Reentrant and forward phase diagrams of the anisotropic three-dimensional Ising spin glass.
Güven, Can; Berker, A Nihat; Hinczewski, Michael; Nishimori, Hidetoshi
2008-06-01
The spatially uniaxially anisotropic d=3 Ising spin glass is solved exactly on a hierarchical lattice. Five different ordered phases, namely, ferromagnetic, columnar, layered, antiferromagnetic, and spin-glass phases, are found in the global phase diagram. The spin-glass phase is more extensive when randomness is introduced within the planes than when it is introduced in lines along one direction. Phase diagram cross sections, with no Nishimori symmetry, with Nishimori symmetry lines, or entirely imbedded into Nishimori symmetry, are studied. The boundary between the ferromagnetic and spin-glass phases can be either reentrant or forward, that is either receding from or penetrating into the spin-glass phase, as temperature is lowered. However, this boundary is always reentrant when the multicritical point terminating it is on the Nishimori symmetry line.
Reentrant spin glass ordering in an Fe-based bulk metallic glass
Luo, Qiang; Shen, Jun
2015-02-07
We report the results of the complex susceptibility, temperature, and field dependence of DC magnetization and the nonequilibrium dynamics of a bulk metallic glass Fe{sub 40}Co{sub 8}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}Er{sub 2}. Solid indication of the coexistence of reentrant spin glass (SG) and ferromagnetic orderings is determined from both DC magnetization and AC susceptibility under different DC fields. Dynamics scaling of AC susceptibility indicates critical slowing down to a reentrant SG state with a static transition temperature T{sub s} = ∼17.8 K and a dynamic exponent zv = ∼7.3. The SG nature is further corroborated from chaos and memory effects, magnetic hysteresis, and aging behavior. We discuss the results in terms of the competition among random magnetic anisotropy and exchange interactions and compare them with simulation predictions.
Reentrant phases in electron-doped EuFe2As2 : Spin glass and superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgartner, A.; Neubauer, D.; Zapf, S.; Pronin, A. V.; Jiao, W. H.; Cao, G. H.; Dressel, M.
2017-05-01
We report evidence for a reentrant spin glass phase in electron-doped EuFe2As2 single crystals and first traces of the superconductivity reentrance in optics. In the close-to-optimal doped Eu(Fe0.91Ir0.09)2As2 and Eu(Fe0.93Rh0.07) 2As2 samples, two magnetic transitions are observed below the superconducting critical temperature Tc≈21 K: the canted A -type antiferromagnetic order of the Eu2+ ions sets in around 17 K and the spin glass behavior occurs another 2 K lower in temperature. In addition, strong evidence for an additional transition is found far below the spin glass temperature. Our extensive optical and magnetic investigations provide important insight into the interplay of local magnetism and superconductivity in these systems and elucidate the effect of the spin glass phase on the reentrant superconducting state.
Observation of linear spin wave dispersion in the reentrant spin glass Fe0.7Al0.3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, S. M.; Bao, W.; Raymond, S.; Lee, S. H.; Motoya, K.
Fe0.7Al0.3 is a reentrant spin glass, which undergoes a transition from a paramagnet to a disordered ferromagnet at Tc 500K at a lower temperature the spins progressively freeze and it exhibits a spin-glass-like behavior. In the ferromagnetic phase spin waves with a q2 dispersion are observed at small q, which broaden rapidly and become diffusive beyond a critical wave vector q0. On cooling the spin waves also disappear and a strong elastic central peak develops. For measurements around the (1,1,1) Bragg peak, a new sharp excitation is observed which has a linear dispersion behavior. It disappears above Tc, but persists throughout the spin-glass phase. It is not present in the stoichiometric Fe3Al material.
Reentrant spin glass behavior in antiferromagnetic single crystalline Ba 6Mn 24O 48 nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xianke; Tang, Shaolong; Li, Yulong; Du, Youwei
2010-04-01
Single crystalline Ba 6Mn 24O 48 nanoribbons with diameters ranging from one hundred nanometers to a few hundred nanometers and length up to tens of microns are synthesized via a facile molten salt method. These nanoribbons are characterized by a range of methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The magnetic properties of Ba 6Mn 24O 48 nanoribbons are investigated by the zero-field-cooled (ZFC), field-cooled (FC) magnetization, and ac susceptibility. Upon cooling, we find the reentrant spin glass (RSG) behavior in these nanoribbons, i.e., paramagnetic (PM), antiferromagnetic (AFM), and spin glass (SG). The RSG behavior might be due to the surface spin disorder, geometrical frustration and Mn 3+/Mn 4+ mixture in Ba 6Mn 24O 48 nanoribbons.
EuFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2: reentrant spin glass and superconductivity.
Zapf, S; Jeevan, H S; Ivek, T; Pfister, F; Klingert, F; Jiang, S; Wu, D; Gegenwart, P; Kremer, R K; Dressel, M
2013-06-07
By systematic investigations of the magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic properties of single crystals of EuFe(2)(As(1-x)P(x))(2) (0≤x≤1), we explore the complex interplay of superconductivity and Eu(2+) magnetism. Below 30 K, two magnetic transitions are observed for all P substituted crystals, suggesting a revision of the phase diagram. In addition to the canted A-type antiferromagnetic order of Eu(2+) at ∼20 K, a spin glass transition is discovered at lower temperatures. Most remarkably, the reentrant spin glass state of EuFe(2)(As(1-x)P(x))(2) coexists with superconductivity around x≈0.2.
Dynamic scaling in the ising reentrant spin glass Fe 0.62Mn 0.38Ti0 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersson, J.-O.; Gunnarsson, K.; Svedlindh, P.; Nordblad, P.; Lundgren, L.; Aruga, H.; Ito, A.
1990-08-01
The dynamic susceptibility of the Ising reentrant spin glass system Fe 0.62Mn 0.38TiO 3 has been investigated using a SQUID magnetometer. The ac susceptibility was measured in the frequency interval 5 × 10 -3 -2 × 103 Hz. The data have been analyzed assuming critical slowing down, yielding a transition temperature T RSG = 26.8 K , a dynamic exponent zv = 8.2 and an order parameter exponent β = 0.55. Also, the wait time dependence of the zero field cooled magnetization was studied.
Hiroto, T; Gebresenbut, G H; Pay Gómez, C; Muro, Y; Isobe, M; Ueda, Y; Tokiwa, K; Tamura, R
2013-10-23
Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements on quasicrystalline approximants Au-Si-Gd and Au-Ge-Gd reveal that a ferromagnetic (FM) transition occurs at Tc = 22.5(5) K for Au-Si-Gd and at Tc = 13(1) K for Au-Ge-Gd, which are the first examples of ferromagnetism in crystalline approximants. In addition, a re-entrant spin-glass (RSG) transition is observed at TRSG = 3.3 K for Au-Ge-Gd in contrast to Au-Si-Gd. The different behaviors are understood based on the recent structural models reported by Gebresenbut et al (2013 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25 135402). The RSG transition in Au-Ge-Gd is attributed to a random occupation of the center of the Gd12 icosahedron by Gd atoms; a central Gd spin hinders the long-range FM order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiroto, T.; Gebresenbut, G. H.; Pay Gómez, C.; Muro, Y.; Isobe, M.; Ueda, Y.; Tokiwa, K.; Tamura, R.
2013-10-01
Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements on quasicrystalline approximants Au-Si-Gd and Au-Ge-Gd reveal that a ferromagnetic (FM) transition occurs at Tc = 22.5(5) K for Au-Si-Gd and at Tc = 13(1) K for Au-Ge-Gd, which are the first examples of ferromagnetism in crystalline approximants. In addition, a re-entrant spin-glass (RSG) transition is observed at TRSG = 3.3 K for Au-Ge-Gd in contrast to Au-Si-Gd. The different behaviors are understood based on the recent structural models reported by Gebresenbut et al (2013 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25 135402). The RSG transition in Au-Ge-Gd is attributed to a random occupation of the center of the Gd12 icosahedron by Gd atoms; a central Gd spin hinders the long-range FM order.
Re-entrant spin glass and stepped magnetization in mixed-valence SrFe3(PO4)3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Mingyu; Chen, Yan; Tian, Ge; Yuan, Hongming; Feng, Shouhua
2013-01-01
The 2 D channel mixed-valent iron (II/III) monophosphate SrFe3(PO4)3 was synthesized via one step mild hydrothermal method at 210 °C and characterized by X-ray diffraction techniques and magnetization measurements. Coexistence of antiferromagnetic superexchange and ferromagnetic superexchange interactions was supposed to be in the lattice according to the Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rules. Temperature dependent DC magnetization measurement shows that SrFe3(PO4)3 is ferrimagnet with three magnetic transitions between 2 and 350 K. Through AC magnetization measurement, re-entrant spin glass was observed due to the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions. Furthermore, an interesting field induced stepped magnetization was observed in SrFe3(PO4)3 at 2 K with the saturation magnetization Ms=2.4 μB/f.u. at 5 T.
Re-entrant spin glass behaviour and large magnetocaloric effect in Er2PtSi3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, D. X.; Homma, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Honda, F.; Yamamura, T.; Aoki, D.
2017-04-01
We present the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of ternary intermetallic compound Er2PtSi3 with the orthorhombic Ba2LiSi3-type structure. Dc magnetization, ac susceptibilit, magnetic relaxation, electrical resistivity and specific heat measurements indicate that this system undergoes two magnetic phase transitions from a paramagnetic state sequentially to an antifwerromagnetic state at TN=5.4 K and then to a random spin freezing state at Tf=2.4 K. In addition, the large magnetocaloric effect is also observed for the Er2PtSi3 alloy. Near its Néel temperature TN, the maximum magnetic entropy change, relative cooling power and maximum adiabatic temperature change are estimated to be 16.1 Jkg-1K-1, 290 Jkg-1 and 7.7 K, respectively, for a field change of 5 T. These results suggest that Er2PtSi3 should be classified as a re-entrant spin-glass system and can be considered as a potential low-temperature magnetic refrigeration material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, P. R. T.; Ramírez, J. M. M.; Vidyasagar, R.; Machado, F. L. A.; Rezende, S. M.; Dahlberg, E. Dan
2016-09-01
Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) in the reentrant spin-glass (SG) phase of ferromagnetic Fe90Zr10 is reported. The temperature (T) dependence of the GMI allows the investigation of the spin dynamics in the SG phase in the MHz frequency regime and thus very short relaxation times τ (˜10-8 s). The GMI shows a broad maximum around 150 K and diminishes with decreasing T below the glass temperature Tg of 15 K. The magnetic permeability data obtained from the GMI data show the general features observed in the ac magnetic susceptibility measured at lower frequencies (10 ≤ f ≤ 104 Hz), yielding values of Tf (=Tg(f)) that allow testing the validity of the power-law scaling used for describing the dynamics of SG-phases up to 15 MHz. A log-log plot of τ (=1/f) versus the reduced critical temperature shows two distinct regimes in the time-domain: (1) a critical slowing-down is observed for values τ > 3 × 10-3 s; and (2) for 7 × 10-8 ≤ τ ≤ 3 × 10-3 s. In the latter case a fitting to the power-law yields the value 7.4 for the product of the critical exponents zν, and 1.6 × 10-7 s for the microscopic relaxation time τ0. The product of the exponents is appropriate for an Ising spin glass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayak, S.; Joshi, D. C.; Krautz, M.; Waske, A.; Eckert, J.; Thota, S.
2016-01-01
We report the co-existence of longitudinal ferrimagnetic behavior with Néel temperature TN ˜ 46.1 K and reentrant transverse spin-glass state at 44.05 K in Tin (Sn) doped cobalt-orthotitanate (Co2TiO4). The ferrimagnetic ordering is resulting from different magnetic moments of Co2+ on the A-sites (3.87 μB) and B-sites (5.069 μB). The magnetic compensation temperature (TCOMP) shifts from 31.74 K to 27.1 K when 40 at. % of "Sn4+" substitutes "Ti4+" at B-sites where the bulk-magnetization of two-sublattices balance each other. For T > TN, the dc-magnetic susceptibility (χdc = M/Hdc) fits well with the Néel's expression for the two-sublattice model with antiferromagnetic molecular field constants NBB ˜ 15.44, NAB ˜ 32.01, and NAA ˜ 20.88. The frequency dependence of ac-magnetic susceptibility χac data follows the Vogel-Fulcher law, and the power-law of critical slowing-down with "zν" = 6.01 suggests the existence of spin-clusters (where "z" and "ν" being dynamic critical-exponent and correlation length of critical-exponent, respectively). This system exhibits unusual hysteresis loops with large bipolar exchange-bias effect (HEB ˜ 13.6 kOe at 7 K) after zero-field cooling process from an un-magnetized state, and a dramatic collapse of remanence (MR) and coercive field (HC) across TCOMP. The possible origins of such anomalous characteristics were discussed.
Nayak, S.; Joshi, D. C.; Thota, S.; Krautz, M.; Waske, A.; Eckert, J.
2016-01-28
We report the co-existence of longitudinal ferrimagnetic behavior with Néel temperature T{sub N} ∼ 46.1 K and reentrant transverse spin-glass state at 44.05 K in Tin (Sn) doped cobalt-orthotitanate (Co{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}). The ferrimagnetic ordering is resulting from different magnetic moments of Co{sup 2+} on the A-sites (3.87 μ{sub B}) and B-sites (5.069 μ{sub B}). The magnetic compensation temperature (T{sub COMP}) shifts from 31.74 K to 27.1 K when 40 at. % of “Sn{sup 4+}” substitutes “Ti{sup 4+}” at B-sites where the bulk-magnetization of two-sublattices balance each other. For T > T{sub N}, the dc-magnetic susceptibility (χ{sub dc} = M/H{sub dc}) fits well with the Néel's expression for the two-sublattice model with antiferromagnetic molecular field constants N{sub BB} ∼ 15.44, N{sub AB} ∼ 32.01, and N{sub AA} ∼ 20.88. The frequency dependence of ac-magnetic susceptibility χ{sub ac} data follows the Vogel-Fulcher law, and the power-law of critical slowing-down with “zν” = 6.01 suggests the existence of spin-clusters (where “z” and “ν” being dynamic critical-exponent and correlation length of critical-exponent, respectively). This system exhibits unusual hysteresis loops with large bipolar exchange-bias effect (H{sub EB} ∼ 13.6 kOe at 7 K) after zero-field cooling process from an un-magnetized state, and a dramatic collapse of remanence (M{sub R}) and coercive field (H{sub C}) across T{sub COMP}. The possible origins of such anomalous characteristics were discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adachi, Masaki; Seki, Munetoshi; Yamahara, Hiroyasu; Nasu, Hidekazu; Tabata, Hitoshi
2015-04-01
(Co,Si)-cosubstituted Lu3Fe5O12 (Lu3Fe5-2xCoxSixO12 0.00 ≤ x ≤ 1.00) thin films were grown on Y3Al5O12(001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Reentrant spin-glass behavior was observed and its robustness against external magnetic fields was improved by increasing the Co-Si content. In contrast, the spectral linewidth of ferromagnetic resonance was broadened by increasing the Co-Si content, which indicates that the Lu3Fe4.8Co0.1Si0.1O12 thin film is an optimal spin-glass spin-wave conductor. The spin pumping voltage of Lu3Fe4.8Co0.1Si0.1O12 exhibited short-term plasticity with photoinduced magnetic anisotropy and long-term potentiation with the photomemory effect, which mimicked the pre- and postsynaptic potentials of biological systems.
Multiple reentrant glass transitions in confined hard-sphere glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Suvendu; Lang, Simon; Gross, Markus; Oettel, Martin; Raabe, Dierk; Franosch, Thomas; Varnik, Fathollah
2014-07-01
Glass-forming liquids exhibit a rich phenomenology upon confinement. This is often related to the effects arising from wall-fluid interactions. Here we focus on the interesting limit where the separation of the confining walls becomes of the order of a few particle diameters. For a moderately polydisperse, densely packed hard-sphere fluid confined between two smooth hard walls, we show via event-driven molecular dynamics simulations the emergence of a multiple reentrant glass transition scenario upon a variation of the wall separation. Using thermodynamic relations, this reentrant phenomenon is shown to persist also under constant chemical potential. This allows straightforward experimental investigation and opens the way to a variety of applications in micro- and nanotechnology, where channel dimensions are comparable to the size of the contained particles. The results are in line with theoretical predictions obtained by a combination of density functional theory and the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition.
On the dynamics of the reentrant spin-glass state of the Fe100-xZrx (x = 9, 10) amorphous alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, P. R. T.; Machado, F. L. A.; Dahlberg, E. Dan
2015-05-01
Low temperature magnetization (M) and ac susceptibility (χac) data were used to investigate the reentrant spin-glass state in lengths of melt-spun ribbons of Fe100-xZrx (x = 9, 10) amorphous alloys. The temperature range investigated was from 2 to 300 K, while the applied magnetic field H was varied in the range of ±85 kOe. The magnetic properties were found to be strongly influenced by the sample composition despite the fact that the amount of Fe varies by 1 at. %. For instance, the Curie temperature (TC) is reduced from 232.5 K to 213.0 K with decreasing Fe concentration, while M for the lower Fe concentration, measured at the highest applied magnetic field (H = 85 kOe) was nearly double the value for that of the higher; the coercivity in the ferromagnetic regime is reduced by a factor close to five when x is increased from 9 at. % to 10 at. %. The ac susceptibility measured for frequencies f in the range of 10-104 Hz showed a sharp drop in the magnitude of the in-phase contribution ( χa c ' ) and a peak at the out-of-phase component ( χa c ″ ), which shifts to higher temperatures with increasing values of f. The Voguel-Fulcher law applied to the χa c ″ data yielded an activation energy Ea/kB = 21.3 K (40.1 K), the glassy temperature TG = 15.5 K (38.2 K), and a relaxation time τ 0 = 9.1 × 10 - 7 s ( 8.3 × 10 - 7 s ) , for the sample with x = 10 (x = 9). A plot of χa c ″ vs χa c ' for a broad range of T and f yielded a broad maximum near the glassy temperature TG for both sample concentrations.
Dynamics of Spin Glass and Spin Glass-Like Materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Weili
1990-01-01
In this dissertation extensive research on the dynamics of both metallic and insulating spin glasses is reported. Aging was found in both metallic and insulating spin glass materials. Aging manifests itself through the waiting time dependence of the relaxation rate. Relaxation at a given age can be described by two regimes: a power law for short times, and a stretched exponential (STE) for long times. In the reentrant spin glass Eu_{0.54}Sr _{0.46}S, both regimes are observed, while in the metallic spin glass only STE is present. The time decay of the TRM, _{rm TRM }(t)_{12}, at a given age, is compared with calculation by De Dominicis et al in the frame work of mean field theory. Excellent agreement between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results suggests that mean field theory can provide a qualitative description of the nature of the spin glass phase. If the measurement time is much longer than the waiting time then the relaxation rate will depend on the total age of the system, t+t_{rm w}, where t_{rm w} is the waiting time. This shows up as a deviation from STE at long times, as was observed. Aging is explained by the existence of the complex landscape of free energy. The influence of aging on dynamics is found to decrease with increasing temperature and increasing field. We interpreted this decrease as a simplification of the free energy landscape while the system gets close to the de Almeida - Thouless (AT) line. In the "frustrated ferromagnetic" phase of Eu _{0.54}Sr_ {0.46}S slow decay of TRM is found as well as aging. A new way to determine the phase diagram from the dynamic point of view is presented.
Reentrance and ultrametricity in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Thomas, Creighton K.; Hartmann, Alexander K.
2012-02-01
We study the three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass with bimodal disorder with a fraction of 22.8% antiferromagnetic bonds. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo simulations down to very low temperatures show that for this fraction of antiferromagnetic bonds the phase diagram of the system is reentrant, in agreement with previous results. Furthemore, using a clustering analysis, we analyze the ultrametric properties of phase space for this model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Wenlong; Mandra, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a patch planting method for creating arbitrarily large spin glass instances with known ground states. The scaling of the computational complexity of these instances with various block numbers and sizes is investigated and compared with random instances using population annealing Monte Carlo and the quantum annealing DW2X machine. The method can be useful for benchmarking tests for future generation quantum annealing machines, classical and quantum mechanical optimization algorithms.
Spin disorder induced reentrant ferromagnetism in iron-based nanocomposites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, S.; Kumar, S.; Das, D.
2012-03-01
The low-temperature magnetic behavior of pure iron nanocrystallites dispersed in MgO matrix has been investigated by dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements. Irreversibilities in the magnetization data at low field are observed at low temperatures, indicating a passage from a high temperature ferromagnetic phase to a low-temperature disordered, frozen state. Quenching of these irreversibilities is seen when the external magnetic field is increased. The variation of the in-phase susceptibility with temperature showed marked frequency dependence whereas the out-of-phase susceptibility component passes through a maximum. The origin of this behavior is traced to the spin disorder at the grain boundaries, which exhibit a co-operative freezing below a certain temperature.
Reentrant superspin glass state and magnetization steps in the oxyborate Co 2AlBO5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Jitender; Panja, Soumendra Nath; John, Deepak; Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Nigam, A. K.; Nair, Sunil
2017-04-01
An oxyborate Co 2AlBO5 belonging to the ludwigite family is investigated using structural, thermodynamic, dielectric, and magnetic measurements. Magnetic measurements indicate that this system is seen to exhibit long-range magnetic ordering at T N=42 K , signatures of which are also seen in the specific heat, dielectric susceptibility, and lattice parameters. The absence of a structural phase transition down to the lowest measured temperatures distinguishes it from the more extensively investigated Fe-based ludwigites. At low temperatures, the system is seen to stabilize in a reentrant superspin glass phase at T G=10.6 K from within the magnetically ordered state. This ground state is also characterized by magnetic-field-induced metamagnetic transitions, which at the lowest measured temperatures exhibit a number of sharp magnetization steps, reminiscent of that observed in the mixed valent manganites.
Glass Transition and Re-entrant Melting in a Polydisperse Hard-Sphere Fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokuyama, Michio; Terada, Yayoi
2006-05-01
Extensive molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a hard-sphere fluid at 6% polydispersity. The simulation results are then analyzed based on the mean-field theory proposed recently by Tokuyama (Physica A 364, 23-62 (2006)). The phase diagram and the dynamic behavior are investigated fully in each phase. It is then found that as the volume fraction φ is increased, a supercooled liquid phase appears at the supercooled point φβ (≃ 0.5524) and a transition from supercooled liquid to crystal then occurs at the melting volume fraction φm(1) (≃ 0.5625). As φ is further increased, a transition from crystal to supercooled liquid (re-entrant melting) is also observed at the second melting volume fraction φm(2) (≃ 0.5770) within a waiting time tw = 7 × 104t0, where t0 is a time for a particle to move over a distance of a particle radius with an average velocity. The glass transition is thus predicted to occur at the glass transition volume fraction φg (≃ 0.6005). The various aspects obtained in our study is quite similar to those in the experiment for the suspension of hard spheres, including the logarithmic growth of the mean-square displacement in fast-β stage, the non-singular behavior of the long-time self-diffusion coefficient, and the non divergence of any characteristic times, such as the α- and β-relaxation times.
Critical aspects of three-dimensional anisotropic spin-glass models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papakonstantinou, Thodoris; Fytas, Nikolaos G.; Malakis, Anastasios; Lelidis, Ioannis
2015-04-01
We study the three-dimensional ± J Ising model with a longitudinal anisotropic bond randomness on the simple cubic lattice. The random exchange interaction is applied only in the z direction, whereas in the other two directions, xy-planes, we consider ferromagnetic exchange. By implementing an effective parallel tempering scheme, we outline the phase diagram of the model and compare it to the corresponding isotropic one. We present a detailed finite-size scaling analysis of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic and spin glass-paramagnetic transition lines, and we also discuss the ferromagnetic-spin glass transition regime. We conclude that the present model shares the same universality classes with the isotropic model, but at the symmetric point has a considerably higher transition temperature from the spin-glass state to the paramagnetic phase. Our data for the ferromagnetic-spin glass transition line support a forward behavior in contrast to the reentrant behavior of the corresponding isotropic model.
Electrical impedance measurements in reentrant Au-Fe alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barco, R.; Fraga, G. L. F.; Pureur, P.
2017-08-01
We report on impedance experiments carried out in the reentrant alloys Au-Fe 18 at.% and Au-Fe 21 at.%. A spin-glass system Au-Fe 13.5 at.% was also studied for comparison. Measurements cover an extended temperature interval including the paramagnetic state, the intermediate ferromagnetic-like phase and the low temperature reentrant regime. Several frequencies in the range 0.1-1.8 MHz were applied. Magneto-impedance measurements were also performed in low magnetic fields applied parallel to the current orientation. From the impedance versus temperature data, the real and imaginary components of the circumferential permeability were extracted. A Hopkinson maximum is observed in both permeability components of the reentrant magnets. Also observed in these systems is a downwards inflexion in the permeability versus temperature curves at the canting temperature TK where the reentrant regime sets in. The anisotropy field HK was obtained from the magneto-impedance measurements in several temperatures spanning the ferromagnetic and reentrant states. A marked increase of the HK magnitude occurs in temperatures below TK , indicating the stabilization of the reentrant phase by the anisotropic Dzyaloshisnskii-Moriya coupling. These results are in agreement with predictions of the mean-field theory that explains canting and the reentrant state with basis on the freezing of the spin components which are transverse to the field orientation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.
2014-09-01
The two-time Green function method is employed to explore the phase diagram and the magnetic-field-induced quantum criticality of a three-dimensional spin-one planar ferromagnet with easy-axis single-ion anisotropy. We adopt the Tyablikov and Anderson-Callen decouplings for higher order exchange and single-ion anisotropy Green functions, respectively. The central finding is that, within a characteristic range of the anisotropy parameter values, reentrant phenomena occur in the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point producing a sensible change of the conventional quantum critical scenario.
Equilibrium avalanches in spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Doussal, Pierre; Müller, Markus; Wiese, Kay Jörg
2012-06-01
We study the distribution of equilibrium avalanches (shocks) in Ising spin glasses which occur at zero temperature upon small changes in the magnetic field. For the infinite-range Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, we present a detailed derivation of the density ρ(ΔM) of the magnetization jumps ΔM. It is obtained by introducing a multicomponent generalization of the Parisi-Duplantier equation, which allows us to compute all cumulants of the magnetization. We find that ρ(ΔM)˜ΔM-τ with an avalanche exponent τ=1 for the SK model, originating from the marginal stability (criticality) of the model. It holds for jumps of size 1≪ΔM
Spin-glass behavior of Zr(Fe xCr 1- x) 2 compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coaquira, J. A. H.; Rechenberg, H. R.
2001-05-01
The magnetic properties of C14 Laves-phase Zr(Fe xCr 1- x) 2 (0.7⩽ x⩽0.85) alloys have been investigated. Arrott plots showed evidence of ferromagnetic ordering for alloys with x>0.7 but not for x=0.7. Zero field cooling/field cooling magnetization and Mössbauer spectroscopy data indicated spin-glass-like freezing for the sample with x=0.7 and a reentrant spin-glass behavior for samples with x>0.7. Dynamical behavior of the spin-glass sample ( x=0.7) was studied by means of AC susceptibility. Two critical lines described by T f(H)-T(0) ˜H 2/δ were obtained with δ=4.4 and 2.5, respectively.
Observation of re-entrant spin reorientation in TbFe1−xMnxO3
Fang, Yifei; Yang, Ya; Liu, Xinzhi; Kang, Jian; Hao, Lijie; Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei; Sun, Guangai; Chandragiri, Venkatesh; Wang, Chin-Wei; Cao, Yiming; Chen, Fei; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Dongfeng; Cao, Shixun; Lin, Chengtian; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Jincang
2016-01-01
We report a spin reorientation from Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) to Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) magnetic configuration near room temperature and a re-entrant transition from Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) to Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) at low temperature in TbFe1−xMnxO3 single crystals by performing both magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. The Γ4 − Γ1 spin reorientation temperature can be enhanced to room temperature when x is around 0.5 ~ 0.6. These new transitions are distinct from the well-known Γ4 − Γ2 transition observed in TbFeO3, and the sinusoidal antiferromagnetism to complex spiral magnetism transition observed in multiferroic TbMnO3. We further study the evolution of magnetic entropy change (−ΔSM) versus Mn concentration to reveal the mechanism of the re-entrant spin reorientation behavior and the complex magnetic phase at low temperature. The variation of −ΔSM between a and c axes indicates the significant change of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the TbFe1−xMnxO3 system. Furthermore, as Jahn-Teller inactive Fe3+ ions coexist with Jahn-Teller active Mn3+ ions, various anisotropy interactions, compete with each other, giving rise to a rich magnetic phase diagram. The large magnetocaloric effect reveals that the studied material could be a potential magnetic refrigerant. These findings expand our knowledge of spin reorientation phenomena and offer the alternative realization of spin-switching devices at room temperature in the rare-earth orthoferrites. PMID:27634299
Observation of re-entrant spin reorientation in TbFe1-xMnxO3.
Fang, Yifei; Yang, Ya; Liu, Xinzhi; Kang, Jian; Hao, Lijie; Chen, Xiping; Xie, Lei; Sun, Guangai; Chandragiri, Venkatesh; Wang, Chin-Wei; Cao, Yiming; Chen, Fei; Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Dongfeng; Cao, Shixun; Lin, Chengtian; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Jincang
2016-09-16
We report a spin reorientation from Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) to Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) magnetic configuration near room temperature and a re-entrant transition from Γ1(Ax, Gy, Cz) to Γ4(Gx, Ay, Fz) at low temperature in TbFe1-xMnxO3 single crystals by performing both magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. The Γ4 - Γ1 spin reorientation temperature can be enhanced to room temperature when x is around 0.5 ~ 0.6. These new transitions are distinct from the well-known Γ4 - Γ2 transition observed in TbFeO3, and the sinusoidal antiferromagnetism to complex spiral magnetism transition observed in multiferroic TbMnO3. We further study the evolution of magnetic entropy change (-ΔSM) versus Mn concentration to reveal the mechanism of the re-entrant spin reorientation behavior and the complex magnetic phase at low temperature. The variation of -ΔSM between a and c axes indicates the significant change of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy in the TbFe1-xMnxO3 system. Furthermore, as Jahn-Teller inactive Fe(3+) ions coexist with Jahn-Teller active Mn(3+) ions, various anisotropy interactions, compete with each other, giving rise to a rich magnetic phase diagram. The large magnetocaloric effect reveals that the studied material could be a potential magnetic refrigerant. These findings expand our knowledge of spin reorientation phenomena and offer the alternative realization of spin-switching devices at room temperature in the rare-earth orthoferrites.
Optimised simulated annealing for Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isakov, S. V.; Zintchenko, I. N.; Rønnow, T. F.; Troyer, M.
2015-07-01
We present several efficient implementations of the simulated annealing algorithm for Ising spin glasses on sparse graphs. In particular, we provide a generic code for any choice of couplings, an optimised code for bipartite graphs, and highly optimised implementations using multi-spin coding for graphs with small maximum degree and discrete couplings with a finite range. The latter codes achieve up to 50 spin flips per nanosecond on modern Intel CPUs. We also compare the performance of the codes to that of the special purpose D-Wave devices built for solving such Ising spin glass problems.
Dynamical scaling in ferric oxide spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irwin, G. M.
1995-06-01
A stochastic relaxation model for the Mössbauer spectra of ferric oxide spin glasses was used to analyze the spectra for the mixed spinel Mg1+tFe2-2tTitO4 with composition t=0.70. The results compare favorably with previously published results on the system BaSnxTi2-xFe4O11 with compositions x=0.40 and x=0.80, and suggest empirical scaling laws for the spin-order parameter defined as q=
Hidden amorphous phase and reentrant supercooled liquid in Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, S.; Ren, Y.; Wei, X. Y.; Wang, B.; Gilbert, E. P.; Shibayama, T.; Watanabe, S.; Ohnuma, M.; Wang, X.-L.
2017-03-01
An anomaly in differential scanning calorimetry has been reported in a number of metallic glass materials in which a broad exothermal peak was observed between the glass and crystallization temperatures. The mystery surrounding this calorimetric anomaly is epitomized by four decades long studies of Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses, arguably the best glass-forming alloys. Here we show, using a suite of in situ experimental techniques, that Pd-Ni-P alloys have a hidden amorphous phase in the supercooled liquid region. The anomalous exothermal peak is the consequence of a polyamorphous phase transition between two supercooled liquids, involving a change in the packing of atomic clusters over medium-range length scales as large as 18 Å. With further temperature increase, the alloy reenters the supercooled liquid phase, which forms the room-temperature glass phase on quenching. The outcome of this study raises a possibility to manipulate the structure and hence the stability of metallic glasses through heat treatment.
Topological Spin Glass in Diluted Spin Ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Arnab; Moessner, R.
2015-06-01
It is a salient experimental fact that a large fraction of candidate spin liquid materials freeze as the temperature is lowered. The question naturally arises whether such freezing is intrinsic to the spin liquid ("disorder-free glassiness") or extrinsic, in the sense that a topological phase simply coexists with standard freezing of impurities. Here, we demonstrate a surprising third alternative, namely, that freezing and topological liquidity are inseparably linked. The topological phase reacts to the introduction of disorder by generating degrees of freedom of a new type (along with interactions between them), which in turn undergo a freezing transition while the topological phase supporting them remains intact.
Topological Spin Glass in Diluted Spin Ice.
Sen, Arnab; Moessner, R
2015-06-19
It is a salient experimental fact that a large fraction of candidate spin liquid materials freeze as the temperature is lowered. The question naturally arises whether such freezing is intrinsic to the spin liquid ("disorder-free glassiness") or extrinsic, in the sense that a topological phase simply coexists with standard freezing of impurities. Here, we demonstrate a surprising third alternative, namely, that freezing and topological liquidity are inseparably linked. The topological phase reacts to the introduction of disorder by generating degrees of freedom of a new type (along with interactions between them), which in turn undergo a freezing transition while the topological phase supporting them remains intact.
Glass transition: 'Spin' fluctuations or free volume ?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skomski, R.
1994-08-01
Using a simple but statistically well-defined Langevin soft-spin model, the behaviour of suddenly quenched glasses is investigated. The non-equilibrium phase diagram is calculated and utilized to discuss the dependence of the glass-transition temperature on the ground-state properties of the material. The true ground state of the model is ordered, but the glass state remains stable below a non-equilibrium glass-transition temperature T o < T eq, where T eq is the temperature of the accompanying equilibrium phase transition. As opposed to semiphenomenological free-volume theories, it is not necessary to fall back on temperature-dependent energy barriers to explain the glass transition. To rationalize the tendency towards glass formation we derive rules analogous to those known as Zachariasen rules in the case of inorganic glasses.
Spin-glass transition of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass.
Campos, I; Cotallo-Aban, M; Martin-Mayor, V; Perez-Gaviro, S; Tarancon, A
2006-11-24
It is shown, by means of Monte Carlo simulation and finite size scaling analysis, that the Heisenberg spin glass undergoes a finite-temperature phase transition in three dimensions. There is a single critical temperature, at which both a spin glass and a chiral glass ordering develop. The Monte Carlo algorithm, adapted from lattice gauge theory simulations, makes it possible to thermalize lattices of size L = 32, larger than in any previous spin-glass simulation in three dimensions. High accuracy is reached thanks to the use of the Marenostrum supercomputer. The large range of system sizes studied allows us to consider scaling corrections.
Antibacterial properties of laser spinning glass nanofibers.
Echezarreta-López, M M; De Miguel, T; Quintero, F; Pou, J; Landin, M
2014-12-30
A laser-spinning technique has been used to produce amorphous, dense and flexible glass nanofibers of two different compositions with potential utility as reinforcement materials in composites, fillers in bone defects or scaffolds (3D structures) for tissue engineering. Morphological and microstructural analyses have been carried out using SEM-EDX, ATR-FTIR and TEM. Bioactivity studies allow the nanofibers with high proportion in SiO2 (S18/12) to be classified as a bioinert glass and the nanofibers with high proportion of calcium (ICIE16) as a bioactive glass. The cell viability tests (MTT) show high biocompatibility of the laser spinning glass nanofibers. Results from the antibacterial activity study carried out using dynamic conditions revealed that the bioactive glass nanofibers show a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on Sthaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) while the bioinert glass nanofibers show a bacteriostatic effect also dose-dependent. The antibacterial activity has been related to the release of alkaline ions, the increase of pH of the medium and also the formation of needle-like aggregates of calcium phosphate at the surface of the bioactive glass nanofibers which act as a physical mechanism against bacteria. The antibacterial properties give an additional value to the laser-spinning glass nanofibers for different biomedical applications, such as treating or preventing surgery-associated infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Quantum-Classical Reentrant Relaxation Crossover in Dy2Ti2O7 Spin Ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, J.; Ueland, B. G.; Slusky, J. S.; Karunadasa, H.; Cava, R. J.; Mizel, Ari; Schiffer, P.
2003-09-01
We have studied spin relaxation in the spin ice compound Dy2Ti2O7 through measurements of the ac magnetic susceptibility. While the characteristic spin-relaxation time (τ) is thermally activated at high temperatures, it becomes almost temperature independent below Tcross˜13 K. This behavior, combined with nonmonotonic magnetic field dependence of τ, indicates that quantum tunneling dominates the relaxational process below that temperature. As the low-entropy spin ice state develops below Tice˜4 K, τ increases sharply with decreasing temperature, suggesting the emergence of a collective degree of freedom for which thermal relaxation processes again become important as the spins become strongly correlated.
Hidden amorphous phase and reentrant supercooled liquid in Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses
Lan, S.; Ren, Y.; Wei, X. Y.; Wang, B.; Gilbert, E. P.; Shibayama, T.; Watanabe, S.; Ohnuma, M.; Wang, X. -L.
2017-01-01
An anomaly in differential scanning calorimetry has been reported in a number of metallic glass materials in which a broad exothermal peak was observed between the glass and crystallization temperatures. The mystery surrounding this calorimetric anomaly is epitomized by four decades long studies of Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses, arguably the best glass-forming alloys. Here we show, using a suite of in situ experimental techniques, that Pd-Ni-P alloys have a hidden amorphous phase in the supercooled liquid region. The anomalous exothermal peak is the consequence of a polyamorphous phase transition between two supercooled liquids, involving a change in the packing of atomic clusters over medium-range length scales as large as 18 Å. With further temperature increase, the alloy reenters the supercooled liquid phase, which forms the room-temperature glass phase on quenching. The outcome of this study raises a possibility to manipulate the structure and hence the stability of metallic glasses through heat treatment. PMID:28303882
Hidden amorphous phase and reentrant supercooled liquid in Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses
Lan, S.; Ren, Y.; Wei, X. Y.; ...
2017-03-17
An anomaly in differential scanning calorimetry has been reported in a number of metallic glass materials in which a broad exothermal peak was observed between the glass and crystallization temperatures. The mystery surrounding this calorimetric anomaly is epitomized by four decades long studies of Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses, arguably the best glass-forming alloys. Here we show, using a suite of in-situ experimental techniques, that Pd-Ni-P alloys have a hidden amorphous phase in the supercooled liquid region. The anomalous exothermal peak is the consequence of a polyamorphous phase transition between two supercooled liquids, involving a change in the packing of atomic clustersmore » over medium-range length scales as large as 18 Å. With further temperature increase, the alloy reenters the supercooled liquid phase which forms the room-temperature glass phase upon quenching. Finally, the outcome of this study raises a possibility to manipulate the structure and hence the stability of metallic glasses through heat-treatment.« less
Hidden amorphous phase and reentrant supercooled liquid in Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses.
Lan, S; Ren, Y; Wei, X Y; Wang, B; Gilbert, E P; Shibayama, T; Watanabe, S; Ohnuma, M; Wang, X-L
2017-03-17
An anomaly in differential scanning calorimetry has been reported in a number of metallic glass materials in which a broad exothermal peak was observed between the glass and crystallization temperatures. The mystery surrounding this calorimetric anomaly is epitomized by four decades long studies of Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses, arguably the best glass-forming alloys. Here we show, using a suite of in situ experimental techniques, that Pd-Ni-P alloys have a hidden amorphous phase in the supercooled liquid region. The anomalous exothermal peak is the consequence of a polyamorphous phase transition between two supercooled liquids, involving a change in the packing of atomic clusters over medium-range length scales as large as 18 Å. With further temperature increase, the alloy reenters the supercooled liquid phase, which forms the room-temperature glass phase on quenching. The outcome of this study raises a possibility to manipulate the structure and hence the stability of metallic glasses through heat treatment.
Ising spin glasses in dimension five
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.
2017-01-01
Ising spin-glass models with bimodal, Gaussian, uniform, and Laplacian interaction distributions in dimension five are studied through detailed numerical simulations. The data are analyzed in both the finite-size scaling regime and the thermodynamic limit regime. It is shown that the values of critical exponents and of dimensionless observables at criticality are model dependent. Models in a single universality class have identical values for each of these critical parameters, so Ising spin-glass models in dimension five with different interaction distributions each lie in different universality classes. This result confirms conclusions drawn from measurements in dimension four and dimension two.
Ising spin glasses in dimension five.
Lundow, P H; Campbell, I A
2017-01-01
Ising spin-glass models with bimodal, Gaussian, uniform, and Laplacian interaction distributions in dimension five are studied through detailed numerical simulations. The data are analyzed in both the finite-size scaling regime and the thermodynamic limit regime. It is shown that the values of critical exponents and of dimensionless observables at criticality are model dependent. Models in a single universality class have identical values for each of these critical parameters, so Ising spin-glass models in dimension five with different interaction distributions each lie in different universality classes. This result confirms conclusions drawn from measurements in dimension four and dimension two.
Spin glasses and error-correcting codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belongie, M. L.
1994-01-01
In this article, we study a model for error-correcting codes that comes from spin glass theory and leads to both new codes and a new decoding technique. Using the theory of spin glasses, it has been proven that a simple construction yields a family of binary codes whose performance asymptotically approaches the Shannon bound for the Gaussian channel. The limit is approached as the number of information bits per codeword approaches infinity while the rate of the code approaches zero. Thus, the codes rapidly become impractical. We present simulation results that show the performance of a few manageable examples of these codes. In the correspondence that exists between spin glasses and error-correcting codes, the concept of a thermal average leads to a method of decoding that differs from the standard method of finding the most likely information sequence for a given received codeword. Whereas the standard method corresponds to calculating the thermal average at temperature zero, calculating the thermal average at a certain optimum temperature results instead in the sequence of most likely information bits. Since linear block codes and convolutional codes can be viewed as examples of spin glasses, this new decoding method can be used to decode these codes in a way that minimizes the bit error rate instead of the codeword error rate. We present simulation results that show a small improvement in bit error rate by using the thermal average technique.
Interface energies in ising spin glasses.
Aspelmeier, T; Moore, M A; Young, A P
2003-03-28
The replica method has been used to calculate the interface free energy associated with the change from periodic to antiperiodic boundary conditions in finite-dimensional spin glasses. At mean-field level the interface free energy vanishes, but after allowing for fluctuation effects, a nonzero interface free energy is obtained which is significantly different from numerical expectations.
Unbridled growth of spin-glass clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kessler, David A.; Bretz, Michael
1990-03-01
We investigate the application of the recent cluster-based acceleration methods of Wolff and of Kandel et al. to the problem of simulating spin glasses. We find the techniques offer no improvement as the clusters generated by these algorithms are infinitely large or interact infinitely strongly, respectively. We comment on the reasons for this failure.
Solving spin glasses with optimized trees of clustered spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hen, Itay
2017-08-01
We present an algorithm for the optimization and thermal equilibration of spin glasses, or more generally, cost functions of the Ising form H =∑
Chiral-glass transition and replica symmetry breaking of a three-dimensional heisenberg spin glass
Hukushima; Kawamura
2000-02-01
Extensive equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations are performed for a three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with the nearest-neighbor Gaussian coupling to investigate its spin-glass and chiral-glass orderings. The occurrence of a finite-temperature chiral-glass transition without the conventional spin-glass order is established. Critical exponents characterizing the transition are different from those of the standard Ising spin glass. The calculated overlap distribution suggests the appearance of a peculiar type of replica-symmetry breaking in the chiral-glass ordered state.
From random walks to spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derrida, B.
1997-02-01
The talk was a short review on systems which exhibit non-self-averaging effects: sums of random variables when the distribution has a long tail, mean field spin glasses, random map models and returns of a random walk to the origin. Non-self-averaging effects are identical in the case of sums of random variables and in the spin glass problem as predicted by the replica approach. Also we will see that for the random map models or for the problem of the returns of a random walk to the origin, the non-self-averaging effects coincide with the results of the replica approach when the number n of replica n = - {1}/{2} or n = -1.
Almost sure convergence in quantum spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buzinski, David; Meckes, Elizabeth
2015-12-01
Recently, Keating, Linden, and Wells [Markov Processes Relat. Fields 21(3), 537-555 (2015)] showed that the density of states measure of a nearest-neighbor quantum spin glass model is approximately Gaussian when the number of particles is large. The density of states measure is the ensemble average of the empirical spectral measure of a random matrix; in this paper, we use concentration of measure and entropy techniques together with the result of Keating, Linden, and Wells to show that in fact the empirical spectral measure of such a random matrix is almost surely approximately Gaussian itself with no ensemble averaging. We also extend this result to a spherical quantum spin glass model and to the more general coupling geometries investigated by Erdős and Schröder [Math. Phys., Anal. Geom. 17(3-4), 441-464 (2014)].
Almost sure convergence in quantum spin glasses
Buzinski, David Meckes, Elizabeth
2015-12-15
Recently, Keating, Linden, and Wells [Markov Processes Relat. Fields 21(3), 537-555 (2015)] showed that the density of states measure of a nearest-neighbor quantum spin glass model is approximately Gaussian when the number of particles is large. The density of states measure is the ensemble average of the empirical spectral measure of a random matrix; in this paper, we use concentration of measure and entropy techniques together with the result of Keating, Linden, and Wells to show that in fact the empirical spectral measure of such a random matrix is almost surely approximately Gaussian itself with no ensemble averaging. We also extend this result to a spherical quantum spin glass model and to the more general coupling geometries investigated by Erdős and Schröder [Math. Phys., Anal. Geom. 17(3-4), 441–464 (2014)].
Literature Review of Spin On Glass
Peterson, Reuben James
2016-03-02
Spin on glass (SOG) is a promising material that combines the planarization properties of a low-viscosity liquid with a dielectric constant lower than that of silicon dioxide. However, as this paper will show, this material comes with significant processing and material properties challenges that must be understood and overcome. Significant research has been accomplished through a variety of processing techniques that will be reviewed here.
Exchange stiffness of a spin-glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walstedt, R. E.
1981-08-01
Numerical estimates are reported for the exchange-stiffness constant ρs of a dilute, Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-coupled spin-glass at zero temperature. Conventional stiffness behavior is found, with no resolved trend in ρs over simulation volumes of constant cross section and lengths in the ratio 1:2:3. The value of ρs is found to scale as c43 (c being the atomic fraction of magnetic ions), as expected for an r-3 interaction potential and to be ~25 times smaller than the value for a comparable ferromagnet. When one uses the Halperin-Saslow expression for the spin-wave dispersion constant, a parabolic density of spin-wave modes is found which is consistent with the low-frequency (ℏω<~0.2 meV) density of excitations recently given for 0.9 at.% Mn in Cu from numerical simulation studies.
Viet, Dao Xuan; Kawamura, Hikaru
2009-01-16
Ordering of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with Gaussian coupling is studied by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The model undergoes successive chiral-glass and spin-glass transitions at nonzero temperatures T_{CG}>T_{SG}>0, exhibiting spin-chirality decoupling.
From local to global ground states in Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zintchenko, Ilia; Hastings, Matthew B.; Troyer, Matthias
2015-01-01
We consider whether it is possible to find ground states of frustrated spin systems by solving them locally. Using spin glass physics and Imry-Ma arguments in addition to numerical benchmarks we quantify the power of such local solution methods and show that for the average low-dimensional spin glass problem outside the spin glass phase the exact ground state can be found in polynomial time. In the second part we present a heuristic, general-purpose hierarchical approach which for spin glasses on chimera graphs and lattices in two and three dimensions outperforms, to our knowledge, any other solver currently around, with significantly better scaling performance than simulated annealing.
PREFACE: Viewing the World through Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coolen, Ton; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Sourlas, Nicolas; Wong, Michael
2008-08-01
This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects papers by speakers and participants of the conference `Viewing the World through Spin Glasses', held in Oxford (UK) on 31 August and 1 September 2007 in honour of Professor David Sherrington. It also includes contributions by many other active researchers in the field of spin glasses and related problems. The theory of spin glasses has a history of more than 30 years and continues to develop within itself as well as into an unexpectedly vast range of interdisciplinary subjects, including neural networks, error-correcting codes, optimization problems and social problems. Most of these amazing developments have their formal basis in the ground-breaking work of David Sherrington with Scott Kirkpatrick, centred on the SK model and the techniques devised to analyse it via the replica method. In this 'classic-of-classics' paper, a theoretical paradigm was suddenly established which became the common tool of analysis for thousands of papers in the following decades. It also led to deep developments in probability theory, through the efforts to understand the enigmatic Parisi solution of the SK model. The work of Professor Sherrington will continue to be an infinite source of our inspiration in many years to come. The purpose of the conference `Viewing the World through Spin Glasses' was to provide an overview of the present status of the fields which Professor Sherrington initiated, on the occasion of his 65th birthday, organized by John Cardy, Juan P Garrahan and the present Guest Editors. The first contribution in this special issue, by Professor Paul Goldbart, reflects his salute delivered at the conference dinner, and conveys its atmosphere very well. The papers that follow, ordered by the date of acceptance, represent the current activities of leading researchers in spin glasses and related fields, and we expect these to serve as milestones for future developments. We thank all the
Lookman, Turab; Vasseur, Romain
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that a strain pseudo-spin model for martensitic alloys predicts a glass phase in the presence of disorder, consistent with recent experiments on binary and temary alloys that have established the existence of such a phase above a critical composition. We find that the glass phase, as characterized by the Edwards-Andersen order parameter, exists even in the absence of elastic long-range interactions which compete with the disorder to shift the glass transition to higher values of disorder. Our model predicts a second order phase transition between the martensite and strain glass phases as a function of the disorder. Together with the cusp in the susceptibility and the history dependence in the glass phase in zero-field-cooling and field-cooling curves, these predictions may be tested experimentally by varying the alloy composition. Our approach using mean-field analysis and Monte Carlo simulations may be generalized to the study of glassy behavior in more complex structural transformations in two and three dimensions.
Ising spin glass that closely resembles the physical glass transition.
Mansfield, Marc L
2002-07-01
We consider a modification of the one-dimensional Ising model in an external field in which the higher-energy spin state is assumed to be P-fold degenerate. The model shows a transition that becomes first order in the limit of infinite coupling constant. Here we report a study of the dynamical properties of the model by computer simulation in the vicinity of this transition, under the assumption that the model evolves by single spin flips with Metropolis bias, but with certain forbidden flips. The result is a model that exhibits many well-known empirical properties of the physical glass transition, including the "Kauzmann paradox," the Vogel law, stretched-exponential relaxation, and dynamic heterogeneity.
Correlated rattling-ion origins of dielectric properties in reentrant dipole glasses BaTiO3-BiScO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krayzman, Victor; Levin, Igor; Woicik, Joseph C.; Bridges, Frank
2015-11-01
The local structure of the pseudo-cubic solid solution 0.6BaTiO3-0.4BiScO3, which exhibits reentrant dipole-glass behavior, has been determined using the Reverse Monte Carlo method to simultaneously fit (1) neutron and X-ray total scattering data (including the corresponding real-space pair-distribution functions), (2) Bi and Sc extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and (3) patterns of diffuse scattering in electron diffraction. These structural refinements revealed the multi-site probability density distributions for both Bi (14-sites) and Ti (8 sites), whereas Ba and Sc featured normal unimodal distributions. Bi atoms are displaced along both the <111> and <100> directions, while Ti atoms are shifted along <111>. Correlated dynamic hopping of Bi and Ti over their corresponding split sites combined with chemical disorder is proposed as the origin of the strong frequency dispersion observed in dielectric measurements. The existence of split sites also explains the reentrant dipole-glass behavior reported for this system.
Krayzman, Victor; Levin, Igor Woicik, Joseph C.; Bridges, Frank
2015-11-09
The local structure of the pseudo-cubic solid solution 0.6BaTiO{sub 3}-0.4BiScO{sub 3}, which exhibits reentrant dipole-glass behavior, has been determined using the Reverse Monte Carlo method to simultaneously fit (1) neutron and X-ray total scattering data (including the corresponding real-space pair-distribution functions), (2) Bi and Sc extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and (3) patterns of diffuse scattering in electron diffraction. These structural refinements revealed the multi-site probability density distributions for both Bi (14-sites) and Ti (8 sites), whereas Ba and Sc featured normal unimodal distributions. Bi atoms are displaced along both the 〈111〉 and 〈100〉 directions, while Ti atoms are shifted along 〈111〉. Correlated dynamic hopping of Bi and Ti over their corresponding split sites combined with chemical disorder is proposed as the origin of the strong frequency dispersion observed in dielectric measurements. The existence of split sites also explains the reentrant dipole-glass behavior reported for this system.
Quantum Optimization of Fully Connected Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venturelli, Davide; Mandrà, Salvatore; Knysh, Sergey; O'Gorman, Bryan; Biswas, Rupak; Smelyanskiy, Vadim
2015-07-01
Many NP-hard problems can be seen as the task of finding a ground state of a disordered highly connected Ising spin glass. If solutions are sought by means of quantum annealing, it is often necessary to represent those graphs in the annealer's hardware by means of the graph-minor embedding technique, generating a final Hamiltonian consisting of coupled chains of ferromagnetically bound spins, whose binding energy is a free parameter. In order to investigate the effect of embedding on problems of interest, the fully connected Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with random ±1 couplings is programmed on the D-Wave TwoTM annealer using up to 270 qubits interacting on a Chimera-type graph. We present the best embedding prescriptions for encoding the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick problem in the Chimera graph. The results indicate that the optimal choice of embedding parameters could be associated with the emergence of the spin-glass phase of the embedded problem, whose presence was previously uncertain. This optimal parameter setting allows the performance of the quantum annealer to compete with (and potentially outperform, in the absence of analog control errors) optimized simulated annealing algorithms.
Chiral Potts spin glass in d=2 and 3 dimensions.
Çağlar, Tolga; Berker, A Nihat
2016-09-01
The chiral spin-glass Potts system with q=3 states is studied in d=2 and 3 spatial dimensions by renormalization-group theory and the global phase diagrams are calculated in temperature, chirality concentration p, and chirality-breaking concentration c, with determination of phase chaos and phase-boundary chaos. In d=3, the system has ferromagnetic, left-chiral, right-chiral, chiral spin-glass, and disordered phases. The phase boundaries to the ferromagnetic, left- and right-chiral phases show, differently, an unusual, fibrous patchwork (microreentrances) of all four (ferromagnetic, left-chiral, right-chiral, chiral spin-glass) ordered phases, especially in the multicritical region. The chaotic behavior of the interactions, under scale change, are determined in the chiral spin-glass phase and on the boundary between the chiral spin-glass and disordered phases, showing Lyapunov exponents in magnitudes reversed from the usual ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic spin-glass systems. At low temperatures, the boundaries of the left- and right-chiral phases become thresholded in p and c. In d=2, the chiral spin-glass Potts system does not have a spin-glass phase, consistently with the lower-critical dimension of ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic spin glasses. The left- and right-chirally ordered phases show reentrance in chirality concentration p.
Fluctuation-dissipation ratio of the Heisenberg spin glass.
Kawamura, Hikaru
2003-06-13
The fluctuation-dissipation (FD) relation of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with weak random anisotropy is studied by off-equilibrium Monte Carlo simulation. The numerically determined FD ratio exhibits a "one-step-like" behavior, the effective temperature of the spin-glass state being about twice the spin-glass transition temperature, T(eff) approximately 2T(g), irrespective of the bath temperature. The results are discussed in conjunction with the recent experiment by Hérisson and Ocio, and with the chirality scenario of the spin-glass transition.
