 papers represented the best evidence to answer the question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Of the patients who were identified to have carcinoid heart disease in different studies, 193 patients had valve procedure, mainly replacements at tricuspid, mitral and aortic valve positions and either valvuloplasty or replacement at pulmonary valve. Tricuspid and pulmonary valves represented the majority of the excised valves among patients undergoing valvular surgery for CHD. The pathology of carcinoid valve was attributed to the presence of plaque, causing thickening and retraction. Pure regurgitation was the most common finding in all the valves except pulmonary valve which had both stenosis and insufficiency. Thirty-day mortality was 17% (range 1-63%) and long-term survivors were reported to be alive at an average of 58 months (28-80 months) after the valve surgery. The evidence demonstrates that surgical intervention can lead to improved prognosis and reduce the symptoms of heart failure. Postoperative mortality was mainly due to the carcinoid disease itself and not as a complication of the surgery. Therefore, surgery could be considered for symptomatic palliation in carefully selected individuals.

  17. Platelet function and activation in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Tong, Linda J; Hosgood, Giselle L; French, Anne T; Irwin, Peter J; Shiel, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess platelet closure time (CT), mean platelet component (MPC) concentration, and platelet component distribution width (PCDW) in dogs with subclinical chronic valvular heart disease. ANIMALS 89 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and 39 control dogs (not CKCSs). PROCEDURES Platelet count, MPC concentration, PCDW, and Hct were measured by use of a hematology analyzer, and CT was measured by use of a platelet function analyzer. Murmur grade and echocardiographic variables (mitral valve regurgitant jet size relative to left atrial area, left atrial-to-aortic diameter ratio, and left ventricular internal dimensions) were recorded. Associations between explanatory variables (sex, age, murmur grade, echocardiographic variables, platelet count, and Hct) and outcomes (CT, MPC concentration, and PCDW) were examined by use of multivariate regression models. RESULTS A model with 5 variables best explained variation in CT (R(2), 0.74), with > 60% of the variance of CT explained by mitral valve regurgitant jet size. The model of best fit to explain variation in MPC concentration included only platelet count (R(2), 0.24). The model of best fit to explain variation in PCDW included platelet count and sex (R(2), 0.25). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, a significant effect of mitral valve regurgitant jet size on CT was consistent with platelet dysfunction. However, platelet activation, as assessed on the basis of the MPC concentration and PCDW, was not a feature of subclinical chronic valvular heart disease in CKCSs.

  18. The unnatural history of valvular heart disease: late results with silastic ball valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, I; Starr, A

    1984-01-01

    The development of prosthetic heart valves successfully arrested the dismal natural history of valvular heart disease for thousands of patients. The experiences of numerous investigators provided a setting wherein the design and implantation of the silastic ball valves led to improved survival with both aortic and mitral valve replacement. Refinement of the caged-ball design was based on clinical and laboratory findings. In the mitral position, valve related thromboembolism was reduced from 38% to 3%. With the aortic prostheses the problem of ball variance was overcome by reducing trauma to the poppet and altering its heat curing process. In 1967 a completely cloth covered valve was introduced to reduce further the thromboembolic rate. Significant improvement in the embolus-free rate was ultimately found to be dependent on the year of operation with introduction of the time-frame concept. The current mitral silastic ball valve, Model 6120, yields an actuarial survival of 72 (+/- 3%), 54 (+/- 5%), and 37 (+/- 5%) for five, ten and fifteen years respectively. For aortic valve replacement, current Model 1260, the actuarial survival is 71 (+/- 2%), 58 (+/- 3%) and 48 (+/- 4%) for five, ten and fifteen years respectively. Late results are compared to other valvular prostheses.

  19. Exercise stress echocardiography in patients with valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Newby, David E; Stewart, Ralph A H; Lee, Mildred; Gabriel, Ruvin; Van Pelt, Niels; Kerr, Andrew J

    2015-09-01

    Stress echocardiography is recommended for the assessment of asymptomatic patients with severe valvular heart disease (VHD) when there is discrepancy between symptoms and resting markers of severity. The aim of this study is to determine the prognostic value of exercise stress echocardiography in patients with common valve lesions. One hundred and fifteen patients with VHD (aortic stenosis (n=28); aortic regurgitation (n=35); mitral regurgitation, (n=26); mitral stenosis (n=26)), and age- and sex-matched controls (n=39) with normal ejection fraction underwent exercise stress echocardiography. The primary endpoint was a composite of death or hospitalization for heart failure. Asymptomatic VHD patients had lower exercise capacity than controls and 37% of patients achieved <85% of their predicted metabolic equivalents (METS). There were three deaths and four hospital admissions, and 24 patients underwent surgery during follow-up. An abnormal stress echocardiogram (METS <5, blood pressure rise <20 mmHg, or pulmonary artery pressure post exercise >60 mmHg) was associated with an increased risk of death or hospital admission (14% vs 1%, P<0.0001). The assessment of contractile reserve did not offer additional predictive value. In conclusion, an abnormal stress echocardiogram is associated with death and hospitalization with heart failure at 2 years. Stress echocardiography should be considered as part of the routine follow-up of all asymptomatic patients with VHD.

  20. New procedure for treatment of atrial fibrillation in patients with valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Safaie, Naser; Maghamipour, Nasrollah; Jodati, Ahmad Reza; Mahmoodpoor, Ata; Dashtaki, Leila; Hakimzadeh, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    Patients with valvular heart disease suffer from atrial fibrillation for more than 12 months after valve surgery and have a low probability of remaining in sinus rhythm. We performed an intra-operative procedure similar to surgical maze ІІІ procedure for conversion of this arrhythmia to sinus rhythm. We did this study to evaluate the efficacy of this procedure to restore the sinus rhythm in patients with valvular heart disease. 28 patients with valvular heart disease and chronic persistent atrial fibrillation underwent different combinations of valve surgery and concomitant reduction of left and right atrial size and resection of both atrial auricles in Shahid Madani cardiothoracic center from September 2004 to October 2008. The procedure for atrial fibrillation treatment was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass and after mitral valve replacement. There was one in-hospital death postoperatively because of respiratory failure, but no other complication till 6 months after the operation. Out of 28 patients, 23 were in sinus rhythm one week after the operation, one patient had junctional rhythm after the operation that restored to sinus rhythm and 4 patients had persistent atrial fibrillation. During the 12-month follow up, atrial fibrillation was corrected in 82.14%. Doppler echocardiography in these patients with sinus rhythm demonstrated good atrial contractility. This procedure on both atria is effective and less invasive than the original maze procedure to eliminate the atrial fibrillation, and can be performed in patients with valvular heart disease without increasing the risk of operation.

  1. [Heart murmur--auscultation or echocardiography in the diagnostic assessment of congenital or valvular heart disease?].

    PubMed

    Attenhofer Jost, C H

    2006-07-01

    The incidence of patients with degenerative valvular but also of patients with congenital heart disease surviving until adulthood or even old age will increase in the next decades. Auscultation with the stethoscope remains an important diagnostic means in the detection and treatment of heart disease. Heart murmurs (especially systolic heart murmurs) are extremely common. There are helpful clues to differentiate heart murmurs. It can occasionally be relatively simple to differentiate a systolic murmur due to valvular heart disease from an innocent, ejection murmur; however, there are important limitations of auscultation. Overall, auscultation and clinical examination alone do not suffice to correctly diagnose and treat patients with heart failure or a murmur Clinically significant aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation and mitral regurgitation as well as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are not uncommonly missed or misinterpreted. An echocardiographic exam is mandatory in all patients with more than a soft systolic murmur, any diastolic murmur, cardiac symptoms and/or ECG changes.

  2. [ESC guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease. What has changed and what is new?].

    PubMed

    Mangner, N; Schuler, G

    2013-12-01

    In 2012 the new and collaborative "Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (version 2012)" were published by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). These guidelines emphasize that decision-making in patients with valvular heart disease should ideally be carried out by a"heart team" with particular expertise in valvular heart disease. In aortic regurgitation pathologies of the aortic root are frequent and in patients with Marfan syndrome, surgery is indicated when the maximal ascending aortic diameter is ≥50 mm, while the threshold for intervention should be lower in patients with risk factors for progression. Regarding aortic stenosis, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) should be performed only in hospitals with on-site cardiac surgery and with a"heart team" available to assess patient risks. The TAVI procedure is indicated in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are judged by the"heart team" to be unsuitable for surgery but have sufficient life expectancy. It should be considered for high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis based on the individual risk profile assessed by the"heart team". Furthermore, low flow - low gradient aortic stenosis with normal ejection fraction and the difficult topic of asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis and the indications for aortic valve replacement are discussed. With respect to mitral regurgitation, valve repair should be the preferred technique when it is expected to be durable. The topics of asymptomatic mitral regurgitation as well as percutaneous mitral valve repair using the edge to edge technique as an alternative for high risk patients are discussed. Tricuspid disease should not be forgotten and during left-sided valve surgery, tricuspid valve surgery should be considered in the presence of mild to moderate secondary regurgitation if there is significant annular dilatation. Last but not least

  3. [Spontaneous return of sinus rhythm in mitralic fibrillation of long duration (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, M; Cappelletti, F; Maiolino, P; Morlino, T; Ometto, R

    1976-01-01

    A case of mitral valvular disease in which spontaneous return of sinus rhythm occurred after 12 years of atrial fibrillation is reported. The course of the disease, complicated by A.V. and intraventricular conduction disturbances which made the insertion of a pacemaker necessary, suggests that return to sinus rhythm should not be considered necessarily an improvement in the clinical picture and in the prognosis in such patients.

  4. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Hemodynamic Changes in Left-Sided Heart Valves in Pregnant Women With Valvular Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Samiei, Niloufar; Amirsardari, Mandana; Rezaei, Yousef; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Kashfi, Fahimeh; Hantoosh Zadeh, Sedigheh; Beikmohamadi, Somayeh; Fouladi, Masoumeh; Hosseini, Saeid; Peighambari, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohebbi, Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Physiologic changes during pregnancy can deteriorate or improve patients' hemodynamic status in the setting of valvular heart disease. There are sparse data regarding the effect of pregnancy on valve hemodynamics in normal pregnant women with known valvular heart disease. In a prospective study from July 2014 to January 2016, a total of 52 normal pregnant women who had mitral stenosis, aortic stenosis, or a history of mitral valve or aortic valve replacements were assessed. All patients underwent echocardiographic examinations and hemodynamic parameters were measured for both the mitral valve and aortic valve at first, second, and third trimesters. The parameters included mean gradient, peak gradient, mean gradient/heart rate, peak gradient/heart rate, pressure halftime, dimensionless velocity index, and valve area. Although most hemodynamic parameters (i.e., mean gradient, peak gradient, mean gradient/heart rate, and peak gradient/heart rate) increased approximately 50% from first to second trimester and first to third trimester (p <0.05) but those remained stable at third compared with second trimester (p >0.05). The ratio of changes between trimesters for valve area and dimensionless velocity index were comparable. No clinical decompensations were observed except for 3 and 7 cases of deterioration to functional class II at second and third trimesters, respectively. In conclusion, during a full-term and uncomplicated pregnancy, mitral and aortic valve gradients increase without significant changes in valve area that are more marked between the second and first trimester than between the third and second trimester.

  5. Genetics of valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    LaHaye, Stephanie; Lincoln, Joy; Garg, Vidu

    2014-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and often the result of congenital malformations. However, the prevalence is increasing in adults not only because of the growing aging population, but also because of improvements in the medical and surgical care of children with congenital heart valve defects. The success of the Human Genome Project and major advances in genetic technologies, in combination with our increased understanding of heart valve development, has led to the discovery of numerous genetic contributors to heart valve disease. These have been uncovered using a variety of approaches including the examination of familial valve disease and genome-wide association studies to investigate sporadic cases. This review will discuss these findings and their implications in the treatment of valvular heart disease.

  6. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kawasaki Disease Long Q-T Syndrome Marfan Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse Myocardial Bridge Myocarditis Obstructive Sleep Apnea Pericarditis Peripheral Vascular Disease Rheumatic Fever Sick Sinus Syndrome Silent Ischemia Stroke Sudden ...

  7. Mitral Valve Prolapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergy, Gordon G.

    1980-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse is the most common heart disease seen in college and university health services. It underlies most arrhythmia and many chest complaints. Activity and exercise restrictions are usually unnecessary. (Author/CJ)

  8. Mitral Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances Aortic Valve ... are two main types of mitral valve disease: Stenosis – the valve does not open enough to allow ...

  9. Spontaneous echo contrast masking thrombus in giant left atrium of mitral stenosis-a dilemma in clinical diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Islam, AKM Monwarul; Salam, Md. Abdus; Sayeed, Md. Zahidus; Kibria, Md. Golam

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) and thrombus in enlarged left atrium (LA) are common in mitral valvular disease (MVD) and SEC is considered to be a prethrombotic condition. Reliable exclusion of LA thrombus is important before any definitive curative attempts like percutaneous transluminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC), closed mitral commissurotomy (CMC) or innovative therapies like pulmonary vein isolation and percutaneous closure of the LA appendage. Echocardiography, particularly the transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis and to exclude LA thrombus. However, LA thrombus may remain rarely undetected even by TEE potentially making the interventions a risky job. We present a case of mitral stenosis (MS) with giant LA where profuse, dense SEC masked the underlying thrombus in the LA cavity. PMID:26649032

  10. Percutaneous mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Block, Peter C

    2003-02-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) associated with, ischemic, and degenerative (prolapse) disease, contributes to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction due to remodeling, and LV dilation, resulting in worsening of MR. Mitral valve (MV) surgical repair has provided improvement in survival, LV function and symptoms, especially when performed early. Surgical repair is complex, due to diverse etiologies and has significant complications. The Society for Thoracic Surgery database shows that operative mortality for a 1st repair is 2% and for re-do repair is 4 times that. Cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac arrest are required. The attendant morbidity prolongs hospitalization and recovery. Alfieri simplified mitral repair using an edge-to-edge technique which subsequently has been shown to be effective for multiple etiologies of MR. The MV leaflers are typically brought together by a central suture producing a double orifice MV without stenosis. Umana reported that MR decreased from grade 3.6 +/- 0.5 to 0.8 +/- 0.4 (P < 0.0001) and LV ejection fraction increased from 33 +/- 13% to 45 +/- 11% (P = 0.0156). In 121 patients, Maisano reported freedom from re-operation of 95 +/- 4.8% with up to 6 year follow-up. Oz developed a MV "grasper" that is directly placed via a left ventriculotomy and coapts both leaflets which are then fastened by a graduated spiral screw. An in-vitro model using explanted human valves showed significant reduction in MR and in canine studies, animals followed by serial echo had persistent MV coaptation. At 12 weeks the device was endothelialized. These promising results have paved the way for a percutaneous or minimally invasive-off pump mitral repair. Evalve has developed catheter-based technology, which, by apposing the edges of a regurgitant MV, results in edge-to-edge repair. Release of the device is done after echo and fluoroscopic evaluation under normal loading conditions. If the desired effect is not produced the device can be repositioned or retrieved

  11. [Physiopathology of mitral mechanics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Groupe de travail "Cardiomyopathies et insuffisance cardiaque" de la Société Française de Cardiologie].

    PubMed

    Hagège, A; Desnos, M; Komajda, M; Dubourg, O; Isnard, R; Guicheney, P; Schwartz, K; Lévine, R A

    1994-10-01

    Ventricular hypertrophy, the only indisputable phenotypical marker of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, is the basis of the physiopathology and treatment of the disease. Mitral valve abnormalities are usually considered to be secondary to the hypertrophy but the genesis of systolic anterior motion by the Venturi effect has been questioned by many clinical and experimental observations. Abnormalities of the mitral valve apparatus may in themselves (elongation of the valves, antero-internal malposition of the mitral papillary muscles and/or hyperlaxicity of antero-internal corhdae tendinae) create systolic anterior motion or subaortic obstruction in the absence of septal hypertrophy and/or increased subaortic flow velocities. Anatomo-clinical studies have confirmed this hypothesis: a high prevalence of mitral valve disease (increased valvular surface and length) has been found in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The recognition of these abnormalities is of value from the therapeutic (mitral valvuloplasty) diagnostic (in borderline cases) and genetic (when the primary nature of the abnormalities is confirmed) points of view.

  12. Impact of anesthesia on valvular function in normal rats during echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Droogmans, Steven; Lauwers, Rinaldo; Cosyns, Bernard; Roosens, Bram; Franken, Philippe R; Weytjens, Caroline; Bossuyt, Axel; Lahoutte, Tony; Schoors, Danny; Van Camp, Guy

    2008-10-01

    Anesthetic agents have different effects on hemodynamic and cardiac functional parameters. The influence of these changes on valvular function has not been studied in small animals. For this purpose, 48 male Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups. An echocardiogram was performed under inhaled isoflurane 2% gas (group I) or under intraperitoneal pentobarbital 50 mg/kg (group II) or ketamine/xylazine (group III) 40/8 mg/kg. Aortic regurgitation was only found in group III (80%, p < 0.0001 vs. groups I and II). Pulmonary and mitral regurgitation (PR, MR) were observed in all groups but were more frequent in group III (PR 67%, MR 100%) compared with group I (PR 13%, p = 0.003; MR 44%, p = 0.001 vs. group III) and group II (PR 19%, p = 0.011; MR 25%, p < 0.0001 vs. group III). Moreover, valvular regurgitations in group III (except tricuspid regurgitation) were more severe compared with groups I and II. The findings in group III were the result of increased blood pressure and afterload, left ventricular (LV) dilation and decreased function. Also in group III, the regurgitations diminished over time as the blood pressure decreased and LV function recovered. Isoflurane and pentobarbital had less pronounced effects on valvular function (5 and 10 min after induction, respectively) compared with ketamine/xylazine and, therefore, might be the anesthetics of choice for valvular evaluation in male Wistar rats. In conclusion, anesthesia causes hemodynamic changes that may result in functional valvular regurgitations in normal rats.

  13. Silent destruction of aortic and mitral valve by Klebsiella pneumoniae endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, K H; Sharma, Rajni; Agrawal, Navin; Manjunath, C N

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella endocarditis rarely affects the native valve especially in the immunocompromised and the elderly. We report a case of Klebsiella endocarditis in a 60-year-old man who had a nidus of infection on the aortic valve which led to severe aortic regurgitation. This possibly spread to the anterior mitral leaflet (AML) leading to AML perforation therefore causing moderate mitral regurgitation. The reason for this suspicion was that there was perforation of the AML in the absence of vegetation. Noteworthy is that he was asymptomatic apart from generalised fatigue. This case draws our attention to the nature of Klebsiella valvular affection due to the fact that it had bitten the aortic and mitral valve silently and compelled the patient to undergo double valve replacement without having a prolonged duration of symptomatic illness thereby calling for high suspicion especially in individuals in the extremes of ages where the symptoms are less-guiding than the signs. PMID:24057412

  14. Timing surgery in mitral regurgitation: defining risk and optimising intervention using stress echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Nicola C; Ray, Simon; Steeds, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the second most common form of valvular disease requiring surgery. Correct identification of surgical candidates and optimising the timing of surgery are key in management. For primary MR, this relies upon a balance between the peri-operative risks and rates of successful repair in patients undergoing early surgery when asymptomatic with the potential risk of irreversible left ventricular dysfunction if intervention is performed too late. For secondary MR, recognition that this is a highly dynamic condition where MR severity may change is key, although data on outcomes in determining whether concomitant valve intervention is performed with revascularisation has raised questions regarding timing of surgery. There has been substantial interest in the use of stress echocardiography to risk stratify patients in mitral regurgitation. This article reviews the role of stress echocardiography in both primary and secondary mitral regurgitation and discusses how this can help clinicians tackle the challenges of this prevalent condition. PMID:27737905

  15. Assessment of trans-aortic pressure gradient using a coronary pressure wire in patients with mechanical aortic and mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kherada, Nisharahmed; Brenes, Juan Carlos; Kini, Annapoorna S; Dangas, George D

    2017-03-15

    Accurate evaluation of trans-aortic valvular pressure gradients is challenging in cases where dual mechanical aortic and mitral valve prostheses are present. Non-invasive Doppler echocardiographic imaging has its limitations due to multiple geometric assumptions. Invasive measurement of trans-valvular gradients with cardiac catheterization can provide further information in patients with two mechanical valves, where simultaneous pressure measurements in the left ventricle and ascending aorta must be obtained. Obtaining access to the left ventricle via the mitral valve after a trans-septal puncture is not feasible in the case of a concomitant mechanical mitral valve, whereas left ventricular apical puncture technique is associated with high procedural risks. Retrograde crossing of a bileaflet mechanical aortic prosthesis with standard catheters is associated with the risk of catheter entrapment and acute valvular regurgitation. In these cases, the assessment of trans-valvular gradients using a 0.014˝ diameter coronary pressure wire technique has been described in a few case reports. We present the case of a 76-year-old female with rheumatic valvular heart disease who underwent mechanical aortic and mitral valve replacement in the past. She presented with decompensated heart failure and echocardiographic findings suggestive of elevated pressure gradient across the mechanical aortic valve prosthesis. The use of a high-fidelity 0.014˝ diameter coronary pressure guidewire resulted in the detection of a normal trans-valvular pressure gradient across the mechanical aortic valve. This avoided a high-risk third redo valve surgery in our patient. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cohort profile: prevalence of valvular heart disease in community patients with suspected heart failure in UK

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Anna; Glover, Keli; Sharma, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of suspected heart failure patients with significant valvular heart disease. Early diagnosis of valve disease is essential as delay can limit treatment and negatively affect prognosis for undiagnosed patients. The prevalence of unsuspected valve disease in the community is uncertain. Participants We prospectively evaluated 79 043 patients, between 2001 and 2011, who were referred to a community open access echocardiography service for suspected heart failure. All patients underwent a standard transthoracic echocardiogram according to British Society of Echocardiography guidelines. Findings to date Of the total number, 29 682 patients (37.5%) were diagnosed with mild valve disease, 8983 patients (11.3%) had moderate valve disease and 2134 (2.7%) had severe valve disease. Of the total number of patients scanned, the prevalence of aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation was 10%, 8.4%, 1%, and 12.5% respectively. 18% had tricuspid regurgitation. 5% had disease involving one or more valves. Conclusions Of patients with suspected heart failure in the primary care setting, a significant proportion have important valvular heart disease. These patients are at high risk of future cardiac events and will require onward referral for further evaluation. We recommend that readily available community echocardiography services should be provided for general practitioners as this will result in early detection of valve disease. PMID:28131996

  17. Genetic Associations with Valvular Calcification and Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Thanassoulis, George; Campbell, Catherine Y.; Owens, David S.; Smith, J. Gustav; Smith, Albert V.; Peloso, Gina M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Budoff, Matthew J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Malhotra, Rajeev; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Allison, Matthew A.; Aspelund, Thor; Criqui, Michael H.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Liu, Yongmei; Sjogren, Marketa; van der Pals, Jesper; Kälsch, Hagen; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Caslake, Muriel; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Danesh, John; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Wong, Quenna; Erbel, Raimund; Kathiresan, Sekar; Melander, Olle; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Limited information is available regarding genetic contributions to valvular calcification, which is an important precursor of clinical valve disease. METHODS We determined genomewide associations with the presence of aorticvalve calcification (among 6942 participants) and mitral annular calcification (among 3795 participants), as detected by computed tomographic (CT) scanning; the study population for this analysis included persons of white European ancestry from three cohorts participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (discovery population). Findings were replicated in independent cohorts of persons with either CT-detected valvular calcification or clinical aortic stenosis. RESULTS One SNP in the lipoprotein(a) (LPA) locus (rs10455872) reached genomewide significance for the presence of aorticvalve calcification (odds ratio per allele, 2.05; P = 9.0×10−10), a finding that was replicated in additional white European, African-American, and Hispanic-American cohorts (P<0.05 for all comparisons). Genetically determined Lp(a) levels, as predicted by LPA genotype, were also associated with aorticvalve calcification, supporting a causal role for Lp(a). In prospective analyses, LPA genotype was associated with incident aortic stenosis (hazard ratio per allele, 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 2.15) and aortic-valve replacement (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.27) in a large Swedish cohort; the association with incident aortic stenosis was also replicated in an independent Danish cohort. Two SNPs (rs17659543 and rs13415097) near the proinflammatory gene IL1F9 achieved genomewide significance for mitral annular calcification (P = 1.5×10−8 and P = 1.8×10−8, respectively), but the findings were not replicated consistently. CONCLUSIONS Genetic variation in the LPA locus, mediated by Lp(a) levels, is associated with aorticvalve calcification across multiple ethnic groups and with incident

  18. Cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Choo, W S; Steeds, R P

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a perspective on the relative importance and contribution of different imaging modalities in patients with valvular heart disease. Valvular heart disease is increasing in prevalence across Europe, at a time when the clinical ability of physicians to diagnose and assess severity is declining. Increasing reliance is placed on echocardiography, which is the mainstay of cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease. This article outlines the techniques used in this context and their limitations, identifying areas in which dynamic imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance and multislice CT are expanding.

  19. Cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Choo, W S; Steeds, R P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a perspective on the relative importance and contribution of different imaging modalities in patients with valvular heart disease. Valvular heart disease is increasing in prevalence across Europe, at a time when the clinical ability of physicians to diagnose and assess severity is declining. Increasing reliance is placed on echocardiography, which is the mainstay of cardiac imaging in valvular heart disease. This article outlines the techniques used in this context and their limitations, identifying areas in which dynamic imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance and multislice CT are expanding. PMID:22723532

  20. A novel left heart simulator for the multi-modality characterization of native mitral valve geometry and fluid mechanics.

    PubMed

    Rabbah, Jean-Pierre; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2013-02-01

    Numerical models of the mitral valve have been used to elucidate mitral valve function and mechanics. These models have evolved from simple two-dimensional approximations to complex three-dimensional fully coupled fluid structure interaction models. However, to date these models lack direct one-to-one experimental validation. As computational solvers vary considerably, experimental benchmark data are critically important to ensure model accuracy. In this study, a novel left heart simulator was designed specifically for the validation of numerical mitral valve models. Several distinct experimental techniques were collectively performed to resolve mitral valve geometry and hemodynamics. In particular, micro-computed tomography was used to obtain accurate and high-resolution (39 μm voxel) native valvular anatomy, which included the mitral leaflets, chordae tendinae, and papillary muscles. Three-dimensional echocardiography was used to obtain systolic leaflet geometry. Stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry provided all three components of fluid velocity through the mitral valve, resolved every 25 ms in the cardiac cycle. A strong central filling jet (V ~ 0.6 m/s) was observed during peak systole with minimal out-of-plane velocities. In addition, physiologic hemodynamic boundary conditions were defined and all data were synchronously acquired through a central trigger. Finally, the simulator is a precisely controlled environment, in which flow conditions and geometry can be systematically prescribed and resultant valvular function and hemodynamics assessed. Thus, this work represents the first comprehensive database of high fidelity experimental data, critical for extensive validation of mitral valve fluid structure interaction simulations.

  1. [Atrial fibrillation concomitant with valvular heart disease].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yosuke

    2013-01-01

    Patients with valvular heart disease frequently have atrial fibrillation(AF) due to elevated pressure and dilatation of the left and right atria and pulmonary veins. Guidelines for valvular heart disease and AF recommend that surgical treatment for the valvular heart disease should be performed concomitantly with AF surgery. The Full-Maze procedure has evolved into the gold standard of treatment for medically refractory AF. In addition to the pulmonary vein isolation, the right and left atrial incisions of the Full-Maze procedure are designed to block potential macroreentrant pathways. According to the mechanisms of AF with valvular heart disease, the Full-Maze procedure is more effective for the patients than the pulmonary vein isolation alone.

  2. How Is Mitral Valve Prolapse Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Mitral Valve Prolapse Treated? Most people who have mitral valve ... all hospitals offer this method. Valve Repair and Valve Replacement In mitral valve surgery, the valve is repaired or replaced. ...

  3. Valvular heart disease in the community: a European experience.

    PubMed

    Iung, Bernard; Baron, Gabriel; Tornos, Pilar; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Butchart, Eric G; Vahanian, Alec

    2007-11-01

    The Euro Heart Survey on valvular heart disease included 5001 patients from 92 centers in 25 European countries in 2001: 71.9% had native valve disease and 28.1% had previously undergone valve surgery. Aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral regurgitation (MR) accounted for 43.1 and 33.6%, respectively, of single-valve diseases and were mostly caused by degenerative diseases. Mean age was 69 and 65 years, respectively, and at least one comorbidity was present in 36.3% of patients with AS and 41.7% with MR. Analysis of the therapeutic decision in patients with severe valve diseases showed that symptomatic patients were frequently denied surgery (32.3% in AS after the age of 75 and 51.3% in MR), more on the basis of age and left ventricular function than comorbidities. There was a better concordance between practice and guidelines concerning interventions in asymptomatic patients. These findings underline the need for better implementation of guidelines.

  4. Radiation-associated valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ong, Daniel S; Aertker, Robert A; Clark, Alexandra N; Kiefer, Todd; Hughes, G Chad; Harrison, J Kevin; Bashore, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    Therapeutic ionizing radiation, such as that used in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma, can cause cardiac valvular damage that may take several years to manifest as radiation-associated valvular heart disease. Treatment can be complicated by comorbid radiation injury to other cardiac and mediastinal structures that lead to traditional surgical valve replacement or repair becoming high-risk. A representative case is presented that demonstrates the complexity of radiation-associated valvular heart disease and its successful treatment with percutaneous transcatheter valve replacement. The prevalence and pathophysiologic mechanism of radiation-associated valvular injury are reviewed. Anthracycline adjuvant therapy appears to increase the risk of valvular fibrosis. Left-sided heart valves are more commonly affected than right-sided heart valves. A particular pattern of calcification has been noted in some patients, and experimental data suggest that radiation induction of an osteogenic phenotype may be responsible. A renewed appreciation of the cardiac valvular effects of therapeutic ionizing radiation for mediastinal malignancies is important, and the treatment of such patients may be assisted by the development of novel, less-invasive approaches.

  5. Morphofunctional Abnormalities of Mitral Annulus and Arrhythmic Mitral Valve Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Cristina; De Lazzari, Manuel; Rizzo, Stefania; Cipriani, Alberto; Giorgi, Benedetta; Lacognata, Carmelo; Rigato, Ilaria; Migliore, Federico; Pilichou, Kalliopi; Cacciavillani, Luisa; Bertaglia, Emanuele; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Bauce, Barbara; Corrado, Domenico; Thiene, Gaetano; Iliceto, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    Background— Arrhythmic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is characterized by myxomatous leaflets and left ventricular (LV) fibrosis of papillary muscles and inferobasal wall. We searched for morphofunctional abnormalities of the mitral valve that could explain a regional mechanical myocardial stretch. Methods and Results— Thirty-six (27 female patients; median age: 44 years) arrhythmic MVP patients with LV late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance and no or trivial mitral regurgitation, and 16 (6 female patients; median age: 40 years) MVP patients without LV late gadolinium enhancement were investigated by morphofunctional cardiac magnetic resonance. Mitral annulus disjunction (median: 4.8 versus 1.8 mm; P<0.001), end-systolic mitral annular diameters (median: 41.2 versus 31.5; P=0.004) and end-diastolic mitral annular diameters (median: 35.5 versus 31.5; P=0.042), prevalence of posterior systolic curling (34 [94%] versus 3 [19%]; P<0.001), and basal to mid LV wall thickness ratio >1.5 (22 [61%] versus 4 [25%]; P=0.016) were higher in MVP patients with late gadolinium enhancement than in those without. A linear correlation was found between mitral annulus disjunction and curling (R=0.85). A higher prevalence of auscultatory midsystolic click (26 [72%] versus 6 [38%]; P=0.018) was also noted. Histology of the mitral annulus showed a longer mitral annulus disjunction in 50 sudden death patients with MVP and LV fibrosis than in 20 patients without MVP (median: 3 versus 1.5 mm; P<0.001). Conclusions— Mitral annulus disjunction is a constant feature of arrhythmic MVP with LV fibrosis. The excessive mobility of the leaflets caused by posterior systolic curling accounts for a mechanical stretch of the inferobasal wall and papillary muscles, eventually leading to myocardial hypertrophy and scarring. These mitral annulus abnormalities, together with auscultatory midsystolic click, may identify MVP patients who would need arrhythmic risk stratification. PMID

  6. Modeling the Mitral Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The mitral valve is one of four valves in the human heart. The valve opens to allow oxygenated blood from the lungs to fill the left ventricle, and closes when the ventricle contracts to prevent backflow. The valve is composed of two fibrous leaflets which hang from a ring. These leaflets are supported like a parachute by a system of strings called chordae tendineae. In this talk, I will describe a new computational model of the mitral valve. To generate geometry, general information comes from classical anatomy texts and the author's dissection of porcine hearts. An MRI image of a human heart is used to locate the tips of the papillary muscles, which anchor the chordae tendineae, in relation to the mitral ring. The initial configurations of the valve leaflets and chordae tendineae are found by solving solving an equilibrium elasticity problem. The valve is then simulated in fluid (blood) using the immersed boundary method over multiple heart cycles in a model valve tester. We aim to identify features and mechanisms that influence or control valve function. Support from National Science Foundation, Graduate Research Fellowship Program, Grant DGE 1342536.

  7. Mechanics of the mitral valve: a critical review, an in vivo parameter identification, and the effect of prestrain.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Manuel K; Famaey, Nele; Shultz, Tyler O'Brien; Bothe, Wolfgang; Miller, D Craig; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    Alterations in mitral valve mechanics are classical indicators of valvular heart disease, such as mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis. Computational modeling is a powerful technique to quantify these alterations, to explore mitral valve physiology and pathology, and to classify the impact of novel treatment strategies. The selection of the appropriate constitutive model and the choice of its material parameters are paramount to the success of these models. However, the in vivo parameters values for these models are unknown. Here, we identify the in vivo material parameters for three common hyperelastic models for mitral valve tissue, an isotropic one and two anisotropic ones, using an inverse finite element approach. We demonstrate that the two anisotropic models provide an excellent fit to the in vivo data, with local displacement errors in the sub-millimeter range. In a complementary sensitivity analysis, we show that the identified parameter values are highly sensitive to prestrain, with some parameters varying up to four orders of magnitude. For the coupled anisotropic model, the stiffness varied from 119,021 kPa at 0 % prestrain via 36 kPa at 30 % prestrain to 9 kPa at 60 % prestrain. These results may, at least in part, explain the discrepancy between previously reported ex vivo and in vivo measurements of mitral leaflet stiffness. We believe that our study provides valuable guidelines for modeling mitral valve mechanics, selecting appropriate constitutive models, and choosing physiologically meaningful parameter values. Future studies will be necessary to experimentally and computationally investigate prestrain, to verify its existence, to quantify its magnitude, and to clarify its role in mitral valve mechanics.

  8. Antidepressants and Valvular Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan; Liu, Yen-Bin; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Shen, Li-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Empirical evidence regarding the association between antidepressants and valvular heart disease (VHD) is scarce. Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research database, this nested case-control study assessed the association between antidepressants and VHD in a Chinese population. Among a cohort of patients who used at least 3 prescription antidepressants, 874 cases with VHD and 3496 matched controls (1:4 ratio) were identified. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine the timing, duration, dose and type of antidepressants use, and the risk of VHD. Current use of antidepressants was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in the risk of VHD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–1.77). Among current users, a dose–response association was observed in terms of the cumulative duration and the cumulative antidepressant dose. Significantly higher risks of VHD were observed among the current users of tricyclic antidepressants (aOR 1.40 [1.05–1.87]). We found that the use of antidepressants was associated with a greater risk of VHD and that the risks varied according to different antidepressants. PMID:27057841

  9. Myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs: Does size matter?

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heidi G.; Kilroy-Glynn, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most commonly diagnosed cardiovascular disease in the dog accounting for more than 70% of all cardiovascular disease in dogs. As are most canine diseases with genetic underpinnings, risk of MMVD is greatly increased in a subset of breeds. What is uncommon is that the vast majority of the breeds at elevated risk for MMVD are small or toy breeds with average adult weights under 9 kg. These breeds appear to have little in common other than their diminutive size. In the following review we propose a number of mechanisms by which relatively unrelated small breeds may have developed a predisposition for chronic valvular disorders. Although factors such as age are key in the expression of MMVD, taking a comprehensive look at the commonalities, as well as the differences, between the susceptible breeds may assist in finding the causal variants responsible for MMVD and translating them to improved treatments for both dogs and humans. PMID:22356836

  10. Lipomatous hamartoma of mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Seetharama P S; Gowda, Girish S L; Chikkatur, Raghavendra; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

    2016-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are very rare, and tumors arising from cardiac valves are extremely rare. We present a case of lipomatous hamartoma of the mitral valve in a young female. This is the 6th case of lipomatous hamartoma of the mitral valve to be reported. We discuss the operative and histopathological findings.

  11. Cardiac valvular pathology: comparative pathology and animal models of acquired cardiac valvular diseases.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Kevin B

    2008-02-01

    Recent voluntary withdrawal of the ergoline-derivative Alzheimers' drug Pergolide (Permax) resulting from demonstrated risk of cardiac valve injury illustrates the increased importance of valve injury in pharmaceutical toxicology. Following the 2001 landmark discovery of cardiac valve injury associated with the widely prescribed anti-obesity drug combination fenfluramine-phentermine, and subsequent withdrawal, the need to understand and assess cardiac valve biology and pathology both preclinically and clinically has been accentuated. Unique aspects of the developmental biology, anatomy, and physiology of cardiac valves compared to main cardiac tissue have been discovered, and key elements of the pathophysiology of various valvular injury mechanisms have been described. Although general clinical cardiac valvular disease in humans has been well characterized, animal modeling of valvular injury has proved to be difficult and undersubscribed. Additionally, both the preclinical, pharmaceutical, toxicologic assessment of valvular injury and the understanding of species-comparative valvular pathology have been limited. As discoveries and awareness grows, the purpose of this paper is to review the structure and function of cardiac valves, mechanisms, and outcomes of the common acquired human cardiac valve diseases, including those that are drug-related; to summarize comparative laboratory animal valvular pathology; and to review the literature of contemporary animal models of valvular injury.

  12. COMPUTATIONAL MITRAL VALVE EVALUATION AND POTENTIAL CLINICAL APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Krishnan B.; Kim, Hyunggun

    2014-01-01

    The mitral valve (MV) apparatus consists of the two asymmetric leaflets, the saddle-shaped annulus, the chordae tendineae, and the papillary muscles. MV function over the cardiac cycle involves complex interaction between the MV apparatus components for efficient blood circulation. Common diseases of the MV include valvular stenosis, regurgitation, and prolapse. MV repair is the most popular and most reliable surgical treatment for early MV pathology. One of the unsolved problems in MV repair is to predict the optimal repair strategy for each patient. Although experimental studies have provided valuable information to improve repair techniques, computational simulations are increasingly playing an important role in understanding the complex MV dynamics, particularly with the availability of patient-specific real-time imaging modalities. This work presents a review of computational simulation studies of MV function employing finite element (FE) structural analysis and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach reported in the literature to date. More recent studies towards potential applications of computational simulation approaches in the assessment of valvular repair techniques and potential pre-surgical planning of repair strategies are also discussed. It is anticipated that further advancements in computational techniques combined with the next generations of clinical imaging modalities will enable physiologically more realistic simulations. Such advancement in imaging and computation will allow for patient-specific, disease-specific, and case-specific MV evaluation and virtual prediction of MV repair. PMID:25134487

  13. Immediate Outcome of Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty with JOMIVA Balloon during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ramona; Kaliappan, Tamilarasu; Gopalan, Rajendiran; Palanimuthu, Ramasmy; Anandhan, Premkrishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatic mitral stenosis is the most common Valvular Heart Disease encountered during pregnancy. Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty (BMV) is one of the treatment option available if the symptoms are refractory to the medical management and the valve anatomy is suitable for balloon dilatation. BMV with Inoue balloon is the most common technique being followed worldwide. Over the wire BMV is a modified technique using Joseph Mitral Valvuloplasty (JOMIVA) balloon catheter which is being followed in certain centres. Aim To assess the immediate post procedure outcome of over the wire BMV with JOMIVA balloon. Materials and Methods Clinical and echocardiographic parameters of pregnant women with significant mitral stenosis who underwent elective BMV with JOMIVA balloon in our institute from 2005 to 2015 were analysed retrospectively. Severity of breathlessness (New York Heart Association Functional Class), and duration of pregnancy was included in the analysis. Pre procedural echocardiographic parameters which included severity of mitral stenosis and Wilkin’s scoring were analysed. Clinical, haemodynamic and echocardiographic outcomes immediately after the procedure were analysed. Results Among the patients who underwent BMV in our Institute 38 were pregnant women. Twenty four patients (63%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III. All of them were in sinus rhythm except two (5%) who had atrial fibrillation. Thirty four patients (89.5%) were in second trimester of pregnancy at the time of presentation and four (10.5%) were in third trimester. Echocardiographic analysis of the mitral valve showed that the mean Wilkin’s score was 7.3. Mean mitral valve area pre procedure was 0.8 cm2. Mean gradient across the valve was 18 mmHg. Ten patients (26.5%) had mild mitral regurgitation and none had more than mild mitral regurgitation. Thirty six patients had pulmonary hypertension as assessed by tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity. All of them underwent BMV

  14. The Mitral Valve Prolapsus: Quantification of the Regurgitation Flow Rate by Experimental Time-Dependant PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billy, F.; Coisne, D.; Sanchez, L.; Perrault, R.

    2001-10-01

    Color Doppler is routinely used for visualisation of intra cardiac flows and quantification of valvular heart disease, Nevertheless the 2D visualization of a complex 3D phenomenon is the major limitation of this technique, In particular, in clinical setting, the flow rate calculation upstream a regurgitant orifice (i,e, mitral valve insufficiency), assumes that the velocity field in the convergent region have hemispheric shapes and introduce miscalculation specially in case of prolaps regurgitant orifices, The main objective of this study was to characterize the dynamic 3D velocity field of the convergent region upstream a prolaps model of regurgitant orifice based on 2D time dependent PIV reconstruction.

  15. Complete resolution of a mitral valve vegetation with anticoagulation in seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yuheng; Bridges, Jonathan S; Kumar, Kapil; Raphael, Jonelle A; Acharjee, Subroto; Welty, Francine K

    2008-12-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a disorder characterized by recurrent venous or arterial thrombosis and/or fetal loss; involvement of cardiac valves is also seen. A seronegative variant has been described previously. We report a case of a woman with recurrent pregnancy loss, prior strokes, and a negative workup for known antiphospholipid antibodies. During her current pregnancy, she presented with acute stroke and mitral valve vegetation. Her workup for antiphospholipid syndrome and other thrombophilias remained negative even after the stroke. Her mitral valve vegetation resolved completely with aspirin, heparin, and warfarin. We believe this to be the first report of complete resolution of valvular vegetation with antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy alone in a patient with seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome. Moreover, this appears to be the first report of stroke associated with this condition.

  16. [Infectious mitral endocarditis after radiofrequency catheter ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway].

    PubMed

    Benito Bartolomé, F; Sánchez Fernández-Bernal, C

    2001-08-01

    A 2-years-old child with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome associated with life-threatening symptoms underwent radiofrequency ablation of a left lateral accessory pathway. A deflectable 5F bipolar electrode catheter positioned above the atrioventricular groove by transeptal approach was used for ablation. The catheters were repeatedly used after ethylene oxide sterilisation. Although immediate post-ablation echocardiography demonstrated no complications, the patient was readmitted two days later with fever and a new mitral murmur. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and intravenous antibiotics were administered. In the following weeks, the patient developed constrictive pericarditis requiring surgical treatment and acute hemiplegia caused by brain embolism arising from valvular vegetation. At 5 years of follow-up the patient presents residual hemiparesia and grade II/IV mitral insufficiency.

  17. Mitral Valve Annuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Manuel K.; Bothe, Wolfgang; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Swanson, Julia C.; Miller, D. Craig; Kuhl, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Mitral valve annuloplasty is a common surgical technique used in the repair of a leaking valve by implanting an annuloplasty device. To enhance repair durability, these devices are designed to increase leaflet coaptation, while preserving the native annular shape and motion; however, the precise impact of device implantation on annular deformation, strain, and curvature is unknown. Here we quantify how three frequently used devices significantly impair native annular dynamics. In controlled in vivo experiments, we surgically implanted eleven flexible-incomplete, eleven semi-rigid-complete, and twelve rigid-complete devices around the mitral annuli of 34 sheep, each tagged with 16 equally-spaced tantalum markers. We recorded four-dimensional marker coordinates using biplane videofluoroscopy, first with device and then without, which were used to create mathematical models using piecewise cubic splines. Clinical metrics (characteristic anatomical distances) revealed significant global reduction in annular dynamics upon device implantation. Mechanical metrics (strain and curvature fields) explained this reduction via a local loss of anterior dilation and posterior contraction. Overall, all three devices unfavorably reduced annular dynamics. The flexible-incomplete device, however, preserved native annular dynamics to a larger extent than the complete devices. Heterogeneous strain and curvature profiles suggest the need for heterogeneous support, which may spawn more rational design of annuloplasty devices using design concepts of functionally graded materials. PMID:22037916

  18. Kingella kingae endocarditis: A rare case of mitral valve perforation

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Anthony A; Hung, Tawny; Human, Derek G; Campbell, Andrew I M

    2011-01-01

    Kingella kingae, a HACEK (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae) organism, is a common resident of the upper airway in children; it has been associated with endocarditis in children with pre-existing heart conditions. This case report describes K. kingae endocarditis leading to valvular damage in a previously healthy 18-month-old child. Our patient developed a K. kingae bacteremia that was later complicated by meningitis, septic embolic stroke, and endocarditis of the mitral valve, leading to perforation of the posterolateral leaflet. The patient was initially treated conservatively with cefotaxime but, subsequently, required a mitral valve repair with a pericardial patch and annuloplasty. This report draws attention to the need for clinicians to be aware of the potentially serious complications of K. kingae infection in young children. If K. kingae infection is suspected then therapy should be initiated promptly with a β-lactam, followed by early echocardiographic assessment. This case also highlights the lack of specific guidelines available for K. kingae endocarditis. PMID:21976892

  19. Kingella kingae endocarditis: A rare case of mitral valve perforation.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Anthony A; Hung, Tawny; Human, Derek G; Campbell, Andrew I M

    2011-07-01

    Kingella kingae, a HACEK (Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae) organism, is a common resident of the upper airway in children; it has been associated with endocarditis in children with pre-existing heart conditions. This case report describes K. kingae endocarditis leading to valvular damage in a previously healthy 18-month-old child. Our patient developed a K. kingae bacteremia that was later complicated by meningitis, septic embolic stroke, and endocarditis of the mitral valve, leading to perforation of the posterolateral leaflet. The patient was initially treated conservatively with cefotaxime but, subsequently, required a mitral valve repair with a pericardial patch and annuloplasty. This report draws attention to the need for clinicians to be aware of the potentially serious complications of K. kingae infection in young children. If K. kingae infection is suspected then therapy should be initiated promptly with a β-lactam, followed by early echocardiographic assessment. This case also highlights the lack of specific guidelines available for K. kingae endocarditis.

  20. Asymptotic Model of Fluid-Tissue Interaction for Mitral Valve Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Domenichini, Federico; Pedrizzetti, Gianni

    2015-06-01

    The vortex formation process inside the left ventricle is intrinsically connected to the dynamics of the mitral leaflets while they interact with the flow crossing the valve during diastole. The description of the dynamics of a natural mitral valve still represents a challenging issue, especially because its material properties are not measurable in vivo. Medical imaging can provide some indications about the geometry of the valve, but not about its mechanical properties. In this work, we introduce a parametric model of the mitral valve geometry, whose motion is described in the asymptotic limit under the assumption that it moves with the flow, without any additional resistance other than that given by its shape, and without the need to specify its material properties. The mitral valve model is coupled with a simple description of the left ventricle geometry, and their dynamics is solved numerically together with the equations ruling the blood flow. The intra-ventricular flow is analyzed in its relationship with the valvular motion. It is found that the initial valve opening anticipates the peak velocity of the Early filling wave with little influence of the specific geometry; while subsequent closure and re-opening are more dependent on the intraventricular vortex dynamics and thus on the leaflets' geometry itself. The limitations and potential applications of the proposed model are discussed.

  1. Differential MicroRNA Expression Profile in Myxomatous Mitral Valve Prolapse and Fibroelastic Deficiency Valves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yei-Tsung; Wang, Juan; Wee, Abby S Y; Yong, Quek-Wei; Tay, Edgar Lik-Wui; Woo, Chin Cheng; Sorokin, Vitaly; Richards, Arthur Mark; Ling, Lieng-Hsi

    2016-05-18

    Myxomatous mitral valve prolapse (MMVP) and fibroelastic deficiency (FED) are two common variants of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD), which is a leading cause of mitral regurgitation worldwide. While pathohistological studies have revealed differences in extracellular matrix content in MMVP and FED, the molecular mechanisms underlying these two disease entities remain to be elucidated. By using surgically removed valvular specimens from MMVP and FED patients that were categorized on the basis of echocardiographic, clinical and operative findings, a cluster of microRNAs that expressed differentially were identified. The expressions of has-miR-500, -3174, -17, -1193, -646, -1273e, -4298, -203, -505, and -939 showed significant differences between MMVP and FED after applying Bonferroni correction (p < 0.002174). The possible involvement of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of DMVD were further suggested by the presences of in silico predicted target sites on a number of genes reported to be involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis and marker genes for cellular composition of mitral valves, including decorin (DCN), aggrecan (ACAN), fibromodulin (FMOD), α actin 2 (ACTA2), extracellular matrix protein 2 (ECM2), desmin (DES), endothelial cell specific molecule 1 (ESM1), and platelet/ endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1), as well as inverse correlations of selected microRNA and mRNA expression in MMVP and FED groups. Our results provide evidence that distinct molecular mechanisms underlie MMVP and FED. Moreover, the microRNAs identified may be targets for the future development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics.

  2. Differential MicroRNA Expression Profile in Myxomatous Mitral Valve Prolapse and Fibroelastic Deficiency Valves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yei-Tsung; Wang, Juan; Wee, Abby S. Y.; Yong, Quek-Wei; Tay, Edgar Lik-Wui; Woo, Chin Cheng; Sorokin, Vitaly; Richards, Arthur Mark; Ling, Lieng-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Myxomatous mitral valve prolapse (MMVP) and fibroelastic deficiency (FED) are two common variants of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD), which is a leading cause of mitral regurgitation worldwide. While pathohistological studies have revealed differences in extracellular matrix content in MMVP and FED, the molecular mechanisms underlying these two disease entities remain to be elucidated. By using surgically removed valvular specimens from MMVP and FED patients that were categorized on the basis of echocardiographic, clinical and operative findings, a cluster of microRNAs that expressed differentially were identified. The expressions of has-miR-500, -3174, -17, -1193, -646, -1273e, -4298, -203, -505, and -939 showed significant differences between MMVP and FED after applying Bonferroni correction (p < 0.002174). The possible involvement of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of DMVD were further suggested by the presences of in silico predicted target sites on a number of genes reported to be involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis and marker genes for cellular composition of mitral valves, including decorin (DCN), aggrecan (ACAN), fibromodulin (FMOD), α actin 2 (ACTA2), extracellular matrix protein 2 (ECM2), desmin (DES), endothelial cell specific molecule 1 (ESM1), and platelet/ endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1), as well as inverse correlations of selected microRNA and mRNA expression in MMVP and FED groups. Our results provide evidence that distinct molecular mechanisms underlie MMVP and FED. Moreover, the microRNAs identified may be targets for the future development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics. PMID:27213335

  3. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Helena J. van der; Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities in

  4. Myocardial Infarction Alters Adaptation of the Tethered Mitral Valve

    PubMed Central

    Dal-Bianco, Jacob P.; Aikawa, Elena; Bischoff, Joyce; Guerrero, J. Luis; Hjortnaes, Jesper; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Szymanski, Catherine; Bartko, Philipp E.; Seybolt, Margo M.; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Sullivan, Suzanne; Garcia, Michael L.; Mauskapf, Adam; Titus, James S.; Wylie-Sears, Jill; Irvin, Whitney S.; Chaput, Miguel; Messas, Emmanuel; Hagège, Albert A.; Carpentier, Alain; Levine, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In patients with myocardial infarction (MI), leaflet tethering by displaced papillary muscles induces mitral regurgitation (MR), which doubles mortality. Mitral valves (MVs) are larger in such patients but fibrosis sets in counterproductively. The investigators previously reported that experimental tethering alone increases mitral valve area in association with endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. OBJECTIVES This study explored the clinically relevant situation of tethering and MI, testing the hypothesis that ischemic milieu modifies MV adaptation. METHODS Twenty-three adult sheep were examined. Under cardiopulmonary bypass, the PM tips in 6 sheep were retracted apically to replicate tethering, short of producing MR (tethered-alone). PM retraction was combined with apical MI created by coronary ligation in another 6 sheep (tethered + MI), and left ventricular (LV) remodeling was limited by external constraint in 5 additional sheep (LV constraint). Six sham-operated sheep were controls. Diastolic MV surface area was quantified by 3-dimensional echocardiography at baseline and after 58 ± 5 days, followed by histopathology and flow cytometry of excised leaflets. RESULTS Tethered + MI leaflets were markedly thicker than tethered-alone valves and sham controls. Leaflet area also increased significantly. EMT, detected as α-smooth muscle actin-positive endothelial cells, significantly exceeded that in tethered-alone and control valves. Transforming growth factor-β, matrix metalloproteinase expression, and cellular proliferation were markedly increased. Uniquely, tethering + MI showed endothelial activation with vascular adhesion molecule expression, neovascularization, and cells positive for CD45, considered a hematopoietic cell marker. Tethered + MI findings were comparable with external ventricular constraint. CONCLUSIONS MI altered leaflet adaptation, including a profibrotic increase in valvular cell activation, CD45-positive cells, and matrix turnover

  5. PREVALENCE OF VALVULAR REGURGITATIONS IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY CAPTIVE LEOPARDS AND CHEETAHS: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM THE WILDLIFE CARDIOLOGY (WLC) GROUP (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin; Petit, Thierry; Kohl, Muriel; Bourgeois, Aude; Gouni, Vassiliki; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Misbach, Charlotte; Petit, Amandine; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Garrigou, Audrey; Guepin, Raphaëlle; Pouchelon, Jean Louis; Chetboul, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate transthoracic echocardiograms from clinically healthy large felids for the presence of valvular regurgitations (VR). Physiologic VR commonly occur in normal dogs and cats, but the percentage of large felids with VR has not been previously reported. During a 5-yr study period (2008-2013), 28 healthy animals were evaluated under general anesthesia: 16 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringuii) with a mean age of 1.5±0.8 yr (range 0.7-3.5 yr), 5 Amur leopards (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 snow leopard (Uncia uncia), and 6 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa). For this study, all the leopards were gathered in one so-called "leopards group" with a mean age of 2.8±3.4 yr (range 0.3-10.7 yr). All valves observed in each view were examined for evidence of regurgitant jets and turbulent blood flow using the color-flow Doppler mode. Valves were also examined for structural changes. Mitral valve and aortic cusp abnormalities were considered to be of congenital origin. Mitral valve lesions led to mitral insufficiency in all the felids. Aortic cusp abnormalities led to aortic regurgitation in 94% of the cheetahs and 67% of the leopards. Leopards showed a predominance of early systolic mitral regurgitations, whereas all the mitral regurgitation jets in cheetahs were holosystolic. Tricuspid regurgitation was found in 81% of the cheetahs and in 50% of the leopards, whereas pulmonic regurgitation was detected in 44% of the cheetahs and 33% of the leopards. Interestingly, none of these tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitations were associated with two-dimensional structural valve abnormalities, thus suggesting their physiologic origin, as described in humans, cats, and dogs. In conclusion, subclinical valvular diseases are common in apparently healthy leopards and cheetahs. Longitudinal follow-up of affected animals is therefore required to assess their clinical outcome.

  6. Mitral Valve Prolapse (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Heart and Circulatory System Congenital Heart Defects Getting an EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System Heart Murmurs Marfan Syndrome Mitral Valve Prolapse EKG ( ...

  7. Synthesis of glycosaminoglycans in differently loaded regions of collagen gels seeded with valvular interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Werdenberg, Jennifer A; Blevins, Tracy L; Grande-Allen, K Jane

    2007-01-01

    Cells respond to changes in mechanical strains by varying their production of extracellular matrix macromolecules. Because differences in strain patterns between mitral valve leaflets and chordae tendineae have been linked to different quantities and types of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), we investigated the effects of various strain conditions on GAG synthesis by valvular interstitial cells (VICs) using an in vitro 3-dimensional tissue-engineering model. VICs from leaflets or chordae were seeded within collagen gels and subjected to uniaxial or biaxial static tension for 1 week. GAGs synthesized within the collagen gels and secreted into the surrounding medium were analyzed using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. In constrained conditions, more 4-sulfated GAGs were retained within the collagen gel, whereas more hyaluronan was secreted into the surrounding medium. Selected GAG classes were found in significantly different proportions in collagen gels seeded with leaflet cells versus chordal cells. The only significant difference between uniaxial and biaxial regions was found for 6-sulfated GAGs in the gels seeded with chordal cells (p<0.05). This study suggests how mechanical loading may influence GAG production and localization in the remodeling of the mitral valve and has design implications for engineered tissues.