Tapping Spin Glasses and Ferromagnets on Random Graphs
Dean, David S.; Lef {grave e}vre, Alexandre
2001-06-18
We consider a tapping dynamics, analogous to that in experiments on granular media, on spin glasses and ferromagnets on random thin graphs. Between taps, zero temperature single spin flip dynamics takes the system to a metastable state. Tapping corresponds to flipping simultaneously any spin with probability p . This dynamics leads to a stationary regime with a steady state energy E(p) . We analytically solve this dynamics for the one-dimensional ferromagnet and {+-}J spin glass. Numerical simulations for spin glasses and ferromagnets of higher connectivity are carried out; in particular, we find a novel first order transition for the ferromagnetic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Čenčariková, Hana; Strečka, Jozef; Lyra, Marcelo L.
2016-03-01
The generalized decoration-iteration transformation is adapted for the exact study of a coupled spin-electron model on 2D lattices in which localized Ising spins reside on nodal lattice sites and mobile electrons are delocalized over pairs of decorating sites. The model takes into account a hopping term for mobile electrons, the Ising coupling between mobile electrons and localized spins as well as the Ising coupling between localized spins (J ‧). The ground state, spontaneous magnetization and specific heat are examined for both ferromagnetic (J ‧ > 0) as well as antiferromagnetic (J ‧ < 0) interaction between the localized spins. Several kinds of reentrant transitions between the paramagnetic (P), antiferromagnetic (AF) and ferromagnetic (F) phases have been found either with a single critical point, or with two consecutive critical points (P - AF / F - P) and three successive critical points AF / F - P - F / AF - P. Striking thermal variations of the spontaneous magnetization depict a strong reduction due to the interplay between annealed disorder and quantum fluctuations in addition to the aforementioned reentrance. It is shown that the specific heat displays diverse thermal dependencies including finite cusps at the critical temperatures.
The Ising Spin Glass in dimension four
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.
2015-09-01
The critical behaviors of the bimodal and Gaussian Ising spin glass (ISG) models in dimension four are studied through extensive numerical simulations, and from an analysis of high temperature series expansion (HTSE) data of Klein et al. (1991). The simulations include standard finite size scaling measurements, thermodynamic limit regime measurements, and analyses which provide estimates of critical exponents without any consideration of the critical temperature. The higher order HTSE series for the bimodal model provide accurate estimates of the critical temperature and critical exponents. These estimates are independent of and fully consistent with the simulation values. Comparisons between ISG models in dimension four show that the critical exponents and the critical constants for dimensionless observables depend on the form of the interaction distribution of the model.
Spin glasses: redux: an updated experimental/materials survey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mydosh, J. A.
2015-05-01
This article reviews the 40+ year old spin-glass field and one of its earliest model interpretations as a spin density wave. Our description is from an experimental phenomenological point of view with emphasis on new spin glass materials and their relation to topical problems and strongly correlated materials in condensed matter physics. We first simply define a spin glass (SG), give its basic ingredients and explain how the spin glasses enter into the statistical mechanics of classical phase transitions. We then consider the four basic experimental properties to solidly characterize canonical spin glass behavior and introduce the early theories and models. Here the spin density wave (SDW) concept is used to explain the difference between a short-range SDW, i.e. a SG and, in contrast, a long-range SDW, i.e. a conventional magnetic phase transition. We continue with the present state of SG, its massive computer simulations and recent proposals of chiral glasses and quantum SG. We then collect and mention the various SG ‘spin-off’s'. A major section uncovers the fashionable unconventional materials that display SG-like freezing and glassy ground states, such as (high temperature) superconductors, heavy fermions, intermetallics and Heuslers, pyrochlor and spinels, oxides and chalogenides and exotics, e.g. quasicrystals. Some conclusions and future directions complete the review.
Depolarization in reentrant spin glasses: a comparison between neutron and muon probes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirebeau, I.; Hennion, M.; Gingras, M. J. P.; Keren, A.; Kojima, K.; Larkin, M.; Luke, G. M.; Nachumi, B.; Wu, W. D.; Uemura, Y. J.; Campbell, I. A.; Morris, G. D.
1997-04-01
In the amorphous ( Fe1-x Mn_x)75 P16 B_6 Al_3 alloys, muon and neutron depolarization data, combined with the results of small angle neutron scattering, magnetization and Mössbauer spectroscopy, probe the existence of three distinct magnetic transitions at TC, TK and TF (TF < K < C).
Orbital glass and spin glass states of 3He-A in aerogel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriev, V. V.; Krasnikhin, D. A.; Mulders, N.; Senin, A. A.; Volovik, G. E.; Yudin, A. N.
2010-06-01
Glass states of superfluid A-like phase of 3He in aerogel induced by random orientations of aerogel strands are investigated theoretically and experimentally. In anisotropic aerogel with stretching deformation two glass phases are observed. Both phases represent the anisotropic glass of the orbital ferromagnetic vector Î—the orbital glass (OG). The phases differ by the spin structure: the spin nematic vector hat d can be either in the ordered spin nematic (SN) state or in the disordered spin-glass (SG) state. The first phase (OG-SN) is formed under conventional cooling from normal 3He. The second phase (OG-SG) is metastable, being obtained by cooling through the superfluid transition temperature, when large enough resonant continuous radio-frequency excitation is applied. NMR signature of different phases allows us to measure the parameter of the global anisotropy of the orbital glass induced by deformation.
Thermodynamic glass transition in a spin glass without time-reversal symmetry.
Baños, Raquel Alvarez; Cruz, Andres; Fernandez, Luis Antonio; Gil-Narvion, Jose Miguel; Gordillo-Guerrero, Antonio; Guidetti, Marco; Iñiguez, David; Maiorano, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Monforte-Garcia, Jorge; Muñoz Sudupe, Antonio; Navarro, Denis; Parisi, Giorgio; Perez-Gaviro, Sergio; Ruiz-Lorenzo, Juan Jesus; Schifano, Sebastiano Fabio; Seoane, Beatriz; Tarancon, Alfonso; Tellez, Pedro; Tripiccione, Raffaele; Yllanes, David
2012-04-24
Spin glasses are a longstanding model for the sluggish dynamics that appear at the glass transition. However, spin glasses differ from structural glasses in a crucial feature: they enjoy a time reversal symmetry. This symmetry can be broken by applying an external magnetic field, but embarrassingly little is known about the critical behavior of a spin glass in a field. In this context, the space dimension is crucial. Simulations are easier to interpret in a large number of dimensions, but one must work below the upper critical dimension (i.e., in d < 6) in order for results to have relevance for experiments. Here we show conclusive evidence for the presence of a phase transition in a four-dimensional spin glass in a field. Two ingredients were crucial for this achievement: massive numerical simulations were carried out on the Janus special-purpose computer, and a new and powerful finite-size scaling method.
Thermodynamic glass transition in a spin glass without time-reversal symmetry
Baños, Raquel Alvarez; Cruz, Andres; Fernandez, Luis Antonio; Gil-Narvion, Jose Miguel; Gordillo-Guerrero, Antonio; Guidetti, Marco; Iñiguez, David; Maiorano, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Monforte-Garcia, Jorge; Muñoz Sudupe, Antonio; Navarro, Denis; Parisi, Giorgio; Perez-Gaviro, Sergio; Ruiz-Lorenzo, Juan Jesus; Schifano, Sebastiano Fabio; Seoane, Beatriz; Tarancon, Alfonso; Tellez, Pedro; Tripiccione, Raffaele; Yllanes, David
2012-01-01
Spin glasses are a longstanding model for the sluggish dynamics that appear at the glass transition. However, spin glasses differ from structural glasses in a crucial feature: they enjoy a time reversal symmetry. This symmetry can be broken by applying an external magnetic field, but embarrassingly little is known about the critical behavior of a spin glass in a field. In this context, the space dimension is crucial. Simulations are easier to interpret in a large number of dimensions, but one must work below the upper critical dimension (i.e., in d < 6) in order for results to have relevance for experiments. Here we show conclusive evidence for the presence of a phase transition in a four-dimensional spin glass in a field. Two ingredients were crucial for this achievement: massive numerical simulations were carried out on the Janus special-purpose computer, and a new and powerful finite-size scaling method. PMID:22493229
Reversal-field memory in the hysteresis of spin glasses.
Katzgraber, H G; Pázmándi, F; Pike, C R; Liu, Kai; Scalettar, R T; Verosub, K L; Zimányi, G T
2002-12-16
We report a novel singularity in the hysteresis of spin glasses, the reversal-field memory effect, which creates a nonanalyticity in the magnetization curves at a particular point related to the history of the sample. The origin of the effect is due to the existence of a macroscopic number of "symmetric clusters" of spins associated with a local spin-reversal symmetry of the Hamiltonian. We use first order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams to characterize the effect and compare to experimental results on thin magnetic films. We contrast our results on spin glasses to random magnets and show that the FORC technique is an effective "magnetic fingerprinting" tool.
Gálisová, Lucia
2016-11-30
The thermodynamic and magnetocaloric properties of a generalized spin-(1/2, s) Fisher's super-exchange antiferromagnet are investigated precisely by using the decoration-iteration mapping transformation. Besides the critical temperature, sublattice magnetization, total magnetization, entropy and specific heat, the isothermal entropy change and adiabatic temperature change are also rigorously calculated in order to examine the cooling efficiency of the model in the vicinity of the first- and second-order phase transitions. It is shown that an enhanced inverse magnetocaloric effect occurs around the temperature interval [Formula: see text] for any magnetic-field change [Formula: see text]. The most pronounced inverse magnetocaloric effect can be found nearby the critical field, which corresponds to the zero-temperature phase transition from the long-range ordered ground state to the paramagnetic one. The observed phenomenon increases with an increasing value of decorating spins. Furthermore, sufficiently high values of decorating spins have also been linked to the possibility of observing reentrant phase transitions at finite temperatures.
Frustration in Vicinity of Transition Point of Ising Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazaki, Ryoji
2013-09-01
We conjecture the existence of a relationship between frustration and the transition point at zero temperature of Ising spin glasses. The relation reveals that, in several Ising spin glass models, the concentration of ferromagnetic bonds is close to the critical concentration at zero temperature when the output of a function about frustration is equal to unity. The function is the derivative of the average number of frustrated plaquettes with respect to the average number of antiferromagnetic bonds. This relation is conjectured in Ising spin glasses with binary couplings on two-dimensional lattices, hierarchical lattices, and three-body Ising spin glasses with binary couplings on two-dimensional lattices. In addition, the same argument in the Sherrington--Kirkpatrick model yields a point that is identical to the replica-symmetric solution of the transition point at zero temperature.
Non-perturbative effects in spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellana, Michele; Parisi, Giorgio
2015-03-01
We present a numerical study of an Ising spin glass with hierarchical interactions--the hierarchical Edwards-Anderson model with an external magnetic field (HEA). We study the model with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in the mean-field (MF) and non-mean-field (NMF) regions corresponding to d >= 4 and d < 4 for the d-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model respectively. We compare the MC results with those of a renormalization-group (RG) study where the critical fixed point is treated as a perturbation of the MF one, along the same lines as in the -expansion for the Ising model. The MC and the RG method agree in the MF region, predicting the existence of a transition and compatible values of the critical exponents. Conversely, the two approaches markedly disagree in the NMF case, where the MC data indicates a transition, while the RG analysis predicts that no perturbative critical fixed point exists. Also, the MC estimate of the critical exponent ν in the NMF region is about twice as large as its classical value, even if the analog of the system dimension is within only ~2% from its upper-critical-dimension value. Taken together, these results indicate that the transition in the NMF region is governed by strong non-perturbative effects.
Non-perturbative effects in spin glasses
Castellana, Michele; Parisi, Giorgio
2015-01-01
We present a numerical study of an Ising spin glass with hierarchical interactions—the hierarchical Edwards-Anderson model with an external magnetic field (HEA). We study the model with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in the mean-field (MF) and non-mean-field (NMF) regions corresponding to d ≥ 4 and d < 4 for the d-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model respectively. We compare the MC results with those of a renormalization-group (RG) study where the critical fixed point is treated as a perturbation of the MF one, along the same lines as in the -expansion for the Ising model. The MC and the RG method agree in the MF region, predicting the existence of a transition and compatible values of the critical exponents. Conversely, the two approaches markedly disagree in the NMF case, where the MC data indicates a transition, while the RG analysis predicts that no perturbative critical fixed point exists. Also, the MC estimate of the critical exponent ν in the NMF region is about twice as large as its classical value, even if the analog of the system dimension is within only ~2% from its upper-critical-dimension value. Taken together, these results indicate that the transition in the NMF region is governed by strong non-perturbative effects. PMID:25733337
Hierarchical models and chaotic spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berker, A. Nihat; McKay, Susan R.
1984-09-01
Renormalization-group studies in position space have led to the discovery of hierarchical models which are exactly solvable, exhibiting nonclassical critical behavior at finite temperature. Position-space renormalization-group approximations that had been widely and successfully used are in fact alternatively applicable as exact solutions of hierarchical models, this realizability guaranteeing important physical requirements. For example, a hierarchized version of the Sierpiriski gasket is presented, corresponding to a renormalization-group approximation which has quantitatively yielded the multicritical phase diagrams of submonolayers on graphite. Hierarchical models are now being studied directly as a testing ground for new concepts. For example, with the introduction of frustration, chaotic renormalization-group trajectories were obtained for the first time. Thus, strong and weak correlations are randomly intermingled at successive length scales, and a new microscopic picture and mechanism for a spin glass emerges. An upper critical dimension occurs via a boundary crisis mechanism in cluster-hierarchical variants developed to have well-behaved susceptibilities.
Bond chaos in spin glasses revealed through thermal boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2016-06-01
Spin glasses have competing interactions that lead to a rough energy landscape which is highly susceptible to small perturbations. These chaotic effects strongly affect numerical simulations and, as such, gaining a deeper understanding of chaos in spin glasses is of much importance. The use of thermal boundary conditions is an effective approach to study chaotic phenomena. Here we generalize population annealing Monte Carlo, combined with thermal boundary conditions, to study bond chaos due to small perturbations in the spin-spin couplings of the three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass. We show that bond and temperature-induced chaos share the same scaling exponents and that bond chaos is stronger than temperature chaos.
Effect of magnetic fields on spin glass dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Qiang; Harrison, David C.; Orbach, Raymond L.
2017-08-01
The effects of a magnetic field on spin glass dynamics are explored for a Cu0.887Mn0.113 thin film of thickness L =20 nm in a multilayer configuration. An experimental protocol removes uncertainties associated with the time dependence of the field-cooled magnetization MFC(t ,T ) . Activated dynamics is exhibited after the spin glass correlation length ξ (t ,T ) has reached L , creating a quasiequilibrium state. The activation energy depends upon the strength of the magnetic field H . The magnitude of the activation energy diminishes as H2, the coefficient of which is proportional to the number of correlated spins. A quantitative fit requires a "pancakelike" correlated region, associated with the T =0 phase transition for a spin glass in D =2 dimensions.
Efficient Cluster Algorithm for Spin Glasses in Any Space Dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Zheng; Ochoa, Andrew J.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2015-08-01
Spin systems with frustration and disorder are notoriously difficult to study, both analytically and numerically. While the simulation of ferromagnetic statistical mechanical models benefits greatly from cluster algorithms, these accelerated dynamics methods remain elusive for generic spin-glass-like systems. Here, we present a cluster algorithm for Ising spin glasses that works in any space dimension and speeds up thermalization by at least one order of magnitude at temperatures where thermalization is typically difficult. Our isoenergetic cluster moves are based on the Houdayer cluster algorithm for two-dimensional spin glasses and lead to a speedup over conventional state-of-the-art methods that increases with the system size. We illustrate the benefits of the isoenergetic cluster moves in two and three space dimensions, as well as the nonplanar chimera topology found in the D-Wave Inc. quantum annealing machine.
Effective Hamiltonians of 2D Spin Glass Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clement, Colin; Liarte, Danilo; Middleton, Alan; Sethna, James
2015-03-01
We have a method for directly identifying the clusters which are thought to dominate the dynamics of spin glasses. We also have a method for generating an effective Hamiltonian treating each cluster as an individual spin. We used these methods on a 2D Ising spin glass with Gaussian bonds. We study these systems by generating samples and correlation functions using a combination of Monte Carlo and high-performance numerically exact Pfaffian methods. With effective cluster Hamiltonians we can calculate the free energy asymmetry of the original clusters and perform a scaling analysis. The scaling exponents found are consistent with Domain-Wall Renormalization Group methods, and probe all length scales. We can also study the flow of these effective Hamiltonians by clustering the clustered spins, and we find that our hard spin Hamiltonians at high temperature retain accurate low-temperature fluctuations when compared to their parent models.
Finite block pseudo-spin approach of proton glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kwang-Sei; Koo, Je Huan; Lee, Cheol Eui
2016-08-01
We herein propose an alternative phenomenology to explain the phase of proton glass by reference to finite block spin theory in magnetism, in which the phase may be considered as being a short-range ferroelectric ordering of block pseudo-spins comprised of random pseudo-spins that have a majority of individual pseudo-spins in a given sense. By making use of the Curie law of block pseudo-spins, we obtained the dielectric susceptibility for the lower and higher temperature approximations of the Brillouin function. The experimental results for the susceptibility in hydrogen-bonded mixed crystals of ferroelectric RbH2P(As)O4 and antiferroelectric NH4H2P(As)O4 were thus fitted fairly well at low temperatures in the proton glass phase whereas some deviation from our formulation was seen at high temperatures in the paraelectric phase.
Improved extremal optimization for the Ising spin glass.
Middleton, A Alan
2004-05-01
A version of the extremal optimization (EO) algorithm introduced by Boettcher and Percus is tested on two- and three-dimensional spin glasses with Gaussian disorder. EO preferentially flips spins that are locally "unfit"; the variant introduced here reduces the probability of flipping previously selected spins. Relative to EO, this adaptive algorithm finds exact ground states with a speedup of order 10(4) (10(2) ) for 16(2) - (8(3) -) spin samples. This speedup increases rapidly with system size, making this heuristic a useful tool in the study of materials with quenched disorder.
Chaos in spin glasses revealed through thermal boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2015-09-01
We study the fragility of spin glasses to small temperature perturbations numerically using population annealing Monte Carlo. We apply thermal boundary conditions to a three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass. In thermal boundary conditions all eight combinations of periodic versus antiperiodic boundary conditions in the three spatial directions are present, each appearing in the ensemble with its respective statistical weight determined by its free energy. We show that temperature chaos is revealed in the statistics of crossings in the free energy for different boundary conditions. By studying the energy difference between boundary conditions at free-energy crossings, we determine the domain-wall fractal dimension. Similarly, by studying the number of crossings, we determine the chaos exponent. Our results also show that computational hardness in spin glasses and the presence of chaos are closely related.
The connection between statics and dynamics of spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wittmann, Matthew; Young, A. P.
2016-01-01
We present results of numerical simulations on a one-dimensional Ising spin glass with long-range interactions. Parameters of the model are chosen such that it is a proxy for a short-range spin glass above the upper critical dimension (i.e. in the mean-field regime). The system is quenched to a temperature well below the transition temperature {{T}\\text{c}} and the growth of correlations is observed. The spatial decay of the correlations at distances less than the dynamic correlation length ξ (t) agrees quantitatively with the predictions of a static theory, the ‘metastate’, evaluated according to the replica symmetry breaking (RSB) theory. We also compute the dynamic exponent z (T ) defined by ξ (t)\\propto {{t}1/z(T)} and find that it is compatible with the mean-field value of the critical dynamical exponent for short range spin glasses.
Improved fair sampling of ground states in Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Zhu, Zheng; Ochoa, Andrew J.
2015-03-01
Verifying that an optimization approach can sample all solutions that minimize a Hamiltonian is a stringent test for any newly-developed algorithm. While most solvers easily compute the minimum of a cost function for small to moderate input sizes, equiprobable sampling of all ground-state configurations (within Poissonian fluctuations) is much harder to obtain. Most notably, methods such as transverse-field quantum annealing fail in passing this test for certain highly-degenerate problems. Here we present an attempt to sample ground states for Ising spin glasses based on a combination of low-temperature parallel tempering Monte Carlo combined with the cluster algorithm by Houdayer. Because the latter is rejection free and obeys details balance, the ground-state manifold is efficiently sampled. We illustrate the approach for Ising spin glasses on the D-Wave Two quantum annealer topology, known as the Chimera graph, as well as two-dimensional Ising spin glasses.
The Spin Glass-Kondo Competition in Disordered Cerium Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magalhaes, S. G.; Zimmer, F.; Coqblin, B.
2013-10-01
We discuss the competition between the Kondo effect, the spin glass state and a magnetic order observed in disordered Cerium systems. We present firstly the experimental situation of disordered alloys such as CeNi1 - xCux and then the different theoretical approaches based on the Kondo lattice model, with different descriptions of the intersite exchange interaction for the spin glass. After the gaussian approach of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, we discuss the Mattis and the van Hemmen models. Then, we present simple cluster calculations in order to describe the percolative evolution of the clusters from the cluster spin glass to the inhomogeneous ferromagnetic order recently observed in CeNi1 - xCux disordered alloys and finally we discuss the effect of random and transverse magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indra, A.; Dey, K.; Majumdar, S.; Sarkar, I.; Francoual, S.; Giri, R. P.; Khan, N.; Mandal, P.; Giri, S.
2017-03-01
We report intrinsic memory effect in magnetization and dielectricity for the spin-chain compound Sm2BaNiO5 , pointing the cooperative glassy response below ˜8 K . Signature of anomaly around 8 K is verified by the magnetization, heat capacity, dielectric permittivity, magnetostriction, and structural parameters as obtained from the synchrotron diffraction studies. Intriguingly, the memory effect is observed well below the magnetic and ferroelectric ordering temperatures, pointing to a reentrant frozen state. Ferroelectricity emerges above antiferromagnetic Néel temperature at 45 K. For 4.5 kV/cm poling field the spontaneous electric polarization attains the value of 1300 μ C /m2, that is the highest value in the R2BaNiO5 series. Synchrotron diffraction studies confirm that ferroelectricity emerges due to structural transition from the centrosymmetric I m m m to a noncentrosymmetric I m m 2 space group. Magnetoelectric coupling is significant and scales linearly to the squared magnetization as described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mercaldo, M. T.; Rabuffo, I.; De Cesare, L.; Caramico D'Auria, A.
2017-10-01
The Devlin two-time Green function framework is used to investigate the role played by the easy-axis single-ion anisotropy on the phase diagram of (d > 2) -dimensional spin-1 planar ferromagnets which exhibit a magnetic-field-induced quantum phase transition (QPT). In this scheme, the exchange anisotropy terms in the equations of motion are treated at the Tyablikov decoupling level while the crystal field anisotropy contribution is handled exactly. The emerging key result is a reentrant structure of the phase diagram close to the quantum critical point for a well defined window of values of the single-ion anisotropy parameter. This experimentally interesting feature was recently recovered by employing the Anderson-Callen decoupling (ACD) which is considered to provide meaningful results only for small values of the single-ion anisotropy parameter. In this context, our findings suggest that the simplest ACD treatment offers the possibility to have, at least qualitatively, a correct physical scenario of quantum criticality close to a field-induced QPT avoiding the limiting mathematical difficulties involved in the Devlin scheme.
Aging dynamics of quantum spin glasses of rotors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennett, Malcolm P.; Chamon, Claudio; Ye, Jinwu
2001-12-01
We study the long time dynamics of quantum spin glasses of rotors using the nonequilibrium Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. These models are known to have a quantum phase transition from a paramagnetic to a spin-glass phase, which we approach by looking at the divergence of the spin-relaxation rate at the transition point. In the aging regime, we determine the dynamical equations governing the time evolution of the spin response and correlation functions, and show that all terms in the equations that arise solely from quantum effects are irrelevant at long times under time reparametrization group (RPG) transformations. At long times, quantum effects enter only through the renormalization of the parameters in the dynamical equations for the classical counterpart of the rotor model. Consequently, quantum effects only modify the out-of-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation (OEFDR), i.e. the ratio X between the temperature and the effective temperature, but not the form of the classical OEFDR.
The structure of enumerated spin glass state spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schubert, Sven; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz
2006-02-01
We enumerate the low energy part of the state space of an Ising spin glass using an efficient branch-and-bound algorithm. A coarse graining algorithm (NB-clustering) is employed to condense the inherent information to a system size which is treatable in computer simulations. The reduced state space still incorporates all ingredients necessary to simulate aging effects. We investigate its structure in detail and find that certain assumptions made in heuristical state space models which have been presented in the past to reproduce aging phenomena in spin glass experiments are indeed compatible with the data from the observed state spaces.
Zero-Temperature Fluctuations in Short-Range Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arguin, L.-P.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.; Wehr, J.
2016-06-01
We consider the energy difference restricted to a finite volume for certain pairs of incongruent ground states (if they exist) in the d-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass at zero temperature. We prove that the variance of this quantity with respect to the couplings grows proportionally to the volume in any d ≥ 2. An essential aspect of our result is the use of the excitation metastate. As an illustration of potential applications, we use this result to restrict the possible structure of spin glass ground states in two dimensions.
Cumulative overlap distribution function in realistic spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billoire, A.; Maiorano, A.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Yllanes, D.
2014-09-01
We use a sample-dependent analysis, based on medians and quantiles, to analyze the behavior of the overlap probability distribution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and 3D Edwards-Anderson models of Ising spin glasses. We find that this approach is an effective tool to distinguish between replica symmetry breaking-like and droplet-like behavior of the spin-glass phase. Our results are in agreement with a replica symmetry breaking-like behavior for the 3D Edwards-Anderson model.
Instability of spin glass phase in divalent iron phosphate glass under a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakatsuka, Yuko; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa
2017-01-01
The spin glass behaviour of 50FeO · 50P2O5 (in mol%) glass has been examined under finite magnetic fields. The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, i.e. the mean field theory, is unsuitable for the interpretation of the frequency dependence of the ac magnetic susceptibility observed under an external field of 0.1 T; the critical exponent derived from the SK model is unphysically large. On the other hand, the droplet model explains well the frequency and field dependence of the spin-freezing temperature and the exponent of the thermally activated process is within the range defined by the droplet model. The results indicate that the spin glass phase of the 50FeO · 50P2O5 glass is unstable against magnetic fields.
Instability of spin glass phase in divalent iron phosphate glass under a magnetic field.
Nakatsuka, Yuko; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa
2017-01-18
The spin glass behaviour of 50FeO · 50P2O5 (in mol%) glass has been examined under finite magnetic fields. The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, i.e. the mean field theory, is unsuitable for the interpretation of the frequency dependence of the ac magnetic susceptibility observed under an external field of 0.1 T; the critical exponent derived from the SK model is unphysically large. On the other hand, the droplet model explains well the frequency and field dependence of the spin-freezing temperature and the exponent of the thermally activated process is within the range defined by the droplet model. The results indicate that the spin glass phase of the 50FeO · 50P2O5 glass is unstable against magnetic fields.
Image restoration using the Q-Ising spin glass.
Inoue, J; Carlucci, D M
2001-09-01
We investigate static and dynamic properties of gray-scale image restoration by making use of the Q-Ising spin glass model, whose ladder symmetry allows us to take in account the distance between two spins. We thus give an explicit expression of the Hamming distance between the original and restored images as a function of the hyperparameters in the mean field limit. Finally, numerical simulations for real-world pictures are carried out to prove the efficiency of our model.
Glass Nanofibers from Fragile Melts Produced by Laser Spinning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieste, O.; Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.
Laser Spinning is a new technique enabling the production of large quantity of very long amorphous ceramic nanofibers. This technique has been successfully tested with different material compositions, probing its capability to produce fibers of inorganic oxides that cannot be produced by any other technique. Precise control of the process allows for the production of amorphous nanofibers of non-ready glass former materials and the unprecedented synthesis of glass nanofibers from very fragile melts. This outcome demonstrates the capability for the synthesis of glass nanofibers with applications in the field of fire retardant fabrics, catalysis or high refractory materials.
Non-compact local excitations in spin-glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamarcq, J.; Bouchaud, J.-P.; Martin, O. C.; Mézard, M.
2002-05-01
We study numerically the local low-energy excitations in the 3d Edwards-Anderson model for spin-glasses. Given the ground state, we determine the lowest-lying connected cluster of flipped spins with a fixed volume containing one given spin. These excitations are not compact, having a fractal dimension close to two, suggesting an analogy with lattice animals. Also, their energy does not grow with their size; the associated exponent is slightly negative whereas the one for compact clusters is positive. These findings call for a modification of the basic hypotheses underlying the droplet model.
Non-self-averaging in Ising spin glasses and hyperuniversality.
Lundow, P H; Campbell, I A
2016-01-01
Ising spin glasses with bimodal and Gaussian near-neighbor interaction distributions are studied through numerical simulations. The non-self-averaging (normalized intersample variance) parameter U_{22}(T,L) for the spin glass susceptibility [and for higher moments U_{nn}(T,L)] is reported for dimensions 2,3,4,5, and 7. In each dimension d the non-self-averaging parameters in the paramagnetic regime vary with the sample size L and the correlation length ξ(T,L) as U_{nn}(β,L)=[K_{d}ξ(T,L)/L]^{d} and so follow a renormalization group law due to Aharony and Harris [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3700 (1996)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3700]. Empirically, it is found that the K_{d} values are independent of d to within the statistics. The maximum values [U_{nn}(T,L)]_{max} are almost independent of L in each dimension, and remarkably the estimated thermodynamic limit critical [U_{nn}(T,L)]_{max} peak values are also practically dimension-independent to within the statistics and so are "hyperuniversal." These results show that the form of the spin-spin correlation function distribution at criticality in the large L limit is independent of dimension within the ISG family. Inspection of published non-self-averaging data for three-dimensional Heisenberg and XY spin glasses the light of the Ising spin glass non-self-averaging results show behavior which appears to be compatible with that expected on a chiral-driven ordering interpretation but incompatible with a spin-driven ordering scenario.
Non-self-averaging in Ising spin glasses and hyperuniversality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.
2016-01-01
Ising spin glasses with bimodal and Gaussian near-neighbor interaction distributions are studied through numerical simulations. The non-self-averaging (normalized intersample variance) parameter U22(T ,L ) for the spin glass susceptibility [and for higher moments Un n(T ,L ) ] is reported for dimensions 2 ,3 ,4 ,5 , and 7. In each dimension d the non-self-averaging parameters in the paramagnetic regime vary with the sample size L and the correlation length ξ (T ,L ) as Un n(β ,L ) =[Kdξ (T ,L ) /L ] d and so follow a renormalization group law due to Aharony and Harris [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3700 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3700]. Empirically, it is found that the Kd values are independent of d to within the statistics. The maximum values [Unn(T,L ) ] max are almost independent of L in each dimension, and remarkably the estimated thermodynamic limit critical [Unn(T,L ) ] max peak values are also practically dimension-independent to within the statistics and so are "hyperuniversal." These results show that the form of the spin-spin correlation function distribution at criticality in the large L limit is independent of dimension within the ISG family. Inspection of published non-self-averaging data for three-dimensional Heisenberg and X Y spin glasses the light of the Ising spin glass non-self-averaging results show behavior which appears to be compatible with that expected on a chiral-driven ordering interpretation but incompatible with a spin-driven ordering scenario.
Anisotropy Dependence of the Chiral Susceptibility in Canonical Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanaka, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Kawarazaki, S.
2006-09-01
The influence of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) anisotropy on the extraordinary Hall coefficient Rs ≡ ρ xy M, where ρxy is the extraordinary Hall resistivity and which contains the chiral susceptibility, is investigated on canonical spin glass alloys. The strength of the DM anisotropy of the alloys was changed systematically by doping with a third non-magnetic impurity. The Hall resistivity ρh, and the magnetization M were measured simultaneously in the series of (Ag1-xAux)0 9Mn0 1 alloys with x = 0, 0.007, 0.03, and 0.05. The difference between the values of zero field cooled and field cooled Rs, below the spin glass transition temperature, clearly increases with the amount of Au impurities. This indicates that the DM anisotropy plays an important role in the appearance of the chiral susceptibility in canonical spin glasses. The result is discussed in relation to recent proposals for the chirality mechanism of the Hall effect in canonical spin glasses.
Clustering of Nonergodic Eigenstates in Quantum Spin Glasses.
Baldwin, C L; Laumann, C R; Pal, A; Scardicchio, A
2017-03-24
The two primary categories for eigenstate phases of matter at a finite temperature are many-body localization (MBL) and the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We show that, in the paradigmatic quantum p-spin models of the spin-glass theory, eigenstates violate the ETH yet are not MBL either. A mobility edge, which we locate using the forward-scattering approximation and replica techniques, separates the nonergodic phase at a small transverse field from an ergodic phase at a large transverse field. The nonergodic phase is also bounded from above in temperature, by a transition in configuration-space statistics reminiscent of the clustering transition in the spin-glass theory. We show that the nonergodic eigenstates are organized in clusters which exhibit distinct magnetization patterns, as characterized by an eigenstate variant of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter.
Nonequilibrium evolution of window overlaps in spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manssen, Markus; Hartmann, Alexander K.; Young, A. P.
2015-03-01
We investigate numerically the time dependence of "window" overlaps in a three-dimensional Ising spin glass below its transition temperature after a rapid quench. Using an efficient GPU implementation, we are able to study large systems up to lateral length L =128 and up to long times of t =108 sweeps. We find that the data scales according to the ratio of the window size W to the nonequilibrium coherence length ξ (t ) . We also show a substantial change in behavior if the system is run for long enough that it globally equilibrates, i.e., ξ (t )≈L /2 , where L is the lattice size. This indicates that the local behavior of a spin glass depends on the spin configurations (and presumably also the bonds) far away. We compare with similar simulations for the Ising ferromagnet. Based on these results, we speculate on a connection between the nonequilibrium dynamics discussed here and averages computed theoretically using the "metastate."
Clustering of Nonergodic Eigenstates in Quantum Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldwin, C. L.; Laumann, C. R.; Pal, A.; Scardicchio, A.
2017-03-01
The two primary categories for eigenstate phases of matter at a finite temperature are many-body localization (MBL) and the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We show that, in the paradigmatic quantum p -spin models of the spin-glass theory, eigenstates violate the ETH yet are not MBL either. A mobility edge, which we locate using the forward-scattering approximation and replica techniques, separates the nonergodic phase at a small transverse field from an ergodic phase at a large transverse field. The nonergodic phase is also bounded from above in temperature, by a transition in configuration-space statistics reminiscent of the clustering transition in the spin-glass theory. We show that the nonergodic eigenstates are organized in clusters which exhibit distinct magnetization patterns, as characterized by an eigenstate variant of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tareyeva, E. E.; Schelkacheva, T. I.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.
2013-02-01
We investigate near the point of glass transition the expansion of the free energy corresponding to the generalized Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model with arbitrary diagonal operators Uˆ standing instead of Ising spins. We focus on the case when Uˆ is an operator with broken reflection symmetry. Such a consideration is important for understanding the behavior of spin glass-like phases in a number of real physical systems, mainly in orientational glasses in mixed molecular crystals which present just the case. We build explicitly a full replica symmetry breaking (FRSB) solution of the equations for the orientational glass order parameters when the nonsymmetric part of Uˆ is small. This particular result presents a counterexample in the context of usually adopted conjecture of the absence of FRSB solution in systems with no reflection symmetry.
Effect of glass structure on spin Hamiltonian parameters: Cu doped tellurite glasses
Ramamoorthy, Raj Kumar; Bhatnagar, Anil K.
2015-06-24
Cu-doped glasses with compositions [(70TeO{sub 2}−(30−x)ZnO−xPbO){sub 0.98}− (CuO){sub 0.02}] (x = 5, 10, 15, 20) were prepared using the melt quenching technique and characterized by EPR. Cu{sup 2+} ions are found to be in distorted oxygen octahedral cage and their corresponding spin Hamiltonian (splitting) parameters are deduced for all glasses as a function of increasing PbO. Finally, effect of the matrix on spin Hamiltonian parameters of Cu{sup 2+} ions are correlated with the help of EPR and earlier Raman analysis.
Static magnetic properties and relaxation of the insulating spin glass Co1-xMnxCl2.H2O
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Defotis, G. C.; Coker, G. S.; Jones, J. W.; Branch, C. S.; King, H. A.; Bergman, J. S.; Lee, S.; Goodey, J. R.
1998-11-01
The magnetic properties of Co1-xMnxCl2.H2O are examined by dc magnetization and susceptibility measurements, for x=0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90, and 0.95 between 1.8 and 300 K. The pure components are a quasi-one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet (Mn) and an antiferromagnetic reentrant spin glass (Co) with some low-dimensional character. The Curie and Weiss constants, in χM=C/(T-θ), show regular composition dependence, with θ(x) varying nonlinearly from positive to negative values as x increases. Antiferromagnetic maxima often occur, and transition temperatures are estimated for most mixtures. The T-x diagram shows two descending boundaries from either composition extreme; any transition temperatures for x=0.5-0.8 are lower than we can measure. Magnetization isotherms evolve with composition, and associated hysteretic effects weaken with increasing x. The nonlinear susceptibility for x=0.30 shows structure, but does not diverge. The thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) is examined in detail for x=0.30, 0.40, and 0.50. Its temperature dependence shows characteristic features, but does not follow any simple form. Systematic variation in the TRM with cooling field and composition is apparent. The time dependence of the TRM is fit using a stretched exponential decay form. Systematic variations in the fit parameters with temperature, cooling field, and composition emerge. For low to moderate temperatures, the TRM is found to scale according to T log10(t/τ0), with τ0~10-12-10-13 s. For x=0.30 and 0.50, strong and weak irreversibility lines are determined. The former conform better to a recent prediction for the short-range three-dimensional Ising spin glass, τg~h0.53, than to the DeAlmeida-Thouless mean-field form τg~h2/3 best-fit exponents are slightly less than 0.53. For the weak irreversibility lines, the dependence of τg on field is much weaker than the Gabay-Toulouse form τg~h2. The presence of strong random anisotropy is a
Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin glasses.
Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Müller, Markus
2014-10-01
We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin glasses with continuous XY symmetry, which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T=0 configurations of the XY phases as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events and study the correlation between the nonlinear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, similarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size. We also observe that the Hessians of the spin-glass minima are not part of standard random matrix ensembles as the lowest eigenvector has a fractal support.
Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Müller, Markus
2014-10-01
We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin glasses with continuous XY symmetry, which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T =0 configurations of the XY phases as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events and study the correlation between the nonlinear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, similarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size. We also observe that the Hessians of the spin-glass minima are not part of standard random matrix ensembles as the lowest eigenvector has a fractal support.
Rejuvenation and Memory in Model Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, S.; Martín-Mayor, V.; Pérez-Gaviro, S.
We study memory and rejuvenation effects in Isingspin-glasses in 3 and 4 dimensions. In D=3, 1000 times larger than in previous work are reached using the SUE machine. Memory and rejuvenation are found in a 2 temperatures cycle. Similar effects are reported for the site-diluted Ising model (without chaos). However, rejuvenation is reduced if off-equilibrium corrections to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem are considered. Memory and rejuvenation are describable in terms of the growth-regime of a coherence-length.
Imagawa, Daisuke; Kawamura, Hikaru
2004-02-20
The spin and the chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass with the weak random anisotropy are studied under applied magnetic fields by equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations. A replica symmetry breaking transition occurs in the chiral sector accompanied by the simultaneous spin-glass order. The ordering behavior differs significantly from that of the Ising spin glass, despite the similarity in the global symmetry. Our observation is consistent with the spin-chirality decoupling-recoupling scenario of a spin-glass transition.
Pair correlation function for spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Julio F.; Alonso, Juan J.
2012-10-01
We extract a pair correlation function (PCF) from probability distributions of the spin-overlap parameter q. The distributions come from Monte Carlo simulations. A measure, w, of the thermal fluctuations of magnetic patterns follows from the PCFs. We also obtain rms deviations (over different system samples) δp away from average probabilities for q. For the linear system sizes L that we have studied, w and δp are independent of L in the Edwards-Anderson model but scale as 1/L and L, respectively, in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.
Spin-glass transition in Heisenberg spin system with ± J random bonds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghazali, A.; Lallemand, P.; Diep, H. T.
1986-02-01
We investigate by Monte Carlo simulations the simple cubic lattice with Heisenberg spins interacting via short range ± J random bonds for different antiferromagnetic bond concentrations x. We find that for x<0.25, a transition of the para-ferromagnetic type occurs. For 0.25⪅ x⩽0.5, the existence of a remanant magnetization and of a rounded peak of the specific heat together with other data support a paramagnetic-spin-glass transition at finite temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
M, Y. Ali; J, Poulter
2013-06-01
In this work we study the correlation function of the ground state of a two-dimensional fully frustrated Ising model as well as spin glass. The Pfaffian method is used to calculate free energy and entropy as well as the correlation function. We estimate the exponent of spin correlation function for the fully frustrated model and spin glass. In this paper an overview of the latest results on the spin correlation function is presented.
Parallel tempering and 3D spin glass models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papakonstantinou, T.; Malakis, A.
2014-03-01
We review parallel tempering schemes and examine their main ingredients for accuracy and efficiency. We discuss two selection methods of temperatures and some alternatives for the exchange of replicas, including all-pair exchange methods. We measure specific heat errors and round-trip efficiency using the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model, and also test the efficiency for the ground state production in 3D spin glass models. We find that the optimization of the GS problem is highly influenced by the choice of the temperature range of the PT process. Finally, we present numerical evidence concerning the universality aspects of an anisotropic case of the 3D spin-glass model.
Universal dynamic scaling in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Cheng-Wei; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Sandvik, Anders W.; Young, A. P.
2015-08-01
We use a nonequilibrium Monte Carlo simulation method and dynamical scaling to study the phase transition in three-dimensional Ising spin glasses. The transition point is repeatedly approached at finite velocity v (temperature change versus time) in Monte Carlo simulations starting at a high temperature. This approach has the advantage that the equilibrium limit does not have to be strictly reached for a scaling analysis to yield critical exponents. For the dynamic exponent we obtain z =5.85 (9 ) for bimodal couplings distribution and z =6.00 (10 ) for the Gaussian case. Assuming universal dynamic scaling, we combine the two results and obtain z =5.93 ±0.07 for generic 3D Ising spin glasses.
Effects of random fields in an antiferromagnetic Ising spin glass
Vieira; Nobre; Yokoi
2000-05-01
The effects of random fields on the two-sublattice infinite-ranged Ising spin-glass model are investigated. This model is expected to be appropriate as a mean-field description of antiferromagnetic spin glasses such as FexMn1-xTiO3. Within replica-symmetric calculations, we study the influence of Gaussian and bimodal random fields on the phase transitions and phase diagrams. It is shown that, in the presence of random fields, the first-order transitions are weakened and may become continuous. Also, the antiferromagnetic phases are always destroyed by sufficiently strong random fields. A qualitative comparison with existing experimental results and the limitations of the present calculations are discussed.
Magnetic Field Dependence of Spin Glass Free Energy Barriers.
Guchhait, Samaresh; Orbach, Raymond L
2017-04-14
We measure the field dependence of spin glass free energy barriers in a thin amorphous Ge:Mn film through the time dependence of the magnetization. After the correlation length ξ(t,T) has reached the film thickness L=155 Å so that the dynamics are activated, we change the initial magnetic field by δH. In agreement with the scaling behavior exhibited in a companion Letter [M. Baity-Jesi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 157202 (2017)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.118.157202], we find that the activation energy is increased when δH<0. The change is proportional to (δH)^{2} with the addition of a small (δH)^{4} term. The magnitude of the change of the spin glass free energy barriers is in near quantitative agreement with the prediction of a barrier model.
A Spin Glass Model with Vibrations of Crystal Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Yu-Min; Cheng, Li-Min; Yao, Kai-Lun
2005-01-01
With the help of the replica method and imaginary-time functional-integrate technique, the spin glass model with the vibrations of crystal lattices is investigated. In the limit of the replica symmetry and the imaginary-time static approximation, the magnetic and thermodynamic quantities have been obtained. By the numerical calculations, we found that the magnetization of the system has the typical spin-glass behaviour. A peak is found in the susceptibility-temperature curve and is shifted to lower temperature with increasing applied field. Due to the lattice contribution, the specific heat increases strongly at high temperature. Due to the magnetic contribution, the anomaly in the specific heat-temperature curve forms a λ-type peak, which agrees with the observation of Rojo et al. [Phys. Rev. B 66 (2002) 094406].
Ising spin glass with arbitrary spin beyond the mean field theory.
Walasek, K; Lukierska-Walasek, K; Wodawski, M
1999-05-01
We consider the Ising spin glass for the arbitrary spin S with the short-ranged interaction using the Bethe-Peierls approximation previously formulated by Serva and Paladin [Phys. Rev. E. 54, 4637 (1996)] for the same system but limited to S=1/2. Results obtained by us for arbitrary S are not a simple generalization of those for S=1/2. In this paper we mainly concentrate our studies on the calculation of the critical temperature and the linear susceptibility in the paramagnetic phase as functions of the dimension of the system and spin number S. These dependences are illustrated by corresponding plots.
Spin glasses and the statistical mechanics of protein folding.
Bryngelson, J D; Wolynes, P G
1987-01-01
The theory of spin glasses was used to study a simple model of protein folding. The phase diagram of the model was calculated, and the results of dynamics calculations are briefly reported. The relation of these results to folding experiments, the relation of these hypotheses to previous protein folding theories, and the implication of these hypotheses for protein folding prediction schemes are discussed. PMID:3478708
Fluctuation Bounds For Interface Free Energies in Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arguin, L.-P.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.; Wehr, J.
2014-07-01
We consider the free energy difference restricted to a finite volume for certain pairs of incongruent thermodynamic states (if they exist) in the Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass at nonzero temperature. We prove that the variance of this quantity with respect to the couplings grows proportionally to the volume in any dimension greater than or equal to two. As an illustration of potential applications, we use this result to restrict the possible structure of Gibbs states in two dimensions.
Replica symmetry breaking in cold atoms and spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotondo, P.; Tesio, E.; Caracciolo, S.
2015-01-01
We consider a system composed by N atoms trapped within a multimode cavity, whose theoretical description is captured by a disordered multimode Dicke model. We show that in the resonant, zero-field limit the system exactly realizes the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. Upon a redefinition of the temperature, the same dynamics is realized in the dispersive, strong-field limit. This regime also gives access to spin-glass observables which can be used to detect replica symmetry breaking.
Spin-glass structures in biological systems (abstract)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsapin, Alexandre I.; Blumenfeld, L. A.
1994-05-01
We have discovered spin-glass structures in different biological systems like animal and plant tissues, cells, chloroplasts, mitochondria, etc. These structures were detected by the ESR method. This work has been done using a synchronous culture of yeasts, saccharomyces cer. To detect spin-glass structures in a biological system, the sample must be cooled in the presence of a strong magnetic field, from 77 to 10 K. After such cooling, we recorded the ESR signal at g factor about 3.0 caused by spin-glass structures. The rotation of the sample at 10 K relative to the permanent magnetic field (always present in ESR experiments) leads to the significant change in the intensity of the ESR signal as well as in its shape. The curve of the dependence of the ESR signal intensity on the magnetic field in which the sample was cooled is S-shaped. The cooling of the same sample in zero magnetic field resulted in the absence of the ESR signal at g=3,0. It had been shown that the maximum ESR signal at g factor about 3,0 was reached 15 min before the beginning of mitosis. The study of the properties of the ESR signal at g=3,0 allowed us to make the conclusion that the paramagnetic centers responsible for this signal have been formed by Fe(II) ions localized at the chromosomes. Formed during mitosis, spin-glass structures which play a significant role in cell biology, can be detected only by the ESR method in field cooling experiments.
Evidence for Glass and Spin-Glass Phase Transitions From the Dynamic Susceptibility
Bitko, D.; Coppersmith, S. N.; Leheny, R. L.; Menon, N.; Nagel, S. R.; Rosenbaum, T. F.
1997-01-01
We present evidence that there is a phase transition, with a diverging static susceptibility, underlying the transformation of a liquid into a glass. The dielectric susceptibility, at frequencies above its characteristic value, shows a power-law tail extending over many decades to higher frequencies. An extrapolation of this behavior to the temperature where the dynamics becomes arrested indicates a diverging susceptibility. We present evidence for analogous behavior in the magnetic susceptibility of a paramagnet approaching the spin-glass transition. The similarity of the response in these two glassy systems suggests that some conventional lore, such as that the spin glass shows evidence for a diverging correlation length only in a nonlinear but not in the linear susceptibility, may be invalid. PMID:27805138
The glass crossover from mean-field Spin-Glasses to supercooled liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizzo, Tommaso
2016-03-01
Stochastic-Beta-Relaxation provides a characterisation of the glass crossover in discontinuous Spin-Glasses and supercoooled liquid. Notably it can be derived through a rigorous computation from a dynamical Landau theory. In this paper, I will discuss the precise meaning of this connection in a language that does not require familiarity with statistical field theory. I will discuss finite-size corrections in mean-field Spin-Glass models and loop corrections in finite-dimensional models that are both described by the dynamical Landau theory considered. Then I will argue that the same Landau theory can be associated to supercooled liquid described by Mode-Coupling Theory invoking a physical principle of time-scale invariance.
Universality class of XY -like spin glasses lacking time-reversal symmetry
Gingras, M.J.P. )
1991-10-01
{ital XY}-like spin-glass models without time-reversal symmetry are considered, with attention focused on the gauge glass and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya {ital XY} spin glass. A mean-field approximation of the replicated Ginzburg-Landau free energy of these models is used to show that, due to the lack of time-reversal symmetry, these models have two soft (massless) modes at the transition. A consequence of this result is that all {ital XY}-like spin glasses lacking time-reversal symmetry belong to the same universality class, but which is a different one from that found for Ising and isotropic vector spin glasses.
Numerical study of vortex-glass order in random-superconductor and related spin-glass models
Gingras, M.J.P. )
1992-04-01
A model of disordered superconducting grains in a strong magnetic field, a related random-gauge glass model, and two versions of an {ital XY} spin-glass model with random spin-orbit interactions are discussed. Results from an extensive zero-temperature finite-size scaling study of the defect-wall energy are presented to show that these four models probably belong to a new spin-glass universality class and that the lower critical dimension for a vortex-glass transition at nonzero temperature in these models is slightly {ital below} {ital three} {ital dimensions}.
Evidence of reentrant behavior in nanoparticles of ferrite in ferrofluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zins, D.; Nakatsuka, K.; Gendron, F.; Rivoire, M.
1999-07-01
Ferrofluids made up of mixed ferrite particles Mn 1- xZn xFe 2O 4 mono-dispersed in glycerol have been studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in X band and by magnetization measurements in the temperature range of 3.5-300 K. FMR spectra have been recorded on field-cooled samples. Some features of these spectra are typical of a transition from ferro to spin-glass state, i.e. a reentrant behavior. By taking relaxation into account in the frame of Landau Lifchitz formalism, the freezing temperature Tf=40 K was accurately determined, in good agreement with temperature measurements of the static magnetic susceptibility of field-cooled ferrofluid samples.
From spin glass to quantum spin liquid ground states in molybdate pyrochlores.
Clark, L; Nilsen, G J; Kermarrec, E; Ehlers, G; Knight, K S; Harrison, A; Attfield, J P; Gaulin, B D
2014-09-12
We present new magnetic heat capacity and neutron scattering results for two magnetically frustrated molybdate pyrochlores: S=1 oxide Lu_{2}Mo_{2}O_{7} and S=1/2 oxynitride Lu_{2}Mo_{2}O_{5}N_{2}. Lu_{2}Mo_{2}O_{7} undergoes a transition to an unconventional spin glass ground state at T_{f}∼16 K. However, the preparation of the corresponding oxynitride tunes the nature of the ground state from spin glass to quantum spin liquid. The comparison of the static and dynamic spin correlations within the oxide and oxynitride phases presented here reveals the crucial role played by quantum fluctuations in the selection of a ground state. Furthermore, we estimate an upper limit for a gap in the spin excitation spectrum of the quantum spin liquid state of the oxynitride of Δ∼0.05 meV or Δ/|θ|∼0.004, in units of its antiferromagnetic Weiss constant θ∼-121 K.
The Effect of Size on Spin Glass Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, Katrina R.
There has been considerable interest in the effect of sample size on the Kondo resistance contribution in metals. Previous work in this lab has suggested that the Kondo slope is suppressed with decreasing size because of the confinement of electrons to a volume smaller than the spin compensation cloud that forms in these systems. Simultaneously, there has been a fair amount of research on the effect of size on the freezing temperature of a spin glass. But many questions remain. Is the cloud picture correct vs. other competing theories? Will the suppression of the Kondo slope persist in more concentrated samples? How does size effect the inter-impurity interaction in these samples? The purpose of this work is to integrate the results on Kondo and spin glass systems and to present a single underlying physical explanation for the size effects in these systems. We have performed resistance measurements on magnetic impurities (Cr) in a noble metal host (Cu) using various sample sizes. We present evidence suggesting that the resistance maximum is a legitimate way to characterize our films. We show that it is possible to examine the effects of size on the Kondo slope even in these concentrated samples and also in the presence of an applied field. The magnetic field is used to characterize the inter-impurity interaction. We present data on the size effect and the appropriate length scales for the modification of the inter -impurity interaction. We find supporting evidence for our results in studies on the magnetoresistivity and on the effect of overlayers on pure spin glasses. In addition, we examine the effect of concentration. We compare to a theory of the resistance maximum and find that our results agree well with expected behavior. We conclude that both the Kondo effect and the inter-impurity interaction are suppressed by size because of the confinement of the electrons to limited volumes and hope to convince the reader likewise.
Spin-polarized nitroxide radicals in organic glasses.
Tarasov, V. F.; Shkrob, I. A.; Trifunac, A. D.; Chemistry
2002-01-01
Nonequilibrium spin polarization formed in a stable nitroxide radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (Tempo) due to the occurrence of Chemically Induced Dynamic Electron Polarization (CIDEP) in photoexcited molecular complexes of this radical with 1,4-benzoquinone, 1,4-naphthaquinone, 9,10-anthraquinone, and their derivatives is observed. These complexes occur spontaneously in low-temperature organic glasses (20-70 K) upon freezing the concentrated liquid solutions. The emissive net polarization in the nitroxide radical is observed 0.1-10 {mu}s after the photoexcitation of the p-quinone moiety. No degradation of the polarized magnetic resonance signal from Tempo after >104 excitation cycles was observed. This spin polarization is shown to be mainly due to a polarization transfer from the lowest triplet state of the p-quinone. This transfer is driven by the electron spin exchange interaction between the nitroxide radical and the triplet p-quinone; it occurs simultaneously with a spin-selective electronic relaxation of the photoexcited complex. The resulting mechanism combines the features of the electron spin polarization transfer (ESPT) and radical-triplet pair mechanisms (RTPM) in liquid. A theoretical model of such a mechanism is suggested.
Full replica symmetry breaking in p-spin-glass-like systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schelkacheva, T. I.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.
2017-02-01
It is shown that continuously changing the effective number of interacting particles in p-spin-glass-like model allows to describe the transition from the full replica symmetry breaking glass solution to stable first replica symmetry breaking glass solution in the case of non-reflective symmetry diagonal operators used instead of Ising spins. As an example, axial quadrupole moments in place of Ising spins are considered and the boundary value pc 1 2.5 is found.
Ordering of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass in magnetic fields.
Kawamura, H; Imagawa, D
2001-11-12
Spin and chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass are studied under magnetic fields in light of the recently developed spin-chirality decoupling-recoupling scenario. It is found by Monte Carlo simulations that the chiral-glass transition and the chiral-glass ordered state, which are essentially of the same character as their zero-field counterparts, occur under magnetic fields. The implication to the experimental phase diagram is discussed.
Full replica symmetry breaking in p-spin-glass-like systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schelkacheva, T. I.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.
2017-02-01
It is shown that continuously changing the effective number of interacting particles in p-spin-glass-like model allows describing the transition from the full replica symmetry breaking glass solution to stable first replica symmetry breaking glass solution in the case of non-reflective symmetry diagonal operators used instead of Ising spins. As an example, axial quadrupole moments in place of Ising spins are considered and the boundary value {p_{{c_1}}} \\cong 2.5 is found.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremer, Jörg
1997-02-01
A spin model is suggested for making strategies of multinational corporations. We have generalized a a Heisenberg spin glass and random field model to describe the interrelatedness of a multinational corporation's marketing strategies. Preliminary simulations have brought about realistic results.
Random matrices, complexity of spin glasses and heavy tailed processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auffinger, Antonio
2011-12-01
In the first part of this thesis we introduce a new identity relating critical values of random Hamiltonians in certain compact manifolds to eigenvalues of random matrix ensembles. This identity allows us identify the location of the ground state energy and obtain an explicit formula for the asymptotic complexity of the number of critical points of finite and diverging index at any level of energy. We show that two possible scenarios for the bottom energy landscape emerge. This picture is consistent with a transition from a glass to spin glass system. In the second part, we establish the limit laws for largest eigenvalues of Wigner and Sample Covariance matrices when the entries are heavy tailed with less than four moments. We then study a model of Directed Polymer in a heavy tailed Random Environment proving a scaling limit law for the polymer measure.
Optimized GPU simulation of continuous-spin glass models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yavors'kii, T.; Weigel, M.
2012-08-01
We develop a highly optimized code for simulating the Edwards-Anderson Heisenberg model on graphics processing units (GPUs). Using a number of computational tricks such as tiling, data compression and appropriate memory layouts, the simulation code combining over-relaxation, heat bath and parallel tempering moves achieves a peak performance of 0.29 ns per spin update on realistic system sizes, corresponding to a more than 150 fold speed-up over a serial CPU reference implementation. The optimized implementation is used to study the spin-glass transition in a random external magnetic field to probe the existence of a de Almeida-Thouless line in the model, for which we give benchmark results.
Defect energy of infinite-component vector spin glasses.
Lee, L W; Young, A P
2005-09-01
We compute numerically the zero-temperature defect energy DeltaE of the vector spin glass in the limit of an infinite number of spin components m , for a range of dimensions 2< or d < or =5 . Fitting to DeltaE approximately L(theta) , where L is the system size, we obtain: theta similar to-1.54 (d=2) , theta similar to-1.04 (d=3) , theta similar to -0.67 (d=4) , and theta similar to -0.37 (d=5) . These results show that the lower critical dimension dl (the dimension where theta changes sign) is significantly higher for m=infinity than for finite m (where 2< dl <3 ).
SUE: A special purpose computer for spin glass models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz, A.; Pech, J.; Tarancón, A.; Téllez, P.; Ullod, C. L.; Ungil, C.
2001-01-01
The use of last generation Programmable Electronic Components makes possible the construction of very powerful and competitive special purpose computers. We have designed, constructed and tested a three-dimensional Spin Glass model dedicated machine, which consists of 12 identical boards. Each single board can simulate 8 different systems, updating all the systems at every clock cycle. The update speed of the whole machine is 217 ps/spin with 48 MHz clock frequency. A device devoted to fast random number generation has been developed and included in every board. The on-board reprogrammability permits us to change easily the lattice size, or even the update algorithm or the action. We present here a detailed description of the machine and the first runs using the Heat Bath algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilker, Efe; Berker, A. Nihat
2014-04-01
In spin-glass systems, frustration can be adjusted continuously and considerably, without changing the antiferromagnetic bond probability p, by using locally correlated quenched randomness, as we demonstrate here on hypercubic lattices and hierarchical lattices. Such overfrustrated and underfrustrated Ising systems on hierarchical lattices in d =3 and 2 are studied. With the removal of just 51% of frustration, a spin-glass phase occurs in d =2. With the addition of just 33% frustration, the spin-glass phase disappears in d =3. Sequences of 18 different phase diagrams for different levels of frustration are calculated in both dimensions. In general, frustration lowers the spin-glass ordering temperature. At low temperatures, increased frustration favors the spin-glass phase (before it disappears) over the ferromagnetic phase and symmetrically the antiferromagnetic phase. When any amount, including infinitesimal, frustration is introduced, the chaotic rescaling of local interactions occurs in the spin-glass phase. Chaos increases with increasing frustration, as can be seen from the increased positive value of the calculated Lyapunov exponent λ, starting from λ =0 when frustration is absent. The calculated runaway exponent yR of the renormalization-group flows decreases with increasing frustration to yR=0 when the spin-glass phase disappears. From our calculations of entropy and specific-heat curves in d =3, it is shown that frustration lowers in temperature the onset of both long- and short-range order in spin-glass phases, but is more effective on the former. From calculations of the entropy as a function of antiferromagnetic bond concentration p, it is shown that the ground-state and low-temperature entropy already mostly sets in within the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases, before the spin-glass phase is reached.
Inference from matrix products: a heuristic spin glass algorithm
Hastings, Matthew B
2008-01-01
We present an algorithm for finding ground states of two-dimensional spin-glass systems based on ideas from matrix product states in quantum information theory. The algorithm works directly at zero temperature and defines an approximation to the energy whose accuracy depends on a parameter k. We test the algorithm against exact methods on random field and random bond Ising models, and we find that accurate results require a k which scales roughly polynomially with the system size. The algorithm also performs well when tested on small systems with arbitrary interactions, where no fast, exact algorithms exist. The time required is significantly less than Monte Carlo schemes.
Population annealing: Theory and application in spin glasses.
Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2015-12-01
Population annealing is an efficient sequential Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating equilibrium states of systems with rough free-energy landscapes. The theory of population annealing is presented, and systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The behavior of the algorithm is studied in the context of large-scale simulations of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass and the performance of the algorithm is compared to parallel tempering. It is found that the two algorithms are similar in efficiency though with different strengths and weaknesses.
Theory of quantum annealing of an Ising spin glass.
Santoro, Giuseppe E; Martonák, Roman; Tosatti, Erio; Car, Roberto
2002-03-29
Probing the lowest energy configuration of a complex system by quantum annealing was recently found to be more effective than its classical, thermal counterpart. By comparing classical and quantum Monte Carlo annealing protocols on the two-dimensional random Ising model (a prototype spin glass), we confirm the superiority of quantum annealing relative to classical annealing. We also propose a theory of quantum annealing based on a cascade of Landau-Zener tunneling events. For both classical and quantum annealing, the residual energy after annealing is inversely proportional to a power of the logarithm of the annealing time, but the quantum case has a larger power that makes it faster.
Population annealing: Theory and application in spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2015-12-01
Population annealing is an efficient sequential Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating equilibrium states of systems with rough free-energy landscapes. The theory of population annealing is presented, and systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The behavior of the algorithm is studied in the context of large-scale simulations of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass and the performance of the algorithm is compared to parallel tempering. It is found that the two algorithms are similar in efficiency though with different strengths and weaknesses.
Population Annealing: Theory and Application in Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machta, Jonathan; Wang, Wenlong; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
Population annealing is an efficient sequential Monte Carlo algorithm for simulating equilibrium states of systems with rough free energy landscapes. The theory of population annealing is presented, and systematic and statistical errors are discussed. The behavior of the algorithm is studied in the context of large-scale simulations of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass and the performance of the algorithm is compared to parallel tempering. It is found that the two algorithms are similar in efficiency though with different strengths and weaknesses. Supported by NSF DMR-1151387, DMR-1208046 and DMR-1507506.
Spin-glass-like behaviour in IrSr{sub 2}RECu{sub 2}O{sub 8} (RE=Sm and Eu)
Santos-Garcia, A.J. dos Duijn, J. van; Alario-Franco, M.A.
2008-12-15
We report the results of magnetic and specific heat measurements on the 1212-type compounds IrSr{sub 2}RECu{sub 2}O{sub 8} with RE=Sm and Eu, prepared by high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis. The magnetic susceptibility of these compounds shows a large difference in the temperature dependence of the magnetization measured under zero-field-cooled and field-cooled conditions below 87 and 71 K, respectively, and upon further cooling below {approx}10 K substantial maxima are observed too. Further AC susceptibility measurements support a glassy behaviour in lower magnetic transitions whereas the specific heat measurements do not show the typical long-range ordering commonly displayed in ferro, ferri or antiferromagnetic transitions. Hysteresis loops suggest the presence of magnetic clusters in the otherwise paramagnetic zone, indicating that these compounds probably display a reentrant spin-glass transition. Results are presented and discussed. - Graphical abstract: IrSr{sub 2}RECu{sub 2}O{sub 8} with RE=Sm and Eu were prepared by high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis. Both samples adopt a M-1212-type perovskite structure and a microdomain texturing of the long c-axis is observed by TEM. A very interesting magnetic behaviour is observed in these materials. A 'cluster by cluster freezing' model is proposed, instead of the classical individual spin freezing one to explain the spin-glass-like behaviour that seems to coexist with weak ferromagnetism in both compounds.
Recent Numerical Studies of the Spin Glass State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palassini, Matteo
2001-03-01
The nature of the low temperature phase of spin glasses remains a controversial issue, which has recently received considerable renewed interest. Two theories have been extensively discussed: the droplet model and the replica symmetry breaking theory. In this talk, I will discuss some recent investigations of the low temperature phase of Ising spin glasses with short range interactions in three and four dimensions. I will present the results of a new approach [1] based on studying changes in the ground state when an external perturbation is applied, using efficient optimization algorithms, as well as the results of Monte Carlo simulations at very low temperatures [2]. I will compare these results with several theoretical scenarios: the droplet model, the replica symmetry breaking theory, and a new intermediate scenario in which there are large scale excitations which cost a finite energy in the thermodynamic limit, but whose surface has a vanishing density. [1] M.Palassini and A.P. Young, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3017 (2000); Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5126 (1999); and unpublished. [2] H.G. Katzgraber, M.Palassini and A.P. Young, cond-mat/0007113; M.Palassini and A.P.Young, unpublished.
Spin glass approach to the feedback vertex set problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hai-Jun
2013-11-01
A feedback vertex set (FVS) of an undirected graph is a set of vertices that contains at least one vertex of each cycle of the graph. The feedback vertex set problem consists of constructing a FVS of size less than a certain given value. This combinatorial optimization problem has many practical applications, but it is in the nondeterministic polynomial-complete class of worst-case computational complexity. In this paper we define a spin glass model for the FVS problem and then study this model on the ensemble of finite-connectivity random graphs. In our model the global cycle constraints are represented through the local constraints on all the edges of the graph, and they are then treated by distributed message-passing procedures such as belief propagation. Our belief propagation-guided decimation algorithm can construct nearly optimal feedback vertex sets for single random graph instances and regular lattices. We also design a spin glass model for the FVS problem on a directed graph. Our work will be very useful for identifying the set of vertices that contribute most significantly to the dynamical complexity of a large networked system.
Spin Glass Field Theory with Replica Fourier Transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pimentel, Iveta R.; De Dominicis, Cirano
We develop a field theory for spin glasses using Replica Fourier Transforms (RFT). We present the formalism for the case of replica symmetry and the case of replica symmetry breaking on an ultrametric tree, with the number of replicas n and the number of replica symmetry breaking steps R generic integers. We show how the RFT applied to the two-replica fields allows to construct a new basis which block-diagonalizes the four-replica mass-matrix, into the replicon, anomalous and longitudinal modes. The eigenvalues are given in terms of the mass RFT and the propagators in the RFT space are obtained by inversion of the block-diagonal matrix. The formalism allows to express any i-replica vertex in the new RFT basis and hence enables to perform a standard perturbation expansion. We apply the formalism to calculate the contribution of the Gaussian fluctuations around the Parisi's solution for the free-energy of an Ising spin glass.
Spin glass field theory with replica Fourier transforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pimentel, I. R.; De Dominicis, C.
2014-11-01
We develop a field theory for spin glasses using replica Fourier transforms (RFT). We present the formalism for the case of replica symmetry and the case of replica symmetry breaking on an ultrametric tree, with the number of replicas n and the number of replica symmetry breaking steps R generic integers. We show how the RFT applied to the two-replica fields allows one to construct a new basis which block-diagonalizes the four-replica mass-matrix, into the replicon, anomalous and longitudinal modes. The eigenvalues are given in terms of the mass RFT and the propagators in the RFT space are obtained by inversion of the block-diagonal matrix. The formalism allows one to express any i-replica vertex in the new RFT basis and hence enables one to perform a standard perturbation expansion. We apply the formalism to calculate the contribution of the Gaussian fluctuations around the Parisi solution for the free-energy of an Ising spin glass.
Spin Glass a Bridge Between Quantum Computation and Statistical Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohzeki, Masayuki
2013-09-01
In this chapter, we show two fascinating topics lying between quantum information processing and statistical mechanics. First, we introduce an elaborated technique, the surface code, to prepare the particular quantum state with robustness against decoherence. Interestingly, the theoretical limitation of the surface code, accuracy threshold, to restore the quantum state has a close connection with the problem on the phase transition in a special model known as spin glasses, which is one of the most active researches in statistical mechanics. The phase transition in spin glasses is an intractable problem, since we must strive many-body system with complicated interactions with change of their signs depending on the distance between spins. Fortunately, recent progress in spin-glass theory enables us to predict the precise location of the critical point, at which the phase transition occurs. It means that statistical mechanics is available for revealing one of the most interesting parts in quantum information processing. We show how to import the special tool in statistical mechanics into the problem on the accuracy threshold in quantum computation. Second, we show another interesting technique to employ quantum nature, quantum annealing. The purpose of quantum annealing is to search for the most favored solution of a multivariable function, namely optimization problem. The most typical instance is the traveling salesman problem to find the minimum tour while visiting all the cities. In quantum annealing, we introduce quantum fluctuation to drive a particular system with the artificial Hamiltonian, in which the ground state represents the optimal solution of the specific problem we desire to solve. Induction of the quantum fluctuation gives rise to the quantum tunneling effect, which allows nontrivial hopping from state to state. We then sketch a strategy to control the quantum fluctuation efficiently reaching the ground state. Such a generic framework is called
Viet, Dao Xuan; Kawamura, Hikaru
2010-08-27
We study the issue of the spin-chirality decoupling or coupling in the ordering of the Heisenberg spin glass by performing large-scale Monte Carlo simulations on a one-dimensional Heisenberg spin-glass model with a long-range power-law interaction up to large system sizes. We find that the spin-chirality decoupling occurs for an intermediate range of the power-law exponent. Implications to the corresponding d-dimensional short-range model are discussed.
Finite-size critical scaling in Ising spin glasses in the mean-field regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspelmeier, T.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Larson, Derek; Moore, M. A.; Wittmann, Matthew; Yeo, Joonhyun
2016-03-01
We study in Ising spin glasses the finite-size effects near the spin-glass transition in zero field and at the de Almeida-Thouless transition in a field by Monte Carlo methods and by analytical approximations. In zero field, the finite-size scaling function associated with the spin-glass susceptibility of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick mean-field spin-glass model is of the same form as that of one-dimensional spin-glass models with power-law long-range interactions in the regime where they can be a proxy for the Edwards-Anderson short-range spin-glass model above the upper critical dimension. We also calculate a simple analytical approximation for the spin-glass susceptibility crossover function. The behavior of the spin-glass susceptibility near the de Almeida-Thouless transition line has also been studied, but here we have only been able to obtain analytically its behavior in the asymptotic limit above and below the transition. We have also simulated the one-dimensional system in a field in the non-mean-field regime to illustrate that when the Imry-Ma droplet length scale exceeds the system size one can then be erroneously lead to conclude that there is a de Almeida-Thouless transition even though it is absent.
Mean-field theory of spin-glasses with finite coordination number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kanter, I.; Sompolinsky, H.
1987-01-01
The mean-field theory of dilute spin-glasses is studied in the limit where the average coordination number is finite. The zero-temperature phase diagram is calculated and the relationship between the spin-glass phase and the percolation transition is discussed. The present formalism is applicable also to graph optimization problems.
Mean-field theory of spin-glasses with finite coordination number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kanter, I.; Sompolinsky, H.
1987-01-01
The mean-field theory of dilute spin-glasses is studied in the limit where the average coordination number is finite. The zero-temperature phase diagram is calculated and the relationship between the spin-glass phase and the percolation transition is discussed. The present formalism is applicable also to graph optimization problems.
Evolution of ferromagnetic interactions from cluster spin glass state in Co-Ga alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammad Yasin, Sk.; Saha, Ritwik; Srinivas, V.; Kasiviswanathan, S.; Nigam, A. K.
2016-11-01
Low temperature magnetic properties of binary CoxGa100-x (x=54-57) alloy have been investigated. Analysis of frequency dependence of ac susceptibility provided a conclusive evidence for the existence of cluster spin glass like behavior with the freezing temperature ~8, 14 K for x=54, 55.5 respectively. The parameters for conventional 'slowing down' of the spin dynamics have been extracted from the acs data, which confirm the presence of glassy phase. The magnitude of Mydosh parameter obtained from the fits is larger than that reported for typical canonical spin glasses and smaller than those for non-interacting ideal superparamagnetic systems but comparable to those of known cluster-glass systems. Memory phenomena using specific cooling protocols also support the spin-glass features in Co55.5Ga44.5 composition. Further the development of ferromagnetic clusters from the cluster spin glass state has been observed in x=57 composition.
Irreversible transitions in the exchange-striction model of spin-glass state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valkov, V. I.; Golovchan, A. V.
2014-08-01
Based on the assumption of a negative volume dependence of random exchange integrals, it is possible to switch to a compressible Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin-glass model. Within the proposed model, temperature-pressure phase diagrams were calculated and pressure- and magnetic-field-induced first-order phase transitions from the initial paramagnetic and spin-glass states to the ferromagnetic state were predicted. It was shown that the application of pressure in the spin-glass state not only increases and shifts magnetic susceptibility, but also reduces the critical magnetic fields of irreversible induced phase transitions from the spin-glass to the ferromagnetic state. The obtained results are used to describe the spin-glass state in (Sm1-xGdx)0.55Sr0.45MnO3.
Exchange bias training relaxation in spin glass/ferromagnet bilayers
Chi, Xiaodan; Du, An; Rui, Wenbin; Du, Jun; Zhou, Shiming; Hu, Yong
2016-04-25
A canonical spin glass (SG) FeAu layer is fabricated to couple to a soft ferromagnet (FM) FeNi layer. Below the SG freezing temperature, exchange bias (EB) and training are observed. Training in SG/FM bilayers is insensitive to cooling field and may suppress the EB or change the sign of the EB field from negative to positive at specific temperatures, violating from the simple power-law or the single exponential function derived from the antiferromagnet based systems. In view of the SG nature, we employ a double decay model to distinguish the contributions from the SG bulk and the SG/FM interface to training. Dynamical properties during training under different cooling fields and at different temperatures are discussed, and the nonzero shifting coefficient in the time index as a signature of slowing-down decay for SG based systems is interpreted by means of a modified Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm.
Patch-planting spin-glass solution for benchmarking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenlong; Mandrà, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2017-08-01
We introduce an algorithm to generate (not solve) spin-glass instances with planted solutions of arbitrary size and structure. First, a set of small problem patches with open boundaries is solved either exactly or with a heuristic, and then the individual patches are stitched together to create a large problem with a known planted solution. Because in these problems frustration is typically smaller than in random problems, we first assess the typical computational complexity of the individual patches using population annealing Monte Carlo, and introduce an approach that allows one to fine-tune the typical computational complexity of the patch-planted system. The scaling of the typical computational complexity of these planted instances with various numbers of patches and patch sizes is investigated and compared to random instances.
Noise as a Probe of Ising Spin Glass Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare
2009-03-01
Noise is ubiquitous and and is often viewed as a nuisance. However, we propose that noise can be used as a probe of the fluctuations of microscopic entities, especially in the vicinity of a phase transition. In recent work we have used simulations to show that the noise increases in the vicinity of phase transitions of ordered systems. We have recently turned our attention to noise near the phase transitions of disordered systems. In particular, we are studying the noise near Ising spin glass transitions using Monte Carlo simulations. We monitor the system as a function of temperature. At each temperature, we obtain the time series of quantities characterizing the properties of the system, i.e., the energy and magnetization. We look at different quantities, such as the noise power spectrum and the second spectrum of the noise, to analyze the fluctuations.
The perturbative structure of spin glass field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Temesvári, T.
2014-03-01
Cubic replicated field theory is used to study the glassy phase of the short-range Ising spin glass just below the transition temperature, and for systems above, at, and slightly below the upper critical dimension six. The order parameter function is computed up to two-loop order. There are two, well-separated bands in the mass spectrum, just as in mean field theory. The small mass band acts as an infrared cutoff, whereas contributions from the large mass region can be computed perturbatively (d>6), or interpreted by the ɛ-expansion around the critical fixed point (d=6-ɛ). The one-loop calculation of the (momentum-dependent) longitudinal mass, and the whole replicon sector is also presented. The innocuous behavior of the replicon masses while crossing the upper critical dimension shows that the ultrametric replica symmetry broken phase remains stable below six dimensions.
Some Observations for Mean-Field Spin Glass Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Starr, Shannon; Vermesi, Brigitta
2008-03-01
We obtain bounds to show that the pressure of a two-body, mean-field spin glass is a Lipschitz function of the underlying distribution of the random coupling constants, with respect to a particular semi-norm. This allows us to re-derive a result of Carmona and Hu, on the universality of the SK model, by a different proof, and to generalize this result to the Viana Bray model. We also prove another bound, suitable when the coupling constants are not independent, which is what is necessary if one wants to consider “canonical” instead of “grand canonical” versions of the SK and Viana Bray models. Finally, we review Viana Bray type models, using the language of Lévy processes, which is natural in this context.
Spin Glass Behaviour in Fe-substituted LPMO Manganite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitla, Yugandhar; Kaul, S. N.; Barquín, L. Fernández
2011-07-01
Study of the nonlinear magnetic susceptibility, χnl, of La0.7Pb0.3(Mn1-xFex)O3 manganite reveals that, as in an archetypical spin glass (SG), χnl in La0.7Pb0.3Mn0.8Fe0.2O3 diverges at the SG freezing temperature, Tg = 80.0(5)K, with a critical exponent γ = 1.80(5) and satisfies the static and dynamic scaling equations of state with the order-parameter critical exponent β = 0.56(4) and the dynamic critical exponent zνξ = 10.0(5). The SG behaviour stems from the competition between the ferromagnetic double-exchange and antiferromagnetic superexchange interactions.
Inverse Spin Glass and Related Maximum Entropy Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellana, Michele; Bialek, William
2014-09-01
If we have a system of binary variables and we measure the pairwise correlations among these variables, then the least structured or maximum entropy model for their joint distribution is an Ising model with pairwise interactions among the spins. Here we consider inhomogeneous systems in which we constrain, for example, not the full matrix of correlations, but only the distribution from which these correlations are drawn. In this sense, what we have constructed is an inverse spin glass: rather than choosing coupling constants at random from a distribution and calculating correlations, we choose the correlations from a distribution and infer the coupling constants. We argue that such models generate a block structure in the space of couplings, which provides an explicit solution of the inverse problem. This allows us to generate a phase diagram in the space of (measurable) moments of the distribution of correlations. We expect that these ideas will be most useful in building models for systems that are nonequilibrium statistical mechanics problems, such as networks of real neurons.
Weak randomness in geometrically frustrated systems: spin-glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, M.; Zimmer, F. M.; Magalhaes, S. G.
2015-02-01
We study the competition between the spin-glass (SG) phase and antiferromagnetic (AF), superantiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic (FE) order in geometrically frustrated systems. We consider a model with two types of frustration: one coming from disordered interactions (J) and another coming from the square-lattice Ising spin system with first-(J1) and second-(J2) neighbor interactions (intrinsic frustration). The disordered interactions are between clusters and they follow the van Hemmen model, which represents a limit of weak frustration. The cluster mean-field approximation is used to treat the short-range intercluster interactions. Results are exhibited in phase diagrams of the temperature T versus J for several values of {{J}2}/{{J}1}. When the intrinsic frustration increases, the Néel and Curie temperatures decrease at the same time so that the SG phase appears at a lower J. Moreover, the FE correlations enhance the SG behavior, while AF correlations reduce the SG region at the same level of intrinsic frustration. These results indicate that a weak disorder in geometrically frustrated systems is able to stabilize the SG phase.
Nonequilibrium relaxation study of Ising spin glass models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozeki, Yukiyasu; Ito, Nobuyasu
2001-07-01
As an analysis of equilibrium phase transitions, the nonequilibrium relaxation method is extended to the spin glass (SG) transition. The +/-J Ising SG model is analyzed for three-dimensional (cubic) lattices up to the linear size of L=127 and for four-dimensional (hypercubic) lattice up to L=41. These sizes of systems are quite large as compared with those calculated, so far, by equilibrium simulations. As a dynamical order parameter, we calculate the clone correlation function (CCF) Q(t,tw)≡[F], which is a spin correlation of two replicas produced after the waiting time tw from a simple starting state. It is found that the CCF shows an exponential decay in the paramagnetic phase, and a power-law decay after aginglike development (t>>tw) in the SG phase. This provides a reliable upper bound of the transition temperature Tg. It is also found that a scaling relation, Q(t,tw)=t-λqwq¯(t/tw), holds just around the transition point providing the lower bound of Tg. Together with these two bounds, we propose a new dynamical way for the estimation of Tg from much larger systems. In the SG phase, the power-law behavior of the CCF for t>>tw suggests that the SG phase in short-range Ising models has a rugged phase space.
Low Temperature Asymptotics of Spherical Mean Field Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jagannath, Aukosh; Tobasco, Ian
2017-06-01
In this paper, we study the low temperature limit of the spherical Crisanti-Sommers variational problem. We identify the {Γ}-limit of the Crisanti-Sommers functionals, thereby establishing a rigorous variational problem for the ground state energy of spherical mixed p-spin glasses. As an application, we compute moderate deviations of the corresponding minimizers in the low temperature limit. In particular, for a large class of models this yields moderate deviations for the overlap distribution as well as providing sharp interpolation estimates between models. We then analyze the ground state energy problem. We show that this variational problem is dual to an obstacle-type problem. This duality is at the heart of our analysis. We present the regularity theory of the optimizers of the primal and dual problems. This culminates in a simple method for constructing a finite dimensional space in which these optimizers live for any model. As a consequence of these results, we unify independent predictions of Crisanti-Leuzzi and Auffinger-Ben Arous regarding the one-step Replica Symmetry Breaking (1RSB) phase in this limit. We find that the "positive replicon eigenvalue" and "pure-like" conditions are together necessary for optimality, but that neither are themselves sufficient, answering a question of Auffinger and Ben Arous in the negative. We end by proving that these conditions completely characterize the 1RSB phase in 2 + p-spin models.
Classical mutual information in mean-field spin glass models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alba, Vincenzo; Inglis, Stephen; Pollet, Lode
2016-03-01
We investigate the classical Rényi entropy Sn and the associated mutual information In in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (S-K) model, which is the paradigm model of mean-field spin glasses. Using classical Monte Carlo simulations and analytical tools we investigate the S-K model in the n -sheet booklet. This is achieved by gluing together n independent copies of the model, and it is the main ingredient for constructing the Rényi entanglement-related quantities. We find a glassy phase at low temperatures, whereas at high temperatures the model exhibits paramagnetic behavior, consistent with the regular S-K model. The temperature of the paramagnetic-glassy transition depends nontrivially on the geometry of the booklet. At high temperatures we provide the exact solution of the model by exploiting the replica symmetry. This is the permutation symmetry among the fictitious replicas that are used to perform disorder averages (via the replica trick). In the glassy phase the replica symmetry has to be broken. Using a generalization of the Parisi solution, we provide analytical results for Sn and In and for standard thermodynamic quantities. Both Sn and In exhibit a volume law in the whole phase diagram. We characterize the behavior of the corresponding densities, Sn/N and In/N , in the thermodynamic limit. Interestingly, at the critical point the mutual information does not exhibit any crossing for different system sizes, in contrast with local spin models.
Matis, Bernard R; Houston, Brian H; Baldwin, Jeffrey W
2016-04-26
We provide evidence that magnetic moments formed when hydrogen atoms are covalently bound to graphene exhibit spin glass ordering. We observe logarithmic time-dependent relaxations in the remnant magnetoresistance following magnetic field sweeps, as well as strong variances in the remnant magnetoresistance following field-cooled and zero-field-cooled scenarios, which are hallmarks of canonical spin glasses and provide experimental evidence for the hydrogenated graphene spin glass state. Following magnetic field sweeps, and over a relaxation period of several minutes, we measure changes in the resistivity that are more than 3 orders of magnitude larger than what has previously been reported for a two-dimensional spin glass. Magnetotransport measurements at the Dirac point, and as a function of hydrogen concentration, demonstrate that the spin glass state is observable as the zero-field resistivity reaches a value close to the quantum unit h/2e(2), corresponding to the point at which the system undergoes a transition from weak to strong localization. Our work sheds light on the critical magnetic-dopant density required to observe spin glass formation in two-dimensional systems. These findings have implications to the basic understanding of spin glasses as well the fields of two-dimensional magnetic materials and spintronics.
Exchange-mediated spin-lattice relaxation of Fe3+ ions in borate glasses.
Misra, Sushil K; Pilbrow, John R
2007-03-01
Spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of two borate glasses doped with different concentrations of Fe2O3 were measured using the Electron Spin-Echo (ESE) technique at X-band (9.630 GHz) in the temperature range 2-6K. In comparison with a previous investigation of Fe3+-doped silicate glasses, the relaxation rates were comparable and differed by no more than a factor of two. The data presented here extend those previously reported for borate glasses in the 10-250K range but measured using the amplitude-modulation technique. The T1 values were found to depend on temperature (T) as T(n) with n approximately 1 for the 1% and 0.1% Fe2O3-doped glass samples. These results are consistent with spin-lattice relaxation as effected by exchange interaction of a Fe3+ spin exchange-coupled to another Fe3+ spin in an amorphous material.
Origin of the growing length scale in M-p-spin glass models.
Yeo, Joonhyun; Moore, M A
2012-11-01
Two versions of the M-p-spin glass model have been studied with the Migdal-Kadanoff renormalization group approximation. The model with p = 3 and M = 3 has at mean-field level the ideal glass transition at the Kauzmann temperature and at lower temperatures still the Gardner transition to a state like that of an Ising spin glass in a field. The model with p = 3 and M = 2 has only the Gardner transition. In the dimensions studied, d = 2,3, and 4, both models behave almost identically, indicating that the growing correlation length as the temperature is reduced in these models--the analog of the point-to-set length scale--is not due to the mechanism postulated in the random first-order transition theory of glasses but is more like that expected on the analogy of glasses to the Ising spin glass in a field.
Lower-Critical Spin-Glass Dimension from 23 Sequenced Hierarchical Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demirtas, Mehmet; Tuncer, Asli; Berker, A. Nihat
The lower-critical dimension for the existence of the Ising spin-glass phase is calculated, numerically exactly, as dL = 2 . 520 for a sequence of hierarchical lattices, from an essentially exact (correlation coefficent R2 = 0 . 999999) near-linear fit to 23 different diminishing fractional dimensions. To obtain this result, the phase transition temperature between the disordered and spin-glass phases, the corresponding critical exponent yT, and the runaway exponent yR of the spin-glass phase are calculated for consecutive hierarchical lattices as dimension is lowered.
Lower-critical spin-glass dimension from 23 sequenced hierarchical models.
Demirtaş, Mehmet; Tuncer, Aslı; Berker, A Nihat
2015-08-01
The lower-critical dimension for the existence of the Ising spin-glass phase is calculated, numerically exactly, as dL=2.520 for a family of hierarchical lattices, from an essentially exact (correlation coefficent R2=0.999999) near-linear fit to 23 different diminishing fractional dimensions. To obtain this result, the phase transition temperature between the disordered and spin-glass phases, the corresponding critical exponent yT, and the runaway exponent yR of the spin-glass phase are calculated for consecutive hierarchical lattices as dimension is lowered.
Lower-critical spin-glass dimension from 23 sequenced hierarchical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demirtaş, Mehmet; Tuncer, Aslı; Berker, A. Nihat
2015-08-01
The lower-critical dimension for the existence of the Ising spin-glass phase is calculated, numerically exactly, as dL=2.520 for a family of hierarchical lattices, from an essentially exact (correlation coefficent R2=0.999 999 ) near-linear fit to 23 different diminishing fractional dimensions. To obtain this result, the phase transition temperature between the disordered and spin-glass phases, the corresponding critical exponent yT, and the runaway exponent yR of the spin-glass phase are calculated for consecutive hierarchical lattices as dimension is lowered.
Temesvári, T; De Dominicis, C
2002-08-26
We use the generic replica symmetric cubic field theory to study the transition of short-range Ising spin glasses in a magnetic field around the upper critical dimension. A novel fixed point is found from the application of the renormalization group. In the spin-glass limit, this fixed point governs the critical behavior of a class of systems characterized by a single cubic parameter. For this universality class, the spin-glass susceptibility diverges at criticality, whereas the longitudinal mode remains massive. The third mode, however, behaves unusually. The physical consequences of this unusual behavior are discussed, and a comparison with the conventional de Almeida-Thouless scenario is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakhira, Santanu; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.; Giri, S.; Avdeev, Maxim
2016-09-01
The ternary intermetallic compounds Gd2NiSi3 and Er2NiSi3 are synthesized in chemically single phase, which are characterized using dc magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and neutron diffraction studies. Neutron diffraction and heat capacity studies confirm that long-range magnetic ordering coexists with the frustrated glassy magnetic components for both compounds. The static and dynamical features of dc magnetization and frequency-dependent ac susceptibility data reveal that Gd2NiSi3 is a canonical spin-glass system, while Er2NiSi3 is a reentrant spin cluster-glass system. The spin freezing temperature merges with the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering temperature at 16.4 K for Gd2NiSi3 . Er2NiSi3 undergoes antiferromagnetic ordering at 5.4 K, which is slightly above the spin freezing temperature at 3 K. The detailed studies of nonequilibrium dynamical behavior, viz., the memory effect and relaxation behavior using different protocols, suggest that both compounds favor the hierarchical model over the droplet model. A large magnetocaloric effect is observed for both compounds. Maximum values of isothermal entropy change (-Δ SM ) and relative cooling power (RCP) are found to be 18.4 J/kg K and 525 J/kg for Gd2NiSi3 and 22.6 J/kg K and 540 J/kg for Er2NiSi3 , respectively, for a change in field from 0 to 70 kOe. The values of RCP are comparable to those of the promising refrigerant materials. A correlation between large RCP and magnetic frustration is discussed for developing new magnetic refrigerant materials.
Efficient cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for Ising spin glasses in more than two space dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochoa, Andrew J.; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2015-03-01
A cluster algorithm that speeds up slow dynamics in simulations of nonplanar Ising spin glasses away from criticality is urgently needed. In theory, the cluster algorithm proposed by Houdayer poses no advantage over local moves in systems with a percolation threshold below 50%, such as cubic lattices. However, we show that the frustration present in Ising spin glasses prevents the growth of system-spanning clusters at temperatures roughly below the characteristic energy scale J of the problem. Adding Houdayer cluster moves to simulations of Ising spin glasses for T ~ J produces a speedup that grows with the system size over conventional local moves. We show results for the nonplanar quasi-two-dimensional Chimera graph of the D-Wave Two quantum annealer, as well as conventional three-dimensional Ising spin glasses, where in both cases the addition of cluster moves speeds up thermalization visibly in the physically-interesting low temperature regime.
Some peculiarities in the behavior of non-Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tareyeva, E. E.; Schelkacheva, T. I.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.
2015-03-01
This paper is a review. We outline the main directions in the modern theory of spin glasses. The main content is based on our recent papers, devoted to studying replica symmetry breaking in non-Ising spin glasses. Studying a series of generalized models showed a certain uniformity of the behavior of these generalized spin glasses. Essentially, we observe a significant difference between their behavior and the behavior of the known systems with random couplings of Ising spins—the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and the corresponding p-spin model. We find the bifurcation point for the solution with the first replica symmetry breaking, study the form and stability of the solution near the bifurcation point, and show in which cases the transition to the glass state occurs continuously and in which cases, with a jump of the order parameters.
Spin glass in a field: a new zero-temperature fixed point in finite dimensions.
Angelini, Maria Chiara; Biroli, Giulio
2015-03-06
By using real-space renormalization group (RG) methods, we show that spin glasses in a field display a new kind of transition in high dimensions. The corresponding critical properties and the spin-glass phase are governed by two nonperturbative zero-temperature fixed points of the RG flow. We compute the critical exponents and discuss the RG flow and its relevance for three-dimensional systems. The new spin-glass phase we discovered has unusual properties, which are intermediate between the ones conjectured by droplet and full replica symmetry-breaking theories. These results provide a new perspective on the long-standing debate about the behavior of spin glasses in a field.
Quasi-two-dimensional spin correlations in the triangular lattice bilayer spin glass LuCoGaO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritsch, K.; Ross, K. A.; Granroth, G. E.; Ehlers, G.; Noad, H. M. L.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.
2017-09-01
We present a single-crystal time-of-flight neutron scattering study of the static and dynamic spin correlations in LuCoGaO4, a quasi-two-dimensional dilute triangular lattice antiferromagnetic spin-glass material. This system is based on Co2 + ions that are randomly distributed on triangular bilayers within the YbFe2O4 -type, hexagonal crystal structure. Antiferromagnetic short-range two-dimensional correlations at wave vectors Q =(" close=")1 /3 ,1 /3 ,L )">1 /3 ,1 /3 ,L develop within the bilayers at temperatures as high as | ΘCW|˜100 K and extend over roughly five unit cells at temperatures below Tg=19 K. These two-dimensional static correlations are observed as diffuse rods of neutron scattering intensity along c* and display a continuous spin freezing process in their energy dependence. Aside from exhibiting these typical spin-glass characteristics, this insulating material reveals a novel gapped magnetic resonant spin excitation at Δ E ˜12 meV localized around Q. The temperature dependence of the spin gap associated with this two-dimensional excitation correlates with the evolution of the static correlations into the spin-glass state ground state. We associate it with the effect of the staggered exchange field acting on the Seff=1 /2 Ising-like doublet of the Co2 + moments.
Practical engineering of hard spin-glass instances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Jeffrey; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
2016-05-01
Recent technological developments in the field of experimental quantum annealing have made prototypical annealing optimizers with hundreds of qubits commercially available. The experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup for optimization problems has since then become a coveted, albeit elusive goal. Recent studies have shown that the so far inconclusive results, regarding a quantum enhancement, may have been partly due to the benchmark problems used being unsuitable. In particular, these problems had inherently too simple a structure, allowing for both traditional resources and quantum annealers to solve them with no special efforts. The need therefore has arisen for the generation of harder benchmarks which would hopefully possess the discriminative power to separate classical scaling of performance with size, from quantum. We introduce here a practical technique for the engineering of extremely hard spin glass Ising-type problem instances that does not require `cherry picking' from large ensembles of randomly generated instances. We accomplish this by treating the generation of hard optimization problems itself as an optimization problem, for which we offer a heuristic algorithm that solves it. We demonstrate the genuine thermal hardness of our generated instances by examining them thermodynamically and analyzing their energy landscapes, as well as by testing the performance of various state-of-the art algorithms on them. We argue that a proper characterization of the generated instances offers a practical, efficient way to properly benchmark experimental quantum annealers, as well as any other optimization algorithm.
Spin-glass models as error-correcting codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sourlas, Nicolas
1989-06-01
DURING the transmission of information, errors may occur because of the presence of noise, such as thermal noise in electronic signals or interference with other sources of radiation. One wants to recover the information with the minimum error possible. In theory this is possible by increasing the power of the emitter source. But as the cost is proportional to the energy fed into the channel, it costs less to code the message before sending it, thus including redundant 'coding' bits, and to decode at the end. Coding theory provides rigorous bounds on the cost-effectiveness of any code. The explicit codes proposed so far for practical applications do not saturate these bounds; that is, they do not achieve optimal cost-efficiency. Here we show that theoretical models of magnetically disordered materials (spin glasses) provide a new class of error-correction codes. Their cost performance can be calculated using the methods of statistical mechanics, and is found to be excellent. These models can, under certain circumstances, constitute the first known codes to saturate Shannon's well-known cost-performance bounds.
Mean field spin glasses treated with PDE techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barra, Adriano; Del Ferraro, Gino; Tantari, Daniele
2013-07-01
Following an original idea of Guerra, in these notes we analyze the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model from different perspectives, all sharing the underlying approach which consists in linking the resolution of the statistical mechanics of the model (e.g. solving for the free energy) to well-known partial differential equation (PDE) problems (in suitable spaces). The plan is then to solve the related PDE using techniques involved in their native field and lastly bringing back the solution in the proper statistical mechanics framework. Within this strand, after a streamlined test-case on the Curie-Weiss model to highlight the methods more than the physics behind, we solve the SK both at the replica symmetric and at the 1-RSB level, obtaining the correct expression for the free energy via an analogy to a Fourier equation and for the self-consistencies with an analogy to a Burger equation, whose shock wave develops exactly at critical noise level (triggering the phase transition). Our approach, beyond acting as a new alternative method (with respect to the standard routes) for tackling the complexity of spin glasses, links symmetries in PDE theory with constraints in statistical mechanics and, as a novel result from the theoretical physics perspective, we obtain a new class of polynomial identities (namely of Aizenman-Contucci type, but merged within the Guerra's broken replica measures), whose interest lies in understanding, via the recent Panchenko breakthroughs, how to force the overlap organization to the ultrametric tree predicted by Parisi.
Ising spin glasses in two dimensions: Universality and nonuniversality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.
2017-04-01
Following numerous earlier studies, extensive simulations and analyses were made on the continuous interaction distribution Gaussian model and the discrete bimodal interaction distribution Ising spin glass (ISG) models in two dimensions [Lundow and Campbell, Phys. Rev. E 93, 022119 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.022119]. Here we further analyze the bimodal and Gaussian data together with data on two other continuous interaction distribution two-dimensional ISG models, the uniform and the Laplacian models, and three other discrete interaction distribution models, a diluted bimodal model, an "antidiluted" model, and a more exotic symmetric Poisson model. Comparisons between the three continuous distribution models show that not only do they share the same exponent η ≡0 but that to within the present numerical precision they share the same critical exponent ν also, and so lie in a single universality class. On the other hand the critical exponents of the four discrete distribution models are not the same as those of the continuous distributions, and the present data strongly indicate that they differ from one discrete distribution model to another. This is evidence that discrete distribution ISG models in two dimensions have nonzero values of the critical exponent η and do not lie in a single universality class.
Practical engineering of hard spin-glass instances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Jeffrey; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
2016-07-01
Recent technological developments in the field of experimental quantum annealing have made prototypical annealing optimizers with hundreds of qubits commercially available. The experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup for optimization problems has since then become a coveted, albeit elusive goal. Recent studies have shown that the so far inconclusive results, regarding a quantum enhancement, may have been partly due to the benchmark problems used being unsuitable. In particular, these problems had inherently too simple a structure, allowing for both traditional resources and quantum annealers to solve them with no special efforts. The need therefore has arisen for the generation of harder benchmarks which would hopefully possess the discriminative power to separate classical scaling of performance with size from quantum. We introduce here a practical technique for the engineering of extremely hard spin-glass Ising-type problem instances that does not require "cherry picking" from large ensembles of randomly generated instances. We accomplish this by treating the generation of hard optimization problems itself as an optimization problem, for which we offer a heuristic algorithm that solves it. We demonstrate the genuine thermal hardness of our generated instances by examining them thermodynamically and analyzing their energy landscapes, as well as by testing the performance of various state-of-the-art algorithms on them. We argue that a proper characterization of the generated instances offers a practical, efficient way to properly benchmark experimental quantum annealers, as well as any other optimization algorithm.
Spin-Glass-Ferromagnetic Multicritical Point in Amorphous Fe-Mn Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salamon, M. B.; Rao, K. V.; Chen, H. S.
1980-03-01
The ac susceptibility of a sequence of amorphous Fe-Mn alloys shows lines of both spin-glass and ferromagnetic transitions. A detailed scaling-law analysis, treating the common point on the two magnetic phase boundaries as a multicritical point, verifies the scaling hypothesis and yields multicritical, spin-glass, and crossover exponents. The observed behavior compares quite will with position-space renormalization results.
The three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson spin glass in an external magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yllanes, David; Janus Collaboration
2014-03-01
Spin glasses are a longstanding model for the sluggish dynamics that appears at the glass transition. However, in order for spin glasses to be a faithful model for general glassy physics, we need to introduce an external magnetic field to eliminate their time-reversal symmetry. Unfortunately, little is known about the critical behavior of a spin glass in a field in three spatial dimensions. We have carried out a dynamical study combining equilibrium and non-equilibrium data. In particular, using the Janus computer, we have been able to simulate one thousand samples, each with half a million spins, along a time window spanning ten orders of magnitude for several magnetic fields and temperature protocols. Our main conclusion is that the system has a clearly identifiable dynamical transition, which we discuss in terms of different possibilities for the underlying physics (from a thermodynamical spin-glass transition to a mode-coupling crossover). In fact, we are able to make quantitative connections between the Edwards-Anderson spin glass and the physics of supercooled liquids. We also discuss ongoing work in equilibrium from parallel tempering simulations. Supported by the ERC, grant agreement no. 247328.
Spin liquid and infinitesimal-disorder-driven cluster spin glass in the kagome lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, M.; Zimmer, F. M.; Magalhaes, S. G.
2017-04-01
The interplay between geometric frustration (GF) and bond disorder is studied in the Ising kagome lattice within a cluster approach. The model considers antiferromagnetic short-range couplings and long-range intercluster disordered interactions. The replica formalism is used to obtain an effective single cluster model from where the thermodynamics is analyzed by exact diagonalization. We found that the presence of GF can introduce cluster freezing at very low levels of disorder. The system exhibits an entropy plateau followed by a large entropy drop close to the freezing temperature. In this scenario, a spin-liquid (SL) behavior prevents conventional long-range order, but an infinitesimal disorder picks out uncompensated cluster states from the multi-degenerate SL regime, potentializing the intercluster-disordered coupling and bringing the cluster spin-glass state. To summarize, our results suggest that the SL state combined with low levels of disorder can activate small clusters, providing hypersensitivity to the freezing process in geometrically frustrated materials and playing a key role in the glassy stabilization. We propose that this physical mechanism could be present in several geometrically frustrated materials. In particular, we discuss our results in connection with the recent experimental investigations of the Ising kagome compound Co3Mg(OH)6Cl2.
Spin liquid and infinitesimal-disorder-driven cluster spin glass in the kagome lattice.
Schmidt, M; Zimmer, F M; Magalhaes, S G
2017-04-26
The interplay between geometric frustration (GF) and bond disorder is studied in the Ising kagome lattice within a cluster approach. The model considers antiferromagnetic short-range couplings and long-range intercluster disordered interactions. The replica formalism is used to obtain an effective single cluster model from where the thermodynamics is analyzed by exact diagonalization. We found that the presence of GF can introduce cluster freezing at very low levels of disorder. The system exhibits an entropy plateau followed by a large entropy drop close to the freezing temperature. In this scenario, a spin-liquid (SL) behavior prevents conventional long-range order, but an infinitesimal disorder picks out uncompensated cluster states from the multi-degenerate SL regime, potentializing the intercluster-disordered coupling and bringing the cluster spin-glass state. To summarize, our results suggest that the SL state combined with low levels of disorder can activate small clusters, providing hypersensitivity to the freezing process in geometrically frustrated materials and playing a key role in the glassy stabilization. We propose that this physical mechanism could be present in several geometrically frustrated materials. In particular, we discuss our results in connection with the recent experimental investigations of the Ising kagome compound Co3Mg(OH)6Cl2.
Observation of Temperature Chaos in Mesoscopic Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guchhait, Samaresh
Temperature Chaos (TC) results from a change in temperature for spin glasses (SG), polymers, and other glassy materials. When the temperature is changed, TC means that the new state has no memory of the preparation of the initial state. TC was predicted long ago [PRL 48, 767 (1982)]. However, ``An experimental measurement of TC is still missing'' [EPL 103, 67003 (2013)]. One reason for this is the question of length scale. In the thermodynamic limit, even an infinitesimal temperature change, ΔT , will create a chaotic condition. However, by working at the mesoscale, one can establish a length scale sufficiently small to exhibit reversible behavior before crossing over to chaotic behavior as the temperature change increases. Observation of TC is possible because, on reasonable laboratory time scales, the SG correlation length can grow to the size of the thickness of the film, L. The lower critical dimension for a SG is ~ 2 . 5 , so that the thin film SG crosses over to a glass temperature Tg = 0 . However, there remains quasi-equilibrium SG states with length scales < L . After crossover, a small ΔT will generate a TC coherence length which, if greater than L, will leave the system in a reversible state. However, when ΔT is sufficiently large, such that the TC coherence length is less than L, and chaos will ensue. I will discuss our recent results of temperature cycling on 15.5 nm SG films of amorphous Ge:Mn. By use of end of aging and temperature cycling, both the reversible region and the chaotic region are observed. Remarkably, the transition from a reversible to chaotic behavior is abrupt, and not smooth as a function of ΔT . This is in contrast to previous work using polycrystalline materials where the distribution of length scales smoothed out the transition to chaos. Using the calculated TC critical exponent, the range of ΔT for reversible behavior is calculated and is in very good agreement with the measured range. This work was supported by the U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topkaya, R.; Akman, Ö.; Kazan, S.; Aktaş, B.; Durmus, Z.; Baykal, A.
2012-10-01
Manganese-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles coated with triethylene glycol (TREG) have been prepared by the glycothermal reaction. The effect of Mn substitution and coating on temperature-dependent magnetic properties of the TREG-coated Mn x Co1- x Fe2O4 nanoparticles (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) with size of 5-7 nm has been investigated in the temperature range of 10-300 K in a magnetic field up to 9 T. After the irreversible processes of the magnetic hysteresis curves were completed, the high-field regions of these curves were fitted by using a `law of approach to saturation' to extract the magnetic properties, such as the effective anisotropy constant ( K eff) and the anisotropy field ( H A) etc. High coercive field of 12.6 kOe is observed in pure cobalt ferrite coated with TREG at 10 K. The low temperature unsaturated magnetization behaviour indicates the core-shell structure of the Mn x Co1- x Fe2O4 NPs. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) measurements revealed superparamagnetic phase of TREG-coated Mn x Co1- x Fe2O4 nanoparticles at room temperature. The blocking and irreversibility temperatures obtained from ZFC-FC curves decrease at highest Mn concentration ( x = 0.8). The existence of spin-glass-like surface layer with freezing temperature of 215 K was established with the applied field dependence of the blocking temperatures following the de Almeida-Thouless line for the Mn0.6Co0.4Fe2O4 NPs. The shifted hysteresis loops with exchange bias field of 60 Oe and high-field irreversibility up to 60 kOe in FC M- H curve at 10 K show that spin-glass-like surface spins surrounds around ordered core material of the Mn0.6Co0.4Fe2O4 NPs. FMR measurement show that all the TREG-coated Mn x Co1- x Fe2O4 nanoparticles absorb microwave in broad field range of about ten thousands Oe. The spectra for all the samples have broad linewidth because of angular distributions of easy axis and internal fields of nanoparticles.
Phase diagrams of the quantum XY spin glass model in a transverse field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Büttner, G.; Kopeć, T. K.; Usadel, K. D.
1990-10-01
The infinite range XY spin glass model in a transverse field Γ is investigated by means of the static approximation within the Trotter-Suzuki approach and thermo-field dynamics. The corresponding phase diagrams are obtained showing that a spin glass transition takes place for non-zero values of the transverse field up to a critical value. However, it is found that the results from both methods disagree considerably from recent calculations by De Cesare et al. on this model, performed by using the two-spin cluster approximation.
Bimodal and Gaussian Ising spin glasses in dimension two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.
2016-02-01
An analysis is given of numerical simulation data to size L =128 on the archetype square lattice Ising spin glasses (ISGs) with bimodal (±J ) and Gaussian interaction distributions. It is well established that the ordering temperature of both models is zero. The Gaussian model has a nondegenerate ground state and thus a critical exponent η ≡0 , and a continuous distribution of energy levels. For the bimodal model, above a size-dependent crossover temperature T*(L ) there is a regime of effectively continuous energy levels; below T*(L ) there is a distinct regime dominated by the highly degenerate ground state plus an energy gap to the excited states. T*(L ) tends to zero at very large L , leaving only the effectively continuous regime in the thermodynamic limit. The simulation data on both models are analyzed with the conventional scaling variable t =T and with a scaling variable τb=T2/(1 +T2) suitable for zero-temperature transition ISGs, together with appropriate scaling expressions. The data for the temperature dependence of the reduced susceptibility χ (τb,L ) and second moment correlation length ξ (τb,L ) in the thermodynamic limit regime are extrapolated to the τb=0 critical limit. The Gaussian critical exponent estimates from the simulations, η =0 and ν =3.55 (5 ) , are in full agreement with the well-established values in the literature. The bimodal critical exponents, estimated from the thermodynamic limit regime analyses using the same extrapolation protocols as for the Gaussian model, are η =0.20 (2 ) and ν =4.8 (3 ) , distinctly different from the Gaussian critical exponents.
Wills, A S; Bisson, W G
2011-04-27
The jarosites are the most studied examples of kagome antiferromagnets. Research into them has inspired new directions in magnetism, such as the role of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in symmetry breaking, kagome spin ice, and whether spin glass-like phases can exist in the disorder-free limit. This last point is based around the observation of unconventional thermodynamic and kinetic responses in hydronium jarosite, H(3)OFe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6), that have led to its classification as a 'topological' spin glass, reflecting the defining role that the underlying geometry of the kagome lattice plays in the formation of the spin glass state. In this paper we explore one of the fundamental questions concerning the frustrated magnetism in hydronium jarosite: whether the spin glass phase is the result of chemical disorder and concomitant randomness in the exchange interactions. Confirming previous crystallographic studies, we use elemental analysis to show that the nature of the low temperature magnetic state is not a simple function of chemical disorder and provide evidence to support the hypothesis that anisotropies drive the spin glass transition.
Proposal of a checking parameter in the simulated annealing method applied to the spin glass model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamaguchi, Chiaki
2016-02-01
We propose a checking parameter utilizing the breaking of the Jarzynski equality in the simulated annealing method using the Monte Carlo method. This parameter is based on the Jarzynski equality. By using this parameter, to detect that the system is in global minima of the free energy under gradual temperature reduction is possible. Thus, by using this parameter, one is able to investigate the efficiency of annealing schedules. We apply this parameter to the ± J Ising spin glass model. The application to the Gaussian Ising spin glass model is also mentioned. We discuss that the breaking of the Jarzynski equality is induced by the system being trapped in local minima of the free energy. By performing Monte Carlo simulations of the ± J Ising spin glass model and a glassy spin model proposed by Newman and Moore, we show the efficiency of the use of this parameter.
Disorder, cluster spin glass, and hourglass spectra in striped magnetic insulators.
Andrade, Eric C; Vojta, Matthias
2012-10-05
Hourglass-shaped magnetic excitation spectra have been detected in a variety of doped transition-metal oxides with stripelike charge order. Compared to the predictions of spin-wave theory for perfect stripes, these spectra display a different intensity distribution and anomalous broadening. Here we show, based on a comprehensive modeling for La5/3Sr1/3CoO4, how quenched disorder in the charge sector causes frustration, and consequently cluster-glass behavior at low temperatures, in the spin sector. This spin-glass physics, which is insensitive to the detailed nature of the charge disorder, but sensitive to the relative strength of the magnetic interstripe coupling, ultimately determines the distribution of magnetic spectral weight: The excitation spectrum, calculated using spin waves in finite disordered systems, is found to match in detail the observed hour-glass spectrum.
Classical spin glass system in external field with taking into account relaxation effects
Gevorkyan, A. S. Abajyan, H. G.