  8. Differentiating the aging of the mitral valve from human and canine myxomatous degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Patrick S.; Han, Richard I.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2012-01-01

    During the course of both canine and human aging, the mitral valve remodels in generally predictable ways. The connection between these aging changes and the morbidity and mortality that accompany pathologic conditions has not been made clear. By exploring work that has investigated the specific valvular changes in both age and disease, with respect to the cells and the extracellular matrix found within the mitral valve, heretofore unexplored connections between age and myxomatous valve disease can be found. This review addresses several studies that have been conducted to explore such age and disease related changes in extracellular matrix, valvular endothelial and interstitial cells, and valve innervation, and also reviews attempts to correlate aging and myxomatous disease. Such connections can highlight avenues for future research and help provide insight as to when an individual diverts from an aging pattern into a diseased pathway. Recognizing these patterns and opportunities could result in earlier intervention and the hope of reduced morbidity and mortality for patients. PMID:22364720

  9. Aortic or Mitral Valve Replacement With the Biocor and Biocor Supra

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Aortic Valve Insufficiency; Aortic Valve Regurgitation; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Aortic Valve Incompetence; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Mitral Valve Regurgitation; Mitral Valve Stenosis; Mitral Valve Incompetence

  10. [A methodological study of measuring quantitatively turbulent shear stree downstream of mitral stenosis in vivo using Doppler echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guimin; Shi, Yingkang; Tang, Hong; Zhang, Eryong; Guo, Zhongsan; Fan, Yubo; Pu, Fang; Zengzhi

    2002-01-01

    In order to establish a method for measuring quantitatively turbulent shear stress (TSS) downstream of mitral stenosis in vivo based on Doppler echocardiography and computer-aided image analysis, we used doppler echocardiography to record the spectrum of flow velocity downstream of mitral valve at several locations in normal persons and in patients with mitral stenosis. With the computer-aided analysis of spectrum images, the magnitude of TSS was measured at the locations. The results demonstrate that no matter how severe the mitral stenosis is, the TSS and relative turbulent intensity(Irel) at the central locations of jet are lower than those at the marginal ones. A significant difference in the quantitative items of TSS, Irel and flow field uniformity between normal persons and patients with varying-degree of mitral stenosis was noticed (P < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between these items and effective orifice area (EOA), and we found that the smaller EOA is, the more severe the extent of stenosis is and the greater the magnitude of both TSS and Irel are, and that the highest magnitude of TSS is focused on the marginal area of jet. These results indicate that there is an obvious correlation between TSS(measured by Doppler echocardiography combined with computer-aided image analysis) and flow field uniformity. They can coincidently reveal the hemodynamic changes resulting from mitral stenosis of varied severeness, implying that our method could exactly depict the magnitude of TSS downstream of mitral stenosis in vivo and is non-invasive and good for anti-disturbance. The method can be used to analyze quantitatively TSS in the flow field of heart valve in patients with valvular diseases.

  11. Appetite suppressants and valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Weissman, N J

    2001-04-01

    The association between valvular heart disease and diet pills was discovered several years ago in a small cohort of patients. Subsequent uncontrolled surveys and reports suggested a prevalence of cardiac abnormalities as high as 30%. These results led to widespread concern by millions of appetite suppressant users and the withdrawal of both fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine from the market. Through this review of the literature, it becomes apparent that we have better defined the association between valvular heart disease and appetite suppressants; nonetheless, many questions and controversies remain. Most large scale, multicenter, controlled studies have shown that a prevalence of significant valve regurgitation is between 2 and 12% and that the likelihood of disease increases with increasing dose and/or duration of appetite suppressant use, but several other issues, such as the mechanism of action, remain unanswered.

  12. [Valvular heart disease: multidetector computed tomography evaluation].

    PubMed

    Franco, A; Fernández-Pérez, G C; Tomás-Mallebrera, M; Badillo-Portugal, S; Orejas, M

    2014-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a clinical problem that has been studied with classical imaging techniques like echocardiography and MRI. Technological advances in CT make it possible to obtain static and dynamic images that enable not only a morphological but also a functional analysis in many cases. Although it is currently indicated only in patients with inconclusive findings at echocardiography and MRI or those in whom these techniques are contraindicated, multidetector CT makes it possible to diagnose stenosis or regurgitation through planimetry, to evaluate and quantify valvular calcium, and to show the functional repercussions of these phenomena on the rest of the structures of the heart. Given that multidetector CT is being increasingly used in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, we think it is interesting for radiologists to know its potential for the study of valvular disease.

  13. [Mitral valve repair with the MitraClip following surgical mitral annuloplasty failure].

    PubMed

    Picard, F; Tadros, V-X; Millán, X; Asgar, A W

    2016-10-28

    Mitral repair using the MitraClip device is on ongoing expansion and has been evaluated in different patterns of mitral regurgitation. Nevertheless, surgical approaches to mitral regurgitation remain the standard of care, at least in absence of contraindication. We report the first Canadian experience of mitral valve repair with the MitraClip following surgical mitral annuloplasty failure. Therapeutic considerations and potential challenges are discussed.

  14. Neurologic complications of valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Flores, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Valvular heart disease (VHD) is frequently associated with neurologic complications; cerebral embolism is the most common of these since thrombus formation results from the abnormalities in the valvular surfaces or from the anatomic and physiologic changes associated with valve dysfunction, such as atrial or ventricular enlargement, intracardiac thrombi, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Prosthetic heart valves, particularly mechanical valves, are very thrombogenic, which explains the high risk of thromboembolism and the need for anticoagulation for the prevention of embolism. Infective endocarditis is a disease process with protean manifestations that include not only cerebral embolism but also intracranial hemorrhage, mycotic aneurysms, and systemic manifestations such as fever and encephalopathy. Other neurologic complications include nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, a process associated with systemic diseases such as cancer and systemic lupus erythematosus. For many of these conditions, anticoagulation is the mainstay of treatment to prevent cerebral embolism, therefore it is the potential complications of anticoagulation that can explain other neurologic complications in patients with VHD. The prevention and management of these complications requires an understanding of their natural history in order to balance the risks posed by valvular disease itself against the risks and benefits associated with treatment.

  15. Lipid Interventions in Aortic Valvular Disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwang Jin; Tsomidou, Christiana; Lerakis, Stamatios; Madanieh, Raef; Vittorio, Timothy J; Kosmas, Constantine E

    2015-10-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is the most common valvular disease in the elderly population. Presently, there is increasing evidence that aortic stenosis (AS) is an active process of lipid deposition, inflammation, fibrosis and calcium deposition. The pathogenesis of AS shares many similarities to that of atherosclerosis; therefore, it was hypothesized that certain lipid interventions could prevent or slow the progression of aortic valve stenosis. Despite the early enthusiasm that statins may slow the progression of AS, recent large clinical trials did not consistently demonstrate a decrease in the progression of AS. However, some researchers believe that statins may have a benefit early on in the disease process, where inflammation (and not calcification) is the predominant process, in contrast to severe or advanced AS, where calcification (and not inflammation) predominates. Positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose and 18F-sodium fluoride can demonstrate the relative contributions of valvular calcification and inflammation in AS, and thus this method might potentially be useful in providing the answer as to whether lipid interventions at the earlier stages of AS would be more effective in slowing the progression of the disease. Currently, there is a strong interest in recombinant apolipoprotein A-1 Milano and in the development of new pharmacological agents, targeting reduction of lipoprotein (a) levels and possibly reduction of the expression of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, as potential means to slow the progression of aortic valvular stenosis.

  16. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery II

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, J. Alan; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Farivar, R. Saeid; Khan, Junaid H.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Moront, Michael G.; Ryan, William H.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Lehr, Eric J.; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement continue to evolve. This expert opinion, the second of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices for nonrobotic, minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and for postoperative care after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. PMID:27654406

  17. Model-driven physiological assessment of the mitral valve from 4D TEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Ingmar; Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Georgescu, Bogdan; Houle, Helene; Huber, Martin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2009-02-01

    Disorders of the mitral valve are second most frequent, cumulating 14 percent of total number of deaths caused by Valvular Heart Disease each year in the United States and require elaborate clinical management. Visual and quantitative evaluation of the valve is an important step in the clinical workflow according to experts as knowledge about mitral morphology and dynamics is crucial for interventional planning. Traditionally this involves examination and metric analysis of 2D images comprising potential errors being intrinsic to the method. Recent commercial solutions are limited to specific anatomic components, pathologies and a single phase of cardiac 4D acquisitions only. This paper introduces a novel approach for morphological and functional quantification of the mitral valve based on a 4D model estimated from ultrasound data. A physiological model of the mitral valve, covering the complete anatomy and eventual shape variations, is generated utilizing parametric spline surfaces constrained by topological and geometrical prior knowledge. The 4D model's parameters are estimated for each patient using the latest discriminative learning and incremental searching techniques. Precise evaluation of the anatomy using model-based dynamic measurements and advanced visualization are enabled through the proposed approach in a reliable, repeatable and reproducible manner. The efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated through experiments and an initial validation based on clinical research results. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time such a patient specific 4D mitral valve model is proposed, covering all of the relevant anatomies and enabling to model the common pathologies at once.

  18. TexMi: Development of Tissue-Engineered Textile-Reinforced Mitral Valve Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Ricardo; Gesche, Valentine N.; Hurtado-Aguilar, Luis G.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Frese, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation together with aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in Europe and North America. Mechanical and biological prostheses available for mitral valve replacement have significant limitations such as the need of a long-term anticoagulation therapy and failure by calcifications. Both types are unable to remodel, self-repair, and adapt to the changing hemodynamic conditions. Moreover, they are mostly designed for the aortic position and do not reproduce the native annular-ventricular continuity, resulting in suboptimal hemodynamics, limited durability, and gradually decreasing ventricular pumping efficiency. A tissue-engineered heart valve specifically designed for the mitral position has the potential to overcome the limitations of the commercially available substitutes. For this purpose, we developed the TexMi, a living textile-reinforced mitral valve, which recapitulates the key elements of the native one: annulus, asymmetric leaflets (anterior and posterior), and chordae tendineae to maintain the native annular-ventricular continuity. The tissue-engineered valve is based on a composite scaffold consisting of the fibrin gel as a cell carrier and a textile tubular structure with the twofold task of defining the gross three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the valve and conferring mechanical stability. The TexMi valves were molded with ovine umbilical vein cells and stimulated under dynamic conditions for 21 days in a custom-made bioreactor. Histological and immunohistological stainings showed remarkable tissue development with abundant aligned collagen fibers and elastin deposition. No cell-mediated tissue contraction occurred. This study presents the proof-of-principle for the realization of a tissue-engineered mitral valve with a simple and reliable injection molding process readily adaptable to the patient's anatomy and pathological situation by producing a patient-specific rapid prototyped mold. PMID:24665896

  19. Durability of mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation due to degenerative mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    David, Tirone E

    2015-09-01

    Degenerative diseases of the mitral valve (MV) are the most common cause of mitral regurgitation in the Western world and the most suitable pathology for MV repair. Several studies have shown excellent long-term durability of MV repair for degenerative diseases. The best follow-up results are obtained with isolated prolapse of the posterior leaflet, however even with isolated prolapse of the anterior leaflet or prolapse of both leaflets the results are gratifying, particularly in young patients. The freedom from reoperation on the MV at 15 years exceeds 90% for isolated prolapse of the posterior leaflet and it is around 70-85% for prolapse of the anterior leaflet or both leaflets. The degree of degenerative change in the MV also plays a role in durability of MV repair. Most studies have used freedom from reoperation to assess durability of the repair but some studies that examined valve function late after surgery suggest that recurrent mitral regurgitation is higher than estimated by freedom from reoperation. We can conclude that MV repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation is associated with low probability of reoperation for up to two decades after surgery. However, almost one-third of the patients develop recurrent moderate or severe mitral regurgitation suggesting that surgery does not arrest the degenerative process.

  20. Recommendations for the management of individuals with acquired valvular heart diseases who are involved in leisure-time physical activities or competitive sports.

    PubMed

    Mellwig, Klaus Peter; van Buuren, Frank; Gohlke-Baerwolf, Christa; Bjørnstad, Hans Halvor

    2008-02-01

    Physical check-ups among athletes with valvular heart disease are of significant relevance. In athletes with mitral valve stenosis the extent of allowed physical activity is dependant on the size of the left atrium and the severity of the valve defect. Patients with mild-to-moderate mitral valve regurgitation can participate in all types of sport associated with low and moderate isometric stress and moderate dynamic stress. Patients under anticoagulation should not participate in any type of contact sport. Asymptomatic athletes with mild aortic valve stenosis can take part in all types of sport, as long as left ventricular function and size are normal, a normal response to exercise at the level performed during athletic activities is present and there are no arrhythmias. Asymptomatic athletes with moderate aortic valve stenosis should only take part in sports with low dynamic and static stress. Aortic valve regurgitation is often present due to connective tissue disease of a bicuspid valve. Athletes with mild aortic valve regurgitation, with normal end diastolic left ventricular size and systolic function can participate in all types of sport. A mitral valve prolapse is often associated with structural diseases of the myocardium and endocardium. In patients with mitral valve prolapse Holter-ECG monitoring should also be performed to detect significant arrhythmias. All athletes with known valvular heart disease, a previous history of infective endocarditis and valve surgery should receive endocarditis prophylaxis before dental, oral, respiratory, intestinal and genitourinary procedures associated with bacteraemia. Sport activities have to be avoided during active infection with fever.

  1. Mitral disc-valve variance

    PubMed Central

    Berroya, Renato B.; Escano, Fernando B.

    1972-01-01

    This report deals with a rare complication of disc-valve prosthesis in the mitral area. A significant disc poppet and struts destruction of mitral Beall valve prostheses occurred 20 and 17 months after implantation. The resulting valve incompetence in the first case contributed to the death of the patient. The durability of Teflon prosthetic valves appears to be in question and this type of valve probably will be unacceptable if there is an increasing number of disc-valve variance in the future. Images PMID:5017573

  2. Recent developments in percutaneous mitral valve treatment.

    PubMed

    La Canna, Giovanni; Denti, Paolo; Buzzatti, Nicola; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, various percutaneous techniques have been introduced for the treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR), including direct leaflet repair, annuloplasty and left ventricular remodeling. Percutaneous mitral repair targets both primary degenerative and secondary mitral valve regurgitation and may be considered in selected high-surgical-risk patients. The assessment of mitral functional anatomy by echocardiography and computed tomography is crucial when selecting the appropriate repair strategy, according to the regurgitant valve lesion and the surrounding anatomy. The ongoing clinical use of new devices in annuloplasty and percutaneous mitral valve replacement is a promising new scenario in the treatment of MR that goes beyond the conventional surgical approach.

  3. Rare Case of Unileaflet Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jainil; Jain, Tarun; Shah, Sunay; Mawri, Sagger; Ananthasubramaniam, Karthikeyan

    2016-06-01

    Unileaflet mitral valve is the rarest of the congenital mitral valve anomalies and is usually life threatening in infancy due to severe mitral regurgitation (MR). In most asymptomatic individuals, it is mostly due to hypoplastic posterior mitral leaflet. We present a 22-year-old male with palpitations, who was found to have an echocardiogram revealing an elongated anterior mitral valve leaflet with severely hypoplastic posterior mitral valve leaflet appearing as a unileaflet mitral valve without MR. Our case is one of the 11 reported cases in the literature so far. We hereby review those cases and conclude that these patients are likely to be at risk of developing worsening MR later in their lives.

  4. Investigation of the Left Ventricular Flow Dynamics in the Presence of Severe Mitral Annular Calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayegh, Batoul; Kadem, Lyes; di Labbio, Giuseppe; Pressman, Gregg S.; Obasare, Edinrin

    2016-11-01

    Valvular calcification is frequent with aging and diverse diseases. Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a degenerative process where the fibrous annulus of the mitral valve degrades. MAC can be found in approximately 40% of people aged over 65. It is associated with increased occurrence of cardiovascular diseases including stroke. This experimental work is aimed to investigate the effects of MAC on the left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics and to develop new clinical parameters. Two patient-specific 3D-printed mitral valves with moderate and severe MACs were placed in a left heart simulator. The velocity fields in the LV were acquired using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) and compared to normal LV flow. The velocity fields were used to evaluate the temporal evolution of the vorticity fields and viscous energy loss in the LV. The presence of MAC disturbed the flow in the LV leading to markedly increased viscous energy losses. As the severity of MAC increased, the velocity of the inflow jet also increased causing significant perturbations to the normally-occurring vortex in the LV.

  5. Recent advances in echocardiography for valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of patients with valvular heart disease. Echocardiographic advancements may have particular impact on the assessment and management of patients with valvular heart disease. This review will summarize the current literature on advancements, such as three-dimensional echocardiography, strain imaging, intracardiac echocardiography, and fusion imaging, in this patient population.

  6. Early Clinical Outcome of Mitral Valve Replacement Using a Newly Designed Stentless Mitral Valve for Failure of Initial Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hidefumi; Kasegawa, Hitoshi; Kin, Hajime; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2016-12-21

    Here we report the early outcome of mitral valve replacement using a newly designed stentless mitral valve for failure of initial mitral valve repair. Mitral valve plasty (MVP) for mitral regurgitation is currently a standard technique performed worldwide. However, whether mitral valve repair should be performed for patients with advanced leaflet damage or complicated pathology remains controversial. Mitral valve replacement might be feasible for patients who have undergone failed initial MVP; however, it is not an optimal treatment because of poor valve durability and the need for anticoagulative therapy. We report two cases of successful mitral valve replacement using a newly designed stentless mitral valve made of fresh autologous pericardium, which may have a potential benefit over mitral valve repair or mitral valve replacement with a mechanical or bioprosthetic valve.

  7. Mitral valve plasty for mitral regurgitation after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, H; Hamanaka, Y; Hirai, S; Mitsui, N; Kobayashi, T

    2001-06-01

    A 21 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of chest and back pain after blunt chest trauma. On admission, consciousness was clear and a physical examination showed labored breathing. Her vital signs were stable, but her breathing gradually worsened, and artificial respiration was started. The chest roentgenogram and a subsequent chest computed tomographic scans revealed contusions, hemothorax of the left lung and multiple rib fractures. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed normal left ventricular wall motion and mild mitral regurgitation (MR). TTE was carried out repeatedly, and revealed gradually progressive MR and prolapse of the posterior medial leaflet, although there was no congestive heart failure. After her general condition had recovered, surgery was performed. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed torn chordae at the posterior medial leaflet. The leaflet where the chorda was torn was cut and plicated, and posterior mitral annuloplasty was performed using a prosthetic ring. One month later following discharge, the MR had disappeared on TTE.

  8. Mitral Valve Replacement After Failed Mitral Ring Insertion With or Without Leaflet/Chordal Repair for Pure Mitral Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William C; Moore, Meagan; Ko, Jong Mi; Hamman, Baron L

    2016-06-01

    Mitral repair operations for correction of pure mitral regurgitation (MR) are generally quite successful. Occasionally, however, the reparative procedure incompletely corrects the MR or the MR recurs. From March 1993 to January 2016, twenty nine patients had mitral valve replacement after the initial mitral repair operation, and observations in them were analyzed. All 29 patients at the repair operation had an annular ring inserted and later (<1 year in 6 and >1 year in 21) mitral valve replacement. The cause of the MR before the repair operation appears to have been prolapse in 16 patients (55%), secondary (functional) in 12 (41%) (ischemic in 5), and infective endocarditis which healed in 1 (3%). At the replacement operation the excised anterior mitral leaflet was thickened in all 29 patients. Some degree of stenosis appeared to have been present in 16 of the 29 patients before the replacement operation, although only 10 had an echocardiographic or hemodynamic recording of a transvalvular gradient; at least 11 patients had restricted motion of the posterior mitral leaflet; 10, ring dehiscence; 2, severe hemolysis; and 2, left ventricular outflow obstruction. In conclusion, there are multiple reasons for valve replacement after earlier mitral repair. Uniformly, at the time of the replacement, the mitral leaflets were thickened by fibrous tissue. Measurement of the area enclosed by the 360° rings and study of the excised leaflet suggest that the ring itself may have contributed to the leaflet scarring and development of some transmitral stenosis.

  9. Successful balloon mitral valvotomy in a rare coexistence of Ebstein's anomaly and rheumatic mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Navdeep Singh; Kondethimmanahally Rangaiah, Sunil Kumar; Ramesh, Dwarikaprasad; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa

    2016-05-05

    Co-existence of Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve with rheumatic mitral stenosis is a very rare occurrence. We report the case of a young man who presented with progressive dyspnoea and was found to have rheumatic mitral stenosis with pulmonary hypertension and Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve. The patient underwent successful balloon mitral valvotomy resulting in marked improvement of symptoms.

  10. Functional mitral regurgitation: predictor for atrial substrate remodeling and poor ablation outcome in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yu; Wu, Lingmin; Hou, Bingbo; Sun, Wei; Zheng, Lihui; Ding, Ligang; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shu; Yao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is not uncommon in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. We sought to investigate the association between FMR and atrial substrate remodeling as well as the ablation outcome in paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients. We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively enrolled cohort of 132 patients (age 55.1 ± 9.6 years, 75.8% male) with symptomatic PAF who underwent initial ablation in our institute. Functional mitral regurgitation was defined as regurgitation jet area to left atrium (LA) area ratio ≥ 0.1 without any primary valvular disease. Voltage mapping of LA was performed under sinus rhythm. Low voltage zones (LVZs) were semi-quantitatively estimated and presented as low voltage index. Follow-up for AF recurrence ≥ 12 months was performed. In total, 40 patients (29.6%) were detected with FMR, who were older than the non-FMR patients (P = 0.007) and had larger LA diameters (P = 0.02). Left atrium LVZs were observed in 64.9% of patients with FMR versus 22.1% patients without FMR (P < 0.001). Functional mitral regurgitation independently predicted the presence of LVZs (OR 7.286; 95% CI 3.023–17.562; P < 0.001). During a mean follow-up of 22.9 ± 6.5 months, 38 patients (28.8%) experienced AF recurrence. The recurrence rate was 60.0% and 19.5% in FMR and non-FMR cohort, respectively (log rank P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that FMR was an independent predictor for AF recurrence (HR 2.291; 95% CI 1.062–4.942; P = 0.03). Functional mitral regurgitation was strongly associated with atrial substrate remodeling. Furthermore, patients with FMR have substantial risk for AF recurrence post ablation. PMID:27472715

  11. Treatment of Chronic Atrial Fibrillation During Surgery for Rheumatic Mitral Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Flavio Donizete; Leite, Valdir Gonçalves; Leite, Vanusa Gonçalves; Maia, Marcelo Alves; Gomes, Otoni Moreira; Lima, Melchior Luiz; Osterne, Evandro César Vidal; Kallás, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The result of surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation remains controversial, although prospective and randomized studies have shown significant differences in the return to sinus rhythm in patients treated with ablation versus control group. Surgery of the Labyrinth, proposed by Cox and colleagues, is complex and increases the morbidity rate. Therefore, studies are needed to confirm the impact on clinical outcomes and quality of life of these patients. Objective To analyze the results obtained in the treatment of atrial fibrillation by surgical approach, by Gomes procedure, for mitral valve surgery in patients with rheumatic heart disease associated with chronic atrial fibrillation. Methods We studied 20 patients with mitral valve dysfunction of rheumatic etiology, evolving with chronic atrial fibrillation, submitted to surgical treatment of valvular dysfunction and atrial fibrillation by Gomes procedure. Results The mean duration of infusion ranged from 65.8±11.22 and aortic clamping of 40.8±7.87 minutes. Of 20 patients operated, 19 (95%) patients were discharged with normal atrial heart rhythm. One (5%) patient required permanent endocardial pacing. In the postoperative follow-up of six months, 18 (90%) patients continued with regular atrial rhythm, one (5%) patient returned to atrial fibrillation and one (5%) patient continued to require endocardial pacemaker to maintain regular rhythm. Conclusion Gomes procedure associated with surgical correction of mitral dysfunction simplified the surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease and persistent atrial fibrillation. The results showed that it is a safe and effective procedure. PMID:27849305

  12. Conservative surgery for mitral valve disease: clinical and echocardiographic analysis of results.

    PubMed Central

    Adebo, O A; Ross, J K

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-five patients underwent mitral valve reconstruction by the Carpentier method from January 1976 to December 1981. Concomitant procedures were performed in 30 patients (aortic valve replacement in 23, coronary revascularisation in six, and tricuspid valve repair in seven). Before operation 76 patients (89%) were in clinical class II or III (New York Heart Association) and atrial fibrillation was present in 50. Thirty-six patients had valvular incompetence, while 26 had pure stenosis. The aetiology was rheumatic in 57 cases and dysplastic in 21. The patients were assessed for clinical improvement, durability of valve repair, thromboembolism, and survival. There was one death, an operative mortality rate of 1.2%, and 63 of 74 patients followed for one to six years were in clinical class I after operation. The actuarial survival was 92% with a 93% incidence of freedom from thromboemboli at five years. Six patients had embolic episodes, four of whom had aortic valve replacement. Three patients had a repeat operation 16-20 months later, a valve failure rate of 6.7%. Nineteen patients with ruptured chordae had postoperative echocardiographic assessment of myocardial and mitral valve functions; the peak rates of dimension changes of the left ventricular cavity (indicative of flow across the mitral valve) fell to normal in most patients, and the left ventricular end-diastolic dimensions decreased significantly from 6.4 (1.53) to 5.09 (1.31) cm (mean and SD)--p less than 0.05. Our results confirm that reconstructive mitral surgery is able to restore and maintain normal valve function in addition to providing satisfactory relief of symptoms. Images PMID:6612646

  13. A Remnant Mitral Subvalvular Apparatus Mimicking Aortic Valve Vegetation after Mitral Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Sung; Kim, Jun-Sung; Kim, Myung-A

    2012-01-01

    Preservation of the subvalvular apparatus has the merits of postoperative outcomes during mitral valve replacement for mitral regurgitation. We performed mitral valve replacement with anterior and posterior leaflet chordal preservation in a 65-year-old woman. On the 2nd postoperative day, routine postoperative trans-thoracic echocardiography showed an unknown aortic subvalvular mobile mass. We report a case of a remnant mitral subvalvular apparatus detected by echocardiography after chordal preserving mitral valve replacement which was confused with postoperative aortic valve vegetation. PMID:22509443

  14. Percutaneous Rescue for Critical Mitral Stenosis Late After Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Salenger, Rawn; Diao, Xavier; Dawood, Murtaza Y; Herr, Daniel L; Sample, George A; Pichard, Augusto; Gammie, James S

    2016-11-01

    We report a case of catastrophic hemodynamic compromise secondary to pannus ingrowth and severe mitral stenosis occurring years after repair of a nonrheumatic mitral valve. The initial repair included closure of a posterior leaflet cleft and implantation of an annuloplasty ring. We describe a hybrid treatment strategy for this severely compromised patient, which included initial placement of a right ventricular assist device followed by percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty and, eventually, a definitive mitral valve reoperation. This case report reinforces the importance of routine clinical and echocardiographic follow-up for patients after mitral valve repair, and it includes the description of a novel therapeutic approach.

  15. A complex transcatheter mitral valve replacement and repair for the treatmemt of refractory severe mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Condado, Jose F; Babaliaros, Vasilis C; Thourani, Vinod H; Jensen, Hanna K; Kim, Dennis W; Kaebnick, Brian W; Block, Peter C; Lerakis, Stamatios

    2017-01-23

    Hybrid transcatheter Mitral Valve-in-Ring and Mitral Valve-in-Valve procedures can be an alternative to traditional surgical valve replacement in patients with high surgical risk. We present a case of a 65-year-old male with recurrent severe mitral regurgitation (MR) that failed two traditional surgical attempts due to severe chest fibrosis. We performed a mitral valve-in ring replacement with a Sapien valve followed by a mitral valve-in-valve replacement with a Melody valve. Patient had a residual paravalvular leak that was closed with a vascular plug. Our case proves that is feasible to treat selected patients with MR using a hybrid transcatheter approach.

  16. Appetite suppressants and valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Seghatol, Frank F; Rigolin, Vera H

    2002-09-01

    Appetite suppressants fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, and phentermine have been used alone or in combination as an alternative to diet and surgery in the management of obesity. This therapy was halted in 1997 after reports of valvular lesions affecting almost one third of patients treated with these drugs. Fortunately, most cases of appetite suppressant-related valve disease are mild or moderate and rarely required valve repair or replacement. Follow-up studies have suggested improvement in valvulopathy after discontinuation of the treatment. The mechanism of valve disease induced by these drugs is speculative and may be related to their serotonergic effects. Echocardiographic features are similar to carcinoid heart disease and valvulopathy associated with ergot use. Most cases require only follow-up and endocarditis prophylaxis; surgery is rarely needed.

  17. Serotonergic Drugs and Valvular Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Richard B.; Baumann, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The serotonin (5-HT) releasers (±)-fenfluramine and (+)-fenfluramine were withdrawn from clinical use due to increased risk of valvular heart disease. One prevailing hypothesis (i.e., the “5-HT hypothesis”) suggests that fenfluramine-induced increases in plasma 5-HT underlie the disease. Objective Here we critically evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for fenfluramine-associated valve disease. Methods Findings from in vitro and in vivo experiments performed in our laboratory are reviewed. The data are integrated with existing literature to address the validity of the 5-HT hypothesis and suggest alternative explanations. Conclusions The overwhelming majority of evidence refutes the 5-HT hypothesis. A more likely cause of fenfluramine-induced valvulopathy is activation of 5-HT2B receptors on heart valves by the metabolite norfenfluramine. Future serotonergic medications should be designed to lack 5-HT2B agonist activity. PMID:19505264

  18. Mitral valve replacement in children and adolescents with rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J; Munsi, S; Sukumar, I P; Cherian, G

    1976-09-01

    To our knowledge, no documented hemodynamic studies in larger series of young patients undergoing valve replacement for rheumatic valvular disease have been reported previously. It seems to us that the natural history of rheumatic heart disease in India often follows a rapid and fulminant course which makes an aggressive surgical approach mandatory. An operative mortality of 22 % was seen in this series. Pronounced cardiac disability together with the poor general condition and the low nutritional status contributed in no small measure to this figure. Patients have been followed for periods ranging from 6 months to 6 years following corrective surgery. A remarkable absence of thrombo-embolic phenomena was a striking feature in the follow-up. There has been no evidence of rheumatic reactivation in any of these patients. This communication reinforces the beneficial results of valve replacement even at this young age when severe mitral incompetence exists refractory to medical treatment.

  19. Mitral valve disease—morphology and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert A.; Hagége, Albert A.; Judge, Daniel P.; Padala, Muralidhar; Dal-Bianco, Jacob P.; Aikawa, Elena; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Bischoff, Joyce; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Bruneval, Patrick; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Carpentier, Alain; Chaput, Miguel; Chester, Adrian H.; Clusel, Catherine; Delling, Francesca N.; Dietz, Harry C.; Dina, Christian; Durst, Ronen; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Jensen, Morten O.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier P.; Le Marec, Hervé; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Markwald, Roger R.; Mérot, Jean; Messas, Emmanuel; Milan, David P.; Neri, Tui; Norris, Russell A.; Peal, David; Perrocheau, Maelle; Probst, Vincent; Pucéat, Michael; Rosenthal, Nadia; Solis, Jorge; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Schwammenthal, Ehud; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.; Song, Jae-Kwan; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2016-01-01

    Mitral valve disease is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Emerging evidence indicates that the mitral valve is not a passive structure, but—even in adult life—remains dynamic and accessible for treatment. This concept motivates efforts to reduce the clinical progression of mitral valve disease through early detection and modification of underlying mechanisms. Discoveries of genetic mutations causing mitral valve elongation and prolapse have revealed that growth factor signalling and cell migration pathways are regulated by structural molecules in ways that can be modified to limit progression from developmental defects to valve degeneration with clinical complications. Mitral valve enlargement can determine left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and might be stimulated by potentially modifiable biological valvular–ventricular interactions. Mitral valve plasticity also allows adaptive growth in response to ventricular remodelling. However, adverse cellular and mechanobiological processes create relative leaflet deficiency in the ischaemic setting, leading to mitral regurgitation with increased heart failure and mortality. Our approach, which bridges clinicians and basic scientists, enables the correlation of observed disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to the discovery of new opportunities for improving the natural history of mitral valve disease. PMID:26483167

  20. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery I

    PubMed Central

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Mehall, John R.; Wolfe, J. Alan; Hummel, Brian W.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Farivar, R. Saeid; Grossi, Eugene A.; Guy, T. Sloane; Hargrove, W. Clark; Khan, Junaid H.; Lehr, Eric J.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Murphy, Douglas A.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Shemin, Richard J.; Smith, J. Michael; Smith, Robert L.; Weldner, Paul W.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.; Barnhart, Glenn R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Widespread adoption of minimally invasive mitral valve repair and replacement may be fostered by practice consensus and standardization. This expert opinion, first of a 3-part series, outlines current best practices in patient evaluation and selection for minimally invasive mitral valve procedures, and discusses preoperative planning for cannulation and myocardial protection. PMID:27654407

  1. Diagnostic approach to assessment of valvular heart disease using MRI—Part I: a practical approach for valvular regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Chaothawee, Lertlak

    2012-01-01

    Valvular heart diseases from any cause are divided into two categories: stenosis and regurgitation. Acquired knowledge of the pathological aetiology and disease severity are the important clues for optimal treatment, which may be medication or combination with surgery. The non-invasive techniques have been established for valvular heart disease evaluation for many years especially in demonstrating valvular structure and assessing severity. Transthoracic echocardiography still plays the major role. However, not every case can be clearly evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography because of rib space window limitation. In the present-day practice, MRI has been extensively used for the evaluation of heart diseases in both unique and complementary categories. However, valvular heart disease assessment using cardiac MRI still remains an important challenge. PMID:27326026

  2. Saddle-shaped mitral valve annuloplasty rings improve leaflet coaptation geometry

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Morten O.; Jensen, Henrik; Levine, Robert A.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Nygaard, Hans; Hasenkam, J. Michael; Nielsen, Sten L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The mitral valve annulus naturally conforms to a saddle shape in systole. This configuration is believed to put the leaflets into a lower-energy equilibrium with the annulus and subvalvular apparatus. Conventional flat annuloplasty rings restrict posterior leaflet motion, which may result in a “monocusp” valve, affecting valvular stress distribution. It is hypothesized that saddle-shaped annuloplasty rings cause less distortion of the physiologic leaflet geometry than do flat rings. Methods Twelve pigs were studied in an acute setting with 3-dimensional echocardiography and sonomicrometry before and after implantation of rigid flat (n = 5) and saddle-shaped (n = 7) annuloplasty rings. The rings were true sized to the annulus with equal anterior–posterior and commissure–commissure circumferential dimensions. The saddle-shaped rings had an annular height to commissural width ratio of 15%. Results Saddle-shaped rings maintained both leaflets operational (P <.01). Flat rings made the posterior leaflet immobile and the anterior leaflet aligned flat along the annulus in systole, effectively resulting in monoleaflet function. The average distance from the papillary muscle tips to the posterior annulus decreased by 2.4 ± 0.4 mm after flat ring implantation (P <.01). Conclusions Saddle-shaped annuloplasty rings provide better leaflet coaptation geometry than do flat rings by not hoisting the papillary muscles toward the posterior annulus through the commissural chordae, allowing greater leaflet mobility. This entails a potentially beneficial impact on valvular stress distribution that could affect durability of the repaired valve. PMID:21329946

  3. Mitral valve leaflet remodelling during pregnancy: insights into cell-mediated recovery of tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rego, Bruno V; Wells, Sarah M; Lee, Chung-Hao; Sacks, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about how valvular tissues grow and remodel in response to altered loading. In this work, we used the pregnancy state to represent a non-pathological cardiac volume overload that distends the mitral valve (MV), using both extant and new experimental data and a modified form of our MV structural constitutive model. We determined that there was an initial period of permanent set-like deformation where no remodelling occurs, followed by a remodelling phase that resulted in near-complete restoration of homeostatic tissue-level behaviour. In addition, we observed that changes in the underlying MV interstitial cell (MVIC) geometry closely paralleled the tissue-level remodelling events, undergoing an initial passive perturbation followed by a gradual recovery to the pre-pregnant state. Collectively, these results suggest that valvular remodelling is actively mediated by average MVIC deformations (i.e. not cycle to cycle, but over a period of weeks). Moreover, tissue-level remodelling is likely to be accomplished by serial and parallel additions of fibrillar material to restore the mean homeostatic fibre stress and MVIC geometries. This finding has significant implications in efforts to understand and predict MV growth and remodelling following such events as myocardial infarction and surgical repair, which also place the valve under altered loading conditions.

  4. Cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary oedema in an infant with severe residual mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Joong, Anna; Lai, Wyman W; Ferris, Anne

    2017-01-01

    An infant with residual severe mitral regurgitation following mitral commissurotomy developed cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary oedema and subsegmental atelectasis that resolved with mechanical mitral valve replacement.

  5. Extracellular matrix remodeling in wound healing of critical size defects in the mitral valve leaflet.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Elizabeth H; Nguyen, Tom C; Blazejewski, Jack G; Vekilov, Dragoslava P; Connell, Jennifer P; Itoh, Akinobu; Ingels, Neil B; Miller, D Craig; Grande-Allen, K Jane

    2016-07-01

    The details of valvular leaflet healing following valvuloplasty and leaflet perforation from endocarditis are poorly understood. In this study, the synthesis and turnover of valvular extracellular matrix due to healing of a critical sized wound was investigated. Twenty-nine sheep were randomized to either CTRL (n = 11) or HOLE (n = 18), in which a 2.8-4.8 mm diameter hole was punched in the posterior mitral leaflet. After 12 weeks, posterior leaflets were harvested and histologically stained to localize extracellular matrix components. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to assess matrix components and markers of matrix turnover. A semi-quantitative grading scale was used to quantify differences between HOLE and CTRL. After 12 weeks, the hole diameter was reduced by 71.3 ± 1.4 % (p < 0.001). Areas of remodeling surrounding the hole contained more activated cells, greater expression of proteoglycans, and markers of matrix turnover (prolyl 4-hydroxylase, metalloproteases, and lysyl oxidase, each p ≤ 0.025), along with fibrin accumulation. Two distinct remodeling regions were evident surrounding the hole, one directly bordering the hole rich in versican and hyaluronan and a second adjacent region with abundant collagen and elastic fiber turnover. The remodeling also caused reduced delineation between valve layers (p = 0.002), more diffuse staining of matrix components and markers of matrix turnover (p < 0.001), and disruption of the collagenous fibrosa. In conclusion, acute valve injury elicited distinct, heterogeneous alterations in valvular matrix composition and structure, resulting in partial wound closure. Because these changes could also affect leaflet mechanics and valve function, it will be important to determine their impact on healing wounds.

  6. The Mid-Term Results of Patients who Underwent Radiofrequency Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Together with Mitral Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Abdurrahim; Kaya, Ugur; Ceviz, Munacettin; Becit, Necip; Kocak, Hikmet

    2016-01-01

    Objetive Saline-irrigated radiofrequency ablation, which has been widely used for surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation in recent years, is 80-90% successful in achieving sinus rhythm. In our study, our surgical experience and mid-term results in patients who underwent mitral valve surgery and left atrial radiofrequency ablation were analyzed. Methods Forty patients (15 males, 25 females; mean age 52.05±9.9 years; range 32-74) underwent surgery for atrial fibrillation associated with mitral valvular disease. All patients manifested atrial fibrillation, which started at least six months before the surgical intervention. The majority of patients (36 patients, 90%) were in NYHA class III; 34 (85%) patients had rheumatic heart disease. In addition to mitral valve surgery and radiofrequency ablation, coronary artery bypass, DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty, left ventricular aneurysm repair, and left atrial thrombus excision were performed. Following discharge from the hospital, patients' follow-up was performed as outpatient clinic examinations and the average follow-up period of patients was 18±3 months. Results While the incidence of sinus rhythm was 85.3% on the first postoperative day, it was 80% during discharge and 71% in the 1st year follow-up examination. Conclusion Radiofrequency ablation is an effective method when it is performed by appropriate surgical technique. Its rate for returning to sinus rhythm is as high as the rate of conventional surgical procedure. PMID:27849303

  7. Papillary fibroelastoma of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve mimicking vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Prifti, Edvin; Ikonomi, Majlinda; Veshti, Altin; Demiraj, Aurel; Xhaxho, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The papillary fibroelastoma (PFE) is a rare and benign primary cardiac tumor, and the mostly frequently found tumor occurring in cardiac valves. Case presentation We describe a 52 year old female presenting a history of 2 weeks of fever due to wound infection after breast’s surgery. A preoperative echocardiography demonstrated a mass >1 cm2 originating from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve mimicking vegetation. The patient underwent successful surgical removal of the PFE. The histologic evaluation demonstrated a PFE. Discussion With the introduction of echocardiography, the diagnosis of these tumors in living patients has been reported sporadically. PFE have been found most often on valve leaflets, chordae tendineae, and both ventricles. The differential diagnosis of PFE includes other cardiac tumors, thrombus, vegetation, and Lambl’s excrescences. Conclusion To summarize, we report a PFE of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination after surgical removal. Finally, careful echocardiographic analyses during evaluation of valvular masses are strongly recommended for differential diagnosis. PMID:26209756

  8. Transapical Mitral Valve Replacement for Mixed Native Mitral Stenosis and Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Bedzra, Edo; Don, Creighton W; Reisman, Mark; Aldea, Gabriel S

    2016-08-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure. He had undergone transapical mitral valve replacement for mixed mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation. At the 1 month follow-up, the patient reported symptom resolution. An echocardiogram revealed a low gradient and no regurgitation. Our case shows that with careful multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative planning, and patient selection, percutaneous mitral intervention can become an alternative therapy for high-risk patients who cannot undergo conventional surgical therapy.

  9. Challenging mitral valve repair for double-orifice mitral valve with noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Manabu; Misumi, Hiroyasu; Abe, Kohei; Kawazoe, Kohei

    2017-02-25

    Double-orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is a relatively rare cardiac anomaly. Although usually associated with various cardiac anomalies, co-presence of DOMV and noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium (NCLVM) is extremely rare. Here, we present a 24-year-old male who underwent mitral valve repair using artificial chordae and annuloplasty at the posterior commissure for severe mitral regurgitation (MR), resulting from flail anterior leaflet of the larger postero-medial orifice and dilatation of left ventricle with NCLVM. One year later, he underwent second mitral valve repair for recurrence of MR. Further endoscopic evaluation of the left ventricle, and reinforcement via artificial ring, enabled us to achieve repair.

  10. The use of a high-power laser on swine mitral valve chordae tendineae.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Nathali Cordeiro; Chavantes, M Cristina; Zezell, Denise; Deana, Alessandro; Benetti, Carolina; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Lopes, Luciana Almeida; Martins, Rodrigo A B Lopes; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli; Pomerantzeff, Pablo M A

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide, rheumatic fever remains a significant cause of mitral valve insufficiency. It is responsible for approximately 90 % of early childhood valvular surgeries in Brazil. Elongated or flail chordae are frequently responsible and require surgical correction. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the histological tissues of the mitral valve chordae and the mechanical resistance generated by the chordae, both with and without the application of a high-power laser. Twenty normal porcine mitral valve chordae were measured and divided randomly into the following two groups: control group (not subjected to a high-power laser) and laser group (subjected to photonic irradiation). Laser surgery was performed under controlled conditions, using following parameters: λ = 980-nm wavelength, power = 3 W, and energy = 60 J. A mechanical test machine was used in combination with a subsequent histological study to measure chordae tensile properties. A histological analysis demonstrated a typical collagen bundle arrangement in the control group; however, under a particular reached temperature range (48), the collagen bundles assumed different arrangements in the laser group. Significant reductions in the chordae tendineae lengths and changes in their resistance in the laser group were observed, as these chordae exhibited less rigid fibers. The chordae tendineae of normal porcine valves subjected to a high-power laser exhibited its length reduction and less stiffness compared to the control group. A histological analysis of the laser treatment specimens demonstrated differences in collagen bundle spatial organization, following slight changes into tissue temperature.

  11. Mitral Valve Clip for Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammed T.; Ahmadzai, Nadera; Coyle, Kathryn; Coyle, Doug; Moher, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Many of the 500,000 North American patients with chronic mitral regurgitation may be poor candidates for mitral valve surgery. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of percutaneous mitral valve repair using mitral valve clips in candidates at prohibitive risk for surgery. Data Sources We searched articles in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library published from 1994 to February 2014 for evidence of effectiveness and harms; for economic literature we also searched NHS EED and Tufts CEA registry. Grey literature was also searched. Review Methods Primary studies were sought from existing systematic reviews that had employed reliable search and screening methods. Newer studies were sought by searching the period subsequent to the last search date of the review. Two reviewers screened records and assessed study validity. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized, generic assessment for non-randomized studies, and the Phillips checklist for economic studies. Results Ten studies including 1 randomized trial were included. The majority of the direct comparative evidence compared the mitral valve clip repair with surgery in patients not particularly at prohibitive surgical risk. Irrespective of degenerative or functional chronic mitral regurgitation etiology, evidence of effectiveness and harms is inconclusive and of very low quality. Very-low-quality evidence indicates that percutaneous mitral valve clip repair may provide a survival advantage, at least during the first 1 to 2 years, particularly in medically managed chronic functional mitral regurgitation. Because of limitations in the design of studies, the cost-effectiveness of mitral valve clips in patients at prohibitive risk for surgery also could not be established. Limitations Because of serious concerns of risk of bias, indirectness, and imprecision, evidence is of very low quality. Conclusions No meaningful

  12. Valvular heart disease: classic teaching and emerging paradigms.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, D Marshall; Gelfand, Eli V

    2013-12-01

    Valvular heart disease is both prevalent and increases with age. The final pathway of valvular disease is heart failure and sometimes sudden death, so clinicians must identify and treat it before these endpoints occur. Noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as echocardiography, exercise tolerance testing, and cardiac magnetic resonance provide additional quantitative, qualitative, and prognostic data. Studies have elucidated predictors of disease progression and potential medical therapies, but the niche of valvular disease has benefited relatively less from randomized controlled clinical trials than other cardiovascular disease fields. New invasive techniques like transcatheter valve replacement offer hope for high-risk operative candidates. We review classic teaching with current guidelines and emphasize recent advances in disease management.

  13. Double-orifice mitral valve treated by percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Thomas George; Revankar, Vinod Raghunath; Papanna, Monica; Srinivasan, Harshini

    2016-07-01

    Double-orifice mitral valve is an rare anomaly characterized by a mitral valve with a single fibrous annulus and 2 orifices that open into the left ventricle. It is often associated with other congenital anomalies, most commonly atrioventricular canal defects, and rarely associated with a stenotic or regurgitant mitral valve. A patient who was diagnosed with congenital double-orifice mitral valve with severe mitral stenosis was treated successfully by percutaneous balloon mitral valvotomy rather than the conventional open surgical approach, demonstrating the utility of percutaneous correction of this anomaly.

  14. Stress echocardiography in valvular heart disease: a current appraisal.

    PubMed

    Naji, Peyman; Patel, Krishna; Griffin, Brian P; Desai, Milind Y

    2015-03-01

    Stress echocardiography is increasingly used in the management of patients with valvular heart disease and can aid in evaluation, risk stratification and clinical decision making in these patients. Evaluation of symptoms, exercise capacity and changes in blood pressure can be done during the exercise portion of the test, whereas echocardiographic portion can reveal changes in severity of disease, pulmonary artery pressure and left ventricular function in response to exercise. These parameters, which are not available at rest, can have diagnostic and prognostic importance. In this article, we will review the indications and diagnostic implications, prognostic implications, and clinical impact of stress echocardiography in decision making and management of patients with valvular heart disease.

  15. Valvular heart disease with the use of fenfluramine-phentermine.

    PubMed

    Surapaneni, Phani; Vinales, Karyne L; Najib, Mohammad Q; Chaliki, Hari P

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to the anorectic drug fenfluramine, alone or in combination with phentermine, a noradrenergic central nervous system stimulant, has been associated with unusual cardiac valvular morphology and resultant regurgitation of the left- and right-sided heart valves. The prevalence of significant valvular disease associated with the use of these anorectic drugs is reported to be as high as 23%. Herein, we report the occurrence of multivalvular disease and pulmonary hypertension associated with fenfluramine-phentermine use, discovered in an obese 59-year-old woman before expected gastric bypass surgery.

  16. Computational Analysis of Pumping Efficacy of a Left Ventricular Assist Device according to Cannulation Site in Heart Failure with Valvular Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) causes blood to flow in two directions during contraction of the left ventricle (LV), that is, forward into the aorta and backward into the left atrium (LA). In aortic valve regurgitation (AR), leakage occurs from the aorta into the LV during diastole. Our objective is to analyze the contribution of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to MR and AR for the following two different cannulation sites: from the LA to the aorta (LAAO) and from the LV to the aorta (LVAO). Using a computational method, we simulated three ventricular conditions (normal [HF without valvular regurgitation], 5% MR, and 5% AR) in three groups (control [no LVAD], LAAO, and LVAO). The results showed that LVAD with LAAO cannulation is appropriate for recovery of the MR heart, and the LVAD with LVAO cannulation is appropriate for treating the AR heart. PMID:28115981

  17. Minimally invasive, robotic, and off-pump mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Rodriguez, Evelio; Atluri, Pavan; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2006-01-01

    A significant transformation is occurring in the management of mitral valve disease. Earlier surgery is now recommended. Mitral valve repair is the standard of care, and newer methods of reconstructing the mitral valve are developing. Surgery with videoscopic assistance can be effectively performed without sternotomy. Robotics systems are gaining wider adoption. Implantable devices to repair or replace the mitral valve off-pump and percutaneously are emerging.

  18. Acute severe mitral regurgitation. Pathophysiology, clinical recognition, and management.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Nestico, P F; Morganroth, J

    1985-02-01

    Acute severe mitral regurgitation often goes unrecognized as an emergency requiring prompt, lifesaving treatment. Its causes, physical signs, natural history, echocardiographic features, and findings on chest roentgenography, electrocardiography, and nuclear scintigraphic scanning are reviewed. Acute severe mitral insufficiency can be differentiated from chronic severe mitral insufficiency by noninvasive two-dimensional echocardiography. M-mode echocardiography is a valuable tool in evaluating mitral prosthetic paravalvular regurgitation.

  19. Bioprosthetic mitral valve dysfunction due to native valve preserving procedure.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Yukihiro; Mori, Yoshio; Umeda, Yukio; Takiya, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Mitral valve replacement with preservation of the mitral leaflets and subvalvular apparatus is considered to maintain left ventricular geometry and function and reduce the risk of myocardial rupture. However, the routine use of this technique may lead to early complications such as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and even mitral inflow obstruction, requiring reoperation. We describe a rare case of bioprosthetic mitral valve dysfunction caused by a native valve preserving procedure.

  20. Unusual redo mitral valve replacement for bleeding in Glanzmann thrombasthenia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Villarreal, Ovidio A; Fernández-Ceseña, Ernesto; Solano-Ricardi, Mercedes; Aguilar-García, Alma L; Vega-Hernández, Raquel; Del Angel-Soto, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of 23-year-old man with mitral valve regurgitation and Glanzmann thrombasthenia, who underwent mechanical mitral valve replacement. Warfarin therapy was devastating, causing bilateral hemothorax, pericardial effusion, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hematuria. Redo mitral valve replacement with a biological prosthesis was required to resolve this critical situation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of mitral valve replacement in Glanzmann thrombasthenia, highlighting the danger of oral anticoagulation in this pathology.

  1. Mitral annuloplasty with biodegradable ring for infective endocarditis: a new tool for the surgeon for valve repair in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kazaz, Hakki; Celkan, Mehmet Adnan; Ustunsoy, Hasim; Baspinar, Osman

    2005-08-01

    The incidence of bacterial endocarditis and valvular involvement is rare in the childhood period. If the patient is unresponsive to medical treatment and some complications occur, early surgical treatment is indicated. Debridement of vegetation combined with valve repair techniques sparing the native valve is the ideal surgical procedure instead of replacement, especially for children. Annuloplasty is the key step during valve repair procedures. On the other hand, absence of appropriate sized annuloplasty rings on the market for this group of patients is the main problem. Nondegradable annuloplasty rings might lead to stenosis as the child grows. Thus, biodegradable tissue engineered materials are new solutions for such patients since the fibrous tissue induced by implanted ring grows with time. We describe a pediatric patient with Brucella endocarditis at the mitral position who was treated successfully with valve repair using a biodegradable annuloplasty ring (Kalangos Biodegradable Ring).

  2. Right Atrial Clot Formation Early after Percutaneous Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Ahmet Hakan; Aksakal, Aytekin; Yücel, Huriye; Atasoy Günaydın, İlksen; Ekbul, Adem; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Mitral balloon valvuloplasty which has been used for the treatment of rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) for several decades can cause serious complications. Herein, we presented right atrial clot formation early after percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty which was treated successfully with unfractioned heparin infusion. PMID:28105049

  3. Mitral Valve Prolapse in Persons with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; Werner, John Christian

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 36 home-reared young adults with Down's syndrome found that 20 had abnormal echocardiographic findings. Thirteen had mitral valve prolapse, three had mitral valve prolapse and aortic insufficiency, two had only aortic insufficiency, and two had other mitral valve disorders. Theories of pathogenesis and relationship to exercise and…

  4. Use of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography to evaluate mitral valve morphology for risk stratification prior to mitral valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Francis, Loren; Finley, Alan; Hessami, Walead

    2017-02-01

    Mitral stenosis is often managed percutaneously with an interventional procedure such as balloon commissurotomy. Although this often results in an increased mitral valve area and improved clinical symptoms, this procedure is not benign and may have serious complications including the development of hemodynamically significant mitral valve regurgitation. Multiple scoring systems have been developed to attempt to risk stratify these patients prior to their procedure.

  5. Acute mitral regurgitation in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bouabdallaoui, Nadia; Wang, Zhen; Lecomte, Milena; Ennezat, Pierre V; Blanchard, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a well-recognised entity that commonly manifests with chest pain, ST segment abnormalities and transient left ventricular apical ballooning without coronary artery obstructive disease. This syndrome usually portends a favourable outcome. In the rare haemodynamically unstable TTC patients, acute mitral regurgitation (MR) related to systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is to be considered. Bedside echocardiography is key in recognition of this latter condition as vasodilators, inotropic agents or intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation worsen the patient's clinical status. We discuss here a case of TTC where nitrate-induced subaortic obstruction and mitral regurgitation led to haemodynamic instability.

  6. Transcatheter mitral valve implantation: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Mylotte, Darren; Piazza, Nicolo

    2015-09-01

    In the last year transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) has seen a major jump in development. This technique offers the potential to treat a great number of elderly and/or high-risk patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Such patients are declined surgical intervention either because the institutional Heart Team considers the risk of intervention to exceed the potential benefit, or because the patients and their families believe the morbidity of mitral surgery to be excessive. The advent of a less invasive transcatheter treatment could, therefore, potentially appeal to both clinicians and patients alike. In this overview paper, we describe briefly these recent developments in TVMI technologies as an introduction to the dedicated TVMI technical device parade later in this supplement.

  7. Mitral valve repair over five decades

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It has become evident that mitral valve (MV) repair is the preferable treatment for the majority of patients presenting with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). This success clearly testifies that the surgical procedure is accessible, reproducible and is carrying excellent long-lasting results. From the pre-extracorporeal circulation’s era to the last percutaneous approaches, a large variety of techniques have been proposed to address the different features of MV diseases. This article aimed at reviewing chronologically the development of these dedicated techniques through their origins and the debates that they generated in the literature. PMID:26309841

  8. Severe mitral regurgitation due to an extraordinary heart defect.

    PubMed

    García-Ropero, Álvaro; Cortés García, Marcelino; Aldamiz Echevarría, Gonzalo; Farré Muncharaz, Jerónimo

    2016-09-01

    A previously non-described cause of mitral regurgitation is presented. An asymptomatic 50-year old male who was casually diagnosed of mitral valve Barlow's disease underwent cardiac surgery due to severe mitral regurgitation. In the operating theatre, a longitudinal fissure of 1.5-2.0 cm length, along the posterior mitral leaflet, was found responsible for the insufficiency. This defect had features of a potential congenital origin and it was successfully repaired with direct suture. Whether it is an atypical mitral cleft, a variation of Barlow's morphology spectrum or a new congenital heart defect remains unclear.

  9. Mitral valve dynamics in structural and fluid-structure interaction models.

    PubMed

    Lau, K D; Diaz, V; Scambler, P; Burriesci, G

    2010-11-01

    Modelling and simulation of heart valves is a challenging biomechanical problem due to anatomical variability, pulsatile physiological pressure loads and 3D anisotropic material behaviour. Current valvular models based on the finite element method can be divided into: those that do model the interaction between the blood and the valve (fluid-structure interaction or 'wet' models) and those that do not (structural models or 'dry' models). Here an anatomically sized model of the mitral valve has been used to compare the difference between structural and fluid-structure interaction techniques in two separately simulated scenarios: valve closure and a cardiac cycle. Using fluid-structure interaction, the valve has been modelled separately in a straight tubular volume and in a U-shaped ventricular volume, in order to analyse the difference in the coupled fluid and structural dynamics between the two geometries. The results of the structural and fluid-structure interaction models have shown that the stress distribution in the closure simulation is similar in all the models, but the magnitude and closed configuration differ. In the cardiac cycle simulation significant differences in the valvular dynamics were found between the structural and fluid-structure interaction models due to difference in applied pressure loads. Comparison of the fluid domains of the fluid-structure interaction models have shown that the ventricular geometry generates slower fluid velocity with increased vorticity compared to the tubular geometry. In conclusion, structural heart valve models are suitable for simulation of static configurations (opened or closed valves), but in order to simulate full dynamic behaviour fluid-structure interaction models are required.