2013-08-15
We study statistical properties of disordered spin systems under the influence of an external field with taking into account relaxation effects. For description of system the spatial 1D Heisenberg spin-glass Hamiltonian is used. In addition, we suppose that interactions occur between nearest-neighboring spins and they are random. Exact solutions which define angular configuration of the spin in nodes were obtained from the equations of stationary points of Hamiltonian and the corresponding conditions for the energy local minimum. On the basis of these recurrent solutions an effective parallel algorithm is developed for simulation of stabile spin-chains of an arbitrary length. It is shown that by way of an independent order of N{sup 2} numerical simulations (where N is number of spin in each chain) it is possible to generate ensemble of spin-chains, which is completely ergodic which is equivalent to full self-averaging of spin-chains' vector polarization. Distributions of different parameters (energy, average polarization by coordinates, and spin-spin interaction constant) of unperturbed system are calculated. In particular, analytically is proved and numerically is shown, that for the Heisenberg nearest-neighboring Hamiltonian model, the distribution of spin-spin interaction constants as opposed to widely used Gauss-Edwards-Anderson distribution satisfies Levy alpha-stable distribution law. This distribution is nonanalytic function and does not have variance. In the work we have in detail studied critical properties of an ensemble depending on value of external field parameters (from amplitude and frequency) and have shown that even at weak external fields the spin-glass systemis strongly frustrated. It is shown that frustrations have fractal behavior, they are selfsimilar and do not disappear at scale decreasing of area. By the numerical computation is shown that the average polarization of spin-glass on a different coordinates can have values which can lead to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilker, Efe; Berker, A. Nihat
2014-03-01
Spin-glass phases, phase transitions for q-state clock models and their q infinity limit XY model in d = 3 are studied by renormalization-group (RG) that is exact for the d=3 hierarchical lattice, approximate for the cubic lattice. In addition to the chaotic rescaling behavior of the spin-glass phase, each of the two types of spin-glass phase boundaries displays, under RG, its own distinctive chaotic behavior. These chaotic RG trajectories subdivide into two categories: strong-coupling chaos (in the spin-glass phase and, distinctly, on the spinglass-ferromagnetic boundary) and intermediate-coupling chaos (on the spinglass-paramagnetic boundary). We characterize each different phase and phase boundary exhibiting chaos by its distinct calculated Lyapunov exponent. We show that under RG, chaotic trajectories and fixed distributions are equivalent. The phase diagrams of arbitrary even q-state clock spin-glass models are calculated. These, for all non-infinite q, have a finite-temperature spin-glass phase. The spin-glass phases exhibit universal ordering behavior independent of q. The spin-glass phases and the spinglass-paramagnetic boundaries respectively have universal fixed distributions, chaotic trajectories, Lyapunov exponents.In the XY limit a T=0 spin-glass phase is indicated.
Kariya, Fumihiro; Ebisu, Shuji; Nagata, Shoichi
2009-03-15
Successive changes from ferromagnetic, re-entrant mixed, to spin-glass regime have been manifestly found with increasing Ti-composition x in the quaternary spinel-type Cu(Cr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}){sub 2}S{sub 4} system. The Curie temperature T{sub c} decreases steeply with increasing x and this transition becomes ill-defined around x=0.47. Two distinct transitions appear below T{sub c} over the range x=0.40-0.47. Coexistence of the ferromagnetism and spin-glass order would be observed below the Gabay and Toulouse transition (T{sub GT}), owing to freezing of the transverse-spin components without changing of the ferromagnetic order parameter. Finally, at a yet lower temperature de Almeida-Thouless transition (T{sub AT}), the longitudinal-spin component freezes randomly at which an irreversibility arises between zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetizations. Over the range of 0.47{<=}x{<=}0.85, a cusp of the ZFC magnetization is seen at T{sub g} like conventional spin-glass. Specimens with x{>=}0.90 remain paramagnetic down to 2.0 K. A magnetic phase diagram between T versus x has been obtained experimentally. The values of the multicritical point in 100 Oe is detected to be x=0.47 and T=7.40K. The low-field magnetization and the phase diagram are satisfactorily explained by the theory of Gabay and Toulouse on the basis of Heisenberg isotropic vector spin model rather than the Ising spin model. - An enlargement of the magnetic phase diagram for Cu(Cr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}){sub 2}S{sub 4} at a constant field of 100 Oe over the range of 0.40{<=}x{<=}0.70. The curves give a guide to the eye: para, paramagnetic; ferro, ferromagnetic; SGI, spin-glass I (GT-phase), and SGII: spin-glass II (AT-phase). Three characteristic temperatures of T{sub c},T{sub GT}, and T{sub AT} merge into 7.40 K at x=0.47 in H=100 Oe. This is a multicritical point.
CALL FOR PAPERS: Special issue on Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coolen, Ton; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Sourlas, Nicolas; Wong, Michael
2007-10-01
This is a call for contributions to a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical dedicated to the subject of the conference `Viewing The World Through Spin Glasses', in honour of David Sherrington on the occasion of his 65th birthday, 31 August-1 September 2007 (http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/\\verb.~.ppzjpg/DS2007/). Invited speakers and participants at that meeting and other researchers working in the field are invited to submit a research paper to this issue. The Editorial Board has invited Ton Coolen, Hidetoshi Nishimori, Nicolas Sourlas and Michael Wong to serve as Guest Editors for the special issue. Their criteria for acceptance of contributions are as follows: •The subject of the paper should relate to the subject of the conference (see the website of the conference http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/\\verb.~.ppzjpg/DS2007/). •Contributions will be refereed and processed according to the usual procedure of the journal. •Conference papers may be based on already published work but should either contain significant additional new results and/or insights or give a survey of the present state of the art, a critical assessment of the present understanding of a topic, and a discussion of open problems. •Papers submitted by non-participants should be original and contain substantial new results. The guidelines for the preparation of contributions are the following: •The DEADLINE for submission of contributions is 1 December 2007. This deadline will allow the special issue to appear in July 2008. •There is a nominal page limit of 16 printed pages per contribution. For papers exceeding this limit, the Guest Editors reserve the right to request a reduction in length. •Further advice on publishing your work in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical may be found at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa. •Contributions to the special issue should, if possible, be submitted electronically by web upload at www.iop.org/Journals/jphysa or by
Reentrant Wetting of Network Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernardino, N. R.; Telo da Gama, M. M.
2012-09-01
We use a simple mesoscopic Landau-Safran theory of network fluids to show that a reentrant phase diagram, in the “empty liquid” regime, leads to nonmonotonic surface tension and reentrant wetting, as previously reported for binary mixtures. One of the wetting transitions is of the usual kind, but the low temperature transition may allow the display of the full range of fluctuation regimes predicted by renormalization group theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Nidhi; Borgohain, Barsha; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay; Singh, H. K.
2016-03-01
Nanocrystalline ribbons of inverse Heusler alloy Mn2Ni1.6Sn0.4 have been synthesised by melt spinning of the arc-melted bulk precursor. The single-phase ribbons crystallize into a cubic structure and exhibit very fine crystallite size of <2 nm. Temperature-dependent magnetization ( M- T) measurements reveal ferromagnetic-austenite (FM-A)-antiferromagnetic-martensite (AFM-M) phase transition that begins at M S ≈ 249 K and finishes at M f ≈ 224 K. During warming, the reverse AFM-M to FM-A transitions begins at A s ≈ 240 K and finishes at A f ≈ 261 K. A re-entrant FM transition is observed in the M-phase at T_{{CM}} ≈ 145 K. These transitions are also confirmed by temperature-dependent resistivity ( ρ- T) measurements. The hysteretic behaviour of M- T and ρ- T in the temperature regime spanned by the A-M transition is a manifestation of the first-order phase transition. M- T and ρ- T data also provide unambiguous evidence in favour of spin glass at T < T_{{CM}}. The scaling of the glass freezing temperature ( T f) with frequency, extracted from the frequency-dependent AC susceptibility measurements, confirms the existence of canonical spin glass at T < T_{{CM}} ≈ 145 K. The occurrence of canonical spin glass has been explained in terms of the nanostructuring modified interactions between the coexisting FM and AFM correlations in the martensitic phase.
Replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations of the ising spin glass: Static and dynamic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yucesoy, Burcu
Spin glasses have been the subject of intense study and considerable controversy for decades, and the low-temperature phase of short-range spin glasses is still poorly understood. Our main goal is to improve our understanding in this area and find an answer to the following question: Are there only a single pair or a countable infinity of pure states in the low temperature phase of the EA spin glass? To that aim we first start by introducing spin glasses and provide a brief history of their research, then proceed to describe our method of simulation, the parallel tempering Monte Carlo algorithm. Next, we present the results of a large-scale numerical study of the equilibrium three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass with Gaussian disorder. In order to understand how the parallel tempering algorithm works, we measure various static, as well as dynamical quantities, such as the autocorrelation times and round-trip times for the parallel tempering Monte Carlo method. We examine the correlation between static and dynamic observables for ˜ 5000 disorder realizations and up to 1000 spins down to temperatures at 20% of the critical temperature, and our results show that autocorrelation times are directly correlated with the roughness of the free-energy landscape. In the following chapters, the three- and four-dimensional Edwards-Anderson and mean-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Ising spin glasses are studied again via large scale Monte Carlo simulations at low temperatures, deep within the spin glass phase. Performing a careful statistical analysis of several thousand independent disorder realizations and using an observable that detects peaks in the overlap distribution, we show that the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and Edwards-Anderson models have a distinctly different low-temperature behavior. We arrive to the following conclusion: The structure of the spin-glass overlap distribution for the Edwards-Anderson model suggests that its low-temperature phase has only a
Exact algorithm for sampling the two-dimensional Ising spin glass.
Thomas, Creighton K; Middleton, A Alan
2009-10-01
A sampling algorithm is presented that generates spin-glass configurations of the two-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass at finite temperature with probabilities proportional to their Boltzmann weights. Such an algorithm overcomes the slow dynamics of direct simulation and can be used to study long-range correlation functions and coarse-grained dynamics. The algorithm uses a correspondence between spin configurations on a regular lattice and dimer (edge) coverings of a related graph: Wilson's algorithm [D. B. Wilson, Proceedings of the Eighth Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SIAM, Philadelphia, 1997), p 258] for sampling dimer coverings on a planar lattice is adapted to generate samplings for the dimer problem corresponding to both planar and toroidal spin-glass samples. This algorithm is recursive: it computes probabilities for spins along a "separator" that divides the sample in half. Given the spins on the separator, sample configurations for the two separated halves are generated by further division and assignment. The algorithm is simplified by using Pfaffian elimination rather than Gaussian elimination for sampling dimer configurations. For n spins and given floating point precision, the algorithm has an asymptotic run-time of O(n(3/2)); it is found that the required precision scales as inverse temperature and grows only slowly with system size. Sample applications and benchmarking results are presented for samples of size up to n=128(2), with fixed and periodic boundary conditions.
Ren, Jin-Li; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Li, Yan
2015-09-14
We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that it is possible to directly observe the resolvable spin separation in the spin Hall effect of light at an air-glass interface by choosing optimal parameters. When a P-polarized light with a beam waist of 10 μm is incident around Brewster's angle, the two spin components of the reflected beam can be completely separated by eliminating the influence of the in-plane wavevector spread. This not only obviously reveals the strong impacts of the polarization state, the incident angle, the beam waist, and the in-plane wavevector spread, but also intuitively visualizes the observation of the spin Hall effect of light.
Zhang, X. K. Yuan, J. J.; Yu, H. J.; Zhu, X. R.; Xie, Y. M.; Tang, S. L.; Xu, L. Q.
2014-07-14
Spin glass behavior and exchange bias effect have been observed in antiferromagnetic SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6−x} nanoribbons synthesized via a self-sacrificing template process. The magnetic field dependence of thermoremanent magnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization shows that the sample is good correspondence to spin glass and diluted antiferromagnetic system for the applied field H < 2 T and H > 2 T, respectively. By detailed analysis of training effect using Binek's model, we argue that the observed exchange bias effect in SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6−x} nanoribbons arises entirely from an interface exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell. The present study is useful for understanding the nature of shell layer and the origin of exchange bias effect in other antiferromagnetic nanosystems as well.
Microscopic description of an Ising spin glass near the percolation threshold.
Barbosa, Paulo H R; Raposo, E P; Coutinho-Filho, M D
2003-11-07
Monte Carlo results using a microscopic model to describe FexZn(1-x)F2 indicate that its spin-glass phase at x=0.25 and zero magnetic field is characterized by the presence of antiferromagnetic fractal domains, separated by random vacancies and strongly correlated in time. The effective local random-field distribution corroborates this glassy behavior, which emerges irrespective of ab initio competing interactions and is a consequence of the fractal domain structure near the percolation threshold, x(p)=0.24. The aging properties of the system are in agreement with predictions of short-range stochastic spin-glass models and with the droplets model for spin glass close to percolation.
Nuclear Spin Relaxation in Glass States of 3He-A in Stretched Aerogel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitriev, V. V.; Krasnikhin, D. A.; Mulders, N.; Senin, A. A.; Yudin, A. N.
2011-02-01
We present results of pulse NMR investigations of superfluid A-like phase of 3He in stretched aerogel. In this case we have anisotropic orbital glass (OG) with two possible types of ordering in spin space—ordered spin nematic (OG-SN) or disordered spin glass (OG-SG) states. It was found that longitudinal relaxation of magnetization is non-exponential in both states and depends on temperature and on inhomogeneity of external steady magnetic field. At the same conditions the relaxation in OG-SG state is more rapid than in OG-SN state. For transverse orientation of the magnetic field relative to anisotropy axis the duration of free induction decay signal was longer than in normal phase. It may be explained by formation of coherently precessing spin state.
Quantum annealing for the number-partitioning problem using a tunable spin glass of ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graß, Tobias; Raventós, David; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Gogolin, Christian; Lewenstein, Maciej
2016-05-01
Exploiting quantum properties to outperform classical ways of information processing is an outstanding goal of modern physics. A promising route is quantum simulation, which aims at implementing relevant and computationally hard problems in controllable quantum systems. Here we demonstrate that in a trapped ion setup, with present day technology, it is possible to realize a spin model of the Mattis-type that exhibits spin glass phases. Our method produces the glassy behaviour without the need for any disorder potential, just by controlling the detuning of the spin-phonon coupling. Applying a transverse field, the system can be used to benchmark quantum annealing strategies which aim at reaching the ground state of the spin glass starting from the paramagnetic phase. In the vicinity of a phonon resonance, the problem maps onto number partitioning, and instances which are difficult to address classically can be implemented.
Quantum annealing for the number-partitioning problem using a tunable spin glass of ions
Graß, Tobias; Raventós, David; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno; Gogolin, Christian; Lewenstein, Maciej
2016-01-01
Exploiting quantum properties to outperform classical ways of information processing is an outstanding goal of modern physics. A promising route is quantum simulation, which aims at implementing relevant and computationally hard problems in controllable quantum systems. Here we demonstrate that in a trapped ion setup, with present day technology, it is possible to realize a spin model of the Mattis-type that exhibits spin glass phases. Our method produces the glassy behaviour without the need for any disorder potential, just by controlling the detuning of the spin-phonon coupling. Applying a transverse field, the system can be used to benchmark quantum annealing strategies which aim at reaching the ground state of the spin glass starting from the paramagnetic phase. In the vicinity of a phonon resonance, the problem maps onto number partitioning, and instances which are difficult to address classically can be implemented. PMID:27230802
Spin glass transition in canonical AuFe alloys: A numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Gui-Bin; Zhu, Yan
2012-05-01
Although spin glass transitions have long been observed in diluted magnetic alloys, e.g. AuFe and CuMn alloys, previous numerical studies are not completely consistent with the experiment results. The abnormal critical exponents of the alloys remain still puzzling. By employing parallel tempering algorithm with finite-size scaling analysis, we investigated the phase transitions in canonical AuFe alloys. Our results strongly support that spin glass transitions occur at finite temperatures in the alloys. The calculated critical exponents agree well with those obtained from experiments.
Unconventional critical activated scaling of two-dimensional quantum spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matoz-Fernandez, D. A.; Romá, F.
2016-07-01
We study the critical behavior of two-dimensional short-range quantum spin glasses by numerical simulations. Using a parallel tempering algorithm, we calculate the Binder cumulant for the Ising spin glass in a transverse magnetic field with two different short-range bond distributions, the bimodal and the Gaussian ones. Through an exhaustive finite-size analysis, we show that the cumulant probably follows an unconventional activated scaling, which we interpret as new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the quantum critical behavior is governed by an infinite randomness fixed point.
Monolithically integrated active waveguides and lasers using rare-earth doped spin-on glass
Ashby, C.I.H.; Sullivan, C.T.; Vawter, G.A.
1996-09-01
This LDRD program No. 3505.230 explored a new approach to monolithic integration of active waveguides and rare-earth solid state lasers directly onto III-V substrates. It involved selectively incorporating rare-earth ions into spin-on glasses (SOGs) that could be solvent cast and then patterned with conventional microelectronic processing. The patterned, rare-earth spin-on glasses (RESOGs) were to be photopumped by laser diodes prefabricated on the wafer and would serve as directly integrated active waveguides and/or rare-earth solid state lasers.
Ising spin-glass transition in a magnetic field outside the limit of validity of mean-field theory.
Leuzzi, L; Parisi, G; Ricci-Tersenghi, F; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J J
2009-12-31
The spin-glass transition in a magnetic field is studied both in and out of the limit of validity of mean-field theory on a diluted one dimensional chain of Ising spins where exchange bonds occur with a probability decaying as the inverse power of the distance. Varying the power in this long-range model corresponds, in a one-to-one relationship, to changing the dimension in spin-glass short-range models. Evidence for a spin-glass transition in a magnetic field is found also for systems whose equivalent dimension is below the upper critical dimension in a zero magnetic field.
Sasaki, M; Hukushima, K; Yoshino, H; Takayama, H
2007-09-28
The stability of the spin-glass phase against a magnetic field is studied in the three- and four-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glasses. Effective couplings J(eff) and effective fields H(eff) associated with length scale L are measured by a numerical domain-wall renormalization-group method. The results obtained by scaling analysis of the data strongly indicate the existence of a crossover length beyond which the spin-glass order is destroyed by field H. The crossover length well obeys a power law of H which diverges as H --> 0 but remains finite for any nonzero H, implying that the spin-glass phase is absent even in an infinitesimal field. These results are well consistent with the droplet theory for short-range spin glasses.
Shinaoka, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Motome, Yukitoshi
2011-07-22
Motivated by puzzling characteristics of spin-glass transitions widely observed in pyrochlore-based frustrated materials, we investigate the effects of coupling to local lattice distortions in a bond-disordered antiferromagnet on the pyrochlore lattice by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the spin-glass transition temperature T(f) is largely enhanced by the spin-lattice coupling and, furthermore, becomes almost independent of Δ in a wide range of the disorder strength Δ. The critical property of the spin-glass transition is indistinguishable from that of the canonical Heisenberg spin glass in the entire range of Δ. These peculiar behaviors are ascribed to a modification of the degenerate manifold from a continuous to semidiscrete one by spin-lattice coupling.
LABS problem and ground state spin glasses system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leukhin, A. N.; Bezrodnyi, V. I.; Kozlova, Yu. A.
2016-12-01
In our work we demonstrate the new results of an exhaustive search for optimal binary sequences with minimum peak sidelobe (MPS) up to length N=85. The design problem for law autocorrelation binary sequences (LABS) is a notoriously difficult computational problem which is numbered as the problem number 005 in CSPLib. In statistical physics LABS problem can be interrepted as the energy of N iteracting Ising spins. This is a Bernasconi model. Due to this connection to physics we refer a binary sequence as one-dimensional spin lattice. At this assumption optimal binary sequences by merit factor (MF) criteria are the ground-state spin system without disorder which exhibits a glassy regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neto, Minos A.; de Sousa, J. Ricardo; Padilha, Igor T.; Rodriguez Salmon, Octavio D.; Roberto Viana, J.; Dinóla Neto, F.
2016-06-01
We study the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model in both uniform longitudinal (H) and transverse (Ω) magnetic fields by using the effective-field theory (EFT) with finite cluster N = 1 spin (EFT-1). We analyzed the behavior of the magnetic susceptibility to investigate the reentrant phenomena that we have seen in the same phase diagram previously obtained in other papers. Our results shows the presence of two divergences in the susceptibility that indicates the existence of a reentrant behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shinaoka, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Motome, Yukitoshi
2014-10-01
Motivated by puzzling aspects of spin-glass behavior reported in frustrated magnetic materials, we theoretically investigate effects of magnetoelastic coupling in geometrically frustrated classical spin models. In particular, we consider bond-disordered Heisenberg antiferromagnets on a pyrochlore lattice coupled to local lattice distortions. By integrating out the lattice degree of freedom, we derive an effective spin-only model, the bilinear-biquadratic model with bond disorder. The effective model is analyzed by classical Monte Carlo simulations using an extended loop algorithm. First, we discuss the phase diagrams in detail by showing the comprehensive Monte Carlo data for thermodynamic and magnetic properties. We show that the spin-glass transition temperature Tf is largely enhanced by the spin-lattice coupling b in the weakly disordered regime. By considering the limit of strong spin-lattice coupling, this enhancement is ascribed to the suppression of thermal fluctuations in semidiscrete degenerate manifold formed in the presence of the spin-lattice coupling. We also find that, by increasing the strength of disorder Δ, the system shows a concomitant transition of the nematic order and spin glass at a temperature determined by b, being almost independent of Δ. This is due to the fact that the spin-glass transition is triggered by the spin collinearity developed by the nematic order. Although further-neighbor exchange interactions originating in the cooperative lattice distortions result in spin-lattice order in the weakly disordered regime, the concomitant transition remains robust with Tf almost independent of Δ. We find that the magnetic susceptibility shows hysteresis between the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled data below Tf, and that the nonlinear susceptibility shows a negative divergence at the transition. These features are common to conventional spin-glass systems. Meanwhile, we find that the specific heat exhibits a broad peak at Tf, and that the
Orbital Dimer Model for the Spin-Glass State in Y2 Mo2 O7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thygesen, Peter M. M.; Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Zhang, Ronghuan; Beyer, Kevin A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Playford, Helen Y.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Keen, David A.; Hayward, Michael A.; Goodwin, Andrew L.
2017-02-01
The formation of a spin glass generally requires that magnetic exchange interactions are both frustrated and disordered. Consequently, the origin of spin-glass behavior in Y2 Mo2 O7 —in which magnetic Mo4 + ions occupy a frustrated pyrochlore lattice with minimal compositional disorder—has been a longstanding question. Here, we use neutron and x-ray pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis to develop a disorder model that resolves apparent incompatibilities between previously reported PDF, extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and NMR studies, and provides a new and physical explanation of the exchange disorder responsible for spin-glass formation. We show that Mo4 + ions displace according to a local "two-in-two-out" rule on each Mo4 tetrahedron, driven by orbital dimerization of Jahn-Teller active Mo4 + ions. Long-range orbital order is prevented by the macroscopic degeneracy of dimer coverings permitted by the pyrochlore lattice. Cooperative O2 - displacements yield a distribution of Mo-O-Mo angles, which in turn introduces disorder into magnetic interactions. Our study demonstrates experimentally how frustration of atomic displacements can assume the role of compositional disorder in driving a spin-glass transition.
Orbital Dimer Model for the Spin-Glass State in Y2Mo2O7
Thygesen, Peter M. M.; Paddison, Joseph A. M.; Zhang, Ronghuan; ...
2017-02-08
The formation of a spin glass generally requires that magnetic exchange interactions are both frustrated and disordered. Consequently, the origin of spin-glass behavior in Y2Mo2O7-in which magnetic Mo4+ ions occupy a frustrated pyrochlore lattice with minimal compositional disorder-has been a longstanding question. Here, we use neutron and x-ray pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis to develop a disorder model that resolves apparent incompatibilities between previously reported PDF, extended x-rayabsorption fine structure spectroscopy, and NMR studies, and provides a new and physical explanation of the exchange disorder responsible for spin-glass formation. We show that Mo4+ ions displace according to a local "two-in-two-out" rulemore » on each Mo4 tetrahedron, driven by orbital dimerization of Jahn-Teller active Mo4+ ions. Long-range orbital order is prevented by the macroscopic degeneracy of dimer coverings permitted by the pyrochlore lattice. Cooperative O2- displacements yield a distribution of Mo-O-Mo angles, which in turn introduces disorder into magnetic interactions. In conclusion, our study demonstrates experimentally how frustration of atomic displacements can assume the role of compositional disorder in driving a spin-glass transition.« less
Monolithically integrated solid state laser and waveguide using spin-on glass
Ashby, Carol I. H.; Hohimer, John P.; Neal, Daniel R.; Vawter, G. Allen
1995-01-01
A monolithically integrated photonic circuit combining a semiconductor source of excitation light with an optically active waveguide formed on the substrate. The optically active waveguide is preferably formed of a spin-on glass to which are added optically active materials which can enable lasing action, optical amplification, optical loss, or frequency conversion in the waveguide, depending upon the added material.
Ag-Mn nanoparticles: Three-dimensional finite size effect of the spin glass state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ederth, J.; Hoel, A.; Johansson, C. I.; Kiss, L. B.; Olsson, E.; Granqvist, C. G.; Nordblad, P.
1999-12-01
Ag-Mn nanoparticles were prepared by advanced gas evaporation. Their composition corresponded to Ag0.89Mn0.11, and the particle size distribution was log normal. The particles demonstrated an unambiguous spin glass behavior with the temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility displaying a plateau at ˜25 K. The magnetic domains were limited by the size of the particles.
Orbital Dimer Model for the Spin-Glass State in Y_{2}Mo_{2}O_{7}.
Thygesen, Peter M M; Paddison, Joseph A M; Zhang, Ronghuan; Beyer, Kevin A; Chapman, Karena W; Playford, Helen Y; Tucker, Matthew G; Keen, David A; Hayward, Michael A; Goodwin, Andrew L
2017-02-10
The formation of a spin glass generally requires that magnetic exchange interactions are both frustrated and disordered. Consequently, the origin of spin-glass behavior in Y_{2}Mo_{2}O_{7}-in which magnetic Mo^{4+} ions occupy a frustrated pyrochlore lattice with minimal compositional disorder-has been a longstanding question. Here, we use neutron and x-ray pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis to develop a disorder model that resolves apparent incompatibilities between previously reported PDF, extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and NMR studies, and provides a new and physical explanation of the exchange disorder responsible for spin-glass formation. We show that Mo^{4+} ions displace according to a local "two-in-two-out" rule on each Mo_{4} tetrahedron, driven by orbital dimerization of Jahn-Teller active Mo^{4+} ions. Long-range orbital order is prevented by the macroscopic degeneracy of dimer coverings permitted by the pyrochlore lattice. Cooperative O^{2-} displacements yield a distribution of Mo-O-Mo angles, which in turn introduces disorder into magnetic interactions. Our study demonstrates experimentally how frustration of atomic displacements can assume the role of compositional disorder in driving a spin-glass transition.
Competing Antiferromagnetic and Spin-Glass phases in a hollandite structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crespo Hernandez, Yanier; Andreanov, Alexei; Seriani, Nicola
2013-03-01
We introduce a simple model to explain recent experimental results on spin freezing in a hollandite-type structure. We argue that geometrical frustration of the lattice with antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions is responsible for the appearance of a spin-glass phase in presence of disorder. We check our predictions numerically using parallel tempering on a model that considers Ising spins and nearest-neighbor AFM interactions. The proposed model presents a rich phenomenology: in absence of disorder two ground states are possible, depending on the strength of the interactions, namely an AFM or a geometrically frustrated phase. Remarkably for any set of AFM couplings having an AFM ground state in the clean system, there exist a critical value of the disorder for which the ground state is replaced by a spin-glass one while maintaining all couplings AFM. To the best of our knowledge in the literature there is not a model that presents this kind of transition considering just short-range AFM interactions. Therefore we argue that this model would be useful to understand the relation between AFM coupling, disorder and the appearance of spin glasses phase.
Dynamical transition in the D=3 Edwards-Anderson spin glass in an external magnetic field.
Baity-Jesi, M; Baños, R A; Cruz, A; Fernandez, L A; Gil-Narvion, J M; Gordillo-Guerrero, A; Iñiguez, D; Maiorano, A; Mantovani, F; Marinari, E; Martin-Mayor, V; Monforte-Garcia, J; Muñoz Sudupe, A; Navarro, D; Parisi, G; Perez-Gaviro, S; Pivanti, M; Ricci-Tersenghi, F; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J J; Schifano, S F; Seoane, B; Tarancon, A; Tripiccione, R; Yllanes, D
2014-03-01
We study the off-equilibrium dynamics of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass in the presence of an external magnetic field. We have performed simulations both at fixed temperature and with an annealing protocol. Thanks to the Janus special-purpose computer, based on field-programmable gate array (FPGAs), we have been able to reach times equivalent to 0.01 s in experiments. We have studied the system relaxation both for high and for low temperatures, clearly identifying a dynamical transition point. This dynamical temperature is strictly positive and depends on the external applied magnetic field. We discuss different possibilities for the underlying physics, which include a thermodynamical spin-glass transition, a mode-coupling crossover, or an interpretation reminiscent of the random first-order picture of structural glasses.
Dynamical transition in the D =3 Edwards-Anderson spin glass in an external magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baity-Jesi, M.; Baños, R. A.; Cruz, A.; Fernandez, L. A.; Gil-Narvion, J. M.; Gordillo-Guerrero, A.; Iñiguez, D.; Maiorano, A.; Mantovani, F.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Monforte-Garcia, J.; Muñoz Sudupe, A.; Navarro, D.; Parisi, G.; Perez-Gaviro, S.; Pivanti, M.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.; Schifano, S. F.; Seoane, B.; Tarancon, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Yllanes, D.; Janus Collaboration
2014-03-01
We study the off-equilibrium dynamics of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass in the presence of an external magnetic field. We have performed simulations both at fixed temperature and with an annealing protocol. Thanks to the Janus special-purpose computer, based on field-programmable gate array (FPGAs), we have been able to reach times equivalent to 0.01 s in experiments. We have studied the system relaxation both for high and for low temperatures, clearly identifying a dynamical transition point. This dynamical temperature is strictly positive and depends on the external applied magnetic field. We discuss different possibilities for the underlying physics, which include a thermodynamical spin-glass transition, a mode-coupling crossover, or an interpretation reminiscent of the random first-order picture of structural glasses.
Complex spin glass behavior in Ga2-xFexO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahana, Sudipta; Topwal, D.
2017-03-01
We report the results of the dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements on solid solutions of Ga2-xFexO3 (with x = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25). Magnetic behavior in this series of compounds could broadly be explained by the molecular-field-approximation of a three-sublattice ferrimagnetic model considering three inequivalent octahedral sites. Analysis of frequency dispersion of ac susceptibility reveals a transition from the cluster-glass-like phase to the spin-glass-like phase with decreasing temperature for the x = 0.75 composition. Mentioned glassy behavior is found to gradually evolve with the composition (x) from the Ising type character to Heisenberg type behavior to unconventional glassy behavior for the x = 1.25 composition. Ga2-xFexO3 can hence serve as an ideal system for modeling complex spin glasses.
Nature of the spin-glass phase at experimental length scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez Baños, R.; Cruz, A.; Fernandez, L. A.; Gil-Narvion, J. M.; Gordillo-Guerrero, A.; Guidetti, M.; Maiorano, A.; Mantovani, F.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Monforte-Garcia, J.; Muñoz Sudupe, A.; Navarro, D.; Parisi, G.; Perez-Gaviro, S.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.; Schifano, S. F.; Seoane, B.; Tarancon, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Yllanes, D.
2010-06-01
We present a massive equilibrium simulation of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass at low temperatures. The Janus special-purpose computer has allowed us to equilibrate, using parallel tempering, L = 32 lattices down to T ≈ 0.64Tc. We demonstrate the relevance of equilibrium finite size simulations to understanding experimental non-equilibrium spin glasses in the thermodynamical limit by establishing a time-length dictionary. We conclude that non-equilibrium experiments performed on a timescale of 1 h can be matched with equilibrium results on L ≈ 110 lattices. A detailed investigation of the probability distribution functions of the spin and link overlap, as well as of their correlation functions, shows that Replica Symmetry Breaking is the appropriate theoretical framework for the physically relevant length scales. Besides, we improve over existing methodologies in ensuring equilibration in parallel tempering simulations.
Chaotic behavior of a spin-glass model on a Cayley tree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Costa, F. A.; de Araújo, J. M.; Salinas, S. R.
2015-06-01
We investigate the phase diagram of a spin-1 Ising spin-glass model on a Cayley tree. According to early work of Thompson and collaborators, this problem can be formulated in terms of a set of nonlinear discrete recursion relations along the branches of the tree. Physically relevant solutions correspond to the attractors of these mapping equations. In the limit of infinite coordination of the tree, and for some choices of the model parameters, we make contact with findings for the phase diagram of more recently investigated versions of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-glass model. In addition to the anticipated phases, we numerically characterize the existence of modulated and chaotic structures.
Domain-wall free energy of spin-glass models: numerical method and boundary conditions.
Hukushima, K
1999-10-01
An efficient Monte Carlo method is extended to evaluate directly domain-wall free energy for randomly frustrated spin systems. Using the method, critical phenomena of spin-glass phase transition are investigated in the 4d+/-J Ising model under the replica boundary condition. Our values of the critical temperature and exponent, obtained by finite-size scaling, are in good agreement with those of the standard Monte Carlo and the series expansion studies. In addition, two exponents, the stiffness exponent and the fractal dimension of the domain wall, which characterize the ordered phase, are obtained. The latter value is larger than d-1, indicating that the domain wall is really rough in the 4d Ising spin-glass phase.
Numerical study of the dynamics of some long range spin glass models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billoire, Alain
2015-07-01
We present results of a Monte Carlo study of the equilibrium dynamics of the one dimensional long-range Ising spin glass model. By tuning a parameter σ , this model interpolates between the mean field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and a proxy of the finite dimensional Edward-Anderson model. Activated scaling fits for the behavior of the relaxation time τ as a function of the number of spins N (Namely \\ln (τ )\\propto {{N}\\psi} ) give values of \\psi that are not stable against inclusion of subleading corrections. Critical scaling (τ \\propto {{N}ρ} ) gives more stable fits, at least in the non mean field region. We also present results on the scaling of the time decay of the critical remanent magnetization of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, a case where the simulation can be done with quite large systems and that shows the difficulties in obtaining precise values for dynamical exponents in spin glass models.
Nature of reentrant state in Cr75-x Fe25+x (x=0, 5) thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, B. Ravi; Kaul, S. N.
2016-11-01
Real (χn‧) and imaginary (χn″) components of the linear (n=1) and nonlinear (n = 2 , 3 , 4 , 5) magnetic susceptibilities for the Cr75-x Fe25+x (x=0, 5) thin films have been measured over three decades of ac driving-field frequency in the presence or absence of superposed dc magnetic fields (Hdc) at temperatures embracing the critical regions near the ferromagnetic (FM)-paramagnetic (PM) and reentrant (RE) phase transitions. The temperature, TRE, which marks the onset of the transition to the RE state, manifests itself as a shoulder in the χ1‧ (T) curve. The frequency- and Hdc-induced shifts in TRE and the dynamic scaling of χ1″ (T) at temperatures T ≲TRE, characteristic of a spin glass (SG) state, have been observed. Concomitant with this SG-like behavior, a long-range FM order persists down to the lowest temperature in the RE region, as evidenced by the existence of experimental signatures, symptomatic of a FM state, such as spontaneous magnetization and the characteristic features in χ2‧ (T) and χ3‧ (T) at T ≲TRE. In the RE state, the Cr75-x Fe25+x thin films are, thus, endowed with the characteristic attributes of both a conventional ferromagnet and a spin glass.
Nirmala, R.; Jang, Kwang-Hyun; Sim, Hasung; ...
2017-02-15
CuAl2O4 is a normal spinel oxide having quantum spin, S = 1/2 for Cu2+. It is a rather unique feature that the Cu2+ ions of CuAl2O4 sit at a tetrahedral position, not like the usual octahedral position for many oxides. At low temperatures, it exhibits all the thermodynamic evidence of a quantum spin glass. For example, the polycrystalline CuAl2O4 shows a cusp centered at ~2 K in the low-field dc magnetization data and a clear frequency dependence in the ac magnetic susceptibility while it displays logarithmic relaxation behavior in a time dependence of the magnetization. At the same time, theremore » is a peak at ~2.3 K in the heat capacity, which shifts towards a higher temperature with magnetic fields. Conversely, there is no evidence of new superlattice peaks in the high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data when cooled from 40 to 0.4 K. This implies that there is no long-ranged magnetic order down to 0.4 K, thus confirming a spin glass-like ground state for CuAl2O4. Interestingly, there is no sign of structural distortion either although Cu2+ is a Jahn–Teller active ion. Therefore, we claim that an orbital liquid state is the most likely ground state in CuAl2O4. Of further interest, it also exhibits a large frustration parameter, f = |θ CW/T m| ~ 67, one of the largest values reported for spinel oxides. These observations suggest that CuAl2O4 should be a rare example of a frustrated quantum spin glass with a good candidate for an orbital liquid state.« less
Spin glass behavior in frustrated quantum spin system CuAl2O4 with a possible orbital liquid state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nirmala, R.; Jang, Kwang-Hyun; Sim, Hasung; Cho, Hwanbeom; Lee, Junghwan; Yang, Nam-Geun; Lee, Seongsu; Ibberson, R. M.; Kakurai, K.; Matsuda, M.; Cheong, S.-W.; Gapontsev, V. V.; Streltsov, S. V.; Park, Je-Geun
2017-04-01
CuAl2O4 is a normal spinel oxide having quantum spin, S = 1/2 for Cu2+. It is a rather unique feature that the Cu2+ ions of CuAl2O4 sit at a tetrahedral position, not like the usual octahedral position for many oxides. At low temperatures, it exhibits all the thermodynamic evidence of a quantum spin glass. For example, the polycrystalline CuAl2O4 shows a cusp centered at ~2 K in the low-field dc magnetization data and a clear frequency dependence in the ac magnetic susceptibility while it displays logarithmic relaxation behavior in a time dependence of the magnetization. At the same time, there is a peak at ~2.3 K in the heat capacity, which shifts towards a higher temperature with magnetic fields. On the other hand, there is no evidence of new superlattice peaks in the high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data when cooled from 40 to 0.4 K. This implies that there is no long-ranged magnetic order down to 0.4 K, thus confirming a spin glass-like ground state for CuAl2O4. Interestingly, there is no sign of structural distortion either although Cu2+ is a Jahn–Teller active ion. Thus, we claim that an orbital liquid state is the most likely ground state in CuAl2O4. Of further interest, it also exhibits a large frustration parameter, f = |θ CW/T m| ~ 67, one of the largest values reported for spinel oxides. Our observations suggest that CuAl2O4 should be a rare example of a frustrated quantum spin glass with a good candidate for an orbital liquid state.
Spin glass behavior in frustrated quantum spin system CuAl2O4 with a possible orbital liquid state.
Nirmala, R; Jang, Kwang-Hyun; Sim, Hasung; Cho, Hwanbeom; Lee, Junghwan; Yang, Nam-Geun; Lee, Seongsu; Ibberson, R M; Kakurai, K; Matsuda, M; Cheong, S-W; Gapontsev, V V; Streltsov, S V; Park, Je-Geun
2017-04-05
CuAl2O4 is a normal spinel oxide having quantum spin, S = 1/2 for Cu(2+). It is a rather unique feature that the Cu(2+) ions of CuAl2O4 sit at a tetrahedral position, not like the usual octahedral position for many oxides. At low temperatures, it exhibits all the thermodynamic evidence of a quantum spin glass. For example, the polycrystalline CuAl2O4 shows a cusp centered at ~2 K in the low-field dc magnetization data and a clear frequency dependence in the ac magnetic susceptibility while it displays logarithmic relaxation behavior in a time dependence of the magnetization. At the same time, there is a peak at ~2.3 K in the heat capacity, which shifts towards a higher temperature with magnetic fields. On the other hand, there is no evidence of new superlattice peaks in the high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data when cooled from 40 to 0.4 K. This implies that there is no long-ranged magnetic order down to 0.4 K, thus confirming a spin glass-like ground state for CuAl2O4. Interestingly, there is no sign of structural distortion either although Cu(2+) is a Jahn-Teller active ion. Thus, we claim that an orbital liquid state is the most likely ground state in CuAl2O4. Of further interest, it also exhibits a large frustration parameter, f = |θ CW/T m| ~ 67, one of the largest values reported for spinel oxides. Our observations suggest that CuAl2O4 should be a rare example of a frustrated quantum spin glass with a good candidate for an orbital liquid state.
The Thermodynamic Limit in Mean Field Spin Glass Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerra, Francesco; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio
We present a simple strategy in order to show the existence and uniqueness of the infinite volume limit of thermodynamic quantities, for a large class of mean field disordered models, as for example the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and the Derrida p-spin model. The main argument is based on a smooth interpolation between a large system, made of N spin sites, and two similar but independent subsystems, made of N1 and N2 sites, respectively, with N1+N2=N. The quenched average of the free energy turns out to be subadditive with respect to the size of the system. This gives immediately convergence of the free energy per site, in the infinite volume limit. Moreover, a simple argument, based on concentration of measure, gives the almost sure convergence, with respect to the external noise. Similar results hold also for the ground state energy per site.
Reentrant ferromagnetism and its stability in magnetic semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zutic, Igor; Erwin, Steven; Petukhov, Andre
2007-03-01
The magnetization of a ferromagnetic material normally decays monotonically with increasing temperature. Here we demonstrate theoretically the possibility of quite different behavior: reentrant ferromagnetism in semiconductors [1]. Reentrant magnetism can arise in semiconductors because as the temperature rises, the resulting higher concentration of thermally excited carriers can enhance the exchange coupling between magnetic impurities. This opens the possibility of materials exhibiting a transition from the low-temperature paramagnetic phase, in which carriers are frozen out, to a ferromagnetic phase at higher temperature. Thus, in the absence of other ferromagnetic mechanisms there will be two critical temperatures, Tc1 < Tc2, describing para-to-ferromagnetic and ferro-to-paramagnetic transitions, respectively. Here we determine the phase diagram and the stability of reentrant ferromagnetism within a self-consistent description in which the spin-splitting in both carrier bands is included [2]. We discuss the implications of our findings for transport measurements in magnetic semiconductors, and suggest several candidate materials in which reentrant ferromagnetism might be observable. [1] I. Zuti'c, A. Petukhov, S. C. Erwin, preprint. [2] I. Zuti'c, J. Fabian, S. C. Erwin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 026602 (2006).
Low Temperature Spin-glass Behavior in Nonmagnetic Atom Disorder Compound Pr2CuIn3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dexin; Homma, Yoshiya; Honda, Fuminori; Yamamura, Tomoo; Aoki, Dai
We present the experimental results of ac and dc susceptibility, magnetization, magnetic relaxation, specific heat and electrical resistivity for hexagonal CaIn2-type polycrystalline Pr2CuIn3. Spin-glass state is confirmed to form in this system with a spin freezing temperature Tf∼5.4 K. The frequency dependent cusp in ac susceptibility, the evident irreversible magnetism and long-time magnetic relaxation behavior, and the absence of visible anomaly in temperature dependences of specific heat and electrical resistivity are the typical features characteristic of the spin-glass behaviors. A dynamical analysis of the ac susceptibility data gives further evidence for the spin-glass state in Pr2CuIn3. Formation of spin-glass state in Pr2CuIn3 seems to originate from the continued site randomness of the non-magnetic elements, which introduce the random distribution of exchange interactions between Pr atoms.
Spin-glass freezing in a Ni-vermiculite intercalation compound.
Marcos, C; Argüelles, A; Khainakov, S A; Rodríguez Fernández, J; Blanco, J A
2012-08-29
We report on the magnetic properties of a Ni(2+)-vermiculite intercalation compound from Santa Olalla, Huelva (Spain). This modified vermiculite was studied by means of DC and AC magnetic measurements. The existence of two maxima in magnetic susceptibility below 10 K was interpreted in terms of the Cole-Cole formalism as being due to spin-glass freezing in this material. The temperature, frequency and external magnetic field dependences of these anomalies located at temperatures around 2-3 K and 8-10 K in the imaginary part of the magnetic susceptibility, χ″, seem to suggest the existence of spin-relaxation phenomena between the magnetic moments of the Ni(2+) ions. A dynamic study of the relaxation processes associated with these phenomena considering the Cole-Cole formalism allows us to interpret the anomaly found at 2-3 K according to a law of activated dynamics, obtaining values for the critical exponent, ψν < 1, characteristic of a d = 2 spin-glass-like system, while the maximum observed in χ″ at 8-10 K can be described by means of a law of standard dynamics with a value of the exponent z of around 5, representative of a d = 3 spin-glass-like system.
Partition-function zeros of spherical spin glasses and their relevance to chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Kazutaka
2012-03-01
We investigate the partition-function zeros of the many-body interacting spherical spin glass, the so-called p-spin spherical model, with respect to the complex temperature in the thermodynamic limit. We use the replica method and extend the procedure of the replica symmetry breaking ansatz to be applicable in the complex-parameter case. We derive the phase diagrams in the complex-temperature plane and calculate the density of zeros in each phase. Near the imaginary axis away from the origin, there is a replica symmetric phase having a large density. On the other hand, we observe no density in the spin-glass phases, irrespective of the replica symmetry breaking. We speculate that this suggests the absence of the temperature chaos. To confirm this, we investigate the multiple many-body interacting case which is known to exhibit the chaos effect. The result shows that the density of zeros actually takes finite values in the spin-glass phase, even on the real axis. These observations indicate that the density of zeros is more closely connected to the chaos effect than the replica symmetry breaking.
Competing antiferromagnetic and spin-glass phases in a hollandite structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crespo, Y.; Andreanov, A.; Seriani, N.
2013-07-01
We introduce a simple lattice model with Ising spins as a zeroth-order approximation of the hollandite-type magnetic compounds. We argue that geometrical frustration of the lattice in combination with nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions are responsible for the appearance of a spin-glass phase in presence of disorder. We investigate this system numerically using parallel tempering. The model reproduces magnetic transitions present in some oxides with hollandite structure and displays a rich phenomenology: in the absence of disorder we have identified five different ground states, depending on the relative strength and sign of the interactions: one ferromagnetically ordered, three antiferromagnetically ordered, and one disordered, macroscopically degenerate ground state. Remarkably, for the sets of AFM couplings having an AFM ground state in the clean system, there exists a critical value of the disorder above which the ground state becomes a spin glass while maintaining all the couplings antiferromagnetically. This model presents this kind of transition with nearest-neighbor frustrated AFM interactions. We argue that this model is useful for understanding the relation between AFM coupling, disorder, and appearance of spin-glass phases.
Effect of modularity on the Glauber dynamics of the dilute spin glass model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jeong-Man
2014-11-01
We study the Glauber dynamics of the dilute, infinite-ranged spin glass model, the so-called dilute Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (dSK) model. The dSK model has sparse couplings and can be classified by the modularity ( M) of the coupling matrix. We investigate the effect of the modularity on the relaxation dynamics starting from a random initial state. By using the Glauber dynamics and the replica method, we derive the relaxation dynamics equations for the magnetization ( m) and the energy per spin ( r), in addition to the equation for the spin glass order parameter ( q αβ ). In the replica symmetric (RS) analysis, we find that there are two solutions for the RS spin glass order parameter ( q): q = 0which is stable for r < 1/2 and q = (-1+4 r 2)/(32 r 4) which is stable for r > 1/2 in the non-modular system and q = 0 which is stable for r < 1/ and q = (-1+8 r 2)/(128 r 4) which is stable for r > 1/ in the completely modular system. By substituting the proper q values into the equations for r, we find that the relaxation dynamics of r depends on the modularity, M. These results suggest that, in the context of evolutionary theory, the modularity may emerge spontaneously in the point-mutation-only framework (Glauber dynamics) under a changing environment.
Exact ground states of large two-dimensional planar Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pardella, G.; Liers, F.
2008-11-01
Studying spin-glass physics through analyzing their ground-state properties has a long history. Although there exist polynomial-time algorithms for the two-dimensional planar case, where the problem of finding ground states is transformed to a minimum-weight perfect matching problem, the reachable system sizes have been limited both by the needed CPU time and by memory requirements. In this work, we present an algorithm for the calculation of exact ground states for two-dimensional Ising spin glasses with free boundary conditions in at least one direction. The algorithmic foundations of the method date back to the work of Kasteleyn from the 1960s for computing the complete partition function of the Ising model. Using Kasteleyn cities, we calculate exact ground states for huge two-dimensional planar Ising spin-glass lattices (up to 30002 spins) within reasonable time. According to our knowledge, these are the largest sizes currently available. Kasteleyn cities were recently also used by Thomas and Middleton in the context of extended ground states on the torus. Moreover, they show that the method can also be used for computing ground states of planar graphs. Furthermore, we point out that the correctness of heuristically computed ground states can easily be verified. Finally, we evaluate the solution quality of heuristic variants of the L. Bieche approach.
Evidence of Non-Mean-Field-Like Low-Temperature Behavior in the Edwards-Anderson Spin-Glass Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yucesoy, B.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Machta, J.
2012-10-01
The three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson and mean-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Ising spin glasses are studied via large-scale Monte Carlo simulations at low temperatures, deep within the spin-glass phase. Performing a careful statistical analysis of several thousand independent disorder realizations and using an observable that detects peaks in the overlap distribution, we show that the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and Edwards-Anderson models have a distinctly different low-temperature behavior. The structure of the spin-glass overlap distribution for the Edwards-Anderson model suggests that its low-temperature phase has only a single pair of pure states.
Nature of the spin-glass state as seen from low-temperature Monte Carlo simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katzgraber, Helmut Gottfried
We present results of Monte Carlo simulations on several spin-glass models at low temperatures. Our results for short range models with Ising symmetry (three and four-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin-glasses) as well as vector symmetry (three-dimensional gauge glass, four-dimensional XY spin-glass) are consistent with a picture proposed earlier by Krzakala and Martin, Palassini and Young, that there are large scale excitations which cost only a finite energy in the thermodynamic limit, and that these excitations have a surface whose fractal dimension is less than the space dimension. In addition, our results are consistent with standard replica symmetry breaking for the infinite-range Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and Viana-Bray models. To analyze the effect of boundary conditions on the data, we perform simulations of the Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass in three and four dimensions with free boundary conditions and compare results with recent zero-temperature calculations. We find that for the sizes studied, the surface of the excitations appear to be space filling, however this may be due to large finite-size corrections. For small sizes, the energy-cost of these excitations increases with system size, although we cannot rule out a crossover to a scenario where low-energy large-scale excitations cost a finite energy in the thermodynamic limit. We use the parallel tempering Monte Carlo method as it allows equilibration to low temperatures for moderate sizes to avoid the data being affected by critical fluctuations.
Typical versus averaged overlap distribution in spin glasses: Evidence for droplet scaling theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas
2013-10-01
We consider the statistical properties over disordered samples (J) of the overlap distribution PJ(q) which plays the role of an order parameter in spin glasses. We show that near zero temperature (i) the typical overlap distribution is exponentially small in the central region of -1spins (in order to consider also fully connected models in which the notion of length does not exist); (ii) the rescaled variable v=-[lnPJ(q)]/Nθ remains an O(1) random positive variable describing sample-to-sample fluctuations; (iii) the averaged distribution PJ(q)¯ is nontypical and dominated by rare anomalous samples. Similar statements hold for the cumulative overlap distribution IJ(q0)≡∫0q0dqPJ(q). These results are derived explicitly for the spherical mean-field model with θ=1/3, ϕ(q)=1-q2, and the random variable v corresponds to the rescaled difference between the two largest eigenvalues of Gaussian orthogonal ensemble random matrices. Then we compare numerically the typical and averaged overlap distributions for the long-ranged one-dimensional Ising spin glass with random couplings decaying as J(r)∝r-σ for various values of the exponent σ, corresponding to various droplet exponents θ(σ), and for the mean-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model (corresponding formally to the σ=0 limit of the previous model). Our conclusion is that future studies on spin glasses should measure the typical values of the overlap distribution Ptyp(q) or of the cumulative overlap distribution Ityp(q0)=elnIJ(q0)¯ to obtain clearer conclusions on the nature of the spin-glass phase.
Surface spin-glass in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in silica matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeb, F.; Sarwer, W.; Nadeem, K.; Kamran, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Krenn, H.; Letofsky-Papst, I.
2016-06-01
Surface effects in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles dispersed in a silica (SiO2) matrix were studied by using AC and DC magnetization. Nanoparticles with different concentration of SiO2 were synthesized by using sol-gel method. Average crystallite size lies in the range 25-34 nm for different SiO2 concentration. TEM image showed that particles are spherical and elongated in shape. Nanoparticles with higher concentration of SiO2 exhibit two peaks in the out-of-phase ac-susceptibility. First peak lies in the high temperature regime and corresponds to average blocking temperature of the nanoparticles. Second peak lies in the low temperature regime and is attributed to surface spin-glass freezing in these nanoparticles. Low temperature peak showed SiO2 concentration dependence and was vanished for large uncoated nanoparticles. The frequency dependence of the AC-susceptibility of low temperature peak was fitted with dynamic scaling law which ensures the presence of spin-glass behavior. With increasing applied DC field, the low temperature peak showed less shift as compared to blocking peak, broaden, and decreased in magnitude which also signifies its identity as spin-glass peak for smaller nanoparticles. M-H loops showed the presence of more surface disorder in nanoparticles dispersed in 60% SiO2 matrix. All these measurements revealed that surface effects become strengthen with increasing SiO2 matrix concentration and surface spins freeze in to spin-glass state at low temperatures.
Spin-Glass Model Governs Laser Multiple Filamentation.
Ettoumi, W; Kasparian, J; Wolf, J-P
2015-07-17
We show that multiple filamentation patterns in high-power laser beams can be described by means of two statistical physics concepts, namely, self-similarity of the patterns over two nested scales and nearest-neighbor interactions of classical rotators. The resulting lattice spin model perfectly reproduces the evolution of intense laser pulses as simulated by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, shedding new light on multiple filamentation. As a side benefit, this approach drastically reduces the computing time by 2 orders of magnitude as compared to the standard simulation methods of laser filamentation.
Spin-polarized lithium diffusion in a glass hot-vapor cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Kiyoshi
2016-08-01
We report diffusion coefficients of optically pumped lithium atoms in helium buffer gas. The free-induction decay and the spin-echo signals of ground-state atoms were optically detected in an external magnetic field with the addition of field gradient. Lithium hot vapor was produced in a borosilicate-glass cell at a temperature between 290 and 360°C. The simple setup using the glass cells enabled lithium atomic spectroscopy in a similar way to other alkali-metal atoms and study of the collisional properties of lithium atoms in a hot-vapor phase.
Comparison of Ising spin glass noise to flux and inductance noise in SQUIDs.
Chen, Zhi; Yu, Clare C
2010-06-18
Recent experiments implicate spins on the surface of metals as the source of flux and inductance noise in SQUIDs. We present Monte Carlo simulations of 2D and 3D Ising spin glasses that produce magnetization noise S(M) consistent with flux noise. At low frequencies S(M) is a maximum at the critical temperature T(C) in three dimensions, implying that flux noise should be a maximum at T(C). The second spectra of the magnetization noise and the noise in the susceptibility are consistent with experimentally measured SQUID inductance noise.
Magnetic surfactants as molecular based-magnets with spin glass-like properties.
Brown, Paul; Smith, Gregory N; Hernández, Eduardo Padrón; James, Craig; Eastoe, Julian; Nunes, Wallace C; Settens, Charles M; Hatton, T Alan; Baker, Peter J
2016-05-05
This paper reports the use of muon spin relaxation spectroscopy to study how the aggregation behavior of magnetic surfactants containing lanthanide counterions may be exploited to create spin glass-like materials. Surfactants provide a unique approach to building in randomness, frustration and competing interactions into magnetic materials without requiring a lattice of ordered magnetic species or intervening ligands and elements. We demonstrate that this magnetic behavior may also be manipulated via formation of micelles rather than simple dilution, as well as via design of surfactant molecular architecture. This somewhat unexpected result indicates the potential of using novel magnetic surfactants for the generation and tuning of molecular magnets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yucesoy, Burcu; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2013-01-01
We present the results of a large-scale numerical study of the equilibrium three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass with Gaussian disorder. Using parallel tempering (replica exchange) Monte Carlo we measure various static, as well as dynamical quantities, such as the autocorrelation times and round-trip times for the parallel tempering Monte Carlo method. The correlation between static and dynamic observables for 5000 disorder realizations and up to 1000 spins down to temperatures at 20% of the critical temperature is examined. Our results show that autocorrelation times are directly correlated with the roughness of the free-energy landscape.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yucesoy, Burcu; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2012-02-01
We present the results of a large-scale numerical study of the equilibrium three-dimensional Ising spin glass with Gaussian disorder. Using replica exchange (parallel tempering) Monte Carlo, we measure various static, as well as dynamical quantities, such as the autocorrelation times and round-trip times for the replica exchange Monte Carlo method. The correlation between static and dynamic observables for 5000 disorder realizations (N <=10^3 spins) down to very low temperatures (T 0.2Tc) is examined. Our results show that autocorrelation times are directly correlated with the roughness of the free energy landscape. We also discuss the size dependence of several static quantities.
Magnetic surfactants as molecular based-magnets with spin glass-like properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Paul; Smith, Gregory N.; Padrón Hernández, Eduardo; James, Craig; Eastoe, Julian; Nunes, Wallace C.; Settens, Charles M.; Hatton, T. Alan; Baker, Peter J.
2016-05-01
This paper reports the use of muon spin relaxation spectroscopy to study how the aggregation behavior of magnetic surfactants containing lanthanide counterions may be exploited to create spin glass-like materials. Surfactants provide a unique approach to building in randomness, frustration and competing interactions into magnetic materials without requiring a lattice of ordered magnetic species or intervening ligands and elements. We demonstrate that this magnetic behavior may also be manipulated via formation of micelles rather than simple dilution, as well as via design of surfactant molecular architecture. This somewhat unexpected result indicates the potential of using novel magnetic surfactants for the generation and tuning of molecular magnets.
Electron spin echo study of Nd3 + solvation in methanol glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janakiraman, R.; Kevan, Larry
1981-08-01
Electron spin echo modulation studies have been carried out for Nd3+ in methanol glasses at 4.2 K. By using the partially deuterated methanols (CH3OD and CD3OH), analysis of deuterium modulation in three-pulse electron spin echo decay curves gives the distances and numbers of Nd-D(OD) and Nd-D(CD3) interactions. It is found that Nd3+ is coordinated by nine equivalent methanol molecules, with distances of Nd-H (OH) of 3.1 Å and Nd-H (CH3) of 4.0 Å. These distances establish that the molecular dipole of methanol is oriented toward Nd3+.
A spin glass approach to the directed feedback vertex set problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hai-Jun
2016-07-01
A directed graph (digraph) is formed by vertices and arcs (directed edges) from one vertex to another. A feedback vertex set (FVS) is a set of vertices that contains at least one vertex of every directed cycle in this digraph. The directed feedback vertex set problem aims at constructing a FVS of minimum cardinality. This is a fundamental cycle-constrained hard combinatorial optimization problem with wide practical applications. In this paper we construct a spin glass model for the directed FVS problem by converting the global cycle constraints into local arc constraints, and study this model through the replica-symmetric (RS) mean field theory of statistical physics. We then implement a belief propagation-guided decimation (BPD) algorithm for single digraph instances. The BPD algorithm slightly outperforms the simulated annealing algorithm on large random graph instances. The RS mean field results and algorithmic results can be further improved by working on a more restrictive (and more difficult) spin glass model.
Phase transitions in the three-state Ising spin-glass model with finite connectivity.
Erichsen, R; Theumann, W K
2011-06-01
The statistical mechanics of a two-state Ising spin-glass model with finite random connectivity, in which each site is connected to a finite number of other sites, is extended in this work within the replica technique to study the phase transitions in the three-state Ghatak-Sherrington (or random Blume-Capel) model of a spin glass with a crystal-field term. The replica symmetry ansatz for the order function is expressed in terms of a two-dimensional effective-field distribution, which is determined numerically by means of a population dynamics procedure. Phase diagrams are obtained exhibiting phase boundaries that have a reentrance with both a continuous and a genuine first-order transition with a discontinuity in the entropy. This may be seen as "inverse freezing," which has been studied extensively lately, as a process either with or without exchange of latent heat.
Testing statics-dynamics equivalence at the spin-glass transition in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Luis Antonio; Martín-Mayor, Víctor
2015-05-01
The statics-dynamics correspondence in spin glasses relate nonequilibrium results on large samples (the experimental realm) with equilibrium quantities computed on small systems (the typical arena for theoretical computations). Here we employ statics-dynamics equivalence to study the Ising spin-glass critical behavior in three dimensions. By means of Monte Carlo simulation, we follow the growth of the coherence length (the size of the glassy domains), on lattices too large to be thermalized. Thanks to the large coherence lengths we reach, we are able to obtain accurate results in excellent agreement with the best available equilibrium computations. To do so, we need to clarify the several physical meanings of the dynamic exponent close to the critical temperature.
Phase diagram of the two-dimensional +/-J Ising spin glass.
Nobre, F D
2001-10-01
The +/-J Ising spin glass [probabilities p and (1-p) associated with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic couplings, respectively] is studied by applying a real-space renormalization-group technique on a hierarchical lattice that approaches the square lattice. Within such a procedure, there is no spin-glass phase and only two finite-temperature phases are found, namely, the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic ones. In spite of a reasonably small computational effort, an accurate paramagnetic-ferromagnetic boundary is presented: the estimate for the slope at p=1 is in very good agreement with the well-known exact result, whereas the coordinates of the Nishimori point are determined within a high precision. Below the Nishimori point, such a boundary is not strictly vertical-contrary to the usual belief-in such a way that a small reentrance is found at low temperatures.
Comment on ``Temperature dependence of the response time of dilute metallic spin glasses''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordblad, P.; Lundgren, L.; Svedlindh, P.; Sandlund, L.; Granberg, P.
1987-05-01
In a recent article Hoogerbeets, Wei-Li Luo and Orbach (HWO) advocate that the time decay of the thermoremanent magnetization below the spin-glass freezing temperature Tg can accurately be described by a stretched exponential functional form: MTRM=M0 exp(-t/τp)1-n . .sp In this Comment we show that a pure stretched exponential form is never sufficient to describe the relaxation of the magnetization in spin glasses below Tg. Inter alia we demonstrate that the exponential temperature and wait-time dependence of the ``apparent response time'' τp obtained by HWO from limited experimental observations, yields large deviations from the real behavior of the relaxation at long observation times.
Metal-ion spin-on glasses: Novel materials for active waveguides
Ashby, C.I.H.; Sullivan, C.T.; Vawter, G.A.; Hohimer, J.P.; Hadley, G.R.; Neal, D.R.
1993-12-31
Monolithic integration of a rare-earth-ion-based active waveguide on the same wafer as its diode pump laser would permit compact packaging of the technology demonstrated in fiber lasers and amplifiers. This new monolithic technology would offer the potential for developing compact infrared and visible (up-conversion) lasers, amplifiers, and other photonic integrated circuit components. One approach that we are investigating for such monolithic integration uses a high concentration of one or more rare-earth ions incorporated into polysiloxane spin-on glasses that are solvent-cast onto III-V semiconductor wafers. This ``fiber on a chip`` technology substitute a relatively high-ion-concentration, short-length metal-ion spin-on glass (MISOG) waveguide for the low-ion-concentration, long-length fiber. Progress to data on developing MISOG waveguide materials and technology is discussed.
Universal structures in some mean field spin glasses and an application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolthausen, Erwin; Kistler, Nicola
2008-12-01
We discuss a spin glass reminiscent of the random energy model (REM), which allows, in particular, to recast the Parisi minimization into a more classical Gibbs variational principle, thereby shedding some light into the physical meaning of the order parameter of the Parisi theory. As an application, we study the impact of an extensive cavity field on Derrida's REM: Despite its simplicity, this model displays some interesting features such as ultrametricity and chaos in temperature.
Spin glass in semiconducting KFe1.05Ag0.88Te2 single crystals
Ryu, H.; Lei, H.; Klobes, B.; ...
2015-05-26
We report discovery of KFe1.05Ag0.88Te2 single crystals with semiconducting spin glass ground state. Composition and structure analysis suggest nearly stoichiometric I4/mmm space group but allow for the existence of vacancies, absent in long range semiconducting antiferromagnet KFe1.05Ag0.88Te2. The subtle change in stoichometry in Fe/Ag sublattice changes magnetic ground state but not conductivity, giving further insight into the semiconducting gap mechanism.
Monolithically integrated solid state laser and waveguide using spin-on glass
Ashby, C.I.H.; Hohimer, J.P.; Neal, D.R.; Vawter, G.A.
1995-10-31
A monolithically integrated photonic circuit is disclosed combining a semiconductor source of excitation light with an optically active waveguide formed on the substrate. The optically active waveguide is preferably formed of a spin-on glass to which are added optically active materials which can enable lasing action, optical amplification, optical loss, or frequency conversion in the waveguide, depending upon the added material. 4 figs.
Non-Linear Susceptibility of Spin-Glasses on Frustrated Triangular Cactus Tree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasumura, Kaoru; Ono, Ikuo
1984-01-01
In order to explore the frustration effects on a non-linear susceptibility χ2 of spin-glasses, ferro-antiferromagnetic mixtures, diluted antiferromagnets and Mattis model are comperatively investigated in line with a random ordered phase. The jump of χ2 in the vicinity of the transition temperature is common in these models, and the magnitude of the jump is proved to depend strongly on the concentration of antiferromagnetic bond, but weakly on that of frustration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitla, Yugandhar; Kaul, S. N.; Fernández Barquín, L.
2012-09-01
Treating the randomly Fe-substituted optimally hole-doped manganite La0.7Pb0.3(Mn1-yFey)O3 (y=0.2,0.3) as a test case, we demonstrate that a combined investigation of both odd and even harmonics of the ac magnetic response permits an unambiguous distinction between the canonical and cluster spin glasses. As expected for a spin glass (SG), the nonlinear ac magnetic susceptibilities χ3(T,ω) and χ5(T,ω) (odd harmonics) diverge at the SG freezing temperature Tg=80.00(3) K [Tg=56.25(5) K] in the static limit and, like the imaginary part of the linear susceptibility, follow dynamic scaling with the critical exponents β=0.56(3) [β=0.63(3)], γ=1.80(5) [γ=2.0(1)], and zν=10.1(1) [zν=8.0(5)] in the sample with composition y=0.2 (y=0.3). The nonlinear susceptibility χNL, which has contributions from both χ3 and χ5, satisfies static scaling with the same choice of Tg, β, and γ. Irrespective of the Fe concentration, the values of the critical exponents γ, ν, and η are in much better agreement with those theoretically predicted for a three-dimensional (d=3) Heisenberg chiral SG than for a d=3 Ising SG. The true thermodynamic nature of the “zero-field” spin-glass transition is preserved even in finite magnetic fields. Unlike odd harmonics, even harmonics χ2(T,ω) and χ4(T,ω) make it evident that, apart from the macroscopic length scale of the spin-glass order in the static limit, there exists a length scale that corresponds to the short-range ferromagnetic order.
Radiation Dose from Reentrant Electrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Badhwar, G.D.; Cleghorn, T. E.; Watts, J.
2003-01-01
In estimating the crew exposures during an EVA, the contribution of reentrant electrons has always been neglected. Although the flux of these electrons is small compared to the flux of trapped electrons, their energy spectrum extends to several GeV compared to about 7 MeV for trapped electrons. This is also true of splash electrons. Using the measured reentrant electron energy spectra, it is shown that the dose contribution of these electrons to the blood forming organs (BFO) is more than 10 times greater than that from the trapped electrons. The calculations also show that the dose-depth response is a very slowly changing function of depth, and thus adding reasonable amounts of additional shielding would not significantly lower the dose to BFO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golysheva, Elena A.; Shevelev, Georgiy Yu.; Dzuba, Sergei A.
2017-08-01
In glassy substances and biological media, dynamical transitions are observed in neutron scattering that manifests itself as deviations of the translational mean-squared displacement,
About a solvable mean field model of a Gaussian spin glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barra, Adriano; Genovese, Giuseppe; Guerra, Francesco; Tantari, Daniele
2014-04-01
In a series of papers, we have studied a modified Hopfield model of a neural network, with learned words characterized by a Gaussian distribution. The model can be represented as a bipartite spin glass, with one party described by dichotomic Ising spins, and the other party by continuous spin variables, with an a priori Gaussian distribution. By application of standard interpolation methods, we have found it useful to compare the neural network model (bipartite) from one side, with two spin glass models, each monopartite, from the other side. Of these, the first is the usual Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, the second is a spin glass model, with continuous spins and inbuilt highly nonlinear smooth cut-off interactions. This model is an invaluable laboratory for testing all techniques which have been useful in the study of spin glasses. The purpose of this paper is to give a synthetic description of the most peculiar aspects, by stressing the necessary novelties in the treatment. In particular, it will be shown that the control of the infinite volume limit, according to the well-known Guerra-Toninelli strategy, requires in addition one to consider the involvement of the cut-off interaction in the interpolation procedure. Moreover, the control of the ergodic region, the annealed case, cannot be directly achieved through the standard application of the Borel-Cantelli lemma, but requires previous modification of the interaction. This remark could find useful application in other cases. The replica symmetric expression for the free energy can be easily reached through a suitable version of the doubly stochastic interpolation technique. However, this model shares the unique property that the fully broken replica symmetry ansatz can be explicitly calculated. A very simple sum rule connects the general expression of the fully broken free energy trial function with the replica symmetric one. The definite sign of the error term shows that the replica solution is optimal. Then
Reentrant Processing in Intuitive Perception
2010-03-01
Reentrant Processing in Intuitive Perception Phan Luu1*, Alexandra Geyer2, Cali Fidopiastis3, Gwendolyn Campbell4, Tracey Wheeler5, Joseph Cohn6, Don...and Perfor- mance 8: 562–581. 13. Brown JW (1994) Morphogenesis and the mental process. Development and Psychopathology 6: 551–563. 14. Michel CM...asymmetries: attention to visual and auditory primitives. Current Directions in Psychological Science 9: 59–63. 19. Goffaux V, Hault B, Michel C, Vuong QC
Observation of spin-glass behavior in nickel adsorbed few layer graphene
Mitra, Sreemanta; Mondal, Oindrila; Banerjee, Sourish; Chakravorty, Dipankar
2013-01-14
Nickel-adsorbed graphene was prepared by first synthesizing graphite oxide (GO) by modified Hummers' method and then reducing a solution containing both GO and Ni{sup 2+}. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed 31 at. % nickel was present. Magnetization measurements under both dc and ac magnetic fields were carried out in the temperature range 2 K to 300 K. The zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization data showed a pronounced irreversibility at a temperature around 20 K. The analysis of the ac susceptibility data was carried out by both Vogel-Fulcher as well as power law. From dynamic scaling analysis, the microscopic flipping time {tau}{sub 0}{approx}10{sup -13}s and critical exponent z{nu}=5.9{+-}0.1 were found, indicating the presence of conventional spin glass in the system. The spin glass transition temperature was estimated as 19.5 K. Decay of thermoremanent magnetization was explained by stretched exponential function with a value of the exponent as 0.6. From the results, it is concluded that nickel adsorbed graphene behaves like a spin-glass.
Finite-size corrections for ground states of Edwards-Anderson spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boettcher, Stefan; Falkner, Stefan
2012-05-01
Extensive computations of ground-state energies of the Edwards-Anderson spin glass on bond-diluted, hypercubic lattices are conducted in dimensions d=3, ..., 7. Results are presented for bond densities exactly at the percolation threshold, p=pc, and deep within the glassy regime, p>pc, where finding ground states is one of the hardest combinatorial optimization problems. Finite-size corrections of the form 1/Nω are shown to be consistent throughout with the prediction ω=1-y/d, where y refers to the "stiffness" exponent that controls the formation of domain wall excitations at low temperatures. At p=pc, an extrapolation for d→∞ appears to match our mean-field results for these corrections. In the glassy phase, however, ω does not approach its anticipated mean-field value of 2/3, obtained from simulations of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass on an N-clique graph. Instead, the value of ω reached at the upper critical dimension matches another type of mean-field spin glass models, namely those on sparse random networks of regular degree called Bethe lattices.
Antiferromagnetic Ising spin glass competing with BCS pairing interaction in a transverse field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magalhães, S. G.; Zimmer, F. M.; Kipper, C. J.; Calegari, E. J.
2006-07-01
The competition among spin glass (SG), antiferromagnetism (AF) and local pairing superconductivity (PAIR) is studied in a two-sublattice fermionic Ising spin glass model with a local BCS pairing interaction in the presence of an applied magnetic transverse field Γ. In the present approach, spins in different sublattices interact with a Gaussian random coupling with an antiferromagnetic mean J0 and standard deviation J. The problem is formulated in the path integral formalism in which spin operators are represented by bilinear combinations of Grassmann variables. The saddle-point Grand Canonical potential is obtained within the static approximation and the replica symmetric ansatz. The results are analysed in phase diagrams in which the AF and the SG phases can occur for small g (g is the strength of the local superconductor coupling written in units of J), while the PAIR phase appears as unique solution for large g. However, there is a complex line transition separating the PAIR phase from the others. It is second order at high temperature that ends in a tricritical point. The quantum fluctuations affect deeply the transition lines and the tricritical point due to the presence of Γ.
Simultaneous Antiferromagnetic Order and Spin-Glass-like Behavior in MnAsO(4).
Aranda, Miguel A. G.; Attfield, J. Paul; Batchelor, Elaine; Shields, Greg P.; Bruque, Sebastián; Gabás, Mercedes
1998-03-23
A low-temperature time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction study of a simple new solid, MnAsO(4), in a sample also containing 20% Mn(2)As(2)O(7) has been performed. MnAsO(4) orders magnetically at 14.5(5) K, and the unusual antiferromagnetic structure below this temperature has been determined. Only half of the Mn(3+) spins are ordered, and the remaining "idle" spins show some spin-glass behavior evidenced by susceptibility measurements. The ordered moment is reduced to a value of 2.6 &mgr;(B) by frustration. It is not possible to determine which of the two crystallographically inequivalent Mn sublattices is magnetically ordered and which is idle. The antiferromagnetic structure of the minority phase Mn(2)As(2)O(7) which orders at 10.5(5) K has also been determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenlong
2017-03-01
The relative importance of the contributions of droplet excitations and domain walls on the ordering of short-range Edwards-Anderson spin glasses in three and four dimensions is studied. We compare the spin overlap distribution functions of periodic and free boundary conditions using population annealing Monte Carlo. For system sizes up to about 1000 spins, spin glasses show nontrivial spin overlap distributions. Periodic boundary conditions may trap diffusive domain walls which can contribute to small spin overlaps, and the other contribution is the existence of low-energy droplet excitations within the system. We use free boundary conditions to minimize domain-wall effects, and show that low-energy droplet excitations are the major contribution to small overlaps in numerical simulations. Free boundary conditions has stronger finite-size effects, and is likely to have the same thermodynamic limit with periodic boundary conditions.
Spin Correlations and Excitations in the Quasi-2D Triangular Bilayer Spin Glass LuCoGaO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritsch, K.; Granroth, G. E.; Savici, A. T.; Noad, H. M. L.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.
2012-02-01
LuCoGaO4 is a layered magnetic-bilayer material wherein Co2+ magnetic moments and nonmagnetic Ga3+ ions are randomly distributed on planar triangular bilayers. This makes it an ideal case to study the interplay between geometric frustration, site disorder and low dimensionality and its influence on the magnetic ground of the system. This novel material has been grown for the first time in single crystal form at McMaster University. We have performed magnetization measurements, revealing a previously identified spin glass transition near Tf˜19K, and a Curie Weiss temperature of Tcw˜-96K, consistent with antiferromagnetic interactions[1]. We discuss time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements using SEQUOIA at SNS which elucidate the evolution of the static and dynamic spin correlations in LuCoGaO4 over a range of temperatures from T<< Tf to T>Tcw. We observe quasielastic scattering at (1/3,1/3,L) positions in reciprocal space and rods of scattering along the c*-direction, consistent with short range antiferromagnetic correlations within decoupled bilayers, and which comfirm the 2-dimensional character of this system. Inelastic scattering measurements show a gapped ˜ 12 meV spin excitation which softens and broadens in energy, filling in the gap on a temperature scale of ˜ Tcw/2. [1] Cava et al., J. Solid State Chem. 140, 337 (1998).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnatenko, Yu. P.; Bukivskij, P. M.
2012-11-01
We have investigated microscopic magnetic spin states (MMSSs) ("loose spins, finite superparamagnetic, `locked' and infinite clusters") both above and below the freezing temperature in Cd0.70Mn0.30Te spin glass (SG). We used the localized exciton magnetic polarons, which we observed in the photoluminescence spectra, as a probe. This makes it possible to estimate the MMSS's relative concentrations and to study their temperature evolution and thus to elucidate one of the most important issues in this field of research. Furthermore, the findings described here open new prospects for further studies of spin freezing in the different SGs, especially, in dilute magnetic semiconductors.
Keren, Amit; Gulener, F; Campbell, Ian; Bazalitsky, Galina; Amato, Alex
2002-09-02
We investigate the temperature dependence of the spin-spin dynamical autocorrelation function of the Ising spin glass Fe0.05TiS2 through field dependent muon-spin lattice relaxation measurements. We successfully analyze the results using the Ogielski function, namely, t(-x)exp((-[t/tau](y)) as employed in numerical simulations. The experimental estimates of x, y, and tau are compared with those from simulations. Our major finding is that in this system the correlation function changes its nature from Ogielski to a form indistinguishable from pure stretched exponential upon cooling close to T(g), indicating a dynamical crossover.
From spin induced ferroelectricity to dipolar glasses: Spinel chromites and mixed delafossites
Maignan, A.
2012-11-15
Magnetoelectric multiferroics showing coupling between polarization and magnetic order are attracting much attention. For instance, they could be used in memory devices. Metal-transition oxides are provided several examples of inorganic magnetoelectric multiferroics. In the present short review, spinel and delafossite chromites are described. For the former, an electric polarization is evidenced in the ferrimagnetic state for ACr{sub 2}O{sub 4} polycrystalline samples (A=Ni, Fe, Co). The presence of a Jahn-Teller cation such as Ni{sup 2+} at the A site is shown to yield larger polarization values. In the delafossites, substitution by V{sup 3+} at the Cr or Fe site in CuCrO{sub 2} (CuFeO{sub 2}) suppresses the complex antiferromagnetic structure at the benefit of a spin glass state. The presence of cation disorder, probed by transmission electron microscopy, favors relaxor-like ferroelectricity. The results on the ferroelectricity of ferrimagnets and insulating spin glasses demonstrate that, in this research field, transition-metal oxides are worth to be studied. - Graphical abstract: Electric polarization as a function of temperature is measured up to T{sub C} in three chromite ferrimagnetic spinels. Largest values are reached for spinels with Jahn-Teller cations at the A site (Ni or Fe). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electric polarization is evidenced in the ferrimagnetic state of the chromite spinels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Jahn-Teller cations at the A site of these spinels lead to larger polarization values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadium substituted at the Cr (or Fe) site of delafossites changes the antiferromagnetic state to spin glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electric polarization is not the result of magnetic ordering but magnetic disordering in Cr or Fe delafossites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relaxor-type ferroelectricity or spin induced ferroelectricity can be observed in the delafossites.
Critical properties of short-range Ising spin glasses on a Wheatstone-bridge hierarchical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Sebastião T. O.; Nobre, Fernando D.
2015-08-01
An Ising spin-glass model with nearest-neighbor interactions, following a symmetric probability distribution, is investigated on a hierarchical lattice of the Wheatstone-bridge family characterized by a fractal dimension D ≈3.58 . The interaction distribution considered is a stretched exponential, which has been shown recently to be very close to the fixed-point coupling distribution, and such a model has been considered lately as a good approach for Ising spin glasses on a cubic lattice. An exact recursion procedure is implemented for calculating site magnetizations, mi=
Critical properties of short-range Ising spin glasses on a Wheatstone-bridge hierarchical lattice.
Almeida, Sebastião T O; Nobre, Fernando D
2015-08-01
An Ising spin-glass model with nearest-neighbor interactions, following a symmetric probability distribution, is investigated on a hierarchical lattice of the Wheatstone-bridge family characterized by a fractal dimension D≈3.58. The interaction distribution considered is a stretched exponential, which has been shown recently to be very close to the fixed-point coupling distribution, and such a model has been considered lately as a good approach for Ising spin glasses on a cubic lattice. An exact recursion procedure is implemented for calculating site magnetizations, mi=〈Si〉T, as well as correlations between pairs of nearest-neighbor spins, 〈SiSj〉T (〈〉T denote thermal averages), for a given set of interaction couplings on this lattice. From these local magnetizations and correlations, one can compute important physical quantities, such as the Edwards-Anderson order parameter, the internal energy, and the specific heat. Considering extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit for the order parameter, such as a finite-size scaling approach, it is possible to obtain directly the critical temperature and critical exponents. The transition between the spin-glass and paramagnetic phases is analyzed, and the associated critical exponents β and ν are estimated as β=0.82(5) and ν=2.50(4), which are in good agreement with the most recent results from extensive numerical simulations on a cubic lattice. Since these critical exponents were obtained from a fixed-point distribution, they are universal, i.e., valid for any coupling distribution considered.
Nanocomposites of silver nanoparticles embedded in glass nanofibres obtained by laser spinning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabal, Belén; Quintero, Félix; Díaz, Luís Antonio; Rojo, Fernando; Dieste, Oliver; Pou, Juan; Torrecillas, Ramón; Moya, José Serafín
2013-04-01
Nanocomposites made of non-woven glass fibres with diameters ranging from tens of nanometers up to several micrometers, containing silver nanoparticles, were successfully fabricated by the laser spinning technique. Pellets of a soda-lime silicate glass containing silver nanoparticles with varying concentrations (5 and 10 wt%) were used as a precursor. The process followed to obtain the silver nanofibres did not agglomerate significantly the metallic nanoparticles, and the average particle size is still lower than 50 nm. This is the first time that glass nanofibres containing silver nanoparticles have been obtained following a process different from electrospinning of a sol-gel, thus avoiding the limitations of this method and opening a new route to composite nanomaterials. Antibacterial efficiency of the nanosilver glass fibres, tested against one of the most common Gram negative bacteria, was greater than 99.99% compared to the glass fibres free of silver. The silver nanoparticles are well-dispersed not only on the surface but are also embedded into the uniform nanofibres, which leads to a long lasting durable antimicrobial effect. All these novel characteristics will potentially open up a whole new range of applications.
Zhu, Wenguo; Yu, Jianhui; Guan, Heyuan; Lu, Huihui; Tang, Jieyuan; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Yunhan; Chen, Zhe
2017-04-25
Optical spin splitting has a promising prospect in quantum information and precision metrology. Since it is typically small, many efforts have been devoted to its enhancement. However, the upper limit of optical spin splitting remains uninvestigated. Here, we investigate systematically the in-plane spin splitting of a Gaussian beam reflected from a glass-air interface and find that the spin splitting can be enhanced in three different incident angular ranges: around the Brewster angle, slightly smaller than and larger than the critical angle for total reflection. Within the first angular range, the reflected beam can undergo giant spin splitting but suffers from low energy reflectivity. In the second range, however, a large spin splitting and high energy reflectivity can be achieved simultaneously. The spin splitting becomes asymmetrical within the last angular range, and the displacement of one spin component can be up to half of incident beam waist w 0/2. Of all the incident angles, the spin splitting reaches its maximum at Brewster angle. This maximum splitting increases with the refractive index of the "glass" prism, eventually approaching an upper limit of w 0. These findings provide a deeper insight into the optical spin splitting phenomena and thereby facilitate the development of spin-based applications.
Nd - Fe - Al, A SPIN GLASS TRANSITION IN A COLLECTION OF SUPERPARAMAGNETIC CLUSTERS.
MCCALLUM,R.W.KRAMER,M.J.DENNIS,K.W.LEWIS,L.H.
2002-08-18
In the Nd-Fe-A1 system, compositions in the range of Nd{sub 60}Fe{sub 30}Al{sub 10} have been reported to be ferromagnetic bulk metallic glasses with high coercivities. Careful examination of both the microstructure and magnetic properties of these materials shows this to be true only in the most general sense. The materials are shown to be nanocomposites, in the strictest sense, with characteristic structural length scales on the order of 1.2 nm. Magnetically, the materials are also composites exhibiting a number of magnetic transitions as a function of temperature. The temperature dependence of the magnetic properties will be discussed in terms of strongly-interacting superparamagnetic clusters residing in a paramagnetic matrix. The clusters exhibit a frequency-dependent blocking temperature as determined from AC susceptibility, that is inconsistent with simple superparamagnetic behavior but is consistent with a spin glass-type ordering of the clusters to form a cluster glass. For a temperature region extending approximately 100 K below the cluster glass ordering temperature, the materials exhibit low coercivity. Below this temperature regime significant coercivities develop. The energy barrier to magnetic reversal provided by the product of the cluster volume multiplied by the anisotropy energy is inconsistent with the values required to fit the superparamagnetic behavior above the spin glass transition in the framework of the random anisotropy model. Instead, the existence in this system of significant coercivity is associated with a change in the paramagnetic fraction of the sample consistent with antiferromagnetic ordering of part of the paramagnetic matrix. The remainder of the matrix material orders ferromagnetically at a lower temperature and the interaction between the antiferromagnetic clusters and the ferromagnetic matrix underlies the large coercivities observed at low temperatures.
Ground-state phase-space structures of two-dimensional ±J spin glasses: A network approach.
Cao, Xin; Wang, Feng; Han, Yilong
2015-06-01
We illustrate a complex-network approach to study the phase spaces of spin glasses. By mapping the whole ground-state phase spaces of two-dimensional Edwards-Anderson bimodal (±J) spin glasses exactly into networks for analysis, we discovered various phase-space properties. The Gaussian connectivity distribution of the phase-space networks demonstrates that both the number of free spins and the visiting frequency of all microstates follow the Gaussian distribution. The spectra of phase-space networks are Gaussian, which is proven to be exact when the system is infinitely large. The phase-space networks exhibit community structures. By coarse graining to the community level, we constructed a network representing the entropy landscape of the ground state and discovered its scale-free property. The phase-space networks exhibit fractal structures, as a result of the rugged entropy landscape. Moreover, we show that the connectivity distribution, community structures, and fractal structures change drastically at the ferromagnetic-to-glass phase transition. These quantitative measurements of the ground states provide new insight into the study of spin glasses. The phase-space networks of spin glasses share a number of common features with those of lattice gases and geometrically frustrated spin systems and form a new class of complex networks with unique topology.
Anisotropy in binary metallic spin-glass alloys. I. Transition metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldberg, Stephen M.; Levy, Peter M.; Fert, A.
1986-01-01
We derive the anisotropic pair interaction for binary spin-glass systems for the case where the ternary site which scatters electrons by means of the spin-orbit interaction is a magnetic site characterized by spin-split virtual bound states. We find that there are two distinctly different types of anisotropic Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya couplings. One depends only upon the magnitude of the third magnetic moment and has the vector coupling form familiar from ternary spin glasses: (R^i×R^j).(Si×Sj). The second type depends upon both the magnitude and direction of the third moment and has the coupling structure (R^i×R^j).S^k (Si×Sj).S^k. We define spin-dependent critical distances R+/-c in terms of which the coefficients of the two anisotropic interactions, acting relatively independently, take on preasymptotic or asymptotic forms according to whether the average interparticle spacings are less than or greater than the R+/-c. These critical distances are themselves variable, depending upon the separation of the virtual bound-state resonances from the Fermi surface. When the resonances are sufficiently close to EF, there will be large regions where the interactions exhibit preasymptotic behavior (1/R3). If the resonances are sufficiently far from EF, the interactions quickly reach their asymptotic forms. In the practical cases of CuMn and AuFe, we find that the critical distances are of the order of a nearest-neighbor distance so that the interactions fall off as 1/R4. This feature has great consequence in calculations of the macroscopic anisotropy energy.
Hydration-induced spin-glass state in a frustrated Na-Mn-O triangular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakaimi, Ioanna; Brescia, Rosaria; Brown, Craig M.; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Green, Mark A.; Lappas, Alexandros
2016-05-01
Birnessite compounds are stable across a wide range of compositions that produces a remarkable diversity in their physical, electrochemical, and functional properties. These are hydrated analogs of the magnetically frustrated, mixed-valent manganese oxide structures, with general formula, N axMn O2 . Here we demonstrate that the direct hydration of layered rock-salt type α-NaMn O2 , with the geometrically frustrated triangular lattice topology, yields the birnessite type oxide, N a0.36Mn O2.0.2 H2O , transforming its magnetic properties. This compound has a much-expanded interlayer spacing compared to its parent α-NaMn O2 compound. We show that while the parent α-NaMn O2 possesses a Néel temperature of 45 K as a result of broken symmetry in the M n3 + sublattice, the hydrated derivative undergoes collective spin freezing at 29 K within the M n3 +/M n4 + sublattice. Scaling-law analysis of the frequency dispersion of the ac susceptibility, as well as the temperature-dependent, low-field dc magnetization confirm a cooperative spin-glass state of strongly interacting spins. This is supported by complementary spectroscopic analysis [high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron miscroscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy] as well as by a structural investigation (high-resolution TEM, x-ray, and neutron powder diffraction) that yield insights into the chemical and atomic structure modifications. We conclude that the spin-glass state in birnessite is driven by the spin frustration imposed by the underlying triangular lattice topology that is further enhanced by the in-plane bond-disorder generated by the mixed-valent character of manganese in the layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Santanu; Choudhary, Kamal; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr; Choi Yim, Haein; Bandyopadhyay, Asis K.; Mukherjee, Sundeep
2016-06-01
High-performance magnetic materials have immense industrial and scientific importance in wide-ranging electronic, electromechanical, and medical device technologies. Metallic glasses with a fully amorphous structure are particularly suited for advanced soft-magnetic applications. However, fundamental scientific understanding is lacking for the spin-exchange interaction between metal and metalloid atoms, which typically constitute a metallic glass. Using an integrated experimental and molecular dynamics approach, we demonstrate the mechanism of electron interaction between transition metals and metalloids. Spin-exchange interactions were investigated for a Fe-Co metallic glass system of composition [(Co1-x Fe x )0.75B0.2Si0.05]96Cr4. The saturation magnetization increased with higher Fe concentration, but the trend significantly deviated from simple rule of mixtures. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation was used to identify the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic interaction between the transition metals and metalloids. The overlapping band-structure and density of states represent ‘Stoner type’ magnetization for the amorphous alloys in contrast to ‘Heisenberg type’ in crystalline iron. The enhancement of magnetization by increasing iron was attributed to the interaction between Fe 3d and B 2p bands, which was further validated by valence-band study.
Spin-glass behaviors in carrier polarity controlled Fe3-xTixO4 semiconductor thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamahara, H.; Seki, M.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Nasu, H.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Tabata, H.
2015-08-01
Carrier-type control of spin-glass (cluster spin-glass) is studied in order to engineer basic magnetic semiconductor elements using the memory functions of spin-glass. A key of carrier-polarity control in magnetite is the valence engineering between Fe(II) and Fe(III) that is achieved by Ti(IV) substitution. Single phases of (001)-oriented Fe3-xTixO4 thin films have been obtained on spinel MgAl2O4 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Thermoelectric power measurements reveal that Ti-rich films (x = 0.8) show p-type conduction, while Ti-poor films (x = 0.6-0.75) show n-type conduction. The systematic Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) followed by Ti(IV) substitution in the octahedral sublattice is confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectra. All of the Fe3-xTixO4 films (x = 0.6-0.8) exhibit ferrimagnetism above room temperature. Next, the spin-glass behaviors of Ti-rich Fe2.2Ti0.8O4 film are studied, since this magnetically diluted system is expected to exhibit the spin-glass behaviors. The DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements for the Ti-rich Fe2.2Ti0.8O4 film reveal the presence of the spin glass phase. Thermal- and magnetic-field-history memory effects are observed and are attributed to the long time-decay nature of remanent magnetization. The detailed analysis of the time-dependent thermoremanent magnetization reveals the presence of the cluster spin glass state.
The number of stable points of an infinite-range spin glass memory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Posner, E. C.; Mceliece, R. J.
1985-01-01
A rigorous asymptotic expression for the number of stable points of an infinite-range spin glass with independently identically distributed (i.i.d) zero-mean gaussian exchange interactions is discussed. The result also applies tot he number of stable points of a Hopfield Memory (a kind of associative memory) when the memory connections are i.i.d. zero-mean gaussians. The result is that the number of stable points is asymptotic to a constant slightly larger than 1 times 2 to a power slightly larger thann/4, where n is the number of spins in the glass, or the length of the n-tuples to be remembered by the memory. The answer is easily derived using simple asymptotic techniques from an exact expression for the probability that an arbitrary plus or minus 1 n-tuple of spins is a fixed point. This expression is obtained from the fact that any distribution of joint zero-mean gaussians of given covariances is specified solely by these covariances. This is a far shorter derivation of the result than those existing.
Avalanches and hysteresis in frustrated superconductors and XY spin-glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Auditya; Andreanov, Alexei; Mueller, Markus
2014-03-01
We study avalanches along the hysteresis loop of long-range interacting spin-glasses with continuous XY symmetry - which serves as a toy model of granular superconductors with long-range and frustrated Josephson couplings. We identify sudden jumps in the T = 0 configurations of the XY phases, as an external field is increased. They are initiated by the softest mode of the inverse susceptibility matrix becoming unstable, which induces an avalanche of phase updates (or spin alignments). We analyze the statistics of these events, and study the correlation between the no n-linear avalanches and the soft mode that initiates them. We find that the avalanches follow the directions of a small fraction of the softest modes of the inverse susceptibility matrix, sim ilarly as was found in avalanches in jammed systems. In contrast to the similar Ising spin-glass (Sherrington-Kirkpatrick) studied previously, we find that avalanches are not distributed with a scale-free power law, but rather have a typical size which scales with the system size.
The number of stable points of an infinite-range spin glass memory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Posner, E. C.; Mceliece, R. J.
1985-01-01
A rigorous asymptotic expression for the number of stable points of an infinite-range spin glass with independently identically distributed (i.i.d) zero-mean gaussian exchange interactions is discussed. The result also applies tot he number of stable points of a Hopfield Memory (a kind of associative memory) when the memory connections are i.i.d. zero-mean gaussians. The result is that the number of stable points is asymptotic to a constant slightly larger than 1 times 2 to a power slightly larger thann/4, where n is the number of spins in the glass, or the length of the n-tuples to be remembered by the memory. The answer is easily derived using simple asymptotic techniques from an exact expression for the probability that an arbitrary plus or minus 1 n-tuple of spins is a fixed point. This expression is obtained from the fact that any distribution of joint zero-mean gaussians of given covariances is specified solely by these covariances. This is a far shorter derivation of the result than those existing.
Nonlinear and spin-glass susceptibilities of three site-diluted systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Julio F.
2011-09-01
The nonlinear magnetic χ3 and spin-glass χSG susceptibilities in zero applied field are obtained from tempered Monte Carlo simulations for three different spin glasses (SGs) of Ising spins with quenched site disorder. We find that the relation -T3χ3=χSG-2/3 (T is the temperature), which holds for Edwards-Anderson SGs, is approximately fulfilled in canonical-like SGs. For nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions on a 0.4 fraction of all sites in face-centered cubic (fcc) lattices, as well as for spatially disordered Ising dipolar (DID) systems, -T3χ3 and χSG appear to diverge in the same manner at the critical temperature TSG. However, -T3χ3 is smaller than χSG by over two orders of magnitude in the diluted fcc system. In DID systems, -T3χ3/χSG is very sensitive to the system’s aspect ratio. Whereas, near TSG, χSG varies by approximately a factor of 2 as system shape varies from cubic to long-thin-needle shapes, χ3 sweeps over some four decades.
Probing quantum spin glass like system with a double quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh, C. Y.; Kwek, L. C.
2016-06-01
We study the ground state properties of a 4-qubit spin glass like (SGL) chain with probes at the end of the chain and compare our results with the non-spin glass like (NSGL) case. The SGL is modeled as a spin chain with nearest-neighbor couplings, taking on normal variates with mean J and variance Δ2. The entanglement between the probes is used to detect any discontinuity in the ground state energy spectrum. For the NSGL case, it was found that the concurrence of the probes exhibits sharp transitions whenever there are abrupt changes in the energy spectrum. In particular, for the 4-qubit case, there is a sudden change in the ground state energy at an external magnetic field B of around 0.66 (resulting in a drop in concurrence of the probes) and 1.7 (manifest as a spike). The latter spike persists for finite temperature case. For the SGL sample with sufficiently large Δ, however, the spike is absent. Thus, an absence in the spike could act as a possible signature of the presence of SGL effects. Moreover, the sudden drop in concurrence at B ≈ 0.66 does not disappear but gets smeared with increasing Δ. However, this drop can be accentuated with a smaller probe coupling. The finite temperature case is also briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilker, Efe; Berker, A. Nihat
2013-03-01
Spin-glass phases and phase transitions for q-state clock models and their q→∞ limit the XY model, in spatial dimension d=3, are studied by a detailed renormalization-group study that is exact for the d=3 hierarchical lattice and approximate for the cubic lattice. In addition to the now well-established chaotic rescaling behavior of the spin-glass phase, each of the two types of spin-glass phase boundaries displays, under renormalization-group trajectories, their own distinctive chaotic behavior. These chaotic renormalization-group trajectories subdivide into two categories, namely as strong-coupling chaos (in the spin-glass phase and, distinctly, on the spin-glass-ferromagnetic phase boundary) and as intermediate-coupling chaos (on the spin-glass-paramagnetic phase boundary). We thus characterize each different phase and phase boundary exhibiting chaos by its distinct Lyapunov exponent, which we calculate. We show that, under renormalization group, chaotic trajectories and fixed distributions are mechanistically and quantitatively equivalent. The phase diagrams of arbitrary even q-state clock spin-glass models in d=3 are calculated. These models, for all non-infinite q, have a finite-temperature spin-glass phase. Furthermore, the spin-glass phases exhibit a universal ordering behavior, independent of q. The spin-glass phases and the spin-glass-paramagnetic phase boundaries exhibit universal fixed distributions, chaotic trajectories and Lyapunov exponents. In the XY model limit, our calculations indicate a zero-temperature spin-glass phase.
Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles
Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; ...
2015-10-27
Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point tomore » highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.« less
Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan
2015-10-01
Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 ± 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.
Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles
Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan
2015-01-01
Disorder among surface spins is a dominant factor in the magnetic response of magnetic nanoparticle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8 ± 0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and become frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures. PMID:26503506
Dual time scales in simulated annealing of a two-dimensional Ising spin glass.
Rubin, Shanon J; Xu, Na; Sandvik, Anders W
2017-05-01
We apply a generalized Kibble-Zurek out-of-equilibrium scaling ansatz to simulated annealing when approaching the spin-glass transition at temperature T=0 of the two-dimensional Ising model with random J=±1 couplings. Analyzing the spin-glass order parameter and the excess energy as functions of the system size and the annealing velocity in Monte Carlo simulations with Metropolis dynamics, we find scaling where the energy relaxes slower than the spin-glass order parameter, i.e., there are two different dynamic exponents. The values of the exponents relating the relaxation time scales to the system length, τ∼L^{z}, are z=8.28±0.03 for the relaxation of the order parameter and z=10.31±0.04 for the energy relaxation. We argue that the behavior with dual time scales arises as a consequence of the entropy-driven ordering mechanism within droplet theory. We point out that the dynamic exponents found here for T→0 simulated annealing are different from the temperature-dependent equilibrium dynamic exponent z_{eq}(T), for which previous studies have found a divergent behavior: z_{eq}(T→0)→∞. Thus, our study shows that, within Metropolis dynamics, it is easier to relax the system to one of its degenerate ground states than to migrate at low temperatures between regions of the configuration space surrounding different ground states. In a more general context of optimization, our study provides an example of robust dense-region solutions for which the excess energy (the conventional cost function) may not be the best measure of success.
Dual time scales in simulated annealing of a two-dimensional Ising spin glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubin, Shanon J.; Xu, Na; Sandvik, Anders W.
2017-05-01
We apply a generalized Kibble-Zurek out-of-equilibrium scaling ansatz to simulated annealing when approaching the spin-glass transition at temperature T =0 of the two-dimensional Ising model with random J =±1 couplings. Analyzing the spin-glass order parameter and the excess energy as functions of the system size and the annealing velocity in Monte Carlo simulations with Metropolis dynamics, we find scaling where the energy relaxes slower than the spin-glass order parameter, i.e., there are two different dynamic exponents. The values of the exponents relating the relaxation time scales to the system length, τ ˜Lz , are z =8.28 ±0.03 for the relaxation of the order parameter and z =10.31 ±0.04 for the energy relaxation. We argue that the behavior with dual time scales arises as a consequence of the entropy-driven ordering mechanism within droplet theory. We point out that the dynamic exponents found here for T →0 simulated annealing are different from the temperature-dependent equilibrium dynamic exponent zeq(T ) , for which previous studies have found a divergent behavior: zeq(T →0 ) →∞ . Thus, our study shows that, within Metropolis dynamics, it is easier to relax the system to one of its degenerate ground states than to migrate at low temperatures between regions of the configuration space surrounding different ground states. In a more general context of optimization, our study provides an example of robust dense-region solutions for which the excess energy (the conventional cost function) may not be the best measure of success.
Harkness; Takeuchi; Tachikawa
1998-07-28
A commercially available spin-on-glass material, hydrogen silsesquioxane, has been rendered photopatternable to micrometer dimensions by the introduction of a photobase generator at concentrations of <5 wt %. The cure process proceeds via hydrolysis of the silyl hydride linkage by residual water in the film, as activated by a photogenerated base catalyst. Subsequent reaction of the generated silanol with neighboring silyl hydride groups yields a thermally stable siloxane cross-link. The photochemical cross-linking of hydrogen silsesquioxane shows high sensitivity (<40 mJ/cm2) and is not inhibited by molecular oxygen. The resultant oxide films can be further cured at elevated temperature either under an inert atmosphere to minimize the dielectric constant or heated in an air atmosphere to complete the conversion to silica glass. The oxidative nature of both the photo and thermal cure processes and the release of only traces of hydrogen as byproduct results in minimal weight loss in the film during processing.
Intermittent quakes and record dynamics in the thermoremanent magnetization of a spin-glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sibani, Paolo; Rodriguez, G. F.; Kenning, G. G.
2006-12-01
A method for analyzing the intermittent behavior of linear response data in aging systems is presented and applied to the spin-glass thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) data of Rodriguez [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 037203 (2003)]. The probability density function of the magnetic fluctuations has an asymmetric exponential tail, showing that the demagnetization process occurs through intermittent spin rearrangements or quakes which significantly differ from reversible fluctuations having a Gaussian distribution with zero average. The intensity of quakes is determined by the TRM decay rate, which in turn depends on t , the time since the initial quench and on tw , the time at which the magnetic field is cut. For a broad range of temperatures, these dependences are extracted numerically from the data and described analytically using the assumption that the system’s linear response is fully subordinated to the occurrence of the quakes which spasmodically release the imbalances created by the initial quench.
Numerical results for the Edwards-Anderson spin-glass model at low temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Julio F.; Alonso, Juan J.
2013-04-01
We have simulated Edwards-Anderson (EA) as well as Sherrington-Kirkpatrick systems of L3 spins. After averaging over large sets of EA system samples of 3≤L≤10, we obtain accurate numbers for distributions p(q) of the overlap parameter q at very low-temperature T. We find p(0)/T→0.233(4) as T→0. This is in contrast with the droplet scenario of spin glasses. We also study the number of mismatched links—between replica pairs—that come with large scale excitations. Contributions from small scale excitations are discarded. We thus obtain for the fractal dimension of outer surfaces of q˜0 excitations in the EA model ds→2.59(3) as T→0. This is in contrast with ds→3 as T→0 that is predicted by mean-field theory for the macroscopic limit.
Rejuvenation and memory in model spin glasses in three and four dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, S.; Martín-Mayor, V.; Pérez-Gaviro, S.
2005-08-01
We numerically study aging for the Edwards-Anderson model in three and four dimensions using different temperature-change protocols. In D=3 , time scales a thousand times larger than in previous work are reached with the Spin Update Engine (SUE) machine. Deviations from cumulative aging are observed in the nonmonotonic time behavior of the coherence length. Memory and rejuvenation effects are found in a temperature-cycle protocol, revealed by vanishing effective waiting times. Similar effects are reported for the D=3 site-diluted ferromagnetic Ising model (without chaos). However, rejuvenation is reduced if off-equilibrium corrections to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem are considered. Memory and rejuvenation are quantitatively describable in terms of the growth regime of the spin-glass coherence length.
Applying Tabu Search to the Two-Dimensional Ising Spin Glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laguna, Manuel; Laguna, Pablo
A variety of problems in statistical physics, such as Ising-like systems, can be modeled as integer programs. Physicists have relied mostly on Monte Carlo methods to find approximate solutions to these computationally difficult problems. In some cases, optimal solutions to relatively small problems have been found using standard optimization techniques, e.g., cutting plane and branch-and-bound algorithms. Motivated by the success of tabu search (TS) in finding optimal or near-optimal solutions to combinatorial optimization problems in a number of different settings, we study the application of this methodology to Ising-like systems. Particularly, we develop a TS method to find ground states of two-dimensional spin glasses. Our method performs a search at different levels of resolution in the spin lattice, and it is designed to obtain optimal or near-optimal solutions to problem instances with several different characteristics. Results are reported for computational experiments with up to 64×64 lattices.
Thermodynamic Identities and Symmetry Breaking in Short-Range Spin Glasses.
Arguin, L-P; Newman, C M; Stein, D L
2015-10-30
We present a technique to generate relations connecting pure state weights, overlaps, and correlation functions in short-range spin glasses. These are obtained directly from the unperturbed Hamiltonian and hold for general coupling distributions. All are satisfied in phases with simple thermodynamic structure, such as the droplet-scaling and chaotic pairs pictures. If instead nontrivial mixed-state pictures hold, the relations suggest that replica symmetry is broken as described by a Derrida-Ruelle cascade, with pure state weights distributed as a Poisson-Dirichlet process.
Thermodynamic Identities and Symmetry Breaking in Short-Range Spin Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arguin, L.-P.; Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.
2015-10-01
We present a technique to generate relations connecting pure state weights, overlaps, and correlation functions in short-range spin glasses. These are obtained directly from the unperturbed Hamiltonian and hold for general coupling distributions. All are satisfied in phases with simple thermodynamic structure, such as the droplet-scaling and chaotic pairs pictures. If instead nontrivial mixed-state pictures hold, the relations suggest that replica symmetry is broken as described by a Derrida-Ruelle cascade, with pure state weights distributed as a Poisson-Dirichlet process.
Spin-glass Behavior of Semiconducting KxFe2−yS2
Lei, H.; Abeykoon, M.; Bozin, E.S.; Petrovic, C.
2011-05-16
We report the discovery of K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} single crystals, isostructural to K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Se{sub 2} superconductors. The sulfide compound is a small gap semiconductor and shows spin-glass behavior below 32 K. Our results indicate that stoichiometry, defects, and the local environment of FeCh (Ch=S,Se) tetrahedra have important effects on the physical properties of isostructural and isoelectronic K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Ch{sub 2} compounds.
Spin-Glass Behavior of Semiconducting KxFe2-yS2
H Lei; M Abeykoon; E Bozin; C Petrovic
2011-12-31
We report the discovery of K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} single crystals, isostructural to K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} superconductors. The sulfide compound is a small gap semiconductor and shows spin-glass behavior below 32 K. Our results indicate that stoichiometry, defects, and the local environment of FeCh (Ch = S,Se) tetrahedra have important effects on the physical properties of isostructural and isoelectronic K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}S{sub 2} compounds.
Bond and temperature chaos in spin glasses revealed through thermal boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenlong; Jonathan Machta Collaboration; Helmut G. Katzgraber Collaboration
Spin glasses are complex systems with rugged energy landscapes that exhibit chaotic behavior. Unfortunately, despite decades of study, there is still no clear understanding of the chaotic behavior found in these systems. The use of thermal boundary conditions has become a useful approach to study such phenomena. Here we discuss how to efficiently simulate bond and temperature chaos using thermal boundary conditions and population annealing Monte Carlo. We provide a simple scaling argument for bond and temperature chaos, and present numerical results of the scaling exponents. Similarities and differences of bond chaos and temperature chaos are also discussed. NSF DMR-120804.
Universal critical behavior of the two-dimensional Ising spin glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandez, L. A.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Parisi, G.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.
2016-07-01
We use finite size scaling to study Ising spin glasses in two spatial dimensions. The issue of universality is addressed by comparing discrete and continuous probability distributions for the quenched random couplings. The sophisticated temperature dependency of the scaling fields is identified as the major obstacle that has impeded a complete analysis. Once temperature is relinquished in favor of the correlation length as the basic variable, we obtain a reliable estimation of the anomalous dimension and of the thermal critical exponent. Universality among binary and Gaussian couplings is confirmed to a high numerical accuracy.
Evidence for nonuniversal scaling in dimension-four Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.
2015-04-01
The critical behavior of the Binder cumulant for Ising spin glasses in dimension four is studied through simulation measurements. Data for the bimodal interaction model are compared with those for the Laplacian interaction model. Special attention is paid to scaling corrections. The limiting infinite size value at criticality for this dimensionless variable is a parameter characteristic of a universality class. This critical limit is estimated to be equal to 0.523(3) in the bimodal model and to 0.473(3) in the Laplacian model.
Static versus dynamic heterogeneities in the D = 3 Edwards-Anderson-Ising spin glass.
Alvarez Baños, R; Cruz, A; Fernandez, L A; Gil-Narvion, J M; Gordillo-Guerrero, A; Guidetti, M; Maiorano, A; Mantovani, F; Marinari, E; Martin-Mayor, V; Monforte-Garcia, J; Muñoz Sudupe, A; Navarro, D; Parisi, G; Perez-Gaviro, S; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J J; Schifano, S F; Seoane, B; Tarancon, A; Tripiccione, R; Yllanes, D
2010-10-22
We numerically study the aging properties of the dynamical heterogeneities in the Ising spin glass. We find that a phase transition takes place during the aging process. Statics-dynamics correspondence implies that systems of finite size in equilibrium have static heterogeneities that obey finite-size scaling, thus signaling an analogous phase transition in the thermodynamical limit. We compute the critical exponents and the transition point in the equilibrium setting, and use them to show that aging in dynamic heterogeneities can be described by a finite-time scaling ansatz, with potential implications for experimental work.
Critical thermodynamics of the two-dimensional +/-J Ising spin glass.
Lukic, J; Galluccio, A; Marinari, E; Martin, O C; Rinaldi, G
2004-03-19
We compute the exact partition function of 2d Ising spin glasses with binary couplings. In these systems, the ground state is highly degenerate and is separated from the first excited state by a gap of size 4J. Nevertheless, we find that the low temperature specific heat density scales as exp(-2J/T), corresponding to an "effective" gap of size 2J; in addition, an associated crossover length scale grows as exp(J/T). We justify these scalings via the degeneracy of the low lying excitations and by the way low energy domain walls proliferate in this model.
The cumulative overlap distribution function in spin glasses: mean field vs. three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yllanes, David; Billoire, Alain; Maiorano, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo; Martin-Mayor, Victor
2015-03-01
We use a sample-dependent analysis, based on medians and quantiles, to analyze the behavior of the overlap probability distribution in spin glasses. Using analytical and numerical mean-field results for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, as well as data from toy models, we show that this approach is an effective tool to distinguish the low-temperature behavior of replica symmmetry breaking systems from that expected in the droplet picture. An application of the method to the three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson models shows agreement with the replica symmetry breaking predictions. Supported by ERC Grant No. 247328 and from MINECO (Spain), Contract No. FIS2012-35719-C02.
Laser Photoablation Of Poly-Ethylcyanoacrylate And Spin-On-Glass Photoresists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magan, J. D.; Hogan, M.; Blau, W.; Lunney, J. G.; Woods, J. G.