  10. Mitral Valve Stenosis after Open Repair Surgery for Non-rheumatic Mitral Valve Regurgitation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shabsigh, Muhammad; Lawrence, Cassidy; Rosero-Britton, Byron R.; Kumar, Nicolas; Kimura, Satoshi; Durda, Michael Andrew; Essandoh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitral stenosis (MS) after mitral valve (MV) repair is a slowly progressive condition, usually detected many years after the index MV surgery. It is defined as a mean transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) >5 mmHg or a mitral valve area (MVA) <1.5 cm2. Pannus formation around the mitral annulus or extending to the mitral leaflets is suggested as the main mechanism for developing delayed MS after MV repair. On the other hand, early stenosis is thought to be a direct result of an undersized annuloplasty ring. Furthermore, in MS following ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) repair, subvalvular tethering is the hypothesized pathophysiology. MS after MV repair has an incidence of 9–54%. Several factors have been associated with a higher risk for developing MS after MV repair, including the use of flexible Duran annuloplasty rings versus rigid Carpentier–Edwards rings, complete annuloplasty rings versus partial bands, small versus large anterior leaflet opening angle, and anterior leaflet tip opening length. Intraoperative echocardiography can measure the anterior leaflet opening angle, the anterior leaflet tip opening dimension, the MVA and the mean TMPG, and may help identify patients at risk for developing MS after MV repair. PMID:27148540

  11. Mitral Valve Stenosis after Open Repair Surgery for Non-rheumatic Mitral Valve Regurgitation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Shabsigh, Muhammad; Lawrence, Cassidy; Rosero-Britton, Byron R; Kumar, Nicolas; Kimura, Satoshi; Durda, Michael Andrew; Essandoh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mitral stenosis (MS) after mitral valve (MV) repair is a slowly progressive condition, usually detected many years after the index MV surgery. It is defined as a mean transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) >5 mmHg or a mitral valve area (MVA) <1.5 cm(2). Pannus formation around the mitral annulus or extending to the mitral leaflets is suggested as the main mechanism for developing delayed MS after MV repair. On the other hand, early stenosis is thought to be a direct result of an undersized annuloplasty ring. Furthermore, in MS following ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) repair, subvalvular tethering is the hypothesized pathophysiology. MS after MV repair has an incidence of 9-54%. Several factors have been associated with a higher risk for developing MS after MV repair, including the use of flexible Duran annuloplasty rings versus rigid Carpentier-Edwards rings, complete annuloplasty rings versus partial bands, small versus large anterior leaflet opening angle, and anterior leaflet tip opening length. Intraoperative echocardiography can measure the anterior leaflet opening angle, the anterior leaflet tip opening dimension, the MVA and the mean TMPG, and may help identify patients at risk for developing MS after MV repair.

  12. Mitral Valve Prolapse in Young Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFaul, Richard C.

    1987-01-01

    A review of research regarding mitral valve prolapse in young children indicates that up to five percent of this population have the condition, with the majority being asymptomatic and requiring reassurance that the condition usually remains mild. Beta-blocking drugs are prescribed for patients with disabling chest pain, dizziness, palpitation, or…

  13. Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Surgery III

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Eric J.; Guy, T. Sloane; Smith, Robert L.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Shemin, Richard J.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Hummel, Brian W.; Khan, Junaid H.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Smith, J. Michael; Wolfe, J. Alan; Weldner, Paul W.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program. PMID:27662478

  14. Isolation of Bartonella washoensis from a Dog with Mitral Valve Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Wey, Aaron C.; Kasten, Rickie W.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first documented case of Bartonella washoensis bacteremia in a dog with mitral valve endocarditis. B. washoensis was isolated in 1995 from a human patient with cardiac disease. The main reservoir species appears to be ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) in the western United States. Based on echocardiographic findings, a diagnosis of infective vegetative valvular mitral endocarditis was made in a spayed 12-year-old female Doberman pinscher. A year prior to presentation, the referring veterinarian had detected a heart murmur, which led to progressive dyspnea and a diagnosis of congestive heart failure the week before examination. One month after initial presentation, symptoms worsened. An emergency therapy for congestive heart failure was unsuccessfully implemented, and necropsy evaluation of the dog was not permitted. Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the dog was strongly seropositive (titer of 1:4,096) for several Bartonella antigens (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. henselae), highly suggestive of Bartonella endocarditis. Standard aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic cultures were negative. However, a specific blood culture for Bartonella isolation grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism 7 days after being plated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of the isolate, including partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), groEL, and 16S rRNA genes, indicated that this organism was identical to B. washoensis. The dog was seronegative for all tick-borne pathogens tested (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Rickettsia rickettsii), but the sample was highly positive for B. washoensis (titer of 1:8,192) and, according to indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay, weakly positive for phase II Coxiella burnetii infection. PMID:14605197

  15. Isolation and Culture of Avian Embryonic Valvular Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Gretchen; Gould, Russell; Butcher, Johnathan

    2010-01-01

    Proper formation and function of embryonic heart valves is critical for developmental progression. The early embryonic heart is a U-shaped tube of endocardium surrounded by myocardium. The myocardium secretes cardiac jelly, a hyaluronan-rich gelatinous matrix, into the atrioventricular (AV) junction and outflow tract (OFT) lumen. At stage HH14 valvulogenesis begins when a subset of endocardial cells receive signals from the myocardium, undergo endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT), and invade the cardiac jelly. At stage HH25 the valvular cushions are fully mesenchymalized, and it is this mesenchyme that eventually forms the valvular and septal apparatus of the heart. Understanding the mechanisms that initiate and modulate the process of EMT and cell differentiation are important because of their connection to serious congenital heart defects. In this study we present methods to isolate pre-EMT endocardial and post-EMT mesenchymal cells, which are the two different cell phenotypes of the prevalvular cushion. Pre-EMT endocardial cells can be cultured with or without the myocardium. Post-EMT AV cushion mesenchymal cells can be cultured inside mechanically constrained or stress-free collagen gels. These 3D in vitro models mimic key valvular morphogenic events and are useful for deconstructing the mechanisms of early and late stage valvulogenesis. PMID:21085095

  16. [Late ventricular potentials and mitral valve prolapse].

    PubMed

    Babuty, D; Charniot, J C; Delhomme, C; Fauchier, L; Fauchier, J P; Cosnay, P

    1994-03-01

    In order to determine the predictive value for ventricular arrhythmias of ventricular late potentials (LP) in mitral valve prolapse (MVP) the authors performed high amplification signal-averaging ECG (SA) and 24 hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) monitoring in 68 consecutive patients (34 men, 34 women, average age 48 +/- 17.7 years) with echocardiographically diagnosed MVP. Patients with bundle branch block or associated cardiac disease were excluded. Echocardiography showed 26 patients to have floppy mitral valves (38.2%), 50 patients to have posterior deplacement > or = 5 mm of the mitral valves in systole (73.5%) and 35 patients to have mitral regurgitation (51.4%). Holter monitoring showed 17 patients without ventricular extrasystoles (VES), 15 had Lown Grade I, 6 had Lown Grade II, 3 had Lown Grade III, 15 had Lown Grade IV A and 12 had Lown Grade IV B ventricular arrhythmias. Therefore, 30 patients had complex ventricular arrhythmias (> or = Lown Grade III) and 13 patients had spontaneous non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) (one patient had NSVT on resting ECG but not on Holter monitoring). Eighteen patients had LP (26.5%). The incidence of complex ventricular arrhythmias was higher in patients with mitral regurgitation (62.8% versus 27.7%; p < 0.005) whereas the incidence of NSVT was not significantly different (25.7% versus 17.1%; p = 0.15). On the other hand, the frequency of complex ventricular arrhythmias was not significantly different in the presence or absence of LP (61.1% versus 40%: NS) whereas the incidence of NSVT was higher in patients with LP (44.4% versus 10%; p < 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Isolated Mitral Cleft in Trisomy 21: An Initially 'Silent' Lesion.

    PubMed

    Thankavel, Poonam P; Ramaciotti, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    Congenital cardiac anomalies are common in trisomy 21, and transthoracic echocardiogram within the first month of life is recommended. While a cleft mitral valve associated with atrioventricular septal defect has been well defined in this population, the prevalence of isolated mitral valve cleft has not been previously reported. The aim of our study was to define the occurrence of isolated mitral cleft in the first echocardiogram of patients with trisomy 21. This retrospective chart review examined echocardiographic data on all Trisomy 21 patients <1 year of age obtained during January 1, 2010, to May 1, 2014, at our institution. Images were reviewed by one of the authors with no knowledge of the official diagnosis. In addition to evaluation for isolated mitral valve cleft, data obtained included presence of additional congenital heart defects and need for surgical intervention. A total of 184 patients (median age 5 days) were identified. Isolated mitral cleft was identified in 12 patients (6.5 %). Four were diagnosed retrospectively (33 %). Only one had mitral regurgitation on initial echocardiogram. Seven required surgery for closure of ventricular septal defects. Isolated mitral cleft is present in an important number of neonates with Trisomy 21. Mitral regurgitation is often absent in the neonatal period and should not be used as a reliable indicator of absence of valve abnormality. Careful attention should be directed toward the mitral valve during the first echocardiogram to exclude an isolated cleft, which can lead to progressive mitral regurgitation.

  18. Echocardiography of congenital mitral valve disorders: echocardiographic-morphological comparisons.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Norman H

    2014-12-01

    I surveyed our echocardiographic database of the years between 1998 and 2012 for congenital abnormalities of the mitral valve in patients over 14 years. A total of 249 patients with mitral valve abnormalities were identified. Abnormalities included clefts in the mitral valve in 58 patients, double orifice of the mitral valve in 19, mitral stenosis with two papillary muscles in 72, and mitral stenosis with one papillary muscle in 51 patients. Supravalvar rings were found in 35 patients with a single papillary muscle, and mitral stenoses with two papillary muscles were found in 22 patients. Mitral prolapse occurred in 44 patients and mitral valvar straddle in five patients. The patients were evaluated by all modalities of ultrasound available over the course of time. Although some lesions were isolated, there were many lesions in which more than one mitral deformity presented in the same patient. The patients are presented showing anatomical correlation with autopsy specimens, some of which came from the patients in this series, and others matched to show correlative anatomy. These lesions remain rare as a group and continue to have high morbidity and mortality.

  19. Mitral valve repair versus replacement in simultaneous aortic and mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Marian; Pirk, Jan; Szarszoi, Ondrej; Skalsky, Ivo; Maly, Jiri; Netuka, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Double valve replacement for concomitant aortic and mitral valve disease is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Excellent results with valve repair in isolated mitral valve lesions have been reported; therefore, whether its potential benefits would translate into better outcomes in patients with combined mitral-aortic disease was investigated. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed involving 341 patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with either mitral valve repair (n=42) or double valve replacement (n=299). Data were analyzed for early mortality, late valve-related complications and survival. RESULTS: The early mortality rate was 11.9% for valve repair and 11.0% for replacement (P=0.797). Survival (± SD) was 67±11% in mitral valve repair with aortic valve replacement and 81±3% in double valve replacement at five years of follow-up (P=0.187). The percentage of patients who did not experience major adverse valve-related events at five years of follow-up was 83±9% in those who underwent mitral valve repair with aortic valve replacement and 89±2% in patients who underwent double valve replacement (P=0.412). Age >70 years (HR 2.4 [95% CI 1.1 to 4.9]; P=0.023) and renal dysfunction (HR 1.9 [95% CI 1.2 to 3.7]; P=0.01) were independent predictors of decreased survival. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with double valve disease, both mitral valve repair and replacement provided comparable early outcomes. There were no significant differences in valve-related reoperations, anticoagulation-related complications or prosthetic valve endocarditis. Patient-related factors appear to be the major determinant of late survival, irrespective of the type of operation. PMID:24294032

  20. Mitral annulus morphologic and functional analysis using real time tridimensional echocardiography in patients submitted to unsupported mitral valve repair

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Marco Antônio Vieira; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Brandão, Carlos Manuel de Almeida; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Tarasoutchi, Flávio; Spinola, Pablo da Cunha; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mitral valve repair is the treatment of choice to correct mitral insufficiency, although the literature related to mitral valve annulus behavior after mitral repair without use of prosthetic rings is scarce. Objective To analyze mitral annulus morphology and function using real time tridimensional echocardiography in individuals submitted to mitral valve repair with Double Teflon technique. Methods Fourteen patients with mitral valve insufficiency secondary to mixomatous degeneration that were submitted to mitral valve repair with the Double Teflon technique were included. Thirteen patients were in FC III/IV. Patients were evaluated in preoperative period, immediate postoperative period, 6 months and 1 year after mitral repair. Statistical analysis was made by repeated measures ANOVA test and was considered statistically significant P<0.05. Results There were no deaths, reoperation due to valve dysfunction, thromboembolism or endocarditis during the study. Posterior mitral annulus demonstrated a significant reduction in immediate postoperative period (P<0.001), remaining stable during the study, and presents a mean of reduction of 25.8% comparing with preoperative period. There was a significant reduction in anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters in the immediate postoperative period (P<0.001), although there was a significant increase in mediolateral diameter between immediate postoperative period and 1 year. There was no difference in mitral internal area variation over the cardiac cycle during the study. Conclusion Segmentar annuloplasty reduced the posterior component of mitral annulus, which remained stable in a 1-year-period. The variation in mitral annulus area during cardiac cycle remained stable during the study. PMID:26313723

  1. Ultrasound based mitral valve annulus tracking for off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng P.; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve cannot close properly during systole. The NeoChordtool aims to repair MR by implanting artificial chordae tendineae on flail leaflets inside the beating heart, without a cardiopulmonary bypass. Image guidance is crucial for such a procedure due to the lack of direct vision of the targets or instruments. While this procedure is currently guided solely by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), our previous work has demonstrated that guidance safety and efficiency can be significantly improved by employing augmented virtuality to provide virtual presentation of mitral valve annulus (MVA) and tools integrated with real time ultrasound image data. However, real-time mitral annulus tracking remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe an image-based approach to rapidly track MVA points on 2D/biplane TEE images. This approach is composed of two components: an image-based phasing component identifying images at optimal cardiac phases for tracking, and a registration component updating the coordinates of MVA points. Preliminary validation has been performed on porcine data with an average difference between manually and automatically identified MVA points of 2.5mm. Using a parallelized implementation, this approach is able to track the mitral valve at up to 10 images per second.

  2. Mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation: lessons from the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network randomized study.

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Santana, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% to 50% of patients will develop ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) after a myocardial infarction, which is a result of progressive left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction of the subvalvular apparatus, and portends a poor long-term prognosis. Surgical treatment is centered on mitral valve repair utilizing a restrictive annuloplasty, or valve replacement with preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. In the recent Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CSTN) study, patients with severe ischemic MR were randomized to mitral valve repair with a restrictive annuloplasty versus chordal-sparing valve replacement, and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, if indicated. At 2-year follow-up, mitral valve repair was associated with a significantly higher incidence of moderate or greater recurrent MR and heart failure, with no difference in the indices of left ventricular reverse remodeling, as compared with valve replacement. The current appraisal aims to provide insight into the CSTN trial results, and discusses the evidence supporting a pathophysiologic-guided repair strategy incorporating combined annuloplasty and subvalvular repair techniques to optimize the outcomes of mitral valve repair in ischemic MR.

  3. Mitral valve prolapse associated with celiac artery stenosis: a new ultrasonographic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Arcari, Luciano

    2004-01-01

    Background Celiac artery stenosis (CAS) may be caused by atherosclerotic degeneration or compression exerted by the arched ligament of the diaphragm. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular disorder. There are no reports on an association between CAS and MVP. Methods 1560 (41%) out of 3780 consecutive patients undergoing echocardiographic assessment of MVP, had Doppler sonography of the celiac tract to detect CAS. Results CAS was found in 57 (3.7%) subjects (23 males and 34 females) none of whom complained of symptoms related to visceral ischemia. MVP was observed in 47 (82.4%) subjects with and 118 (7.9%) without CAS (p < 0.001). The agreement between MVP and CAS was 39% (95% CI 32–49%). PSV (Peak Systolic Velocity) was the only predictor of CAS in MPV patients (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08–0.69) as selected in a multivariate logistic model. Conclusion CAS and MVP seem to be significantly associated in patients undergoing consecutive ultrasonographic screening. PMID:15588321

  4. En face view of the mitral valve: definition and acquisition.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Feroze; Warraich, Haider Javed; Shahul, Sajid; Qazi, Aisha; Swaminathan, Madhav; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Panzica, Peter; Maslow, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    A 3-dimensional echocardiographic view of the mitral valve, called the "en face" or "surgical view," presents a view of the mitral valve similar to that seen by the surgeon from a left atrial perspective. Although the anatomical landmarks of this view are well defined, no comprehensive echocardiographic definition has been presented. After reviewing the literature, we provide a definition of the left atrial and left ventricular en face views of the mitral valve. Techniques used to acquire this view are also discussed.

  5. Evolution of the concept and practice of mitral valve repair

    PubMed Central

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Rajab, Taufiek K.

    2015-01-01

    The first successful mitral valve repair was performed by Elliot Cutler at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in 1923. Subsequent evolution in the surgical techniques as well as multi-disciplinary cooperation between cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and cardiac anesthesiologists has resulted in excellent outcomes. In spite of this, the etiology of mitral valve pathology ultimately determines the outcome of mitral valve repair. PMID:26309840

  6. Finite element analysis to model complex mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, Michel; Mesana, Thierry; Baxter, Ian; Chan, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although finite element analysis has been used to model simple mitral repair, it has not been used to model complex repair. A virtual mitral valve model was successful in simulating normal and abnormal valve function. Models were then developed to simulate an edge-to-edge repair and repair employing quadrangular resection. Stress contour plots demonstrated increased stresses along the mitral annulus, corresponding to the annuloplasty. The role of finite element analysis in guiding clinical practice remains undetermined.

  7. Acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, Eduardo; Mestres, Carlos A; Loma-Osorio, Pablo; Josa, Miguel

    2004-03-01

    Traumatic rupture of intracardiac structures is an uncommon phenomenon although there are a number of reports with regards to rupture of the tricuspid, mitral and aortic valves. We report the case of a 25-year-old patient who presented with acute aortic and mitral valve regurgitation of traumatic origin. Both lesions were seen separated by 2 weeks. Pathophysiology is reviewed. The combination of both aortic and mitral lesions following blunt chest trauma is almost exceptional.

  8. Possible relationship between degenerative cardiac valvular pathology and lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Canver, C C; Chanda, J; DeBellis, D M; Kelley, J M

    2000-07-01

    We report an unusual clinical presentation of Lyme carditis in a previously healthy 20-year-old black woman without any epidemiologic history of Lyme disease, fulminant in nature, involving a heart valve necessitating emergent mitral valve replacement, and requiring further surgical intervention because of the development of pericardial effusion and tamponade. A dilated right ventricle with normal contractility and severe tricuspid regurgitation with increase in the right atrial size diagnosed later remains under close surveillance.

  9. Effect of the mitral valve on diastolic flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore; Dawoud, Fady; Luo, Hongchang; Lardo, Albert C.

    2014-12-15

    The leaflets of the mitral valve interact with the mitral jet and significantly impact diastolic flow patterns, but the effect of mitral valve morphology and kinematics on diastolic flow and its implications for left ventricular function have not been clearly delineated. In the present study, we employ computational hemodynamic simulations to understand the effect of mitral valve leaflets on diastolic flow. A computational model of the left ventricle is constructed based on a high-resolution contrast computed-tomography scan, and a physiological inspired model of the mitral valve leaflets is synthesized from morphological and echocardiographic data. Simulations are performed with a diode type valve model as well as the physiological mitral valve model in order to delineate the effect of mitral-valve leaflets on the intraventricular flow. The study suggests that a normal physiological mitral valve promotes the formation of a circulatory (or “looped”) flow pattern in the ventricle. The mitral valve leaflets also increase the strength of the apical flow, thereby enhancing apical washout and mixing of ventricular blood. The implications of these findings on ventricular function as well as ventricular flow models are discussed.

  10. Peri-procedural imaging for transcatheter mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Navin; Patel, Parag; Bartel, Thomas; Kapadia, Samir; Navia, Jose; Stewart, William; Tuzcu, E. Murat

    2016-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) has a high prevalence in older patient populations of industrialized nations. Common etiologies are structural, degenerative MR and functional MR secondary to myocardial remodeling. Because of co-morbidities and associated high surgical risk, open surgical mitral repair/replacement is deferred in a significant percentage of patients. For these patients transcatheter repair/replacement are emerging as treatment options. Because of the lack of direct visualization, pre- and intra-procedural imaging is critical for these procedures. In this review, we summarize mitral valve anatomy, trans-catheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) options, and imaging in the context of TMVR. PMID:27054104

  11. Mitral and tricuspid valve surgery for Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Ohashi, Takeki; Furui, Masato; Kageyama, Souichirou; Kodani, Noriko; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Hirai, Yasutaka; Sakakura, Reo

    2015-05-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, mental retardation, short stature, and hypotonia. An 18-year-old man with morphologic features characteristic of Coffin-Lowry syndrome was referred to our institution for valve disease surgery for worsening cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe mitral valve regurgitation associated with tricuspid valve regurgitation. Mitral valve implantation with a biological valve and tricuspid annular plication with a ring was performed. The ascending aorta was hypoplastic. Both the mitral papillary muscle originating near the mitral annulus and the chordae were shortened. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and his cardiac failure improved.

  12. Robotic-assisted mitral valve repair: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Algarni, Khaled D; Suri, Rakesh M; Daly, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Robotic-assisted mitral valve repair represents the least invasive surgical approach currently available for anatomical mitral valve repair in patients with myxomatous mitral valve disease. Standard mitral valve repair techniques utilized during conventional sternotomy/right thoracotomy are exactly replicated with the robotic instrumentation through 1-2 cm port-like incisions with superior 3D visualization. This is performed on cardiopulmonary bypass by peripheral cannulation of the femoral vessels/right internal jugular vein. The ascending aorta is occluded with a transthoracic aortic cross-clamp. Antegrade cardioplegia is delivered centrally into the aortic root through a cardioplegia vent catheter. By replicating conventional mitral valve repair done via an open sternotomy approach, the quality of mitral valve repair is ensured while providing the patients with advantages of less invasive surgery including shorter hospital stay, rapid recovery and return to normal activities, less blood transfusion, superior cosmesis and complete elimination of sternotomy-related morbidities such as deep sternal wound infection and sternal dehiscence. We reviewed the first consecutive 200 patients undergoing robotic mitral valve repair at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 24 January 2008 and 28 January 2011. Successful mitral valve repair was completed in all patients. There were no early (30-day) deaths. One patient suffered a stroke (0.5%). One patient required reoperation for bleeding (0.5%). Two patients (1%) required reoperation for recurrent mitral regurgitation. Twelve patients (6%) required transfusion of allogeneic blood products. We have noted a significant reduction in operative times and resource utilization over time.

  13. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair Therapies: Evolution, Status and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, Daniella; Onohara, Daisuke; Kalra, Kanika; Sarin, Eric L; Padala, Muralidhar

    2017-02-01

    Mitral regurgitation is a common cardiac valve lesion, developing from primary lesions of the mitral valve or secondary to cardiomyopathies. Moderate or higher severity of mitral regurgitation imposes significant volume overload on the left ventricle, causing permanent structural and functional deterioration of the myocardium and heart failure. Timely correction of regurgitation is essential to preserve cardiac function, but surgical mitral valve repair is often delayed due to the risks of open heart surgery. Since correction of mitral regurgitation can provide symptomatic relief and halt progressive cardiac dysfunction, transcatheter mitral valve repair technologies are emerging as alternative therapies. In this approach, the mitral valve is repaired either with sutures or implants that are delivered to the native valve on catheters introduced into the cardiovascular system under image guidance, through small vascular or ventricular ports. Several transcatheter mitral valve technologies are in development, but limited clinical success has been achieved. In this review, we present a historical perspective of mitral valve repair, review the transcatheter technologies emerging from surgical concepts, the challenges they face in achieving successful clinical application, and the increasing rigor of safety and durability standards for new transcatheter valve technologies.

  14. Chimney technique for mitral valve replacement in children.

    PubMed

    González Rocafort, Álvaro; Aroca, Ángel; Polo, Luz; Rey, Juvenal; Villagrá, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Severe mitral stenosis is unusual in children, but it represents an important challenge for surgeons because of the scarcity of solutions. Several mitral percutaneous and surgical valvuloplasties are performed repetitively to delay mitral valve replacement. Most of the time these procedures show discouraging results. When mitral valve replacement is performed, the annulus may not be large enough to fit a substitute. We present, to our best knowledge, a new technique to implant a large prosthesis in a small annulus without negatively affecting the opening of the leaflets.

  15. Staphylococcus caprae native mitral valve infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Poyner, Jennifer; Olson, Ewan; Henriksen, Peter; Koch, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Staphylococcus caprae is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Here, we report a case involving the native mitral valve in the absence of an implantable cardiac electronic device. Case presentation: A 76-year-old man presented with a 2 week history of confusion and pyrexia. His past medical history included an open reduction and internal fixation of a humeral fracture 17 years previously, which remained non-united despite further revision 4 years later. There was no history of immunocompromise or farm-animal contact. Two sets of blood culture bottles, more than 12 h apart, were positive for S. caprae. Trans-thoracic echocardiography revealed a 1×1.2 cm vegetation on the mitral valve, with moderate mitral regurgitation. Due to ongoing confusion, he had a magnetic resonance imaging brain scan, which showed a subacute small vessel infarct consistent with a thromboembolic source. A humeral SPECT-CT (single-photon emission computerized tomography-computerized tomography) scan showed no clear evidence of acute osteomyelitis. Surgical vegetectomy and mitral-valve repair were considered to reduce the risk of further systemic embolism and progressive valve infection. However, the potential risks of surgery to this patient led to a decision to pursue a cure with antibiotic therapy alone. He remained well 3 months after discharge, with repeat echocardiography demonstrating a reduction in the size of the vegetation (0.9 cm). Conclusion: Management of this infection was challenging due to its rarity and its unclear progression, complicated by the dilemma surrounding surgical intervention in a patient with a complex medical background. PMID:28348787

  16. Preservation versus non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement: a meta-analysis of 3835 patients

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Martins, Wendell Santos; de Araújo e Sá, Frederico Browne Correia; Lustosa, Pablo César; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Resection of the chordopapillary apparatus during mitral valve replacement has been associated with a negative impact on survival. Mitral valve replacement with the preservation of the mitral valve apparatus has been associated with better outcomes, but surgeons remain refractory to its use. To determine if there is any real difference in preservation vs non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement in terms of outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles to search for clinical studies that compared outcomes (30-day mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or 5-year mortality) between preservation vs non-preservation during mitral valve replacement from 1966 to 2011. The principal summary measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval and P-values (that will be considered statistically significant when <0.05). The ORs were combined across studies using a weighted DerSimonian–Laird random-effects model. The meta-analysis was completed using the software Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Twenty studies (3 randomized and 17 non-randomized) were identified and included a total of 3835 patients (1918 for mitral valve replacement preservation and 1917 for mitral valve replacement non-preservation). There was significant difference between mitral valve replacement preservation and mitral valve replacement non-preservation groups in the risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.418, P <0.001), postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (OR 0.299, P <0.001) or 5-year mortality (OR 0.380, P <0.001). No publication bias or important heterogeneity of effects on any outcome was observed. In conclusion, we found evidence that argues in favour of the preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement. PMID:23027596

  17. Nonresectional Single-Suture Leaflet Remodeling for Degenerative Mitral Regurgitation Facilitates Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    MacArthur, John W.; Cohen, Jeffrey E.; Goldstone, Andrew B.; Fairman, Alexander S.; Edwards, Bryan B.; Hornick, Matthew A.; Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Both leaflet resection and neochordal construction are effective mitral repair techniques, but they may become incrementally time-consuming when using minimally invasive approaches. We have used a single-suture leaflet-remodeling technique of inverting the prolapsed or flail segment tissue into the left ventricle. This repair is straightforward, expeditious, and facilitates a minimally invasive approach. Methods Ninety-nine patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) underwent a minimally invasive single-suture repair of the mitral valve from May 2007 through December 2012. Preoperative and perioperative echocardiograms as well as patient outcomes were analyzed and compared with those obtained from patients undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve repair using quadrangular resection at the same institution during the same period. Results All 99 patients had a successful mitral repair through a sternal-sparing minimally invasive approach. Ninety-one of the 99 patients had zero MR on postoperative echocardiogram, and 8 of 99 had trace to mild MR. Patients in the nonresectional group had significantly shorter cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times compared with the quadrangular resection group (115.8 ± 41.7 minutes versus 144.9 ± 38.2 minutes; p < 0.001; 76.2 ± 28.1 minutes versus 112.6 ± 33.5 minutes; p < 0.001, respectively). The mean length of stay was 7.5 ± 3 days. All patients were discharged alive and free from clinical symptoms of MR. There have been no reoperations for recurrent MR on subsequent average follow-up of 1 year. Conclusions An effective, highly efficient, and thus far durable single-suture mitral leaflet-remodeling technique facilitates minimally invasive repair of degenerative MR. PMID:23932318

  18. Cabergoline use for pituitary tumors and valvular disorders.

    PubMed

    Auriemma, Renata S; Pivonello, Rosario; Ferreri, Lucia; Priscitelli, Prisco; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-03-01

    Cabergoline (CAB) is widely used for the medical treatment of pituitary tumors, particularly those associated with hormone hypersecretion. Whether treatment with CAB is associated with an increased risk of clinically relevant cardiac valve disease in patients with pituitary tumors is still debated. In most studies, CAB has been found not associated with an increased risk of significant valvulopathy, and no correlation has been shown between valvular abnormalities and CAB duration or cumulative dose. This review provides an overview of the studies reporting on the outcome of CAB in terms of cardiac valve disease in patients with pituitary tumors.

  19. [A case of death due to mitral regurgitation caused by traumatic mitral valve injury].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Y; Kojima, T; Yasui, W; Nagasawa, N; Yashiki, M

    1996-06-01

    A 51-year-old male, who had been driving a motor bicycle, was involved in a traffic accident with a trailer, and he died immediately after the accident. According to the external examination of the victim, no fatal injuries were found. The medico-legal autopsy revealed a rupture of the left side of the pericardium, and a tear of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. There were no injuries of the papillary muscles and chordae. The cause of death was due to traumatic mitral regurgitation.

  20. Echocardiographic evaluation of mitral stenosis using diastolic posterior left ventricular wall motion.

    PubMed

    Wise, J R

    1980-05-01

    The slope of the posterior left ventricular wall motion in diastole (LVDS) was determined by echocardiography in 25 normal subjects and 21 patients with mitral stenosis. Patients with mitral stenosis had reduced LVDS that was related to the degree of mitral stenosis determined by calculated mitral valve area (r = 0.92). The mitral valve area correlated more closely with the LVDS than with the left atrial emptying index derived from the posterior aortic wall motion. Three patients with mitral stenosis had an increased LVDS after mitral valvotomy or mitral valve replacement. One patient with a stenotic mitral valve prosthesis had reduced LVDS. The results of this study suggest that analysis of the LVDS would be useful in predicting the severity of mitral stenosis and may be beneficial in evaluating patients with suspected prosthetic mitral valve malfunction.

  1. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation and Valvular Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saad; Wilt, Heath

    2016-01-01

    There is a clinically staggering burden of disease stemming from cerebrovascular events, of which a majority are ischemic in nature and many are precipitated by atrial fibrillation (AF). AF can occur in isolation or in association with myocardial or structural heart disease. In the latter case, and when considering health at an international level, congenital and acquired valve-related diseases are frequent contributors to the current pandemic of AF and its clinical impact. Guidelines crafted by the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, European Society of Cardiology and Heart Rhythm Society underscore the use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) among patients with valvular heart disease, particularly in the presence of concomitant AF, to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke of cardioembolic origin; however, the non-VKAs, also referred to as direct, target-specific or new oral anticoagulants (NOACs), have not been actively studied in this particular population. In fact, each of the new agents is approved in patients with AF not caused by a valve problem. The aim of our review is to carefully examine the available evidence from pivotal phase 3 clinical trials of NOACs and determine how they might perform in patients with AF and concomitant valvular heart disease.

  2. Etiology of valvular heart disease-genetic and developmental origins.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Joy; Garg, Vidu

    2014-01-01

    Valvular heart disease occurs as either a congenital or acquired condition and advances in medical care have resulted in valve disease becoming increasingly prevalent. Unfortunately, treatments remain inadequate because of our limited understanding of the genetic and molecular etiology of diseases affecting the heart valves. Therefore, surgical repair or replacement remains the most effective option, which comes with additional complications and no guarantee of life-long success. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in our understanding of cardiac valve development and, not surprisingly, mutations in these developmental genes have been identified in humans with congenital valve malformations. Concurrently, there has been a greater realization that acquired valve disease is not simply a degenerative process. Molecular investigation of acquired valve disease has identified that numerous signaling pathways critical for normal valve development are re-expressed in diseased valves. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the development of the heart valves, as well as the implications of these findings on the genetics of congenital and acquired valvular heart disease.

  3. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation and Valvular Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Saad; Wilt, Heath

    2016-01-01

    There is a clinically staggering burden of disease stemming from cerebrovascular events, of which a majority are ischemic in nature and many are precipitated by atrial fibrillation (AF). AF can occur in isolation or in association with myocardial or structural heart disease. In the latter case, and when considering health at an international level, congenital and acquired valve-related diseases are frequent contributors to the current pandemic of AF and its clinical impact. Guidelines crafted by the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, European Society of Cardiology and Heart Rhythm Society underscore the use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) among patients with valvular heart disease, particularly in the presence of concomitant AF, to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke of cardioembolic origin; however, the non-VKAs, also referred to as direct, target-specific or new oral anticoagulants (NOACs), have not been actively studied in this particular population. In fact, each of the new agents is approved in patients with AF not caused by a valve problem. The aim of our review is to carefully examine the available evidence from pivotal phase 3 clinical trials of NOACs and determine how they might perform in patients with AF and concomitant valvular heart disease. PMID:27347228

  4. Functional Mitral Regurgitation: Appraising the Evidence Behind Recommended Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Samad, Zainab; Velazquez, Eric J

    2016-12-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most common type of MR encountered in clinical practice. Because the disease arises from the ventricular aspect of the mitral valve apparatus, treatment therapies are less defined and outcomes are poor. In this review, the state of evidence for medical and surgical therapy in functional MR is appraised. Future directions for research in this area are also defined.

  5. Single-Suture Neochorda-Folding Plasty for Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Myung; Je, Hyung Gon; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2016-01-01

    The single-suture neochorda-folding plasty technique is a modification of existing mitral valve repair techniques. In the authors’ experience, its simplicity, reliability, and versatility make it a useful technique for mitral valve repair, especially when a minimally invasive approach is used. PMID:26889453

  6. Multiple purpose simulator using a natural porcine mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Arita, Makoto; Tono, Sumihiro; Kasegawa, Hitoshi; Umezu, Mitsuo

    2004-12-01

    An in vitro pulsatile simulator with a porcine mitral valve was developed in order to simulate physiologic and diseased mitral valve conditions. Evaluation of these conditions was conducted from a hydrodynamic and annulus behavior point of view. We found it possible to simulate mild "mitral valve prolapse" and to obtain quantitative data related to the condition. The diseased condition produced a 40% greater regurgitant volume than that observed under the normal condition (p < 0.0001). Regarding the leakage volume, the diseased condition exhibited about 2.6 times more leakage than the normal condition. The mitral valve simulator proposed in this study is considered fairly stable with respect to both hemodynamics and the behavior of the annulus, and it is an adequate simulator for modeling various types of normal and diseased mitral valve conditions.

  7. ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease Position Paper: assessing the risk of interventions in patients with valvular heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenhek, Raphael; Iung, Bernard; Tornos, Pilar; Antunes, Manuel J.; Prendergast, Bernard D.; Otto, Catherine M.; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Stepinska, Janina; Kaden, Jens J.; Naber, Christoph K.; Acartürk, Esmeray; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Aims Risk scores provide an important contribution to clinical decision-making, but their validity has been questioned in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), since current scores have been mainly derived and validated in adults undergoing coronary bypass surgery. The Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology reviewed the performance of currently available scores when applied to VHD, in order to guide clinical practice and future development of new scores. Methods and results The most widely used risk scores (EuroSCORE, STS, and Ambler score) were reviewed, analysing variables included and their predictive ability when applied to patients with VHD. These scores provide relatively good discrimination, i.e. a gross estimation of risk category, but cannot be used to estimate the exact operative mortality in an individual patient because of unsatisfactory calibration. Conclusion Current risk scores do not provide a reliable estimate of exact operative mortality in an individual patient with VHD. They should therefore be interpreted with caution and only used as part of an integrated approach, which incorporates other patient characteristics, the clinical context, and local outcome data. Future risk scores should include additional variables, such as cognitive and functional capacity and be prospectively validated in high-risk patients. Specific risk models should also be developed for newer interventions, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:21406443

  8. Close association of vascular and valvular calcification and prognosis of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Gen, Shikou; Inoue, Tsutomu; Nodaira, Yuka; Ikeda, Naofumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the association between vascular and valvular calcification and the prognosis of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Data were collected from the records of patients introduced onto CAPD therapy during 1999 - 2006 at the Department of Nephrology, Saitama Medical University. At the start of CAPD, cardiac and vascular echography were used to examine 162 patients (average age: 56 +/- 5 years; 58 men, 104 women; 43 with and 119 without diabetes) for evaluation of vascular and valvular calcification. Both vascular and valvular calcification were found in 32 patients. Vascular calcification was found in 16, and valvular calcification in 11. Over 5 years, 11 patients suffered from cardiovascular disease (7 with stroke, 4 with myocardial infarction). All of these patients had vascular or valvular calcification at the start of CAPD therapy. We also used Cox hazard analysis to examine values for Ca, P, Ca x P, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and lipids. None of these values were independent contributory factors for incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients on CAPD. These data suggest the importance of vascular and valvular echography to evaluate patients on CAPD, especially at the start of CAPD therapy. Vascular and valvular calcification are important factors for determining the prognosis of patients on CAPD.

  9. Abnormal Mitral Valve Dimensions in Pediatric Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Daryl; Benson, Lee; Windram, Jonathan; Wong, Derek; Dragulescu, Andreea; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Mertens, Luc; Friedberg, Mark; Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars

    2016-04-01

    The hearts of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) show structural abnormalities other than isolated wall thickening. Recently, adult HCM patients have been found to have longer mitral valve leaflets than control subjects. The aim of the current study was to assess whether children and adolescents with HCM have similar measureable differences in mitral valve leaflet dimensions when compared to a healthy control group. Clinical and echocardiographic data from 46 children with myocardial hypertrophy and a phenotype and/or genotype consistent with sarcomeric HCM were reviewed. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies were evaluated. The anterior and posterior mitral valve leaflet lengths and myocardial structure were compared to 20 healthy controls. The anterior mitral valve was longer in the HCM group than in the control group (28.4 ± 4.9 vs. 25.2 ± 3.6 mm in control patients, p = 0.013) as was the posterior mitral valve leaflet (16.3 ± 3.0 vs. 13.1 ± 2.3 mm for controls <0.0001). There was no correlation between the resting left ventricular outflow tract gradient and anterior mitral valve leaflet length, nor was the anterior mitral valve leaflet longer in those with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve compared to those without (28.9 ± 6.1 vs. 28.1 ± 4.5 mm, p = 0.61). Children and adolescents with HCM have abnormally long mitral valve leaflets when compared with healthy control subjects. These abnormalities do not appear to result in, or be due to, obstruction to left ventricular outflow. The mechanism of this mitral valve elongation is not clear but appears to be independent of hemodynamic disturbances.

  10. Porcine mitral valve interstitial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Lester, W; Rosenthal, A; Granton, B; Gotlieb, A I

    1988-11-01

    There are connective tissue cells present within the interstitium of the heart valves. This study was designed to isolate and characterize mitral valve interstitial cells from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Explants obtained from the distal part of the leaflet, having been scraped free of surface endocardial cells, were incubated in medium 199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells grew out of the explant after 3 to 5 days and by 3 weeks these cells were harvested and passaged. Passages 1 to 22 were characterized in several explant sets. The cells showed a growth pattern reminiscent of fibroblasts. Growth was dependent on serum concentration. Cytoskeletal localization of actin and myosin showed prominent stress fibers. Ultrastructural studies showed many elongated cells with prominent stress fibers and some gap junctions and few adherens junctions. There were as well cells with fewer stress fibers containing prominent Golgi complex and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. In the multilayered superconfluent cultures, the former cells tended to be on the substratum of the dish or surface of the multilayered culture, whereas the latter was generally located within the layer of cells. Extracellular matrix was prominent in superconfluent cultures, often within the layers as well. Labeling of the cells with antibody HHF 35 (Tsukada T, Tippens D, Gordon D, Ross R, Gown AM: Am J Pathol 126:51, 1987), which recognizes smooth muscle cell actin, showed prominent staining of the elongated stress fiber-containing cells and much less in the secretory type cells. These studies show that interstitial mitral valve cells can be grown in culture and that either two different cell types or one cell type with two phenotypic expressions is present in culture.

  11. Clinical Applications of Natriuretic Peptides in Assessment of Valvular Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Ahmed, Vaseem; Garg, Aakash; Aggarwal, Chirag

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers such as natriuretic peptides (NPs) have evolving clinical utility beyond the scope of heart failure. The role of NPs in the management of valvular heart disease is a growing area of investigation. NPs have much potential in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with hemodynamically significant valvular lesions who have traditionally been excluded from consideration of surgical intervention. NPs also have a role in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in routine surveillance and monitoring. Together with echocardiographic data and functional status, NPs are being incorporated into the management of valvular heart disease. In this review we examine the evidence for the role of natriuretic peptides in assessment of VHD.

  12. Is minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgery the new benchmark for treating mitral valve disease?

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of mitral valve disease remains dynamic; surgeons and patients must now choose between many different surgical options when addressing mitral regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Notably, advances in imaging and surgical instrumentation allow surgeons to perform less invasive mitral valve surgery that spares the sternum. With favorable long-term data now emerging, we compare the benefits and risks of thoracoscopic mitral valve surgery with that through conventional sternotomy or surgery that is robot-assisted. PMID:27942489

  13. Aortic Valvular Replacement: Clinical Experience With 13 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Grondin, Pierre; Lepage, Gilles; Castonguay, Yves

    1964-01-01

    Acquired aortic disease is now currently corrected by total prosthetic replacement of the aortic valve. Aortic valve replacement was performed in 13 cases at the Montreal Heart Institute in 1963. In the first four cases, Bahnson aortic leaflets were used; in the remaining nine, the Starr-Edwards semirigid aortic valve prosthesis. The surgical technique employed is described. There were two operative deaths and two late deaths. The results have been excellent in all of the survivors but one. They have returned to full-time activities and four of them to strenuous physical work. It is the contention of the authors that aortic valve replacement is a surgical procedure with acceptable risks, offering hope for a near-normal life to patients crippled by severe aortic valvular lesions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:14179061

  14. Surface Chemistry Regulates Valvular Interstitial Cell Differentiation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Matthew N.; Coombs, Kent E.; Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    The primary driver for valvular calcification is the differentiation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) into a diseased phenotype. However, the factors leading to the onset of osteoblastic-like VICs (obVICs) and resulting calcification are not fully understood. This study isolates the effect of substrate surface chemistry on in vitro VIC differentiation and calcified tissue formation. Using ω-functionalized alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold [CH3 (hydrophobic), OH (hydrophilic), COOH (COO−, negative at physiological pH), and NH2 (NH3+, positive at physiological pH)], we have demonstrated that surface chemistry modulates VIC phenotype and calcified tissue deposition independent of osteoblastic-inducing media additives. Over seven days VICs exhibited surface-dependent differences in cell proliferation (COO− = NH3+> OH > CH3), morphology, and osteoblastic potential. Both NH3+and CH3-terminated SAMs promoted calcified tissue formation while COO−-terminated SAMs showed no calcification. VICs on NH3+-SAMs exhibited the most osteoblastic phenotypic markers through robust nodule formation, up-regulated osteocalcin and α-smooth muscle actin expression, and adoption of a round/rhomboid morphology indicative of osteoblastic differentiation. With the slowest proliferation, VICs on CH3-SAMs promoted calcified aggregate formation through cell detachment and increased cell death indicative of dystrophic calcification. Furthermore, induction of calcified tissue deposition on NH3+ and CH3-SAMs was distinctly different than that of media induced osteoblastic VICs. These results demonstrate that substrate surface chemistry alters VIC behavior and plays an important role in calcified tissue formation. In addition, we have identified two novel methods of calcified VIC induction in vitro. Further study of these environments may yield new models for in vitro testing of therapeutics for calcified valve stenosis, although additional studies need to be conducted

  15. Echocardiography in evaluation of mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Watts, E; Nomeir, A M; Barnes, R

    1975-06-01

    Thirty-three patients with mitral valve prostheses were studied with echocardiography in an effort to determine if this technique could be useful in detecting significant abnormalities. Recordings were obtained in the supine position with the transducer directed to record maximum excursion of the prosthesis. Echoes from the struts, poppet and sewing ring were readily recorded. Amplitude of excursion and opening and closing velocities of the poppet were measured. Fifty echocardiographic recordings were obtained from the 33 patients. Of the 33 patients studied, 22 were thought to have "normal" echo tracings while in 11, the tracings were considered "abnormal." Apparent abnormalities consisted of: 1) abnormal diastolic separation between the poppet and strut, 2) increased echoes near the poppet, strut or sewing ring and 3) a combination of both. There was only one instance of suspected "sticking" of the prosthesis. All patients who had "abnormal" studies except one developed complications associated with their prosthesis (90%) compared to only 36% in patients with "normal" tracings. Five patients in each group died. Autopsy studies are described and correlations with the echocardiographic findings are made. In low profile valves reduction in excursion of the disc may be an indication of malfunction. Echocardiography appears to be of value in the assessment of function of mitral valve prostheses.

  16. Repeat mitral valve replacement: 30-years' experience.

    PubMed

    Expósito, Víctor; García-Camarero, Tamara; Bernal, José M; Arnáiz, Elena; Sarralde, Aurelio; García, Iván; Berrazueta, José R; Revuelta, José M

    2009-08-01

    Prosthetic heart valve dysfunction is an acquired condition that carries a significant risk of emergency surgery. However, the long-term natural history of the condition is not well understood. Between 1974 and 2006, 1535 isolated mitral valve replacements were performed at our hospital (in-hospital mortality 5%). In total, 369 patients needed a second operation (in-hospital mortality 8.1%), while 80 (age 59.8+/-11.4 years) needed a third. The reasons for the third intervention were structural deterioration (67.5%), paravalvular leak (20%) and endocarditis (6.3%). Some 15 patients died in hospital (18.8%). After a mean follow-up period of 17.8 years, 21 patients needed another intervention (i.e., a fourth intervention). The actuarial reoperation-free rate at 20 years was 40.1+/-13.8%. The late mortality rate was 58.5% (18-year survival rate 15.4+/-5.4%). Indications for repeat mitral valve replacement must be judged on an individual basis given the high risk associated with surgery.

  17. Mitral Valve Surgery: Current Minimally Invasive and Transcatheter Options

    PubMed Central

    Ramlawi, Basel; Gammie, James S.

    2016-01-01

    The mitral valve is a highly complex structure, the competency and function of which relies on the harmonious action of its component parts. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) for mitral valve repair or replacement (MVR/r) has been performed successfully with incremental improvements in techniques over the past decade. These minimally invasive procedures, while attractive to patients and referring physicians, should meet the same high bar for optimal clinical outcomes and long-term durability of valve repair as traditional sternotomy procedures. The majority of MICS MVR/r procedures are performed via a right minithoracotomy approach with direct or camera-assisted visualization, with a minority of centers performing robotic MVR/r. Outcomes with MICS MVR/r have been shown to have similar morbidity and mortality rates as traditional sternotomy MV procedures but with the advantage of reduced transfusions, postoperative atrial fibrillation, and time to recovery. More recently, transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement (TMVR/r) has become a reality. Percutaneous MV repair technology is currently FDA approved for patients with nonsurgical high-risk degenerative mitral regurgitation. Other TMVR/r technology is at various levels of preclinical and clinical investigation, although these devices are proving to be more challenging compared to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) due to the significantly more complex mitral anatomy and the greater heterogeneity of mitral disease requiring treatment. In this article, we review current techniques for MICS MVR/r and upcoming catheter-based therapies for the mitral valve. PMID:27127558

  18. Mitral Valve Surgery: Current Minimally Invasive and Transcatheter Options.

    PubMed

    Ramlawi, Basel; Gammie, James S

    2016-01-01

    The mitral valve is a highly complex structure, the competency and function of which relies on the harmonious action of its component parts. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) for mitral valve repair or replacement (MVR/r) has been performed successfully with incremental improvements in techniques over the past decade. These minimally invasive procedures, while attractive to patients and referring physicians, should meet the same high bar for optimal clinical outcomes and long-term durability of valve repair as traditional sternotomy procedures. The majority of MICS MVR/r procedures are performed via a right minithoracotomy approach with direct or camera-assisted visualization, with a minority of centers performing robotic MVR/r. Outcomes with MICS MVR/r have been shown to have similar morbidity and mortality rates as traditional sternotomy MV procedures but with the advantage of reduced transfusions, postoperative atrial fibrillation, and time to recovery. More recently, transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement (TMVR/r) has become a reality. Percutaneous MV repair technology is currently FDA approved for patients with nonsurgical high-risk degenerative mitral regurgitation. Other TMVR/r technology is at various levels of preclinical and clinical investigation, although these devices are proving to be more challenging compared to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) due to the significantly more complex mitral anatomy and the greater heterogeneity of mitral disease requiring treatment. In this article, we review current techniques for MICS MVR/r and upcoming catheter-based therapies for the mitral valve.

  19. Prolonged Tp-e Interval and Tp-e/QT Ratio in Children with Mitral Valve Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Demirol, Mustafa; Karadeniz, Cem; Ozdemir, Rahmi; Çoban, Şenay; Katipoğlu, Nagehan; Yozgat, Yılmaz; Meşe, Timur; Unal, Nurettin

    2016-08-01

    Although it is considered to be a benign condition, previous studies have shown that a subset of patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) may be at risk of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Previous studies have suggested that the interval between the peak and the end of the T wave (Tp-e) can be used as a marker for the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Increased Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio are associated with ventricular arrhythmias and SCD. The aim of this study was to assess alterations in ventricular repolarization by using the Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in children with MVP and to investigate their relationships with the degree of valvular regurgitation. This study prospectively investigated 110 children with MVP and 107 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT ratio, and QT and QTc dispersions were measured from a 12-lead electrocardiogram and compared between groups. QT and QTc dispersions, Tp-e interval, and Tp-e/QTc ratio were found to be significantly higher in patients with MVP. A positive correlation was found between Tp-e/QTc ratio and increase in the degree of mitral regurgitation (MR) (p < 0.05; r = 0.2). However, the degree of MR was not associated with QT, QTc, or Tp-e intervals; QT, QTc, or Tp-e dispersions; or Tp-e/QT ratio (all p values >0.05). Individuals with MVP may be more prone to ventricular arrhythmias due to prolonged QTd, QTcd, and Tp-e interval and increased Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios. Therefore, due to their longer life expectancy, children with MVP should be followed up on regarding life-threatening arrhythmias.

  20. Echocardiographic analysis of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Tri, Terry B.; Gregoratos, Gabriel

    1981-03-01

    Although the Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis was removed from the market nearly a decade ago, a number of patients still have this valve in place. We recently studied the echocardiographic features of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis. Abnormalities that suggested improper functioning of the prosthesis included a markedly delayed poppet opening and an early diastolic hump believed to represent motion of the mitral annulus. Previously described echocardiographic indications of dys-function were not observed in our patient. We report the first known echocardiographic evaluation of a Davila-Sierra prosthesis.

  1. Echocardiographic analysis of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve

    PubMed Central

    Tri, Terry B.; Gregoratos, Gabriel

    1981-01-01

    Although the Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis was removed from the market nearly a decade ago, a number of patients still have this valve in place. We recently studied the echocardiographic features of a malfunctioning Davila-Sierra mitral valve prosthesis. Abnormalities that suggested improper functioning of the prosthesis included a markedly delayed poppet opening and an early diastolic hump believed to represent motion of the mitral annulus. Previously described echocardiographic indications of dys-function were not observed in our patient. We report the first known echocardiographic evaluation of a Davila-Sierra prosthesis. Images PMID:15216230

  2. Resolution of massive left atrial appendage thrombi with rivaroxaban before balloon mitral commissurotomy in severe mitral stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuechun; Lin, Jiafeng; Peng, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Data on nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant being used for the treatment of LAA thrombi are limited only in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. There are no data on the antithrombotic efficacy and safety of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant in the resolution of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombi in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis. Patient concerns: A 49-year-old woman with known rheumatic mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation was referred for percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy because of progressive dyspnea on exertion over a period of 3 months. Diagnoses: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated a large LAA thrombus protruding into left atria cavity before the procedure. Interventions: Direct factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor rivaroxaban (20 mg/d) was started for the patient. After 3 weeks of rivaroxaban treatment TEE showed a relevantly decreased thrombus size, and a complete thrombus resolution was achieved after 5 weeks of anticoagulant therapy with the FXa inhibitor. Outcomes: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of large LAA thrombus resolution with nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant in severe mitral stenosis, and in which percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy was performed subsequently. Lessons: The report indicated that rivaroxaban could be a therapeutic option for mitral stenosis patients with LAA thrombus. Further study is required before the routine use of rivaroxaban in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation. PMID:27930571

  3. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip for severe functional mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Khung Keong; Ding, Zee Pin; Chua, Yeow Leng; Lim, Soo Teik; Sin, Kenny Yoong Kong; Tan, Jack Wei Chieh; Chiam, Paul Toon Lim; Hwang, Nian Chih; Koh, Tian Hai

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old Chinese woman with comorbidities of chronic obstructive lung disease, hypertension and prior coronary artery bypass surgery presented with severe functional mitral regurgitation (MR) and severely depressed left ventricular function. She was in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-III. Due to high surgical risk, she was referred for percutaneous treatment with the MitraClip valve repair system. This procedure is typically performed via the femoral venous system and involves a transseptal puncture. A clip is delivered to grasp the regurgitant mitral valve leaflets and reduce MR. This was performed uneventfully in our patient, with reduction of MR from 4+ to 1+. She was discharged on post-procedure Day 2 and her NYHA class improved to Class I. This was the first successful MitraClip procedure performed in Asia and represents a valuable treatment option in patients with severe MR, especially those with functional MR or those at high surgical risk.

  4. Plaque Vulnerability as Assessed by Radiofrequency Intravascular Ultrasound in Patients with Valvular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Senguttuvan, Nagendra Boopathy; Kumar, Sharath; Mishra, Sundeep; Cho, Jun Hwan; Kwon, Jee Eun; Hyeon, Seong Hyeop; Jeong, Yun Sang; Won, Hoyoun; Shin, Seung Yong; Lee, Kwang Je; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Chee Jeong; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac valvular calcification is associated with the overall coronary plaque burden and considered an independent cardiovascular risk and prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the presence of valvular calcification and plaque morphology and/or vulnerability. Methods Transthoracic echocardiography was used to assess valvular calcification in 280 patients with coronary artery disease who underwent radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound (Virtual Histology IVUS, VH-IVUS). A propensity score–matched cohort of 192 patients (n = 96 in each group) was analyzed. Thin-capped fibroatheroma (TCFA) was defined as a necrotic core (NC) >10% of the plaque area with a plaque burden >40% and NC in contact with the lumen for ≥3 image slices. A remodeling index (lesion/reference vessel area) >1.05 was considered to be positive. Results Patients were divided into two groups: any calcification in at least one valve (152 patients) vs. no detectable valvular calcification (128 patients). Groups were similar in terms of age, risk factors, clinical diagnosis, and angiographic analysis after propensity score-matched analysis. Gray-scale IVUS analysis showed that the vessel size, plaque burden, minimal lumen area, and remodeling index were similar. By VH-IVUS, % NC and % dense calcium (DC) were greater in patients with valvular calcification (p = 0.024, and p = 0.016, respectively). However, only % DC was higher at the maximal NC site by propensity score-matched analysis (p = 0.029). The frequency of VH-TCFA occurrence was higher depending on the complexity (p = 0.0064) and severity (p = 0.013) of valvular calcification. Conclusions There is a significant relationship between valvular calcifications and VH-IVUS assessment of TCFAs. Valvular calcification indicates a greater atherosclerosis disease complexity (increased calcification of the coronary plaque) and vulnerable coronary plaques (higher incidence of VH-TCFA). PMID

  5. Progression to moderate or severe mitral regurgitation after percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy using stepwise inflation technique.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, T; Yamazoe, M; Tamura, Y; Tanabe, Y; Hori, T; Konno, T; Higuchi, K; Ida, T; Takemoto, M; Aizawa, Y

    1998-05-01

    Progression to moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) was studied after Inoue balloon percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) using the stepwise inflation technique, performed at increments of 1 mm of balloon diameter, in 49 consecutive patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (aged from 32-73 years; 8 males, 41 females). The patients were classified on the basis of the degree of MR after PTMC, compared with that before PTMC, into either Group A, development of moderate or more severe (> or = grade 2) MR (n = 8) or Group B, no increase in MR or development of mild (grade 1) MR (n = 41). Progression to moderate or severe MR was significantly associated only with advanced age (60 +/- 8 vs 52 +/- 10 years, p < 0.05) and narrower mitral valve area (0.87 +/- 0.35 vs 1.11 +/- 0.29 cm2, p < 0.05), but other characteristics before PTMC were similar in both groups. There was no difference between the two groups in the total number and degree of balloon inflation. Immediately before the final inflation, the left atrial mean pressure and v wave pressure were decreased in smaller degrees in Group A compared with Group B (-2 +/- 2 vs -5 +/- 4 mmHg, p < 0.05; -2 +/- 2 vs -6 +/- 6 mmHg, p < 0.05, respectively). Thus, the stepwise inflations require careful monitoring of changes in the left atrial pressure and waveform to recognize the aggravation of MR, especially in older patients with severe stenosis. Patients who do not have a significant drop in left atrial mean pressure and v wave pressure during stepwise inflations of the balloon might be at risk of development of moderate or severe MR after further dilations.