1989-04-01
The photoablative characteristics of vapour deposited poly- ethylcyanoacrylate photoresist (PECA) and phenylsiloxane spin-on-glass (SOG) are reported. The photoablation was performed using 20 ns excimer laser pulses at 193 nm and 248 nm, and was monitored interferometrically by measuring the reflectivity of the irradiated area using a He-Ne laser. The microlithographic potential of these photoresists using photoablative etching was also investigated. Resolution of 2 μm was achieved with the SOG but there is evidence of curing by the laser pulse. Feature sizes of 3 μm were attained in PECA but this figure appears to be limited by the simple imaging system used.
Spin-glass behavior in Li1-xZnxV2O4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trinkl, W.; Loidl, A.; Klemm, M.; Horn, S.
2000-10-01
LiV2O4 is a transition-metal based heavy fermion compound close to magnetic order. Mixed crystals of Li1-xZnxV2O4, 0>=x>=0.3, were investigated by zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization and by ac susceptibility measurements at different frequencies and applied external dc fields. The measurements indicate two characteristic temperatures, a freezing temperature Tf which is almost independent of the applied field and a temperature Tirr where strong irreversibilities occur and which strongly decreases on increasing fields. Comparison is made to heavy fermion spin glasses.
The pitfalls of planar spin-glass benchmarks: raising the bar for quantum annealers (again)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandrà, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Thomas, Creighton
2017-09-01
In an effort to overcome the limitations of random spin-glass benchmarks for quantum annealers, focus has shifted to carefully crafted gadget-based problems whose logical structure typically has a planar topology. Recent experiments on these gadget problems using a commercially available quantum annealer have demonstrated an impressive performance over a selection of commonly used classical optimisation heuristics. Here, we show that efficient classical optimisation techniques, such as minimum-weight-perfect matching, can solve these gadget problems exactly and in polynomial time. We present approaches on how to mitigate this shortcoming of commonly used benchmark problems based on planar logical topologies.
Spin-glass phase in a neutral network with asymmetric couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kree, R.; Widmaier, D.; Zippelius, A.
1988-12-01
The author studies the phase diagram of a neural network model which has learnt with the ADALINE algorithm, starting from tabula non rasa conditions. The resulting synaptic efficacies are not symmetric under an exchange of the pre- and post-synaptic neuron. In contrast to several other models which have been discussed in the literature, he finds a spin-glass phase in the asymmetrically coupled network. The main difference compared with the other models consists of long-ranged Gaussian correlations in the ensemble of couplings.
Search for the Heisenberg spin glass on rewired cubic lattices with antiferromagnetic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surungan, Tasrief
2016-10-01
Spin glass (SG) is a typical magnetic system which is mainly characterized by a frozen random spin orientation at low temperatures. Frustration and randomness are considered to be the key ingredients for the existence of SGs. Previously, Bartolozzi et al. [Phys. Rev. B73, 224419 (2006)] found that the antiferromagnetic (AF) Ising spins on scale free network (SFN) exhibited SG behavior. This is purely AF system, a new type of SG different from the canonical one which requires the presence of both FM and AF couplings. In this new system, frustration is purely due to a topological factor and its randomness is brought by irregular connectivity. Recently, it was reported that the AF Heisenberg model on SFN exhibited SG behavior [Surungan et al., JPCS, 640, 012005 (2015)/doi:10.1088/1742-6596/640/1/012005]. In order to accommodate the notion of spatial dimension, we further investigated this type of system by studying an AF Heisenberg model on rewired cubic lattices, constructed by adding one extra bond randomly connecting each spin to one of its next-nearest neighbors. We used Replica Exchange algorithm of Monte Carlo Method and calculated the SG order parameter to search for the existence of SG phase.
Miéville, Pascal; Vitzthum, Veronika; Caporini, Marc A; Jannin, Sami; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2011-11-01
As previously demonstrated by Thurber and Tycko, the peak position of (79)Br in potassium bromide (KBr) allows one to determine the temperature of a spinning sample. We propose to adapt the original design by using a compact KBr tablet placed at the bottom of the magic angle spinning rotor, separated from the sample under investigation by a thin disk made of polytetrafluoroethylene (or 'Teflon'®). This design allows spinning the sample up to at least 16 kHz. The KBr tablet can remain in the rotor when changing the sample under investigation. Calibration in the range of 98 < T < 320 K has been carried out in a static rotor by inserting a platinum thermometer. The accuracy is better than ± 0.9 K, even in the presence of microwave irradiation. Irradiation with 5 W microwaves at 263 GHz leads to a small temperature increase of 3.6 ± 1.4 K in either static or spinning samples. The dynamic nuclear polarization enhancement decreases with increasing temperature, in particular when a frozen glassy sample undergoes a glass transition. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Ji; Chen, Kezheng
2016-05-01
In this study, room-temperature spin-glass behaviors were observed in flake-like oriented attached hematite (α-Fe2O3) and iron phosphate hydroxide hydrate (Fe5(PO4)4(OH)3·2H2O) single crystals. Remarkably, their coercivity (HC) values were found to be almost invariable at various given temperatures from 5 to 300 K. The spin topographic map in these flakes was assumed as superparamagnetic (SPM) "islands" isolated by spin glass (SG)-like "bridges". A spin-glass model was then proposed to demonstrate the spin frustration within these "bridges", which were formed by the staggered atomic planes in the uneven surfaces belonging to different attached nanoparticles. Under the spatial limitation and coupling shield of these "bridges", the SPM "islands" were found to be collectively frozen to form a superspin glass (SSG) state below 80 K in weak applied magnetic fields; whereas, when strong magnetic fields were applied, the magnetic coupling of these "islands" would become superferromagnetic (SFM) through tunneling superexchange, so that, these SFM spins could antiferromagnetically couple with the SG-like "bridges" to yield pronounced exchange bias (EB) effect.
Nature of the spin-glass phase in dense packings of Ising dipoles with random anisotropy axes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso, Juan J.; Allés, B.
2017-09-01
Using tempered Monte Carlo simulations, we study the the spin-glass phase of dense packings of Ising dipoles pointing along random axes. We consider systems of dipoles (i) placed on the sites of a simple cubic lattice with lattice constant d, and (ii) placed at the center of random close packed spheres of diameter d that occupy 64% of the volume. For both cases, we find a spin-glass phase below a certain temperature T sg. By analysing the data obtained for the overlap parameter, the associated correlation length, as well as the statistics of the overlap distributions of individual samples, we find a behavior consistent with quasi-long-range order in the spin-glass phase, similar to the one previously found in strongly diluted dipolar systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Cheng-Wei; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Sandvik, Anders W.
2015-04-01
We discuss an Ising spin glass where each S =1 /2 spin is coupled antiferromagnetically to three other spins (3-regular graphs). Inducing quantum fluctuations by a time-dependent transverse field, we use out-of-equilibrium quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study dynamic scaling at the quantum glass transition. Comparing the dynamic exponent and other critical exponents with those of the classical (temperature-driven) transition, we conclude that quantum annealing is less efficient than classical simulated annealing in bringing the system into the glass phase. Quantum computing based on the quantum annealing paradigm is therefore inferior to classical simulated annealing for this class of problems. We also comment on previous simulations where a parameter is changed with the simulation time, which is very different from the true Hamiltonian dynamics simulated here.
Evidence of Non-Mean-Field-Like Low-Temperature Behavior in the Edwards-Anderson Spin-Glass Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yucesoy, Burcu; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Machta, Jonathan
2013-03-01
The three and four-dimensional Edwards-Anderson and mean-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Ising spin glasses are studied via large-scale Monte Carlo simulations at low temperatures, deep within the spin-glass phase. Performing a careful statistical analysis of several thousand independent disorder realizations and using an observable that detects peaks in the overlap distribution, we show that the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and Edwards-Anderson models have a distinctly different low-temperature behavior. The structure of the spin-glass overlap distribution for the Edwards-Anderson model suggests that its low-temperature phase has only a single pair of pure states. J. M. and B. Y. are supported in part by the NSF (Grant No. DMR-0907235 and DMR-1208046).
Liu, Cheng-Wei; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Sandvik, Anders W
2015-04-10
We discuss an Ising spin glass where each S=1/2 spin is coupled antiferromagnetically to three other spins (3-regular graphs). Inducing quantum fluctuations by a time-dependent transverse field, we use out-of-equilibrium quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study dynamic scaling at the quantum glass transition. Comparing the dynamic exponent and other critical exponents with those of the classical (temperature-driven) transition, we conclude that quantum annealing is less efficient than classical simulated annealing in bringing the system into the glass phase. Quantum computing based on the quantum annealing paradigm is therefore inferior to classical simulated annealing for this class of problems. We also comment on previous simulations where a parameter is changed with the simulation time, which is very different from the true Hamiltonian dynamics simulated here.
Super spin-glass state and exchange bias in Fe/CoO hybrid nanostructures.
Thomas, S; Uhlig, M; Wiedwald, U; Han, L; Ziemann, P; Albrecht, M
2013-04-19
Fe/CoO heterostructures were realized by depositing Fe thin films on CoO nanoparticle arrays. Magnetization measurements revealed that 1 nm Fe exhibits a superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K and a super spin-glass state at temperatures below 80 K. The superparamagnetic as well as super spin-glass state vanishes for higher Fe film thicknesses once Fe starts to form a continuous layer across the CoO nanoparticle arrays. Furthermore, all samples exhibit an exchange bias effect at 6 K after field cooling, with a maximum exchange bias field of about 60 Oe for a Fe thickness of 2 nm. M-H loops of thicker Fe samples show a two-step magnetization reversal where Fe in the area in between CoO nanoparticles reverses at low fields, while, in proximity to the CoO nanoparticles, Fe switches at substantially higher fields. Both reversals are exchange biased.
Free energy of mean-field spin-glass models: Evolution operator and perturbation expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janiš, V.; Kauch, A.; Klíč, A.
2013-02-01
The full mean-field solution of spin glass models with a continuous order-parameter function is not directly available and approximate schemes must be used to assess its properties. One of the authors recently proposed a representation of the free energy generating this solution via an evolution operator parametrized by attainable values of overlap of magnetizations between different states. Here, we introduce a perturbation expansion for the evolution operator that we use to derive all thermodynamic characteristics via the standard methods of statistical mechanics. We obtain a generic scheme for an approximate calculation of physical quantities of different mean-field spin-glass models at all temperatures. The small expansion parameter is a difference between the continuous order-parameter function and the corresponding order parameter from the solution with one level of replica-symmetry breaking. The first correction beyond the approximation with one level of replica-symmetry breaking is explicitly evaluated in the glassy phase of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.
Low-temperature spin-glass behavior in a diluted dipolar Ising system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso, Juan J.
2015-03-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the character of the spin-glass (SG) state of a site-diluted dipolar Ising model. We consider systems of dipoles randomly placed on a fraction x of all L3 sites of a simple cubic lattice that point up or down along a given crystalline axis. For x ≲0.65 these systems are known to exhibit an equilibrium spin-glass phase below a temperature Tsg∝x . At high dilution and very low temperatures, well deep in the SG phase, we find spiky distributions of the overlap parameter q that are strongly sample dependent. We focus on spikes associated with large excitations. From cumulative distributions of q and a pair correlation function averaged over several thousands of samples we find that, for the system sizes studied, the average width of spikes, and the fraction of samples with spikes higher than a certain threshold, does not vary appreciably with L . This is compared with the behavior found for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.
Why the dipolar response in dielectrics and spin-glasses is unavoidably universal
Cuervo-Reyes, Eduardo
2016-01-01
Materials response to electric or magnetic fields is often dominated by the dynamics of dipoles in the system. This is for instance the case of polar dielectrics and many transition metal compounds. An essential and not yet well understood fact is that, despite their structural diversity, dielectric solids exhibit a striking universality of frequency and time responses, sharing many aspects with the behaviour of spin-glasses. In this article I propose a stochastic approach to dipole dynamics within which the “universal frequency response” derives naturally with Debye’s relaxation mechanism as a special case. This formulation reveals constraints to the form of the relaxation functions, which are essential for a consistent representation of the dynamical slowing-down at the spin-glass transition. Relaxation functions with algebraic-, and exponential-tails, as well as damped oscillations, are shown to have a unified representation in which the stable limit of the distribution of waiting-times between dipole flips determines the present type of dynamics. PMID:27366866
Why the dipolar response in dielectrics and spin-glasses is unavoidably universal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuervo-Reyes, Eduardo
2016-07-01
Materials response to electric or magnetic fields is often dominated by the dynamics of dipoles in the system. This is for instance the case of polar dielectrics and many transition metal compounds. An essential and not yet well understood fact is that, despite their structural diversity, dielectric solids exhibit a striking universality of frequency and time responses, sharing many aspects with the behaviour of spin-glasses. In this article I propose a stochastic approach to dipole dynamics within which the “universal frequency response” derives naturally with Debye’s relaxation mechanism as a special case. This formulation reveals constraints to the form of the relaxation functions, which are essential for a consistent representation of the dynamical slowing-down at the spin-glass transition. Relaxation functions with algebraic-, and exponential-tails, as well as damped oscillations, are shown to have a unified representation in which the stable limit of the distribution of waiting-times between dipole flips determines the present type of dynamics.
Why the dipolar response in dielectrics and spin-glasses is unavoidably universal.
Cuervo-Reyes, Eduardo
2016-07-01
Materials response to electric or magnetic fields is often dominated by the dynamics of dipoles in the system. This is for instance the case of polar dielectrics and many transition metal compounds. An essential and not yet well understood fact is that, despite their structural diversity, dielectric solids exhibit a striking universality of frequency and time responses, sharing many aspects with the behaviour of spin-glasses. In this article I propose a stochastic approach to dipole dynamics within which the "universal frequency response" derives naturally with Debye's relaxation mechanism as a special case. This formulation reveals constraints to the form of the relaxation functions, which are essential for a consistent representation of the dynamical slowing-down at the spin-glass transition. Relaxation functions with algebraic-, and exponential-tails, as well as damped oscillations, are shown to have a unified representation in which the stable limit of the distribution of waiting-times between dipole flips determines the present type of dynamics.
Spin-cluster glass state in U(Ga0.95Mn0.05)3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong-Hua, Xie; Wen, Zhang; Yi, Liu; Wei, Feng; Yun, Zhang; Shi-Yong, Tan; Xie-Gang, Zhu; Qiu-Yun, Chen; Qin, Liu; Bing-Kai, Yuan; Xin-Chun, Lai
2016-04-01
We report the study of a low temperature cluster glass state in 5% Mn-doped UGa3 heavy fermion compound. This compound transforms from a paramagnetic state to a spin-cluster glass state, which is confirmed by measuring the dc susceptibility and magnetization. The ac susceptibility exhibits a frequency-dependent peak around T f, which provides direct evidence of the cluster glass state. By analyzing the field-dependent magnetization and frequency-dependent ac susceptibility in detail, we deduce that this compound forms a spin-cluster glass state below T f. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physic (Grant No. 2014A0301013) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304291 and 11504342).
Modeling excitable systems: Reentrant tachycardia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lancaster, Jarrett L.; Hellen, Edward H.; Leise, Esther M.
2010-01-01
Excitable membranes are an important type of nonlinear dynamical system, and their study can be used to provide a connection between physical and biological circuits. We discuss two models of excitable membranes important in cardiac and neural tissues. One model is based on the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations, and the other is based on a three-transistor excitable circuit. We construct a circuit that simulates reentrant tachycardia and its treatment by surgical ablation. This project is appropriate for advanced undergraduates as a laboratory capstone project or as a senior thesis or honors project and can also be a collaborative project, with one student responsible for the computational predictions and another for the circuit construction and measurements.
Bomboi, Francesca; Romano, Flavio; Leo, Manuela; Fernandez-Castanon, Javier; Cerbino, Roberto; Bellini, Tommaso; Bordi, Federico; Filetici, Patrizia; Sciortino, Francesco
2016-01-01
DNA is acquiring a primary role in material development, self-assembling by design into complex supramolecular aggregates, the building block of a new-materials world. Using DNA nanoconstructs to translate sophisticated theoretical intuitions into experimental realizations by closely matching idealized models of colloidal particles is a much less explored avenue. Here we experimentally show that an appropriate selection of competing interactions enciphered in multiple DNA sequences results into the successful design of a one-pot DNA hydrogel that melts both on heating and on cooling. The relaxation time, measured by light scattering, slows down dramatically in a limited window of temperatures. The phase diagram displays a peculiar re-entrant shape, the hallmark of the competition between different bonding patterns. Our study shows that it is possible to rationally design biocompatible bulk materials with unconventional phase diagrams and tuneable properties by encoding into DNA sequences both the particle shape and the physics of the collective response. PMID:27767029
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bomboi, Francesca; Romano, Flavio; Leo, Manuela; Fernandez-Castanon, Javier; Cerbino, Roberto; Bellini, Tommaso; Bordi, Federico; Filetici, Patrizia; Sciortino, Francesco
2016-10-01
DNA is acquiring a primary role in material development, self-assembling by design into complex supramolecular aggregates, the building block of a new-materials world. Using DNA nanoconstructs to translate sophisticated theoretical intuitions into experimental realizations by closely matching idealized models of colloidal particles is a much less explored avenue. Here we experimentally show that an appropriate selection of competing interactions enciphered in multiple DNA sequences results into the successful design of a one-pot DNA hydrogel that melts both on heating and on cooling. The relaxation time, measured by light scattering, slows down dramatically in a limited window of temperatures. The phase diagram displays a peculiar re-entrant shape, the hallmark of the competition between different bonding patterns. Our study shows that it is possible to rationally design biocompatible bulk materials with unconventional phase diagrams and tuneable properties by encoding into DNA sequences both the particle shape and the physics of the collective response.
Bomboi, Francesca; Romano, Flavio; Leo, Manuela; Fernandez-Castanon, Javier; Cerbino, Roberto; Bellini, Tommaso; Bordi, Federico; Filetici, Patrizia; Sciortino, Francesco
2016-10-21
DNA is acquiring a primary role in material development, self-assembling by design into complex supramolecular aggregates, the building block of a new-materials world. Using DNA nanoconstructs to translate sophisticated theoretical intuitions into experimental realizations by closely matching idealized models of colloidal particles is a much less explored avenue. Here we experimentally show that an appropriate selection of competing interactions enciphered in multiple DNA sequences results into the successful design of a one-pot DNA hydrogel that melts both on heating and on cooling. The relaxation time, measured by light scattering, slows down dramatically in a limited window of temperatures. The phase diagram displays a peculiar re-entrant shape, the hallmark of the competition between different bonding patterns. Our study shows that it is possible to rationally design biocompatible bulk materials with unconventional phase diagrams and tuneable properties by encoding into DNA sequences both the particle shape and the physics of the collective response.
Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2014-10-01
Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajak, A.; Chakrabarti, B. K.
2014-09-01
Here we first discuss briefly the quantum annealing technique. We then study the quantum annealing of Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass model with the tuning of both transverse and longitudinal fields. Both the fields are time-dependent and vanish adiabatically at the same time, starting from high values. We solve, for rather small systems, the time-dependent Schrodinger equation of the total Hamiltonian by employing a numerical technique. At the end of annealing we obtain the final state having high overlap with the exact ground state(s) of classical spin glass system (obtained independently).
Zero- and low-temperature behavior of the two-dimensional ±J Ising spin glass.
Thomas, Creighton K; Huse, David A; Middleton, A Alan
2011-07-22
Scaling arguments and precise simulations are used to study the square lattice ±J Ising spin glass, a prototypical model for glassy systems. Droplet theory explains, and our numerical results show, entropically stabilized long-range spin-glass order at zero temperature, which resembles the energetic stabilization of long-range order in higher-dimensional models at finite temperature. At low temperature, a temperature-dependent crossover length scale is used to predict the power-law dependence on temperature of the heat capacity and clarify the importance of disorder distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2014-10-01
Starting from preferences on N proposed policies obtained via questionnaires from a sample of the electorate, an Ising spin-glass model in a field can be constructed from which a political party could find the subset of the proposed policies which would maximize its appeal, form a coherent choice in the eyes of the electorate, and have maximum overlap with the party's existing policies. We illustrate the application of the procedure by simulations of a spin glass in a random field on scale-free networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magalhaes, S. G.; Zimmer, F. M.; Coqblin, B.
2012-12-01
We study here the influence of a random applied magnetic field on the competition between the Kondo effect, the spin glass phase and a ferromagnetic order in disordered cerium systems such as CeNi1-xCux. The model used here takes an intrasite Kondo coupling and an intersite random coupling; both the intersite random coupling and the random magnetic field are described within the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and the one-step replica symmetry breaking procedure is also used here. We present phase diagrams giving Temperature versus the Kondo exchange parameter and the random magnetic field makes decrease particularly the importance of the spin glass and ferromagnetic phases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartford, Edward John
This position-space renormalization-group study focuses on two systems with quenched disorder: the Ising spin glass and the asymmetric random-field Ising model. We have employed the Migdal-Kadanoff approach to determine local recursion relations and have retained the full correlated probability distribution of interactions and fields at each iteration in a series of histograms. We find an equilibrium spin-glass phase in three dimensions, but not in two. The spin glass is characterized by a distribution of effective interactions that broadens under iteration, signaling both the long-range order of the phase and the importance of competing interactions on all length scales. We have introduced a method to calculate the distribution of local properties by differentiating the free energy with respect to a particular magnetic field or interaction. Within the spin-glass phase, the nearest neighbor correlation < S_ {i}S_{j}> ranges from negative one to one, showing the strong correlations and the local variation within the phase. The spin-glass-to-paramagnet phase transition is second order, with a smooth specific heat indicated by a negative critical exponent alpha. The multicritical point separating the spin-glass, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic phases lies along the Nishimori line and also has a nondivergent specific heat. When the system undergoes quenched dilution, the resulting critical and multicritical behaviors are identical to those of the undiluted system. Even the addition of an infinitesimal magnetic field destroys the long-range spin-glass order; however, the characteristic broadening of the distribution continues for several iterations for small fields and low temperatures, suggesting the persistence of sizable spin-glass domains. Our study of the asymmetric random-field Ising model is motivated by recent experiments on phase transitions in porous media and mean-field treatments, which suggest that new critical behavior could occur when the distribution of
Metastable minima of the Heisenberg spin glass in a random magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Auditya; Yeo, Joonhyun; Moore, M. A.
2016-11-01
We have studied zero-temperature metastable minima in classical m -vector component spin glasses in the presence of m -component random fields for two models, the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model and the Viana-Bray (VB) model. For the SK model we have calculated analytically its complexity (the log of the number of minima) for both the annealed case where one averages the number of minima before taking the log and the quenched case where one averages the complexity itself, both for fields above and below the de Almeida-Thouless (AT) field, which is finite for m >2 . We have done numerical quenches starting from a random initial state (infinite temperature state) by putting spins parallel to their local fields until there is no further decrease of the energy and found that in zero field it always produces minima that have zero overlap with each other. For the m =2 and m =3 cases in the SK model the final energy reached in the quench is very close to the energy Ec at which the overlap of the states would acquire replica symmetry-breaking features. These minima have marginal stability and will have long-range correlations between them. In the SK limit we have analytically studied the density of states ρ (λ ) of the Hessian matrix in the annealed approximation. Despite the fact that in the presence of a random field there are no continuous symmetries, the spectrum extends down to zero with the usual √{λ } form for the density of states for fields below the AT field. However, when the random field is larger than the AT field, there is a gap in the spectrum, which closes up as the AT field is approached. The VB model behaves differently and seems rather similar to studies of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass in a random vector field.
Correlated cluster mean-field theory for spin-glass systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimmer, F. M.; Schmidt, M.; Magalhaes, S. G.
2014-06-01
The competition between cluster spin glass (CSG) and ferromagnetism or antiferromagnetism is studied in this work. The model considers clusters of spins with short-range ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic (FE-AF) interactions (J0) and long-range disordered couplings (J) between clusters. The problem is treated by adapting the correlated cluster mean-field theory of D. Yamamoto [Phys. Rev. B 79, 144427 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.144427]. Phase diagrams T /J×J0/J are obtained for different cluster sizes ns. The results show that the CSG phase is found below the freezing temperature Tf for lower intensities of J0/J. The increase of short-range FE interaction can favor the CSG phase, while the AF one reduces the CSG region by decreasing the Tf. However, there are always critical values of J0 where AF or FE orders become stable. The results also indicate a strong influence of the cluster size in the competition of magnetic phases. For AF cluster, the increase of ns diminishes Tf reducing the CSG phase region, which indicates that the cluster surface spins can play an important role in the CSG arising.
Spin Glass Statics and Dynamics in the Disordered Stacked Quantum Ferromagnet LiNiO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, J. P.; Gaulin, B. D.; Dunsiger, S. R.; Haravifard, S.; Copley, J. R. D.; Qiu, Y.
2006-03-01
We have performed time-of-flight neutron scattering measurements on polycrystalline LiNiO2 using the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. Similar measurements performed on its sister compound, NaNiO2, show a simple magnetic structure below Tn˜22K consisting of ferromagnetic sheets of s=1/2 moments stacked in an antiferromagnetic (AF) fashion [1]. Our measurements on LiNiO2 illustrate the absence of magnetic order down to 1.7K. Further they provide direct evidence for a spin glass transition at 9K through a narrowing of the inelastic magnetic scattering on approaching Tg from above, along with a concomitant increase in the elastic magnetic scattering, indicative of frozen disordered moments. The inelastic magnetic scattering in LiNiO2 resembles that in NaNiO2 above Tn, suggesting that the low Q spin response is due to short-lived spin wave modes below the lowest Q AF ordering wavevector. This reinforces the picture that the simple stacked ferromagnetic ordered state displayed by NaNiO2 is precluded by mixing between the Li and Ni sublattices, which occurs in LiNiO2 at the 1-3% level. [1] M.J. Lewis et al., PRB 72, 014408 (2005).
Inverse freezing in a cluster Ising spin-glass model with antiferromagnetic interactions.
Silva, C F; Zimmer, F M; Magalhaes, S G; Lacroix, C
2012-11-01
Inverse freezing is analyzed in a cluster spin-glass (SG) model that considers infinite-range disordered interactions between magnetic moments of different clusters (intercluster interaction) and short-range antiferromagnetic coupling J(1) between Ising spins of the same cluster (intracluster interaction). The intercluster disorder J is treated within a mean-field theory by using a framework of one-step replica symmetry breaking. The effective model obtained by this treatment is computed by means of an exact diagonalization method. With the results we build phase diagrams of temperature T/J versus J(1)/J for several sizes of clusters n(s) (number of spins in the cluster). The phase diagrams show a second-order transition from the paramagnetic phase to the SG order at the freezing temperature T(f) when J(1)/J is small. The increase in J(1)/J can then destroy the SG phase. It decreases T(f)/J and introduces a first-order transition. In addition, inverse freezing can arise at a certain range of J(1)/J and large enough n(s). Therefore, the nontrivial frustration generated by disorder and short-range antiferromagnetic coupling can introduce inverse freezing spontaneously.
Search for the Heisenberg spin glass on rewired square lattices with antiferromagnetic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surungan, Tasrief; Bansawang B., J.; Tahir, Dahlang
2016-03-01
Spin glass (SG) is a typical magnetic system with frozen random spin orientation at low temperatures. The system exhibits rich physical properties, such as infinite number of ground states, memory effect, and aging phenomena. There are two main ingredients considered to be pivotal for the existence of SG behavior, namely, frustration and randomness. For the canonical SG system, frustration is led by the presence of competing interaction between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) couplings. Previously, Bartolozzi et al. [Phys. Rev. B73, 224419 (2006)], reported the SG properties of the AF Ising spins on scale free network (SFN). It is a new type of SG, different from the canonical one which requires the presence of both FM and AF couplings. In this new system, frustration is purely caused by the topological factor and its randomness is related to the irregular connectvity. Recently, Surungan et. al. [Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 640, 012001 (2015)] reported SG bahavior of AF Heisenberg model on SFN. We further investigate this type of system by studying an AF Heisenberg model on rewired square lattices. We used Replica Exchange algorithm of Monte Carlo Method and calculated the SG order parameter to search for the existence of SG phase.
Tchou, Patrick; Tarakji, Khaldoun; Kanj, Mohamed
2016-12-01
The sequence of changes in the QRS morphology and the accompanying cycle lengths of the tachycardia confirm that the reentrant circuit involves the left ventricular myocardium as well as the His Purkinje system as part of the reentrant circuit. The reentrant propagation likely goes from local left ventricular myocardium into a slowly conducting, verapamil-sensitive tissue, which then connects into the inferior fascicle. This case demonstrates that fascicular reentrant tachycardias can generate different QRS morphologies depending on the path of breakout into the myocardium.
Bao, Jin-Ke; Feng, Chun-Mu; Luo, Yong-Kang; Jiang, Hao; Sun, Yun-Lei; Jiao, Wen-He; Shen, Chen-Yi; Xu, Zhu-An; Cao, Guang-Han
2014-01-15
Ba0.6K0.4Fe2Se3 (BKFS) single crystals were investigated by means of measurements of powder x-ray diffraction, temperature-dependent resistivity, anisotropic dc magnetization, ac magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. The powder x-ray diffraction indicates staggered iron displacements along the ladders with short and long Fe-Fe bond lengths (2.64(2) and 2.91(2) Å) variation. The resistivity of BKFS exhibits variable range hopping behavior with ln(ρ) ~ T(-1/2) at low temperature. The magnetic susceptibility χ(T) exhibits a sharp cusp at around 20 K in a zero-field-cooled process. The frequency-dependent ac magnetic susceptibility reveals that the cusp feature is attributable to spin glass behavior. The anisotropic ac magnetic susceptibility indicates that BKFS is probably an anisotropic Heisenberg-like spin glass with its easy magnetization plane perpendicular to the chain direction. The specific heat also supports an insulating and spin glass ground state. Extended Curie-Weiss behavior above 40 K was observed with a reduced effective moment (μ(eff) = 1.66 μ(B)/Fe for H is perpendicular to b and μ(eff) = 1.82 μB/Fe for H is parallel to b) in BKFS, which is close to the spin-only magnetism with S=1/2.
Antisite disorder induced spin glass and exchange bias effect in Nd2NiMnO6 epitaxial thin film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Amit Kumar; Chauhan, Samta; Chandra, Ramesh
2017-03-01
We report the observation of the exchange bias effect and spin glass behaviour at low temperature in a ferromagnetic Nd2NiMnO6 epitaxial thin film. Along with the ferromagnetic transition at ˜194 K, an additional transition is observed at lower temperature (˜55 K) as seen from M-T curves of the sample. A shift in the ac susceptibility peak with frequency has been observed at low temperature, which is a signature of a glassy phase within the sample. The detailed investigation of the memory effect and time dependent magnetic relaxation measurements reveals the presence of a spin glass phase in the Nd2NiMnO6 thin film. The exchange bias effect observed at low temperature in the sample has been associated with an antisite disorder induced spin glass phase, which results in a ferromagnetic/spin glass interface at low temperature. The exchange bias behaviour has been further confirmed by performing cooling field and temperature dependence of exchange bias along with training effect measurements.
Finite-size scaling in two-dimensional Ising spin-glass models.
Toldin, Francesco Parisen; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore
2011-11-01
We study the finite-size behavior of two-dimensional spin-glass models. We consider the ±J model for two different values of the probability of the antiferromagnetic bonds and the model with Gaussian distributed couplings. The analysis of renormalization-group invariant quantities, the overlap susceptibility, and the two-point correlation function confirms that they belong to the same universality class. We analyze in detail the standard finite-size scaling limit in terms of TL(1/ν) in the ±J model. We find that it holds asymptotically. This result is consistent with the low-temperature crossover scenario in which the crossover temperature, which separates the universal high-temperature region from the discrete low-temperature regime, scales as T(c)(L)~L(-θ(S)) with θ(S)≈0.5.
Fixed-point distributions of short-range Ising spin glasses on hierarchical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almeida, Sebastião T. O.; Nobre, Fernando D.
2015-03-01
Fixed-point distributions for the couplings of Ising spin glasses with nearest-neighbor interactions on hierarchical lattices are investigated numerically. Hierarchical lattices within the Migdal-Kadanoff family with fractal dimensions in the range 2.58 ≤D ≤7 , as well as a lattice of the Wheatstone-Bridge family with fractal dimension D ≈3.58 are considered. Three initial distributions for the couplings are analyzed, namely, the Gaussian, bimodal, and uniform ones. In all cases, after a few iterations of the renormalization-group procedure, the associated probability distributions approached universal fixed shapes. For hierarchical lattices of the Migdal-Kadanoff family, the fixed-point distributions were well fitted either by stretched exponentials, or by q -Gaussian distributions; both fittings recover the expected Gaussian limit as D →∞ . In the case of the Wheatstone-Bridge lattice, the best fit was found by means of a stretched-exponential distribution.
Zero-temperature quantum annealing bottlenecks in the spin-glass phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knysh, Sergey
2016-08-01
A promising approach to solving hard binary optimization problems is quantum adiabatic annealing in a transverse magnetic field. An instantaneous ground state--initially a symmetric superposition of all possible assignments of N qubits--is closely tracked as it becomes more and more localized near the global minimum of the classical energy. Regions where the energy gap to excited states is small (for instance at the phase transition) are the algorithm's bottlenecks. Here I show how for large problems the complexity becomes dominated by O(log N) bottlenecks inside the spin-glass phase, where the gap scales as a stretched exponential. For smaller N, only the gap at the critical point is relevant, where it scales polynomially, as long as the phase transition is second order. This phenomenon is demonstrated rigorously for the two-pattern Gaussian Hopfield model. Qualitative comparison with the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model leads to similar conclusions.
Itinerant magnetism and spin glass states of iron rich amorphous alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krey, U.; Krompiewski, S.; Krauss, U.
1990-04-01
We generalize our self-consistent treatment of the itinerant magnetism of disordered or amorphous transition metal alloys, given in a series of recent papers, in such a way that now also itinerant spin glasses can be treated; i.e. not only the local magnitude, as before, also the local polarization direction can now differ from site, due to a subtle interplay between the isotropic intra-atomic Coulomb interaction and the anisotropic hopping terms in the Hamiltonian. Using a realistic approach with all relevant orbitals, this theory is then applied to a detailed numerical study of the magnetism of iron-rich amorphous Fe-Zr alloys, including hydrogenated samples, and of fictitious amorphous Fe at various densities. As a result we find that in the non-hydrogenated Fe-Zr alloys and in amorphous Fe the transverse components, although summing up to zero, can locally be almost comparable to the longitudinal polarization per atom.
Amoruso, C; Hartmann, A K; Hastings, M B; Moore, M A
2006-12-31
We present numerical evidence that the techniques of conformal field theory might be applicable to two-dimensional Ising spin glasses with Gaussian bond distributions. It is shown that certain domain wall distributions in one geometry can be related to that in a second geometry by a conformal transformation. We also present direct evidence that the domain walls are stochastic Loewner (SLE) processes with kappa approximately 2.1. An argument is given that their fractal dimension d(f) is related to their interface energy exponent theta by d(f) - 1 = 3/[4(3 + theta)], which is consistent with the commonly quoted values d(f) approximately 1.27 and theta approximately -0.28.
Phase Transition for Quenched Coupled Replicas in a Plaquette Spin Model of Glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jack, Robert L.; Garrahan, Juan P.
2016-02-01
We study a three-dimensional plaquette spin model whose low temperature dynamics is glassy, due to localized defects and effective kinetic constraints. The thermodynamics of this system is smooth at all temperatures. We show that coupling it to a second system with a fixed (quenched) configuration leads to a phase transition, at finite coupling. The order parameter is the overlap between the copies, and the transition is between phases of low and high overlap. We find critical points whose properties are consistent with random-field Ising universality. We analyze the interfacial free energy cost between the high- and low-overlap states that coexist at (and below) the critical point, and we use this cost as the basis for a finite-size scaling analysis. We discuss these results in the context of mean-field and dynamical facilitation theories of the glass transition.
Amoruso, C.; Moore, M. A.; Hartmann, A. K.; Hastings, M. B.
2006-12-31
We present numerical evidence that the techniques of conformal field theory might be applicable to two-dimensional Ising spin glasses with Gaussian bond distributions. It is shown that certain domain wall distributions in one geometry can be related to that in a second geometry by a conformal transformation. We also present direct evidence that the domain walls are stochastic Loewner (SLE) processes with {kappa}{approx_equal}2.1. An argument is given that their fractal dimension d{sub f} is related to their interface energy exponent {theta} by d{sub f}-1=3/[4(3+{theta})], which is consistent with the commonly quoted values d{sub f}{approx_equal}1.27 and {theta}{approx_equal}-0.28.
Zero-temperature quantum annealing bottlenecks in the spin-glass phase
Knysh, Sergey
2016-01-01
A promising approach to solving hard binary optimization problems is quantum adiabatic annealing in a transverse magnetic field. An instantaneous ground state—initially a symmetric superposition of all possible assignments of N qubits—is closely tracked as it becomes more and more localized near the global minimum of the classical energy. Regions where the energy gap to excited states is small (for instance at the phase transition) are the algorithm's bottlenecks. Here I show how for large problems the complexity becomes dominated by O(log N) bottlenecks inside the spin-glass phase, where the gap scales as a stretched exponential. For smaller N, only the gap at the critical point is relevant, where it scales polynomially, as long as the phase transition is second order. This phenomenon is demonstrated rigorously for the two-pattern Gaussian Hopfield model. Qualitative comparison with the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model leads to similar conclusions. PMID:27491338
SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY Development of spin-on-glass process for triple metal interconnects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Peng; Wenbin, Zhao; Guozhang, Wang; Zongguang, Yu
2010-12-01
Spin-on-glass (SOG), an interlayer dielectric material applied in liquid form to fill narrow gaps in the sub-dielectric surface and thus conducive to planarization, is an alternative to silicon dioxide (SiO2) deposited using PECVD processes. However, its inability to adhere to metal and problems such as cracking prevent the easy application of SOG technology to provide an interlayer dielectric in multilevel metal interconnect circuits, particularly in university processing labs. This paper will show that a thin layer of CVD SiO2 and a curing temperature below the sintering temperature of the metal interconnect layer will promote adhesion, reduce gaps, and prevent cracking. Electron scanning microscope analysis has been used to demonstrate the success of the improved technique. This optimized process has been used in batches of double-poly, triple-metal CMOS wafer fabrication to date.
Spin-on-glass coatings for the generation of super-polishedsubstrates for extreme ultraviolet optics
Salmassi, Farhad; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Gullikson, Eric M.
2005-01-01
Substrates intended for use as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics have extremely stringent requirements in terms of finish. These requirements can dramatically increase the cost and fabrication time, especially when non-conventional shapes, such as toroids, are required. Here we present a spin-on-glass resist process capable of generating super-polished parts from inexpensive substrates. The method has been used to render diamond-turned substrates compatible for use as EUV optics. Toroidal diamond-turned optics with starting rms roughness in the 3.3 to 3.7 nm range have been smoothed to the 0.4 to 0.6 nm range. EUV reflectometry characterization of these optics has demonstrated reflectivities of approximately 63%.
Enhanced light extraction from UV LEDs using spin-on glass microlenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chi-Min; Su, Guo-Dung J.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fabricating spin-on glass (SOG) microlens arrays (MLAs) on ultra-violet light-emitting diodes. The SOG MLA is formed using thermal reflow molds and multiple replication processes, which can reduce the cost of the solution process. In this paper, we fabricate SOG MLA of different sizes, where the diameter of each microlens is approximately 50, 100, 150, and 200 μm. In each case, the light extraction efficiency is improved by 21.86%, 14.01%, 10.35%, and 7.31%, respectively. We also discuss the effects of different-shaped SOG microlenses, namely circular, square, and hexagonal. The light extraction efficiency is improved by 7.31%, 9.60%, and 13.80% for the circular, square, and hexagonal SOG MLAs, respectively. By applying an optimized lens pattern, an increase in light extraction efficiency of 21.86% is achieved.
Zero-temperature quantum annealing bottlenecks in the spin-glass phase.
Knysh, Sergey
2016-08-05
A promising approach to solving hard binary optimization problems is quantum adiabatic annealing in a transverse magnetic field. An instantaneous ground state-initially a symmetric superposition of all possible assignments of N qubits-is closely tracked as it becomes more and more localized near the global minimum of the classical energy. Regions where the energy gap to excited states is small (for instance at the phase transition) are the algorithm's bottlenecks. Here I show how for large problems the complexity becomes dominated by O(log N) bottlenecks inside the spin-glass phase, where the gap scales as a stretched exponential. For smaller N, only the gap at the critical point is relevant, where it scales polynomially, as long as the phase transition is second order. This phenomenon is demonstrated rigorously for the two-pattern Gaussian Hopfield model. Qualitative comparison with the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model leads to similar conclusions.
Crokidakis, Nuno; Nobre, Fernando D
2008-04-01
The effects of random magnetic fields are considered in an Ising spin-glass model defined in the limit of infinite-range interactions. The probability distribution for the random magnetic fields is a double Gaussian, which consists of two Gaussian distributions centered, respectively, at +H0 and -H0, presenting the same width sigma . It is argued that such a distribution is more appropriate for a theoretical description of real systems than its simpler particular two well-known limits, namely, the single Gaussian distribution (sigma>H0) and the bimodal one (sigma=0) . The model is investigated by means of the replica method, and phase diagrams are obtained within the replica-symmetric solution. Critical frontiers exhibiting tricritical points occur for different values of sigma , with the possibility of two tricritical points along the same critical frontier. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such a behavior is verified for a spin-glass model in the presence of a continuous-distribution random field, which represents a typical situation of a real system. The stability of the replica-symmetric solution is analyzed, and the usual Almeida-Thouless instability is verified for low temperatures. It is verified that the higher-temperature tricritical point always appears in the region of stability of the replica-symmetric solution; a condition involving the parameters H0 and sigma , for the occurrence of this tricritical point only, is obtained analytically. Some of our results are discussed in view of experimental measurements available in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leuzzi, L.; Parisi, G.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.
2015-02-01
We revisited, by means of numerical simulations, the one-dimensional bond diluted Levy Ising spin glasses outside the limit of validity of mean-field theories. In these models the probability that two spins at distance r interact (via disordered interactions, Ji j=±1 ) decays as r-ρ. We have estimated, using finite size scaling techniques, the infinite volume correlation length and spin glass susceptibility for ρ =5 /3 and ρ =9 /5 . We have obtained strong evidence for divergences of the previous observables at a nonzero critical temperature. We discuss the behavior of the critical exponents, especially when approaching the value ρ =2 , corresponding to a critical threshold beyond which the model has no phase transition. Finally, we numerically study the model right at the threshold value ρ =2 .
Scaling of the largest dynamical barrier in the one-dimensional long-range Ising spin glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas
2014-01-01
The long-range one-dimensional Ising spin glass with random couplings decaying as J(r )∝r-σ presents a spin-glass phase Tc(σ)>0 for 0≤σ<1 (the limit σ =0 corresponds to the mean-field Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model). We use the eigenvalue method introduced in our previous work (C. Monthus and T. Garel, J. Stat. Mech. 2009, P12017) to measure the equilibrium time teq(N ) at temperature T =Tc(σ)/2 as a function of the number N of spins. We find the activated scaling lnteq(N )¯˜Nψ with the same barrier exponent ψ ≃0.33 in the whole region 0≤σ<1.
Notes on the p-spin glass studied via Hamilton-Jacobi and smooth-cavity techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Burioni, Raffaella; Di Biasio, Aldo
2012-06-01
In these notes, we continue our investigation of classical toy models of disordered statistical mechanics, through techniques recently developed and tested mainly on the paradigmatic Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass. Here, we consider the p-spin-glass model with Ising spins and interactions drawn from a normal distribution N[0,1]. After a general presentation of its properties (e.g., self-averaging of the free energy, existence of a suitable thermodynamic limit), we study its equilibrium behavior within the Hamilton-Jacobi framework and the smooth cavity approach. Through the former we find both the RS and the 1-RSB expressions for the free-energy, coupled with their self-consistent relations for the overlaps. Through the latter, we recover these results as irreducible expression, and we study the generalization of the overlap polynomial identities suitable for this model; a discussion on their deep connection with the structure of the internal energy and the entropy closes the investigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andresen, Juan Carlos; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Oganesyan, Vadim; Schechter, Moshe
2014-10-01
The nature of ordering in dilute dipolar interacting systems dates back to the work of Debye and is one of the most basic, oldest and as-of-yet unsettled problems in magnetism. While spin-glass order is readily observed in several RKKY-interacting systems, dipolar spin glasses are the subject of controversy and ongoing scrutiny, e.g., in LiHoxY1 -xF4, a rare-earth randomly diluted uniaxial (Ising) dipolar system. In particular, it is unclear if the spin-glass phase in these paradigmatic materials persists in the limit of zero concentration or not. We study an effective model of LiHoxY1 -xF4 using large-scale Monte Carlo simulations that combine parallel tempering with a special cluster algorithm tailored to overcome the numerical difficulties that occur at extreme dilutions. We find a paramagnetic to spin-glass phase transition for all Ho+ ion concentrations down to the smallest concentration numerically accessible, 0.1%, and including Ho+ ion concentrations that coincide with those studied experimentally up to 16.7%. Our results suggest that randomly diluted dipolar Ising systems have a spin-glass phase in the limit of vanishing dipole concentration, with a critical temperature vanishing linearly with concentration. The agreement of our results with mean-field theory testifies to the irrelevance of fluctuations in interactions strengths, albeit being strong at small concentrations, to the nature of the low-temperature phase and the functional form of the critical temperature of dilute anisotropic dipolar systems. Deviations from linearity in experimental results at the lowest concentrations are discussed.
SivaRamaiah, G; LakshmanaRao, J
2012-12-01
Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and optical absorption studies of 5Al(2)O(3)+75H(3)BO(3)+(20-x)PbO+xMnSO(4) (where x=0.5, 1,1.5 and 2 mol% of MnSO(4)) glasses at room temperature have been studied. The ESR spectrum of all the glasses exhibits resonance signals with effective isotropic g values at ≈2.0, 3.3 and 4.3. The ESR resonance signal at isotropic g≈2.0 has been attributed to Mn(2+) centers in an octahedral symmetry. The ESR resonance signals at isotropic g≈3.3 and 4.3 have been attributed to the rhombic symmetry of the Mn(2+) ions. The zero-field splitting parameter (zfs) has been calculated from the intensities of the allowed hyperfine lines. The optical absorption spectrum exhibits an intense band in the visible region and it has been attributed to (5)E(g)→(5)T(2g) transition of Mn(3+)centers in an octahedral environment. The optical band gap and the Urbach energies have been calculated from the ultraviolet absorption edges.
Quantum annealing of an Ising spin-glass by Green's function Monte Carlo.
Stella, Lorenzo; Santoro, Giuseppe E
2007-03-01
We present an implementation of quantum annealing (QA) via lattice Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), focusing on its application to the Ising spin glass in transverse field. In particular, we study whether or not such a method is more effective than the path-integral Monte Carlo- (PIMC) based QA, as well as classical simulated annealing (CA), previously tested on the same optimization problem. We identify the issue of importance sampling, i.e., the necessity of possessing reasonably good (variational) trial wave functions, as the key point of the algorithm. We performed GFMC-QA runs using such a Boltzmann-type trial wave function, finding results for the residual energies that are qualitatively similar to those of CA (but at a much larger computational cost), and definitely worse than PIMC-QA. We conclude that, at present, without a serious effort in constructing reliable importance sampling variational wave functions for a quantum glass, GFMC-QA is not a true competitor of PIMC-QA.
Real beards and real networks: a spin-glass model for interacting individuals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Neale, Dion
''I want to be different, just like all the other different people'' sang the band King Missile. Whether they are the Beatniks of the 1950s, the punks of the 1970s, or the hipsters of today, non-conformists often tend to look the same, seemingly at odds with their goal of non-conformity. The spin-glass model, originally developed to describe the interaction of magnetic spins, and since applied to situations as diverse as the electrical activity of networks of neurons, to trades on a financial market, has recently been used in social science to study populations of interacting individuals comprised of a mix of both conformists and anti-conformists - or hipsters. Including delay effects for the interactions between individuals has been shown to give a system with non-trivial dynamics with a phase transition from stable behaviour to periodic switching between two states (let's call them bushy bearded and clean shaven). Analytic solutions to such a model are possible, but only for particular assumptions about the interaction and delay matrices. In this work we will show what happens when the interactions in the model are based on real-world networks with ''small-world'' effects and clustering.
Magnetic anisotropy and spin-glass behavior in single crystalline U2PdSi3.
Li, D X; Kimura, A; Haga, Y; Nimori, S; Shikama, T
2011-02-23
We present the magnetic and transport properties of single crystalline U(2)PdSi(3) measured with the magnetic field (H) (or measuring current, I) applied along two typical crystallographic directions, i.e. H ⊥ c-axis and H
Bundle Branch Reentrant Ventricular Tachycardia
Mazur, Alexander; Kusniec, Jairo; Strasberg, Boris
2005-01-01
Bundle branch reentrant (BBR) tachycardia is an uncommon form of ventricular tachycardia (VT) incorporating both bundle branches into the reentry circuit. The arrhythmia is usually seen in patients with an acquired heart disease and significant conduction system impairment, although patients with structurally normal heart have been described. Surface ECG in sinus rhythm (SR) characteristically shows intraventricular conduction defects. Patients typically present with presyncope, syncope or sudden death because of VT with fast rates frequently above 200 beats per minute. The QRS morphology during VT is a typical bundle branch block pattern, usually left bundle branch block, and may be identical to that in SR. Prolonged His-ventricular (H-V) interval in SR is found in the majority of patients with BBR VT, although some patients may have the H-V interval within normal limits. The diagnosis of BBR VT is based on electrophysiological findings and pacing maneuvers that prove participation of the His- Purkinje system in the tachycardia mechanism. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of a bundle branch can cure BBR VT and is currently regarded as the first line therapy. The technique of choice is ablation of the right bundle. The reported incidence of clinically significant conduction system impairment requiring implantation of a permanent pacemaker varies from 0% to 30%. Long-term outcome depends on the underlying cardiac disease. Patients with poor systolic left ventricular function are at risk of sudden death or death from progressive heart failure despite successful BBR VT ablation and should be considered for an implantable cardiovertor-defibrillator. PMID:16943949
Spin-Glass Behavior in a Giant Unit Cell Compound Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1)
Liu, Jing; Xie, Weiwei; Gschneidner, Karl A; Miller, Gordon J; Pecharsky, Vitalij K
2014-10-15
In this paper we demonstrate evidence of a cluster spin glass in Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1) (a compound with a giant cubic unit cell) via ac and dc magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, magnetic relaxation and heat capacity measurements. The results clearly show that Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1) undergoes a spin glass phase transition at the freezing temperature, ~38 K. The good fit of the frequency dependence of the freezing temperature to the critical slowing down model and Vogel-Fulcher law strongly suggest the formation of cluster glass in the Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1) system. The heat capacity data exhibit no evidence for long-range magnetic order, and yield a large value of Sommerfeld coefficient. The spin glass behavior of Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1) may be understood by assuming the presence of competing interactions among multiple non-equivalent Tb sites present in the highly complex unit cell.
Spin-glass behavior in a giant unit cell compound Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J.; Xie, W.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.; Miller, G. J.; Pecharsky, V. K.
2014-10-01
In this paper we demonstrate evidence of a cluster spin glass in Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1) (a compound with a giant cubic unit cell) via ac and dc magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, magnetic relaxation and heat capacity measurements. The results clearly show that Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1) undergoes a spin glass phase transition at the freezing temperature, ~38 K. The good fit of the frequency dependence of the freezing temperature to the critical slowing down model and Vogel-Fulcher law strongly suggest the formation of cluster glass in the Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1) system. The heat capacity data exhibit no evidence for long-range magnetic order, and yield a large value of Sommerfeld coefficient. The spin glass behavior of Tb117Fe52Ge113.8(1) may be understood by assuming the presence of competing interactions among multiple non-equivalent Tb sites present in the highly complex unit cell.
Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2016-09-01
We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2016-09-01
We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.
Baltz, V.
2013-02-11
Controlling ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic blocking temperatures in exchange biased based devices appears crucial for applications. The blocking temperature is ascribed to the ability of both antiferromagnetic grains and interfacial spin-glass-like phases to withstand ferromagnetic magnetization reversal. To better understand the respective contributions of grains versus spin-glass, blocking temperature distributions were measured after various thermal treatments for cobalt/iridium-manganese bilayers. The high-temperature contribution linked to antiferromagnetic grains shifts towards lower temperatures above a threshold thermal annealing. In contrast, the occurrence and evolution of training effects for the low-temperature contribution only agree with its inferred interfacial spin-glass-like origin.
Magnetic properties and specific heat of new spin glass Mn0.5Fe0.5PS3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takano, Yoshiki; Arai, Atsuko; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takase, Kouichi; Sekizawa, Kazuko
2003-05-01
We have found spin glass phenomena in a layered Mn0.5Fe0.5PS3 compound and investigated its magnetic properties and specific heat. The temperature dependence of the zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization along the easy axis, M∥ under dc applied field Ha below 1 kOe shows a cusp at Tg=32.6 K. The FC and ZFC curves measured at Ha below 1 kOe separate at almost the same temperature as Tg. For Ha larger than 1 kOe, the temperature at which FC and ZFC curves separate deviates from Tg and shifts toward lower temperature and the peak becomes broader. Magnetic hysteresis is still observed above 70 kOe at 2 K. The remarkable feature of this spin glass phase is that the spin freezing is not suppressed up to a rather high magnetic field compared with similar spin glass (Mn,Fe)TiO3. The cusp temperature of χ'(ω) does not show magnetic field amplitude dependence from 1 to 10 Oe and increases with an increase in frequency, obeying the Vogel-Fulcher rule. The temperature dependence of χ″(ω) shows two extra peaks at Tm1 and Tm2 below Tg. The time dependence of thermoremanent magnetization MTRM below Tg shows power law dependence. The value of the molar specific heat is about an order of magnitude larger than that of MnPS3 and FePS3 at 2 K. The T-linear term characteristic of spin glass is observed below about 10 K. The temperature dependence of the magnetic specific heat shows no anomaly at Tg, Tm1=9 and Tm2=16 K, and shows two peaks at Tc1=13 and Tc2=67 K.
Design of half-reentrant SRF cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meidlinger, M.; Grimm, T. L.; Hartung, W.
2006-07-01
The shape of a TeSLA inner cell can be improved to lower the peak surface magnetic field at the expense of a higher peak surface electric field by making the cell reentrant. Such a single-cell cavity was designed and tested at Cornell, setting a world record accelerating gradient [V. Shemelin et al., An optimized shape cavity for TESLA: concept and fabrication, 11th Workshop on RF Superconductivity, Travemünde, Germany, September 8-12, 2003; R. Geng, H. Padamsee, Reentrant cavity and first test result, Pushing the Limits of RF Superconductivity Workshop, Argonne National Laboratory, September 22-24, 2004]. However, the disadvantage to a cavity is that liquids become trapped in the reentrant portion when it is vertically hung during high pressure rinsing. While this was overcome for Cornell’s single-cell cavity by flipping it several times between high pressure rinse cycles, this may not be feasible for a multi-cell cavity. One solution to this problem is to make the cavity reentrant on only one side, leaving the opposite wall angle at six degrees for fluid drainage. This idea was first presented in 2004 [T.L. Grimm et al., IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 15(6) (2005) 2393]. Preliminary designs of two new half-reentrant (HR) inner cells have since been completed, one at a high cell-to-cell coupling of 2.1% (high- kcc HR) and the other at 1.5% (low- kcc HR). The parameters of a HR cavity are comparable to a fully reentrant cavity, with the added benefit that a HR cavity can be easily cleaned with current technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenlong; Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2017-09-01
The fractal dimension of excitations in glassy systems gives information on the critical dimension at which the droplet picture of spin glasses changes to a description based on replica symmetry breaking where the interfaces are space filling. Here, the fractal dimension of domain-wall interfaces is studied using the strong-disorder renormalization group method pioneered by Monthus [Fractals 23, 1550042 (2015), 10.1142/S0218348X15500425] both for the Edwards-Anderson spin-glass model in up to 8 space dimensions, as well as for the one-dimensional long-ranged Ising spin-glass with power-law interactions. Analyzing the fractal dimension of domain walls, we find that replica symmetry is broken in high-enough space dimensions. Because our results for high-dimensional hypercubic lattices are limited by their small size, we have also studied the behavior of the one-dimensional long-range Ising spin-glass with power-law interactions. For the regime where the power of the decay of the spin-spin interactions with their separation distance corresponds to 6 and higher effective space dimensions, we find again the broken replica symmetry result of space filling excitations. This is not the case for smaller effective space dimensions. These results show that the dimensionality of the spin glass determines which theoretical description is appropriate. Our results will also be of relevance to the Gardner transition of structural glasses.
Reentrant transition in coupled noisy oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Yasuaki; Kori, Hiroshi
2015-01-01
We report on a synchronization-breaking instability observed in a noisy oscillator unidirectionally coupled to a pacemaker. Using a phase oscillator model, we find that, as the coupling strength is increased, the noisy oscillator lags behind the pacemaker more frequently and the phase slip rate increases, which may not be observed in averaged phase models such as the Kuramoto model. Investigation of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation enables us to obtain the reentrant transition line between the synchronized state and the phase slip state. We verify our theory using the Brusselator model, suggesting that this reentrant transition can be found in a wide range of limit cycle oscillators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magalhaes, S. G.; Morais, C. V.; Zimmer, F. M.; Lazo, M. J.; Nobre, F. D.
2017-02-01
The interplay between quantum fluctuations and disorder is investigated in a quantum spin-glass model, in the presence of a uniform transverse field Γ , as well as of a longitudinal random field hi, which follows a Gaussian distribution characterized by a width proportional to Δ . The interactions are infinite-ranged, and the model is studied through the replica formalism, within a one-step replica-symmetry-breaking procedure; in addition, the dependence of the Almeida-Thouless eigenvalue λAT (replicon) on the applied fields is analyzed. This study is motivated by experimental investigations on the LiHoxY1 -xF4 compound, where the application of a transverse magnetic field yields rather intriguing effects, particularly related to the behavior of the nonlinear magnetic susceptibility χ3, which have led to a considerable experimental and theoretical debate. We have analyzed two physically distinct situations, namely, Δ and Γ considered as independent, as well as these two quantities related, as proposed recently by some authors. In both cases, a spin-glass phase transition is found at a temperature Tf, with such phase being characterized by a nontrivial ergodicity breaking; moreover, Tf decreases by increasing Γ towards a quantum critical point at zero temperature. The situation where Δ and Γ are related [Δ ≡Δ (Γ )] appears to reproduce better the experimental observations on the LiHoxY1 -xF4 compound, with the theoretical results coinciding qualitatively with measurements of the nonlinear susceptibility χ3. In this later case, by increasing Γ gradually, χ3 becomes progressively rounded, presenting a maximum at a temperature T* (T*>Tf ), with both the amplitude of the maximum and the value of T* decreasing gradually. Moreover, we also show that the random field is the main responsible for the smearing of the nonlinear susceptibility, acting significantly inside the paramagnetic phase, leading to two regimes delimited by the temperature T*, one for Tf
Ultrasonic Nanoimprinting in Organic Spin-on-Glass-Coated Si Substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mekaru, Harutaka; Takahashi, Masaharu
2010-06-01
We have already reported on our success in molding engineering plastics by an ultrasonic nanoimprinting technology. In this paper, we report on our experimental results of ultrasonic nanoimprinting in organic spin-on-glass (SOG)-coated Si substrates. A 753-nm-thick layer of Accuglass 512B, an SOG also known as methyl siloxane, was spin-coated on a sputter-deposited 10-nm-thick Ti layer on a Si substrate. Typically, SOG needs to be baked in a two-step thermal treatment by annealing at a low temperature and then at a high temperature. Therefore, a group of substrates previously heated at 150 °C for 1 min using a hot plate, and another group of substrates previously soft baked at 150 °C followed by hard baking at 450 °C for 1 h in a rapid thermal processor were prepared for tests. Nanoimprinting was carried out under conditions similar to those used in earlier experiments on engineering plastics. In the tests, the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibration were set at 10 kHz and 3 µm, while the contact force and contact time were set to 500 N and 60 s, respectively. In the experiment, we succeeded in transferring mold patterns with linewidths of 500 nm, 700 nm, and 1 µm onto the substrates. The maximum depths of imprinting in the SOG-coated substrates without and with hard baking were 294 and 214 nm, respectively, as measured using a confocal microscope. In addition, the effect of a Ti interlayer and those of the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibration on the depth of imprinting were investigated. The results of these experiments demonstrated the potential wide application of ultrasonic nanoimprinting technology for SOGs as well as for engineering plastics.
Ultrasonic Nanoimprinting in Organic Spin-on-Glass-Coated Si Substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harutaka Mekaru,; Masaharu Takahashi,
2010-06-01
We have already reported on our success in molding engineering plastics by an ultrasonic nanoimprinting technology. In this paper, we report on our experimental results of ultrasonic nanoimprinting in organic spin-on-glass (SOG)-coated Si substrates. A 753-nm-thick layer of Accuglass 512B, an SOG also known as methyl siloxane, was spin-coated on a sputter-deposited 10-nm-thick Ti layer on a Si substrate. Typically, SOG needs to be baked in a two-step thermal treatment by annealing at a low temperature and then at a high temperature. Therefore, a group of substrates previously heated at 150 °C for 1 min using a hot plate, and another group of substrates previously soft baked at 150 °C followed by hard baking at 450 °C for 1 h in a rapid thermal processor were prepared for tests. Nanoimprinting was carried out under conditions similar to those used in earlier experiments on engineering plastics. In the tests, the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibration were set at 10 kHz and 3 μm, while the contact force and contact time were set to 500 N and 60 s, respectively. In the experiment, we succeeded in transferring mold patterns with linewidths of 500 nm, 700 nm, and 1 μm onto the substrates. The maximum depths of imprinting in the SOG-coated substrates without and with hard baking were 294 and 214 nm, respectively, as measured using a confocal microscope. In addition, the effect of a Ti interlayer and those of the frequency and amplitude of ultrasonic vibration on the depth of imprinting were investigated. The results of these experiments demonstrated the potential wide application of ultrasonic nanoimprinting technology for SOGs as well as for engineering plastics.
Sustained phase separation and spin glass in Co-doped KxFe2-ySe2 single crystals
Ryu, Hyejin; Wang, Kefeng; Opacic, M.; ...
2015-11-19
We describe Co substitution effects in KxFe2-y-zCozSe2 (0.06 ≤ z ≤ 1.73) single crystal alloys. By 3.5% of Co doping superconductivity is suppressed whereas phase separation of semiconducting K2Fe4Se5 and superconducting/metallic KxFe2Se2 is still present. We show that the arrangement and distribution of superconducting phase (stripe phase) is connected with the arrangement of K, Fe and Co atoms. Semiconducting spin glass is found in proximity to superconducting state, persisting for large Co concentrations. At high Co concentrations ferromagnetic metallic state emerges above the spin glass. This is coincident with changes of the unit cell, arrangement and connectivity of stripemore » conducting phase.« less
Çağlar, Tolga; Berker, A Nihat
2017-04-01
The chiral clock spin-glass model with q=5 states, with both competing ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic and left-right chiral frustrations, is studied in d=3 spatial dimensions by renormalization-group theory. The global phase diagram is calculated in temperature, antiferromagnetic bond concentration p, random chirality strength, and right-chirality concentration c. The system has a ferromagnetic phase, a multitude of different chiral phases, a chiral spin-glass phase, and a critical (algebraically) ordered phase. The ferromagnetic and chiral phases accumulate at the disordered phase boundary and form a spectrum of devil's staircases, where different ordered phases characteristically intercede at all scales of phase-diagram space. Shallow and deep reentrances of the disordered phase, bordered by fragments of regular and temperature-inverted devil's staircases, are seen. The extremely rich phase diagrams are presented as continuously and qualitatively changing videos.
Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2015-07-01
Population annealing is a Monte Carlo algorithm that marries features from simulated-annealing and parallel-tempering Monte Carlo. As such, it is ideal to overcome large energy barriers in the free-energy landscape while minimizing a Hamiltonian. Thus, population-annealing Monte Carlo can be used as a heuristic to solve combinatorial optimization problems. We illustrate the capabilities of population-annealing Monte Carlo by computing ground states of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass with Gaussian disorder, while comparing to simulated-annealing and parallel-tempering Monte Carlo. Our results suggest that population annealing Monte Carlo is significantly more efficient than simulated annealing but comparable to parallel-tempering Monte Carlo for finding spin-glass ground states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2015-07-01
Population annealing is a Monte Carlo algorithm that marries features from simulated-annealing and parallel-tempering Monte Carlo. As such, it is ideal to overcome large energy barriers in the free-energy landscape while minimizing a Hamiltonian. Thus, population-annealing Monte Carlo can be used as a heuristic to solve combinatorial optimization problems. We illustrate the capabilities of population-annealing Monte Carlo by computing ground states of the three-dimensional Ising spin glass with Gaussian disorder, while comparing to simulated-annealing and parallel-tempering Monte Carlo. Our results suggest that population annealing Monte Carlo is significantly more efficient than simulated annealing but comparable to parallel-tempering Monte Carlo for finding spin-glass ground states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ćaǧlar, Tolga; Berker, A. Nihat
2017-04-01
The chiral clock spin-glass model with q =5 states, with both competing ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic and left-right chiral frustrations, is studied in d =3 spatial dimensions by renormalization-group theory. The global phase diagram is calculated in temperature, antiferromagnetic bond concentration p , random chirality strength, and right-chirality concentration c . The system has a ferromagnetic phase, a multitude of different chiral phases, a chiral spin-glass phase, and a critical (algebraically) ordered phase. The ferromagnetic and chiral phases accumulate at the disordered phase boundary and form a spectrum of devil's staircases, where different ordered phases characteristically intercede at all scales of phase-diagram space. Shallow and deep reentrances of the disordered phase, bordered by fragments of regular and temperature-inverted devil's staircases, are seen. The extremely rich phase diagrams are presented as continuously and qualitatively changing videos.
Itenerant spin glass states and asperomagnetism of amorphous Fe and iron-rich Fe/Zr alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krey, U.; Krauss, U.; Krompiewski, S.
1992-01-01
A realistic tight-binding approach for the self-consistent calculation of the itinerant spin configurations of disordered metallic systems has been developed and is used to study numerically the problem of the magnetic states at T = 0 K of iron-rich amorphous alloys of the type Fe 1- xZr xH y, and of fictitious amorphous Fe of different densities. In our approach, the local spin polarization is not restricted to the z-direction, i.e. the polarization magnitude as well as its direction can vary from site to site. The calculations show that the spin configurations depend strongly on the preparation, and that changes of the relative spin orientations can lead to drastic changes of the itinerant atomic moments. Metastable spin configurations with essentially isotropic distribution can be prepared by relaxing the system in gradually vanishing external fields with isotropically distributed randomness and zero spatial average, whereas with a non-vanishing average the so-called asperomagnetic configurations are obtained, i.e. ferromagnetic states with randomly frozen transverse components. For iron-rich Fe 1- xZr x alloys with x = 0.07, according to our calculation, the isotropic spin glass configuration would have slightly lower energy than the asperomagnetic state, by amounts corresponding to ≈ 0.003 eV per electron, while for the hydrogenated system Fe 1- xZr xH y with y ≈ 2 x, the asperomagnetic state would be favoured by ≈ 0.004 eV. For two computer models of (fictitious) amorphous Fe with densities of 7.39 and 9.19 g cm -3, the spin-glass and the asperomagnetic states have roughly the same energy, although for the low-density sample the magnitudes of the moments are quite different in both states.
Short-range Ising spin glasses: The metastate interpretation of replica symmetry breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Read, N.
2014-09-01
Parisi's formal replica-symmetry-breaking (RSB) scheme for mean-field spin glasses has long been interpreted in terms of many pure states organized ultrametrically. However, the early version of this interpretation, as applied to the short-range Edwards-Anderson model, runs into problems because as shown by Newman and Stein (NS) it does not allow for chaotic size dependence, and predicts non-self-averaging that cannot occur. NS proposed the concept of the metastate (a probability distribution over infinite-size Gibbs states in a given sample that captures the effects of chaotic size dependence) and a nonstandard interpretation of the RSB results in which the metastate is nontrivial and is responsible for what was called non-self-averaging. In this picture, each state drawn from the metastate has the ultrametric properties of the old theory, but when the state is averaged using the metastate, the resulting mixed state has little structure. This picture was constructed so as to agree both with the earlier RSB results and with rigorous results. Here we use the effective field theory of RSB, in conjunction with the rigorous definitions of pure states and the metastate in infinite-size systems, to show that the nonstandard picture follows directly from the RSB mean-field theory. In addition, the metastate-averaged state possesses power-law correlations throughout the low-temperature phase; the corresponding exponent ζ takes the value 4 according to the field theory in high dimensions d, and describes the effective fractal dimension of clusters of spins. Further, the logarithm of the number of pure states in the decomposition of the metastate-averaged state that can be distinguished if only correlations in a window of size W can be observed is of order Wd -ζ. These results extend the nonstandard picture quantitatively; we show that arguments against this scenario are inconclusive. More generally, in terms of Parisi's function q (x), if q(0)≠∫01dxq(x ), then the
Spin-glass and novel magnetic behavior in the spinel-type CuAgxCrSnS4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Takahiro; Ebisu, Shuji; Nagata, Shoichi
2010-04-01
A dual non-magnetic substitution system on A- and B-sites in the spinel structure has been studied. The mother compound is a ferromagnet CuCr2S4 with the Curie temperature Tc≃380 K. A system of CuAgxCrSnS4, which is the same notation as (CuAgx)(Cr0.50Sn0.50)2S4, has been prepared over the entire range of 0.00≤x≤1.00 although the Cr-Sn sublattice is unchanged in the fixed composition of 0.50 on B-sites. All these compounds exhibit the spin-glass phase with the freezing temperature Tg approximately at 16 K in 100 Oe. Since only Cr ions have the magnetic moment on the B-sites, the substitution of Ag for Cu on the A-sites does not influence strongly the spin-glass freezing behavior over the whole composition range. Nevertheless, the magnetization of CuAgxCrSnS4 with x=0.50 and 0.55 cause a broad upturn hump over 30-130 K where the spin-glass phase is broken. Strong magnetic field dependence of this hump anomaly has been observed with an irreversibility between zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetizations even though above Tg. The hump is suppressed in higher fields and collapsed down at approximately 1.0 kOe with a tiny trace quantity of the anomaly where the difference between the ZFC and FC processes disappears. The specimen with x=0.45 shows a small hump anomaly in low field <20 Oe which corresponds to a precursor of the huge anomaly for x=0.50. The hump anomaly could be attributed to a formation of the cluster-glass. The spin-clusters are embedded in the matrix of spin-glass elements in high degree of disorder without long-range order. All the spins eventually are frozen below Tg. The strange magnetic freezing originates from the delicate dual substitutions. The mechanism of the anomaly is far from a complete picture and remains enigmatic.
Evidence for two-dimensional spin-glass ordering in submonolayer Fe films on cleaved InAs surfaces.
Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Masutomi, Ryuichi; Okamoto, Tohru
2008-12-31
Magnetotransport measurements have been performed on two-dimensional electron gases formed at InAs(110) surfaces covered with a submonolayer of Fe. Hysteresis in the magnetoresistance, a difference in remanent magnetoresistance between zero-field-cooling procedures and field-cooling procedures, and logarithmic time-dependent relaxation after magnetic field sweep are clearly observed at 1.7 K for a coverage of 0.42 monolayer. These features are associated with spin-glass ordering in the Fe film.
Role of Fe magnetic subsystems to form a magnetic spin glass state in RFeTi2O7
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drokina, T. V.; Petrakovskii, G. A.; Bayukov, O. A.; Molokeev, M. S.; Bartolomé, J.; Arauzo, A.
2017-10-01
The experimental studies on R3+Fe3+Ti2O7 (R=Sm, Gd, Tb, Tm, Dy) magnetic properties evidence the low temperature spin glass state in all compounds. The possibility of rare-earth cation substitution allows the investigation of the role of magnetic iron Fe3+ ions and rare earth R3+ ions subsystems in a ground state formation in these oxide compounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morais, C. V.; Zimmer, F. M.; Lazo, M. J.; Magalhães, S. G.; Nobre, F. D.
2016-06-01
The behavior of the nonlinear susceptibility χ3 and its relation to the spin-glass transition temperature Tf in the presence of random fields are investigated. To accomplish this task, the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model is studied through the replica formalism, within a one-step replica-symmetry-breaking procedure. In addition, the dependence of the Almeida-Thouless eigenvalue λAT (replicon) on the random fields is analyzed. Particularly, in the absence of random fields, the temperature Tf can be traced by a divergence in the spin-glass susceptibility χSG, which presents a term inversely proportional to the replicon λAT. As a result of a relation between χSG and χ3, the latter also presents a divergence at Tf, which comes as a direct consequence of λAT=0 at Tf. However, our results show that, in the presence of random fields, χ3 presents a rounded maximum at a temperature T* which does not coincide with the spin-glass transition temperature Tf (i.e., T*>Tf for a given applied random field). Thus, the maximum value of χ3 at T* reflects the effects of the random fields in the paramagnetic phase instead of the nontrivial ergodicity breaking associated with the spin-glass phase transition. It is also shown that χ3 still maintains a dependence on the replicon λAT, although in a more complicated way as compared with the case without random fields. These results are discussed in view of recent observations in the LiHoxY1 -xF4 compound.
Doping of ZnO nanowires using phosphorus diffusion from a spin-on doped glass source
Bocheux, A.; Robin, I. C.; Bonaimé, J.; Hyot, B.; Feuillet, G.; Kolobov, A. V.; Fons, P.; Mitrofanov, K. V.; Tominaga, J.; Tamenori, Y.
2014-05-21
In this article, we report on ZnO nanowires that were phosphorus doped using a spin on dopant glass deposition and diffusion method. Photoluminescence measurements suggest that this process yields p-doped ZnO. The spatial location of P atoms was studied using x-ray near-edge absorption structure spectroscopy and it is concluded that the doping is amphoteric with P atoms located on both Zn and O sites.
Heisenberg spin-glass behaviour in Ga0.99Yb0.01FeO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neacsa, Daniela Maria; Gruener, Gisèle; Hebert, Sylvie; Soret, Jean-Claude
2017-06-01
The dynamic and static magnetic properties of Ga0.99Yb0.01FeO3 are studied in detail using ac susceptibility and dc magnetization measurements. The study shows that the compound undergoes a spin-glass freezing at Tg ≈ 213 K . The dynamic scaling analysis of ac susceptibility data reveals typical features characteristic of canonical spin-glasses, i.e., relaxation time τ∗ ∼10-14 s , critical exponent νz = 4.1 ± 0.2 , and frequency sensitivity parameter δf ∼10-3 within three frequency decades. The analysis of the critical behaviour of the static nonlinear susceptibility yields the critical exponents γ = 4.3 ± 0.1, β = 1.0 ± 0.1 , and δ = 5.5 ± 0.5 , which lie between those typical of three-dimensional (3D) weakly anisotropic Heisenberg and Ising spin glasses. The analysis of the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization data allows to define two characteristic temperatures depending on the applied magnetic field. The upper one, Tirr(H) , is the threshold temperature corresponding to the appearance of weak irreversibility, whereas the lower one, Ts(H) , marks the onset of strong irreversibility. The resulting field-temperature phase diagram turns out to be in good quantitative agreement with the mean-field predictions for 3D Heisenberg spin-glass with random magnetic anisotropy, and appears consistent with the chiral driven freezing scenario.
Anisotropy dependence of anomalous Hall effect in canonical spin glass alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanaka, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Yamazaki, T.; Ashitaka, N.; Morimoto, Y.; Tabata, Y.; Kawarazaki, S.
2007-04-01
The influence of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) anisotropy on the extraordinary Hall coefficient R_{\\mathrm {s}} \\equiv \\rho_{\\mathrm {ex}}/M , where ρex is the extraordinary Hall resistivity and M is the magnetization, is investigated in canonical spin-glass (SG) alloys. The strength of the DM anisotropy in the alloys is changed systematically by doping with a third impurity that is non-magnetic. The Hall resistivity ρH, the magnetization M and the resistivity ρ were measured in the series of (Ag1-xAux)0.9Mn0.1 alloys with x = 0, 0.007, 0.03, and 0.05. The difference ΔRs between the values of zero-field-cooled and field-cooled Rs, below the SG transition temperature, clearly increased with the amount of Au impurities. The dependence of the chirality contribution to Rs on the DM anisotropy is discussed in relation to the theoretical work for the chirality-driven anomalous Hall effect in the weak coupling regime.
PREFACE: ELC International Meeting on Inference, Computation, and Spin Glasses (ICSG2013)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Hukushima, Koji; Inoue, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Osamu
2013-12-01
The close relationship between probability-based inference and statistical mechanics of disordered systems has been noted for some time. This relationship has provided researchers with a theoretical foundation in various fields of information processing for analytical performance evaluation and construction of efficient algorithms based on message-passing or Monte Carlo sampling schemes. The ELC International Meeting on 'Inference, Computation, and Spin Glasses (ICSG2013)', was held in Sapporo 28-30 July 2013. The meeting was organized as a satellite meeting of STATPHYS25 in order to offer a forum where concerned researchers can assemble and exchange information on the latest results and newly established methodologies, and discuss future directions of the interdisciplinary studies between statistical mechanics and information sciences. Financial support from Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas, MEXT, Japan 'Exploring the Limits of Computation (ELC)' is gratefully acknowledged. We are pleased to publish 23 papers contributed by invited speakers of ICSG2013 in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We hope that this volume will promote further development of this highly vigorous interdisciplinary field between statistical mechanics and information/computer science. Editors and ICSG2013 Organizing Committee: Koji Hukushima Jun-ichi Inoue (Local Chair of ICSG2013) Yoshiyuki Kabashima (Editor-in-Chief) Toshiyuki Tanaka Osamu Watanabe (General Chair of ICSG2013)
Cooling field and temperature dependent exchange bias in spin glass/ferromagnet bilayers
Rui, W. B.; Hu, Y.; Du, A.; You, B.; Xiao, M. W.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, S. M.; Du, J.
2015-01-01
We report on the experimental and theoretical studies of cooling field (HFC) and temperature (T) dependent exchange bias (EB) in FexAu1 − x/Fe19Ni81 spin glass (SG)/ferromagnet (FM) bilayers. When x varies from 8% to 14% in the FexAu1 − x SG alloys, with increasing T, a sign-changeable exchange bias field (HE) together with a unimodal distribution of coercivity (HC) are observed. Significantly, increasing in the magnitude of HFC reduces (increases) the value of HE in the negative (positive) region, resulting in the entire HE ∼ T curve to move leftwards and upwards. In the meanwhile, HFC variation has weak effects on HC. By Monte Carlo simulation using a SG/FM vector model, we are able to reproduce such HE dependences on T and HFC for the SG/FM system. Thus this work reveals that the SG/FM bilayer system containing intimately coupled interface, instead of a single SG layer, is responsible for the novel EB properties. PMID:26348277
Extremal Optimization for Ground States of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Spin Glass with Levy Bonds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boettcher, Stefan
2013-03-01
Using the Extremal Optimization heuristic (EO),[3] ground states of the SK-spin glass are studied with bonds J distributed according to a Levy distribution P (J) ~ 1 /| J | 1 + α with | J | > 1 and 1 < α < 4 . The variation of the energy densities with α, their finite-size corrections, their fluctuations, and their local field distribution are analyzed and compared with those for the SK model with Gaussian bonds.[4] We find that the energies attain universally the Parisi-energy of the SK when the second moment of P(J) exists (α > 2). They compare favorably with recent one-step replica symmetry breaking predictions well below α = 2 . Near α = 2 , the simulations deviate significantly from theoretical expectations. The finite-size corrections exponent ω decays from the putative SK value ωSK =2/3 already well above α = 2 . The exponent ρ for the scaling of ground state energy fluctuations with system size decays linearly from its SK value for decreasing α and vanishes at α = 1 . Supported through NSF grant DMR-#1207431
de Almeida-Thouless instability in short-range Ising spin glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, R. R. P.; Young, A. P.
2017-07-01
We use high-temperature series expansions to study the ±J Ising spin glass in a magnetic field in d -dimensional hypercubic lattices for d =5 -8 and in the infinite-range Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model. The expansions are obtained in the variable w =tanh2J /T for arbitrary values of u =tanh2h /T complete to order w10. We find that the scaling dimension Δ associated with the ordering-field h2 equals 2 in the SK model and for d ≥6 . However, in agreement with the work of Fisher and Sompolinsky [Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1063 (1985), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.54.1063], there is a violation of scaling in a finite field, leading to an anomalous h -T dependence of the de Almeida-Thouless (AT) [J. Phys. A 11, 983 (1978), 10.1088/0305-4470/11/5/028] line in high dimensions, whereas scaling is restored as d →6 . Within the convergence of our series analysis, we present evidence supporting an AT line in d ≥6 . In d =5 , the exponents γ and Δ are substantially larger than mean-field values, but we do not see clear evidence for the AT line in d =5 .
Spin glass behavior of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on scale free network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surungan, Tasrief; Zen, Freddy P.; Williams, Anthony G.
2015-09-01
Randomness and frustration are considered to be the key ingredients for the existence of spin glass (SG) phase. In a canonical system, these ingredients are realized by the random mixture of ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) couplings. The study by Bartolozzi et al. [Phys. Rev. B73, 224419 (2006)] who observed the presence of SG phase on the AF Ising model on scale free network (SFN) is stimulating. It is a new type of SG system where randomness and frustration are not caused by the presence of FM and AF couplings. To further elaborate this type of system, here we study Heisenberg model on AF SFN and search for the SG phase. The canonical SG Heisenberg model is not observed in d-dimensional regular lattices for (d ≤ 3). We can make an analogy for the connectivity density (m) of SFN with the dimensionality of the regular lattice. It should be plausible to find the critical value of m for the existence of SG behaviour, analogous to the lower critical dimension (dl) for the canonical SG systems. Here we study system with m = 2, 3, 4 and 5. We used Replica Exchange algorithm of Monte Carlo Method and calculated the SG order parameter. We observed SG phase for each value of m and estimated its corersponding critical temperature.
Nicolao, Lucas; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico
2014-03-01
The study of the low temperature phase of spin glass models by means of Monte Carlo simulations is a challenging task, because of the very slow dynamics and the severe finite-size effects they show. By exploiting at the best the capabilities of standard modern CPUs (especially the streaming single instruction, multiple data extensions), we have been able to simulate the four-dimensional Edwards-Anderson model with Gaussian couplings up to sizes L=70 and for times long enough to accurately measure the asymptotic behavior. By quenching systems of different sizes to the critical temperature and to temperatures in the whole low temperature phase, we have been able to identify the regime where finite-size effects are negligible: ξ(t)≲L/7. Our estimates for the dynamical exponent (z≃1/T) and for the replicon exponent (α≃1.0 and T independent), that controls the decay of the spatial correlation in the zero overlap sector, are consistent with the replica symmetry breaking theory, but the latter differs from the theoretically conjectured value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2014-11-01
A theoretical description of the low-temperature phase of short-range spin glasses has remained elusive for decades. In particular, it is unclear if theories that assert a single pair of pure states, or theories that are based on infinitely many pure states—such as replica symmetry breaking—best describe realistic short-range systems. To resolve this controversy, the three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass in thermal boundary conditions is studied numerically using population annealing Monte Carlo. In thermal boundary conditions all eight combinations of periodic vs antiperiodic boundary conditions in the three spatial directions appear in the ensemble with their respective Boltzmann weights, thus minimizing finite-size corrections due to domain walls. From the relative weighting of the eight boundary conditions for each disorder instance a sample stiffness is defined, and its typical value is shown to grow with system size according to a stiffness exponent. An extrapolation to the large-system-size limit is in agreement with a description that supports the droplet picture and other theories that assert a single pair of pure states. The results are, however, incompatible with the mean-field replica symmetry breaking picture, thus highlighting the need to go beyond mean-field descriptions to accurately describe short-range spin-glass systems.
Low-temperature behavior of the statistics of the overlap distribution in Ising spin-glass models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wittmann, Matthew; Yucesoy, B.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Machta, J.; Young, A. P.
2014-10-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study in detail the overlap distribution for individual samples for several spin-glass models including the infinite-range Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, short-range Edwards-Anderson models in three and four space dimensions, and one-dimensional long-range models with diluted power-law interactions. We study three long-range models with different powers as follows: The first is approximately equivalent to a short-range model in three dimensions, the second to a short-range model in four dimensions, and the third to a short-range model in the mean-field regime. We study an observable proposed earlier by some of us which aims to distinguish the "replica symmetry breaking" picture of the spin-glass phase from the "droplet picture," finding that larger system sizes would be needed to unambiguously determine which of these pictures describes the low-temperature state of spin glasses best, except for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, which is unambiguously described by replica symmetry breaking. Finally, we also study the median integrated overlap probability distribution and a typical overlap distribution, finding that these observables are not particularly helpful in distinguishing the replica symmetry breaking and the droplet pictures.
Effects of pressure and magnetic field on the reentrant superconductor Eu(Fe0.93Rh0.07)2As2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Löhle, A.; Baumgartner, A.; Zapf, S.; Dressel, M.; Jiao, W. H.; Cao, G. H.
2017-05-01
Electron-doped Eu (Fe0.93Rh0.07)2As2 has been systematically studied by high-pressure investigations of the magnetic and electrical transport properties in order to unravel the complex interplay of superconductivity and magnetism. The compound reveals an exceedingly broad reentrant transition to the superconducting state between Tc ,on=19.8 K and Tc ,0=5.2 K due to a canted A-type antiferromagnetic ordering of the Eu2 + moments at TN=16.6 K and a reentrant spin glass transition at TSG=14.1 K. At ambient pressure evidences for the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism could be observed, as well as a magnetic-field-induced enhancement of the zero-resistance temperature Tc ,0 up to 7.2 K with small magnetic fields applied parallel to the a b plane of the crystal. We attribute the field-induced-enhancement of superconductivity to the suppression of the ferromagnetic component of the Eu2 + moments along the c axis, which leads to a reduction of the orbital-pair-breaking effect. Application of hydrostatic pressure suppresses the superconducting state around 14 kbar along with a linear temperature dependence of the resistivity, implying that a non-Fermi liquid region is located at the boundary of the superconducting phase. At intermediate pressure, an additional feature in the resistivity curves is identified, which can be suppressed by external magnetic fields and competes with the superconducting phase. We suggest that the effect of negative pressure by the chemical Rh substitution in Eu (Fe0.93Rh0.07)2As2 is partially reversed, leading to a reactivation of the spin density wave.
Nature of the spin-glass phase in models with long-range interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wittmann, Matthew C.
Despite decades of effort, our understanding of low-temperature phase of spin glass models with short-range interactions remains incomplete. Replica symmetry breaking (RSB) theory, based on the solution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick mean-field model, predicts many pure states; meanwhile, competing theories of short-range systems, such as the droplet picture, predict a single pair of pure states related by time-reversal symmetry, analogously to the ferromagnet. Since RSB certainly holds for the mean-field (infinite-range) model, it is interesting to study short-range models in high dimensions to observe whether RSB also holds here; however, computer simulations of short-range models in high dimensions are difficult because the number of spins to equilibrate grows so rapidly with the linear size of the system. A relatively recent idea which has been fruitful is to instead study one-dimensional models with long-range (power-law) interactions, which are argued to have the same critical behavior as corresponding short-range models in high dimensions, but for which simulations for a range of sizes (crucial for finite-size scaling analysis) are feasible. For these one-dimensional long-range (1DLR) models, we fill in a previously unexplored region of parameter space where the interactions become sufficiently long-range that they must be rescaled with the system size to maintain the thermodynamic limit. We find strong evidence that detailed behavior of the 1DLR models everywhere in this "nonextensive regime" is identical to that of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, lending support to a recent conjecture. In an attempt to distinguish the RSB and droplet pictures, we study recently-proposed observables based on the statistics of individual disorder samples, rather than simply averaging over the disorder as is most frequently done in previous studies. We compare Monte Carlo results for 1DLR models which are proxies for short-range models in 3, 4, and 10 dimensions with
Baity-Jesi, Marco; Calore, Enrico; Cruz, Andres; Fernandez, Luis Antonio; Gil-Narvión, José Miguel; Gordillo-Guerrero, Antonio; Iñiguez, David; Maiorano, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Monforte-Garcia, Jorge; Muñoz Sudupe, Antonio; Navarro, Denis; Parisi, Giorgio; Perez-Gaviro, Sergio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Ruiz-Lorenzo, Juan Jesus; Schifano, Sebastiano Fabio; Seoane, Beatriz; Tarancón, Alfonso; Tripiccione, Raffaele; Yllanes, David
2017-02-21
We have performed a very accurate computation of the nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation ratio for the 3D Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass, by means of large-scale simulations on the special-purpose computers Janus and Janus II. This ratio (computed for finite times on very large, effectively infinite, systems) is compared with the equilibrium probability distribution of the spin overlap for finite sizes. Our main result is a quantitative statics-dynamics dictionary, which could allow the experimental exploration of important features of the spin-glass phase without requiring uncontrollable extrapolations to infinite times or system sizes.
Baity-Jesi, Marco; Calore, Enrico; Cruz, Andres; Fernandez, Luis Antonio; Gil-Narvión, José Miguel; Gordillo-Guerrero, Antonio; Iñiguez, David; Maiorano, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Monforte-Garcia, Jorge; Muñoz Sudupe, Antonio; Navarro, Denis; Parisi, Giorgio; Perez-Gaviro, Sergio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico; Ruiz-Lorenzo, Juan Jesus; Schifano, Sebastiano Fabio; Tarancón, Alfonso; Tripiccione, Raffaele; Yllanes, David
2017-01-01
We have performed a very accurate computation of the nonequilibrium fluctuation–dissipation ratio for the 3D Edwards–Anderson Ising spin glass, by means of large-scale simulations on the special-purpose computers Janus and Janus II. This ratio (computed for finite times on very large, effectively infinite, systems) is compared with the equilibrium probability distribution of the spin overlap for finite sizes. Our main result is a quantitative statics-dynamics dictionary, which could allow the experimental exploration of important features of the spin-glass phase without requiring uncontrollable extrapolations to infinite times or system sizes. PMID:28174274
Spin-glass model predicts metastable brain states that diminish in anesthesia.
Hudetz, Anthony G; Humphries, Colin J; Binder, Jeffrey R
2014-01-01
Patterns of resting state connectivity change dynamically and may represent modes of cognitive information processing. The diversity of connectivity patterns (global brain states) reflects the information capacity of the brain and determines the state of consciousness. In this work, computer simulation was used to explore the repertoire of global brain states as a function of cortical activation level. We implemented a modified spin glass model to describe UP/DOWN state transitions of neuronal populations at a mesoscopic scale based on resting state BOLD fMRI data. Resting state fMRI was recorded in 20 participants and mapped to 10,000 cortical regions (sites) defined on a group-aligned cortical surface map. Each site represented the population activity of a ~20 mm(2) area of the cortex. Cross-correlation matrices of the mapped BOLD time courses of the set of sites were calculated and averaged across subjects. In the model, each cortical site was allowed to interact with the 16 other sites that had the highest pair-wise correlation values. All sites stochastically transitioned between UP and DOWN states under the net influence of their 16 pairs. The probability of local state transitions was controlled by a single parameter T corresponding to the level of global cortical activation. To estimate the number of distinct global states, first we ran 10,000 simulations at T = 0. Simulations were started from random configurations that converged to one of several distinct patterns. Using hierarchical clustering, at 99% similarity, close to 300 distinct states were found. At intermediate T, metastable state configurations were formed suggesting critical behavior with a sharp increase in the number of metastable states at an optimal T. Both reduced activation (anesthesia, sleep) and increased activation (hyper-activation) moved the system away from equilibrium, presumably incompatible with conscious mentation. During equilibrium, the diversity of large-scale brain states
Response to a field of the D = 3 Ising spin glass with Janus and JanusII dedicated computers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seoane, Beatriz; Janus Collaboration Collaboration
Using the Janus dedicated computer, and its new generation JanusII, we study the linear response to a field of the Edwards-Anderson model for times that cover twelve orders of magnitude. The fluctuation-dissipation relations are investigated for several values of tw. We observe that the violations of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem can be directly related to the P (q) measured in equilibrium at finite sizes, although a simple statics-dynamics dictionary L <--> ξ (tw) is not enough to account for the behavior at large times. We show that the equivalence can be easily restored by taking into account the growth of ξ (t +tw) . Interestingly, experimental measurements of the spin glass correlation length rely precisely on the response of a spin glass to a field, although a direct relation between the measured object and the real ξ has never been established. In this work, we mimic the experimental protocol with Janus data, which lets us relate the experimental ξ with the length extracted from the spatial correlation function. These results allow us for the first time to make a quantitative comparison between experiments and simulations, finding a surprising good agreement with measurements in superspin glasses. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 654971, the ERC grant CRIPHERASY (no. 247328) and from the MINECO(Spain) (No. FIS2012-35719-C02).
Yamahara, H.; Seki, M.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Nasu, H.; Tabata, H.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.
2015-08-14
Carrier-type control of spin-glass (cluster spin-glass) is studied in order to engineer basic magnetic semiconductor elements using the memory functions of spin-glass. A key of carrier-polarity control in magnetite is the valence engineering between Fe(II) and Fe(III) that is achieved by Ti(IV) substitution. Single phases of (001)-oriented Fe{sub 3−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} thin films have been obtained on spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Thermoelectric power measurements reveal that Ti-rich films (x = 0.8) show p-type conduction, while Ti-poor films (x = 0.6–0.75) show n-type conduction. The systematic Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) followed by Ti(IV) substitution in the octahedral sublattice is confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectra. All of the Fe{sub 3−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 4} films (x = 0.6–0.8) exhibit ferrimagnetism above room temperature. Next, the spin-glass behaviors of Ti-rich Fe{sub 2.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 4} film are studied, since this magnetically diluted system is expected to exhibit the spin-glass behaviors. The DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements for the Ti-rich Fe{sub 2.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 4} film reveal the presence of the spin glass phase. Thermal- and magnetic-field-history memory effects are observed and are attributed to the long time-decay nature of remanent magnetization. The detailed analysis of the time-dependent thermoremanent magnetization reveals the presence of the cluster spin glass state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yllanes, David
2013-03-01
Spin glasses are a longstanding model for the sluggish dynamics that appears at the glass transition. They enjoy a privileged status in this context, as they provide the simplest model system both for theoretical and experimental studies of glassy dynamics. However, in spite of forty years of intensive investigation, spin glasses still pose a formidable challenge to theoretical, computational and experimental physics. The main difficulty lies in their incredibly slow dynamics. A recent breakthrough has been made possible by our custom-built computer, Janus, designed and built in a collaboration formed by five universities in Spain and Italy. By employing a purpose-driven architecture, capable of fully exploiting the parallelization possibilities intrinsic to these simulations, Janus outperforms conventional computers by several orders of magnitude. After a brief introduction to spin glasses, the talk will focus on the new physics unearthed by Janus. In particular, we recall our numerical study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of the Edwards-Anderson Ising Spin Glass, for a time that spans eleven orders of magnitude, thus approaching the experimentally relevant scale (i.e. seconds). We have also studied the equilibrium properties of the spin-glass phase, with an emphasis on the quantitative matching between non-equilibrium and equilibrium correlation functions, through a time-length dictionary. Last but not least, we have clarified the existence of a glass transition in the presence of a magnetic field for a finite-range spin glass (the so-called de Almeida-Thouless line). We will finally mention some of the currently ongoing work of the collaboration, such as the characterization of the non-equilibrium dynamics in a magnetic field and the existence of a statics-dynamics dictionary in these conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Edmund; Mydosh, J. A.
2012-09-01
We summarize the development of strongly correlated electron physics (SCEP) stimu-lated from the 1930's when a strange upturn was found in the electrical resistivity at low temper-atures. It was only in 1965 that this effect was explained as a many-body, spin-flip, scattering of electrons from a magnetic impurity, i.e., the Kondo effect. This marked the beginning of SCEP. When the concentration of these impurities is increased so that they can randomly interact we have the spin glasses and their unconventional, yet classical phase transition. Spin glass physics formed the background know-how for the combination of two ferromagnetic layers separated by a non-magnetic spacer which generated the the giant magnetic resistance and it many applications in com-puter hardware. By fabricating a lattice of the magnetic species, viz., an intermetallic compound based upon certain rare-earth and actinide elements, we then create a heavy Fermi liquid that can support most unusual ground-state behavior, e.g., unconventional superconductivity. This leads to the mysterious and still unexplained "hidden order" phase transition of URu2Si2. Finally, since the heavy fermions commonly exhibit zero temperature phase transitions, aka, quantum phase transitions when tuned with pressure, magnetic field or doping, we are at the summit of today's SCEP - the prime topic of 2012 condensed matter physics.
Low temperature FMR linewidth in reentrant magnets
Belozorov, D.P.; Vertiy, A.A.; Golik, A.V.; Tarapov, S.I.
1994-03-01
The FMR linewidth is studied experimentally for reentrant magnets (Fe{sub x}Ni{sub 100{minus}x}){sub 77}B{sub 13}Si{sub 10} in the temperature interval 0.3K < T < 200K, for frequencies 68 GHz < {h_bar}{omega}/kT < 78 GHz. The low temperature interval down to T {approx} 0.3K is thoroughly explored. The linewidth behavior agrees qualitatively with the theoretical model.
Asymmetric electroresistance of cluster glass state in manganites
Lourembam, James; Lin, Weinan; Ding, Junfeng; Bera, Ashok; Wu, Tom
2014-03-31
We report the electrostatic modulation of transport in strained Pr{sub 0.65}(Ca{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}){sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} by gating with ionic liquid in electric double layer transistors (EDLT). In such manganite films with strong phase separation, a cluster glass magnetic state emerges at low temperatures with a spin freezing temperature of about 99 K, which is accompanied by the reentrant insulating state with high resistance below 30 K. In the EDLT, we observe bipolar and asymmetric modulation of the channel resistance, as well as an enhanced electroresistance up to 200% at positive gate bias. Our results provide insights on the carrier-density-dependent correlated electron physics of cluster glass systems.
Microwave Reentrant Cavities for Quantum Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carvalho, Natalia C.; Bourhill, Jeremy; Creedon, Daniel; Goryachev, Maxim; Galliou, Serge; Tobar, Michael
A microwave reentrant cavity is a device able to provide a very sensitive high-Q microwave mode. Its design can be highly advantageous for electromechanical devices and quantum measurements. In this sense, a tuneable device based on a narrow-gap superconducting reentrant cavity is under development. The resonant frequency is able to be fine-tuned over a range larger than 500 MHz at 10 mK with an electrical Q-factor of 105. Such a cavity could possibly accommodate a transmon qubit to control and manipulate its quantum state. We are also working on the investigation of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators in microwave reentrant cavities. BAW resonators offer a promising way to process quantum information through the coupling between microwaves and acoustic phonons. Thus, we are developing a device able to excite phonons through non-linearities and the piezoelectricity of the plano-convex quartz crystal. We will detail our experiments that work towards cooling gram scale phonon resonances to the quantum ground state. Funded by ARC Grant No. CE110001013 (Australia) and National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (Brazil).
Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe_{2}O_{3} nanoparticles
Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan
2015-10-27
Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Said, Moh'd. Rida
1990-01-01
Standard magnetization measurements on Tb _{0.15}Y_{0.85 }Zn, Tb_{x} Y_{1-x}Ag, and Gd_{x}Y _{1-x}Ag for x <= 0.5 show that these compounds exhibit spin-glass behavior, as evidenced by the irreversibility of the magnetization (M) versus temperature (T) curves and by the thermoremanence (TRM) induced by field cooling. In the case of Tb_{x}Y _{1-x}Ag, spin -glass ordering coexists with the long-range antiferromagnetic order seen by neutron diffraction, which presumably also exists in Gd_{x}Y _{1-x}Ag. In the case of Tb_{0.15}Y _{0.85}Zn, our magnetization measurements show no spontaneous moment and thus the absence of the ferromagnetic order that exists in undiluted TbZn. Detailed measurements of the TRM versus T for different fields applied during cooling (H_{cool}), produce isotherms of TRM versus H_{cool}, which are found to scale to a universal curve for each sample. Resistivity measurements (rho) as a function of temperature were performed on Tb _{x}Y_ {1-x}Ag and Gd_ {x}Y_{1-x}Ag, from which we found that the residual resistivity at T(<
Experimental evidence of spin glass and exchange bias behavior in sputtered grown α-MnO2 nanorods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ashwani; Sanger, Amit; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Mohit; Chandra, Ramesh
2017-07-01
Here, we present a single-step process to synthesize the α-MnO2 nanorods forest using reactive DC magnetron sputtering for the application of magnetic memories. The structural and morphological properties of the α-MnO2 nanorods were systematically studied using numerous analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic measurements suggest that the α-MnO2 nanorods exhibit spin glass and exchange bias behaviour at low temperature. Such low temperature behaviour is explained by the core-shell type structure of nanorods. Antiferromagnetic core and shell of uncompensated ferromagnetic spins leads to the formation of antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM/FM) interfaces, which originates exchange bias in the sample.
Maiti, R. P. Mitra, M. K.; Chakravorty, Dipankar
2014-04-24
Sm{sub 2}CoMnO{sub 6} samples with particle sizes ∼70 nm were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. Field cooled magnetization study exhibited a ferromagnetic transition with a Curie temperature at ∼139K. This was attributed to ferromagnetic Co{sup 2+}−O−Mn{sup 4+} superexchange interaction. The results of magnetic relaxation measurements could be fitted to a stretched exponential function indicating the presence of both ferromagnetic and spin glass components in the system.
Berg, Bernd A; Billoire, Alain; Janke, Wolfhard
2002-04-01
Recently, it has been conjectured that the statistics of extremes is of relevance for a large class of correlated systems. For certain probability densities this predicts the characteristic large x falloff behavior f(x) approximately exp(-ae(x)), a>0. Using a multicanonical Monte Carlo technique, we have measured the Parisi overlap distribution P(q) for the three-dimensional Edward-Anderson Ising spin glass at and below the critical temperature We find that a probability distribution related to extreme-order statistics gives an excellent description of P(q) over about 80 orders of magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hérisson, D.; Ocio, M.
2004-08-01
We report new experimental results obtained on the insulating spin glass CdCr2-2 x In2 x S4. Our experimental setup allows a quantitative comparison between the thermo-remanent magnetisation and the autocorrelation of spontaneous fluctuations of magnetisation, yielding a complete determination of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. The dynamics can be studied both in the quasi-equilibrium regime, where the fluctuation-dissipation theorem holds, and in the deeply ageing regime. The limit of separation of time-scales, as used in analytical calculations, can be approached by use of a scaling procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Temesvári, T.
2017-07-01
The asymptotical behavior of physical quantities, like the order parameter, the replicon, and longitudinal masses, is studied around the zero-field spin-glass transition point when a small external magnetic field is applied. An effective field theory to model this asymptotics contains a small perturbation in its Lagrangian which breaks the zero-field symmetry. A first-order renormalization group supplemented by perturbational results provides the scaling functions. The perturbative zero of the scaling function for the replicon mass defines a generic Almeida-Thouless surface stemming from the zero-field fixed point.
The Almeida-Thouless line in BiFeO(3): is bismuth ferrite a mean field spin glass?
Singh, Manoj K; Katiyar, Ram S; Prellier, W; Scott, J F
2009-01-28
Low-temperature magnetic properties of epitaxial BiFeO(3) (BFO) thin films grown on (111) SrTiO(3) substrates have been studied. Zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization curves show a large discrepancy beginning at a characteristic temperature T(f) that is dependent on the magnetic field strength. T(f)(H) varies according to the well known de Almeida-Thouless line [Formula: see text] suggesting an acentric long-range spin-glass behavior and mean field system.
Cluster-spin-glass behavior in layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Fei; Bie, Xiaofei; Chen, Yan; Wei, Yingjin; Liu, Lina; Wang, Chunzhong; Zou, Guangtian; Chen, Gang
2009-09-01
Layered LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 has been synthesized by citrate precursor method. Its magnetic properties are investigated by dc magnetization. The high-temperature susceptibility curve follows the Curie-Weiss law with Curie and Weiss constant 1.435(2) emu K/mol Oe and -112(4) K, respectively, larger than those values reported in previous researches, which possibly results from the difference in the synthesis process and sintered temperature. Our dc susceptibility differs from that of the homogeneous spin glass in that below Tirr field cooled (FC) curve continues to rise, while the FC curve is almost flat for homogeneous spin glass. Together with the de Almeida-Thouless line analysis, cluster spin glass is suggested to be the ground state of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2. Frustration parameter |θ|/Tf in this system is estimated to be about four, lower than the value that frustration effect is strong enough to give rise to spin glass state. This fact indicates that the cluster-spin-glass results from the short-range structure disorder rather than the geometrical frustration.
Spin glass freezing and superconductivity in YBa2(Cu(1-x)Fe(x))3O7 alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mirebeau, I.; Hennion, M.; Dianoux, J.; Caignaert, V.; Phillips, T. E.; Moorjani, K.
1991-01-01
The dynamics were studied of the iron spins in superconducting YBa2(Cu(0.94)Fe(0.06))3O7 by neutron time of flight measurements. Two samples were studied with slightly different characteristics, as shown by resistivity and neutron diffraction measurements. The same dynamical anomalies are observed by neutrons in both samples. Differences appear qualitative but not quantitative. In the whole temperature range, the q-dependence of the magnetic intensity mainly reflects the magnetic form factor of iron which shows that the iron spins are almost uncorrelated. The elastic and quasielastic intensities strongly vary with temperature. A spin glass like freezing is revealed at low temperature by a sharp decrease of the quasielastic intensity, an increase of the 'elastic' or resolution limited intensity and a minimum in the quasielastic width. The freezing temperature (T sub f - 18 K) corresponds to that already determined by a magnetic splitting in Mossbauer experiments. Above T sub f, the relaxation of the iron spins in the paramagnetic state is modified by the occurrence of superconductivity. An increase was observed of the quasielastic intensity and of the quasielastic width at the superconducting transition.
Aspelmeier, T; Wang, Wenlong; Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2016-08-01
The one-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with power-law long-range interactions is a useful proxy model for studying spin glasses in higher space dimensions and for finding the dimension at which the spin-glass state changes from having broken replica symmetry to that of droplet behavior. To this end we have calculated the exponent that describes the difference in free energy between periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. Numerical work is done to support some of the assumptions made in the calculations and to determine the behavior of the interface free-energy exponent of the power law of the interactions. Our numerical results for the interface free-energy exponent are badly affected by finite-size problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspelmeier, T.; Wang, Wenlong; Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2016-08-01
The one-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with power-law long-range interactions is a useful proxy model for studying spin glasses in higher space dimensions and for finding the dimension at which the spin-glass state changes from having broken replica symmetry to that of droplet behavior. To this end we have calculated the exponent that describes the difference in free energy between periodic and antiperiodic boundary conditions. Numerical work is done to support some of the assumptions made in the calculations and to determine the behavior of the interface free-energy exponent of the power law of the interactions. Our numerical results for the interface free-energy exponent are badly affected by finite-size problems.
Spin-glass behavior and anomalous magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Te epilayer
Liu, Jindong; Cheng, Xiaomin Tong, Fei; Miao, Xiangshui
2014-07-28
We report that the Ge{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Te thin film exhibits spin-glass behavior when the Fe concentration increases to 0.08. A large bifurcation between the zero-field cooling and field cooling temperature-dependent magnetization was observed. The hysteresis loops after zero-field cooling and field cooling show an exchange bias effect. A time-dependent thermoremanent magnetization follows power-law decay, which confirms the existence of spin glass. The anomalous magnetotranport properties present a further evidence for spin-glass behavior and give a freezing temperature T{sub g} ∼ 5 K in the Ge{sub 0.92}Fe{sub 0.08}Te thin film.
Spin glass and semiconducting behavior in one-dimensional BaFe2-dSe3 (d~2) crystals
Saparov, Bayrammurad I; Calder, Stuart A; Sipos, Balazs; Cao, Huibo; Chi, Songxue; Singh, David J; Christianson, Andrew D; Lumsden, Mark D; Sefat, A. S.
2011-01-01
We investigate the physical properties and electronic structure of BaFe{sub 1.79(2)}Se{sub 3} crystals, which were grown out of tellurium flux. The crystal structure of the compound, an iron-deficient derivative of the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type, is built upon edge-shared FeSe{sub 4} tetrahedra fused into double chains. The semiconducting BaFe{sub 1.79(2)}Se{sub 3} ({rho}{sub 295K} = 0.18 {Omega} {center_dot} cm and E{sub g} = 0.30 eV) does not order magnetically; however, there is evidence for short-range magnetic correlations of spin glass type (T{sub f} {approx} 50 K) in magnetization, heat capacity, and neutron diffraction results. A one-third substitution of selenium with sulfur leads to a slightly higher electrical conductivity ({rho}{sub 295K } = 0.11 {Omega} {center_dot} cm and E{sub g} = 0.22 eV) and a lower spin glass freezing temperature (T{sub f} {approx} 15 K), corroborating with higher electrical conductivity reported for BaFe{sub 2}S{sub 3}. According to the electronic structure calculations, BaFe{sub 2}Se{sub 3} can be considered as a one-dimensional ladder structure with a weak interchain coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machta, Jonathan; Wang, Wenlong; Katzgraber, Helmut
2015-03-01
A theoretical description of the low-temperature phase of short-range spin glasses has remained elusive for decades. It is not known if there is a single pair of pure states as predicted by the droplet model, or infinitely many pure states, as predicted by mean field theory. Here we study the three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass in thermal boundary conditions using population annealing Monte Carlo. In thermal boundary conditions all eight combinations of periodic vs antiperiodic boundary conditions in the three spatial directions appear in the ensemble with their respective Boltzmann weights, thus minimizing finite-size corrections due to domain walls. From the relative weighting of the eight boundary conditions for each disorder instance a sample stiffness is defined, and its typical value is shown to grow with system size according to a stiffness exponent. An extrapolation to the large-system-size limit is consistent with a single pair of pure states in every volume but incompatible with the mean field, replica symmetry breaking picture. Supported in part by NSF DMR-1151387 and DMR-1208046.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Sheng; Tam, Ka-Ming; Fang, Ye; Ramanujam, J.; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark
2015-03-01
We study the Edwards-Anderson model on a simple cubic lattice with a finite constant external field using a Monte Carlo simulation code, which employs graphics processing units to dramatically speedup the simulation. Conventional indicators, such as the Binder ratio and correlation length, do not show any signs of a phase transition. We also studied R12, or the ratio of spin glass susceptibilities at finite wavenumbers, and show it is quite noisy that a systematic analysis cannot come to clear conclusion. This is largely due to the fact that the susceptibilities follow a broad, fat-tailed distribution, and the average is possibly dominated by rare events. Therefore we propose to study the typical value of these parameters by taking the geometric average over different disorder realizations, and compare it with the linear average measurements. We argue that the typical value should be also studied in additional to conventional linear average value, to provide another perspective for the study of phase transition in spin glasses. This work is sponsored by the NSF EPSCoR Cooperative Agreement No. EPS-1003897 with additional support from the Louisiana Board of Regents.
Strong magnetic frustration and anti-site disorder causing spin-glass behavior in honeycomb Li2RhO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Stoll, Hermann; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu
2015-10-01
With large spin-orbit coupling, the electron configuration in d-metal oxides is prone to highly anisotropic exchange interactions and exotic magnetic properties. In 5d5 iridates, given the existing variety of crystal structures, the magnetic anisotropy can be tuned from antisymmetric to symmetric Kitaev-type, with interaction strengths that outsize the isotropic terms. By many-body electronic-structure calculations we here address the nature of the magnetic exchange and the intriguing spin-glass behavior of Li2RhO3, a 4d5 honeycomb oxide. For pristine crystals without Rh-Li site inversion, we predict a dimerized ground state as in the isostructural 5d5 iridate Li2IrO3, with triplet spin dimers effectively placed on a frustrated triangular lattice. With Rh-Li anti-site disorder, we explain the observed spin-glass phase as a superposition of different, nearly degenerate symmetry-broken configurations.