  6. Fully automated software for mitral annulus evaluation in chronic mitral regurgitation by 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Aquila, Iolanda; Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; Rincon, Luis Miguel; González, Ariana; García Martín, Ana; Hinojar, Rocio; Jimenez Nacher, Jose Julio; Indolfi, Ciro; Zamorano, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard for mitral valve (MV) anatomic and functional evaluation. Currently, dedicated MV analysis software has limitations for its use in clinical practice. Thus, we tested here a complete and reproducible evaluation of a new fully automatic software to characterize MV anatomy in different forms of mitral regurgitation (MR) by 3D TEE. Sixty patients were included: 45 with more than moderate MR (28 organic MR [OMR] and 17 functional MR [FMR]) and 15 controls. All patients underwent TEE. 3D MV images obtained using 3D zoom were imported into the new software for automatic analysis. Different MV parameters were obtained and compared. Anatomic and dynamic differences between FMR and OMR were detected. A significant increase in systolic (859.75 vs 801.83 vs 607.78 mm2; P = 0.002) and diastolic (1040.60 vs. 1217.83 and 859.74 mm2; P < 0.001) annular sizes was observed in both OMR and FMR compared to that in controls. FMR had a reduced mitral annular contraction compared to degenerative cases of OMR and to controls (17.14% vs 32.78% and 29.89%; P = 0.007). Good reproducibility was demonstrated along with a short analysis time (mean 4.30 minutes). Annular characteristics and dynamics are abnormal in both FMR and OMR. Full 3D software analysis automatically calculates several significant parameters that provide a correct and complete assessment of anatomy and dynamic mitral annulus geometry and displacement in the 3D space. This analysis allows a better characterization of MR pathophysiology and could be useful in designing new devices for MR repair or replacement. PMID:27930514

  7. A meso-scale layer-specific structural constitutive model of the mitral heart valve leaflets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Will; Ayoub, Salma; Liao, Jun; Sacks, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    Fundamental to developing a deeper understanding of pathophysiological remodeling in mitral valve (MV) disease is the development of an accurate tissue-level constitutive model. In the present work, we developed a novel meso-scale (i.e. at the level of the fiber, 10-100 μm in length scale) structural constitutive model (MSSCM) for MV leaflet tissues. Due to its four-layer structure, we focused on the contributions from the distinct collagen and elastin fiber networks within each tissue layer. Requisite collagen and elastin fibrous structural information for each layer were quantified using second harmonic generation microscopy and conventional histology. A comprehensive mechanical dataset was also used to guide model formulation and parameter estimation. Furthermore, novel to tissue-level structural constitutive modeling approaches, we allowed the collagen fiber recruitment function to vary with orientation. Results indicated that the MSSCM predicted a surprisingly consistent mean effective collagen fiber modulus of 162.72 MPa, and demonstrated excellent predictive capability for extra-physiological loading regimes. There were also anterior-posterior leaflet-specific differences, such as tighter collagen and elastin fiber orientation distributions (ODF) in the anterior leaflet, and a thicker and stiffer atrialis in the posterior leaflet. While a degree of angular variance was observed, the tight valvular tissue ODF also left little room for any physically meaningful angular variance in fiber mechanical responses. Finally, a novel fibril-level (0.1-1 μm) validation approach was used to compare the predicted collagen fiber/fibril mechanical behavior with extant MV small angle X-ray scattering data. Results demonstrated excellent agreement, indicating that the MSSCM fully captures the tissue-level function. Future utilization of the MSSCM in computational models of the MV will aid in producing highly accurate simulations in non-physiological loading states that can

  8. Robotic mitral valve surgery: current limitations and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Rakesh; Mick, Stephanie; Mihaljevic, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Use of the surgical robot facilitates less invasive mitral valve surgery. Although multiple single center studies confirmed excellent results with robotically-assisted mitral valve surgery, both real and perceived limitations have slowed adoption of this technology. Some still question the safety and efficacy of robotically-assisted mitral valve surgery. However, present data suggests that robotic operations can be performed by specialized surgeons in appropriately selected patients without compromising results. That said, the robot does introduce additional procedural complexity related to management of cardiopulmonary bypass and myocardial protection. A direct approach to these challenges combined with careful patient selection enables the surgeon to obtain excellent results with robotically-assisted mitral valve surgery. PMID:27942490

  9. Minimally Invasive, Nonsurgical Approach to Repairing Mitral Valve Leaks

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally Invasive, Nonsurgical Approach to Repairing Mitral Valve Leaks - David X. Zhao, MD Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights ...

  10. Dissection of the atrial wall after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, L; Kassai, I; Lengyel, M

    1996-01-01

    We describe an unusual sequela of mitral valve replacement in a 50-year-old woman who had undergone a closed mitral commissurotomy in 1975. She was admitted to our hospital because of mitral restenosis in November 1993, at which time her mitral valve was replaced with a mechanical prosthesis. On the 8th postoperative day, the patient developed symptoms of heart failure; transesophageal echocardiography revealed dissection and rupture of the left atrial wall. At prompt reoperation, we found an interlayer dissection and rupture of the atrial wall into the left atrium. We repaired the ruptured atrial wall with a prosthetic patch. The postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative transesophageal echocardiography showed normal prosthetic valve function and no dissection. Images PMID:8680278

  11. Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinalendu; Mahindrakar, Pallavi; Das, Debasis; Behera, Sukanta Kumar; Chowdhury, Saibal Roy; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit

    2011-08-01

    The usual presentation of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery is severe left-sided heart failure and mitral valve insufficiency presenting during the first months of life. The manifestations of left heart failure may be masked if pulmonary artery pressure remains high. We believe this is a rarest of rare case of anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery with severe mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension in which pulmonary hypertension, along with good collateral circulation helped to preserve left ventricular function.

  12. Severe rheumatic mitral stenosis: a 21st century medusa.

    PubMed

    Carrilho-Ferreira, Pedro; Pedro, Monica Mendes; Varela, Manuel Gato; Diogo, Antonio Nunes

    2011-09-12

    Although the prevalence of rheumatic fever has greatly decreased in developed countries, rheumatic mitral stenosis still causes significant morbidity and mortality. Symptomatic patients have a poor prognosis, with a 0 to 15% 10-year survival rate, particularly if percutaneous or surgical intervention are contraindicated or considered high risk. We present a case of severe rheumatic mitral stenosis with an evolution over 4 decades, in which exceptional venous distention has established.

  13. Reexamining contraindications for minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Reade, Clifton C; Bower, Curtis E; Kypson, Alan P; Nifong, L Wiley; Wooden, William A; Chitwood, W Randolph

    2005-01-01

    Historically, contraindications to minimally invasive or robotic mitral valve surgery have included prior mastectomy, thoracic reconstruction, or chest radiation. However, we believe that by granting flexibility in the choice of skin incision site while performing careful dissection, surgeons can provide these patients the outstanding results afforded by a minithoracotomy. We present a patient who had undergone a prior mastectomy and radiation treatment in whom we performed a minimally invasive mitral valve repair through a right-sided minithoracotomy using the previous mastectomy incision.

  14. Early Stabilization of Traumatic Aortic Transection and Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, David L.; Wellens, Francis; Vercoutere, Rik A.; De Geest, Raf

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening aortic transection with concomitant mitral papillary muscle rupture and severe lung contusion caused by a failed parachute jump. This blunt thoracic injury was treated by early stabilization with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by successful delayed graft repair of the descending aorta and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:65–7) PMID:12638675

  15. Robotic mitral valve surgery: overview, methodology, results, and perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Robotic mitral valve repair began in 1998 and has advanced remarkably. It arose from an interest in reducing patient trauma by operating through smaller incisions with videoscopic assistance. In the United States, following two clinical trials, the FDA approved the daVinci Surgical System in 2002 for intra-cardiac surgery. This device has undergone three iterations, eventuating in the current daVinci XI. At present it is the only robotic device approved for mitral valve surgery. Many larger centers have adopted its use as part of their routine mitral valve repair armamentarium. Although these operations have longer perfusion and arrest times, complications have been either similar or less than other traditional methods. Preoperative screening is paramount and leads to optimal patient selection and outcomes. There are clear contraindications, both relative and absolute, that must be considered. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic studies optimally guide surgeons in operative planning. Herein, we describe the selection criteria as well as our operative management during a robotic mitral valve repair. Major complications are detailed with tips to avoid their occurrence. Operative outcomes from the author’s series as well as those from the largest experiences in the United States are described. They show that robotic mitral valve repair is safe and effective, as well as economically reasonable due to lower costs of hospitalization. Thus, the future of this operative technique is bright for centers adopting the “heart team” approach, adequate clinical volume and a dedicated and experienced mitral repair surgeon. PMID:27942486

  16. Morphological and Chemical Study of Pathological Deposits in Human Aortic and Mitral Valve Stenosis: A Biomineralogical Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Cottignoli, Valentina; Salvador, Loris; Valfré, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate heart valve calcification process by different biomineralogical techniques to provide morphological and chemical features of the ectopic deposit extracted from patients with severe mitral and aortic valve stenosis, to better evaluate this pathological process. Polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses brought to light the presence of nodular and massive mineralization forms characterized by different levels of calcification, as well as the presence of submicrometric calcified globular cluster, micrometric cavities containing disorganized tissue structures, and submillimeter pockets formed by organic fibers very similar to amyloid formations. Electron microprobe analyses showed variable concentrations of Ca and P within each deposit and the highest content of Ca and P within calcified tricuspid aortic valves, while powder X-ray diffraction analyses indicated in the nanometer range the dimension of the pathological bioapatite crystals. These findings indicated the presence of highly heterogeneous deposits within heart valve tissues and suggested a progressive maturation process with continuous changes in the composition of the valvular tissue, similar to the multistep formation process of bone tissue. Moreover the micrometric cavities represent structural stages of the valve tissue that immediately precedes the formation of heavily mineralized deposits such as bone-like nodules. PMID:25685595

  17. Growth of mitral annulus in the pediatric patient after suture annuloplasty of the entire posterior mitral annulus.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Takeshi; Huebler, Michael; Berger, Felix; Hetzer, Roland

    2009-08-01

    When mitral annuloplasty is performed in small children, room for annular growth should be allowed. However, it has not been reported how the valve develops after mitral annuloplasty of the entire posterior annulus. We report a case showing traces of annular growth at redo surgery. A female patient suffering from mitral valve insufficiency due to annular dilatation underwent modified Paneth plasty with Kay-Wooler commissural plication annuloplasty at the age of two years one month. In redo surgery 8.4 years after initial repair, enlargement of the commissural portion of the posterior annulus in addition to enlargement of the anterior leaflet and anterior annulus was observed. Modified Paneth plasty reinforced with a pericardial strip and Kay-Wooler annuloplasty of the posteromedial commissure were performed. Mitral orifice size measured with the Hegar dilator was 18 mm after the re-repair, increasing from 16 mm after the initial repair. Taking into account the normal mitral annulus diameter related to body surface area (BSA) of 16 mm at initial operation and 20 mm at redo surgery, the increase in mitral orifice size from 16 mm to 18 mm in this patient may be regarded as the annular growth in 8.4 years.

  18. Novel oral Anticoagulants in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Rose M.F.L.

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia in clinical practice, reaching 2% of the people in the world and is associated with systemic embolism. Thus, the use of anticoagulants is indicated if CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2 or in patients with previous transient ischemic attack or stroke. For decades, warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, was the only choice for chronic oral anticoagulation. Recently, novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been introduced, offering similar (or better) effectiveness, safety, and convenience to the vitamin K antagonists. Dabigatran was the first NOAC approved and is a direct thrombin inhibitor. Rivaroxaban and apixaban are factor Xa inhibitors. They display rapid onset of action, more predictable of pharmacological profile, less interactions with other drugs, lack of significant effects in the diet, and less risk of intracranial hemorrhage than warfarin. Despite that dose adjustment is necessary for patients with chronic kidney disease or according to body weight, these new drugs do not require regular monitoring. There are recommendations for the start and follow-up therapy with NOACs, planning for cardioversion, ablation and surgical interventions and the management of bleeding. This article is a review of the major studies of the NOACs. The clinical use of these drugs in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation is presented. PMID:25470147

  19. RT 3D TEE: Characteristics of Mitral Valve in Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Evaluated by MVQ Program

    PubMed Central

    Kovalova, Sylva; Necas, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess the changes of mitral valve (MV) in ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) using Mitral Valve Quantification (MVQ) program. Methods We examined 46 patients (18 women) with IMR aged 45-86 and a control group of 33 healthy individuals (14 women) aged 18-88. Following parameters were assessed: Area of minimal surface spanning annulus (A3), annulus height (h), tenting height (Th), exposed area of anterior (AL), posterior (PL) and both leaflets (BL), ejection fraction of the left ventricle (LV EF), regurgitation volume (RV) and BL/A3, AL/A3, PL/A3 ratios. The normal range of BL/A3 ratio was defined as the average ± 2SD of control group. The study group was separated into subgroup 1 with BL/A3 ratio within normal values and subgroup 2 with pathological BL/A3 ratio. Corresponding parameters of IMR group were compared to the controls and both subgroups were compared to each other using Student t-test. Results In IMR group, as compared to the controls, A3, AL, PL, BL as well as BL/A3, AL/A3, PL/A3 ratios and Th were significantly increased, conversely, h and LV EF was significantly decreased. In the subgroup 2 as compared to the subgroup 1 there was significant increase of Th, BL, AL and PL, while EF LV was significantly decreased. There was no significant difference between these subgroups in A3, h and RV. Conclusion In ischemic MV remodeling two stages were identified without relation to the severity of IMR. The first stage was mainly influenced by the LV dilatation while LV remodeling was more important in the second stage.

  20. Mutations in DCHS1 cause mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Durst, Ronen; Sauls, Kimberly; Peal, David S; deVlaming, Annemarieke; Toomer, Katelynn; Leyne, Maire; Salani, Monica; Talkowski, Michael E; Brand, Harrison; Perrocheau, Maëlle; Simpson, Charles; Jett, Christopher; Stone, Matthew R; Charles, Florie; Chiang, Colby; Lynch, Stacey N; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Delling, Francesca N; Freed, Lisa A; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Le Tourneau, Thierry; LeMarec, Hervé; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Trujillano, Daniel; Ossowski, Stephan; Estivill, Xavier; Dina, Christian; Bruneval, Patrick; Chester, Adrian; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Irvine, Kenneth D; Mao, Yaopan; Wessels, Andy; Motiwala, Tahirali; Puceat, Michel; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Menick, Donald R; Kasiganesan, Harinath; Nie, Xingju; Broome, Ann-Marie; Williams, Katherine; Johnson, Amanda; Markwald, Roger R; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Hagege, Albert; Levine, Robert A; Milan, David J; Norris, Russell A; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A

    2015-09-03

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common cardiac valve disease that affects nearly 1 in 40 individuals. It can manifest as mitral regurgitation and is the leading indication for mitral valve surgery. Despite a clear heritable component, the genetic aetiology leading to non-syndromic MVP has remained elusive. Four affected individuals from a large multigenerational family segregating non-syndromic MVP underwent capture sequencing of the linked interval on chromosome 11. We report a missense mutation in the DCHS1 gene, the human homologue of the Drosophila cell polarity gene dachsous (ds), that segregates with MVP in the family. Morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish homologue dachsous1b resulted in a cardiac atrioventricular canal defect that could be rescued by wild-type human DCHS1, but not by DCHS1 messenger RNA with the familial mutation. Further genetic studies identified two additional families in which a second deleterious DCHS1 mutation segregates with MVP. Both DCHS1 mutations reduce protein stability as demonstrated in zebrafish, cultured cells and, notably, in mitral valve interstitial cells (MVICs) obtained during mitral valve repair surgery of a proband. Dchs1(+/-) mice had prolapse of thickened mitral leaflets, which could be traced back to developmental errors in valve morphogenesis. DCHS1 deficiency in MVP patient MVICs, as well as in Dchs1(+/-) mouse MVICs, result in altered migration and cellular patterning, supporting these processes as aetiological underpinnings for the disease. Understanding the role of DCHS1 in mitral valve development and MVP pathogenesis holds potential for therapeutic insights for this very common disease.

  1. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular filling after mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed Central

    St John Sutton, M G; Traill, T A; Ghafour, A S; Brown, D J; Gibson, D G

    1977-01-01

    In order to investigate the functional effects of mitral valve surgery, echocardiograms showing left ventricular dimension were recorded and digitised in 14 normal subjects and 129 patients after mitral valve surgery. Measurements were made of peak rate of increase of dimension (dD/dt) and duration of rapid filling, studies on left ventriculograms in 36 patients having shown close correlation between these values and changes in cavity volume. In 14 patients with mitral stenosis, peak dD/dt was reduced to 7-2 +/ 1-5 cm/s, and filling period prolonged to 330 +/- 65 ms, compared with normal (16-0 +/- 3-2 cm/s, and 160 +/- 50 ms, respectively), and after mitral valvotomy, these values improved significantly (10-4 +/- 2-7 cm/s and 245 +/- 55 ms). Characteristic abnormalities were found in 67 patients with mitral prostheses. Values for the Björk-Shiley (10-5 +/- 4-2 cm/s and 180 +/- 80 ms) and Hancock (10-3 +/- 3-7 cm/s, 245 +/- 80 ms) values were similar, and both superior to the Starr-Edwards (7-4 +/- 3-0 cm/s, 295 +/- 105 ms). Results after mitral valve repair in 30 cases were not significantly different from normal (14-4 +/- 5-0 cm/s, 170 +/- 50 ms). Values outside the 95 per cent confidence limits for the valve in question allowed diagnosis of value malfunction in 18 cases. The method is value in comparing different operative procedures and in following up patients after mitral valve surgery. PMID:603728

  2. Mutations in DCHS1 Cause Mitral Valve Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Durst, Ronen; Sauls, Kimberly; Peal, David S; deVlaming, Annemarieke; Toomer, Katelynn; Leyne, Maire; Salani, Monica; Talkowski, Michael E.; Brand, Harrison; Perrocheau, Maëlle; Simpson, Charles; Jett, Christopher; Stone, Matthew R.; Charles, Florie; Chiang, Colby; Lynch, Stacey N.; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Delling, Francesca N.; Freed, Lisa A.; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Le Tourneau, Thierry; LeMarec, Hervé; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Trujillano, Daniel; Ossowski, Stephan; Estivill, Xavier; Dina, Christian; Bruneval, Patrick; Chester, Adrian; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Irvine, Kenneth D.; Mao, Yaopan; Wessels, Andy; Motiwala, Tahirali; Puceat, Michel; Tsukasaki, Yoshikazu; Menick, Donald R.; Kasiganesan, Harinath; Nie, Xingju; Broome, Ann-Marie; Williams, Katherine; Johnson, Amanda; Markwald, Roger R.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Hagege, Albert; Levine, Robert A.; Milan, David J.; Norris, Russell A.; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common cardiac valve disease that affects nearly 1 in 40 individuals1–3. It can manifest as mitral regurgitation and is the leading indication for mitral valve surgery4,5. Despite a clear heritable component, the genetic etiology leading to non-syndromic MVP has remained elusive. Four affected individuals from a large multigenerational family segregating non-syndromic MVP underwent capture sequencing of the linked interval on chromosome 11. We report a missense mutation in the DCHS1 gene, the human homologue of the Drosophila cell polarity gene dachsous (ds) that segregates with MVP in the family. Morpholino knockdown of the zebrafish homolog dachsous1b resulted in a cardiac atrioventricular canal defect that could be rescued by wild-type human DCHS1, but not by DCHS1 mRNA with the familial mutation. Further genetic studies identified two additional families in which a second deleterious DCHS1 mutation segregates with MVP. Both DCHS1 mutations reduce protein stability as demonstrated in zebrafish, cultured cells, and, notably, in mitral valve interstitial cells (MVICs) obtained during mitral valve repair surgery of a proband. Dchs1+/− mice had prolapse of thickened mitral leaflets, which could be traced back to developmental errors in valve morphogenesis. DCHS1 deficiency in MVP patient MVICs as well as in Dchs1+/− mouse MVICs result in altered migration and cellular patterning, supporting these processes as etiological underpinnings for the disease. Understanding the role of DCHS1 in mitral valve development and MVP pathogenesis holds potential for therapeutic insights for this very common disease. PMID:26258302

  3. ANP and BNP plasma levels in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Rużyłło, Witold; Chmielak, Zbigniew; Opalińska-Ciszek, Ewa; Janas, Jadwiga; Hoffman, Piotr; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Grzybowski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Atrial (ANP) and B-type (BNP) natriuretic peptides are hormones secreted by the heart as a response to volume expansion and pressure overload. Aim To assess the changes of ANP and BNP after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) and to investigate factors associated with endpoints. Material and methods The study included 96 patients (90.7% females, age 51.6 ±12.2 years) with rheumatic mitral valve stenosis (mitral valve area (MVA) 1.18 (1.01–1.33) cm2, mean mitral gradient (MMG) 8.2 (7.1–9.2) mm Hg, NYHA 2.09 (1.9–2.5)). Patients were followed up for 29.1 months for the search of endpoints. Results The PBMV was successful in all cases. After the procedure MVA increased (1.18–1.78 cm2, p < 0.01) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) decreased (29.8–21.8 mm Hg, p < 0.01). Concentration of ANP significantly rose 30 min after the PBMV (79.2 vs. 134.2 pg/ml, p = 0.012) and dropped significantly after 24 h (134.2 vs. 70.4 pg/ml, p = 0.01). Furthermore, after 36 months concentration of ANP did not differ from the baseline value (p = NS). BNP concentration at day 1 was lower than at baseline (94.5 vs. 80.2 pg/ml, p = 0.032). Moreover, during the follow-up period BNP continued to fall at all time points. In univariate analysis parameters associated with endpoint occurrence were baseline PAP (p = 0.023), baseline PCWP (p = 0.022), baseline NYHA (p = 0.041) and increase in 6-minute walk test (6MWT) (p = 0.043). In multivariate analysis the only factor associated with endpoint occurrence was baseline NYHA (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: –1.3–1.91, p = 0.022). Conclusions Patients with MS had increased levels of both BNP and ANP. Baseline NYHA class was found to be associated with outcomes after the procedure. PMID:28344613

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of Mitral Regurgitation Secondary to Mitral Valve Prolapse by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Le Goffic, Caroline; Toledano, Manuel; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Binda, Camille; Castel, Anne-Laure; Delelis, François; Graux, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Maréchaux, Sylvestre

    2015-11-01

    The present prospective study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitant fraction (MRF) by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) in the modern era using as reference method the blinded multiparametric integrative assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity. 2-Dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) MRF by echocardiography (2D echo MRF and 3D echo MRF) were obtained by measuring the difference in left ventricular (LV) total stroke volume (obtained from either 2D or 3D acquisition) and aortic forward stroke volume normalized to LV total stroke volume. MRF was calculated by cMRI using either (1) (LV stroke volume - systolic aortic outflow volume by phase contrast)/LV stroke volume (cMRI MRF [volumetric]) or (2) (mitral inflow volume - systolic aortic outflow volume)/mitral inflow volume (cMRI MRF [phase contrast]). Six patients had 1 + MR, 6 patients had 2 + MR, 12 patients had 3 + MR, and 10 had 4 + MR. A significant correlation was observed between MR grading and 2D echo MRF (r = 0.60, p <0.0001) and 3D echo MRF (r = 0.79, p <0.0001), cMRI MRF (volumetric) (r = 0.87, p <0.0001), and cMRI MRF (phase contrast r = 0.72, p <0.001). The accuracy of MRF for the diagnosis of MR ≥3+ or 4+ was the highest with cMRI MRF (volumetric) (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.98), followed by 3D echo MRF (AUC = 0.96), 2D echo MRF (AUC = 0.90), and cMRI MRF (phase contrast; AUC = 0.83). In conclusion, MRF by cMRI (volumetric method) and 3D echo MRF had the highest diagnostic value to detect significant MR, whereas the diagnostic value of 2D echo MRF and cMRI MRF (phase contrast) was lower. Hence, the present study suggests that both cMRI (volumetric method) and 3D echo represent best approaches for calculating MRF.

  5. Impact of mitral geometry and global afterload on improvement of mitral regurgitation after trans-catheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Dworakowski, R; Kogoj, P; Reiken, J; Kenny, C; MacCarthy, P; Wendler, O; Monaghan, M J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of mitral geometry, left ventricular (LV) remodelling and global LV afterload on mitral regurgitation (MR) after trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods In this study, 60 patients who underwent TAVI were evaluated by 3D echocardiography at baseline, 1 month and 6 months after procedure. The proportional change in MR following TAVI was determined by examining the percentage change in vena contracta (VC) at 6 months. Patients having a significant reduction of at least 30% in VC were defined as good responders (GR) and the remaining patients were defined as poor responders (PR). Results After 6 months of TAVI, 27 (45%) patients were GR and 33 (55%) were PR. There was a significant decrease in 3DE-derived mitral annular diameter and area (P = 0.001), mitral valve tenting area (TA) (P = 0.05), and mitral papillary muscle dyssynchrony index (DSI) (P = 0.05) in the GR group. 3DE-derived LVESV (P = 0.016), LV mass (P = 0.001) and LV DSI, (P = 0.001) were also improved 6 months after TAVI. In addition, valvulo-arterial impedance (ZVA) was significantly higher at baseline in patients with PR (P = 0.028). 3DE-derived mitral annular area (β: 0.47, P = 0.04), mitral papillary DSI (β: −0.65, P = 0.012) and ZVA (β: 0.45, P = 0.028) were the strongest independent parameters that could predict the reduction of functional MR after TAVI. Conclusion GR patients demonstrate more regression in mitral annulus area and diameter after significant decrease in high LVEDP and trans-aortic gradients with TAVI. PR patients appear to have increased baseline ZVA, mitral valve tenting and restriction in mitral valve coaptation. These factors are important for predicting the impact of TAVI on pre-existing MR. PMID:27457965

  6. Diastolic murmurs in the presence of Starr-Edwards mitral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, R A; McAnulty, J H; Starr, A; Rahimtoola, S H

    1975-03-01

    Diastolic murmurs associated with the Starr-Edwards mitral prosthesis have not been described previously. In this report, five patients with mitral prostheses are described in whom apical mid-diastolic and presystolic murmurs resulted from two different causes. Three patients had clots obstructing the prosthetic orifice. The other two had normally functioning protheses and moderately severe aortic insufficiency. The occurrence of mid-diastolic and presystolic murmurs in the presence of a normally functioning prosthetic mitral valve demonstrates that 1) the mid-diastolic Austin Flint murmur can occur in the absence of incomplete mitral valve opening, premature mitral valve closure, vibrating mitral leaflets, or relative mitral stenosis and 2) the presystolic Austin Flint murmur can occur in the absence of incomplete valve opening or presystolic mitral regurgitation. However, the presystolic murmur was associated with early closure movement of the presthetic poppet.

  7. Relief of mitral incompetence by selective intracoronary thrombolysis in hyperacute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Keltai, M; Palik, I; Rozsa, Z; Szente, A

    1985-01-01

    Left ventriculography and coronary arteriography were performed in 47 patients with hyperacute myocardial infarction prior to recanalization of the infarct-related vessel. Mitral regurgitation was found in ten patients. After successful recanalization, left ventriculography was repeated in eight of the ten patients with mitral incompetence, and the mitral regurgitation had disappeared in seven. Selective intracoronary thrombolysis resulted in improved left ventricular function and disappearance of mitral incompetence.

  8. Normal rate of ventricular emptying in valvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lederman, S M; Gash, A K; Bove, A A; Spann, J F

    1981-01-01

    The delayed upstroke of the arterial pulse in valvular aortic stenosis has been attributed, in part, to prolonged left ventricular emptying. Left ventricular emptying rate, however, has not been measured in aortic stenosis. We assessed the rate of left ventricular emptying by computer analysis of biplane cineangiograms in seven normal subjects, six patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis, and 12 patients with severe aortic stenosis. As an indicator of delayed arterial pulse rise, T time index (time to half maximum aortic pressure corrected for heart rate) was measured in each group. T time index averaged 0.07 +/- 0.01 units in normal subjects, 0.14 +/- 0.04 units in the patients with mild to moderate aortic stenosis, and 0.13 +/- 0.05 units in those with severe aortic stenosis. Patients with mild to moderate and severe aortic stenosis differed significantly from normal subjects. Relative emptying rates were defined as the percentage of initial systolic volume ejected divided by the percentage of systole elapsed. These relative emptying rates were determined during the first, second, and third thirds of systole in all three groups. No significant decrease in the relative rate of left ventricular emptying was noted when each group of patients with aortic stenosis was compared with the normal subjects. Neither was there slowing in the actual rate of ejection of blood in ml per second throughout systole. We conclude that the rate of ventricular emptying is normal in aortic stenosis and does not explain the arterial pulse delay in this disease. PMID:7295438

  9. Ileal neuroendocrine tumors and heart: not only valvular consequences.

    PubMed

    Calissendorff, Jan; Maret, Eva; Sundin, Anders; Falhammar, Henrik

    2015-04-01

    Ileal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) often progress slowly, but because of their generally nonspecific symptoms, they have often metastasized to local lymph nodes and to the liver by the time the patient presents. Biochemically, most of these patients have increased levels of whole blood serotonin, urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and chromogranin A. Imaging work-up generally comprises computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, or in recent years positron emission tomography with 68Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs, allowing for detection of even sub-cm lesions. Carcinoid heart disease with affected leaflets, mainly to the right side of the heart, is a well-known complication and patients routinely undergo echocardiography to diagnose and monitor this. Multitasking surgery is currently recognized as first-line treatment for ileal NETs with metastases and carcinoid heart disease. Open heart surgery and valve replacement are advocated in patients with valvular disease and progressive heart failure. When valvulopathy in the tricuspid valve results in right-sided heart failure, a sequential approach, performing valve replacement first before intra-abdominal tumor-reductive procedures are conducted, reduces the risk of bleeding. Metastases to the myocardium from ileal NETs are seen in <1-4.3% of patients, depending partly on the imaging technique used, and are generally discovered in those affected with widespread disease. Systemic treatment with somatostatin analogs, and sometimes alpha interferon, is first-line medical therapy in metastatic disease to relieve hormonal symptoms and stabilize the tumor. This treatment is also indicated when heart metastases are detected, with the addition of diuretics and fluid restriction in cases of heart failure. Myocardial metastases are rarely treated by surgical resection.

  10. Patient-specific mitral leaflet segmentation from 4D ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Robert J; Tenenholtz, Neil A; Perrin, Douglas P; Marx, Gerald R; del Nido, Pedro J; Howe, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    Segmenting the mitral valve during closure and throughout a cardiac cycle from four dimensional ultrasound (4DUS) is important for creation and validation of mechanical models and for improved visualization and understanding of mitral valve behavior. Current methods of segmenting the valve from 4DUS either require extensive user interaction and initialization, do not maintain the valve geometry across a cardiac cycle, or are incapable of producing a detailed coaptation line and surface. We present a method of segmenting the mitral valve annulus and leaflets from 4DUS such that a detailed, patient-specific annulus and leaflets are tracked throughout mitral valve closure, resulting in a detailed coaptation region. The method requires only the selection of two frames from a sequence indicating the start and end of valve closure and a single point near a closed valve. The annulus and leaflets are first found through direct segmentation in the appropriate frames and then by tracking the known geometry to the remaining frames. We compared the automatically segmented meshes to expert manual tracings for both a normal and diseased mitral valve, and found an average difference of 0.59 +/- 0.49 mm, which is on the order of the spatial resolution of the ultrasound volumes (0.5-1.0 mm/voxel).

  11. Genetic association analyses highlight biological pathways underlying mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Dina, Christian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Tucker, Nathan; Delling, Francesca N; Toomer, Katelynn; Durst, Ronen; Perrocheau, Maelle; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Chen, Ming-Huei; Probst, Vincent; Bosse, Yohan; Pibarot, Philippe; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Hercberg, Serge; Roussel, Ronan; Benjamin, Emelia J; Bonnet, Fabrice; Lo, Su Hao; Dolmatova, Elena; Simonet, Floriane; Lecointe, Simon; Kyndt, Florence; Redon, Richard; Le Marec, Hervé; Froguel, Philippe; Ellinor, Patrick T; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Bruneval, Patrick; Markwald, Roger R; Norris, Russell A; Milan, David J; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Levine, Robert A; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Hagege, Albert A; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Nonsyndromic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common degenerative cardiac valvulopathy of unknown etiology that predisposes to mitral regurgitation, heart failure and sudden death. Previous family and pathophysiological studies suggest a complex pattern of inheritance. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 genome-wide association studies in 1,412 MVP cases and 2,439 controls. We identified 6 loci, which we replicated in 1,422 cases and 6,779 controls, and provide functional evidence for candidate genes. We highlight LMCD1 (LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1), which encodes a transcription factor and for which morpholino knockdown of the ortholog in zebrafish resulted in atrioventricular valve regurgitation. A similar zebrafish phenotype was obtained with knockdown of the ortholog of TNS1, which encodes tensin 1, a focal adhesion protein involved in cytoskeleton organization. We also showed expression of tensin 1 during valve morphogenesis and describe enlarged posterior mitral leaflets in Tns1(-/-) mice. This study identifies the first risk loci for MVP and suggests new mechanisms involved in mitral valve regurgitation, the most common indication for mitral valve repair.

  12. Mitral valve repair: an echocardiographic review: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve before and immediately after repair is crucial to the immediate and long-term outcome. Prior to mitral valve repair, echocardiographic imaging helps determine the feasibility and method of repair. After the repair, echocardiographic imaging displays the new baseline anatomy, assesses function, and determines whether or not further management is necessary. Three-dimensional imaging has improved the assessment of the mitral valve and facilitates communication with the surgeon by providing the surgeon with an image that he/she might see upon opening up the atrium. Further advancements in imaging will continue to improve the understanding of the function and dysfunction of the mitral valve both before and after repair. This information will improve treatment options, timing of invasive therapies, and advancements of repair techniques to yield better short- and long-term patient outcomes. The purpose of this review was to connect the echocardiographic evaluation with the surgical procedure. Bridging the pre- and post-CPB imaging with the surgical procedure allows a greater understanding of mitral valve repair.

  13. Percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R; Brender, D; McCredie, M

    1989-01-01

    Pregnancy can cause life threatening complications in women with mitral stenosis, and there is a substantial risk of fetal death if valvotomy under cardiopulmonary bypass is required. A patient is described in whom pulmonary oedema developed after delivery of her first child by caesarean section 13 months previously. Subsequent cardiac catheterisation showed severe mitral stenosis (valve area 0.96 cm2, valve gradient 12 mm Hg, pulmonary artery pressure 30/16 mm Hg). Before valvotomy could be performed the patient again became pregnant and presented in pulmonary oedema at twenty two weeks' gestation. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and she underwent percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. This increased the valve area to 1.78 cm2 and reduced the transmitral gradient to 6 mm Hg. The procedure was uncomplicated, and she remained symptom free on no medication. She delivered vaginally at 37 weeks' gestation. Percutaneous transluminal balloon dilatation of the mitral valve is a safe and effective alternative to mitral valvotomy in pregnancy. PMID:2757867

  14. Usefulness of radionuclide angiocardiography in predicting stenotic mitral orifice area

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.J.; Armitage, D.L.; Fountas, P.N.; Tremblay, P.C.; Druck, M.N.

    1986-12-01

    Fifteen patients with pure mitral stenosis (MS) underwent high-temporal-resolution radionuclide angiocardiography for calculation of the ratio of peak left ventricular (LV) filling rate divided by mean LV filling rate (filling ratio). Whereas LV filling normally occurs in 3 phases, in MS it is more uniform. Thus, in 13 patients the filling ratio was below the normal range of 2.21 to 2.88 (p less than 0.001). In 11 patients in atrial fibrillation, filling ratio divided by mean cardiac cycle length and by LV ejection fraction provided good correlation (r = 0.85) with modified Gorlin formula derived mitral area and excellent correlation with echocardiographic mitral area (r = 0.95). Significant MS can be detected using radionuclide angiocardiography to calculate filling ratio. In the absence of the confounding influence of atrial systole calculation of 0.14 (filling ratio divided by cardiac cycle length divided by LV ejection fraction) + 0.40 cm2 enables accurate prediction of mitral area (+/- 4%). Our data support the contention that the modified Gorlin formula, based on steady-state hemodynamics, provides less certain estimates of mitral area for patients with MS and atrial fibrillation, in whom echocardiography and radionuclide angiocardiography may be more accurate.

  15. Genetic association analyses highlight biological pathways underlying mitral valve prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Christian; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Tucker, Nathan; Delling, Francesca N.; Toomer, Katelynn; Durst, Ronen; Perrocheau, Maelle; Fernandez-Friera, Leticia; Solis, Jorge; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Chen, Ming-Huei; Probst, Vincent; Bosse, Yohan; Pibarot, Philippe; Zelenika, Diana; Lathrop, Mark; Hercberg, Serge; Roussel, Ronan; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bonnet, Fabrice; Su Hao, LO; Dolmatova, Elena; Simonet, Floriane; Lecointe, Simon; Kyndt, Florence; Redon, Richard; Le Marec, Hervé; Froguel, Philippe; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Bruneval, Patrick; Norris, Russell A.; Milan, David J.; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A.; Levine, Robert A.; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Hagege, Albert A.; Jeunemaitre, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Non-syndromic mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common degenerative cardiac valvulopathy of unknown aetiology that predisposes to mitral regurgitation, heart failure and sudden death1. Previous family and pathophysiological studies suggest a complex pattern of inheritance2–5. We performed a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies in 1,442 cases and 2,439 controls. We identified and replicated in 1,422 cases and 6,779 controls six loci and provide functional evidence for candidate genes. We highlight LMCD1 encoding a transcription factor6, for which morpholino knockdown in zebrafish results in atrioventricular (AV) valve regurgitation. A similar zebrafish phenotype was obtained for tensin1 (TNS1), a focal adhesion protein involved in cytoskeleton organization. We also show the expression of tensin1 during valve morphogenesis and describe enlarged posterior mitral leaflets in Tns1−/− mice. This study identifies the first risk loci for MVP and suggests new mechanisms involved in mitral valve regurgitation, the most common indication for mitral valve repair7. PMID:26301497

  16. Tricuspid regurgitation after successful mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Katsi, Vasiliki; Raftopoulos, Leonidas; Aggeli, Constantina; Vlasseros, Ioannis; Felekos, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Kallikazaros, Ioannis

    2012-07-01

    The tricuspid valve (TV) is inseparably connected with the mitral valve (MV) in terms of function. Any pathophysiological condition concerning the MV is potentially a threat for the normal function of the TV as well. One of the most challenging cases is functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after surgical MV correction. In the past, TR was considered to progressively revert with time after left-sided valve restoration. Nevertheless, more recent studies showed that TR could develop and evolve postoperatively over time, as well as being closely associated with a poorer prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pressure and volume overload are usually the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; structural alterations, like tricuspid annulus dilatation, increased leaflet tethering and right ventricular remodelling are almost always present when regurgitation develops. The most important risk factors associated with a higher probability of late TR development involve the elderly, female gender, larger left atrial size, atrial fibrillation, right chamber dilatation, higher pulmonary artery systolic pressures, longer times from the onset of MV disease to surgery, history of rheumatic heart disease, ischaemic heart disease and prosthetic valve malfunction. The time of TR manifestation can be up to 10 years or more after an MV surgery. Echocardiography, including the novel 3D Echo techniques, is crucial in the early diagnosis and prognosis of future TV disease development. Appropriate surgical technique and timing still need to be clarified.

  17. Cost effectiveness of robotic mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Significant technological advances have led to an impressive evolution in mitral valve surgery over the last two decades, allowing surgeons to safely perform less invasive operations through the right chest. Most new technology comes with an increased upfront cost that must be measured against postoperative savings and other advantages such as decreased perioperative complications, faster recovery, and earlier return to preoperative level of functioning. The Da Vinci robot is an example of such a technology, combining the significant benefits of minimally invasive surgery with a “gold standard” valve repair. Although some have reported that robotic surgery is associated with increased overall costs, there is literature suggesting that efficient perioperative care and shorter lengths of stay can offset the increased capital and intraoperative expenses. While data on current cost is important to consider, one must also take into account future potential value resulting from technological advancement when evaluating cost-effectiveness. Future refinements that will facilitate more effective surgery, coupled with declining cost of technology will further increase the value of robotic surgery compared to traditional approaches. PMID:28203539

  18. Tricuspid regurgitation after successful mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Katsi, Vasiliki; Raftopoulos, Leonidas; Aggeli, Constantina; Vlasseros, Ioannis; Felekos, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Kallikazaros, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The tricuspid valve (TV) is inseparably connected with the mitral valve (MV) in terms of function. Any pathophysiological condition concerning the MV is potentially a threat for the normal function of the TV as well. One of the most challenging cases is functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after surgical MV correction. In the past, TR was considered to progressively revert with time after left-sided valve restoration. Nevertheless, more recent studies showed that TR could develop and evolve postoperatively over time, as well as being closely associated with a poorer prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pressure and volume overload are usually the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; structural alterations, like tricuspid annulus dilatation, increased leaflet tethering and right ventricular remodelling are almost always present when regurgitation develops. The most important risk factors associated with a higher probability of late TR development involve the elderly, female gender, larger left atrial size, atrial fibrillation, right chamber dilatation, higher pulmonary artery systolic pressures, longer times from the onset of MV disease to surgery, history of rheumatic heart disease, ischaemic heart disease and prosthetic valve malfunction. The time of TR manifestation can be up to 10 years or more after an MV surgery. Echocardiography, including the novel 3D Echo techniques, is crucial in the early diagnosis and prognosis of future TV disease development. Appropriate surgical technique and timing still need to be clarified. PMID:22457188

  19. Caseous Calcification of Mitral Annulus: A Rare Monster Leading to Cerebrovascular Accident.

    PubMed

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Chhabra, Lovely; Krainski, Felix; Parker, Matthew W; Swales, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) is a rare variant of mitral annular calcification that maybe easily misdiagnosed or confused with an abscess, a tumor, or infective vegetation. The main pathophysiological mechanism leading to CCMA involves degeneration and calcium deposition on the mitral valve. We present a case of CCMA to help understand this clinical entity.

  20. Anatomical features of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction: Additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Derkx, Salomé; Nguyen, Virginia; Cimadevilla, Claire; Verdonk, Constance; Lepage, Laurent; Raffoul, Richard; Nataf, Patrick; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2017-03-01

    Recurrence of mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair is correlated with unfavourable left ventricular remodelling and poor outcome. This pictorial review describes the echocardiographic features of three types of acute mitral valve repair dysfunction, and the additional value of three-dimensional echocardiography.

  1. Opening snap and isovolumic relaxation period in relation to mitral valve flow in patients with mitral stenosis. Significance of A2--OS interval.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmanson, D; Veyrat, C; Bernier, A; Witchitz, S; Chiche, P

    1976-01-01

    In 15 patients with pure or predominant mitral stenosis and in a control group of 11 patients without mitral stenosis the blood flow velocity through the mitral valve orifice was recorded by means of a directional Doppler ultrasound velocity catheter introduced transeptally and positioned in the orifice of the mitral valve. A simultaneous surface phonocardiogram was obtained. The timing of the mitral opening snap in relation to the blood velocity record of the flow through the valve supported the hypothesis that the opening snap is due to a sudden tensing of the valve leaflets by the chordae tendineae. Determination of the exact time of mitral valve opening, made possible by the blood velocity record, led to the division of the classical A2-0S interval (aortic valve closure to opening snap) into two components representing respectively the diastolic isovolumic relaxation period and the time of excursion of the mitral valve cusps. The durations of the isovolumic relaxation period were compared with those in the control patients and were found to correlate with the severity of the mitral stenosis, whereas those of the excursion time of the mitral cusps were influenced by the presence or absence of mitral valve calcification. PMID:1259828

  2. What can we learn about valvular heart disease from PET/CT?

    PubMed

    Jenkins, William S A; Chin, Calvin; Rudd, James H F; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2013-09-01

    Valvular heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and with an aging population, its prevalence is increasing. Here, we review the evolving use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography in valvular heart disease, with particular focus on calcific aortic stenosis and infective endocarditis. In principle, the activity of any pathological process can be studied, as long as an appropriate radiotracer can be developed. We will review some of the early data using established tracers in the above and other conditions, providing discussion as to the future research and clinical roles of these techniques. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential impact of novel tracers that are currently under development or testing in preclinical models. It is hoped that such advanced imaging might improve the diagnosis, treatment and outlook for patients with valvular heart disease.

  3. [Management of aortic valvular heart disease according to the 2012 guidelines].

    PubMed

    Dayal, N B; Müller, H

    2014-05-28

    In 2012, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published an updated version of its guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease. Novelties include the use of advanced techniques for risk stratification and prognostic evaluation, such as stress and 3D echocardiography as well as measurement of left ventricular strain by speckle tracking. Equally important is the inclusion of percutaneous valve replacement or repair procedures, reflecting their ever-increasing use in clinical practice. Finally, the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to valvular heart disease, with collaboration of multiple specialities in a heart team has been put forward. We discuss practical aspects of the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to aortic valvular disease, including an outline of the surgical indications according to the ESC guidelines.

  4. The role of papillary muscle approximation in mitral valve repair for the treatment of secondary mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Yucel, Evin; Santana, Orlando

    2016-12-30

    SummarySecondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is present in up to half of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and is associated with a poor prognosis. It primarily results from progressive left ventricular remodelling, papillary muscle displacement and tethering of the mitral valve leaflets. Mitral valve repair with an undersized ring annuloplasty is the reparative procedure of choice in the treatment of secondary MR. However, this technique is associated with a 30-60% incidence of recurrent moderate or greater MR at mid-term follow-up, which results in progressive deterioration of left ventricular function and increased morbidity. Combined mitral valve repair and papillary muscle approximation has been applied in order to address both the annular and subvalvular dysfunction that coexist in secondary MR, which include graft and suture-based techniques. Herein, we provide a systematic review of the published literature regarding the technical aspects, clinical application, and outcomes of mitral valve repair with combined ring annuloplasty and papillary muscle approximation for the treatment of secondary MR.

  5. Percutaneous Mitral Valvotomy in a Case of Situs Inversus Totalis and Juvenile Rheumatic Critical Mitral Stenosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Thakur, Ramesh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Sayal, Karandeep Singh; Sachan, Mohit; Krishna, Vinay; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mishra, Vikas; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis is a rare congenital disorder where the heart being a mirror image is situated on the right side of the body. Distorted cardiac anatomy makes fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous mitral valvotomy (PMV) technically challenging and there are only few reports of PMV in situs inversus totalis. Here we report a case where PMV was successfully done for situs inversus totalis with rare coincidence of juvenile rheumatic severe mitral stenosis in a 12-year-old boy with a few modifications of standard Inoue technique. He had exertional dyspnea of NYHA class III with initial mitral valve area (MVA) of 0.6 cm2 and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with features suitable for PMV. Femoral vein was accessed from the left side to align the septal puncture needle and balloon to facilitate left ventricular entry. Septal descent and puncture by Brockenbrough needle was performed in the right anterior oblique view with the needle facing 5 o’clock position. Accura balloon was negotiated across mitral valve in left anterior oblique and procedure was successfully executed. Echocardiography showed a well-divided anterior commissure with an MVA of 2.0 cm2 and mild mitral regurgitation. In summary, PMV is safe and feasible in the rare patient with situs inversus totalis with few modifications of the Inoue technique. PMID:26985259

  6. Surgical phantom for off-pump mitral valve replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Jones, Doug L.; Campbell, Gordon; Peters, Terry M.

    2011-03-01

    Off-pump, intracardiac, beating heart surgery has the potential to improve patient outcomes by eliminating the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamping but it requires extensive image guidance as well as the development of specialized instrumentation. Previously, developments in image guidance and instrumentation were validated on either a static phantom or in vivo through porcine models. This paper describes the design and development of a surgical phantom for simulating off-pump mitral valve replacement inside the closed beating heart. The phantom allows surgical access to the mitral annulus while mimicking the pressure inside the beating heart. An image guidance system using tracked ultrasound, magnetic instrument tracking and preoperative models previously developed for off-pump mitral valve replacement is applied to the phantom. Pressure measurements and ultrasound images confirm the phantom closely mimics conditions inside the beating heart.

  7. The Ross II procedure: pulmonary autograft in the mitral position.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Cherian, Ashok; Ross, Donald

    2004-10-01

    The surgical management of mitral valve disease in women of childbearing age, young patients, and children with congenital mitral valve defects is made difficult by the prospect of lifelong anticoagulation. We suggest the use of a pulmonary autograft in the mitral position (Ross II procedure) as an alternative surgical technique. We present a review of the literature, historical perspectives, indications, selection criteria, and surgical technique for the Ross II procedure. Our literature search identified 14 studies that reported results from the Ross II operation. Performed in 103 patients, the overall in-hospital mortality was 7 (6.7%), with a late mortality of 10 (9%). Although further research is needed, current evidence suggests the Ross II operation is a valuable alternative in low-risk young patients where valve durability and the complication rate from other procedures is unsatisfactory and anticoagulation not ideal.

  8. Percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction with mitral regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yan; Zeng, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ying; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Current evidences suggest that revascularization of the culprit vessels with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting can be beneficial for relieving IMR. A 2.5-year follow-up data of a 61-year-old male patient with ST-segment elevation AMI complicated with IMR showed that mitral regurgitation area increased five days after PCI, and decreased to lower steady level three months after PCI. This finding suggest that three months after PCI might be a suitable time point for evaluating the possibility of IMR recovery and the necessity of surgical intervention of the mitral valve for AMI patient. PMID:27582769

  9. [Longterm results of mitral valve replacement (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Erhard, W; Reichmann, M; Delius, W; Sebening, H; Herrmann, G

    1977-04-22

    210 patients were followed up by the actuary method for over 5 years after isolated mitral valve replacement or a double valve replacement. After isolated valve replacement the one month survival including the operative mortality was 92+/-2%. The survival after one year was 83+/-3% and after 5 years 66+/-7%. The five year survival of patients in preoperative class III (according to the NYHA) was 73+/-8% and of class IV 57+/-8% (P less than or equal to 0.1). A comparison of valve replacements for pure mitral stenosis or mitral insufficiency showed no statistically significant differences. In the 37 patients who had a double valve replacement the survival risk was not increased in comparison with those patients who had had a single valve replacement. Age above 45 years and a preoperative markedly raised pulmonary arteriolar resistance reduced the chances of survival.

  10. Septic Cerebral Embolisation in Fulminant Mitral Valve Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Doolub, Gemina

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old male with known intravenous drug use was admitted with an acute onset of worsening confusion and speech impairment. His vitals and biochemical profile demonstrated severe sepsis, with a brain CT showing several lesions suspicious for cerebral emboli. He then went on to have a bedside transthoracic echocardiogram that was positive for vegetation on the mitral valve, with associated severe mitral regurgitation. Unfortunately, before he was stable enough to be transferred for valve surgery, he suffered an episode of acute pulmonary oedema requiring intubation and ventilation on intensive care unit. PMID:26120312

  11. The use of three-dimensional echocardiography for the evaluation of and treatment of mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose A; Nanda, Navin C; Gill, Edward A; de Isla, Leopoldo Pérez; Zamorano, Jose L

    2007-05-01

    To date, mitral stenosis has been evaluated by both hemodynamic data derived from catheterization as well as 2D and Doppler echocardiography. However, the advent of real-time 3D echocardiography has allowed more precise measurement of the mitral valve orifice by planimetry. In addition, evaluation of the mitral commissures prior to and after percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty is greatly aided by 3D echocardiography. Here we discuss these subjects as well as provide specific clinical trials that support the use of real-time 3D echocardiography for the evaluation and treatment of mitral stenosis.

  12. The challenges of managing rheumatic disease of the mitral valve in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Little, Sherard G

    2014-12-01

    Between January, 2009 and December, 2013, 84 patients were identified who underwent isolated mitral valve surgery in Jamaica at The University Hospital of the West Indies and The Bustamante Hospital for Children. The most common pathology requiring surgery was rheumatic heart disease, accounting for 84% of the procedures performed. The majority of patients had regurgitation of the mitral valve (67%), stenosis of the mitral valve (22%), and mixed mitral valve disease (11%). The most common procedure performed was replacement of the mitral valve (69%), followed by mitral valve repair (29%). Among the patients, one underwent closed mitral commissurotomy. The choice of procedure differed between age groups. In the paediatric population (<18 years of age), the majority of patients underwent repair of the mitral valve (89%). In the adult population (18 years and above), the majority of patients underwent mitral valve replacement (93%). Overall, of all the patients undergoing replacement of the mitral valve, 89% received a mechanical valve prosthesis, whereas 11% received a bioprosthetic valve prosthesis. Of the group of patients who underwent mitral valve repair for rheumatic heart disease, 19% required re-operation. The average time between initial surgery and re-operation was 1.2 years. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease remain significant public health challenges in Jamaica and other developing countries. Focus must remain on primary and secondary prevention strategies in order to limit the burden of rheumatic valvulopathies. Attention should also be directed towards improving access to surgical treatment for young adults.

  13. How safe is it to train residents to perform mitral valve surgery?

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Joseph; Göbölös, László; Miskolczi, Szabolcs; Barlow, Clifford

    2016-11-01

    A best evidence topic was constructed according to a structured protocol. The enquiry: In [patients undergoing mitral valve surgery] are [postoperative morbidity and mortality outcomes] acceptable when patients are operated on by [residents]? Four hundred and twenty-three were identified from the search strategy. Six articles selected as best evidence were tabulated. All current published evidence, encompassing open and minimally invasive mitral valve repair in addition to mitral valve replacement, supports the involvement of trainees in mitral procedures. Although trainees may experience longer aortic cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times than specialist surgeons, they are not associated with significantly worse perioperative or postoperative outcomes in comparable mitral procedures. Important factors in the viability of mitral valve training and its quality include the volume of cases per institution and the expertise of the supervising surgeon, and these remain largely unexplored. Overall, mitral valve surgery remains a valuable potential training opportunity, one which is perhaps underexploited.

  14. Diastolic Mitral Regurgitation in a Patient With Complex Native Mitral and Aortic Valve Endocarditis: A Rare Phenomenon With Potential Catastrophic Consequences.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Juan N; Lynch, James J; Mauermann, William J; Michelena, Hector I; Rehfeldt, Kent H

    2016-03-01

    Diastolic mitral valve regurgitation is a rare phenomenon described in patients with atrioventricular conduction abnormalities, severe left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction with regional wall motion dyssynchrony, or severe acute aortic valve regurgitation. The presence of diastolic mitral valve regurgitation in acute aortic regurgitation due to endocarditis suggests critical severity requiring urgent surgical valve replacement. We describe a case of diastolic mitral regurgitation in the setting of complex native mitral-aortic valve endocarditis in a patient in normal sinus rhythm and review the etiologic mechanisms of this phenomenon, echocardiographic assessment, and therapeutic implications for hemodynamic management.

  15. Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair in Mitral Regurgitation Reduces Cell-Free Hemoglobin and Improves Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Rammos, Christos; Zeus, Tobias; Balzer, Jan; Kubatz, Laura; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B.; Veulemans, Verena; Hellhammer, Katharina; Totzeck, Matthias; Luedike, Peter; Kelm, Malte; Rassaf, Tienush

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Endothelial dysfunction is predictive for cardiovascular events and may be caused by decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO is scavenged by cell-free hemoglobin with reduction of bioavailable NO up to 70% subsequently deteriorating vascular function. While patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) suffer from an impaired prognosis, mechanisms relating to coexistent vascular dysfunctions have not been described yet. Therapy of MR using a percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) approach has been shown to lead to significant clinical benefits. We here sought to investigate the role of endothelial function in MR and the potential impact of PMVR. Methods and Results Twenty-seven patients with moderate-to-severe MR treated with the MitraClip® device were enrolled in an open-label single-center observational study. Patients underwent clinical assessment, conventional echocardiography, and determination of endothelial function by measuring flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery using high-resolution ultrasound at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Patients with MR demonstrated decompartmentalized hemoglobin and reduced endothelial function (cell-free plasma hemoglobin in heme 28.9±3.8 μM, FMD 3.9±0.9%). Three months post-procedure, PMVR improved ejection fraction (from 41±3% to 46±3%, p = 0.03) and NYHA functional class (from 3.0±0.1 to 1.9±1.7, p<0.001). PMVR was associated with a decrease in cell free plasma hemoglobin (22.3±2.4 μM, p = 0.02) and improved endothelial functions (FMD 4.8±1.0%, p<0.0001). Conclusion We demonstrate here that plasma from patients with MR contains significant amounts of cell-free hemoglobin, which is accompanied by endothelial dysfunction. PMVR therapy is associated with an improved hemoglobin decompartmentalization and vascular function. PMID:26986059

  16. Novel pathogenetic mechanisms and structural adaptations in ischemic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Silbiger, Jeffrey J

    2013-10-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common complication of myocardial infarction thought to result from leaflet tethering caused by displacement of the papillary muscles that occurs as the left ventricle remodels. The author explores the possibility that left atrial remodeling may also play a role in the pathogenesis of ischemic MR, through a novel mechanism: atriogenic leaflet tethering. When ischemic MR is hemodynamically significant, the left ventricle compensates by dilating to preserve forward output using the Starling mechanism. Left ventricular dilatation, however, worsens MR by increasing the mitral valve regurgitant orifice, leading to a vicious cycle in which MR begets more MR. The author proposes that several structural adaptations play a role in reducing ischemic MR. In contrast to the compensatory effects of left ventricular enlargement, these may reduce, rather than increase, its severity. The suggested adaptations involve the mitral valve leaflets, the papillary muscles, the mitral annulus, and the left ventricular false tendons. This review describes the potential role each may play in reducing ischemic MR. Therapies that exploit these adaptations are also discussed.

  17. Takotsubo syndrome after mitral valve replacement for acute endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Gariboldi, Vlad; Jop, Bertrand; Grisoli, Dominique; Jaussaud, Nicolas; Kerbaul, François; Collart, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is characterized by transient and acute left ventricular dysfunction and apical ballooning, with electrocardiographic abnormalities, but without coronary disease. We report a case of Takotsubo syndrome occurring after emergent mitral valve replacement for acute infective endocarditis. The patient is a 66-year-old woman who regained complete recovery of left ventricular function.

  18. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  19. [Restoration of valvular function of deep veins in lower-limb varicose disease].

    PubMed

    Pokrovskiĭ, A V; Gradusov, E G; Ignat'ev, I M; Akhmetzianov, R V

    2014-01-01

    The present work was based on analysing the results of a complex examination and surgical treatment of 16-to-78-year-old patients presenting with varicose disease during the period from 2006 to 2010. A total of 1,095 limbs were examined and operated on in 1,070 patients. Of these, 298 (29.6 %) were men, and 709 (70.4 %) women. The distribution of the patients according to the CEAP clinical classification was as follows: C1 - 3 patients, C2 - 215, C3 - 566, C4 - 203, C5 - 29, and C6 - 79 subjects. All patients underwent ultrasonic duplex scanning, with retrograde phlebography performed in 21 cases. 51.2% of patients were diagnosed as having pathological deep venous reflux. In the group of patients with valvular insufficiency of deep veins, a total of 93 operations aimed at correcting deep reflux were performed, including 12 interventions for congenital avalvulation of veins. The indications for restorative operations on the valvular apparatus of deep veins were determined in severe forms of chronic venous insufficiency combined with axial reflux along deep veins in cases of inefficiency of conventional methods of surgical and conservative treatment. The long-term outcomes of surgery were assessed after 18-48 months. The results were evaluated by means of clinical and instrumental methods of examination: the disease severity scale, patients quality of life questionnaire, ultrasonographic and roentgen contrast methods of examination, and legometry. The operations aimed at restoring the valvular function of the femoral veins turned out to be effective methods of correcting venous reflux and made it possible to restore the valvular function in 84% of cases. In the remote postoperative period valvular competence was observed in 74.6% of patients. Carrying out such operations significantly improve the course of the disease due to decreasing the malleolar volume (p<0.001), manifestations of symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency (p<0.001), and improving quality of life

  20. Activated Human Valvular Interstitial Cells Sustain Interleukin-17 Production To Recruit Neutrophils in Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Shun, Chia-Tung; Kuo, Yu-Min; Jung, Chiau-Jing; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Chen, Jeng-Wei; Hsu, Ron-Bin; Yang, Chia-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that underlie valvular inflammation in streptococcus-induced infective endocarditis (IE) remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that streptococcal glucosyltransferases (GTFs) can activate human heart valvular interstitial cells (VIC) to secrete interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine involved in T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that activated VIC can enhance neutrophil infiltration through sustained IL-17 production, leading to valvular damage. To monitor cytokine and chemokine production, leukocyte recruitment, and the induction or expansion of CD4+ CD45RA− CD25− CCR6+ Th17 cells, primary human VIC were cultured in vitro and activated by GTFs. Serum cytokine levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and neutrophils and Th17 cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in infected valves from patients with IE. The expression of IL-21, IL-23, IL-17, and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C (Rorc) was upregulated in GTF-activated VIC, which may enhance the proliferation of memory Th17 cells in an IL-6-dependent manner. Many chemokines, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), were upregulated in GTF-activated VIC, which might recruit neutrophils and CD4+ T cells. Moreover, CXCL1 production in VIC was induced in a dose-dependent manner by IL-17 to enhance neutrophil chemotaxis. CXCL1-expressing VIC and infiltrating neutrophils could be detected in infected valves, and serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-21, and IL-23 were increased in patients with IE compared to healthy donors. Furthermore, elevated serum IL-21 levels have been significantly associated with severe valvular damage, including rupture of chordae tendineae, in IE patients. Our findings suggest that VIC are activated by bacterial modulins to recruit neutrophils and that such activities might be further enhanced by the production of Th17-associated cytokines. Together, these factors can amplify the

  1. New inflammatory predictors for non-valvular atrial fibrillation: echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio.

    PubMed

    Acet, Halit; Ertaş, Faruk; Akıl, Mehmet Ata; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Polat, Nihat; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Bilik, Mehmet Zihni; Yüksel, Murat; Kaya, Zeynettin; Ulgen, Mehmet Sıddık

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with different types of non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in a clinical setting. A total of 197 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Seventy-one patients had paroxysmal non-valvular AF, 63 patients had persistent/permanent non-valvular AF, and 63 patients had sinus rhythm (control group). EFT was measured with echocardiography, while NLR was measured by dividing neutrophil count by lymphocyte count. EFT was significantly higher in patients with paroxysmal non-valvular AF compared with those in the sinus rhythm group (6.6 ± 0.7 vs. 5.0 ± 0.9 mm, p < 0.001). Persistent/permanent non-valvular AF patients had a significantly larger EFT compared with those with paroxysmal AF (8.3 ± 1.1 vs. 6.6 ± 0.7 mm, p < 0.001). EFT had a significant relationship with paroxysmal non-valvular AF (odds ratio 4.672, 95 % CI 2.329-9.371, p < 0.001) and persistent/permanent non-valvular AF (OR 24.276, 95% CI 9.285-63.474, p < 0.001). NLR was significantly higher in those with paroxysmal non-valvular AF compared with those in the sinus rhythm group (2.5 ± 0.6 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4, p < 0.001). Persistent/permanent non-valvular AF patients had a significantly larger NLR when compared with paroxysmal non-valvular AF patients (3.4 ± 0.6, vs. 2.5 ± 0.6, p < 0.001). NLR (>2.1) had a significant relationship with non-valvular AF (OR 11.313, 95% CI 3.025-42.306, b 2.426, p < 0.001). EFT and NLR are highly associated with types of non-valvular AF independent of traditional risk factors. EFT measured by echocardiography and NLR appears to be related to the duration and severity of AF.

  2. Immediate and long-term results of mitral valve replacement with University of Cape Town mitral valve prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Schrire, Velva; Barnard, Christiaan N.

    1970-01-01

    We describe seven years' experience with the University of Cape Town lenticular mitral valve prosthesis in 122 patients. All the patients had severe mitral valve disease. In 98 severe mitral stenosis was present with or without incompetence and in 24 the dominant or sole lesion was mitral incompetence. Other valves, particularly the tricuspid, were also frequently affected. The disability was severe or total in almost every patient. One hundred and five patients were discharged from hospital, and in 90 per cent of these the clinical improvement was most gratifying, with the disappearance of pulmonary oedema, paroxysmal dyspnoea, angina pectoris, and congestive cardiac failure. Return to full normal activity including physical work was the rule. The hospital mortality was 14 per cent and a further 38 per cent died during the follow-up period. The major post-operative complication was systemic embolism which could occur at any time after operation. The most important factor influencing the frequency of this complication was the nature of the valve seat. A bare steel seat was associated with a 100 per cent embolism, and a significant reduction occurred when a cloth-covered seat of Dacron-velour was introduced. Anticoagulant therapy appeared to prevent large or fresh clots but had no effect on the deposition of fibrin or platelet thrombi. The only other factor of importance was the age of the patient: after the age of 50 life expectancy and trouble-free long-term survival was reduced. Images PMID:5440520

  3. Is an adjunctive subvalvular repair during mitral annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation effective in preventing recurrent regurgitation?

    PubMed

    Mihos, Christos G; Santana, Orlando

    2016-02-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: Is an adjunctive subvalvular repair during mitral annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation effective in preventing recurrent regurgitation? Altogether, 353 studies were found using the reported search, of which 9 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers were tabulated. The best evidence regarding adjunctive subvalvular repair during mitral annuloplasty for secondary mitral regurgitation was from retrospective analyses. The studies reported outcomes of mitral valve repair (MVr) with annuloplasty alone (ring MVr) versus adjunctive papillary muscle approximation (PMA; n = 3), papillary muscle relocation (PMR; n = 3), secondary chordal cutting (n = 2) and PMA + PMR (n = 1). All but one study included concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, whereas additional ventriculoplasty was performed in three studies. Follow-up ranged from 1 month to 5 years. The performance of PMA was associated with a lower mitral regurgitation (MR) grade when combined with ventriculoplasty in one study, whereas a greater improvement in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and left ventricular ejection fraction at follow-up was observed with PMA alone in a separate study. Three studies of ring + PMR reported a reduction in ≥ 2+ recurrent MR, whereas two studies also observed a greater reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. The two studies on secondary chordal cutting reported a lower MR grade, lower recurrence of ≥ 2+ MR and a greater left ventricular ejection fraction at follow-up. Combining PMA + PMR + ventriculoplasty significantly reduced left ventricular end-systolic volume index at short-term follow-up in one study. Finally, none of the studies reported a significant difference in

  4. A pig model of ischemic mitral regurgitation induced by mitral chordae tendinae rupture and implantation of an ameroid constrictor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong-Chun; Li, Kai; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Wei-Min; Peng, Peng; Yang, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Bao-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Ai-Li; Tang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    A miniature pig model of ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) was developed by posterior mitral chordae tendinae rupture and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. A 2.5-mm ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) of male Tibetan miniature pigs to induce ischemia, while the posterior mitral chordae tendinae was also ruptured. X-ray coronary angiography, ECG analysis, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to evaluate heart structure and function in pigs at baseline and one, two, four and eight weeks after the operation. Blood velocity of the mitral regurgitation was found to be between medium and high levels. Angiographic analyses revealed that the LCX closure was 10-20% at one week, 30-40% at two weeks and 90-100% at four weeks subsequent ameroid constrictor implantation. ECG analysis highlighted an increase in the diameter of the left atria (LA) at two weeks post-operation as well as ischemic changes in the left ventricle (LV) and LA wall at four weeks post-operation. Echocardiography and MRI further detected a gradual increase in LA and LV volumes from two weeks post-operation. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes as well as LA end diastolic and systolic volume were also significantly higher in pig hearts post-operation when compared to baseline. Pathological changes were observed in the heart, which included scar tissue in the ischemic central area of the LV. Transmission electron microscopy highlighted the presence of contraction bands and edema surrounding the ischemia area, including inflammatory cell infiltration within the ischemic area. We have developed a pig model of IMR using the posterior mitral chordae tendineae rupture technique and implantation of an ameroid constrictor. The pathological features of this pig IMR model were found to mimic the natural history and progression of IMR in patients.

  5. One-year outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair in patients with severe symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Gotzmann, Michael; Sprenger, Isabell; Ewers, Aydan; Mügge, Andreas; Bösche, Leif

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate one-year outcomes after percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip® in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). METHODS Our study investigated consecutive patients with symptomatic severe MR who underwent MitraClip® implantation at the University Hospital Bergmannsheil from 2012 to 2014. The primary study end-point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end-points were degree of MR and functional status after percutaneous mitral valve repair. RESULTS The study population consisted of 46 consecutive patients (mean logistic EuroSCORE 32% ± 21%). The degree of MR decreased significantly (severe MR before MitraClip® 100% vs after MitraClip® 13%; P < 0.001), and the NYHA functional classes improved (NYHA III/IV before MitraClip® 98% vs after MitraClip® 35%; P < 0.001). The mortality rates 30 d and one year after percutaneous mitral valve repair were 4.3% and 19.5%, respectively. During the follow-up of 473 ± 274 d, 11 patients died (90% due to cardiovascular death). A pre-procedural plasma B-type natriuretic peptide level > 817 pg/mL was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 6.074; 95%CI: 1.257-29.239; P = 0.012). CONCLUSION Percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip® has positive effects on hemodynamics and symptoms. Despite the study patients’ multiple comorbidities and extremely high operative risk, one-year outcomes after MitraClip® are favorable. Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide levels indicate poorer mid-term survival. PMID:28163835

  6. Determination of correlation between backflow volume and mitral valve leaflet young modulus from two dimensional echocardiogram images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Osman, Kahar; Adib, M. Azrul Hisham M.

    2012-06-01

    Mitral valve prolapse without proper monitoring might lead to a severe mitral valve failure which eventually leads to a sudden death. Additional information on the mitral valve leaflet condition against the backflow volume would be an added advantage to the medical practitioner for their decision on the patients' treatment. A study on two dimensional echocardiography images has been conducted and the correlations between the backflow volume of the mitral regurgitation and mitral valve leaflet Young modulus have been obtained. Echocardiogram images were analyzed on the aspect of backflow volume percentage and mitral valve leaflet dimensions on different rates of backflow volume. Young modulus values for the mitral valve leaflet were obtained by using the principle of elastic deflection and deformation on the mitral valve leaflet. The results show that the backflow volume increased with the decrease of the mitral valve leaflet Young modulus which also indicate the condition of the mitral valve leaflet approaching failure at high backflow volumes. Mitral valve leaflet Young modulus values obtained in this study agreed with the healthy mitral valve leaflet Young modulus from the literature. This is an initial overview of the trend on the prediction of the behaviour between the fluid and the structure of the blood and the mitral valve which is extendable to a larger system of prediction on the mitral valve leaflet condition based on the available echocardiogram images.

  7. Preoperative Three-Dimensional Valve Analysis Predicts Recurrent Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation after Mitral Annuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bouma, Wobbe; Lai, Eric K.; Levack, Melissa M.; Shang, Eric K.; Pouch, Alison M.; Eperjesi, Thomas J.; Plappert, Theodore J.; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Gleason, Thomas G.; Mahmood, Feroze; Acker, Michael A.; Woo, Y. Joseph; Cheung, Albert T.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) with undersized annuloplasty rings is characterized by high IMR recurrence rates. Patient-specific preoperative imaging-based risk stratification for recurrent IMR would optimize results. We sought to determine if pre-repair three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography combined with a novel valve modeling algorithm would be predictive of IMR recurrence 6 months after repair. Methods Intraoperative transesophageal real-time 3D echocardiography was performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized ring annuloplasty for IMR (and in 21 patients with normal mitral valves). A customized image analysis protocol was used to assess 3D annular geometry and regional leaflet tethering. IMR recurrence (≥grade 2) was assessed with two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography 6 months after repair. Results Preoperative annular geometry was similar in all IMR patients; and preoperative leaflet tethering was significantly higher in patients with recurrent IMR (n=13) as compared with patients in whom IMR did not recur IMR (n=37) (tethering index 3.91±1.01 vs. 2.90±1.17, P=0.008; tethering angles of A3 (23.5±8.9° vs. 14.4± 11.4°, P=0.012), P2 (44.4±8.8° vs. 28.2±17.0°, P=0.002), and P3 (35.2±6.0° vs. 18.6±12.7°, P<0.001)). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed preoperative P3 tethering angle as an independent predictor of IMR recurrence with an optimal cut-off value of 29.9° (AUC 0.92, 95%CI 0.84–1.00, P<0.001). Conclusions 3D echocardiography combined with valve modeling is predictive of recurrent IMR. Preoperative regional leaflet tethering of segment P3 is a strong independent predictor of IMR recurrence after undersized ring annuloplasty. In patients with a preoperative P3 tethering angle ≥29.9° chordal-sparing valve replacement rather than valve repair should be strongly considered. PMID:26688087

  8. Minimally invasive approach for redo mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Botta, Luca; Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale; Taglieri, Corrado; Russo, Claudio Francesco; Martinelli, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Redo cardiac surgery represents a clinical challenge due to a higher rate of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve re-operations can be particularly demanding in patients with patent coronary artery bypass grafts, previous aortic valve replacement, calcified aorta or complications following a previous operation (abscesses, perivalvular leaks, or thrombosis). Risk of graft injuries, hemorrhage, the presence of dense adhesions and complex valve exposure can make redo valve operations challenging through a median sternotomy. In this review article we provide an overview of minimally invasive approaches for redo mitral valve surgery discussing indications, techniques, outcomes, concerns and controversies. Scientific literature about minimally invasive approach for redo mitral surgery was reviewed with a MEDLINE search strategy combining "mitral valve" with the following terms: 'minimally invasive', 'reoperation', and 'alternative approach'. The search was limited to the last ten years. A total of 168 papers were found using the reported search. From these, ten papers were identified to provide the best evidence on the subject. Mitral valve reoperations can be safely and effectively performed through a smaller right thoracotomy in the fourth intercostal space termed "mini" thoracotomy or "port access". The greatest potential benefit of a right mini-thoracotomy is the avoidance of sternal re-entry and limited dissection of adhesions, avoiding the risk of injury to cardiac structures or patent grafts. Good percentages of valve repair can be achieved. Mortality is low as well as major complications. Minimally invasive procedures with an unclamped aorta have the potential to combine the benefits of minimally invasive access and continuous myocardial perfusion. Less invasive trans-catheter techniques could be considered as the natural future evolution for management of structural heart disease and mitral reoperations. The safety and efficacy of these

  9. Minimally invasive approach for redo mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale; Taglieri, Corrado; Russo, Claudio Francesco; Martinelli, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Redo cardiac surgery represents a clinical challenge due to a higher rate of peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve re-operations can be particularly demanding in patients with patent coronary artery bypass grafts, previous aortic valve replacement, calcified aorta or complications following a previous operation (abscesses, perivalvular leaks, or thrombosis). Risk of graft injuries, hemorrhage, the presence of dense adhesions and complex valve exposure can make redo valve operations challenging through a median sternotomy. In this review article we provide an overview of minimally invasive approaches for redo mitral valve surgery discussing indications, techniques, outcomes, concerns and controversies. Scientific literature about minimally invasive approach for redo mitral surgery was reviewed with a MEDLINE search strategy combining “mitral valve” with the following terms: ‘minimally invasive’, ‘reoperation’, and ‘alternative approach’. The search was limited to the last ten years. A total of 168 papers were found using the reported search. From these, ten papers were identified to provide the best evidence on the subject. Mitral valve reoperations can be safely and effectively performed through a smaller right thoracotomy in the fourth intercostal space termed “mini” thoracotomy or “port access”. The greatest potential benefit of a right mini-thoracotomy is the avoidance of sternal re-entry and limited dissection of adhesions, avoiding the risk of injury to cardiac structures or patent grafts. Good percentages of valve repair can be achieved. Mortality is low as well as major complications. Minimally invasive procedures with an unclamped aorta have the potential to combine the benefits of minimally invasive access and continuous myocardial perfusion. Less invasive trans-catheter techniques could be considered as the natural future evolution for management of structural heart disease and mitral reoperations. The safety and

  10. Noninvasive assessment of the stenotic mitral valve orifice by two-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Surendra K.; Pechacek, Leonard W.; Decastro, Carlos M.; Garcia, Efrain; Hall, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve orifice was attempted in 26 patients with isolated mitral stenosis. The intention was to examine further the clinical usefulness and limitations of this technique for estimating the severity of mitral stenosis. Technically adequate recordings of the mitral orifice were obtained in 20 patients (77%). Mitral valve area calculated from echocardiography compared favorably to the valve area derived from cardiac catheterization with the use of the Gorlin formula (r = 0.95). The average difference between the two methods was 0.109 cm2. Two-dimensional echocardiography does provide clinically useful data for predicting the degree of mitral stenosis in the majority of patients provided that critical technical limitations are recognized. Images PMID:15216223

  11. Degenerative mitral valve disease-contemporary surgical approaches and repair techniques.

    PubMed

    Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Alansari, Shehab; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Tappuni, Bassman; Mick, Stephanie; Marc, Gillinov A; Suri, Rakesh; Mihaljevic, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Given the increasing age of the US population and the accompanying rise in cardiovascular disease, we expect to see an increasing number of patients affected by degenerative mitral valve disease in a more complex patient population. Therefore, increasing the overall rate of mitral valve repair will become even more important than it is today, and the capability to provide a universally and uniformly accepted quality of repair will have important medical, economic, and societal implications. This article will describe preoperative and intraoperative considerations and the currently practiced mitral valve repair approaches and techniques. The aim of the article is to present our contemporary approach to mitral valve repair in the hope that it can be adopted at other institutions that may have low repair rates. Adoption of simple and reproducible mitral valve repair techniques is of paramount importance if we as a profession are to accomplish overall higher rates of mitral valve repair with optimal outcomes.

  12. Degenerative mitral valve disease-contemporary surgical approaches and repair techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kelava, Marta; Alansari, Shehab; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Tappuni, Bassman; Mick, Stephanie; Marc, Gillinov A.; Suri, Rakesh; Mihaljevic, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Given the increasing age of the US population and the accompanying rise in cardiovascular disease, we expect to see an increasing number of patients affected by degenerative mitral valve disease in a more complex patient population. Therefore, increasing the overall rate of mitral valve repair will become even more important than it is today, and the capability to provide a universally and uniformly accepted quality of repair will have important medical, economic, and societal implications. This article will describe preoperative and intraoperative considerations and the currently practiced mitral valve repair approaches and techniques. The aim of the article is to present our contemporary approach to mitral valve repair in the hope that it can be adopted at other institutions that may have low repair rates. Adoption of simple and reproducible mitral valve repair techniques is of paramount importance if we as a profession are to accomplish overall higher rates of mitral valve repair with optimal outcomes. PMID:28203540

  13. Noninvasive radioisotopic technique for detection of platelet deposition on bovine pericardial mitral-valve prosthesis and in vitro quantification of visceral microembolism in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Trastek, V.F.; Tago, M.; Torianni, M.; Kaye, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Platelet deposition on bovine pericardial-tissue mitral-valve prostheses in dogs was observed noninvasively by use of /sup 111/In-labeled platelets and quantified after sacrifice at one, 14 and 30 days postimplantation (300-400 microCi of labeled platelets having been injected 24 hrs previously). Thrombosis on the sewing ring and pericardial leaflets at one and 14 days and on the leaflets at 30 days was delineated in scintiphotos. In vitro quantification (% injected dose) indicated that the sewing ring and perivalvular tissue retained 0.75% of labeled platelets at one day postimplantation, 0.084% at 14 days, and 0.0042% at 30 days. Platelet survival was reduced to 38 hrs at 21 days postimplantation but returned toward the normal (50 hrs) with endothelial covering of the sewing ring. Microemboli in lung and kidney, as measured by tissue/blood radioactivity ratio, decreased significantly at 30 days. /sup 111/In-labeled platelets thus provide a sensitive marker for noninvasive imaging and in vitro quantification of platelet deposition on valvular prostheses and microemboli trapped in viscera.

  14. Safety and feasibility of a novel adjustable mitral annuloplasty ring: a multicentre European experience†

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Martin; Doll, Nicolas; Livesey, Steve; Castella, Manuel; Kocher, Alfred; Casselman, Filip; Voth, Vladimir; Bannister, Christina; Encalada Palacios, Juan F.; Pereda, Daniel; Laufer, Guenther; Czesla, Markus

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recurrent mitral regurgitation is a significant problem after mitral valve repair in patients with functional valve disease. We report the safety and feasibility of a novel adjustable mitral annuloplasty device that permits downsizing of the anterior–posterior diameter late after initial surgery. METHODS In this multicentre, non-randomized, observational register, patients with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation undergoing surgical mitral valve repair with the MiCardia EnCorSQ™ Mitral Valve Repair system were evaluated. Patient characteristics, operative specifications and results as well as postoperative follow-up were collected for all five centres. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with a median age of 71 (64–75) years (EuroSCORE II 6.7 ± 6.3; 66% male, 48% ischaemic MR, 37% dilated cardiomyopathy and 15% degenerative disease) were included. Operative mortality was 1% and the 1-year survival was 93%. Ring adjustment was attempted in 12 patients at a mean interval of 9 ± 6 months after surgery. In three of these attempts, a technical failure occurred. In 1 patient, mitral regurgitation was reduced two grades, in 2 patients mitral regurgitation was reduced one grade and in 6 patients, mitral regurgitation did not change significantly. The mean grade of mitral regurgitation changed from 2.9 ± 0.9 to 2.1 ± 0.7 (P = 0.02). Five patients were reoperated after 11 ± 9 months (Ring dehiscence: 2; failed adjustment: 3). CONCLUSION We conclude that this device may provide an additional treatment option in patients with functional mitral regurgitation, who are at risk for reoperation due to recurrent mitral regurgitation. Clinical results in this complex disease were ambiguous and patient selection seems to be a crucial step for this device. Further trials are required to estimate the clinical value of this therapeutic concept. PMID:25694471

  15. The Mitral Valve Prolapsus : Quantification of the Regurgitation Flow Rate by Experimental Time-Dependant PIV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The Mitral Valve Prolapsus : Quantification of the Regurgitation Flow Rate by Experimental Time-Dependant PIV. F. Billy1, D. Coisne1,2, L. Sanchez1... mitral valve insufficiency), assumes that the velocity field in the convergent region have hemispheric shapes and introduce miscalculation specially...upstream a prolaps model of regurgitant orifice based on 2D time dependent PIV reconstruction. Keywords- Mitral Valve , Prolapsus, Regurgitation Flow

  16. Operationalizing the 2014 ACC/AHA Guidelines for Valvular Heart Disease: A Guide for Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Rick A; Carabello, Blase

    2016-05-17

    The 2014 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for valvular heart disease were released to help guide the clinician in caring for patients with this ever more prevalent and complex group of diseases and have been instrumental in providing a foundation of knowledge for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. However, there are many caveats in applying the guidelines to individual patients. As clinicians, we wish to outline important aspects to be considered by other clinicians, including the integration of the echocardiogram with the history and physical examination, recognition of discordant data within an echocardiographic examination, and proper interpretation of the cutoff measurements applied to timing of intervention. Decisions regarding management should be individualized to the institution, particularly when recommending early operation for an asymptomatic patient. Finally, all decisions should be individualized to each patient by not only recognizing specific comorbidities, but also understanding the patient's needs and preferences.

  17. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Structural and Valvular Heart Disease Interventions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, João L; Lalude, Omosalewa O; Schoenhagen, Paul; Lerakis, Stamatios

    2016-03-14

    The field of percutaneous interventions for the treatment of structural and valvular heart diseases has been expanding rapidly in the last 5 years. Noninvasive cardiac imaging has been a critical part of the planning, procedural guidance, and follow-up of these procedures. Although echocardiography and cardiovascular computed tomography are the most commonly used and studied imaging techniques in this field today, advances in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging continue to provide important contributions in the comprehensive assessment and management of these patients. In this comprehensive paper, we will review and demonstrate how cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging can be used to assist in diagnosis, treatment planning, and follow-up of patients who are being considered for and/or who have undergone interventions for structural and valvular heart diseases.

  18. Estimation of turbulent shear stress in free jets: application to valvular regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Winoto, S H; Shah, D A; Liu, H

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to better assess the severity of valvular regurgitation, an in-vitro experiment has been conducted to estimate turbulent shear stress levels within free jets issuing from different orifice shapes and sizes by means of hot-wire anemometry. On the basis of the measured mean velocities and the jet profiles, the distributions of the normalized kinematic turbulent shear stress (uv/Um2) were estimated for different jets by using an equation available for self-preserving circular jet. The results indicate that the equation can estimate the distributions of uv/Um2 independent of the orifice shape and Reynolds number of the jet. For the range of Reynolds numbers considered, the estimation of maximum turbulent shear stress inferred from these distributions suggests that the critical shear stress level of approximately 200 N/m2, corresponding to destruction of blood cells, is exceeded for typical blood flow velocity of 5 m/s at the valvular lesion.

  19. Effects of increasing flow rate on aortic stenotic indices: evidence from percutaneous transvenous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in patients with combined aortic and mitral stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T. M.; Su, S. F.; Chen, M. F.; Liau, C. S.; Lee, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of transvalvar flow rate on aortic valve resistance and valve area after percutaneous transvenous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve in a homogeneous group of patients with rheumatic heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 12 patients with combined aortic and mitral stenosis who had undergone balloon dilatation of the mitral valve over a period of 9 years. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: Twelve (8 women, 4 men; mean (SD) age 37 (9) of 227 consecutive patients with critical mitral stenosis undergoing transvenous balloon dilation of the mitral valve in the centre also had aortic stenosis, defined as a transaortic pressure gradient of more than 25 mm Hg measured at a catheterisation study before valvuloplasty. INTERVENTIONS: Echocardiographic variables (mitral valve area measured by the pressure half-time method and planimetry, and the aortic valve area derived from the continuity equation) and haemodynamic measurements (cardiac output, left ventricular mean systolic pressure, aortic mean pressure, transaortic valve pressure gradient, mitral valve and aortic valve areas derived from the Gorlin formula, and aortic valve resistance) were assessed before and after transvenous balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. Follow up catheterisation to measure haemodynamic variables was performed one week after mitral valvuloplasty. RESULTS: Mean transaortic flow rate increased 33% after mitral valvuloplasty (from 198 (68) to 254 (41) ml/s, P = 0.002). Aortic valve areas derived from the Gorlin formula were significantly increased from 0.57 (0.12) to 0.73 (0.14) cm2 (P = 0.006) after mitral valvuloplasty. However, aortic valve area and valve resistance derived from the continuity equation were independent of the increase in flow rate after mitral valvuloplasty (from 1.29 (0.35) to 1.30 (0.29) cm2 and from 317 (65) to 259 (75) dyn.s.cm-5, both P = NS). CONCLUSION: The Gorlin-derived aortic valve area tends to be flow

  20. Beating heart mitral valve repair with integrated ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John T.; Peters, Terry M.

    2015-03-01

    Beating heart valve therapies rely extensively on image guidance to treat patients who would be considered inoperable with conventional surgery. Mitral valve repair techniques including the MitrClip, NeoChord, and emerging transcatheter mitral valve replacement techniques rely on transesophageal echocardiography for guidance. These images are often difficult to interpret as the tool will cause shadowing artifacts that occlude tissue near the target site. Here, we integrate ultrasound imaging directly into the NeoChord device. This provides an unobstructed imaging plane that can visualize the valve lea ets as they are engaged by the device and can aid in achieving both a proper bite and spacing between the neochordae implants. A proof of concept user study in a phantom environment is performed to provide a proof of concept for this device.

  1. Asymptomatic and isolated accessory mitral valve tissue in an adult.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Kazuki; Hashizume, Koji; Tanigawa, Kazuyoshi; Miura, Takashi; Matsukuma, Seiji; Yokose, Shogo; Sumi, Mizuki; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

    2016-02-01

    Accessory mitral valve (AMV) tissue is a congenital anomaly that occurs in association with other congenital anomalies, and is an uncommon cause of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. It is usually detected in early childhood when accompanied by symptoms of obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract, and is rarely diagnosed in adults. We present a case of a 53-year-old man who was referred to our institution for evaluation of a systolic heart murmur. Echocardiography disclosed a diagnosis of AMV tissue. This case was uncommon because of the lack of severe obstruction of left ventricular outflow, cardiac symptoms, or other cardiac anomalies. We were able to carry out surgical resection of AMV tissue to avert possible progression of aortic insufficiency and the risk of a cerebrovascular embolization. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative echocardiography showed no residual accessory mitral tissue.

  2. [Mitral valve replacement in a patient with Sheehan's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morokuma, H; Nakayama, Y; Minematsu, N

    2008-09-01

    Sheehan' syndrome is caused by pituitary apoplexy occurring during parturition and results in hypopituitarism, adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism. A 66-year-old woman with Sheehan's syndrome had received corticosteroids and thyroid hormones for about 18 years. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement for mitral regurgitation. Intraoperatively, just after the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, hypotension and severe edema suddenly occurred. Crystalloid fluid was rapidly administered to increase intravascular volumes. Postoperatively the body weight increased by 9.4 kg. The patient was intubated for 64 hours, stayed in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 7 days and was discharged from hospital on the postoperative day 36. Careful perioperative hormone supplementation is necessary for patients with Sheehan's syndrome.

  3. Pre-operative Rehabilitation for Reduction of Hospitalization After Coronary Bypass and Valvular Surgery.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-18

    Patients Waiting for Elective Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG); Patients Waiting for Aortic Valve Repair/Replacement for Moderate Aortic Stenosis or Severe Regurgitation; Patients Waiting for Mitral Valve Repair/Replacement for Moderate Stenosis or Severe Regurgitation; Patients Waiting for Combined Procedures. (CAGB and Valve)

  4. Left atrial myxoma, ruptured chordae tendinae causing mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Raj, Ravi; Jayant, Aveek; Kuthe, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation is uncommon with left atrial myxoma. The echocardiographic assessment of presence of mitral regurgitation and its severity are impaired by the presence of left atrial myxoma. We describe an uncommon association of left atrial myxoma with coronary artery disease and mitral regurgitation. MR was reported as mild on pre-operative transthoracic echocardiography but found to be severe due to ruptured chordae tendinae during intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography, which lead to change in the surgical plan to mitral valve replacement in addition to excision of myxoma.

  5. Infective Endocarditis of the Aortic Valve with Anterior Mitral Valve Leaflet Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Anton; Li, Wilson W L; van Paridon, Marieke; Bindraban, Navin R; de Mol, Bas A J M

    2016-08-01

    Mitral valve leaflet aneurysm is a rare and potentially devastating complication of aortic valve endocarditis. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had endocarditis of the native aortic valve and a concomitant aneurysm of the anterior mitral valve leaflet. Severe mitral regurgitation occurred after the aneurysm perforated. The patient showed no signs of heart failure and completed a 6-week regimen of antibiotic therapy before undergoing successful aortic and mitral valve replacement. In addition to the patient's case, we review the relevant medical literature.

  6. Disc erosion in Models 103 and 104 of Beall mitral valve prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Ricardo; Verduras, María José; Lopez-Quintana, Alfonso; Riera, Luis; Zerolo, Ignacio; Martinez-Bordiu, Cristóbal

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of severe disc variance and erosion of the Teflon-disc Beall mitral valve prosthesis (Models 103 and 104) are reported. In two patients, the Beall mitral valves were excised and replaced with two Björk-Shiley mitral valves. The remaining patient did not survive, and at autopsy, the lens was found at the aortic bifurcation level. Because of this potentially lethal complication, careful follow-up of patients with Beall mitral valve prostheses (Models 103 and 104) is recommended. Images PMID:15216211

  7. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for failed mitral prosthesis: the first experience in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tada, Norio; Enta, Yusuke; Sakurai, Mie; Ootomo, Tatsushi; Hata, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    An 82-year-old woman had a history of mitral valve replacement with a 25-mm MOSAIC (Medtronic, USA) for severe mitral regurgitation (MR) 8 years previously. Recently, she developed heart failure due to MR secondary to prosthetic valve failure. She underwent transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation with a 23-mm SAPIEN XT (Edwards Lifesciences, USA) to the prosthetic mitral valve by transapical approach. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of transcatheter valve implantation for failed mitral prosthetic valve using valve-in-valve technique in Japan.

  8. CTS Trials Network: A paradigm shift in the surgical treatment of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation?

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The Cardiothoracic Surgery Trials Network has reported results of the one-year follow up of their randomized trial "Surgical Treatment of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation". They studied 301 patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without mitral repair with the primary end-point of change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) at one year and multiple clinical and echocardiographic secondary endpoints. Although their results were against repairing the mitral valve, the debate on surgical management of moderate IMR remains unsettled.

  9. CTS Trials Network: A paradigm shift in the surgical treatment of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation?

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The Cardiothoracic Surgery Trials Network has reported results of the one-year follow up of their randomized trial “Surgical Treatment of Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation”. They studied 301 patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without mitral repair with the primary end-point of change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) at one year and multiple clinical and echocardiographic secondary endpoints. Although their results were against repairing the mitral valve, the debate on surgical management of moderate IMR remains unsettled. PMID:26779511

  10. [Optimization of postoperative medical therapy of infective endocarditis in patients with congenital valvular heart disease].

    PubMed

    Chistyakov, I S; Medvedev, A P; Pichugin, V V

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined surgical and medical treatment of infective endocarditis in patients with congenital valvular heart disease when included in a regimen of the drug Reamberin. In this regard, the analysis of the effectiveness of a combination regimen of 74 patients with valvular congenital heart diseases complicated with infective endocarditis. Given the indications for surgical correction operative technique features and possible technical difficulties in carrying out such operations, due to the inflammatory changes and tissue destruction, and ways to overcome them. For the correction of metabolic disorders in the postoperative period, 47 patients (main group) was appointed Reamberin: once, intravenous drip 400 ml/day during the first 5 days after surgery. 27 patients (control group) was conducted infusion therapy depending on the severity of the condition according to the classical scheme. In addition to standard clinical and laboratory examination, to assess the effectiveness of Reamberin was investigated catalase activity of CPK in blood serum in the dynamics of observation (1, 3 and 5 days after surgery). It is revealed that surgical approach, used in complex treatment of patients with valvular congenital heart diseases, including reorganization of the cavities of the heart, increasing the frequency of joints and the use of reinforcing strips of synthetic material that prevents the cutting of sutures through the inflamed tissue has achieved good short-and long-term results. Infective endocarditis and destruction of the valvular annulus fibrosus the use of a frame of strips of polytetrafluoroethylene allows you to restore its integrity and to implant a mechanical prosthesis. The inclusion in the regimen of patients with infective endocarditis complicated by cardiac insufficiency in the early postoperative period the drug Reamberin improves the efficiency of treatment by a more rapid restoration of the normal

  11. A case of left main pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with valvular pulmonary stenosis in a child.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ran; Son, Jae Sung; Park, Yong Mean

    2011-10-01

    Aneurysm of the main pulmonary artery is a rare clinical entity that can be congenital or acquired. Most cases occur in association with other congenital malformations, severe pulmonary hypertension, vasculitides, infectious agents, or collagen vascular disorders. We report here a pediatric case of left pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with valvular pulmonary stenosis and a hypoplastic right pulmonary artery, which we confirmed via multidetector computed tomography angiography.

  12. State of the mitral valve in rabbits with hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strelkovska, V. Y.

    1979-01-01

    In hypokinesia, edema of all the layers of the mitral value was observed, which resulted in morphological changes of the cellular and noncellular components. An increase in ratio of elastic and collagenic fibers in the value was also observed along with and changes in their structural and staining properties. The observed changes can limit valve mobility and can result in manifestations of cardiac valve insufficiency, which is found clinically.

  13. Mitral Valve Mechanics Following Posterior Leaflet Patch Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Azadeh; Rasmussen, Ann Q.; Honge, Jesper L.; Ostli, Bjorn; Levine, Robert A.; Hagège, Albert; Nygaard, Hans; Nielsen, Sten L.; Jensen, Morten O.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim of the study Attention towards the optimization of mitral valve repair methods is increasing. Patch augmentation is one strategy used to treat functional ischemic mitral regurgitation (FIMR). The study aim was to investigate the force balance changes in specific chordae tendineae emanating from the posterior papillary muscle in a FIMR-simulated valve, following posterior leaflet patch augmentation. Methods Mitral valves were obtained from 12 pigs (body weight 80 kg). An in vitro test set-up simulating the left ventricle was used to hold the valves. The left ventricular pressure was regulated with water to simulate different static pressures during valve closure. A standardized oval pericardial patch (17 × 29 mm) was introduced into the posterior leaflet from mid P2 to the end of the P3 scallop. Dedicated miniature transducers were used to record the forces exerted on the chordae tendineae. Data were acquired before and after 12 mm posterior and 5 mm apical posterior papillary muscle displacement to simulate the effect from one of the main contributors of FIMR, before and after patch augmentation. Results The effect of displacing the posterior papillary muscle induced tethering on the intermediate chordae tendineae to the posterior leaflet, and resulted in a 39.8% force increase (p = 0.014). Posterior leaflet patch augmentation of the FIMR valve induced a 31.1% force decrease (p = 0.007). There was no difference in force between the healthy and the repaired valve simulations (p = 0.773). Conclusion Posterior leaflet patch augmentation significantly reduced the forces exerted on the intermediate chordae tendineae from the posterior papillary muscle following FIMR simulation. As changes in chordal tension lead to a redistribution of the total stress exerted on the valve, patch augmentation may have an adverse long-term influence on mitral valve function and remodeling. PMID:23610985

  14. Malfunctioning Starr-Edwards mitral valve 21 years after installation.

    PubMed

    Sakata, K; Ishikawa, S; Ohtaki, A; Otani, Y; Suzuki, M; Kawashima, O; Morishita, Y

    1997-02-01

    Two cases of malfunctioning Starr-Edwards cloth-covered mitral valve prostheses requiring reoperation are presented. Both cases underwent successful surgical repair 21 years after the valve replacement. The causes were a disturbance of the poppet during the opening movement due to excessive tissue ingrowth and a paravalvular leak associated with a tear of the valve seat. Replacement of the Starr-Edwards valve prosthesis more than 20 years after the initial installation has not been reported.

  15. Malfunction of Cutter-Smeloff mitral prosthesis. An echocardiographic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Behi, F; Chang, S; Welch, T

    1978-02-01

    Progression of intermittent partial or total impaction of the poppet from a prosthetic mitral valve may be difficult to evaluate in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atrial fibrillation. Heart sounds may be distant; opening and closing clicks of the poppet are muffled and irregular. Echocardiography provides a noninvasive method to detect early prosthetic malfunction at a time when the patient is clinically asymptomatic.

  16. Occurrence of mitral valve insufficiency in clinically healthy Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Károly; Szilvási, Viktória; Manczur, Ferenc; Máthé, Ákos; Reiczigel, Jenő; Nolte, Ingo; Hungerbühler, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic degenerative valve disease (CDVD) is the most common cardiac disease in dogs, usually resulting in mitral valve insufficiency (MVI). The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of MVI in clinically healthy Beagle populations. A total of 79 adult healthy Beagles (41 females and 38 males; age: 5.6 ± 2.7 years, range 1.4 to 11.7 years) were examined. The diagnosis of MVI was based on the detection of a systolic murmur heard above the mitral valve, and was confirmed by colour flow Doppler (CFD) echocardiography. Systolic mitral valve murmurs were detected in 20/79 dogs (25.3%), of them 11 males and 9 females with no statistically significant gender difference (P = 0.6059). The strength of the murmur on the semi-quantitative 0/6 scale yielded intensity grade 1/6 in 10 dogs, grade 2/6 in 4 dogs, and grade 3/6 in 6 dogs. Mild to moderate MVI was detected by CFD in all these 20 dogs with systolic murmurs. Of them, 17 dogs had mild and 3 demonstrated moderate MVI, showing 10-30% and 30-50% regurgitant jets compared to the size of the left atrium, respectively. The age of dogs with MVI was 7.1 ± 2.3 years, which was significantly different from that of dogs without MVI (5.1 ± 2.7 years, P = 0.0029). No significant differences in body weight (P = 0.1724) were found between dogs with MVI (13.8 ± 2.8 kg) and those without MVI (12.8 ± 3.0 kg). Mitral valve disease causing MVI is relatively common in Beagle dogs, just like in other small breed dogs reported in the literature.

  17. Acute massive mitral regurgitation from prosthetic valve dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, D K; Sturridge, M F

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of prosthetic valve dysfunction resulting in acute massive mitral regurgitation are reported; emergency operation was successful in both cases. Survival following complete dislodgement of the occluder of a disc valve, as occurred in one case, does not appear to have been reported before. The diffculty in diagnosis of sudden cardiac decompensation in patients with prosthetic valves is stressed, as is the need for urgent operation. Images PMID:973894

  18. Radiographic Evaluation of Valvular Heart Disease With Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Correlation.

    PubMed

    Lempel, Jason K; Bolen, Michael A; Renapurkar, Rahul D; Azok, Joseph T; White, Charles S

    2016-09-01

    Valvular heart disease is a group of complex entities with varying etiologies and clinical presentations. There are a number of imaging tools available to supplement clinical evaluation of suspected valvular heart disease, with echocardiography being the most common and clinically established, and more recent emergence of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as additional supportive techniques. Yet even with these newer and more sophisticated modalities, chest radiography remains one of the earliest and most common diagnostic examinations performed during the triage of patients with suspected cardiac dysfunction. Recognizing the anatomic and pathologic features of cardiac radiography including the heart's adaptation to varying hemodynamic changes can provide clues to the radiologist regarding the underlying etiology. In this article, we will elucidate several principles relating to chamber modifications in response to pressure and volume overload as well as radiographic appearances associated with pulmonary fluid status and cardiac dysfunction. We will also present a pattern approach to optimize analysis of the chest radiograph for valvular heart disease, which will help guide the radiologist down a differential diagnostic pathway and create a more meaningful clinical report.

  19. Anti-fibrin antibody binding in valvular vegetations and kidney lesions during experimental endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Yokota, M; Basi, D L; Herzberg, M C; Meyer, M W

    2001-01-01

    In Streptococcus sanguinis (sanguis) induced experimental endocarditis, we sought evidence that the development of aortic valvular vegetation depends on the availability of fibrin. Endocarditis was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by catheter placement into the left ventricle and inoculation of the bacteria. Fibrin was localized in the developing vegetation with 99mTechnetium (Tc)-labeled anti-fibrin antibody one or three days later. When rabbit anti-fibrin antibody was given intravenously on day 1, the mass of aortic valvular vegetation was significantly reduced at day 3; infusion of non-specific rabbit IgG showed no effect. The 99mTc-labeled anti-fibrin antibody also labeled kidneys that showed macroscopic subcapsular hemorrhage. To learn if the deposition of fibrin in the kidneys was a consequence of endocarditis required a comparison of farm-bred and specific pathogen-free rabbits before and after the induction of endocarditis. Before induction, the kidneys of farm-bred rabbits were labeled, but specific pathogen-free rabbits were free of labeling and signs of macroscopic hemorrhage. After 3 days of endocarditis, kidneys of 10 of 14 specific pathogen-free rabbits labeled with 99mTc-labeled anti-fibrin antibody and showed hemorrhage. Kidney lesions were suggested to be a frequent sequellae of S. sanguinis infective endocarditis. For the first time, fibrin was shown to be required for the continued development of aortic valvular vegetations.

  20. Non-invasive diagnosis of mitral regurgitation by Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, D; Diebold, B; Peronneau, P; Foult, J M; Nee, M; Guermonprez, J L; Maurice, P

    1981-01-01

    The value of Doppler echocardiography for the non-invasive diagnosis of mitral regurgitation was studied blindly in 161 consecutive invasively investigated adult patients. Regurgitation was graded from 0 to 3 at selective left ventricular angiography. The Doppler echocardiographic examination was considered to be positive when a disturbed systolic flow was found within the left atrium behind the aorta or the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. The test was considered to be negative in the absence of a regurgitant jet. The level of the signal to noise ratio was checked by the recording of the ventricular filling flow. The study was performed in 131 cases from the left side of the sternum and in 101 cases from the apex. There were no false positives and thus the specificity was 100 per cent. The 20 false negatives were all in patients with grade 1 regurgitation. Thus only some (33%) instances of mild regurgitation were misdiagnosed, and the sensitivity for moderate to severe mitral regurgitation was 100 per cent. PMID:7236465

  1. Maze permutations during minimally invasive mitral valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation is most frequently done in the concomitant setting, and most commonly with mitral valve surgery. Minimally invasive surgical techniques for the treatment of atrial fibrillation have developed contemporaneously with techniques for minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. As in traditional surgery for atrial fibrillation, there are many different permutations of ablations for the less invasive approaches. Lesion sets can vary from simple pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) to full bi-atrial lesions that completely reproduce the traditional cut-and-sew Cox Maze III procedure with variable efficacy in restoring sinus rhythm. Additionally, treatment of the atrial appendage can be done through minimally invasive approaches without any ablation at all in an attempt to mitigate the risk of stroke. Finally, hybrid procedures combining minimally invasive surgery and catheter-based ablation are being developed that might augment surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation at the time of minimally invasive mitral valve repair. These various permutations and their results are reviewed. PMID:26539352

  2. Arrhythmias in mitral valve prolapse: relation to anterior mitral leaflet thickening, clinical variables, and color Doppler echocardiographic parameters.

    PubMed

    Zuppiroli, A; Mori, F; Favilli, S; Barchielli, A; Corti, G; Montereggi, A; Dolara, A

    1994-11-01

    Atrial and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported with variable incidence in symptomatic patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP). The role of clinical and echocardiographic parameters as predictors for arrhythmias still needs to be clarified. One hundred nineteen consecutive patients (56 women and 63 men, mean age 40 +/- 17 years) with echocardiographically diagnosed MVP were examined. A complete echocardiographic study (M-mode, two-dimensional, and Doppler) and 24-hour electrocardiographic monitoring were performed in all patients. Complex atrial arrhythmias (CAAs) included atrial couplets, atrial tachycardia, and paroxysmal or sustained atrial flutter or fibrillation. Complex ventricular arrhythmias (CVAs) included multiform ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), VPC couplets, and runs of three or more sequential VPCs (salvos of ventricular tachycardia). The relation between complex arrhythmias and clinical parameters (age and gender) and echocardiographic parameters (left atrial and left ventricular dimensions, anterior mitral leaflet thickness [AMLT], and presence and severity of mitral regurgitation) was evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. CAA were present in 14% of patients and CVA in 30%. According to multiple logistic modeling, CAA correlated separately in the univariate analysis with age, presence of MR, and left ventricular and left atrial diameters; age was the only independent predictor (p < 0.001). CVA, in the univariate analysis, correlated with age, female gender, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and AMLT; only female gender and AMLT were independent predictors in the multivariate analysis (p < 0.01). The incidence of mitral regurgitation (59%) was higher than expected in a general population of MVP patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Value of Robotically Assisted Surgery for Mitral Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Goodman, Avi; Jarrett, Craig; Williams, Sarah J.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Bajwa, Gurjyot; Mick, Stephanie L.; Bonatti, Johannes; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The value of robotically assisted surgery for mitral valve disease is questioned because the high cost of care associated with robotic technology may outweigh its clinical benefits. Objective To investigate conditions under which benefits of robotic surgery mitigate high technology costs. Design Clinical cohort study comparing costs of robotic vs. three contemporaneous conventional surgical approaches for degenerative mitral disease. Surgery was performed from 2006–2011, and comparisons were based on intent-to-treat, with propensity-matching used to reduce selection bias. Setting Large multi-specialty academic medical center. Participants 1,290 patients aged 57±11 years, 27% women, underwent mitral repair for regurgitation from posterior leaflet prolapse. Robotic surgery was used in 473, complete sternotomy in 227, partial sternotomy in 349, and anterolateral thoracotomy in 241. Three propensity-matched groups were formed based on demographics, symptoms, cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities, valve pathophysiology, and echocardiographic measurements: robotic vs. sternotomy (n=198 pairs) vs. partial sternotomy (n=293 pairs) vs. thoracotomy (n=224 pairs). Interventions Mitral valve repair. Main Outcome Measures Cost of care, expressed as robotic capital investment, maintenance, and direct technical hospital cost, and benefit of care, based on differences in recovery time. Results Median cost of care for robotically assisted surgery exceeded the cost of alternative approaches by 27% (−5%, 68%), 32% (−6%, 70%), and 21% (−2%, 54%) (median [15th, 85th percentiles]) for complete sternotomy, partial sternotomy, and anterolateral thoracotomy, respectively. Higher operative costs were partially offset by lower postoperative costs and earlier return to work: median 35 days for robotic surgery, 49 for complete sternotomy, 56 for partial sternotomy, and 42 for anterolateral thoracotomy. Resulting net differences in cost of robotic surgery vs. the three

  4. Association Between Valvular Surgery and Mortality Among Patients With Infective Endocarditis Complicated by Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Todd; Park, Lawrence; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Cortes, Claudia; Casillo, Roberta; Chu, Vivian; Delahaye, Francois; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Edathodu, Jameela; Falces, Carlos; Logar, Mateja; Miró, José M.; Naber, Christophe; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Murdoch, David R.; Moreillon, Philippe; Utili, Riccardo; Wang, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context Heart failure (HF) is the most common complication of infective endocarditis. However, clinical characteristics of HF in patients with infective endocarditis, use of surgical therapy, and their associations with patient outcome are not well described. Objectives To determine the clinical, echocardiographic, and microbiological variables associated with HF in patients with definite infective endocarditis and to examine variables independently associated with in-hospital and 1-year mortality for patients with infective endocarditis and HF, including the use and association of surgery with outcome. Design, Setting, and Patients The International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study, a prospective, multicenter study enrolling 4166 patients with definite native- or prosthetic-valve infective endocarditis from 61 centers in 28 countries between June 2000 and December 2006. Main Outcome Measures In-hospital and 1-year mortality. Results Of 4075 patients with infective endocarditis and known HF status enrolled, 1359 (33.4% [95% CI, 31.9%–34.8%]) had HF, and 906 (66.7% [95% CI, 64.2%–69.2%]) were classified as having New York Heart Association class III or IV symptom status. Within the subset with HF, 839 (61.7% [95% CI, 59.2%–64.3%]) underwent valvular surgery during the index hospitalization. In-hospital mortality was 29.7% (95% CI, 27.2%–32.1%) for the entire HF cohort, with lower mortality observed in patients undergoing valvular surgery compared with medical therapy alone (20.6% [95% CI, 17.9%–23.4%] vs 44.8% [95% CI, 40.4%–49.0%], respectively; P<.001). One-year mortality was 29.1% (95% CI, 26.0%–32.2%) in patients undergoing valvular surgery vs 58.4% (95% CI, 54.1%–62.6%) in those not undergoing surgery (P<.001). Cox proportional hazards modeling with propensity score adjustment for surgery showed that advanced age, diabetes mellitus, health care–associated infection, causative microorganism (Staphylococcus aureus or

  5. [Postoperative acute mitral regurgitation. Unexpected finding after minor non-cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Wagner, K J; Unterbuchner, C; Bogdanski, R; Martin, J; Kochs, E F; Tassani-Prell, P

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the case of a 59-year-old man who was scheduled for general anesthesia with propofol, sufentanil and sevoflurane for removal of a metal implant. The patient was classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II status because of an asymptomatic mitral valve prolapse and medically treated arterial hypertension. During induction of narcosis a pulsoxymetrically measured inadequate increase in oxygen saturation after preoxygenation was noticed and a moderate respiratory obstruction occurred intraoperatively, but anesthesia was uneventfully completed and the patient was extubated. However, 3 h later the patient developed severe dyspnea, hypoxia, tachycardia and arterial hypotension. Physical examination revealed a new grade 4/6 systolic murmur radiating to the axilla and X-ray showed bilateral pulmonary edema. Neither electrocardiographic nor biochemical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction were identified but transthoracic echocardiography revealed fluttering of the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve with grade III regurgitation and dilation of the left atrium. Coronary angiography was normal and left ventriculography confirmed severe mitral regurgitation. Mitral valve repair was successfully performed 22 h after presentation of symptoms. Mitral regurgitation is a common finding on echocardiography, seen to some degree in over 75% of the population. The etiology of mitral valve insufficiency which can be caused by pathologic changes of one or more of the components of the mitral valve, including the leaflets, annulus, chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, or by abnormalities of the surrounding left ventricle and/or atrium are discussed. Rupture of mitral chordae tendineae is infrequent and causes acute hemodynamic deterioration and needs corrective surgery. Valve replacement should be performed only if mitral valve repair is not possible. Echocardiography is an invaluable tool in determining the severity of regurgitation

  6. IL-10 Genetic Polymorphisms Were Associated with Valvular Calcification in Han, Uygur and Kazak Populations in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-Tong; Wulasihan, Muhuyati; Huang, Ying; Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Huang, Ding; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bang-Dang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Valvular calcification occurs via ongoing endothelial injury associated with inflammation. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and 75% of the variation in IL-10 production is genetically determined. However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of IL-10 and valvular calcification has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between valvular calcification and IL-10 genetic polymorphisms in the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations in China. Patients and Methods All of the participants were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Three independent case-control studies involving the Han population, the Uygur population and the Kazak population were used in the analysis. Results For the Han and Kazak populations, rs1800871 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the recessive model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.031, respectively). For the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations, rs1800872 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the dominant model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.009, and p=0.023,respectively) Conclusion Both rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene are associated with valvular calcification in the Han and Kazak populations in China. Rs1800872 is also associated with valvular calcification in the Uygur population. PMID:26039365

  7. Haemodynamic improvement of older, previously replaced mechanical mitral valves by removal of the subvalvular pannus in redo cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Tae Youn; Choi, Jong Bum; Kuh, Ja Hong

    2017-01-01

    Patients requiring redo cardiac surgery for diseased heart valves other than mitral valves may show increased pressure gradients and reduced valve areas of previously placed mechanical mitral valves due to subvalvular pannus formation. We treated four women who had mechanical mitral valves inserted greater than or equal to 20 years earlier and who presented with circular pannus that protruded into the lower margin of the valve ring but did not impede leaflet motion. Pannus removal improved the haemodynamic function of the mitral valve.

  8. Optimizing the exposure in minimally invasive mitral surgery: a new left atrial retractor system

    PubMed Central

    Rose, David; Irace, Francesco; Frati, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Optimal exposure of the mitral valve is paramount in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and a prerequisite for successful mitral valve repair or replacement. We report the concept of a new left atrial retractor (Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany) dedicated to MIS. The effectiveness of the device was evaluated in a prospective series of 40 patients successfully operated at our institution. PMID:28149570

  9. Spontaneous rupture of a caseous calcification of the mitral annulus in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Azumi; Uchida, Tetsuro; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki

    2017-02-01

    We report a 56-year-old hemodialysis patient with a spontaneously ruptured caseous calcification of the mitral annulus resulting in multiple cerebral emboli. The mass was resected without replacing the mitral valve. The patient has remained symptom-free 3.5 years following surgery.

  10. A Genomics-Based Model for Prediction of Severe Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Ponasenko, Anastasia V.; Khutornaya, Maria V.; Kutikhin, Anton G.; Rutkovskaya, Natalia V.; Tsepokina, Anna V.; Kondyukova, Natalia V.; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2016-01-01

    Severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification is a significant problem in cardiovascular surgery. Unfortunately, clinical markers did not demonstrate efficacy in prediction of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. Here, we examined whether a genomics-based approach is efficient in predicting the risk of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. A total of 124 consecutive Russian patients who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery were recruited. We investigated the associations of the inherited variation in innate immunity, lipid metabolism and calcium metabolism genes with severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. Genotyping was conducted utilizing the TaqMan assay. Eight gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification and were therefore included into stepwise logistic regression which identified male gender, the T/T genotype of the rs3775073 polymorphism within the TLR6 gene, the C/T genotype of the rs2229238 polymorphism within the IL6R gene, and the A/A genotype of the rs10455872 polymorphism within the LPA gene as independent predictors of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. The developed genomics-based model had fair predictive value with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.73. In conclusion, our genomics-based approach is efficient for the prediction of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. PMID:27589735

  11. A Genomics-Based Model for Prediction of Severe Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Calcification.

    PubMed

    Ponasenko, Anastasia V; Khutornaya, Maria V; Kutikhin, Anton G; Rutkovskaya, Natalia V; Tsepokina, Anna V; Kondyukova, Natalia V; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Barbarash, Leonid S

    2016-08-31

    Severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification is a significant problem in cardiovascular surgery. Unfortunately, clinical markers did not demonstrate efficacy in prediction of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. Here, we examined whether a genomics-based approach is efficient in predicting the risk of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. A total of 124 consecutive Russian patients who underwent mitral valve replacement surgery were recruited. We investigated the associations of the inherited variation in innate immunity, lipid metabolism and calcium metabolism genes with severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. Genotyping was conducted utilizing the TaqMan assay. Eight gene polymorphisms were significantly associated with severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification and were therefore included into stepwise logistic regression which identified male gender, the T/T genotype of the rs3775073 polymorphism within the TLR6 gene, the C/T genotype of the rs2229238 polymorphism within the IL6R gene, and the A/A genotype of the rs10455872 polymorphism within the LPA gene as independent predictors of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification. The developed genomics-based model had fair predictive value with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.73. In conclusion, our genomics-based approach is efficient for the prediction of severe bioprosthetic mitral valve calcification.

  12. Repair or replace for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation: prospective randomized multicenter data.

    PubMed

    LaPar, Damien J; Acker, Michael A; Gelijns, Annetine C; Kron, Irving L

    2015-09-01

    Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a subset of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) that has the potential to impact an increasing number of patients in the future. This is in the context of a worldwide population, which continues to live longer with improved survival after myocardial infarction. Substantial data have accumulated over the past few decades demonstrating the negative effects of IMR. Further, significant research has been done to define the optimal surgical approach and several studies have compared mitral repair versus replacement for patients with severe mitral regurgitation (SMR). Studies supporting performance of mitral repair cite superior operative morbidity and mortality rates, while proponents of mitral replacement cite improved long-term durability and correction of MR. Lack of clinically robust Level I randomized controlled trial data have curtailed attempts to better define appropriate surgical treatment allocation over the past few decades. Recently, however, the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network (CTSN) conducted the first randomized controlled trial, funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute for Neurological Diseases and Stroke and the Canadian Institute for Health Research, to compare the performance of mitral repair versus replacement for SMR. Herein, the present review describes the design, results and implications of the CTSN SMR trial and its efforts to identify the most efficacious surgical approach to SMR. This review also describes CTSN investigation to predict the recurrence of MR after mitral repair.

  13. Subacute Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacterial Endocarditis Complicated by Mitral-Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa Pseudoaneurysm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis Bacterial Endocarditis Complicated byMitral- Aortic Intervalvular Fibrosa Pseudoaneurysm Diane Elegino-Steffens,1 Amy Stratton,1...hypertension and congestive heart failure who underwent a bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement secondary to acute onset of aortic insufficiency...severe regurgitation, anterior and posterior leaflet vegetations, and scallop prolapse. There was also evidence of a mitral- aortic intervalvular fibrosa

  14. Early stabilization of traumatic aortic transection and mitral valve regurgitation with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, David L; Wellens, Francis; Vercoutere, Rik A; De Geest, Raf

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of life-threatening aortic transection with concomitant mitral papillary muscle rupture and severe lung contusion caused by a failed parachute jump. This blunt thoracic injury was treated by early stabilization with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation followed by successful delayed graft repair of the descending aorta and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis.

  15. Aortic valve replacement with the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure 12 years after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Kazama, S; Kurata, A; Yamashita, Y

    1999-10-01

    An aortic valve replacement was successfully performed employing the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure in a case of aortic valve stenosis with small annulus 12 years after mitral valve replacement. Previous mitral valve replacement does not preclude feasibility of the Nicks procedure.

  16. Percutaenous mitral valve: A non-stented coronary sinus device for the treatment of functional mitral regurgitation in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Sack, Stefan; Kahlert, Philipp; Erbel, Raimund

    2009-01-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation in heart failure limits survival in a severity-graded fashion. Even mild mitral regurgitation doubles mortality risk. We report the use of a non-stented coronary sinus device to reduce mitral annulus dimension in order to re-establish mitral valve competence. The device (PTMA, Viacor, Inc., Wilmington, MA, USA) consists of a multi-lumen PTFE (Teflon) PTMA catheter in which Nitinol (nickel-titanium alloy) treatment rods are advanced. For individual use up to three rods of different length and stiffness can be used. Therefore dimension reduction can be performed in an incremental fashion. Fluoroscopy and 3 D echocardiography are performed throughout the procedure to visiualize the positioning and confirm maximum treatment effect. The case describes the use and the effect of PTMA treatment. Safety and efficacy of the PTMA device will be investigated in the upcoming PTOLEMY 2 trial.

  17. Mitral valve regurgitation due to annular dilatation caused by a huge and floating left atrial myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy, Burak; Yeniterzi, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of mitral valve annular dilatation caused by a huge left atrial myxoma obstructing the mitral valve orifice. A 50-year-old man presenting with palpitation was found to have a huge left atrial myxoma protruding into the left ventricle during diastole, causing severe mitral regurgitation. The diagnosis was made with echocardiogram. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a solid mass of 75 × 55 mm. During operation, the myxoma was completely removed from its attachment in the atrium. We preferred to place a mechanical heart valve after an annuloplasty ring because of severely dilated mitral annulus and chordae elongation. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Our case suggests that immediate surgery, careful evaluation of mitral valve annulus preoperatively is recommended. PMID:26702283

  18. Severe hemolytic anemia after repair of primum septal defect and cleft mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Alehan, D; Doğan, R; Ozkutlu, S; Elshershari, H; Gümrük, F

    2001-01-01

    Two cases are described in which severe mechanical hemolytic anemia developed after surgical repair of primum atrial septal defect (ASD) and cleft mitral valve. In both cases there was residual mitral regurgitation after repair. Moderate mitral regurgitation and collision of the regurgitant jet with the teflon patch used for repair of the primum ASD were detected by color-Doppler echocardiography imaging. Laboratory tests showed normochromic normocytic anemia, increased indirect serum bilirubin, decreased plasma haptoglobin and hemoglobinuria. The peripheral blood smear contained numerous fragmented red cells. Following another surgical correction of the mitral valve (repair or mitral valve replacement), there was no more hemolysis. The two presented cases show that foreign materials in association with localized intracardiac turbulence may cause severe hemolysis.

  19. The Mitral Valve in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Test in Context.

    PubMed

    Sherrid, Mark V; Balaram, Sandhya; Kim, Bette; Axel, Leon; Swistel, Daniel G

    2016-04-19

    Mitral valve abnormalities were not part of modern pathological and clinical descriptions of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the 1950s, which focused on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and myocyte fiber disarray. Although systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve was discovered as the cause of LV outflow tract obstruction in the M-mode echocardiography era, in the 1990s structural abnormalities of the mitral valve became appreciated as contributing to SAM pathophysiology. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mitral malformations have been identified at all levels. They occur in the leaflets, usually elongating them, and also in the submitral apparatus, with a wide array of malformations of the papillary muscles and chordae, that can be detected by transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography and by cardiac magnetic resonance. Because they participate fundamentally in the predisposition to SAM, they have increasingly been repaired surgically. This review critically assesses imaging and measurement of mitral abnormalities and discusses their surgical relief.

  20. Incremental value of 3-D transesophageal echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonia; Malouf, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography provides excellent visualization of the posteriorly located mitral valve. Over the last decade, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D TEE) has emerged as an exciting imaging modality, particularly of the mitral valve. The current generation matrix array technology allows the operator to perform 2D and 3D imaging with a single transducer. 3D TEE affords the unique ability to view the mitral valve and its surrounding structures "en face" in real time (RT), and provide contextual anatomical guidance during surgical and transcatheter interventions. Additionally, offline quantification has made significant contributions to our mechanistic understanding of the normal and diseased mitral valve, and alterations induced by therapeutic intervention such as surgical repair. This review will address recent advances in the incremental role of 3D TEE in mitral valve imaging.

  1. Mitral Repair Is Superior to Replacement When Associated With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reece, T Brett; Tribble, Curtis G.; Ellman, Peter I.; Maxey, Thomas S.; Woodford, Randall L.; Dimeling, George M.; Wellons, Harry A.; Crosby, Ivan K.; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the outcomes of mitral repair and replacement in revascularized patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Summary Background Data: Combined coronary bypass (CABG) and mitral procedures have been associated with the highest mortality (>10%) in cardiac surgery. Recent studies have suggested that mitral valve replacement (MVR) with sparing of the subvalvular apparatus had comparable results to mitral repair when associated with CABG. Methods: Over the past 7 years, 54 patients had CABG/mitral repair versus 56 who had CABG/MVR with preservation of the subvalvular apparatus. The groups were similar in age at 69.2 years in the replacement group versus 67.0 in the repair group. We compared these 2 groups based on hospital mortality, incidence of complications including nosocomial infection, neurologic decompensation (stroke), pulmonary complication (pneumonia, atelectasis, and prolonged ventilation), and renal complications (acute renal failure or insufficiency). Results: The mitral repair group had a hospital mortality of 1.9% versus 10.7% in the replacement group (P = 0.05). Infection occurred in 9% of repairs compared with 13% of replacements (P = 0.59). The incidence of stroke was no different between groups (2 of 54 repairs vs. 2 of 56 replacements, P = 1.00). Pulmonary complication rate was 39% in repairs versus 32% in replacements (P = 0.59). Worsening renal function occurred in 15% of repairs versus 18% of replacements (P = 0.67). Conclusions: Mitral repair is superior to mitral replacement when associated with coronary artery disease in terms of perioperative morbidity and hospital mortality. Although preservation of the subvalvular apparatus with MVR has a theoretical advantage in terms of ventricular function, mitral repair clearly adds a survival benefit in patients with concomitant ischemic cardiac disease. PMID:15082971

  2. Pulsed Doppler echocardiographic analysis of mitral regurgitation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Loperfido, F; Biasucci, L M; Pennestri, F; Laurenzi, F; Gimigliano, F; Vigna, C; Rossi, E; Favuzzi, A; Santarelli, P; Manzoli, U

    1986-10-01

    In 72 patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI), mitral regurgitation (MR) was assessed by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography and compared with physical and 2-dimensional echocardiographic findings. MR was found by Doppler in 29 of 42 patients (62%) with anterior MI, 11 of 30 (37%) with inferior MI (p less than 0.01) and in none of 20 normal control subjects. MR was more frequent in patients who underwent Doppler study 3 months after MI than in those who underwent Doppler at discharge (anterior MI = 83% vs 50%, p less than 0.01; inferior MI = 47% vs 27%, p = not significant). Of 15 patients who underwent Doppler studies both times, 3 (all with anterior MI) had MR only on the second study. Of the patients with Doppler MR, 12 of 27 (44%) with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) greater than 30% and 1 of 13 (8%) with an EF of 30% or less (p less than 0.01) had an MR systolic murmur. Mitral prolapse or eversion and papillary muscle fibrosis were infrequent in MI patients, whether or not Doppler MR was present. The degree of Doppler MR correlated with EF (r = -0.61), LV systolic volume (r = 0.47), and systolic and diastolic mitral anulus circumference (r = 0.52 and 0.51, respectively). Doppler MR was present in 24 of 28 patients (86%) with an EF of 40% or less and in 16 of 44 (36%) with EF more than 40% (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Normal echocardiographic mitral and aortic valve thickness in children

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Rachel H; Culliford-Semmens, Nicola; Sidhu, Karishma; Wilson, Nigel J

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to define the normal range of aortic and mitral valve thickness in healthy schoolchildren from a high prevalence rheumatic heart disease (RHD) region, using a standardised protocol for imaging and measurement. Methods Measurements were performed in 288 children without RHD. Anterior mitral valve leaflet (AMVL) thickness measurements were performed at the midpoint and tip of the leaflet in the parasternal long axis (PSLA) in diastole, when the AMVL was approximately parallel to the ventricular septum. Thickness of the aortic valve was measured from PSLA imaging in systole when the leaflets were at maximum excursion. The right coronary and non-coronary closure lines of the aortic valve were measured in diastole in parasternal short axis (PSSA) imaging. Results were compared with 51 children with RHD classified by World Heart Federation diagnostic criteria. Results In normal children, median AMVL tip thickness was 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4) and median AMVL midpoint thickness 2.0 mm (IQR 1.7–2.4). The median aortic valve thickness was 1.5 mm (IQR 1.3–1.6) in the PSLA view and 1.4 mm (IQR 1.2–1.6) in the PSSA view. The interclass correlation coefficient for the AMVL tip was 0.85 (0.71 to 0.92) and for the AMVL midpoint was 0.77 (0.54 to 0.87). Conclusions We have described a standardised method for mitral and aortic valve measurement in children which is objective and reproducible. Normal ranges of left heart valve thickness in a high prevalence RHD population are established. These results provide a reference range for school-age children in high prevalence RHD regions undergoing echocardiographic screening.

  4. Cognitive tools pipeline for assistance of mitral valve surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Nicolai; Philipp, Patrick; Weller, Tobias; Engelhardt, Sandy; Volovyk, Mykola; Fetzer, Andreas; Nolden, Marco; De Simone, Raffaele; Wolf, Ivo; Maleshkova, Maria; Rettinger, Achim; Studer, Rudi; Heuveline, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    For cardiac surgeons, mitral valve reconstruction (MVR) surgery is a highly demanding procedure, where an artificial annuloplasty ring is implanted onto the mitral valve annulus to re-enable the valve's proper closing functionality. For a successful operation the surgeon has to keep track of a variety of relevant impact factors, such as patient-individual medical history records, valve geometries, or tissue properties of the surgical target, and thereon-based deduce type and size of the best-suitable ring prosthesis according to practical surgery experience. With this work, we aim at supporting the surgeon in selecting this ring prosthesis by means of a comprehensive information processing pipeline. It gathers all available patient-individual information, and mines this data according to 'surgical rules', that represent published MVR expert knowledge and recommended best practices, in order to suggest a set of potentially suitable annuloplasty rings. Subsequently, these rings are employed in biomechanical MVR simulation scenarios, which simulate the behavior of the patient-specific mitral valve subjected to the respective virtual ring implantation. We present the implementation of our deductive system for MVR ring selection and how it is integrated into a cognitive data processing pipeline architecture, which is built under consideration of Linked Data principles in order to facilitate holistic information processing of heterogeneous medical data. By the example of MVR surgery, we demonstrate the ease of use and the applicability of our development. We expect to essentially support patient-specific decision making in MVR surgery by means of this holistic information processing approach.

  5. Role of Mitral Annulus Diastolic Geometry on Intraventricular Filling Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Ikechukwu U.; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Raghav, Vrishank S.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2015-01-01

    The mitral valve (MV) is a bileaflet valve positioned between the left atrium and ventricle of the heart. The annulus of the MV has been observed to undergo geometric changes during the cardiac cycle, transforming from a saddle D-shape during systole to a flat (and less eccentric) D-shape during diastole. Prosthetic MV devices, including heart valves and annuloplasty rings, are designed based on these two configurations, with the circular design of some prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) being an approximation of the less eccentric, flat D-shape. Characterizing the effects of these geometrical variations on the filling efficiency of the left ventricle (LV) is required to understand why the flat D-shaped annulus is observed in the native MV during diastole in addition to optimizing the design of prosthetic devices. We hypothesize that the D-shaped annulus reduces energy loss during ventricular filling. An experimental left heart simulator (LHS) consisting of a flexible-walled LV physical model was used to characterize the filling efficiency of the two mitral annular geometries. The strength of the dominant vortical structure formed and the energy dissipation rate (EDR) of the measured fields, during the diastolic period of the cardiac cycle, were used as metrics to quantify the filling efficiency. Our results indicated that the O-shaped annulus generates a stronger (25% relative to the D-shaped annulus) vortical structure than that of the D-shaped annulus. It was also found that the O-shaped annulus resulted in higher EDR values throughout the diastolic period of the cardiac cycle. The results support the hypothesis that a D-shaped mitral annulus reduces dissipative energy losses in ventricular filling during diastole and in turn suggests that a symmetric stent design does not provide lower filling efficiency than an equivalent asymmetric design. PMID:26502376

  6. Role of Mitral Annulus Diastolic Geometry on Intraventricular Filling Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ikechukwu U; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Raghav, Vrishank S; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-12-01

    The mitral valve (MV) is a bileaflet valve positioned between the left atrium and ventricle of the heart. The annulus of the MV has been observed to undergo geometric changes during the cardiac cycle, transforming from a saddle D-shape during systole to a flat (and less eccentric) D-shape during diastole. Prosthetic MV devices, including heart valves and annuloplasty rings, are designed based on these two configurations, with the circular design of some prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) being an approximation of the less eccentric, flat D-shape. Characterizing the effects of these geometrical variations on the filling efficiency of the left ventricle (LV) is required to understand why the flat D-shaped annulus is observed in the native MV during diastole in addition to optimizing the design of prosthetic devices. We hypothesize that the D-shaped annulus reduces energy loss during ventricular filling. An experimental left heart simulator (LHS) consisting of a flexible-walled LV physical model was used to characterize the filling efficiency of the two mitral annular geometries. The strength of the dominant vortical structure formed and the energy dissipation rate (EDR) of the measured fields, during the diastolic period of the cardiac cycle, were used as metrics to quantify the filling efficiency. Our results indicated that the O-shaped annulus generates a stronger (25% relative to the D-shaped annulus) vortical structure than that of the D-shaped annulus. It was also found that the O-shaped annulus resulted in higher EDR values throughout the diastolic period of the cardiac cycle. The results support the hypothesis that a D-shaped mitral annulus reduces dissipative energy losses in ventricular filling during diastole and in turn suggests that a symmetric stent design does not provide lower filling efficiency than an equivalent asymmetric design.

  7. Persistent pulmonary artery hypertension in patients undergoing balloon mitral valvotomy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Krishna Kumar Mohanan; Pillai, Harikrishnan Sivadasan; Titus, Thomas; Varaparambil, Ajitkumar; Sivasankaran, Sivasubramonian; Krishnamoorthy, Kavassery Mahadevan; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Sasidharan, Bijulal; Thajudeen, Anees; Ganapathy, Sanjay; Tharakan, Jaganmohan

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is known to regress after successful balloon mitral valvotomy (BMV). Data of persistent pulmonary artery hypertension (PPAH) following BMV is scarce. We analyzed the clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic data of 701 consecutive patients who have undergone successful BMV in our institute from 1997 to 2003. Data of 287 patients who had PPAH (defined by pulmonary artery systolic pressure [PASP] of ≥ 40 mmHg at one year following BMV) were compared to the data of 414 patients who did not have PPAH. Patients who had PPAH were older (39.9 ± 9.9 years vs. 29.4 ± 10.1; P < 0.001). They had higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF; 21.9 vs. 12.1%, P < 0.05), moderate or severe pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) defined as PASP more than 50 mmHg (43.5 vs. 33.8%, P = 0.00), anatomically advanced mitral valve disease as assessed by Wilkin's echocardiographic score > 8 (33.7 vs. 23.2%, P < 0.001), and coexistent aortic valve disease (45.6 vs. 37.9%, P < 0.001) at the baseline. Those patients with PPAH had comparatively lower immediate postprocedural mitral valve area (MVA). On follow-up of more than five years, the occurrence of restenosis (39.3 vs. 10.1%, P = 0.000), new onset heart failure (14% vs. 4%, P < 0.05) and need for reinterventions (9.5% vs. 2.8%, P < 0.05) were higher in the PPAH group. Patients with PPAH were older, sicker, and had advanced rheumatic mitral valve disease. They had higher incidence of restenosis, new onset heart failure, and need for reinterventions on long term follow-up. PPAH represents an advanced stage of rheumatic valve disease and indicates chronicity of the disease, which may be the reason for the poorer prognosis of these patients. Patients with PPAH requires intense and more frequent follow-up. PMID:24015345

  8. Late entrapment of ball and cage valve in mitral position.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Jayesh G; Varma, Praveen K; Gadhinglajkar, Shrinivas V; Neelakandhan, Kurur S

    2006-02-01

    A 32-year-old female underwent mitral valve replacement with total chordal preservation (Miki's technique) using 26 mm (1M) Starr-Edward prosthesis (SEP) in 1988. The patient was in NYHA class-I until 2001. She progressed to NYHA class-III with paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed increased prosthetic valve gradient, and cardiac catheterization confirmed the findings. Intraoperatively, the poppet movement in the cage was found to be restricted due to the preserved subvalvular apparatus entrapping the poppet inside the prosthetic valve cage.

  9. Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation during Mitral-Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gillinov, A. Marc; Gelijns, Annetine C.; Parides, Michael K.; DeRose, Joseph J.; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Voisine, Pierre; Ailawadi, Gorav; Bouchard, Denis; Smith, Peter K.; Mack, Michael J.; Acker, Michael A.; Mullen, John C.; Rose, Eric A.; Chang, Helena L.; Puskas, John D.; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Gardner, Timothy J.; Varghese, Robin; Horvath, Keith A.; Bolling, Steven F.; Michler, Robert E.; Geller, Nancy L.; Ascheim, Deborah D.; Miller, Marissa A.; Bagiella, Emilia; Moquete, Ellen G.; Williams, Paula; Taddei-Peters, Wendy C.; O’Gara, Patrick T.; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Argenziano, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Among patients undergoing mitral-valve surgery, 30 to 50% present with atrial fibrillation, which is associated with reduced survival and increased risk of stroke. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation has been widely adopted, but evidence regarding its safety and effectiveness is limited. Methods We randomly assigned 260 patients with persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation who required mitral-valve surgery to undergo either surgical ablation (ablation group) or no ablation (control group) during the mitral-valve operation. Patients in the ablation group underwent further randomization to pulmonary-vein isolation or a biatrial maze procedure. All patients underwent closure of the left atrial appendage. The primary end point was freedom from atrial fibrillation at both 6 months and 12 months (as assessed by means of 3-day Holter monitoring). Results More patients in the ablation group than in the control group were free from atrial fibrillation at both 6 and 12 months (63.2% vs. 29.4%, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the rate of freedom from atrial fibrillation between patients who underwent pulmonary-vein isolation and those who underwent the biatrial maze procedure (61.0% and 66.0%, respectively; P = 0.60). One-year mortality was 6.8% in the ablation group and 8.7% in the control group (hazard ratio with ablation, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.84; P = 0.55). Ablation was associated with more implantations of a permanent pacemaker than was no ablation (21.5 vs. 8.1 per 100 patient-years, P = 0.01). There were no significant between-group differences in major cardiac or cerebrovascular adverse events, overall serious adverse events, or hospital readmissions. Conclusions The addition of atrial fibrillation ablation to mitral-valve surgery significantly increased the rate of freedom from atrial fibrillation at 1 year among patients with persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation, but the

  10. Transareolar Robotic-Assisted Access to the Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Francesco; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Ranocchi, Federico; Tosi, Daniele; Persichetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    During the past years, a rapid development and refinements of robotic heart valve techniques have led to consider robotic mitral valve (MV) surgery safe, effective, and durable. Robotic MV surgery has proven to be a cost-effective and cost-saving strategy in MV operations, being associated with reduced morbidity and mortality rates. We present a novel video-assisted transareolar approach to access the MV using the da Vinci Si HD telemanipulation system (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunnyvale, CA USA). This technique is effective and reproducible, providing maximum patient satisfaction from both the clinical and cosmetic points of view.

  11. Double triangular resection for a widely prolapsed posterior mitral leaflet†

    PubMed Central

    Sawazaki, Masaru; Tomari, Shiro; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Izawa, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    A wide and redundant prolapse of the posterior mitral leaflet in active infective endocarditis cannot be easily repaired. A sliding plasty can be attempted, but the range of annular plication is often too large. Chordal replacement is another option, but is prone to long-term degeneration because the redundant leaflet still exists. Here, we describe a simple resection technique that utilizes only two small triangular resections. The resections are sutured with no need to shorten the annulus. The leaflet tissue between the two triangular resections must be preserved to make an appropriately shaped posterior leaflet. PMID:23223672

  12. The anatomical basis of bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome in elderly dogs with chronic degenerative valvular disease.

    PubMed

    Nakao, S; Hirakawa, A; Fukushima, R; Kobayashi, M; Machida, N

    2012-01-01

    The hearts of seven elderly dogs in which bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome (BTS) had been diagnosed electrocardiographically were examined post mortem. The clinical basis of the underlying heart disease was invariably mitral or mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. Microscopical examination of the sinoatrial (SA) node and the SA junctional region consistently revealed depletion of SA nodal cells, with a corresponding increase in fibrous or fibro-fatty tissue that interrupted contiguity between the SA node and the surrounding atrial myocardium. The left and right atrial walls showed an increased amount of fibrous tissue in the myocardium and disruption of the muscle bundle architecture (interstitial myocardial fibrosis) to varying degrees. Qualitatively, these changes in the SA node and the SA node region resembled those associated with ageing in elderly people with or without BTS. Thus, it is possible that the pathological process affecting the SA node in these dogs was fundamentally related to ageing and may have caused BTS, in combination with atrial myocardial lesions caused by mitral and tricuspid regurgitation.

  13. Relative Effects of Fluid Oscillations and Nutrient Transport in the In Vitro Growth of Valvular Tissues.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Manuel; Rath, Sasmita; Villegas, Ana; Unnikrishnan, Vinu; Ramaswamy, Sharan

    2016-06-01

    Engineered valvular tissues are cultured dynamically, and involve specimen movement. We previously demonstrated that oscillatory shear stresses (OSS) under combined steady flow and specimen cyclic flexure (flex-flow) promote tissue formation. However, localized efficiency of specimen mass transport is also important in the context of cell viability within the growing tissues. Here, we investigated the delivery of two essential species for cell survival, glucose and oxygen, to 3-dimensional (3D) engineered valvular tissues. We applied a convective-diffusive model to characterize glucose and oxygen mass transport with and without valve-like specimen flexural movement. We found the mass transport effects for glucose and oxygen to be negligible for scaffold porosities typically present during in vitro experiments and non-essential unless the porosity was unusually low (<40%). For more typical scaffold porosities (75%) however, we found negligible variation in the specimen mass fraction of glucose and oxygen in both non-moving and moving constructs (p > 0.05). Based on this result, we conducted an experiment using bone marrow stem cell (BMSC)-seeded scaffolds under Pulsatile flow-alone states to permit OSS without any specimen movement. BMSC-seeded specimen collagen from the pulsatile flow and flex-flow environments were subsequently found to be comparable (p > 0.05) and exhibited some gene expression similarities. We conclude that a critical magnitude of fluid-induced, OSS created by either pulsatile flow or flex-flow conditions, particularly when the oscillations are physiologically-relevant, is the direct, principal stimulus that promotes engineered valvular tissues and its phenotype, whereas mass transport benefits derived from specimen movement are minimal.

  14. The Year in Cardiology 2013: valvular heart disease (focus on catheter-based interventions).

    PubMed

    Grube, Eberhard; Sinning, Jan-Malte; Vahanian, Alec

    2014-02-01

    2013 was the year of transcatheter heart valve interventions. Not least because of the 2012 European guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease (VHD), the multidisciplinary heart team approach became an established concept. Decision-making, when a patient is too 'sick' for surgery and too 'healthy' for catheter-based interventions, is complex, since VHD is often seen at an older age and, as a consequence, there is a higher frequency of co-morbidity and frailty. However, before TAVI and other transcatheter heart valve interventions can be expanded to intermediate-risk patients, evidence in favour of this less invasive treatment has to be provided by upcoming randomized clinical trials.

  15. Valvular dysplasia and congestive heart failure in a juvenile African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Allyson; Frasca, Salvatore; Mishra, Neha; Tuttle, Allison D

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: An aquarium-housed, 6-mo-old African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) presented with acute respiratory distress. Auscultation revealed a grade II-III systolic murmur in the absence of adventitial sounds, and an enlarged heart without pulmonary edema was seen radiographically. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed atrioventricular (AV) valvular dysplasia and ventricular enlargement. The penguin was treated with enalapril, furosemide, and pimobendan but died within 3 wk of detection of the murmur. Congenital dysplasia of the right AV valve with right atrial and ventricular dilation and ventricular hypertrophy were diagnosed on postmortem examination.

  16. Valvular interstitial cell seeded poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffolds: toward a biomimetic in vitro model for heart valve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Nafiseh; Johnson, Katherine L; Howell, M Christian; Engelmayr, George C

    2013-04-01

    Tissue engineered replacement heart valves may be capable of overcoming the lack of growth potential intrinsic to current non-viable prosthetics, and thus could potentially serve as permanent replacements in the surgical repair of pediatric valvular lesions. However, the evaluation of candidate combinations of cells and scaffolds lacks a biomimetic in vitro model with broadly tunable, anisotropic and elastomeric structural-mechanical properties. Toward establishing such an in vitro model, in the current study, porcine aortic and pulmonary valvular interstitial cells (i.e. biomimetic cells) were cultivated on anisotropic, micromolded poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffolds (i.e. biomimetic scaffolds). Following 14 and 28 days of static culture, cell-seeded scaffolds and unseeded controls were assessed for their mechanical properties, and cell-seeded scaffolds were further characterized by confocal fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, and by collagen and DNA assays. Poly(glycerol sebacate) micromolding yielded scaffolds with anisotropic stiffnesses resembling those of native valvular tissues in the low stress-strain ranges characteristic of physiologic valvular function. Scaffold anisotropy was largely retained upon cultivation with valvular interstitial cells; while the mechanical properties of unseeded scaffolds progressively diminished, cell-seeded scaffolds either retained or exceeded initial mechanical properties. Retention of mechanical properties in cell-seeded scaffolds paralleled the accretion of collagen, which increased significantly from 14 to 28 days. This study demonstrates that valvular interstitial cells can be cultivated on anisotropic poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffolds to yield biomimetic in vitro models with which clinically relevant cells and future scaffold designs can be evaluated.

  17. Diagnostic value of mitral annular velocity for constrictive pericarditis in the absence of respiratory variation in mitral inflow velocity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jong-Won; Oh, Jae K; Ommen, Steve R; Ling, Lieng H; Tajik, A Jamil

    2002-12-01

    Respiratory variation of 25% or more in transmitral early diastolic filling (E) velocity is a well-recognized diagnostic feature of constrictive pericarditis (CP) that is useful for distinguishing it from restrictive cardiomyopathy. However, a subset of patients with CP do not exhibit the typical respiratory change. Recent data showed that mitral annular (E') velocity measured by Doppler tissue echocardiography (DTE) is markedly reduced in patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy whereas E' velocity is well-preserved in CP. This study evaluated the role of DTE for the diagnosis of CP when there is no characteristic respiratory variation of E velocity. From September 1999 to March 2001, 19 patients (17 men, 2 women; mean age, 57 +/- 13 years) with surgically confirmed CP underwent comprehensive echocardiography preoperatively, including pulsed wave and DTE examination with simultaneous recording of respiration. Nine (47%) of the 19 patients had less than 25% respiratory variation in E velocity. There was no significant difference in mitral inflow peak velocity, deceleration time, early-to-late ventricular filling ratio, and E' velocity between patients with and patients without respiratory variation of E velocity of 25% or more. Regardless of the presence or absence of a significant respiratory variation of E velocity, E' velocity was relatively normal (mean, 12 +/- 4 cm/s) in all patients with CP. In conclusion, E' velocity is well preserved in patients with isolated CP even when there is no characteristic respiratory variation of E velocity. Thus, when the respiratory variation in Doppler E velocity is blunted or absent during the evaluation of suspected CP in patients with restrictive mitral inflow velocity, preserved E' velocity shown by DTE should support the diagnosis of CP over a primary myocardial disease.

  18. The Relation Between Collagen Fibril Kinematics and Mechanical Properties in the Mitral Valve Anterior Leaflet

    SciTech Connect

    Liao,J.; Yang, L.; Grashow, J.; Sacks, M.

    2007-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the mitral valve anterior leaflet (MVAL) exhibited minimal hysteresis, no strain rate sensitivity, stress relaxation but not creep (Grashow et al., 2006, Ann Biomed Eng., 34(2), pp. 315-325; Grashow et al., 2006, Ann Biomed. Eng., 34(10), pp. 1509-1518). However, the underlying structural basis for this unique quasi-elastic mechanical behavior is presently unknown. As collagen is the major structural component of the MVAL, we investigated the relation between collagen fibril kinematics (rotation and stretch) and tissue-level mechanical properties in the MVAL under biaxial loading using small angle X-ray scattering. A novel device was developed and utilized to perform simultaneous measurements of tissue level forces and strain under a planar biaxial loading state. Collagen fibril D-period strain ({epsilon}{sub D}) and the fibrillar angular distribution were measured under equibiaxial tension, creep, and stress relaxation to a peak tension of 90 N/m. Results indicated that, under equibiaxial tension, collagen fibril straining did not initiate until the end of the nonlinear region of the tissue-level stress-strain curve. At higher tissue tension levels, {epsilon}{sub D} increased linearly with increasing tension. Changes in the angular distribution of the collagen fibrils mainly occurred in the tissue toe region. Using {epsilon}{sub D}, the tangent modulus of collagen fibrils was estimated to be 95.5{+-}25.5 MPa, which was {approx}27 times higher than the tissue tensile tangent modulus of 3.58{+-}1.83 MPa. In creep tests performed at 90 N/m equibiaxial tension for 60 min, both tissue strain and D remained constant with no observable changes over the test length. In contrast, in stress relaxation tests performed for 90 min {epsilon}{sub D} was found to rapidly decrease in the first 10 min followed by a slower decay rate for the remainder of the test. Using a single exponential model, the time constant for the reduction in collagen

  19. [Association of anorexia nervosa and mitral valve prolapse].

    PubMed

    Amano, K; Sakamoto, T; Hada, Y; Hasegawa, I; Takahashi, T; Suzuki, J; Takahashi, H

    1986-01-01

    Four cases of anorexia nervosa recently encountered were reported in respect to their cardiovascular manifestations including prolapse of the cardiac valves and other poorly recognized cardiac findings. All four patients, aged 13 to 32 years, were women and had marked emaciation (35 to 44% weight loss of the ideal body weight) with typical hormone abnormalities. Chest radiographs showed a small cardiac shadow, and sinus bradycardia with low voltage was present in their electrocardiograms. One case, 13-year-old, had a mid-systolic click and occasionally a late systolic murmur, and also an abdominal continuous hum. Echocardiography including two-dimensional color flow-mapping disclosed mitral valve prolapse in all, and tricuspid valve prolapse in two. Mild to moderate pericardial effusion was noted in all between the right ventricle and diaphragm, and pericardiocentesis in one case had no effect on the valve movements. No inflammatory changes were observed in the specimen of the pericardium and also of the fluid. An association of mitral valve prolapse and anerexia nervosa was discussed based on the previous studies, but the final conclusion remains unknown.

  20. Percutaneous approaches to valve repair for mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ted; Young, Amelia

    2014-05-27

    Percutaneous therapy has emerged as an option for treatment of mitral regurgitation for selected, predominantly high-risk patients. Most of the percutaneous approaches are modifications of existing surgical approaches. Catheter-based devices mimic these surgical approaches with less procedural risk, due to their less-invasive nature. Percutaneous annuloplasty can be achieved indirectly via the coronary sinus or directly from retrograde left ventricular access. Catheter-based leaflet repair with the MitraClip (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois) is accomplished with an implantable clip to mimic the surgical edge-to-edge leaflet repair technique. A large experience with MitraClip has been reported, and several other percutaneous approaches have been successfully used in smaller numbers of patients to demonstrate proof of concept, whereas others have failed and are no longer under development. There is increasing experience in both trials and practice to begin to define the clinical utility of percutaneous leaflet repair, and annuloplasty approaches are undergoing significant development. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement is still in early development.

  1. Adult women with mitral valve prolapse are more flexible

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, C; Chaves, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is common in women. Other clinical features such as flexibility and hyperlaxity are often associated with MVP, as there is a common biochemical and histological basis for collagen tissue characteristics, range of joint motion, and mitral leaflet excursion. Objective: To confirm whether adult women with MVP are more flexible and hypermobile than those without. Methods: Data from 125 women (mean age 50 years), 31 of them with MVP, were retrospectively analysed with regard to clinical and kinanthropometric aspects. Passive joint motion was evaluated in 20 body movements using Flexitest and three laxity tests. Flexitest individual movements (0 to 4) and overall Flexindex scores were obtained in all subjects by the same investigator. Results: Women with MVP were lighter, less endomorphic and mesomorphic, and more linear. The Flexindex was significantly higher in the women with MVP, both absolute (48 (1.6) v 41 (1.3); p<0.01) and centile for age (67 v 42; p<0.01) values. In 13 out of 20 movements, the Flexitest scores were significantly higher for the women with MVP. Signs of hyperlaxity were about five times more common in these women: 74% v 16% (p<0.01). Scores of 0 and 1 in elbow extension, absence of hyperlaxity, and a Flexindex centile below 65 were almost never found in women with MVP. Conclusion: Flexitest, alone or combined with hyperlaxity tests, may be useful in the assessment of adult women with MVP. PMID:16183767

  2. A Dynamic Heart System to Facilitate the Development of Mitral Valve Repair Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Bolotin, Gil; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The development of a novel surgical tool or technique for mitral valve repair can be hampered by cost, complexity, and time associated with performing animal trials. A dynamically pressurized model was developed to control pressure and flowrate profiles in intact porcine hearts in order to quantify mitral regurgitation and evaluate the quality of mitral valve repair. Methods A pulse duplication system was designed to replicate physiological conditions in explanted hearts. To test the capabilities of this system in measuring varying degrees of mitral regurgitation, the output of eight porcine hearts was measured for two different pressure waveforms before and after induced mitral valve failure. Four hearts were further repaired and tested. Measurements were compared with echocardiographic images. Results For all trials, cardiac output decreased as left ventricular pressure was increased. After induction of mitral valve insufficiencies, cardiac output decreased, with a peak regurgitant fraction of 71.8%. Echocardiography clearly showed increases in regurgitant severity from post-valve failure and with increased pressure. Conclusions The dynamic heart model consistently and reliably quantifies mitral regurgitation across a range of severities. Advantages include low experimental cost and time associated with each trial, while still allowing for surgical evaluations in an intact heart. PMID:19224369

  3. In Vitro System for Measuring Chordal Force Changes Following Mitral Valve Patch Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ostli, B; Vester-Petersen, J; Askov, JB; Honge, JL; Levine, RA; Hagège, A; Nielsen, SL; Hasenkam, JM; Nygaard, H; Jensen, MO

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention towards optimization of mitral valve repair methods is increasing. Patch augmentation is one strategy utilized to correct functional mitral regurgitation or systolic anterior motion in complex mitral valve repairs. This article describes a system for investigating the redistribution of chordae tendineae tension as a reflection of altered stress distribution of the valve leaflet following patch augmentation. Methods and materials An in vitro test setup was constructed to hold native porcine mitral valves containing an annulus and papillary muscle positioning system. The alterations caused by patch augmentation should be visual from both the atrial and ventricular views. Ventricular pressure was regulated stepwise in a range of 0-150 mmHg. To test the system, the anterior mitral leaflet was extended by a pericardial patch sutured to the mid/basal part of the leaflet, and the chordae tendineae force was measured as the ventricular pressure was applied. Results The system demonstrated the capacity to hold native porcine mitral valves and introducing patch repairs according to clinical practice. The porcine mitral valve test setup indicated strong correlation between the forces in the mitral valve secondary chordae tendineae and the applied transvalvular pressure (R2 = 0.95). Conclusion This test setup proved the ability to obtain normal mid-systolic mitral valve function, secondary chordae force measurements, and important preservation of the visual access: Hence, obtaining the pressure-force relationship as well as identifying any shift of the secondary chordae insertion point on the anterior leaflet relative to the coaptation zone was made possible. PMID:26273417

  4. Ventricular Reconstruction Results in Improved Left Ventricular Function and Amelioration of Mitral Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kaza, Aditya K.; Patel, Mayank R.; Fiser, Steven M.; Long, Stewart M.; Kern, John A.; Tribble, Curtis G.; Kron, Irving L.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Surgical restoration of the left ventricular wall (Dor procedure) has been advocated as a therapy for left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. This procedure involves placement of an endoventricular patch through a ventriculotomy. Methods We reviewed our series of patients that underwent the Dor procedure within the past 4 years and examined their pre and postoperative ventricular function and mitral valve function. Pre and postoperative ejection fraction and degree of mitral regurgitation were analyzed using the paired Student t-test. We hypothesized that this procedure would result in improved ventricular function and that it would also help improve mitral valve function. Results Thirty-four patients underwent this procedure, with one death. Of these, 30 patients underwent concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting and 8 patients had mitral intervention (seven had an Alfieri repair of the mitral valve, and one had mitral valve annuloplasty). The average preoperative ejection fraction among these patients was 26.8% (range 10–45%). The postoperative ejection fraction was significantly higher at 35.4% (range 25–52%) (P < .001). We noted an improvement in ejection fraction in 27 patients (82%). We also noted that 21 of 33 patients (64%) had improvement in the degree of mitral regurgitation based on echocardiography data (P < .001). Conclusions We conclude that the Dor procedure results in improvement in the left ventricular function. Furthermore, we also note that this procedure ameliorates mitral regurgitation in a majority of these patients even in the absence of associated mitral valve procedures, probably due to reduction in the size of the ventricle and improved orientation of the papillary muscles. PMID:12035039

  5. Depressed contractile function due to canine mitral regurgitation improves after correction of the volume overload.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, K; Swindle, M M; Spinale, F; Ishihara, K; Kanazawa, S; Smith, A; Biederman, R W; Clamp, L; Hamada, Y; Zile, M R

    1991-01-01

    It is known that long-standing volume overload on the left ventricle due to mitral regurgitation eventually leads to contractile dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether or not correction of the volume overload can lead to recovery of contractility. In this study we tested the hypothesis that depressed contractile function due to volume overload in mitral regurgitation could return toward normal after mitral valve replacement. Using a canine model of mitral regurgitation which is known to produce contractile dysfunction, we examined contractile function longitudinally in seven dogs at baseline, after 3 mo of mitral regurgitation, 1 mo after mitral valve replacement, and 3 mo after mitral valve replacement. After 3 mo of mitral regurgitation (regurgitant fraction 0.62 +/- 0.04), end-diastolic volume had nearly doubled from 68 +/- 6.8 to 123 +/- 12.1 ml (P less than 0.05). All five indices of contractile function which we examined were depressed. For instance, maximum fiber elastance (EmaxF) obtained by assessment of time-varying elastance decreased from 5.95 +/- 0.71 to 2.25 +/- 0.18 (P less than 0.05). The end-systolic stiffness constant (k) was also depressed from 4.2 +/- 0.4 to 2.1 +/- 0.3. 3 mo after mitral valve replacement all indexes of contractile function had returned to or toward normal (e.g., EmaxF 3.65 +/- 0.21 and k 4.2 +/- 0.3). We conclude that previously depressed contractile function due to volume overload can improve after correction of the overload. PMID:1828252

  6. Pulmonary venous flows reflect changes in left atrial hemodynamics during mitral balloon valvotomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yalcin, Fatih; El-Amrousy, Mahmoud; Muderrisoglu, Haldun; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Flachskampf, Frank; Tuzcu, Murat; Garcia, Mario G.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Patients with mitral stenosis have usually blunted pulmonary venous (PV) flow, because of decreased mitral valve area and diastolic dysfunction. The authors compared changes in Doppler PV velocities by using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) against hemodynamics parameters before and after mitral balloon valvotomy to observe relevance of PV velocities and endsystolic left atrial (LA) pressure-volume relationship. In 25 patients (aged 35 +/- 17 years) with mitral stenosis in sinus rhythm, changes in LA pressure and volumes were compared with PV velocities before and after valvotomy. Mitral valve area, mitral gradients, and deceleration time were obtained. Mitral valve area and mitral gradients changed from 1 +/- 0.2 cm2 and 14.6 +/- 5.4 mmHg to 1.9 +/- 0.3 cm2 and 6.3 +/- 1.7 mmHg, respectively (p<0.001). AR peak reverse flow velocity and AR duration decreased from 29 +/- 13 cm/s and 110 =/- 30 msec to 19 +/- 6 cm/s and 80 +/- 29 msec respectively (p<0.001). Transmitral Doppler E wave deceleration time decreased from 327 +/- 85 to 209 +/- 61 s and cardiac output increased from 4.2 +/- 1.0 to 5.2 +/- 1.1 L/minute (p<0.001). The changes in LA pressure were correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.57, p<0.05). The changes in endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship were also correlated with changes in S/D (r=0.52, p<0.05). Endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship decreased after mitral balloon valvotomy, as a result of a large decrease in pressure. PV systolic/diastolic (S/D) waves ratio reflects endsystolic LA pressure-volume relationship and may be used as another indicator of successful valvotomy.

  7. The Role of Stress Echocardiography in Valvular Heart Disease: A Current Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Gentry Iii, James L; Phelan, Dermot; Desai, Milind Y; Griffin, Brian P

    2017-04-11

    Stress echocardiography is a widely available, safe, low-cost, versatile imaging modality which is becoming increasingly recognized as a valuable tool in the assessment of patients with native and prosthetic left-sided valvular heart disease. It provides a quantitative assessment to help guide clinical decision-making when discordance exists between symptoms and severity of valve disease. Exercise (treadmill or bicycle) remains the preferred stress modality, but pharmacological augmentation with dobutamine can be used if needed. Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography is specifically valuable in patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis when attempting to differentiate true severe aortic stenosis from pseudo-severe aortic stenosis. Stress echocardiography not only identifies high-risk features that indicate need for earlier surgery, it also provides useful information for the peri- and postoperative period, including long-term outcome, risk stratification to guide monitoring frequency, and offers guidance for eligibility in competitive sports participation. As research continues to expand the utility of stress echocardiography in the management of patients with valvular heart disease, future research should focus on the recognition of newer parameters identifying high-risk features including subsequent validation in a large population.

  8. [Rivaroxaban at Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: a Prospective Study and Clinical Practice].

    PubMed

    Fonyakin, A V

    2016-08-01

    The article presents an analytical review of the results of post-registration clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) to prevent stroke and other systemic thromboembolic complications. The main purpose of the first large prospective international observational study of rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular AF patients XANTUS was the analysis of efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in clinical practice. Results of one year of observation of 6784 patients confirmed that rivaroxaban is effective and safe in real unselected population of patients with non-valvular AF and various stroke risk. The first Russian multicenter observational study Neuro-Xar dedicated to secondary prevention of stroke and systemic embolism, demonstrated the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in routine clinical practice. Lower risk of fatal intracranial and gastrointestinal bleeding was found in retrospective post-marketing studies, of rivaroxaban in the US, such as the PMSS and REVISIT-US. Rivaroxaban therapy was associated with reduced risk of the combined endpoint (ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage).

  9. Electrospun PGS: PCL Microfibers Align Human Valvular Interstitial Cells and Provide Tunable Scaffold Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Nafiseh; Larson, Benjamin L.; Annabi, Nasim; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Zamanian, Behnam; Shapero, Kayle S.; Cubberley, Alexander T.; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Manning, Keefe. B.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV) could be useful in the repair of congenital or acquired valvular diseases due to their potential for growth and remodeling. The development of biomimetic scaffolds is a major challenge in heart valve tissue engineering. One of the most important structural characteristics of mature heart valve leaflets is their intrinsic anisotropy, which is derived from the microstructure of aligned collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study, we used a directional electrospinning technique to fabricate fibrous poly-(glycerol sebacate):poly(caprolactone) (PGS:PCL) scaffolds containing aligned fibers, which resembled native heart valve leaflet ECM networks. In addition, the anisotropic mechanical characteristics of fabricated scaffolds were tuned by changing the ratio of PGS:PCL to mimic the native heart valve’s mechanical properties. Primary human valvular interstitial cells (VICs) attached and aligned along the anisotropic axes of all PGS:PCL scaffolds with various mechanical properties. The cells were also biochemically active in producing heart valve-associated collagen, vimentin, and smooth muscle actin as determined by gene expression. The fibrous PGS:PCL scaffolds seeded with human VICs mimicked the structure and mechanical properties of native valve leaflet tissues and would potentially be suitable for the replacement of heart valves in diverse patient populations. PMID:24453182

  10. Color flow imaging of the vena contracta in mitral regurgitation: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brad J; Grayburn, Paul A

    2003-09-01

    Qualitative grading of mitral regurgitation severity has significant pitfalls secondary to hemodynamic variables, sonographic technique, blood pool entrainment, and the Coanda effect. Volumetric and proximal isovelocity surface area methods can be used to quantitate regurgitant orifice area, regurgitant volume, and regurgitant fraction, but have several limitations and can pose technical challenges. The vena contracta width method provides a rapid and accurate quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitation severity, but is clinically underused. This article is intended to generate an understanding of the flow mechanics of the vena contracta and the sonographic technique required to provide consistent and accurate measurements of vena contracta width in patients with mitral regurgitation.

  11. [Large mitral annulus myxoma presenting with syncope: Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Vega, Julián; Gabrielli, Luigi; Olivares, Gabriel; Córdova, Samuel; Méndez, Manuel; González, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    We report a 23-year-old woman, with three recent exertional syncopes. Transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography found a large heterogeneous mass (38 x 35 mm) arising from the posterior mitral annulus, protruding in systole through the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). Heart MRI confirmed the echocardiography findings, suggesting a cardiac myxoma. Cardiac surgery accomplished the complete resection of the lesion, confirming a mass arising from the posterior mitral annulus and preserving mitral anatomy and function. Pathology was positive for a myxoma. Uneventful evolution allowed the discharge of the patient at the fifth postoperative day. Control TTE discarded any complication.

  12. A SECOND CASE OF LATE EMBOLIZATION OF PROSTHETIC MITRAL VALVE OCCLUDER WITH SURVIVAL FOLLOWING REOPERATION

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Adib H.; O'Hare, James E.; Schocket, Lee I.; Pinckley, James N.

    1975-01-01

    A 51-year-old male with acute fulminating pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock secondary to severe mitral insufficiency from dislodgment of the disc occluder in a Wada-Cutter valve was treated by immediate open heart procedure with a Bjork-Shiley mitral valve replacement. The patient survived and remains well. This is the second patient reported to survive operation and replacement of a malfunctioning prosthetic mitral valve from which the poppet escaped and embolized. The first case was reported by Hughes et al1 in February, 1975. Some striking similarities, as well as differences, in these two cases are discussed. Images PMID:15215920

  13. Late embolization of prosthetic mitral valve occluder with survival following reoperation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A; Leatherman, L L; Norman, J C; Cooley, D A

    1975-02-01

    Embolization of the occluder from a prosthetic mitral valve is an extremely rare event. Previous reports in the literature have described the uniformly fatal outcome of this complication. A case in which the occluder from a Wada-Cutter mitral prosthesis embolized five years following implantation is presented. The patient survived following emergency reoperation. Several unique features of escaped mitral poppet are discussed. Depending upon cardiac reserves, patients who have this complication may live long enough to allow emergency operative intervention and eventual recovery.

  14. A SECOND CASE OF LATE EMBOLIZATION OF PROSTHETIC MITRAL VALVE OCCLUDER WITH SURVIVAL FOLLOWING REOPERATION.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Adib H.; O'Hare, James E.; Schocket, Lee I.; Pinckley, James N.

    1975-01-01

    A 51-year-old male with acute fulminating pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock secondary to severe mitral insufficiency from dislodgment of the disc occluder in a Wada-Cutter valve was treated by immediate open heart procedure with a Bjork-Shiley mitral valve replacement. The patient survived and remains well. This is the second patient reported to survive operation and replacement of a malfunctioning prosthetic mitral valve from which the poppet escaped and embolized. The first case was reported by Hughes et al(1) in February, 1975. Some striking similarities, as well as differences, in these two cases are discussed.

  15. Initial experience of mitral valve replacement with total preservation of both valve leaflets.

    PubMed Central

    Dottori, V; Barberis, L; Lijoi, A; Giambuzzi, M; Maccario, M; Faveto, C

    1994-01-01

    We compared a series of 7 consecutive patients who underwent mitral valve replacement with preservation of both leaflets to a control group of 97 patients who underwent standard mitral valve replacement at our institution during the same period. Use of inotropic drugs and duration of postoperative intensive care were compared and shown to be markedly reduced in the study group; however, statistical analysis was not applied due to the small number of patients. Comparison of the available pre- and postoperative echocardiographic values showed a decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters in patients with preserved leaflets, particularly in those with mitral regurgitation of degenerative origin. PMID:8000269

  16. Acute Multiple Cerebral Infarction in a Patient with an Accessory Mitral Valve

    PubMed Central

    Misumi, Ikuo; Nagao, Asako; Iwamoto, Katsuya; Honda, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Masanobu; Ueyama, Hidetsugu; Maeda, Yasushi; Ishizaki, Masatoshi; Kurisaki, Ryoichi; Okazaki, Toshio; Yamashita, Tetsuji; Fujimoto, Akiko; Honda, Yumi

    2017-01-01

    A 96-year-old woman developed hemiparesis 2 weeks after orthopedic surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple cerebral infarctions in the bilateral hemisphere. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a mobile structure attached to the anterior mitral leaflet that protruded toward the left ventricular outflow tract. The structure was identified as an accessory mitral valve. Doppler echocardiography showed that there was no significant left ventricular outflow obstruction. This is a rare case of a silent accessory mitral valve that was detected after multiple cerebral infarctions. PMID:28090044

  17. Double-Orifice Mitral Valve in an Eight-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Segreto, Antonio; De Salvatore, Sergio; Chiusaroli, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Federico; Van Wyk, Cornelius; Congiu, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    The case is described of an eight-year-old boy who required an operation for moderate mitral regurgitation due to a double-orifice mitral valve (DOMV). The DOMV, which was clearly demonstrated by transthoracic echocardiography, had a central fibrous bridge. Mitral valve repair using a 5/0 Prolene suture placed at the level of the superior commissure of each hole to stabilize the valve, and ring annuloplasty with Edwards Physio ring, was successfully performed. Intraoperative real-time transesophageal echocardiography showed the repaired DOMV to be without regurgitation or stenosis.

  18. First Case of Streptococcus oligofermentans Endocarditis Determined Based on sodA Gene Sequences after Amplification Directly from Valvular Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Matta; Gousseff, Marie; Monsel, Fabien; Poyart, Claire; Diebold, Benoît; Podglajen, Isabelle; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    We report the first case of infection due to Streptococcus oligofermentans, which is a recently described oral Streptococcus species. It was responsible for the endocarditis and left forearm abscess of a 43-year-old woman. Identification was made using molecular techniques performed directly from valvular and surgical samples. PMID:19116351

  19. Dumb-bell in the heart: rare case of biatrial myxoma with mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Ananthanarayanan, Chandrasekaran; Bishnoi, Arvind Kumar; Ramani, Jayadip; Gandhi, Hemang

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac myxomas are rare intracardiac tumors, and the majority are benign myxomas involving the left atrium. We report a case of the very rare occurrence of biatrial myxoma associated with mitral regurgitation, which was successfully treated.

  20. Transesophageal Echocardiographic Diagnosis and Management of Circumflex Artery Injury Following Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Chinnamuthu; Raghu, Bheemaiah; Rao, Parachuri Venkateshwara

    2011-01-01

    A 16-year-old woman with severe mitral regurgitation as a result of rheumatic heart disease underwent mitral valve repair with posterior mitral annuloplasty. ST elevation was observed in leads II, III and aVF after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. On transesophageal echocardiography, the stenosis of the circumflex artery was suggested by a modified midesophageal long axis. Since the patient was hemodynamically unstable, an emergency coronary angiography could not be considered. An urgent cardiopulmonary bypass was re-instituted; the first two sutures in the P1 region of the posterior mitral annulus were translocated more superficially. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed good opening of the circumflex artery and improvement in regional wall motion abnormality following the corrected procedure.

  1. Functional tricuspid regurgitation in mitral valve disease: epidemiology and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Ani C; Adams, David H

    2010-01-01

    In this review we summarize the data on epidemiology and natural history of functional tricuspid valve regurgitation as it applies to surgery for mitral valve disease. Tricuspid regurgitation in the context of mitral valve disease is frequent and is associated with substantial reduction in survival and quality of life. In many patients, the correction of left-sided cardiac lesions does not lead to resolution of tricuspid regurgitation. Significant tricuspid regurgitation after mitral valve surgery portends a poor prognosis, a course that is often not altered by subsequent surgical therapy. Although a liberal approach to tricuspid annuloplasty is widely practiced, the evidence that this approach alters the natural history of functional tricuspid regurgitation is not yet available, so it is not certain how much of the negative impact of tricuspid regurgitation is causative, rather than confounding, and to what degree we will improve long-term outcomes of mitral valve surgery by liberal tricuspid annuloplasty.

  2. Designing innovative retractors and devices to facilitate mitral valve repair surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yozu, Ryohei

    2015-01-01

    Various devices have been developed to facilitate mitral valve surgery, including those that improve mitral valve exposure and assist surgeons with associated procedures. Choosing appropriate supporting devices when performing minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) through a minithoracotomy with endoscopic assistance is critical. Depending on the surgeon’s preference, trans-thoracic or trans-working-port left atrial retractors can be utilized. Although the trans-thoracic retractors provide a simple and orderly working space around the minithoracotomy working port, the positioning of the shaft is difficult and there is an implicit risk of chest wall bleeding. On the other hand, the trans-working-port type provides excellent exposure, is easily handled and manipulated, and facilitates surgeries involving various anatomical structures without special training. A great deal of understanding and knowledge about retractors is necessary to achieve the optimal exposure required to facilitate surgical techniques, and to maintain a reproducible and safe surgical system during mitral valve surgery. PMID:26309847

  3. Percutaneous implantation of CoreValve aortic prostheses in patients with a mechanical mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Giuseppe; De Marco, Federico; Oreglia, Jacopo; Colombo, Paola; Fratto, Pasquale; Lullo, Francesca; Paino, Roberto; Frigerio, Maria; Martinelli, Luigi; Klugmann, Silvio

    2009-11-01

    Concerns exist in the field of transcatheter aortic valve implantation regarding the treatment of patients with mechanical mitral valve for possible interference between the percutaneous aortic valve and the mechanical mitral prosthesis. We report our experience with percutaneous aortic valve implantation in 4 patients with severe aortic stenosis, previously operated on for mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. All patients underwent uneventful percutaneous retrograde CoreValve implantation (CoreValve Inc, Irvine, CA). No deformation of the nitinol tubing of the prostheses (ie, neither distortion nor malfunction of the mechanical valve in the mitral position) occurred in any of the patients. All patients are alive and asymptomatic at a mean follow-up of 171 days.

  4. Isolated parachute mitral valve in a 29 years old female; a case report

    PubMed Central

    Toufan, Mehrnoush; Mahmoudi, Seyed Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year old female patient was referred to our hospital for evaluation of dyspnea NYHA class I which begun from several months ago. The only abnormal sign found on physical examination was a grade 2/6 systolic murmur at the apex position without radiation. Echocardiography revealed normal left and right ventricular sizes and systolic function, and only one papillary muscle in left ventricular (LV) cavity which all chordae tendineae inserted into that muscle. The mitral valve orifice was eccentrically located at the lateral side with mild to moderate mitral regurgitation but without significant mitral stenosis. No other congenital heart anomalies were identified. Thus, the final diagnosis was isolated parachute mitral valve (IPMV). She was one of the very rare IPMV cases have ever been reported in adults PMID:27069567

  5. Designing innovative retractors and devices to facilitate mitral valve repair surgery.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Yozu, Ryohei

    2015-07-01

    Various devices have been developed to facilitate mitral valve surgery, including those that improve mitral valve exposure and assist surgeons with associated procedures. Choosing appropriate supporting devices when performing minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) through a minithoracotomy with endoscopic assistance is critical. Depending on the surgeon's preference, trans-thoracic or trans-working-port left atrial retractors can be utilized. Although the trans-thoracic retractors provide a simple and orderly working space around the minithoracotomy working port, the positioning of the shaft is difficult and there is an implicit risk of chest wall bleeding. On the other hand, the trans-working-port type provides excellent exposure, is easily handled and manipulated, and facilitates surgeries involving various anatomical structures without special training. A great deal of understanding and knowledge about retractors is necessary to achieve the optimal exposure required to facilitate surgical techniques, and to maintain a reproducible and safe surgical system during mitral valve surgery.

  6. [Deformity of the cardiac structures in patients with mitral valve prolapse: the relationship with flat chest].

    PubMed

    Sunami, Y; Shimura, A; Miyazawa, Y; Nishimoto, Y; Masuda, Y; Inagaki, Y

    1988-01-01

    In view of the close relationship of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and chest deformity, seven patients of MVP associated with flat chest were echocardiographically evaluated, and the results were compared with those of 43 normal control subjects, 29 cases with flat chest, and patients with MVP either of the anterior (25 cases) or posterior (21 cases) leaflet. MVP associated with flat chest was observed in the anterior leaflet in all cases. MVP was related to the dislocation of the two mitral leaflets caused by the displaced posterior mitral ring observed by two-dimensional echocardiography. The transition type was observed among the cases with or without dislocation of the mitral ring in cases with flat chest.

  7. Two-Year Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D.; Moskowitz, A.J.; Gelijns, A.C.; Ailawadi, G.; Parides, M.K.; Perrault, L.P.; Hung, J.W.; Voisine, P.; Dagenais, F.; Gillinov, A.M.; Thourani, V.; Argenziano, M.; Gammie, J.S.; Mack, M.; Demers, P.; Atluri, P.; Rose, E.A.; O’Sullivan, K.; Williams, D.L.; Bagiella, E.; Michler, R.E.; Weisel, R.D.; Miller, M.A.; Geller, N.L.; Taddei-Peters, W.C.; Smith, P.K.; Moquete, E.; Overbey, J.R.; Kron, I.L.; O’Gara, P.T.; Acker, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In a randomized trial comparing mitral-valve repair with mitral-valve replacement in patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, we found no significant difference in the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), survival, or adverse events at 1 year after surgery. However, patients in the repair group had significantly more recurrences of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation. We now report the 2-year out-comes of this trial. METHODS We randomly assigned 251 patients to mitral-valve repair or replacement. Patients were followed for 2 years, and clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were assessed. RESULTS Among surviving patients, the mean (±SD) 2-year LVESVI was 52.6±27.7 ml per square meter of body-surface area with mitral-valve repair and 60.6±39.0 ml per square meter with mitral-valve replacement (mean changes from baseline, −9.0 ml per square meter and −6.5 ml per square meter, respectively). Two-year mortality was 19.0% in the repair group and 23.2% in the replacement group (hazard ratio in the repair group, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.35; P = 0.39). The rank-based assessment of LVESVI at 2 years (incorporating deaths) showed no significant between-group difference (z score = −1.32, P = 0.19). The rate of recurrence of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation over 2 years was higher in the repair group than in the replacement group (58.8% vs. 3.8%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in rates of serious adverse events and overall readmissions, but patients in the repair group had more serious adverse events related to heart failure (P = 0.05) and cardiovascular readmissions (P = 0.01). On the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire, there was a trend toward greater improvement in the replacement group (P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS In patients undergoing mitral-valve repair or replacement for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, we observed no significant between

  8. Noninvasive diagnostic evaluation of the normal Beall mitral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Kerber, R E; Snyder, J W

    1976-01-01

    Phonocardiography and echocardiography were used to examine 20 patients with a normally functioning Beall disc mitral valve prosthesis. Phonocardiographic intervals were: Q-S1 interval 67 +/- 3 msec; A2-OC interval 118 +/- 8 msec. Maximal variation of the Q-S1 interval within one examination was 21 +/- 2 msec, for A2-OC interval it was 31 +/- 5 msec. Echocardiographic disc velocities were: opening velocity 296 +/- 30 mm/sec, closing velocity 414 +/- 44 mm/sec. Maximal variation of the opening velocity was 126 +/- 25 msec; maximal variation of the closing velocity was 334 +/- 57 msec. Abnormal poppet function was suspected in one patient with unusual prolongation and variability of A2-OC interval.

  9. Congenital isolated cleft mitral valve leaflet and apical muscular ventricular septal defect in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Depenbrock, Sarah M; Visser, Lance C; Kohnken, Rebecca A; Russell, Duncan S; Simpson, Katharine M; Bonagura, John D

    2015-09-01

    A 5-week-old Holstein heifer calf presented for emergency treatment of signs referable to gastrointestinal disease and hypovolemic shock. Fluid resuscitation uncovered clinical signs of primary cardiac disease and echocardiography revealed multiple congenital cardiac defects. Malformations included a cleft anterior mitral valve leaflet resembling an isolated cleft mitral valve and an apically-located muscular ventricular septal defect. The echocardiographic and postmortem findings associated with these defects are presented and discussed in this report.

  10. Assessing functional mitral regurgitation with exercise echocardiography: rationale and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Secondary or functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) represents an increasing feature of mitral valve disease characterized by abnormal function of anatomically normal leaflets in the context of the impaired function of remodelled left ventricles. The anatomic and pathophysiological basis of FMR are briefly analyzed; in addition, the role of exercise echocardiography for the assessment of FMR is discussed in view of its relevance to clinical practice. PMID:20003417

  11. Clinical and necropsy observations early after simultaneous replacement of the mitral and aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W C; Sullivan, M F

    1986-11-15

    Clinical and necropsy findings are described in 54 patients, aged 25 to 83 years (mean 53), who died within 60 days of simultaneous replacements of both mitral and aortic valves. The patients were separated into 4 groups on the basis of the presence of stenosis (with or without associated regurgitation) or pure regurgitation of each valve: 30 patients (56%) had combined mitral and aortic valve stenosis; 12 patients (22%) had mitral stenosis and pure aortic regurgitation; 8 patients (15%) had pure regurgitation of both valves; and 4 patients (7%) had pure aortic regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Necropsy examination in the 54 patients disclosed a high frequency (48%) of anatomic evidence of interference to poppet or disc movement in either the mitral or aortic valve position or both. Anatomic evidence of interference to movement of a poppet or disc in the aortic valve position was twice as common as anatomic evidence of interference to poppet or disc movement in the mitral position. Interference to poppet movement is attributable to the prosthesis's being too large for the ascending aorta or left ventricular cavity in which it resided. The ascending aorta is infrequently enlarged in patients with combined mitral and aortic valve dysfunction irrespective of whether the aortic valve is stenotic or purely regurgitant. Likewise, the left ventricular cavity is usually not dilated in patients with combined mitral and aortic valve stenosis, the most common indication for replacement of both left-sided cardiac valves. Of the 54 patients, 12 (22%) had 1 mechanical and 1 bioprosthesis inserted. It is recommended that both substitute valves should be mechanical prostheses or both should be bioprostheses.

  12. Strut fracture in the new Bjørk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Brubakk, O; Simonsen, S; Källman, L; Fredriksen, A

    1981-04-01

    The case of a patient with the new type Bjørk-Shiley aortic and mitral valve prosthesis is described. Three months after implant she suffered acute heart failure and died. Post-mortem examination revealed a fractured outlet strut in the mitral valve prosthesis with dislocation of the disc. The fracture was regarded as due to excessive brittleness caused by demonstrated deposition of chromium-tungsten-carbide.

  13. [Intracardiac mass: Why not a liquefaction necrosis of a mitral annulus calcification?].

    PubMed

    Leddet, P; Couppié, P; De Poli, F; Uhry, S; Hanssen, M

    2015-11-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic 70-year-old woman with a liquefaction necrosis of mitral annulus calcification. This mass was discovered incidentally during an echocardiographic examination. Additional treatment was not performed because liquefaction necrosis of mitral calcification usually has a benign prognosic. A scheduled clinical review with an echocardiographic examination and cardiac MRI was planified. The patient is actually healthy without any complication.

  14. FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION MODELS OF THE MITRAL VALVE: FUNCTION IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGIC STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzelman, K. S.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Cochran, R. P.

    2007-08-29

    Successful mitral valve repair is dependent upon a full understanding of normal and abnormal mitral valve anatomy and function. Computational analysis is one such method that can be applied to simulate mitral valve function in order to analyze the roles of individual components, and evaluate proposed surgical repair. We developed the first three-dimensional, finite element (FE) computer model of the mitral valve including leaflets and chordae tendineae, however, one critical aspect that has been missing until the last few years was the evaluation of fluid flow, as coupled to the function of the mitral valve structure. We present here our latest results for normal function and specific pathologic changes using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. Normal valve function was first assessed, followed by pathologic material changes in collagen fiber volume fraction, fiber stiffness, fiber splay, and isotropic stiffness. Leaflet and chordal stress and strain, and papillary muscle force was determined. In addition, transmitral flow, time to leaflet closure, and heart valve sound were assessed. Model predictions in the normal state agreed well with a wide range of available in-vivo and in-vitro data. Further, pathologic material changes that preserved the anisotropy of the valve leaflets were found to preserve valve function. By contrast, material changes that altered the anisotropy of the valve were found to profoundly alter valve function. The addition of blood flow and an experimentally driven microstructural description of mitral tissue represent significant advances in computational studies of the mitral valve, which allow further insight to be gained. This work is another building block in the foundation of a computational framework to aid in the refinement and development of a truly noninvasive diagnostic evaluation of the mitral valve. Ultimately, it represents the basis for simulation of surgical repair of pathologic valves in a clinical and educational

  15. [Ventricular and myocardial function in mitral regurgitation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dübbers, H W; Neuhaus, K L; Spiller, P; Tebbe, U

    1979-07-01

    Left ventricular and myocardial performance were analyzed in 9 patients with chronic volume overload by mitral regurgitation from biplane cineventriculograms, simultaneous pressure recordings and cardiac output (thermodilution method) determinations. In spite of a considerable regurgitant fraction (49 +/- 17% of total stroke volume) cardiac index on the average is normal (CI = 3.3 +/- 0.7 l . min-1). The main compensatory mechanism to maintain cardiac ouput in hypertorphy (WED = 1.1 +/- 0.2 cm; LVMI = 216 +/- 62 g . m-2; LVMI/EDVI = 1.3 +/- 0.3 g . ml-1) and dilatation (EDVI = 163 +/- 37 ml . m-2). An increase of preload is of minor importance (PLVED = 15 +/- 7 mmHg; sigma ED = (40 +/- 19) x 10(3) dyn . cm-2). Left ventricular enlargement and wall mass are related to the degree of clinical heart failure (NYHA). Enddiastolic volume on the average is more increased than total stroke volume (89 +/- 31 ml . m-2). Ejection fraction (EF = 54 +/- 7%) was depressed despite a normal afterload (sigma tej = (171 +/- 37 x 10(3) dyn. cm-2; sigma max = (247 +/- 48 x 10(3) dyn . cm-2). The reduced ejection fraction and diminished myocardial power are related to an impairment of myocardial function (VMW . sigma tej = (83 +/- 39) x 10(3) dyn . cm-2 . s-1; VMW . sigma tej/ln sigma ED = 7.9 +/- 3.6 x 10(3) dyn . cm-2 . s-1). In comparable degrees of heart failure myocardial function is more compromised in patients with mitral than with aortic regurgitation.

  16. Robotic mitral valve repair for degenerative posterior leaflet prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Javadikasgari, Hoda; Suri, Rakesh M.; Tappuni, Bassman; Lowry, Ashley M.; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Mick, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Background Robotic mitral valve (MV) repair is the least invasive surgical approach to the MV and provides unparalleled access to the valve. We sought to assess technical aspects and clinical outcomes of robotic MV repair for isolated posterior leaflet prolapse by examining the first 623 such cases performed in a tertiary care center. Methods We reviewed the first 623 patients (mean age 56±9.7 years) with isolated posterior leaflet prolapse who underwent robotic primary MV repair from 01/2006 to 11/2013. All procedures were performed via right chest access with femoral perfusion for cardiopulmonary bypass. Results MV repair was attempted in all patients; 622 (99.8%) underwent MV repair and only 1 (0.2%) converted to replacement. After an initial attempt at robotic MV repair, 8 (1.3%) patients were converted to sternotomy as a result of management of residual mitral regurgitation (n=3), bleeding (n=1), difficulties with surgical exposure (n=2), aortic valve injury (n=1), and aortic dissection (n=1). Intraoperative post-repair echocardiography confirmed that all patients left the operating room with MR graded as mild or less, and pre-discharge echocardiography confirmed mild or less MR in 573 (99.1%). There was no hospital death, sternal wound infection, or renal failure. Seven (1.1%) patients suffered a stroke, 11 (1.8%) patients underwent re-exploration for bleeding, and 111 (19%) experienced new-onset atrial fibrillation. The mean intensive care unit length of stay and hospital length of stay were 29±17 hours and 4.6±1.6 days, respectively. Conclusions At a large tertiary care referral center, robotic MV repair for posterior prolapse is associated with zero mortality, infrequent operative morbidity, and near 100% successful repair. The combination of a patient selection algorithm and increased experience improved clinical outcomes and procedural efficiency. PMID:28203538

  17. Mitral valve repair for active culture positive infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Doukas, G; Oc, M; Alexiou, C; Sosnowski, A W; Samani, N J; Spyt, T J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical and echocardiographic outcome after mitral valve (MV) repair for active culture positive infective MV endocarditis. Patients and methods Between 1996 and 2004, 36 patients (mean (SD) age 53 (18) years) with positive blood culture up to three weeks before surgery (or positive culture of material removed at operation) and intraoperative evidence of endocarditis underwent MV repair. Staphylococci and streptococci were the most common pathogens. All patients had moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was 2.3 (1.0). Follow up was complete (mean 38 (19) months). Results Operative mortality was 2.8% (one patient). At follow up, endocarditis has not recurred. One patient developed severe recurrent MR and underwent valve replacement and one patient had moderate MR. There were two late deaths, both non‐cardiac. Kaplan‐Meier five year freedom from recurrent moderate to severe MR, freedom from repeat operation, and survival were 94 (4)%, 97 (3)%, and 93 (5)%, respectively. At the most recent review the mean NYHA class was 1.17 (0.3) (p < 0.0001). At the latest echocardiographic evaluation, left atrial diameters, left ventricular end diastolic diameter, and MV diameter were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with preoperative values. Conclusions MV repair for active culture positive endocarditis is associated with low operative mortality and provides satisfactory freedom from recurrent infection, freedom from repeat operation, and survival. Hence, every effort should be made to repair infected MVs and valves should be replaced only when repair is not possible. PMID:15951395

  18. Myocardial deformation and rotational profiles in mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Zito, Concetta; Carerj, Scipione; Todaro, Maria Chiara; Cusmà-Piccione, Maurizio; Caprino, Alessandra; Di Bella, Gianluca; Oreto, Lilia; Oreto, Giuseppe; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2013-10-01

    We studied whether evaluation of overall left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) mechanics would be useful to detect subclinical dysfunction in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP), mitral regurgitation (MR), and normal LV ejection fraction (EF). Fifty consecutive patients (27 men, mean age 61 ± 19 years) with MVP, MR, and normal systolic function (LVEF ≥60%) were prospectively enrolled and compared with 40 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (22 men, mean age: 59 ± 16 years). At baseline, 2-dimensional and color-flow Doppler transthoracic echocardiography were performed for MR quantification and analysis of left-chambers mechanics. Patients were divided into groups by severity of MR: mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 19), and severe (n = 17). Left ventricular dimensions, volume and mass, and LA area and volume indices were significantly increased in patients with moderate and severe MR compared with control subjects. Circumferential strain, basal/apical rotations, and twist were significantly enhanced in patients with moderate MR compared with controls; with the exception of basal rotation, they decreased in those with severe MR. Furthermore, LA strain and untwisting rate were progressively and significantly reduced from normal subjects to patients with severe MR. Effective regurgitant orifice area and MR vena contracta were significantly related to most systolic and diastolic function parameters and LA volume as well as LA strain and LV untwisting rate in all patients. In conclusion, cardiac mechanics indices, particularly LA deformation and LV rotational parameters, could help unmask incipient myocardial dysfunction in patients with MVP, especially in those with severe MR and yet normal LVEF.

  19. An uncommon case of isolated parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve in an adult.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yasuhide; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Fukuda, Yuko; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2014-09-01

    A 31-year-old asymptomatic male was referred to hospital for an examination of right bundle brunch block. Both, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed normal left ventricular function, and two different-sized papillary muscles; the anterolateral muscle was more pronounced, with almost major chordae tendineae inserted into this dominant muscle, whereas the immature, flat posteromedial papillary muscle had very short chordae tendineae and was located higher in the left ventricle, inserted directly into the mitral annulus. The mitral valve orifice was eccentrically located at the lateral side, but no significant mitral stenosis or regurgitation was observed. No other congenital heart anomalies were identified. Thus, the final diagnosis was isolated parachute-like asymmetric mitral valve (PLAMV), without any other congenital heart anomalies. The patient was followed up closely with periodic echocardiographic examinations. Parachute mitral valve is a rare congenital cardiac defect characterized by focalized attachment of the chordae tendineae of both leaflets to a single papillary muscle. In contrast to true parachute mitral valve, PLAMV has two separate papillary muscles, one of which is more pronounced and into which all chordae are inserted. PLAMV was highly associated with other congenital heart anomalies, and the involved dominant muscle was most frequently a posteromedial papillary muscle. Isolated PLAMV in an adult is even more rare, while the presence of an immature posteromedial papillary muscle--as in the present case--is extremely rare.

  20. Implications of late morphology of Braunwald-Cutter mitral heart valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Schoen, F J; Goodenough, S H; Ionescu, M I; Braunwald, N S

    1984-08-01

    Interrelationships among silicone poppet wear, cloth wear, and tissue ingrowth were investigated in 14 retrieved Braunwald-Cutter heart valve prostheses following implantation of 37 to 118 (mean 83) months. Six aortic valves (mean 81 months) had severe cloth and poppet wear. In three the poppet had escaped. The lesser wear of the strut covering on the eight mitral valves (mean 84, range 37 to 108 months) was generally functionally insignificant. Mean decrease in mitral poppet diameter was 0.4% (range 0% to 1.5%), in contrast to a mean of 5.8% for aortic poppets. Histologic examination of the cloth/tissue complex demonstrated well-collagenized tissue ingrowth in areas of intact fabric with focal endothelial lining. Functionally trivial calcific deposits were often noted deep in the tissue coating, adjacent to cloth fibers or the strut metal. These results suggest that the mitral Braunwald-Cutter prosthesis need not be electively replaced without specific indication. A model is presented which explains the favorable clinical course demonstrated for mitral recipients and provides a rationale for the disparate clinicopathological behavior of mitral and aortic Braunwald-Cutter prostheses. Although inconsequential in this setting, the focal microcalcification noted in all mitral prostheses implanted for more than 72 months may have implications for the development of clinical cardiac assist devices for long-term application.

  1. Intraoperative measurements on the mitral apparatus using optical tracking: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Sandy; De Simone, Raffaele; Wald, Diana; Zimmermann, Norbert; Al Maisary, Sameer; Beller, Carsten J.; Karck, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2014-03-01

    Mitral valve reconstruction is a widespread surgical method to repair incompetent mitral valves. During reconstructive surgery the judgement of mitral valve geometry and subvalvular apparatus is mandatory in order to choose for the appropriate repair strategy. To date, intraoperative analysis of mitral valve is merely based on visual assessment and inaccurate sizer devices, which do not allow for any accurate and standardized measurement of the complex three-dimensional anatomy. We propose a new intraoperative computer-assisted method for mitral valve measurements using a pointing instrument together with an optical tracking system. Sixteen anatomical points were defined on the mitral apparatus. The feasibility and the reproducibility of the measurements have been tested on a rapid prototyping (RP) heart model and a freshly exercised porcine heart. Four heart surgeons repeated the measurements three times on each heart. Morphologically important distances between the measured points are calculated. We achieved an interexpert variability mean of 2.28 +/- 1:13 mm for the 3D-printed heart and 2.45 +/- 0:75 mm for the porcine heart. The overall time to perform a complete measurement is 1-2 minutes, which makes the method viable for virtual annuloplasty during an intervention.

  2. Mitral Annular Systolic Velocities Predict Left Ventricular Wall Motion Abnormality During Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Dawod; Sharif-Rasslan, Amal; Shahla, Camilia

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal systolic left ventricular contraction is complementary to the radial performance and can be assessed using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). This study was performed to evaluate the contribution of mitral annular systolic velocities using TDI after dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Methods and Results Fifty subjects with suspected coronary artery disease and chest pain were examined, using DSE as usual, as well as TDI imaging of the mitral annulus at the septal, lateral, inferior, anterior, posterior regions and the proximal anteroseptal region from the apical views, before and immediately after DSE. In 24 subjects the study was normal, while wall motion abnormality was seen in 26, 9 of them only after DSE. Mitral annular systolic velocity at the 6 locations increased significantly after DSE both in normal subjects and in those with wall motion abnormality (WMA). After DSE mitral annular septal systolic velocity in normals, 19.2 ± 3.8 cm/sec, was higher than in those with WMA, 14.6 ± 2.5 cm/sec, P < 0.0003. Post-DSE mitral systolic velocity was senstive and accurate in predicting WMA. Conclusions Systolic mitral TDI velocities increase after DSE, however to a lesser extent in those with wall motion abnormality, and can differentiate them from normal subjects.

  3. Ross-Kabbani Operation in an Infant with Mitral Valve Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Napoleone, Carlo Pace; Oppido, Guido; Angeli, Emanuela; Giardini, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Gaetano

    2009-01-01

    Background. Mitral valve replacement can be very difficult to obtain in infants because the valve annulus diameter can be smaller than the available prosthesis. Case Report. We describe the case of a 2-month-old female weighing 3.5 kg affected by mitral valve dysplasia leading to severe valve stenosis. Despite full medication, the clinical conditions were critical and surgery was undertaken. The mitral valve was unsuitable for repair and the orifice of mitral anulus was 12 mm, too small for a mechanical prosthesis. Therefore, a Ross-Kabbani operation was undertaken, replacing the mitral valve with the pulmonary autograft and reconstructing the right ventricular outflow tract with an etherograft. Results. The postoperative course was uneventful and the clinical conditions are good at 4-month follow-up. Conclusion. The Ross-Kabbani operation can be an interesting alternative to mitral valve replacement in infants when valve repair is not achievable and there is little space for an intra-annular mechanical prosthesis implant. PMID:20049318

  4. Quantitation of mitral regurgitation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Eric V; Lee, James; Branch, Kelley R; Hamilton-Craig, Christian

    2016-12-01

    In this review discuss the application of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to the evaluation and quantification of mitral regurgitation and provide a systematic literature review for comparisons with echocardiography. Using the 2015 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, we searched Medline and PubMed for original research articles published since 2000 that provided data on the quantification of mitral regurgitation by CMR. We identified 220 articles of which 33 were included. Four main techniques of mitral regurgitation quantification were identified. Reproducibility varied substantially between papers but was high overall for all techniques. However, quantification differed between the techniques studied. When compared with two-dimensional echocardiography, mitral regurgitation fraction and regurgitant volume measured by CMR were comparable but typically lower. CMR has high reproducibility for the quantification of mitral regurgitation in experienced centres, but further technological refinement is needed. An integrated and standardised approach that combines multiple techniques is recommended for optimal reproducibility and precise mitral regurgitation quantification. Definitive outcome studies using CMR as a basis for treatment are lacking but needed.

  5. Role of Computational Simulations in Heart Valve Dynamics and Design of Valvular Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Krishnan B.

    2010-01-01

    Computational simulations are playing an increasingly important role in enhancing our understanding of the normal human physiological function, etiology of diseased states, surgical and interventional planning, and in the design and evaluation of artificial implants. Researchers are taking advantage of computational simulations to speed up the initial design of implantable devices before a prototype is developed and hence able to reduce animal experimentation for the functional evaluation of the devices under development. A review of the reported studies to date relevant to the simulation of the native and prosthetic heart valve dynamics is the subject of the present paper. Potential future directions toward multi-scale simulation studies for our further understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of heart valve dynamics and valvular implants are also discussed. PMID:20606715

  6. Trials of Novel Oral Anticoagulants for Stroke Prevention In Patients with Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Jonathan L; Dorian, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) face an increased risk of stroke compared with those in normal sinus rhythm. The vitamin K antagonist warfarin, available for over half a century, is highly effective in reducing the risk of stroke in patients with AF, but it is a difficult drug to use properly. As a result, it is challenging to keep the anticoagulant effect of warfarin in the desired range. Newer oral anticoagulants (NOACs) that directly inhibit Factor IIa (thrombin) or Factor Xa provide reliable anticoagulation when administer in fixed oral doses without routine coagulation monitoring. This manuscript will review in detail the pivotal trials of these NOACs that led to their approval as well as comment on the factors that should influence their selection. PMID:24821657

  7. CC-chemokine receptor 7 and its ligand CCL19 promote mitral valve interstitial cell migration and repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhi; Wang, Liang; Miao, Liping; Zhao, Rong; Wu, Yanhu; Kong, Xiangqing

    2015-11-01

    The effect of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and CC-chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) on rheumatic mitral stenosis is unknown. This study aimed to explore the roles of CCR7 and CCL19 in rheumatic mitral stenosis by measuring the expression of CCR7 and CCL19 in human mitral valves from rheumatic mitral stenosis patients. Additionally, we examined their effects on human mitral valve interstitial cells (hMVICs) proliferation, apoptosis and wound repair. CCR7 and CCL19 expression was measured in the mitral valves from rheumatic mitral stenosis patients (n = 10) and compared to normal mitral valves (n = 5). CCR7 was measured in cultured hMVICs from rheumatic mitral stenosis patients and normal donors by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The cells were also treated with exogenous CCL19, and the effects on wound healing, proliferation and apoptosis were assayed. In the rheumatic mitral valves, valve interstitial cells expressed CCR7, while mononuclear cells and the endothelium expressed CCL19. Healthy mitral valves did not stain positive for CCR7 or CCL19. CCR7 was also detected in cultured rheumatic hMVICs or in normal hMVICs treated with CCL19. In a wound healing experiment, wound closure rates of both rheumatic and normal hMVICs were significantly accelerated by CCL19. These effects were abrogated by a CCR7 neutralizing antibody. The CCR7/CCL19 axis did not influence the proliferation or apoptosis of hMVICs, indicating that wound healing was due to increased migration rates rather than increased proliferation. In conclusion, CCR7 and CCL19 were expressed in rheumatic mitral valves. The CCR7/CCL19 axis may regulate remodeling of rheumatic valve injury through promoting migratory ability of hMVICs.

  8. R-R interval variations influence the degree of mitral regurgitation in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Reimann, M J; Møller, J E; Häggström, J; Markussen, B; Holen, A E W; Falk, T; Olsen, L H

    2014-03-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) due to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is a frequent finding in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs). Sinus arrhythmia and atrial premature complexes leading to R-R interval variations occur in dogs. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the duration of the R-R interval immediately influences the degree of MR assessed by echocardiography in dogs. Clinical examination including echocardiography was performed in 103 privately-owned dogs: 16 control Beagles, 70 CKCSs with different degree of MR and 17 dogs of different breeds with clinical signs of congestive heart failure due to MMVD. The severity of MR was evaluated in apical four-chamber view using colour Doppler flow mapping (maximum % of the left atrium area) and colour Doppler M-mode (duration in ms). The influence of the ratio between present and preceding R-R interval on MR severity was evaluated in 10 consecutive R-R intervals using a linear mixed model for repeated measurements. MR severity was increased when a short R-R interval was followed by a long R-R interval in CKCSs with different degrees of MR (P<0.005 when adjusted for multiple testing). The relationship was not significant in control dogs with minimal MR and in dogs with severe MR and clinical signs of heart failure. In conclusion, MR severity increases in long R-R intervals when these follow a short R-R interval in CKCSs with different degrees of MR due to asymptomatic MMVD. Thus, R-R interval variations may affect the echocardiographic grading of MR in CKCSs.

  9. Myectomy as an alternative solution for systolic anterior motion in a patient who underwent mitral valve repair.

    PubMed

    Domoto, Satoru; Morita, Kozo; Koike, Hiroyuki; Iguchi, Atsushi; Uwabe, Kazuhiko; Niinami, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral apparatus is a relatively frequent complication of mitral valve repair. When significant SAM persists despite intraoperative medical therapies, a second repair is generally required. We describe a rare case of SAM due to a hypertrophic septum in a patient who underwent mitral valve repair, with no preoperative obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. The present case of SAM was successfully treated only with transaortic septal myectomy. Therefore, myectomy might be considered as an alternative solution for SAM that is suspected to be caused by a hypertrophic septum after mitral valve repair.

  10. Ecocardiografía tridimensional. Nuevas perspectivas sobre la caracterización de la válvula mitral

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jorge; Sitges, Marta; Levine, Robert A.; Hung, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in three-dimensional echocardiography have made it possible to obtain images in real time, without the need for off-line reconstruction. These developments have enabled the technique to become an important tool for both research and daily clinical practice. A substantial proportion of the studies carried out using three-dimensional echocardiography have focused on the mitral valve, the pathophysiology of mitral valve disease and, in particular, functional mitral regurgitation. The aims of this article were to review the contribution of three-dimensional echocardiography to understanding of the functional anatomy of the mitral valve and to summarize the resulting clinical applications and therapeutic implications. PMID:19232192

  11. Revascularization alone or combined with suture annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation. Evaluation by color Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Czer, L S; Maurer, G; Bolger, A F; DeRobertis, M; Chaux, A; Matloff, J M

    1996-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of revascularization alone or combined with mitral valve repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation, we performed color Doppler echocardiography intraoperatively before and after cardiopulmonary bypass in 49 patients (mean age, 70 +/- 9 years) with concomitant mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease (triple vessel or left main in 88%; prior infarction in 90%). After revascularization alone (n = 25), the mitral annulus diameter (2.88 +/- 0.44 cm vs 2.88 +/- 0.44 cm), leaflet-to-annulus ratio (1.44 +/- 0.30 vs 1.44 +/- 0.29), and mitral regurgitation grade (1.7 +/- 0.9 vs 1.8 +/- 0.7) remained unchanged (p = NS, postpump vs prepump); mitral regurgitation decreased by 2 grades in only 1 patient (4%). After combined revascularization and mitral valve suture annuloplasty (Kay-Zubiate; n = 24), the annulus diameter decreased (to 2.57 +/- 0.45 cm from 3.11 +/- 0.43 cm), the leaflet-to-annulus ratio increased (to 1.46 +/- 0.25 from 1.20 +/- 0.21), and the mitral regurgitation grade decreased significantly (to 0.9 +/- 0.9 from 2.8 +/- 1.0) (p < 0.01); mitral regurgitation decreased by 2 grades or more (successful repair) in 75%. The origin of the jet correlated with the site of prior infarction (p < 0.05), being inferior in cases of posterior or inferior infarction (67%), and central or broad in cases of combined anterior and inferior infarction (70%). Despite a slightly higher 30-day mortality in the repair group (p = 0.10), there was no significant difference in survival between the 2 surgical groups at 5 years or 8 years. Therefore, in this study of patients with mitral regurgitation and coronary artery disease, reduction in regurgitation grade with revascularization alone was infrequent. Concomitant suture annuloplasty significantly reduced regurgitation by reestablishing a more normal relationship between the leaflet and annulus sizes. The failure rate after suture annuloplasty was 25%; alternative repair techniques such as ring

  12. Chronic Atrial Fibrillation Ablation with Harmonic Scalpel during Mitral Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brick, Alexandre Visconti; Braile, Domingo M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate surgical treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation with ultrasound in patients with mitral valve disease, considering preoperative clinical characteristics of patients undergoing surgical procedure and follow-up in the immediate postoperative period, in hospital and up to 60 months after discharge. Methods We studied 100 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and mitral valve disease who underwent surgical treatment using ultrasound ablation. Patient data were reviewed by consulting the control reports, including signs and symptoms, underlying disease, functional class, hospital stay, surgical procedure time, ablation time, immediate complications, and complications at discharged and up to 60 months later. Actuarial curve (Kaplan-Meier) was used for the study of permanence without recurrence after 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months. Results 86% of the patients had rheumatic mitral valve disease, 14% had degeneration of the mitral valve, 40% had mitral regurgitation, and 36% had mitral stenosis. Main symptoms included palpitations related to tachycardia by chronic atrial fibrillation (70%), congestive heart failure (70%), and previous episodes of acute pulmonary edema (27%). Early results showed that 94% of the patients undergoing ultrasound ablation reversed the rate of chronic atrial fibrillation, 86% being in sinus rhythm and 8% in atrioventricular block. At hospital discharge, maintenance of sinus rhythm was observed in 86% of patients and there was recurrence of chronic atrial fibrillation in 8% of patients. At follow-up after 60 months, 83.8% of patients maintained the sinus rhythm. Conclusion Surgical treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation with ultrasound concomitant with mitral valve surgery is feasible and satisfactory, with maintenance of sinus rhythm in most patients (83.8%) after 60 months of follow-up.

  13. The relief of mitral stenosis. An historic step in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M N

    1996-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in cardiac surgery in the last 50 years. Mitral valve surgery (especially for the relief of mitral stenosis) has paralleled the innovations and trends of cardiac surgery and often has served as the benchmark of the latest procedures and techniques. A chronological survey of mitral valve surgery is presented, with emphasis on parallels to cardiac surgery in general and with highlights of key figures and events that have conclusively altered the surgeon's approach to and success with cardiac dysfunction. A few surgeons promulgated the idea of cardiac surgery in the late 19th century, but mitral valve surgeries were not performed in earnest until Souttar's and Cutler's initial attempts in the 1920s and were not successful on large groups of patients until Bailey and Harken made independent breakthroughs in the 1940s, finally laying to rest the idea of the "inviolable heart." Cardiopulmonary bypass provided cardiac surgeons with the time to implant mechanical and bioprosthetic valves for palliative benefit to patients. The "perfect" valve has yet to be found, but the Starr-Edwards mechanical valve since its inception in 1961 has been one of the most successful and widely used prosthetic valves. Gradual improvement in surgical technique and growing knowledge of valve function enabled the re-emergence of mitral valve repair in the 1980s as the preferred surgical method of treating mitral stenosis. In the last 10 years, mitral valve balloon dilation has provided a nonsurgical technique for relief of stenosis and represents the broader trend towards interventional techniques. Images PMID:8969024

  14. Stabilized Collagen and Elastin-Based Scaffolds for Mitral Valve Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Deborde, Christopher; Simionescu, Dan Teodor; Wright, Cristopher; Liao, Jun; Sierad, Leslie Neil; Simionescu, Agneta

    2016-11-01

    There is a significant clinical need for new approaches to treatment of mitral valve disease. The aim of this study was to develop a tissue-engineered mitral valve scaffold possessing appropriate composition and structure to ensure ideal characteristics of mitral valves, such as large orifice, rapid opening and closure, maintenance of mitral annulus-papillary muscle continuity, in vivo biocompatibility and extended durability. An extracellular matrix-based scaffold was generated, based on the native porcine mitral valve as starting material and a technique for porcine cell removal without causing damage to the matrix components. To stabilize these structures and slow down their degradation, acellular scaffolds were treated with penta-galloyl glucose (PGG), a well-characterized polyphenol with high affinity for collagen and elastin. Biaxial mechanical testing presented similar characteristics for the PGG-treated scaffolds compared to fresh tissues. The extracellular matrix components, crucial for maintaining the valve shape and function, were well preserved in leaflets, and in chordae, as shown by their resistance to collagenase and elastin. When extracted with strong detergents, the PGG-treated scaffolds released a reduced amount of soluble matrix peptides, compared to untreated scaffolds; this correlated with diminished activation of fibroblasts seeded on scaffolds treated with PGG. Cell-seeded scaffolds conditioned for 5 weeks in a valve bioreactor showed good cell viability. Finally, rat subdermal implantation studies showed that PGG-treated mitral valve scaffolds were biocompatible, nonimmunogenic, noninflammatory, and noncalcifying. In conclusion, a biocompatible mitral valve scaffold was developed, which preserved the biochemical composition and structural integrity of the valve, essential for its highly dynamic mechanical demands, and its biologic durability.

  15. Mitral valve surgery in a patient with dextrocardia and 180° counter-clockwise rotated heart due to congenital agenesis of the right lung.

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Yosuke; Tokunaga, Shigehiko; Yasuda, Shota; Fushimi, Kenichi; Masuda, Munetaka

    2013-11-01

    We report a case of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with dextrocardia and 180° counterclockwise rotated situs solitus heart. We describe the technique for mitral valve surgery in a patient with dextrocardia and agenesis of the right lung.

  16. ANA-Negative Lupus Presenting with Heart Failure and Severe Valvular Dysfunction: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Vu; Addison, Daniel; Lakkis, Nasser; Tabbaa, Rashed

    2015-01-01

    Antinuclear antibody (ANA) negative lupus is an important subset of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disease spectrum. Since the introduction of human cell line for ANA assay, the occurrence of true ANA-negative SLE has been a rare clinical phenomenon. The nature of cardiac involvement in ANA-negative SLE is not well understood, although any cardiac involvement, including valvular dysfunction, should be considered as a presenting manifestation of SLE irrespective of serology status. Early recognition and intervention appears to be associated with decreased morbidity. The following report describes our first case of ANA-negative SLE with an initial presentation of severe cardiac valvular dysfunction and heart failure. It also characterizes the spectrum of disease severity in ANA-negative SLE and demonstrates how aggressive SLE therapy can improve cardiac disease.

  17. Geometric differences of the mitral apparatus between ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy with significant mitral regurgitation: real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwan, Jun; Shiota, Takahiro; Agler, Deborah A.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Qin, Jian Xin; Gillinov, Marc A.; Stewart, William J.; Cosgrove, Delos M.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the geometric differences of the mitral apparatus in patients with significant mitral regurgitation caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM-MR) and by idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM-MR) by use of real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six patients with ICM-MR caused by posterior infarction, 18 patients with DCM-MR, and 8 control subjects were studied. With the 3D software, commissure-commissure plane and 3 perpendicular anteroposterior (AP) planes were generated for imaging the medial, central, and lateral sides of the mitral valve (MV) during mid systole. In 3 AP planes, the angles between the annular plane and each leaflet (anterior, Aalpha; posterior, Palpha) were measured. In ICM-MR, Aalpha measured in the medial and central planes was significantly larger than that in the lateral plane (39+/-5 degrees, 34+/-6 degrees, and 27+/-5 degrees, respectively; P<0.01), whereas Palpha showed no significant difference in any of the 3 AP planes (61+/-7 degrees, 57+/-7 degrees, and 56+/-7 degrees, P>0.05). In DCM-MR, both Aalpha (38+/-8 degrees, 37+/-9 degrees, and 36+/-7 degrees, P>0.05) and Palpha (59+/-6 degrees, 58+/-5 degrees, and 57+/-6 degrees, P>0.05) revealed no significant differences in the 3 planes. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of MV deformation from the medial to the lateral side was asymmetrical in ICM-MR, whereas it was symmetrical in DCM-MR. RT3DE is a helpful tool for differentiating the geometry of the mitral apparatus between these 2 different types of functional mitral regurgitation.

  18. Echocardiographic Assessment of Degenerative Mitral Stenosis: A Diagnostic Challenge of an Emerging Cardiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Ahmet Afşşin; Gilliland, Yvonne E; Lavie, Carl J; Ramee, Stephen J; Parrino, Patrick E; Bates, Michael; Shah, Sangeeta; Cash, Michael E; Dinshaw, Homeyar; Qamruddin, Salima

    2017-03-01

    Degenerative mitral stenosis (DMS) is characterized by decreased mitral valve (MV) orifice area and increased transmitral pressure gradient due to chronic noninflammatory degeneration and subsequent calcification of the fibrous mitral annulus and the MV leaflets. The "true" prevalence of DMS in the general population is unknown. DMS predominantly affects elderly individuals, many of whom have multiple other comorbidities. Transcatheter MV replacement techniques, although their long-term outcomes are yet to be tested, have been gaining popularity and may emerge as more effective and relatively safer treatment option for patients with DMS. Echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for evaluation of DMS and related hemodynamic abnormalities such as increased transmitral pressure gradient and pulmonary arterial pressure. Classic echocardiographic techniques used for evaluation of mitral stenosis (pressure half time, proximal isovelocity surface area, continuity equation, and MV area planimetry) lack validation for DMS. Direct planimetry with 3-dimensional echocardiography and color flow Doppler is a reasonable technique for determining MV area in DMS. Cardiac computed tomography is an essential tool for planning potential interventions or surgeries for DMS. This article reviews the current concepts on mitral annular calcification and its role in DMS. We then discuss the epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis, mechanisms, and echocardiographic assessment of DMS.

  19. Rupture of posterior wall of left ventricle after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed Central

    Dark, J H; Bain, W H

    1984-01-01

    Possible aetiological factors, presentation, and management were reviewed in 18 patients with posterior left ventricular rupture complicating mitral valve replacement seen at one centre over six and a half years. The patients were elderly (mean age 57), predominantly women (16 of the 18), and suffering from mitral stenosis. Rupture was much more common after isolated replacement of the mitral valve (16 out of 797 operations) than after double valve replacement (one out 236) or mitral valve replacement and coronary artery bypass graft (one out of 70). A total of 1221 mitral valve replacements were performed over this period, with an overall incidence of rupture of 1.47%. Damage to the valve annulus occurred five times. On four occasions haemorrhage followed a vigorous response to a bolus dose of an inotrope. With the exception of these features, it was difficult to define specific risk factors. Eleven patients bled while still in theatre; one of them survived long term and another four lived for four to 10 days. Repair after restarting cardiopulmonary bypass made short term survival much more likely. In seven rupture developed after return to the intensive therapy unit; again only one survived long term. In nearly all cases bleeding was at, or just below, the atrioventricular groove. Rupture probably occurs after endocardial damage to a thin myocardium that has lost the internal buttress of the subvalvar apparatus. With the rise in intraventricular pressure at the end of bypass blood dissects into the myocardium, resulting in a large haematoma and eventual rupture. Images PMID:6515596

  20. Regurgitation Hemodynamics Alone Cause Mitral Valve Remodeling Characteristic of Clinical Disease States In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Connell, Patrick S; Azimuddin, Anam F; Kim, Seulgi E; Ramirez, Fernando; Jackson, Matthew S; Little, Stephen H; Grande-Allen, K Jane

    2016-04-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation is a challenging clinical condition that is frequent, highly varied, and poorly understood. While the causes of mitral regurgitation are multifactorial, how the hemodynamics of regurgitation impact valve tissue remodeling is an understudied phenomenon. We employed a pseudo-physiological flow loop capable of long-term organ culture to investigate the early progression of remodeling in living mitral valves placed in conditions resembling mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). Valve geometry was altered to mimic the hemodynamics of controls (no changes from native geometry), MVP (5 mm displacement of papillary muscles towards the annulus), and FMR (5 mm apical, 5 mm lateral papillary muscle displacement, 65% larger annular area). Flow measurements ensured moderate regurgitant fraction for regurgitation groups. After 1-week culture, valve tissues underwent mechanical and compositional analysis. MVP conditioned tissues were less stiff, weaker, and had elevated collagen III and glycosaminoglycans. FMR conditioned tissues were stiffer, more brittle, less extensible, and had more collagen synthesis, remodeling, and crosslinking related enzymes and proteoglycans, including decorin, matrix metalloproteinase-1, and lysyl oxidase. These models replicate clinical findings of MVP (myxomatous remodeling) and FMR (fibrotic remodeling), indicating that valve cells remodel extracellular matrix in response to altered mechanical homeostasis resulting from disease hemodynamics.

  1. Mitral inertance in humans: critical factor in Doppler estimation of transvalvular pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakatani, S.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    The pressure-velocity relationship across the normal mitral valve is approximated by the Bernoulli equation DeltaP = 1/2 rhoDeltav(2) + M. dv/dt, where DeltaP is the atrioventricular pressure difference, rho is blood density, v is transmitral flow velocity, and M is mitral inertance. Although M is indispensable in assessing transvalvular pressure differences from transmitral flow, this term is poorly understood. We measured intraoperative high-fidelity left atrial and ventricular pressures and simultaneous transmitral flow velocities by using transesophageal echocardiography in 100 beats (8 patients). We computed mean mitral inertance (M) by M = integral((DeltaP)-(1/2 x rho v(2))dt/integral(dv/dt)dt and we assessed the effect of the inertial term on the transmitral pressure-flow relation. ranged from 1.03 to 5.96 g/cm(2) (mean = 3.82 +/- 1.22 g/cm(2)). DeltaP calculated from the simplified Bernoulli equation (DeltaP = 1/2. rhov(2)) lagged behind (44 +/- 11 ms) and underestimated the actual peak pressures (2.3 +/- 1.1 mmHg). correlated with left ventricular systolic pressure (r = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and transmitral pressure gradients (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). Because mitral inertance causes the velocity to lag significantly behind the actual pressure gradient, it needs to be considered when assessing diastolic filling and the pressure difference across normal mitral valves.

  2. Stroke volume and mitral annular velocities. Insights from tissue Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Bruch, C; Stypmann, J; Gradaus, R; Breithardt, G; Wichter, T

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of stroke volume (SV) on mitral annular velocities derived from tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). To this end, conventional echocardiographic variables and TDI derived mitral annular velocities (S', E', A') were obtained in 14 patients (pts) with increased SV (due to primary mitral (n=12) (ISV group)), in 41 pts with reduced SV (due to ischemic (n=27) or dilated cardiomyopathy (n=9) or hypertensive heart disease (n=5) (RSV group)) and 29 asymptomatic controls with normal SV (CON group). Systolic (S') and early diastolic (E') mitral annular velocities were elevated in the ISV group in the comparison to the CON group, but were significantly reduced in the RSV group. Late diastolic annular velocities (A') did not differ between the ISV and the CON group, but were lowest in the RSV group. On simple linear regression analysis, SV was significantly related to S' (r=0.74, p<0.001), to E' (r=0.74, p<0.001) and to A' (r=0.43, p<0.01). On multiple regression analysis, SV was a stronger independent predictor of S' and E' than conventional systolic or diastolic echocardiographic variables. Thus, stroke volume has a significant impact on TDI derived systolic (S') and early diastolic (E') mitral annular velocities. This should be considered, when TDI is used in the evaluation of LV performance or in the estimation of filling pressures.

  3. Comparison of dysfunction with mechanical and porcine mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Magilligan, D J; Oyama, C; Alam, M

    1985-09-01

    We reviewed the incidence of dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter mechanical prosthetic valve and the Hancock porcine prosthetic valve in the mitral position. The Smeloff-Cutter valve was implanted from 1966 to 1972; 107 patients were discharged from the hospital and were at risk for dysfunction. Follow-up averaged 10 +/- 0.7 years SD. The Hancock valve was implanted from 1971 through 1984; 473 patients were at risk and follow-up averaged 4.7 +/- 3.4 years SD. Dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter valve occurred as thrombosis with incomplete poppet opening in 13 patients. Dysfunction of the Hancock valve occurred as primary tissue failure in 47 patients. At 10 years the freedom from dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter valve was 84 +/- 5% SE and that for the Hancock valve was 71 +/- 4% SE (p greater than .06). The mortality associated with dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter valve was 46%; mortality associated with dysfunction of the Hancock valve was 15% (p less than .02). At 10 years the Hancock valve had a greater incidence of dysfunction than the Smeloff-Cutter valve but this difference was not statistically significant. The mortality associated with dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter valve, however, was three times that associated with dysfunction of the Hancock valve.

  4. Detection of the valvular split within the second heart sound using the reassigned smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville distribution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In this paper, we developed a novel algorithm to detect the valvular split between the aortic and pulmonary components in the second heart sound which is a valuable medical information. Methods The algorithm is based on the Reassigned smoothed pseudo Wigner–Ville distribution which is a modified time–frequency distribution of the Wigner–Ville distribution. A preprocessing amplitude recovery procedure is carried out on the analysed heart sound to improve the readability of the time–frequency representation. The simulated S2 heart sounds were generated by an overlapping frequency modulated chirp–based model at different valvular split durations. Results Simulated and real heart sounds are processed to highlight the performance of the proposed approach. The algorithm is also validated on real heart sounds of the LGB–IRCM (Laboratoire de Génie biomédical–Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal) cardiac valve database. The A2–P2 valvular split is accurately detected by processing the obtained RSPWVD representations for both simulated and real data. PMID:23631738

  5. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PHONO-, VECTOR- AND BALLISTO CARDIOGRAPHY IN THE COMPLEX INVESTIGATION OF MITRAL LESIONS OF THE HEART,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in cases in which, for one or another reason, a number -the typical traits of pre dominant stenosis in the mitral valve are lost....Results are presented of combined studies of 58 patients with mitral lesions. It is concluded that combined studies which yield interdependent

  6. Effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein on transformation of valvular myofibroblasts to osteoblast-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Shen, Ying-Lian; Hu, Wei-Lin; Chen, Zheng-Ping; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the roles of Wnt signal pathway in transformation of cardiac valvular myofibroblasts to the osteoblast-like phenotype, the primary cultured porcine aortic valve myofibroblasts were incubated with oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, 50 mg/L), and divided into four groups according to the ox-LDL treatment time: control group, ox-LDL 24-h group, ox-LDL 48-h group, and ox-LDL 72-h group. Wnt signal pathway blocker Dickkopf-1 (DDK-1, 100 μg/L) was added in ox-LDL 72-h group. The expression of a-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteogenic transcription factor Cbfa-1 was detected by Western blotting, and that of β-catenin, a key mediator of Wnt signal pathway by immunocytochemical staining method. The Wnt/β-catenin was observed and the transformation of myofibroblasts to the osteoblast-like phenotype was examined. The expression of α-SMA, BMP2, ALP and Cbfa-1 proteins in the control group was weaker than in the ox-LDL-treated groups. In ox-LDL-treated groups, the protein expression of a-SMA, BMP2, ALP, and Cbfa-1 was significantly increased in a time-dependent manner as compared with the control group, and there was significant difference among the three ox-LDL-treated groups (P<0.05 for all); β-catenin protein was also up-regulated in the ox-LDL-treated groups in a time-dependent manner as compared with the control group (P<0.05), and its transfer from cytoplasm to nucleus and accumulation in the nucleus were increased in the same fashion (P<0.05). After addition of DKK-1, the expression of α-SMA, bone-related proteins and β-catenin protein was significantly reduced as compared with ox-LDL 72-h group (P<0.05). The Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway may play an important role in transformation of valvular myofibroblasts to the osteoblast-like phenotype.

  7. [Anomalous mitral arcade: a disguised and silent lesion leading to a recurrent wheezing in children. A case report].

    PubMed

    Villalba, Claudia N; Mouratian, Mariela; Lafuente, María V; Barretta, Jorge; Capelli, Horacio

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent wheezing is a very common clinical ailment throughout infancy and childhood. The most common diagnosis in children with wheezing is asthma. However, some other causes should be considered in the differential diagnosis such as a congenital cardiac defect. We present a case of a four year old boy presenting with recurrent wheezing who was referred to our institution for cardiac evaluation. Severe mitral stenosis secondary to an anomalous mitral arcade was diagnosed by physical examination, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram and mainly transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. Anomalous mitral arcade is a rare congenital malformation of the mitral tensor apparatus which comprises the chordae tendineae and papillary muscles. This abnormal anatomy leads to increased filling pressure of the left ventricle, a retrograde post capillary pulmonary hypertension and interstitial aedema. The patient was referred to cardiac surgery and underwent a successful procedure with complete removal of the obstructive mitral lesion.

  8. Local intense mosaic pattern at site of flail mitral leaflet: report of a new color Doppler sign.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Rami N; D'Cruz, Ivan A; Minderman, Daniel; Kaiser, Jacqueline

    2005-10-01

    Color flow Doppler has been useful in diagnosing the presence and severity of mitral regurgitation (MR). We noted a hitherto unreported sign of MR due to flail mitral leaflet: intense local mosaic pattern at the site of the flail leaflet. This sign was seen well in 11 of 14 patients (79%) with the two-dimensional echocardiographic features of flail mitral leaflet, all with moderate or severe MR. In 3 other patients, the sign was absent; two of those had flail mitral leaflet with severe MR. No local mosaic pattern was seen on color Doppler in 20 other patients with MR but no flail mitral leaflet. We speculate that the focal intense mosaic color Doppler morphology may have been caused by intrusion of the flail leaflet into the MR stream, or to a Coanda-like effect of the MR jet "adhering" to the flail leaflet.

  9. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in a patient with mechanical mitral prosthesis: a lesson learned from an intraventricular clash.

    PubMed

    Testa, Luca; Gelpi, Guido; Bedogni, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    We hereby present the case of a patient with severe aortic stenosis who underwent in her previous medical history a mitral valve replacement with a mechanical valve (Omnicarbon 27), and progressively developed a severe aortic stenosis. This patient was judged inoperable and then scheduled for CoreValve Revalving System implantation. Despite a good positioning of the CoreValve, an acute, severe mitral regurgitation developed soon after implantation as a consequence of the impaired movement of the mitral prosthesis leaflet. A condition of cardiogenic shock quickly developed. A good mitral prosthesis function was restored disengaging the CoreValve from the aortic annulus. After few months, the patients underwent successful Edwards-Sapien valve implantation through the Corevalve. This case strongly demonstrates how much a careful evaluation of the features of the mitral prosthesis and patient anatomy is crucial to select which specific transcatheter bioprosthesis would better perform.

  10. Application of Percutaneous Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty in Patients of Rheumatic Heart Disease Mitral Stenosis Combined with Tricuspid Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang-Qiang; Hong, Lang; Wang, Hong; Lu, Lin-Xiang; Yin, Qiu-Lin; Lai, Heng-Li; Li, Hua-Tai; Wang, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is frequently associated with severe mitral stenosis (MS), the importance of significant TR was often neglected. However, TR influences the outcome of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) procedure in rheumatic heart disease patients with mitral valve (MV) stenosis and tricuspid valve regurgitation. Methods: Two hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in this study due to rheumatic heart disease with MS combined with TR. Mitral balloon catheter made in China was used to expand MV. The following parameters were measured before and after PBMV: MV area (MVA), TR area (TRA), atrial pressure and diameter, and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). The patients were followed for 6 months to 9 years. Results: After PBMV, the MVAs increased significantly (1.7 ± 0.3 cm2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 cm2, P < 0.01); TRA significantly decreased (6.3 ± 1.7 cm2 vs. 14.2 ± 6.5 cm2, P < 0.01), right atrial area (RAA) decreased significantly (21.5 ± 4.5 cm2 vs. 25.4 ± 4.3 cm2, P < 0.05), TRA/RAA (%) decreased significantly (29.3 ± 3.2% vs. 44.2 ± 3.6%, P < 0.01). TR velocity (TRV) and TR continue time (TRT) as well as TRV × TRT decreased significantly (183.4 ± 9.4 cm/s vs. 254.5 ± 10.7 cm/s, P < 0.01; 185.7 ± 13.6 ms vs. 238.6 ± 11.3 ms, P < 0.01; 34.2 ± 5.6 cm vs. 60.7 ± 8.5 cm, P < 0.01, respectively). The postoperative left atrial diameter (LAD) significantly reduced (41.3 ± 6.2 mm vs. 49.8 ± 6.8 mm, P < 0.01) and the postoperative right atrial diameter (RAD) significantly reduced (28.7 ± 5.6 mm vs. 46.5 ± 6.3 mm, P < 0.01); the postoperative left atrium pressure significantly reduced (15.6 ± 6.1 mmHg vs. 26.5 ± 6.6 mmHg, P < 0.01), the postoperative right atrial pressure decreased significantly (13.2 ± 2.4 mmHg vs. 18.5 ± 4.3 mmHg, P < 0.01). The pulmonary arterial pressure decreased significantly after PBMV (48.2 ± 10.3 mmHg vs. 60.6 ± 15

  11. Chronic mitral regurgitation and Doppler estimation of left ventricular filling pressures in patients with heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temporelli, P. L.; Scapellato, F.; Corra, U.; Eleuteri, E.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Thomas, J. D.; Giannuzzi, P.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies relating Doppler parameters and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (PCWP) typically exclude patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). We evaluated the effects of varying degrees of chronic MR on the Doppler estimation of PCWP. PCWP and mitral Doppler profiles were obtained in 88 patients (mean age 55 +/- 8 years) with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (mean ejection fraction 23% +/- 5%). Patients were classified by severity of MR. Patients with severe MR had greater left atrial areas, LV end-diastolic volumes, and mean PCWPs and lower ejection fractions (each P <.01). In patients with mild MR, multiple echocardiographic parameters correlated with PCWP; however, with worsening MR, only deceleration time strongly related to PCWP. From stepwise multivariate analysis, deceleration time was the best independent predictor of PCWP overall, and it was the only predictor in patients with moderate or severe MR. Doppler-derived early mitral deceleration time reliably predicts PCWP in patients with severe LV dysfunction irrespective of degree of MR.

  12. [Chest pain with ischemic electrocardiographic changes: mitral valve prolapse in pediatrics. Case report].

    PubMed

    Matamala-Morillo, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-González, Moisés; Segado-Arenas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Chest pain is rare and usually benign in pediatrics. Cardiac etiology is even rarer. However, it is a symptom associated with ischemic heart disease and it imposes great social alarm, even in health care workers. Therefore, it is necessary to know the most common causes of this symptom in children, as well as serious diseases that can cause it, which require prompt medical attention. We report a case of chest pain associated with ischemic electrocardiographic changes in a patient with mitral valve prolapse and MASS phenotype (mitral valve prolapse, aortic root enlargement, and skeletal and skin alterations), we review the mitral valve prolapse and stress the importance of knowing it in the pediatric setting.

  13. Transapical aortic valve and mitral valve in ring prosthesis implantation - a new advance in transcatheter procedures.

    PubMed

    Neves, Paulo C; Paulo, Nelson Santos; Gama, Vasco; Vouga, Luís

    2014-08-01

    Transcatheter valve implantation offers a new treatment modality to those patients whose general condition makes conventional surgery very risky. However, the transcatheter option has only been available for the aortic valve. We describe a case of a successful implantation of two Edwards SAPIEN(®) 26 and 29 mm transapical valves, respectively, in aortic and mitral positions, on a 74-year-old patient with severe aortic and mitral stenosis. The procedure progressed uneventfully. Predischarge echocardiogram showed a peak aortic gradient of 20 mmHg, mild periprosthetic regurgitation, peak and mean mitral gradients of 12 and 4, respectively, and moderate (II/IV) periprosthetic regurgitation. Indications for transapical valve implantation will rapidly increase in the near future. It is essential to individualize the treatment be applied for each patient, in order to optimize the success of the procedure.

  14. Rapidly progressing, massive mitral annular calcification. Occurrence in a patient with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Depace, N L; Rohrer, A H; Kotler, M N; Brezin, J H; Parry, W R

    1981-11-01

    Calcification of the mitral annulus developed in a patient while undergoing dialysis. The rapid onset of events corresponded to the onset of end-stage renal failure and uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism. Sequential echocardiograms verified the progression of calcification of the annulus as well as the valve. A new systolic and diastolic murmur and reduced valve orifice on two-dimensional echocardiography suggested acquired nonrheumatic mitral stenosis and insufficiency. We propose that metastatic calcium deposition rather than long-term hypertensive and degenerative effects was the predominant mechanism for massive calcification of the annulus and valve. It is suggested that M-mode echocardiography be used sequentially to follow both the occurrence and progression of calcification of the mitral annulus or valve in patients with chronic renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism, or both.

  15. Congenital pseudoaneurysm of mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa masquerading as left atrial mass in fetal life

    PubMed Central

    Chidambarathanu, Shanthi; Raja, Vijayalakshmi; Suresh, Indrani

    2017-01-01

    A 28-week-old fetus was detected to have a single left atrial mass in prenatal ultrasound. Postnatal echocardiography showed an aneurysm between the anterior mitral leaflet and aortic valve, to the left of atrioventricular junction and communicating with the left ventricle through a narrow mouth. It probably originated from the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrous tissue and an inherent weakness at this site might be the cause. Reported cases of pseudoaneurysm of mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa and subvalvular ventricular aneurysms seen following infective endocarditis, surgery, or trauma seem to have a similar anatomical background. This case explains the possibility of congenital aneurysm in this location which needs to be considered a differential diagnosis in similar cases. PMID:28163433

  16. Acute Effect of Treatment of Mitral Stenosis on Left Atrium Function

    PubMed Central

    Rohani, Atooshe; Kargar, Shahram; Fazlinejad, Afsoon; Ghaderi, Fereshte; Vakili, Vida; Falsoleiman, Homa; Bagheri, Ramin Khamene

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) is used to evaluate left atrium (LA) function in patients with mitral stenosis (MS), before and after percutaneous transmitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and mitral valve replacement (MVR). Methods: Patients with severe symptomatic MS, who were referred to our echocardiographic laboratory for a diagnostic examination before cardiac surgery or PTMC from October of 2014 to October of 2015, were included in the study. Result: The peak systolic global LA strain improved post-PTMC (P < 0.001) and post-MVR (P = 0.012). This difference was statistically highly significant. Conclusion: PALS is impaired in patients with severe symptomatic MS and improved acutely after treatment and may be a good indicator of LA function and may predict the right time for intervention on mitral valve. PMID:28074794

  17. Repair of injured right inferior pulmonary vein during mitral valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    During mitral valve surgery right pulmonary veins injury, subsequent to excessive traction (for better exposure of the mitral apparatus), is often unavoidable. This is more likely in patients with small left atrium. This common complication may cause severe intraoperative bleeding, while its surgical repair may lead to complications such as late stenosis or obstruction of the pulmonary veins. This injury should be early detected, before left atriotomy closing, and it is suggested to be repaired using a patch so as to avoid any possible late constriction. We describe a case -to our knowledge, the first reported in the literature- of intraoperatively injured right inferior pulmonary vein in a patient who underwent mitral valve replacement. As outlined we propose that the ostium of the right inferior pulmonary vein can be repaired by using autologous pericardial patch, incorporated in the completion of left atriotomy closure. PMID:19895700

  18. Surgical management of very late paravalvular leaks after mitral valve replacement: a single institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiasi; Sin, Yoong Kong; Chua, Yeow Leng

    2016-01-01

    Most mitral paravalvular leaks (PVLs) occur during the first year after mitral valve replacement (MVR). This report describes the surgical management of 6 patients who developed very late mitral PVLs. The median interval between MVR and initial diagnosis of PVL was 16.5 years. All patients presented with congestive cardiac failure and haemolytic anaemia. The median EuroSCORE II was 9.5%. Two patients (33%) had failed attempts at transcatheter closure. Five patients underwent suture repair of the PVL. One patient underwent MVR after removal of the previous prosthesis. No in-hospital mortalities occurred. At latest follow-up (median 3.3 years), 5 patients (83%) were asymptomatic with no residual PVL. Haemolytic anaemia persisted in 1 patient with a mild residual PVL. PVL occurring decades after MVR is a rare but serious complication. Reoperative surgery can be performed in these high-risk patients with satisfactory early and midterm outcomes. PMID:27747034

  19. Evaluation of a Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Annuloplasty Band for Minimally Invasive Mitral Valve Repair

    PubMed Central

    Purser, Molly F.; Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Osborne, Jason A.; Cormier, Denis R.; Buckner, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An in vitro study using explanted porcine hearts was conducted to evaluate a novel annuloplasty band, reinforced with a two-phase, shape memory alloy, designed specifically for minimally invasive mitral valve repair. Description In its rigid (austenitic) phase, this band provides the same mechanical properties as the commercial semi-rigid bands. In its compliant (martensitic) phase, this band is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8-mm trocar and is easily manipulated within the heart. Evaluation In its rigid phase, the prototype band displayed similar mechanical properties to commercially available semi-rigid rings. Dynamic flow testing demonstrated no statistical differences in the reduction of mitral valve regurgitation. In its flexible phase, the band was easily deployed through an 8-mm trocar, robotically manipulated and sutured into place. Conclusions Experimental results suggest that the shape memory alloy reinforced band could be a viable alternative to flexible and semi-rigid bands in minimally invasive mitral valve repair. PMID:19766827

  20. Echocardiographic Evidence for Valvular Toxicity of Benfluorex: A Double-Blind Randomised Trial in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Derumeaux, Geneviève; Ernande, Laura; Serusclat, André; Servan, Evelyne; Bruckert, Eric; Rousset, Hugues; Senn, Stephen; Van Gaal, Luc; Picandet, Brigitte; Gavini, François; Moulin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Objectives REGULATE trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of benfluorex versus pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Methods Double-blind, parallel-group, international, randomised, non-inferiority trial. More than half of the 196 participating centres were primary care centres. Patients eligible had type 2 DM uncontrolled on sulfonylurea. 846 were randomised. They received study treatment for 1 year. 423 patients were allocated to benfluorex (150 to 450 mg/day) and 423 were allocated to pioglitazone (30 to 45 mg/day). Primary efficacy criterion was HbA1c. Safety assessment included blinded echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac and valvular status. Results At baseline, patients were 59.1±10.5 years old with HbA1c 8.3±0.8%, and DM duration 7.1±6.0 years. During the study, mean HbA1c significantly decreased in both groups (benfluorex: from 8.30±0.80 to 7.77±1.31 versus pioglitazone: from 8.30±0.80 to 7.45±1.30%). The last HbA1c value was significantly lower with pioglitazone than with benfluorex (p<0.001) and non-inferiority of benfluorex was not confirmed (p = 0.19). Among the 615 patients with assessable paired echocardiography (310 benfluorex, 305 pioglitazone), 314 (51%) had at least one morphological valvular abnormality and 515 (84%) at least one functional valvular abnormality at baseline. Emergent morphological abnormalities occurred in 8 patients with benfluorex versus 4 with pioglitazone (OR 1.99), 95% CI (0.59 to 6.69). Emergent regurgitation (new or increased by one grade or more) occurred more frequently with benfluorex (82 patients, 27%) than with pioglitazone (33 patients, 11%) (OR 2.97), 95% CI (1.91 to 4.63) and were mainly rated grade 1; grade 2 (mild) was detected in 2 patients with benfluorex and 3 with pioglitazone. There was no moderate or severe regurgitation. Conclusion After 1 year of exposure, our results show a 2.97 fold increase in the incidence of valvular regurgitation with benfluorex and

  1. Incremental value of combining systolic mitral annular velocity and time difference between mitral inflow and diastolic mitral annular velocity to early diastolic annular velocity for differentiating constrictive pericarditis from restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eui-Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Kim, Jin-Mi; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Seo, Hye-Sun; Lee, Jee-Hyun; Rim, Se-Joong; Chung, Namsik

    2007-06-01

    Although normal or exaggerated early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') provides an excellent specificity for differentiating constrictive pericarditis (CP) from restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM), its sensitivity has been shown to be lower, especially in patients with CP who had underlying myocardial abnormality. This study sought to evaluate the incremental value of systolic mitral annular velocity (S') and time difference between onset of mitral inflow and onset of E' (T(E'-E)) for differentiation between CP and RCM. This study included 44 participants (28 male, 16 female; mean age 47 years, range 10-76): 17 patients with CP, 12 with RCM, and 15 control subjects. Standard mitral inflow Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography were performed. E' (9.5 +/- 1.7 vs 4.7 +/- 1.6 cm/s, P < .001) and S' (7.7 +/- 1.3 vs 4.6 +/- 1.9 cm/s, P < .001) were significantly higher, whereas T(E'-E) (21.0 +/- 32.0 vs 53.1 +/- 30.4 milliseconds, P = .02) was significantly shorter in patients with CP than with RCM. Diagnostic accuracy of E' for differentiation of CP from RCM was higher than S' or T(E'-E) (area under curve 0.99 vs 0.87 vs 0.74, respectively). E' of 8 cm/s had excellent specificity (100%) for differentiation of CP from RCM but sensitivity (70%) was relatively low. However, when combining E' with S' and T(E'-E), the sensitivity could be increased when compared with E' alone (70% with E', 88% with E' + S', and 94% with E' + S' + T(E'-E)), P = .001). In conclusion, the measurement of S' and T(E'-E) can be helpful for differentiating between CP and RCM by providing incremental diagnostic information to E'.

  2. Additional value of biplane transoesophageal imaging in assessment of mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed Central

    Groundstroem, K; Rittoo, D; Hoffman, P; Bloomfield, P; Sutherland, G R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine whether biplane transoesophageal imaging offers advantages in the evaluation of mitral prostheses when compared with standard single transverse plane imaging or the precordial approach in suspected prosthetic dysfunction. DESIGN--Prospective mitral valve prosthesis in situ using precordial and biplane transoesophageal ultrasonography. SETTING--Tertiary cardiac referral centre. SUBJECTS--67 consecutive patients with suspected dysfunction of a mitral valve prosthesis (16 had bioprostheses and 51 mechanical prostheses) who underwent precordial, transverse plane, and biplane transoesophageal echocardiography. Correlative invasive confirmation from surgery or angiography, or both, was available in 44 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number, type, and site of leak according to the three means of scanning. RESULTS--Transverse plane transoesophageal imaging alone identified all 31 medial/lateral paravalvar leaks but only 24/30 of the anterior/posterior leaks. Combining the information from both imaging planes confirmed that biplane scanning identified all paravalvar leaks. Five of the six patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis, all three with valvar thrombus or obstruction, and all three with mitral annulus rupture were diagnosed from transverse plane imaging alone. Longitudinal plane imaging alone enabled diagnosis of the remaining case of prosthetic endocarditis and a further case of subvalvar pannus formation. CONCLUSIONS--Transverse plane transoesophageal imaging was superior to the longitudinal imaging in identifying medial and lateral lesions around the sewing ring of a mitral valve prosthesis. Longitudinal plane imaging was superior in identifying anterior and posterior lesions. Biplane imaging is therefore an important development in the study of mitral prosthesis function. Images PMID:8398497

  3. Bi-Luminal Mitral Valve: Incidence, Clinical Features, Associated Anomaly and Echocardiographic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Vikas; Singh, Karandeep; Asif, Mohammad; Sachan, Mohit; Kumar, Ashutosh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Singh, Avinash Kumar; Singh, Shravan; Razi, Mahamdula; Thakur, Ramesh; Pandey, Umeshwar; Varma, Chandra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to know the incidence, clinical features, associated anomaly and echocardiographic evaluation of bi-luminal mitral valve (also known as double orifice mitral valve or DOMV) in patients with suspected mitral valve disease, continous murmur or left-to-right shunt. Methods Twenty-eight patients with DOMV were diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in a retrospective review of 52,256 echocardiographic studies in 45,898 patients performed between 2000 and 2015. Results The mean age was 20.1 years (15 - 34 years) with female preponderance (M/F: 1:1.8). Dyspnea and diastolic murmur were the most common symptoms found in 19 (67.8%) and 19 (67.8%) of patients, respectively. Normal sinus rhythm was the most common electrocardiographic finding. Twenty-five (89%) patients had complete bridge, while three (11%) had incomplete bridge type of DOMV. Twenty-one (75%) had severe mitral stenosis (MS) including severe tricuspid regurgitation (n = 13, 61%), ventricular septal defect (VSD, n = 3, 14%), complete endocardial cushion defect (ECD, n = 3, 14%), and mild to moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) (n = 2, 11%), moderate MS and moderate MR were found in four (16%) patients among complete bridge type of DOMV, while all patients with incomplete bridge type had severe MS and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) as associated lesions. Overall, 24 (85%) had severe and four (15%) had moderate MS. Conclusions DOMV as a cause of symptomatic mitral valve disease was seen in young and middle-aged patients with estimated incidence of 0.06%. Dyspnea and diastolic murmur were the most common symptoms. Mostly, it was an isolated anomaly but in majority, associated with VSD, complete ECD and PDA. TTE examination is a reliable and sufficient means of diagnosing DOMV and determining its type. PMID:27829956

  4. Pulmonary artery haemodynamic properties in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to rheumatic mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tao; Zhang, Guan-xin; Li, Bai-lin; Zhong, Keng; Xu, Zhi-yun; Han, Lin

    2012-12-01

    We sought to explore the pulmonary haemodynamic changes in rheumatic mitral stenosis patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension. The pulmonary artery resistance and compliance of 35 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and 12 controls without cardiopulmonary vascular disease were evaluated by using an improved method, which is based on making calculations with parameters obtained from right heart catheterisation. The results are as follows: (1) pulmonary artery compliance in patients with secondary pulmonary hypertension was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.01); (2) linear correlation analyses showed that preoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) closely correlated with zero-pressure compliance in the mitral stenosis group (r=-0.745, P<0.05); (3) PAP and pulmonary vascular resistance decreased significantly in both groups with mitral stenosis after infusing 0.5 μg kg(-1) min(-1) of sodium nitroprusside (P<0.01). The pulmonary zero pressure compliance and mean pressure compliance increased significantly in the group with mild pulmonary hypertension; whereas in the severe group, the mean compliance changed with significance as the mPAP decreased (1.51 ± 0.59 vs 1.81 ± 0.77 ml/mmHg), however no significant change occurred in the pulmonary zero pressure compliance (2.35 ± 1.24 ml/mmHg vs. 2.24 ± 1.53 ml/mmHg, P>0.05) The walls of pulmonary artery vessels in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to rheumatic mitral stenosis appeared to be remodelled by varying degrees as indicated by their haemodynamic properties. Structural remodelling may be a factor affecting preoperative pulmonary artery pressure. Mitral stenosis patients with severe pulmonary hypertension have significantly lower responses to sodium nitroprusside possibly due to aggradation and deposition of collagen in the artery walls, decreasing constriction and dilation, or atrophy of smooth muscle cells.

  5. Pulmonary hypertension in valvular disease: a comprehensive review on pathophysiology to therapy from the HAVEC Group.

    PubMed

    Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe; Sengupta, Partho P; Donal, Erwan; Rosenhek, Raphael; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a classic pathophysiological consequence of left-sided valvular heart disease (VHD). However, as opposed to other forms of PH, there are relatively few published data on the prevalence, impact on outcome, and management of PH with VHD. The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review of PH in patients with VHD. PH is found in 15% to 60% of patients with VHD and is more frequent among symptomatic patients. PH is associated with higher risk of cardiac events under conservative management, during valve replacement or repair procedures, and even following successful corrective procedures. In addition to its usefulness in assessing the presence and severity of VHD, Doppler echocardiography is a key tool in diagnosis of PH and assessment of its repercussion on right ventricular function. Assessment of pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise stress echocardiography may provide additional prognostic information beyond resting evaluation. Cardiac magnetic resonance is also useful for assessing right ventricular geometry and function, which provide additional prognostic information in patients with VHD and PH.

  6. Antidepressants and Valvular Heart Disease: A Nested Case-Control Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan; Liu, Yen-Bin; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Wang, Chi-Chuan; Shen, Li-Jiuan

    2016-04-01

    Empirical evidence regarding the association between antidepressants and valvular heart disease (VHD) is scarce.Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research database, this nested case-control study assessed the association between antidepressants and VHD in a Chinese population.Among a cohort of patients who used at least 3 prescription antidepressants, 874 cases with VHD and 3496 matched controls (1:4 ratio) were identified. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine the timing, duration, dose and type of antidepressants use, and the risk of VHD.Current use of antidepressants was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in the risk of VHD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.77). Among current users, a dose-response association was observed in terms of the cumulative duration and the cumulative antidepressant dose. Significantly higher risks of VHD were observed among the current users of tricyclic antidepressants (aOR 1.40 [1.05-1.87]).We found that the use of antidepressants was associated with a greater risk of VHD and that the risks varied according to different antidepressants.

  7. [Oral anticogulation for non-valvular atrial fibrilation in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Veiga Fernández, Fernando; Malfeito Jiménez, María del Rocío; Barros Cerviño, Sonia María; Magariños Losada, María del Mar

    2015-01-01

    Anticoagulation in elderly people with non-valvular atrial afibrillation (AF) is a challenge, due to the thromboembolic, as well as the haemorrhagic risks. The correct use of anticoagulants in these patients has shown a higher net clinical benefit when comparing it with a younger population. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been compared to oral vitamin K antagonists in several studies that included a sufficient number of elderly people. Favourable results for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants were obtained in these studies, making them the preferred treatment for this group of patients. Basing the estimations on indirect comparisons, the ideal anticoagulant and the specific dose for each particular case has been determined. Finally, a new algorithm has been developed that relates these parameters. Geriatric assessment is the key to the indication for an anticoagulation, the type of anticoagulant needed, and also the best way to optimise all the factors for a safe anticoagulation. The arrival of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants will enhance the efficient thromboembolic prophylaxis rate in elderly people with AF. This new treatment will remove different controversial prophylaxis, such as antiaggregants.

  8. Effect of Heparin Oligomer Chain Length on the Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pedron, Sara; Kasko, Andrea M.; Peinado, Carmen; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2010-01-01

    A key event in connective tissue remodeling involves the transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, also revealed by expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). However, misregulation of this transition can lead to fibrosis, an overgrowth and hardening of tissue due to excess extracellular matrix deposition, a process that is linked to heart valve disease and many others. Both disease treatment and regenerative strategies would benefit from strategies for the controlled delivery and presentation of bioactive factors that can promote or suppress this transformation. In this regard, the ability of heparin to complex a plethora of growth factors offers a broad range of possibilities for this purpose. Here, the effects of heparin chain length and structure on valvular interstitial cell (VIC) phenotypic expression were explored. Heparin from porcine intestinal mucosa was depolymerized with heparinase and fractionated to obtain oligosaccharides of different sizes. VICs cultured with octasaccharides and decasaccharides exhibited higher expression of a-SMA when compared to other saccharides and full-length heparin. No activation of VICs was observed in response to full-length heparin presence in media. PMID:20446725

  9. Ulcerative dermatitis and valvular endocarditis associated with Staphylococcus aureus in a hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    PubMed

    Huynh, Minh; Carnaccini, Silvia; Driggers, Todd; Shivaprasad, H L

    2014-06-01

    An 18-yr-old male hyacinth macaw (Anadorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found dead in his aviary with no preexisting signs. The bird had a chronic history of feather damaging behavior, with severe ulcerative dermatitis. Pathologic findings revealed a vegetative valvular endocarditis, myocarditis, septicemia, chronic severe glomerulonephritis, and thyroid dysplasia. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the valve, the liver, and the skin. Repeated trauma and low-rate bacteriemia may have contributed to the development of endocarditis. Translocation of S. aureus skin infection in the bloodstream may lead to subacute endocarditis in humans and such mechanism is suspected in this case. This case suggests that endocarditis associated with S. aureus septicemia is a potential complication of feather damaging behavior. This case also reports a systemic complication of ulcerative dermatitis secondary to feather damaging behavior. Endocarditis has been poorly reported in psittacine species, and such medical complication of feather damaging behavior has never been reported to our knowledge. Furthermore, S. aureus is a bacteria of public health concern and should be integrated into the differential when pet parrots with dermatitis are in proximity to owners.

  10. Cardiac surgery for annuloaortic ectasia and mitral regurgitation in an adult patient with dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuichiro; Satoh, Harumitsu; Abe, Mitsunori; Nagashima, Mitsugi; Kurata, Akira; Higashino, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    We report a surgical case of dextrocardia complicated with annuloaortic ectasia (AAE) and mitral regurgitation, which induced congestive heart failure. Preoperative electrocardiography-gated multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) showed the following complex cardiovascular abnormalities without motion artifacts: dextrocardia, situs inversus, polysplenia, AAE, absence of the inferior vena cava, azygos vein continuation, drainage of the hepatic vein into the right atrium, and bilateral superior venae cavae. On the basis of the MDCT data, we established a cardiopulmonary bypass; and a modified Bentall procedure (Piehler method) and mitral valve replacement were performed without complications.

  11. Dynamic quantitative echocardiographic evaluation of mitral regurgitation in the operating department.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Alejandro; Soulière, Vicky; Denault, André Y; Bouchard, Denis; Couture, Pierre; Pellerin, Michel; Carrier, Michel; Levesque, Sylvie; Ducharme, Anique; Basmadjian, Arsène J

    2006-02-01

    Hemodynamic modifications induced by general anesthesia could lead to underestimation of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity in the operating department and potentially serious consequences. The intraoperative severity of MR was prospectively compared with the preoperative baseline evaluation using dynamic quantitative transesophageal echocardiography in 25 patients who were stable with MR 2/4 or greater undergoing coronary bypass, mitral valve operation, or both. Significant changes in the severity of MR using transesophageal echocardiographic criteria occurred after the induction of general anesthesia and with phenylephrine. Quantitative transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of MR using effective orifice area and vena contracta, and the use of phenylephrine challenge, were useful to avoid underestimating MR severity in the operating department.

  12. Mitral valve endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva in a 14th week pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Botta, Luca; Merati, Roberto; Vignati, Gabriele; Orcese, Carlo Andrea; De Chiara, Benedetta; Cannata, Aldo; Bruschi, Giuseppe; Fratto, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis during pregnancy carries a high mortality risk, both for the mother and for the foetus and requires a multidisciplinary team in the management of complicated cases. We report our experience with a 39-year old patient, affected by an acute active mitral endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva at the 14th gestational week, strongly motivated to continue the pregnancy. Our patient successfully underwent mitral valve replacement with a normothermic high-flow cardiopulmonary bypass under continuous intraoperative foetal monitoring. Caesarean section occurred at the 38th gestational week. The delivery was uneventful and both the mother and child are doing well at the 16-month follow-up.

  13. DISC VARIANCE OF THE HARKEN MITRAL PROSTHESIS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF ASSOCIATED AORTIC REGURGITATION

    PubMed Central

    Yarnoz, Michael D.; Hueter, David; McCormick, John R.; Black, Harrison; Berger, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Four cases of severe mitral regurgitation due to disc variance of the Harken disc prosthesis in the mitral position are described. The valve occluder actually escaped into the left atrium in two patients, and neither survived despite emergency valve replacement. In the other two, disc malfunction was identified by flouroscopy, the prosthesis was replaced, and both patients survived. All four patients had associated aortic regurgitation, which most likely contributed to erosion of the disc edges. It is suggested that patients with the Harken disc prosthesis undergo periodic evaluation to detect abnormal disc motion. Images PMID:15216088

  14. Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Libman-Sacks Endocarditis in a Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Sladek, Eric H; Accola, Kevin D

    2016-02-01

    This report describes one the first cases of antiphospholipid syndrome and Libman-Sacks endocarditis in a bioprosthetic valve. A redo mitral valve replacement was carried out owing to early deterioration of the prior valve. Initially it was considered secondary to rheumatic heart disease; however, pathology analysis and autoimmune workup revealed antiphospholipid syndrome with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. We believe certain populations with mitral valve stenosis may have an underlying antiphospholipid syndrome. As a result, there needs to be a lower threshold for identifying this disease.

  15. [Double post-acute myocardial infarction complication: rupture of the interventricular septum and acute mitral insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Curcio Ruigómez, A; Martín Jiménez, J; Wilhelmi Ayza, M; Soria Delgado, J L

    1997-02-01

    We present a case of double post acute myocardial infarction complication: ventricular septal defect and acute and severe mitral insufficiency. As a consequence of the delay in the diagnosis, the patient developed pulmonary hypertension with values at the systemic level. The patient underwent surgery in order to close the ventricular septal defect and aneurysmectomy, resulting in posterior regression of mitral insufficiency and pulmonary circuit values became normal. The ethology, diagnosis, evolution and treatment of this exceptional association of acute post myocardial infarction complications are discussed.

  16. Systemic Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula Associated with Mitral Regurgitation: Successful Treatment with Endovascular Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Iwazawa, Jin; Nakamura, Kenji; Hamuro, Masao; Nango, Mineyoshi; Sakai, Yukimasa; Nishida, Norifumi

    2008-07-15

    We present the case of a 60-year-old woman with symptomatic mitral regurgitation caused by a left-to-right shunt via anastomoses consisting of microfistulae, most likely of inflammatory origin, between the right subclavian artery and the right pulmonary artery. The three arteries responsible for fistulous formation, including the internal mammary, thyrocervical, and lateral thoracic arteries, were successfully occluded by transcatheter embolization using superabsorbent polymer microsphere (SAP-MS) particles combined with metallic coils. No complications have been identified following treatment with SAP-MS particles. This approach significantly reduced the patient's mitral regurgitation and she has remained asymptomatic for more than 4 years.

  17. Transient mitral regurgitation: An adjunctive sign of myocardial ischemia during dipyridamole-thallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lette, J.; Gagnon, A.; Lapointe, J.; Cerino, M.

    1989-07-01

    A patient developed transient exacerbation of a mitral insufficiency murmur and a reversible posterior wall perfusion defect during dipyridamole-thallium imaging. Coronary angiography showed significant stenoses of both the right and the circumflex coronary arteries that supply the posterior papillary muscle. Cardiac auscultation for transient mitral incompetence, a sign of reversible papillary muscle dysfunction, is a simple and practical adjunctive test for myocardial ischemia during dipyridamole-thallium imaging. It may confirm that an isolated reversible posterior wall myocardial perfusion defect is truly ischemic in nature as opposed to an artifact resulting from attenuation by the diaphragm.

  18. Thrombosis of A Prosthetic Mitral Valve After Withdrawal of Phenprocoumon Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Andreas; Wende, Christian M.; Horst, Michael; Steverding, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Patients with prosthetic heart valves require lifelong oral anticoagulant therapy based on vitamin K antagonists. These patients may need interruption of their anticoagulant therapy if they have to undergo surgery. The clinical challenge is to identify patients who can safely undergo surgery while continuing their vitamin K antagonist treatment and those who have to take short-acting heparin as part of a bridging therapy. Here we present a case of a patient with a prosthetic mitral valve whose oral anticoagulant therapy was unnecessarily discontinued by the GP prior to an upcoming cataract surgery. As a result, the patient developed thrombosis of the prosthetic mitral valve which needed to be surgically replaced.

  19. 3D Printed Modeling of the Mitral Valve for Catheter-Based Structural Interventions.

    PubMed

    Vukicevic, Marija; Puperi, Daniel S; Jane Grande-Allen, K; Little, Stephen H

    2017-02-01

    As catheter-based structural heart interventions become increasingly complex, the ability to effectively model patient-specific valve geometry as well as the potential interaction of an implanted device within that geometry will become increasingly important. Our aim with this investigation was to combine the technologies of high-spatial resolution cardiac imaging, image processing software, and fused multi-material 3D printing, to demonstrate that patient-specific models of the mitral valve apparatus could be created to facilitate functional evaluation of novel trans-catheter mitral valve repair strategies. Clinical 3D transesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography images were acquired for three patients being evaluated for a catheter-based mitral valve repair. Target anatomies were identified, segmented and reconstructed into 3D patient-specific digital models. For each patient, the mitral valve apparatus was digitally reconstructed from a single or fused imaging data set. Using multi-material 3D printing methods, patient-specific anatomic replicas of the mitral valve were created. 3D print materials were selected based on the mechanical testing of elastomeric TangoPlus materials (Stratasys, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, USA) and were compared to freshly harvested porcine leaflet tissue. The effective bending modulus of healthy porcine MV tissue was significantly less than the bending modulus of TangoPlus (p < 0.01). All TangoPlus varieties were less stiff than the maximum tensile elastic modulus of mitral valve tissue (3697.2 ± 385.8 kPa anterior leaflet; 2582.1 ± 374.2 kPa posterior leaflet) (p < 0.01). However, the slopes of the stress-strain toe regions of the mitral valve tissues (532.8 ± 281.9 kPa anterior leaflet; 389.0 ± 156.9 kPa posterior leaflet) were not different than those of the Shore 27, Shore 35, and Shore 27 with Shore 35 blend TangoPlus material (p > 0.95). We have demonstrated that patient-specific mitral valve models can be

  20. An unusual case of Bjork-Shiley mitral valve dysfunction corrected nonsurgically.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Burke, W; Kotler, M N; Glazier, E E

    1981-10-01

    A case of Bjork-Shiley mitral valve dysfunction is presented. The patient has not responded to anticoagulant therapy and had hypotension, dyspnea, chest pain, and a pulse deficit but normal sinus rhythm. Simultaneous echocardiogram, ECG, and arterial pulse tracing were used as noninvasive means of monitoring. Nonsurgical correction of a clinical emergency restored the patient to prior normal baseline cardiovascular function. This case illustrates the possibility of restoring normal prosthetic function by supporting the patient medically while undertaking diagnostic testing and arranging surgical intervention. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a malfunctioning Bjork-Shiley mitral valve corrected without surgery.

  1. Effect of varying ventricular function by extrasystolic potentiation on closure of the mitral valve.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenberg, R. A.; Williams, J. C. P.; Sturm, R. E.; Wood , E. H.

    1971-01-01

    Mitral regurgitant indexes were measured by roentgen videodensitometry in anesthetized dogs without thoracotomy before, during and after extrasystolic potentiation of ventricular contraction while the atria and ventricles were driven in normal temporal sequence simultaneously or in such a way as to induce atrial fibrillation. Small amounts of mitral reflux were observed with simultaneous atrial and ventricular driving and with atrial fibrillation in the control measurements before initiation of extrasystolic potentiation. Reflux became negligible during extrasystolic potentiation and increased beyond control levels after termination of extrasystolic potentiation.

  2. Left ventricular function and mitral valve opening in massive pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, R E; Hall, R J

    1982-01-01

    M-mode echocardiograms are demonstrated from a patient with subacute massive pulmonary embolism before and after thrombolytic treatment and clinical recovery. Severely impaired left ventricular contraction returned to normal. A reversible reduction in mitral valve opening velocity was also seen and was thought to be in part the result of diminished left atrial filling. This hypothesis was tested experimentally; mitral valve opening velocity was measured in normal subjects and found to be significantly reduced when pulmonary blood flow was impeded during the Valsalva manoeuvre. Images PMID:7126394

  3. [The mitral valve prolapse syndrome in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Malcić, I; Zavrsnik, J; Kancler, K; Kokol, P

    1998-01-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in the group of 656 children and adolescents (329 males and 327 females), who were a representative sample (obtained with the Monte Carlo method of statistical trials) of all newborns in the city of Maribor, Republic of Slovenia, in the period of 18 years (1976-1992). The results were considered positive in children and adolescents who in addition to possible history (chest pain, palpitations, dizziness, loss of consciousness, headaches, perspiration), probable auscultatory finding (mezzosystolic click and late systolic murmur), and suspected phonocardiographic and ECG findings, also had a positive M-mode echocardiographic finding. The criteria for MVP on M-mode echocardiography were taken from the literature: descending of mitral cusp, either anterior or posterior, of at least 3 mm below the line connecting points C and D. Children and adolescents were divided into six age groups (infants, toddlers, preschool children, early school age, children in puberty, adolescents). Assuming MVP as a cause of cardiac arrhythmias, beside standard ECG we also performed holter ECG monitoring in 61 children and adolescents (29 with MVP, 32 without MVP). The results were tested with standard statistical tools (chi 2-test, Student t-test, 2 x 2 Fisher chi 2-test). MVP was found in 71 patients (10.8%, 32 males and 39 females). As regards age and sex we found lower prevalence of MVP in male children (9.7%) compared to female children (11.9%). The highest prevalence was found in early school age, more so in females (14.2 vs 13.7). The differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In both sexes most frequent was endosystolic prolapse (males 59.3%, females 51.3%). Most commonly both cusps are involved in the prolapse (males 78.1%, females 66.7%). Most frequently measured descending of the cusps was 3-4.5 mm (males 56.2%, females 48.7%). Negative auscultatory finding (silent MVP) was detected in 47.8% of the

  4. Mitral and aortic regurgitation following transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Szymański, Piotr; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Sorysz, Danuta; Kochman, Janusz; Jastrzębski, Jan; Kukulski, Tomasz; Zembala, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the impact of postprocedural mitral regurgitation (MR), in an interaction with aortic regurgitation (AR), on mortality following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods To assess the interaction between MR and AR, we compared the survival rate of patients (i) without both significant MR and AR versus (ii) those with either significant MR or significant AR versus (iii) with significant MR and AR, all postprocedure. 381 participants of the Polish Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Registry (166 males (43.6%) and 215 females (56.4%), age 78.8±7.4 years) were analysed. Follow-up was 94.1±96.5 days. Results Inhospital and midterm mortality were 6.6% and 10.2%, respectively. Significant MR and AR were present in 16% and 8.1% patients, including 3.1% patients with both significant MR and AR. Patients with significant versus insignificant AR differed with respect to mortality (log rank p=0.009). This difference was not apparent in a subgroup of patients without significant MR (log rank p=0.80). In a subgroup of patients without significant AR, there were no significant differences in mortality between individuals with versus without significant MR (log rank p=0.44). Significant MR and AR had a significant impact on mortality only when associated with each other (log rank p<0.0001). At multivariate Cox regression modelling concomitant significant MR and AR were independently associated with mortality (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.54 to 5.71, p=0.002). Conclusions Significant MR or AR postprocedure, when isolated, had no impact on survival. Combined MR and AR had a significant impact on a patient's prognosis. PMID:26908096

  5. Normal human mitral valve proteome: A preliminary investigation by gel-based and gel-free proteomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Brioschi, Maura; Baetta, Roberta; Ghilardi, Stefania; Gianazza, Erica; Guarino, Anna; Parolari, Alessandro; Polvani, Gianluca; Tremoli, Elena; Banfi, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    The mitral valve is a highly complex structure which regulates blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle (LV) avoiding a significant forward gradient during diastole or regurgitation during systole. The integrity of the mitral valve is also essential for the maintenance of normal LV size, geometry, and function. Significant advances in the comprehension of the biological, functional, and mechanical behavior of the mitral valve have recently been made. However, current knowledge of protein components in the normal human mitral valve is still limited and complicated by the low cellularity of this tissue and the presence of high abundant proteins from the extracellular matrix. We employed here an integrated proteomic approach to analyse the protein composition of the normal human mitral valve and reported confident identification of 422 proteins, some of which have not been previously described in this tissue. In particular, we described the ability of pre-MS separation technique based on liquid-phase IEF and SDS-PAGE to identify the largest number of proteins. We also demonstrated that some of these proteins, e.g. αB-Crystallin, septin-11, four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 1, and dermatopontin, are synthesised by interstitial cells isolated from human mitral valves. These initial results provide a valuable basis for future studies aimed at analysing in depth the mitral valve protein composition and at investigating potential pathogenetic molecular mechanisms. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004397.

  6. In vitro assessment of a combined radiofrequency ablation and cryo-anchoring catheter for treatment of mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Boronyak, Steven M; Merryman, W David

    2014-03-21

    Percutaneous approaches to mitral valve repair are an attractive alternative to surgical repair or replacement. Radiofrequency ablation has the potential to approximate surgical leaflet resection by using resistive heating to reduce leaflet size, and cryogenic temperatures on a percutaneous catheter can potentially be used to reversibly adhere to moving mitral valve leaflets for reliable application of radiofrequency energy. We tested a combined cryo-anchoring and radiofrequency ablation catheter using excised porcine mitral valves placed in a left heart flow loop capable of reproducing physiologic pressure and flow waveforms. Transmitral flow and pressure were monitored during the cryo-anchoring procedure and compared to baseline flow conditions, and the extent of radiofrequency energy delivery to the mitral valve was assessed post-treatment. Long term durability of radiofrequency ablation treatment was assessed using statically treated leaflets placed in a stretch bioreactor for four weeks. Transmitral flow and pressure waveforms were largely unaltered during cryo-anchoring. Parameter fitting to mechanical data from leaflets treated with radiofrequency ablation and cryo-anchoring revealed significant mechanical differences from untreated leaflets, demonstrating successful ablation of mitral valves in a hemodynamic environment. Picrosirius red staining showed clear differences in morphology and collagen birefringence between treated and untreated leaflets. The durability study indicated that statically treated leaflets did not significantly change size or mechanics over four weeks. A cryo-anchoring and radiofrequency ablation catheter can adhere to and ablate mitral valve leaflets in a physiologic hemodynamic environment, providing a possible percutaneous alternative to surgical leaflet resection of mitral valve tissue.

  7. Towards patient-specific modeling of mitral valve repair: 3D transesophageal echocardiography-derived parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Kanik, Jingjing; Mansi, Tommaso; Voigt, Ingmar; Sharma, Puneet; Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Lin, Ben A; Sugeng, Lissa; Yuh, David; Comaniciu, Dorin; Duncan, James

    2017-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is routinely used to provide important qualitative and quantitative information regarding mitral regurgitation. Contemporary planning of surgical mitral valve repair, however, still relies heavily upon subjective predictions based on experience and intuition. While patient-specific mitral valve modeling holds promise, its effectiveness is limited by assumptions that must be made about constitutive material properties. In this paper, we propose and develop a semi-automated framework that combines machine learning image analysis with geometrical and biomechanical models to build a patient-specific mitral valve representation that incorporates image-derived material properties. We use our computational framework, along with 3D TEE images of the open and closed mitral valve, to estimate values for chordae rest lengths and leaflet material properties. These parameters are initialized using generic values and optimized to match the visualized deformation of mitral valve geometry between the open and closed states. Optimization is achieved by minimizing the summed Euclidean distances between the estimated and image-derived closed mitral valve geometry. The spatially varying material parameters of the mitral leaflets are estimated using an extended Kalman filter to take advantage of the temporal information available from TEE. This semi-automated and patient-specific modeling framework was tested on 15 TEE image acquisitions from 14 patients. Simulated mitral valve closures yielded average errors (measured by point-to-point Euclidean distances) of 1.86 ± 1.24 mm. The estimated material parameters suggest that the anterior leaflet is stiffer than the posterior leaflet and that these properties vary between individuals, consistent with experimental observations described in the literature.

  8. Factors related to sinus rhythm at discharge after radiofrequency ablation of permanent atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Rostagno, Carlo; Gelsomino, Sandro; Capecchi, Irene; Rossi, Alessandra; Montesi, Gian Franco; Stefàno, Pier Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Late recovery of sinus rhythm is unusual in patients with permanent AF treated by (radiofrequency) RF maze procedure during mitral valve surgery. Identification of clinical and instrumental preoperative factors predictive of early success of RF ablation in patients with permanent AF undergoing mitral valve surgery may improve selection of subjects to obtain long-term results. Hundred and thirty consecutive patients with permanent AF and mitral valve disease underwent modified RF maze procedure during concomitant mitral valve surgery. Rheumatic valve disease (61 pts) and mitral valve prolapse (41 pts) were the more common aetiology of valve abnormalities. Mitral valve replacement was performed in 54 % of patients and mitral valve repair in the remaining 46 %. Four patients died after surgery. At discharge, 87 patients (69 %) were in sinus rhythm (group 1) and 43 patients in AF persisted (group 2). At an average 24-month follow-up, sinus rhythm was present in 67 % of patients, and 33 % were in atrial fibrillation. In this period, late recovery of sinus rhythm was observed only in five patients, while eight discharged in sinus rhythm developed again atrial fibrillation. Among preoperative parameters at univariate analysis female sex, atrial fibrillation >24 months, left atrial diameter >54 mm, left atrial area >24 cm(2), rheumatic valve disease and NYHA class were associated with persistence of AF. At Cox regression multivariate analysis, increased left atrial area (OR 1.07 per unit increase-95 % CI 1.01-1.131) and rheumatic aetiology of valve disease (OR 4.52, 95 % CI 1.65-12.4) were associated with persistence of AF at hospital discharge. Persistence of AF after RF ablation in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery is related to aetiology, e.g. rheumatic valve disease, and to increasing left atrial diameter. Due to low rate of late recovery of sinus rhythm, indication to RF ablation associated with MV surgery should be carefully considered in patients with large

  9. Computational Modeling of Aortic Valvular Stenosis to Asses the Range of Validity of Gorlin Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, Emanuel; Agarwal, Ramesh; Rifkin, Robert; Wendl, Mike

    2003-11-01

    It is well known from clinical observations that the underestimation errors occur with the use of Gorlin formula (1) for the calculation of valve area of the stenotic aortic valve in patients with low cardiac output, that is in low flow states. Since 1951, empirical modifications to Gorlin formula have been proposed in the literaure by many researchers. In this paper, we study the mild to severe aortic valve stenosis for low to high flow rates by employing a simplified model of aortic valve. The aortic valve stenosis is modeled by a circular orifice in a flat plate embedded in the cross-section of a rigid tube (aorta). Experimental results are available for this configuration for the validation of a CFD solver "FLUENT". The numerical data base generated for this model for various degrees of stenoses and flow rates is employed to asses the range of validity of Gorlin's equation. Modifications to Gorlin formula are suggested to make it valid for all flow rates to determine the valve area for clinical use. (1) R. Gorlin and S. Gorlin," Hydraulic Formula for Calculation of the Area of Stenotic Mitral Valve, Other Cardiac Valves and Central Circulatory Shunts," Am. Heart Journal, Vol. 41, 1951, pp. 1-29.

  10. Early postpartum mitral valve thrombosis requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation before successful valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, H; Nordström, J; Brattström, O; Sennström, M M; Sartipy, U; Mattsson, E

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis in women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves. We present the case of a 29-year-old woman who developed early postpartum mitral valve thrombus after an elective cesarean delivery. The patient had a mechanical mitral valve and was treated with warfarin in the second trimester, which was replaced with high-dose dalteparin during late pregnancy. Elective cesarean delivery was performed under general anesthesia at 37weeks of gestation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for postoperative care and within 30min she developed dyspnea and hypoxia requiring mechanical ventilation. She deteriorated rapidly and developed pulmonary edema, worsening hypoxia and severe acidosis. Urgent extra corporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a mitral valve thrombus. The patient underwent a successful mitral valve replacement after three days on extra corporeal membrane oxygenation. This case highlights the importance of multidisciplinary care and frequent monitoring of anticoagulation during care of pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves.

  11. Anterior mitral valve aneurysm: a rare sequelae of aortic valve endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Muhammad Umar; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Smith, M Cristy

    2016-01-01

    Summary In intravenous drug abusers, infective endocarditis usually involves right-sided valves, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most common etiologic agent. We present a patient who is an intravenous drug abuser with left-sided (aortic valve) endocarditis caused by Enterococcus faecalis who subsequently developed an anterior mitral valve aneurysm, which is an exceedingly rare complication. A systematic literature search was conducted which identified only five reported cases in the literature of mitral valve aneurysmal rupture in the setting of E. faecalis endocarditis. Real-time 3D-transesophageal echocardiography was critical in making an accurate diagnosis leading to timely intervention. Learning objectives Early recognition of a mitral valve aneurysm (MVA) is important because it may rupture and produce catastrophic mitral regurgitation (MR) in an already seriously ill patient requiring emergency surgery, or it may be overlooked at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVR). Real-time 3D-transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3DTEE) is much more advanced and accurate than transthoracic echocardiography for the diagnosis and management of MVA. PMID:27249815

  12. Mechanical haemolytic anaemia after valve repair operations for non-rheumatic mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed Central

    Warnes, C; Honey, M; Brooks, N; Davies, J; Gorman, A; Parker, N

    1980-01-01

    Two cases are described in which severe mechanical haemolytic anaemia developed shortly after operation for repair of non-rheumatic mitral regurgitation. One patient had a "floppy" valve and the other cleft mitral leaflets, and both had chordal rupture. In both there was residual regurgitation after repair though in one this was initially only trivial. Clinically manifest haemolysis ceased after replacement of the valve by a frame-mounted xenograft. There are two previously reported cases in which haemolytic anaemia followed an unsuccessful mitral valve repair operation. Subclinical haemolysis or mild haemolytic anaemia may occur with unoperated valve lesions, but hitherto frank haemolytic anaemia has been observed only when turbulent blood flow is associated with the presence of a prosthetic valve or patch of prosthetic fabric. In these four cases, however, polyester or Teflon sutures were the only foreign material, and it is suggested that when these are used for the repair of leaflets, particularly in non-rheumatic mitral valve disease, they may increase the damaging effect of turbulence on circulating red blood cells. PMID:7426198

  13. Application of color Doppler flow mapping to calculate orifice area of St Jude mitral valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, D. Y.; Wong, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Pu, M.; Vandervoort, P. M.; Thomas, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effective orifice area (EOA) of a prosthetic valve is superior to transvalvular gradients as a measure of valve function, but measurement of mitral prosthesis EOA has not been reliable. METHODS AND RESULTS: In vitro flow across St Jude valves was calculated by hemispheric proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) and segment-of-spheroid (SOS) methods. For steady and pulsatile conditions, PISA and SOS flows correlated with true flow, but SOS and not PISA underestimated flow. These principles were then used intraoperatively to calculate cardiac output and EOA of newly implanted St Jude mitral valves in 36 patients. Cardiac output by PISA agreed closely with thermodilution (r=0.91, Delta=-0.05+/-0.55 L/min), but SOS underestimated it (r=0.82, Delta=-1.33+/-0.73 L/min). Doppler EOAs correlated with Gorlin equation estimates (r=0.75 for PISA and r=0.68 for SOS, P<0.001) but were smaller than corresponding in vitro EOA estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal flow convergence methods can calculate forward flow and estimate EOA of St Jude mitral valves, which may improve noninvasive assessment of prosthetic mitral valve obstruction.

  14. Free-floating left atrial ball thrombus early after mitral valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Sanae, T; Kazama, S; Nie, M; Miyoshi, Y; Machii, M; Ohara, K; Yoshimura, H

    2000-12-01

    A 61-year-old woman was found to have a free-floating ball, thrombus in the left atrium on echocardiographic examination 2 weeks after mitral valve replacement and tricuspid, annuloplasty. The free-floating thrombus was successfully, removed by an open-heart procedure without clinical sequelae. The diagnostic value of routine echocardiography on follow-up of valve surgery is emphasized.

  15. Fluid-structure interaction in the left ventricle of the human heart coupled with mitral valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschini, Valentina; de Tullio, Marco Donato; Querzoli, Giorgio; Verzicco, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    In this paper Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), implemented using a fully fluid-structure interaction model for the left ventricle, the mitral valve and the flowing blood, and laboratory experiments are performed in order to cross validate the results. Moreover a parameter affecting the flow dynamics is the presence of a mitral valve. We model two cases, one with a natural mitral valve and another with a prosthetic mechanical one. Our aim is to understand their different effects on the flow inside the left ventricle in order to better investigate the process of valve replacement. We simulate two situations, one of a healthy left ventricle and another of a failing one. While in the first case the flow reaches the apex of the left ventricle and washout the stagnant fluid with both mechanical and natural valve, in the second case the disturbance generated by the mechanical leaflets destabilizes the mitral jet, thus further decreasing its capability to penetrate the ventricular region and originating heart attack or cardiac pathologies in general.

  16. Radiotherapy-induced concomitant coronary artery stenosis and mitral valve disease.

    PubMed

    Akboga, Mehmet Kadri; Akyel, Ahmet; Sahinarslan, Asife; Cengel, Atiye

    2014-04-01

    Radiotherapy is extensively used in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease. One of its untoward effects is on heart. Coronary arteries and heart valves can be adversely affected from radiotherapy. However, co-existence of both conditions is very rare. In this report, we present a patient with Hodgkin's disease who developed both coronary artery stenosis and severe mitral valve regurgitation after radiotherapy.

  17. Severe mitral regurgitation and hepatopulmonary hydatid cysts: what should be treated first?

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Julio C; DeLaRosa, Jacob; Montesinos, Efrain; Rojas, Luis; Peralta, Julio; Leon, Juan J

    2008-12-01

    Hydatid cyst can simultaneously affect the liver and lung. Some patients might have additional comorbidities that can make management more challenging. Here, we present a 10-year-old boy with hepatopulmonary hydatid cysts and severe mitral regurgitation, who was successfully managed with a staged surgical approach treating the lung first, followed by the liver and finally, the heart.

  18. Left ventricular pseudoaneurysm found after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Elena; Gato, Manuel; Ruiz, José Ramón

    2010-03-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle (LV) is a rare cardiac disease that occurs after myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery. Because patients frequently present with nonspecific symptoms, a high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis. This report describes an unusual case demonstrating a large LV pseudoaneurysm after mitral valve replacement performed 30 years earlier.

  19. Rheumatic mitral regurgitation. The case for annuloplasty in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J G; Kawabori, I; Morgan, B C; Dillard, D H; Merendino, K A; Guntheroth, W G

    1975-08-01

    Eight youngsters (five female, three male, ages 10 to 19 years, mean 15 years) with isolated severe rheumatic mitral regurgitation have been subjected to mitral annuloplasty because of limiting symptoms and prominent ECG and X-ray changes. They have been followed for up to 11 years (mean 3.7 years), and 7 have had excellent results. An early (1961) patient had a small annulus and was not a favorable candidate; he had only transient improvement. Seven are greatly improved, have decreased cardiac size (often dramatic), and have improved ECG's. One has undergone successful pregnancy, and none has been limited in activities. The extent and duration of improvement, lack of mortality, and resumption of normal activities by these youngsters indicate surgical success. The essence of childhood and youth is activity and the future life span hopefully long; hence, annuloplasty would appear to be the procedure of choice for severe rheumatic mitral regurgitation in the pediatric age group, avoiding the usual need for anticoagulation and uncertain long-term results associated with mitral valve replacement.

  20. Acute Renal Infarction Secondary to Calcific Embolus from Mitral Annular Calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Bande, Dinesh; Abbara, Suhny; Kalva, Sanjeeva P.

    2011-06-15

    We report a case of a 62-year-old man who presented with right groin pain who subsequently was found to have a renal infarct secondary to calcific embolus from mitral annular calcification on CT and angiography. We briefly review the literature and discuss the importance of this entity in clinical practice.