Strong magnetic frustration and anti-site disorder causing spin-glass behavior in honeycomb Li2RhO3.
Katukuri, Vamshi M; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Stoll, Hermann; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu
2015-10-05
With large spin-orbit coupling, the electron configuration in d-metal oxides is prone to highly anisotropic exchange interactions and exotic magnetic properties. In 5d(5) iridates, given the existing variety of crystal structures, the magnetic anisotropy can be tuned from antisymmetric to symmetric Kitaev-type, with interaction strengths that outsize the isotropic terms. By many-body electronic-structure calculations we here address the nature of the magnetic exchange and the intriguing spin-glass behavior of Li2RhO3, a 4d(5) honeycomb oxide. For pristine crystals without Rh-Li site inversion, we predict a dimerized ground state as in the isostructural 5d(5) iridate Li2IrO3, with triplet spin dimers effectively placed on a frustrated triangular lattice. With Rh-Li anti-site disorder, we explain the observed spin-glass phase as a superposition of different, nearly degenerate symmetry-broken configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-Morelo, D. J.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.; Romá, F.
2012-02-01
We study the two-dimensional Edwards-Anderson spin-glass model using a parallel tempering Monte Carlo algorithm. The ground-state energy and entropy are calculated for different bond distributions. In particular, the entropy is obtained by using a thermodynamic integration technique and an appropriate reference state, which is determined with the method of high-temperature expansion. This strategy provides accurate values of this quantity for finite-size lattices. By extrapolating to the thermodynamic limit, the ground-state energy and entropy of the different versions of the spin-glass model are determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elliott, Jeffrey Holden
This thesis reports on three separate investigations in solid state physics. The first is electron paramagnetic resonance in the spin glass Ag:Mn. EPR measurements were performed at two resonance frequencies, concentrating on temperatures above the glass transition temperature. The measured linewidth appears to diverge at T(,g) for low resonance frequencies. This is the first observation of a sharp feature in the EPR behavior of spin glasses at the magnetic susceptibility transition temperature. These results will be compared with recently proposed phenomenological and microscopic theories. The second topic reported in this thesis is the superconducting transition of thin aluminum films. These films were investigated as a function of grain size and thickness. The transition temperature was enhanced over the bulk value, in agreement with many previous investigations of granular aluminum. This study differs from most in the sample preparation--evaporation, photolithography and anodization. This allows a better understanding of the sample geometry on the level of a grain size, which in turn allows better comparison to the many theories proposed to explain the enhancement. The third topic reported in this thesis is an extension of the variable rate hopping theory applied in one dimension to N-ME-Qn(TCNQ)(,2). This model is a classical one used to explain both the DC and AC electrical conductivity of organic conductors. The temperature dependence of the model does not agree with experiment at low temperatures. Tunneling has been added to the hopping. This increases the conductivity at low temperatures, and results in excellent agreement with the experimental conductivity over the measured temperature range. The model also predicts that the frequency dependence of the conductivity varies as (omega)(' 1/2) at low frequencies. This long time tail prediction agrees with the measured dielectric constant of N-Me-iso-Qn(TCNQ)(,2).
Wang, Shiming; Xiong, Xingliang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Guang; Chen, Mengmeng
2013-06-01
A stable, uniform, easily implemented, LC-based chemical and biological sensor substrate for orientations of liquid crystals (LCs) for a long-term is urgently needed for medical applications of the sensors. We proposed a use of spin-coating of copper perchlorate (Cu(ClO4)2), with five different concentrations(0-100mmol/L), directly on glass slides for fabricating a layer of chemically-sensitive copper ions. Observing the transmitted light with a polarized microscope, we found the luminosity of the light propagated through sensors deposited with copper ions started to weaken gradually after a certain time. The higher was the concentration of copper ions covered on the glass substrates of the sensors, the faster the weakening occurred, and the less time was needed for transmitted light to turn completely dark. But there was no change in luminosity of the transmitted light for the sensors without Cu(ClO4)2 spin-coating even after stored at room temperature (25 degrees C) for a whole day. When the Cu(ClO4)2 deposited sensors were stored within a drying oven at room temperature (25 degrees C) for 2 months, it was found that there vas almost no change in luminosity of the transmitted lights. The results showed that all the thin films of LC on glass slides functionalized with Cu(ClO4)2 could keep homeotropic and stable orientation for a long time; the concentration of Cu (ClO4)2I has an influence on the orientation response speed of LC from planar to perpendicular orientation.
Long-Range Quantum Ising Spin Glasses at T=0: Gapless Collective Excitations and Universality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreanov, A.; Müller, M.
2012-10-01
We solve the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field Γ deep in its quantum glass phase at zero temperature. We show that the glass phase is critical everywhere, exhibiting collective excitations with a gapless Ohmic spectral function. Using an effective potential approach, we interpret the latter as arising from disordered collective excitations behaving like weakly coupled, underdamped oscillators. For a small transverse field Γ, the low-frequency spectrum takes a form independent of the fluctuation strength Γ.
Long-range quantum Ising spin glasses at t=0: gapless collective excitations and universality.
Andreanov, A; Müller, M
2012-10-26
We solve the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in a transverse field Γ deep in its quantum glass phase at zero temperature. We show that the glass phase is critical everywhere, exhibiting collective excitations with a gapless Ohmic spectral function. Using an effective potential approach, we interpret the latter as arising from disordered collective excitations behaving like weakly coupled, underdamped oscillators. For a small transverse field Γ, the low-frequency spectrum takes a form independent of the fluctuation strength Γ.
Implosion of indirectly driven reentrant cone shell target
R.B. Stephens; S.P. Hatchett; R.E. Turner; K.A. Tanaka; R. Kodama
2003-10-31
In an x-ray driven reentrant cone fast ignition target the x-ray spectrum contains a high energy component that casuses preheating of the reentrant cone and mixing of the gold into the collapsing shell. Direct laser drive might avoid this problem.
Molecular Dynamics in a Liquid Crystal with Reentrant Mesophases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebastião, P. J.; Ribeiro, A. C.; Nguyen, H. T.; Noack, F.
1995-11-01
It is well known that liquid crystalline compounds with a cyano terminal group can present peculiar polymorphisms in particular different types of smectic A mesophases and a reentrant behaviour for both nematic and smectic A mesophases. In this work we study by proton NMR relaxation the influence of these features on the molecular dynamics of the compound 4-cyanobenzoate-4'-octylbenzoyloxyphenyl (DB8CN Sym) in its nematic (N), partial bilayer smectic A (SAd), reentrant nematic (Nre) and reentrant smectic A (SA1) mesophases. Standard and fast field-cycling techniques were used for our spin-lattice relaxation's study over a broad frequency range of 6 decades (200 Hz up to 300 MHz). It was found that the molecular dynamics in the nematic mesophases is rather different from the molecular dynamics in the smectic A mesophases. However, the reentrant aspect present in both nematic and smectic A states is not associated to a major difference on the molecular dynamics of the nematic and reentrant nematic or smectic and reentrant smectic A mesophases. Order director fluctuations and rotations/reorientations are the most important relaxation mechanisms in the nematic mesophases in the lower and higher frequency limits, respectively, while self-diffusion has a very small contribution to the overall relaxation. As for the smectic A mesophases, self-diffusion and rotations/reorientations are the predominant relaxation mechanisms for frequencies above 20 kHz. The collective motions, which for these mesophases have to be associated with layer undulations with the frequency law T_1sim ν, are only important to the spin-lattice relaxation on the low part of the frequency spectrum (ν<10 kHz). The inclusion in the relaxation study of a contribution from the cross-relaxation between protons and nitrogen nuclei improves the quality of the 1/T_1 data fits in both kinds of mesophases. The combined study of the molecular dynamics in the N, SAd, Nre and SA1 mesophases of DB8CN Sym reveals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaul, S. N.; Messala, Umasankar
2016-03-01
Weak itinerant-electron ferromagnet Ni3Al is driven to magnetic instability (quantum critical point, QCP, where the long-range ferromagnetic order of the bulk ceases to exist) by reducing the average crystallite size to d=50 nm. 'Zero-field' (H=0) linear and nonlinear ac-susceptibilities, measured on Ni3Al nanoparticle aggregates, with d=50 nm (S1) and d=5 nm (S2), provide strong evidence for two spin glass (SG)-like thermodynamic phase transitions: one at Ti(H = 0) ≃ 30 K (Ti† (H = 0) ≃ 230 K) and the other at a lower temperature Tp(H = 0) ≃ 8 K (Th(H = 0) ≃ 52 K) in S1 (S2). 'In-field' (H ≠ 0) linear ac-susceptibility and dc magnetization demonstrate that the thermodynamic nature of these transitions is preserved in finite fields. The presently determined H-T phase diagrams for the samples S1 and S2 are compared with those predicted by the Kotliar-Sompolinsky and Gabay-Toulouse mean-field models and Monte Carlo simulations, based on the chirality-driven spin glass (SG) ordering scenario, for a three-dimensional nearest-neighbor Heisenberg SG system with or without weak random anisotropy. Such a detailed comparison permits us to unambiguously identify various 'zero-field' and 'in-field' SG phase transitions as: (i) the simultaneous paramagnetic (PM)-chiral glass (CG) and PM-SG phase transitions at Ti(H), (ii) the PM-CG transition at Ti† (H), (iii) the replica symmetry-breaking SG transition at Tp(H), and (iv) the continuous spin-rotation symmetry-breaking SG transition at Th(H). In the presence of random anisotropy, magnetization fails to saturate even at 90 kOe in S1 whereas negligibly small anisotropy allows even fields as weak as 1 kOe to saturate magnetization and induce ferromagnetism in S2. Due to the proximity to CG/SG-QCP, magnetization and susceptibility both exhibit non-Fermi liquid behavior over a wide range at low temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arai, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshikazu; Saito, Norio; Takei, Humihiko
1985-02-01
The spin correlations in a cluster type spin glass of 90FeTiO3-10Fe2O3 have been studied by neutron small and high angle scattering from a single crystal. The magnetic correlations of the moments parallel and perpendicular to the c axis, < S\\mbi{q}||S\\mbi{-q}||> and < S\\mbi{q}\\botS\\mbi{-q}\\bot> have been separately determined and the spin configuration inside the cluster as well as the cluster configuration have been determined. The spin glass transition temperature has been found to correspond to the temperature where the spin axis inside the cluster aligns in the c axis and the antiferromagnetic modulation starts to occur inside the cluster.
The local and long-range structural order of the spin-glass pyrochlore, Tb2Mo2O7
Ehlers, Georg; Jiang, Yu; Booth, Corwin H; Greedan, John E; Gardner, Jason; Huq, Ashfia
2011-01-01
To understand the origin of the spin-glass state in molybdate pyrochlores, the structure of Tb2Mo2O7 is investigated using two techniques: the long-range lattice structure was measured using neutron powder diffraction (NPD), and the local structure information was obtained from extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. While the long-range structure appears well ordered, apart from some enhanced mean-squared site displacements, the local structure measurements indicate nearest-neighbor disorder exists, similar to that found in the related spinglass pyrochlore, Y2Mo2O7. Although the freezing temperature in Tb2Mo2O7, 25 K, is slightly higher than in Y2Mo2O7, 22 K, the degree of local bond disorder is actually less in Tb2Mo2O7. This apparaent contradiction is considered in light of the interactions involved in the freezing process.
Roy, Anupam; Guchhait, Samaresh; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Rai, Amritesh; Banerjee, Sanjay K
2015-04-28
Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), vibrating sample magnetometry, and other physical property measurements are used to investigate the structure, morphology, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of (001)-oriented Cr2Te3 thin films grown on Al2O3(0001) and Si(111)-(7×7) surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy. Streaky RHEED patterns indicate flat smooth film growth on both substrates. STM studies show the hexagonal arrangements of surface atoms. Determination of the lattice parameter from the atomically resolved STM image is consistent with the bulk crystal structures. Magnetic measurements show the film is ferromagnetic, having a Curie temperature of about 180 K, and a spin glass-like behavior was observed below 35 K. Magnetotransport measurements show the metallic nature of the film with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy along the c-axis.
Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of spin-glass material DyNi0.67Si1.34
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, X.; Mudryk, Y.; Pathak, A. K.; Feng, W.; Pecharsky, V. K.
2017-08-01
Structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of DyNi0.67Si1.34 were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization measurements. X-ray powder diffraction pattern shows that DyNi0.67Si1.34 crystallizes in the AlB2-type hexagonal structure (space group: P6/mmm, No. 191, a = b = 3.9873(9) Å, and c = 3.9733(1) Å). The compound is a spin-glass with the freezing temperature TG = 6.2 K. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm magnetic frustration in DyNi0.67Si1.34. The maximum value of the magnetic entropy change determined from M(H) data is -16.1 J/kg K at 10.5 K for a field change of 70 kOe.
Insulating and metallic spin glass in Ni-doped KxFe2-ySe2 single crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Wang, Kefeng; Lei, Hechang; Lazarevic, N.; Warren, J. B.; Bozin, E. S.; Popovic, Z. V.; Petrovic, C.
2015-05-01
We report electron doping effects by Ni in KxFe2-δ -yNiySe2(0.06 ≤y ≤1.44 ) single-crystal alloys. A rich ground-state phase diagram is observed. A small amount of Ni (˜4 %) suppressed superconductivity below 1.8 K, inducing insulating spin-glass magnetic ground state for higher Ni content. With further Ni substitution, metallic resistivity is restored. For high Ni concentration in the lattice the unit cell symmetry is high symmetry I 4 /m m m with no phase separation whereas both I 4 /m +I 4 /m m m space groups were detected in the phase separated crystals when concentration of Ni < Fe. The absence of superconductivity coincides with the absence of crystalline Fe vacancy order.
Spin-glass transition in Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with Ni{sub 3}C − type structure
Fujieda, S.; Kuboniwa, T.; Shinoda, K.; Suzuki, S.; Echigoya, J.
2016-05-15
Hexagonal shaped nanoparticles about 60 nm in size were successfully synthesized in tetraethylene glycol solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone. By the analysis of the electron diffraction pattern, these were identified as a single crystal of Ni carbide with Ni{sub 3}C − type structure. Their magnetization curve at 5 K was not completely saturated under a magnetic field of 5 T. The thermomagnetization curves after zero-field cooling and after field cooling exhibited the magnetic cooling effect at low temperatures. Furthermore, the 2nd order nonlinear term of AC magnetic susceptibility exhibited a negative divergence at about 17 K. It is concluded that Ni carbide single crystal nanoparticles with the Ni{sub 3}C − type structure exhibit spin-glass transition at low temperatures.
Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of spin-glass material DyNi0.67Si1.34
Chen, X.; Mudryk, Y.; Pathak, A. K.; ...
2017-04-18
Structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of DyNi0.67Si1.34 were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization measurements. X-ray powder diffraction pattern shows that DyNi0.67Si1.34 crystallizes in the AlB2-type hexagonal structure (space group: P6/mmm, No. 191, a = b = 3.9873(9) Å, and c = 3.9733(1) Å). The compound is a spin-glass with the freezing temperature TG = 6.2 K. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm magnetic frustration in DyNi0.67Si1.34. Furthermore, the maximum value of the magnetic entropy change determined from M(H) data is –16.1 J/kg K at 10.5 K for a field change of 70 kOe.
Spin glass behavior in the Dy{sub 3-x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} (0≤x≤1) system
Gomez-Garcia, J. Francisco; Escudero, Roberto; Tavizon, Gustavo
2014-09-15
Several x-compositions of the polycrystalline Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} system, crystallizing in the weberite-type structure, were synthesized and structurally characterized using Rietveld refinements based on X-ray diffraction data. In previous magnetic characterization of Dy{sub 3}TaO{sub 7} (x=0), with the same crystal structure, an antiferromagnetic transition at T=2.3 K has been assigned to this compound. On the basis of DC and AC magnetic susceptibilities analyses, we show in this work that all compounds in the range of 0≤x≤1.0 exhibit a spin glass behavior. The nature of the spin glass behavior in Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7}, can be attributed to the highly frustrated antiferromagnetic interaction of the Dy{sup 3+} sublattice and to the Dy{sup 3+}–Dy{sup 3+} distorted tetrahedra array in the weberite-type structure of this system. By fitting AC susceptibility data, using dynamical scaling theory equations, we conclude that a cluster spin glass is present in Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} in the low temperature range. Depending on the x-composition, T{sub g}∼2.2–3.2 K. In the range 15–300 K the system obeys a Curie–Weiss magnetic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Weberite-type crystal structure of the Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} compounds. In this structure the magnetic sublattice is formed by Dy{sup 3+} cations in an arrangement of distorted tetrahedra at the second-nearest neighbor site; this arrangement suggests geometric frustration that leads to a spin glass behavior. - Highlights: • Spin glass of Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} is associated to highly frustrated AFM interaction. • Quasi-one-dimensional feature of the crystal structure. • Suggest the existence of a cluster spin glass in Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7}. • Dy{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}TaO{sub 7} system (x=0.33, 0.66, and 1.0) also display spin glass behavior.
Kumar, S.; Singh, K.; Miclau, M.; Simon, Ch.; Martin, C.; Maignan, A.
2013-07-15
The change from antiferromagnetism induced ferroelectricity to spin glass ferroelectric relaxor has been studied along the CuCr{sub 1−x}V{sub x}O{sub 2} (0≤x≤0.5) solid solution of polycrystalline samples. As x increases from CuCrO{sub 2} (x=0) to CuCr{sub 0.82}V{sub 0.18}O{sub 2}, it is found that the Néel temperature decreases from ∼24 K down to ∼13 K. This progressive weakening of the antiferromagnetism of CuCrO{sub 2} induces a rapid decrease of the spin induced ferroelectricity with polarization values going from ∼44 μC/m{sup 2} down to ∼1.5 μC/m{sup 2} for x=0.04 and x=0.08, respectively. Beyond x=0.18 (0.20≤x≤0.50), ac-magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements evidence a spin glass state while dielectric permittivity and polarization measurements point towards a relaxor behaviour. This shows that competing magnetic interactions in delafossites are an efficient way to transform a spin induced magnetoelectric into a multiglass (spin and dipolar) state. - Graphical abstract: The P(T) curves evidencing the aging effect on polarization in CuCr{sub 0.5}V{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}: E=135 kV/m is applied during cooling at different temperatures. The P values and the inflection point of the transition depend on the poling temperature suggesting a relaxor behaviour. This effect related to the spin glass state is not observed for the lowest vanadium content. - Highlights: • Samples of the CuCr{sub 1−x}V{sub x}O{sub 2} series have been studied. • The V content increase induces a change from antiferromagnetism to spin glass. • A behavior characterisitic of a spin and dipole glass is demonstrated. • The ferroelectricity is shown to go from spin induced to relaxor. • Competing magnetic interactions are efficient way to generate multiglass state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monthus, Cécile
2014-08-01
We consider the long-ranged Ising spin-glass with random couplings decaying as a power-law of the distance, in the region of parameters where the spin-glass phase exists with a positive droplet exponent. For the Metropolis single-spin-flip dynamics near zero temperature, we construct via real-space renormalization the full hierarchy of relaxation times of the master equation for any given realization of the random couplings. We then analyze the probability distribution of dynamical barriers as a function of the spatial scale. This real-space renormalization procedure represents a simple explicit example of the droplet scaling theory, where the convergence towards local equilibrium on larger and larger scales is governed by a strong hierarchy of activated dynamical processes, with valleys within valleys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Kalipada; Das, I.
2017-10-01
In this present study we report the large magnetoresistance and spin glass behavior of nanocrystalline La0.48Ca0.52MnO3 compound having average particle size 25 nm. Our experimental study reveals that in contrast to the bulk counterpart, the charge ordered antiferromagnetic ground state of the compound is totally suppressed and ferromagnetism part predominant. In addition to that, a spin glass like transition appears at the low temperature (∼42 K). Such glassy nature of the frozen spins influence the magnetoresistive properties of this compound also. Low field magnetoresistance at the low temperature of this compound is analyzed considering the correlation between the ferromagnetic clusters formed inside the grains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bo-Kun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Yuan, Zi-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Shi-Xin; Liu, Zheng; Yao, Zi-Jian; Teng, Bao-Hua; Wu, Ming-He
2016-08-01
The spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structures are theoretically studied for Cu2+-doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate (RPPZ, R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) glasses based on the high-order perturbation calculations for a tetragonally elongated octahedral 3d9 cluster. The relative elongation ratios are found to be ρ≈3.2%, 4.4%, 4.6%, and 3.3% for R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively, because of the Jahn-Teller effect. The whole decreasing crystal-field strength Dq and orbital reduction factor k from Mg to Sr are ascribed to the weakening electrostatic coulombic interactions and the increasing probability of productivity of nonbridge oxygen (and hence increasing Cu2+-O2- electron cloud admixtures) under PbO addition, respectively, with increasing alkali earth ionic radius. The anomalies (the largest Dq and the next highest k among the systems) for R=Ba are attributed to the cross linkage of this large cation in the network. The overall increasing order (Mg≤Ba
Jurak, Malgorzata; Chibowski, Emil
2007-09-25
The surface free energy of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) layers deposited on glass, silicon, or mica by the spin-coating method was estimated. For this purpose, the advancing and receding contact angles of water, formamide, and diiodomethane were measured, and then two concepts of the interfacial interactions were applied. In the contact angle hysteresis approach, the apparent total surface free energy is calculated from the advancing and receding contact angles of the probe liquids, and in the Lifshitz-van der Waals/acid-base approach, the total surface free energy is calculated from previously determined components of the energy, that is, the apolar Lifshitz-van der Waals and the polar electron-donor and electron-acceptor, which are calculated from the advancing contact angles of the probe liquids alone. Comparison of the results obtained using these two approaches provided more information about changes in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the DPPC layers and, simultaneously, a verification of the approaches. Moreover, the roughness and topography of the investigated layers were also examined by atomic force microscopy measurements. The hydrophilic character of the DPPC layers decreased if up to 0.5 mg of DPPC/mL was used to deposit on the substrates by the spin-coating method. Then it increased and leveled off if up to 2-2.5 mg of DPPC/mL was used. The changes in the energy were correlated with the changes in topography of the surfaces.
Highly optimized simulations on single- and multi-GPU systems of the 3D Ising spin glass model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lulli, M.; Bernaschi, M.; Parisi, G.
2015-11-01
We present a highly optimized implementation of a Monte Carlo (MC) simulator for the three-dimensional Ising spin-glass model with bimodal disorder, i.e., the 3D Edwards-Anderson model running on CUDA enabled GPUs. Multi-GPU systems exchange data by means of the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The chosen MC dynamics is the classic Metropolis one, which is purely dissipative, since the aim was the study of the critical off-equilibrium relaxation of the system. We focused on the following issues: (i) the implementation of efficient memory access patterns for nearest neighbours in a cubic stencil and for lagged-Fibonacci-like pseudo-Random Numbers Generators (PRNGs); (ii) a novel implementation of the asynchronous multispin-coding Metropolis MC step allowing to store one spin per bit and (iii) a multi-GPU version based on a combination of MPI and CUDA streams. Cubic stencils and PRNGs are two subjects of very general interest because of their widespread use in many simulation codes.
Numerically exact correlations and sampling in the two-dimensional Ising spin glass.
Thomas, Creighton K; Middleton, A Alan
2013-04-01
A powerful existing technique for evaluating statistical mechanical quantities in two-dimensional Ising models is based on constructing a matrix representing the nearest-neighbor spin couplings and then evaluating the Pfaffian of the matrix. Utilizing this technique and other more recent developments in evaluating elements of inverse matrices and exact sampling, a method and computer code for studying two-dimensional Ising models is developed. The formulation of this method is convenient and fast for computing the partition function and spin correlations. It is also useful for exact sampling, where configurations are directly generated with probability given by the Boltzmann distribution. These methods apply to Ising model samples with arbitrary nearest-neighbor couplings and can also be applied to general dimer models. Example results of computations are described, including comparisons with analytic results for the ferromagnetic Ising model, and timing information is provided.
Josephson, Mark E
2016-01-01
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) should be classified as typical or atypical. The term ‘fast-slow AVNRT’ is rather misleading. Retrograde atrial activation during tachycardia should not be relied upon as a diagnostic criterion. Both typical and atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia are compatible with varying retrograde atrial activation patterns. Attempts at establishing the presence of a ‘lower common pathway’ are probably of no practical significance. When the diagnosis of AVNRT is established, ablation should be only directed towards the anatomic position of the slow pathway. If right septal attempts are unsuccessful, the left septal side should be tried. Ablation targeting earliest atrial activation sites during typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia or the fast pathway in general for any kind of typical or atypical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia, are not justified. In this review we discuss current concepts about the tachycardia circuit, electrophysiologic diagnosis, and ablation of this arrhythmia. PMID:27617092
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lappas, Alexandros; Prassides, Kosmas; Gygax, Fredy N.; Schenck, Alexander
1999-07-01
A series of oxygen-rich phases with formal stoichiometry La2CoxCu1-xO4+δ has been prepared. The excess of oxygen defects (0.06≤δ≤0.20) that can be accommodated in the structure is higher than that found in the parent superconducting La2CuO4+δ phase. The ac and dc susceptibility measurements reveal a rich magnetic phase diagram. The early members of the series (x≤0.25) order antiferromagnetically with localized magnetic moments per ion site of 0.5 μB. The ordering temperature TN is rapidly reduced and the boundary of the paramagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic (AF) phase transition is smeared out as the cobalt content increases from x=0.25 to 0.5. Further increase of the cobalt content (0.5≤x≤0.90) leads to suppression of the AF state and the appearance of a spin glass at very low temperatures. This is attributed to the increased degree of structural and electronic disorder among (Co/Cu) sites, which leads to frustration of the nearest-neighbor (nn) AF bonds. The spin glass phases of the La2Co0.5Cu0.5O4.18 (Tf=18 K) and La2Co0.75Cu0.25O4.16 (Tf=30 K) were also investigated by the muon spin relaxation (μ+SR) technique. When Tf is approached from above, the μ+ spin dynamics show a nonexponential relaxation described by a power-law dependence of the muon spin polarization, G(t)=A0e-(λdt)β. The observed rapid growth of the correlation times τc is reminiscent of the spin freezing process in Ising spin glasses. A continuous drop in the value of the exponent β is also encountered, changing from 1.0 (simple exponential) at T∼3.3 Tf to 0.5 (square root exponential) at T∼1.3 Tf, and finally approaching 1/3 very close to Tf. A variety of chemical systems that undergo a spin glass transition are governed by spin dynamics that follow a universal picture similar to the one encountered here.
Composition-driven spin glass to ferromagnetic transition in the quasicrystal approximant Au-Al-Gd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, A.; Hiroto, T.; Tokiwa, K.; Fujii, T.; Tamura, R.
2016-01-01
We investigated the composition dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of the quasicrystal approximant Au-Al-Gd. A composition-driven ferromagnetic transition is observed in a quasicrystal approximant, which is attributed to the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) oscillation via a variation in the Fermi wave vector. The ferromagnetic transition is most simply understood as a result of the close matching of the nearest and second-nearest spin distances with the maximum positions of the RKKY potential. The present work provides an idea that allows us to tailor the magnetic order via the electron concentration in quasicrystal approximants as well as in quasicrystals.
Pressure variation of reentrant transition temperature in liquid crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, A.; Sa, D.; Singh, S.
2007-02-01
High pressure experimental studies show that in certain mesogenic materials, the nematic-smectic A (N-Sm A) transition temperature TAN exhibits nonlinear pressure dependence. As a consequence, the material shows reentrant phenomena that is a phase sequence nematic — smectic A — reentrant nematic appears. The characteristic features of this phenomenon have been addressed here within the framework of Landau-de-Gennes theory, where the coupling between nematic and smectic A order parameters (γ, λeff) plays an important role. The cubic coupling γ is chosen to be negative in order to form Sm A phase whereas the biquadratic coupling λeff is made large and positive to obtain reentrant behaviour. In the present work, we incorporate the pressure dependence in the theory through γ and λeff which justifies the experimental pressure dependence in the reentrant transition temperature tilde{T}REAN. The pressure dependence of γ and λeff are employed in the calculation of excess specific heat capacity near the reentrant transition. The computed heat capacity shows strong pressure dependence near the reentrant transition which can be confirmed from high pressure measurement.
1980-07-31
composition where nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectra show a possible charge in the coordination of B. All the "borate anamolies " also...34pseudo-spins" in an amorphous matrix behaves in many ways as the elec- tric analogue of a magnetic spin glass system. We developed a model for a...boric oxide is used extensively in borosilicate glasses. An extensive body of literature utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misawa, Takahiro; Mori, Sumito; Komine, Takashi; Fujioka, Masaya; Nishii, Junji; Kaiju, Hideo
2016-12-01
We investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Ni78Fe22 thin films sandwiched between low-softening-point (LSP) glasses, which can be used in spin quantum cross (SQC) devices utilizing stray magnetic fields generated from magnetic thin-film edges. We also calculate the stray magnetic field generated between the two edges of Ni78Fe22 thin-film electrodes in SQC devices and discuss the applicability to spin-filter devices. Using the established fabrication technique, we successfully demonstrate the formation of LSP-glass/Ni78Fe22/LSP-glass structures with smooth and clear interfaces. The coercivity of the Ni78Fe22 thin films is enhanced from 0.9 to 103 Oe by increasing the applied pressure from 0 to 1.0 MPa in the thermal pressing process. According to the random anisotropy model, the enhancement of the coercivity is attributed to the increase in the crystal grain size. The stray magnetic field is also uniformly generated from the Ni78Fe22 thin-film edge in the direction perpendicular to the cross section of the LSP-glass/Ni78Fe22/LSP-glass structures. Theoretical calculation reveals that a high stray field of approximately 5 kOe is generated when the distance between two edges of the Ni78Fe22 thin-film electrodes is less than 5 nm and the thickness of Ni78Fe22 is greater than 20 nm. These experimental and calculation results indicate that Ni78Fe22 thin films sandwiched between LSP glasses are useful as electrodes for SQC devices, serving as spin-filter devices.
Ageing in spin-glasses in three, four and infinite dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, S.; Martín-Mayor, V.; Parisi, G.; Tarancón, A.
2003-10-01
The spin update engine (SUE) machine is used to extend, by a factor of 1000, the timescale of previous studies of the ageing, out-of-equilibrium dynamics of the Edwards-Anderson model with binary couplings, on large lattices (L = 60). The correlation function, C(t + tw, tw), tw being the time elapsed under a quench from high-temperature, follows nicely a slightly-modified power law for t > tw. Very small (logarithmic), yet clearly detectable deviations from the full-ageing t/tw scaling can be observed. Furthermore, the t < tw data show clear indications of the presence of more than one time sector in the ageing dynamics. Similar results are found in four dimensions, but a rather different behaviour is obtained in the infinite-dimensional z = 6 Viana-Bray model. Most surprisingly, our results in infinite dimensions seem incompatible with dynamical ultrametricity. A detailed study of the link correlation function is presented, suggesting that its ageing properties are the same as for the spin correlation function.
Cr-doped TiSe_{2} - A layered dichalcogenide spin glass
Luo, Huixia; Tao, Jing; Krizan, Jason W.; Seibel, Elizabeth M.; Xie, Weiwei; Sahasrabudhe, Girija S.; Bergman, Susanna L.; Phelan, Brendan F.; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Jiandi; Cava, R. J.
2015-09-17
We report the magnetic characterization of the Cr-doped layered dichalcogenide TiSe_{2}. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibilities are typical of those seen in geometrically frustrated insulating antiferromagnets. The Cr moment is close to the spin-only value, and the Curie–Weiss temperatures (θ_{cw}) are between –90 and –230 K. Freezing of the spin system, which is glassy, characterized by peaks in the ac and dc susceptibility and specific heat, does not occur until below T/θ_{cw} = 0.05. The CDW transition seen in the resistivity for pure TiSe_{2} is still present for 3% Cr substitution but is absent by 10% substitution, above which the materials are metallic and p-type. Structural refinements, magnetic characterization, and chemical considerations indicate that the materials are of the type Ti_{1–x}Cr_{x}Se_{2-x/2} for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6.
Cr-doped TiSe2 - A layered dichalcogenide spin glass
Luo, Huixia; Tao, Jing; Krizan, Jason W.; ...
2015-09-17
We report the magnetic characterization of the Cr-doped layered dichalcogenide TiSe2. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibilities are typical of those seen in geometrically frustrated insulating antiferromagnets. The Cr moment is close to the spin-only value, and the Curie–Weiss temperatures (θcw) are between –90 and –230 K. Freezing of the spin system, which is glassy, characterized by peaks in the ac and dc susceptibility and specific heat, does not occur until below T/θcw = 0.05. The CDW transition seen in the resistivity for pure TiSe2 is still present for 3% Cr substitution but is absent by 10% substitution, above which themore » materials are metallic and p-type. Structural refinements, magnetic characterization, and chemical considerations indicate that the materials are of the type Ti1–xCrxSe2-x/2 for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6.« less
Glass-like recovery of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in a photo-excited manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3
Zhou, S. Y.; Langner, M. C.; Zhu, Y.; Chuang, Y. -D.; Rini, M.; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Gonzalez, A.G. Cruz; Tahir, N.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Schoenlein, R. W.
2014-01-16
Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward understanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr0:7Ca0:3MnO3 following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering.
Glass-like recovery of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in a photo-excited manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, S. Y.; Langner, M. C.; Zhu, Y.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Rini, M.; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Gonzalez, A. G. Cruz; Tahir, N.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Schoenlein, R. W.
2014-02-01
Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward undertsanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering.
Glass-like recovery of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in a photo-excited manganite Pr₀.₇Ca₀.₃MnO₃.
Zhou, S Y; Langner, M C; Zhu, Y; Chuang, Y-D; Rini, M; Glover, T E; Hertlein, M P; Gonzalez, A G Cruz; Tahir, N; Tomioka, Y; Tokura, Y; Hussain, Z; Schoenlein, R W
2014-02-13
Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward undertsanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr₀.₇Ca₀.₃MnO₃ following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering.
Glass-like recovery of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in a photo-excited manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3
Zhou, S. Y.; Langner, M. C.; Zhu, Y.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Rini, M.; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Gonzalez, A. G. Cruz; Tahir, N.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Hussain, Z.; Schoenlein, R. W.
2014-01-01
Electronic orderings of charges, orbitals and spins are observed in many strongly correlated electron materials, and revealing their dynamics is a critical step toward undertsanding the underlying physics of important emergent phenomena. Here we use time-resolved resonant soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy to probe the dynamics of antiferromagnetic spin ordering in the manganite Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 following ultrafast photo-exitation. Our studies reveal a glass-like recovery of the spin ordering and a crossover in the dimensionality of the restoring interaction from quasi-1D at low pump fluence to 3D at high pump fluence. This behavior arises from the metastable state created by photo-excitation, a state characterized by spin disordered metallic droplets within the larger charge- and spin-ordered insulating domains. Comparison with time-resolved resistivity measurements suggests that the collapse of spin ordering is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition, but the recovery of the insulating phase does not depend on the re-establishment of the spin ordering. PMID:24522173
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kope, T. K.; Usadel, K. D.
2006-02-01
We consider the short-range interaction disordered quantum Ising model with symmetric binary +/-J bond distribution on the Bethe lattice (with coordination number z). The system exhibits quantum phase transition separating the spin glass and disordered phases where the quantum effect are regulated by a param- eter describing the transverse field. By introducing a mapping of the quantum Hamiltonian of the model onto a soft-spin action we consider it truncated version in a form of the solvable quantized spherical model. Quantum dynamics is examined via various correlation functions on the infinite tree which are evaluated in a closed form.
Broken Replica Symmetry Bounds in the Mean Field Spin Glass Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerra, Francesco
By using a simple interpolation argument, in previous work we have proven the existence of the thermodynamic limit, for mean field disordered models, including the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and the Derrida p-spin model. Here we extend this argument in order to compare the limiting free energy with the expression given by the Parisi Ansatz, and including full spontaneous replica symmetry breaking. Our main result is that the quenched average of the free energy is bounded from below by the value given in the Parisi Ansatz, uniformly in the size of the system. Moreover, the difference between the two expressions is given in the form of a sum rule, extending our previous work on the comparison between the true free energy and its replica symmetric Sherrington-Kirkpatrick approximation. We give also a variational bound for the infinite volume limit of the ground state energy per site.
Reentrant stability of BEC standing wave patterns
Kalas, Ryan M; Solenov, Dmitry; Timmermans, Eddy M
2009-01-01
We describe standing wave patterns induced by an attractive finite-ranged external potential in a large Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). As the potential depth increases, the time independent Gross-Pitaevskii equation develops pairs of solutions that have nodes in their wavefunction. We elucidate the nature of these states and study their dynamical stability. Although we study the problem in a two-dimensional BEC subject to a cylindrically symmetric square-well potential of a radius that is comparable to the coherence length of the BEC, our analysis reveals general trends, valid in two and three dimensions, independent of the symmetry of the localized potential well, and suggestive of the behavior in general, short- and large-range potentials. One set of nodal BEC wavefunctions resembles the single particle n node bound state wavefunction of the potential well, the other wavefunctions resemble the n - 1 node bound-state wavefunction with a kink state pinned by the potential. The second state, though corresponding to the lower free energy value of the pair of n node BEC states, is always unstable, whereas the first can be dynamically stable in intervals of the potential well depth, implying that the standing wave BEC can evolve from a dynamically unstable to stable, and back to unstable status as the potential well is adiabatically deepened, a phenomenon that we refer to as 'reentrant dynamical stability'.
Capillary surface discontinuities above reentrant corners
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korevaar, H. J.
1982-01-01
A particular configuration of a vertical capillary tube for which S is the equilibrium interface between two fluids in the presence of a downward pointing gravitational field was investigated. S is the graph a function u whose domain is the (horizontal) cross section gamma of the tube. The mean curvature of S is proportional to its height above a fixed reference plane and lambda is a prescribed constant and may be taken between zero and pi/2. Domains gamma for which us is a bounded function but does not extend continuously to d gamma are sought. Simple domains are found and the behavior of u in those domains is studied. An important comparison principle that has been used in the literature to derive many of the results in capillarity is reviewed. It allows one to deduce the approximate shape of a capillary surface by constructing comparison surfaces with mean curvature and contact angle close to those of the (unknown) solution surface. In the context of nonparametric problems the comparison principle leads to height estimates above and below for the function u. An example from the literature where these height estimates have been used successfully is described. The promised domains for which the bounded u does not extend continuously to the boundary are constructed. The point on the boundary at which u has a jump discontinuity will be the vertext of a re-entrant corner having any interior angle theta pi. Using the comparison principle the behavior of u near this point is studied.
Magnetic Field Reentrant Superconductivity in Aluminum Nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bretz-Sullivan, Terence; Goldman, Allen
Reentrance to the superconducting state through the application of a magnetic field to quasi-one dimensional superconductors driven resistive by current, is counter to the expected properties of superconductors. It was not until recently that a microscopic mechanism explaining the phenomenon was proposed in which superconductivity and phase slip driven dissipation coexist in a non-equilibrium state. Here we present additional results of magnetic field induced reentrance into the superconducting state in quasi-one-dimensional aluminum nanowires with an in-plane magnetic field both transverse to, and along the wire axis. The reentrant behavior is seen in the magnetic field dependence of the I-V characteristic and resistance vs. temperature, and in the wire's magnetoresistance at 450mK. This work was supported by DOE Basic Energy Sciences Grant DE-FG02-02ER46004. Samples were fabricated at the Minnesota Nanofabrication Center. Parts of this work were carried out in the University of Minnesota Characterization Facility, a member of the Materials Research Facilities Network (www.mrfn.org) funded via the NSF MRSEC program.
Macroscopic anisotropy and demagnetization in reentrant magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senoussi, S.; Öner, Y.
1985-04-01
We report magnetic measurements on eight different Ni79Mn21 ellipsoidal samples as a function of temperature fields and reciprocal demagnetization factor N (0.2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadjiagapiou, Ioannis A.
2014-03-01
The magnetic systems with disorder form an important class of systems, which are under intensive studies, since they reflect real systems. Such a class of systems is the spin glass one, which combines randomness and frustration. The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Ising spin glass with random couplings in the presence of a random magnetic field is investigated in detail within the framework of the replica method. The two random variables (exchange integral interaction and random magnetic field) are drawn from a joint Gaussian probability density function characterized by a correlation coefficient ρ. The thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams are studied with respect to the natural parameters of both random components of the system contained in the probability density. The de Almeida-Thouless line is explored as a function of temperature, ρ and other system parameters. The entropy for zero temperature as well as for non zero temperatures is partly negative or positive, acquiring positive branches as h0 increases.
Charge Segregation, Cluster Spin Glass, and Superconductivity in La{sub 1.94}Sr{sub 0.06}CuO{sub 4}
Julien, M.; Borsa, F.; Carretta, P.; Julien, M.; Borsa, F.; Horvatic, M.; Berthier, C.; Berthier, C.; Lin, C.T.
1999-07-01
A {sup 63}Cu and {sup 139}La NMR/NQR study of superconducting (T{sub c}=8 K) La{sub 1.94} Sr{sub 0.06} CuO{sub 4} single crystal is reported. Coexistence of spin-glass and superconducting phases is found below {approximately}5 K from {sup 139}La NMR relaxation. {sup 63}Cu and {sup 139}La NMR spectra show that, upon cooling, CuO{sub 2} planes progressively separate into two magnetic phases, one of them having enhanced antiferromagnetic correlations. These results establish the antiferromagnetic-cluster nature of the spin glass. We discuss how this phase can be related to the microsegregation of mobile holes and to the possible pinning of charge stripes. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monthus, Cécile
2015-09-01
For Gaussian Spin-Glasses in low dimensions, we introduce a simple Strong Disorder renormalization at zero temperature in order to construct ground states for Periodic and Anti-Periodic boundary conditions. The numerical study in dimensions d = 2 (up to sizes 20482) and d = 3 (up to sizes 1283) yields that Domain Walls are fractal of dimensions ds(d = 2) ≃ 1.27 and ds(d = 3) ≃ 2.55, respectively.
Reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting of the vortex-lattice in YBCO single crystal
Hucho, C.; Carter, J. M.; Muller, V.; Petrean, A.; Kwok, W. K.
1999-10-12
A vibrating sample technique was used to study the elastic behavior of the magnetic vortex system in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} single crystal. The setup consists of a system of two weakly coupled mechanical oscillators (transducer, sample), the frequency and Q of which depends sensitively on the frequencies of the two subsystems as well as the coupling between both. By sweeping a magnetic field at temperatures below the superconducting transition temperature {Tc} the authors observe pronounced attenuation peaks of temperature-dependent characteristic field strengths H{sub 1} and H{sub 2}. These fields mark temperature-dependent points of constant elasticity of the vortex-ensemble. Since softening precedes the melting of the vortex-lattice by approaching H{sub o1} as well as H{sub o2}, the observed angular dependence of H{sub 1} and H{sub 2} is interpreted as due to reentrant softening as precursor to reentrant melting.
Effective mass enhancement and spin-glass behaviour in CeCu4Mn(y)Al(1-y) compounds.
Synoradzki, K; Toliński, T
2012-04-04
We report on the magnetic ac/dc susceptibility and specific heat measurements for the CeCu(4)Mn(y)Al(1-y) series of compounds with 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. All compounds investigated crystallize in the hexagonal CaCu(5)-type structure with the space group P6/mmm. The results reveal that the frustration of the interactions dominates and leads to a spin-glass (SG) behaviour with a linear change of the freezing temperature T(f) as a function of y. The SG state has been confirmed by the frequency dependence of the ac magnetic susceptibility, the relaxation of the remanent magnetization and the split of the field-cooled-zero-field-cooled dc magnetic susceptibility. The electronic specific heat coefficient γ is enhanced for all y and increases with the Al content. Below a threshold at y ≈ 0.3, γ is large even if determined for temperatures above T(f); moreover the paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature θ(p) changes sign to negative. These observations indicate the possible presence of the heavy fermion (HF) state, at least below y ≈ 0.3, and the possible coexistence of the SG and HF states down to y = 0, i.e. for the CeCu(4)Al compound. A tentative magnetic phase diagram for CeCu(4)Mn(y)Al(1-y) has been constructed. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baity-Jesi, M.; Baños, R. A.; Cruz, A.; Fernandez, L. A.; Gil-Narvion, J. M.; Gordillo-Guerrero, A.; Iñiguez, D.; Maiorano, A.; Mantovani, F.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Monforte-Garcia, J.; Muñoz Sudupe, A.; Navarro, D.; Parisi, G.; Perez-Gaviro, S.; Pivanti, M.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.; Schifano, S. F.; Seoane, B.; Tarancon, A.; Tripiccione, R.; Yllanes, D.
2014-05-01
We perform equilibrium parallel-tempering simulations of the 3D Ising Edwards-Anderson spin glass in a field, using the Janus computer. A traditional analysis shows no signs of a phase transition. However, we encounter dramatic fluctuations in the behaviour of the model: averages over all the data only describe the behaviour of a small fraction of the data. Therefore, we develop a new approach to study the equilibrium behaviour of the system, by classifying the measurements as a function of a conditioning variate. We propose a finite-size scaling analysis based on the probability distribution function of the conditioning variate, which may accelerate the convergence to the thermodynamic limit. In this way, we find a non-trivial spectrum of behaviours, where some of the measurements behave as the average, while the majority show signs of scale invariance. As a result, we can estimate the temperature interval where the phase transition in a field ought to lie, if it exists. Although this would-be critical regime is unreachable with present resources, the numerical challenge is finally well posed.
Interfacial Spin Glass State and Exchange Bias in the Epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/LaNiO3 Bilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Guo-wei; Guan, Xiao-fen; Bai, Yu-hao; Quan, Zhi-yong; Jiang, Feng-xian; Xu, Xiao-hong
2017-05-01
We study the magnetic properties of an epitaxial growth bilayer composed of ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and paramagnetic LaNiO3 (LNO) on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. We find that the stack order of the bilayer heterostructure plays a key role in the interfacial coupling strength, and the coupling at the LSMO(top)/LNO(bottom) interface is much stronger than that at the LNO(top)/LSMO(bottom). Moreover, a strong spin glass state has been observed at the LSMO/LNO interface, which is further confirmed by two facts: first, that the dependence of the irreversible temperature on the cooling magnetic field follows the Almeida-Thouless line and, second, that the relaxation of the thermal remnant magnetization can be fitted by a stretched exponential function. Interestingly, we also find an exchange bias effect at the LSMO/LNO bilayer below the spin glass freezing temperature, indicating that the exchange bias is strongly correlated with the spin glass state at its interface.
Origin of low temperature memory and aging effects in spin glass like La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 nanomanganite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karmakar, Shilpi; Chaudhuri, B. K.; Chan, C. L.; Yang, H. D.
2010-12-01
Interesting low temperature memory phenomena have been observed from equilibrium and out of equilibrium magnetic measurements on the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 nanomanganite system. The observed phenomenon were screened for atomic spin glass (SG), super spin glass (SSG), cluster glass (CG), and superparamagnetic behavior. The results evidences of SG like behavior at low temperature (<40 K) in this manganite system consisting of ferromagnetic nanoparticles. In the temperature region between 40 K and the ferromagnetic Curie point TC˜217 K, a ferromagnetic CG state develops with a relatively weaker interparticle interaction than that of the low temperature SG phase. The dynamic magnetization shows aging, chaos and memory effects. Moreover, we have also noticed asymmetric response in magnetic relaxation in response to positive and negative temperature cycling protocols. The origin and nature of the low-temperature SG state in this system is discussed within the framework of hierarchical organization of metastable states. The results show existence of various time and length scales in the system, which can be explained by considering the nanoparticles with grain boundary spin disorder and the presence of noncompact ferromagnetic clusters.
SrFe{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ}: A cluster spin glass
Sendil Kumar, A.; Babu, P.D.; Srinath, S.
2014-03-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Prepared SrFe{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} is in nanocrystalline form. • Arrott plot shows absence of spontaneous magnetization which rules out the possibility of long range ferromagnetic order. • AC susceptibility data is evidence of cluster spin glass. • There is no magnetic Bragg's reflection. • By substituting Ti{sup 4+}, helical antiferromagetic SrFeO{sub 3} is transformed to a cluster spin glass. - Abstract: The magnetic ground state of nanocrystalline SrFe{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}O{sub 3−δ} system has been investigated from 2 K to 300 K using AC Susceptibilty (ACS), magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. The cusp in the temperature dependent magnetization and dispersion below T{sub max} (the temperature at which the maximum susceptibility is observed) in real part of ac susceptibility with frequency is observed. Arrott plot shows the lack of M{sub S} (spontaneous magnetization) down to 2 K, and the non-occurrence of magnetic Bragg reflections below the T{sub max} in neutron diffraction measurements, indicates the absence of long range ferro and antiferromagnetic order. The frequency dependence of T{sub max} obeys Vögel–Fulcher model establishing the cluster spin glass behavior in this system.
Spin Glass Freezing and Ferromagnetic Cluster Formation in LiNiO_2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Duijn, Joost; Gaulin, Bruce; Park, Sungil; Lee, Seung-Hun; Copley, John
2003-03-01
LiNiO2 displays a layered structure that consists of alternating triangular nets of magnetic Ni and non-magnetic Li ions. Its magnetic properties have been a longstanding source of debate, having been proposed as a candidate for many exotic magnetic ground states. Recent detailed characterization studies have shown that some Ni ions always occupy sites in the Li layers and vice versa. We have carried out inelastic neutron scattering studies on a well characterized sample of LiNiO2 using the new Disk Chopper Spectrometer at NIST. Diffuse inelastic scattering is observed in the forward direction and around (1,0,0) in reciprocal space, indicative of short range, dynamic ferromagnetic order. Spin freezing is directly observed by a decrease in the inelastic scattering and concomitant increase in the elastic scattering below ˜15 K, consistent with bulk susceptibility measurements. Our neutron measurements are interpreted as arising from ferromagnetic correlations within the triangular net and 3D ferromagnetic clusters surrounding Ni sites within the Li sublattice. Such ferromagnetic clusters interupt the formation of a 3D Neel state in which ferromagnetic sheets stack antiferromagnetically, as is believed to be the case in NaNiO2.
Strong magnetic frustration and anti-site disorder causing spin-glass behavior in honeycomb Li2RhO3
Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Stoll, Hermann; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu
2015-01-01
With large spin-orbit coupling, the electron configuration in d-metal oxides is prone to highly anisotropic exchange interactions and exotic magnetic properties. In 5d5 iridates, given the existing variety of crystal structures, the magnetic anisotropy can be tuned from antisymmetric to symmetric Kitaev-type, with interaction strengths that outsize the isotropic terms. By many-body electronic-structure calculations we here address the nature of the magnetic exchange and the intriguing spin-glass behavior of Li2RhO3, a 4d5 honeycomb oxide. For pristine crystals without Rh-Li site inversion, we predict a dimerized ground state as in the isostructural 5d5 iridate Li2IrO3, with triplet spin dimers effectively placed on a frustrated triangular lattice. With Rh-Li anti-site disorder, we explain the observed spin-glass phase as a superposition of different, nearly degenerate symmetry-broken configurations. PMID:26434954
Re-Entrant Structure for Robust Superhydrophobicity and Drag Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Hong; Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed
2014-11-01
A re-entrant structure is required for superoleophobicity by effectively pinning low-surface-tension liquids from wetting the textures and forming a solid-liquid-air composite interface. In this work, we examine the contribution of a re-entrant structure to the robustness of superhydrophobicity and skin-friction reduction capabilities. Textured surfaces with wavy sidewall pillars provide re-entrant structures and are used as model surfaces. Gibbs energy analysis is conducted to study the pinning sites and wetting stability. The wetting robustness against pressure is characterized by breakthrough pressure, which is obtained by conservation of energy and force balance at the pinning sites. The slip length and slip velocity are evaluated through a shear stress and strain rate correlation, which is obtained using an Anton Paar rheometer. Gibbs energy analysis indicates that the breakthrough pressure provided by the wavy sidewall structure for water is about 18 times of that on the straight sidewall structure. This is mostly due to the energy barrier at the re-entrant structure. When a contact line advances onto and pins at the re-entrant structure, its slip performance degrades due to the increased no-slip fraction on the composite interface, but Cassie-Baxter state still remains.
Strengthening of Reentrant Pinning by Collective Interactions in the Peak Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefebvre, J.; Hilke, M.; Altounian, Z.
2009-06-01
Since it was first observed about 40 years ago [A. B. Pippard, Proc. R. Soc. APRLAAZ0080-4630 216, 547 (1953)10.1098/rspa.1953.0040], the peak effect has been the subject of extensive research mainly impelled by the desire to determine its exact mechanisms. Despite these efforts, a consensus on this question has yet to be reached. Experimentally, the peak effect indicates a transition from a depinned vortex phase to a reentrant pinning phase at a high magnetic field. To study the effects of intrinsic pinning on the peak effect, we consider FexNi1-xZr2 superconducting metallic glasses in which the vortex pinning force varies depending on the Fe content and in which a huge peak effect is seen. The results show that the peak effect broadens with decreasing pinning force. Typically, pinning is increased by pinning centers, but here we show that reentrant pinning is due to the strengthening of interactions and collective effects (while decreasing pinning strength).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Benjamin Michael
Homogeneous xB2O3 + (1-x)B 2S3 glasses were prepared between 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.80. Raman, IR, and 11B NMR spectroscopies show that the boron oxide structures of B2O3, especially the six-membered rings, quickly diminish with increasing sulfide content, whereas the corresponding sulfide structures in B2S3 remain relatively intense as oxide content is increased. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and density measurements show that physical properties of these boron oxysulfide glasses heavily favor the B2S3 properties regardless of the amount of B2O3 added to the system. It is hypothesized that the stability of the thioboroxol ring group relative to that of the BS 3/2 trigonal group is a possible source of this behavior. The formation of mixed boron oxysulfide structures of composition BSzO3-z where 0 < z < 3 is proposed. Structural studies of the ternary xLi2S + (1-x)[0.5 B2S3 + 0.5 GeS2] glasses using IR, Raman, and 11B NMR show that these glasses do not have equal sharing of the lithium atoms between GeS2 and B2S3. The IR spectra indicates that the B2S3 glass network are under-doped in comparison to corresponding compositions in the xLi 2S + (1-x)B2S3 binary system. Additionally, the Raman spectra show that the GeS2 glass network is over-modified. 11Boron static NMR gives evidence that ˜80% of the boron atoms are in tetrahedral coordinated. A super macro tetrahedron is proposed as one of the structures in these glasses in which some of them may contain boron sites substituted by germanium atoms at lower Li2S content. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and ionic conductivity measurements of Li doped Li2S + GeS2 + B2S3 glasses were performed to investigate the ion hopping dynamics and the non-Arrhenius conductivity behavior that has been observed in some fast ion conducting glasses. A distribution of activation energies model was used to fit the NSLR results and conductivity results. Comparisons are made to previously studied binary lithium thio-germanate and binary
Terakado, Nobuaki Watanabe, Kouki; Kawamata, Takayuki; Yokochi, Yuudai; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Koike, Yoji; Fujiwara, Takumi
2015-04-06
High thermal conductivity materials are in great demand for heat-flow control and heat dissipation in electronic devices. In this study, we have produced a glass-ceramics that contains spin-chain compound SrCuO{sub 2} and have found that the glass-ceramics yields high thermal conductivity of ∼5 W K{sup −1} m{sup −1} even at room temperature. The glass-ceramics is fabricated through crystallization of inhomogeneous melt-quenched oxides made from SrCO{sub 3}, CuO, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray and electron diffraction reveal that SrCuO{sub 2} crystallites with a size of 100–200 nm are precipitated in the glass-ceramics. The highness of the thermal conductivity is attributable to two sources: one is elongation of phonon mean free path due to the crystallization of the inhomogeneous structure or structural ordering. The other is emergence of the heat carriers, spinons, in the SrCuO{sub 2}. This highly thermal conductive glass-ceramics is expected to be utilized as base materials for heat-flow control devices.
Crystallization and reentrant melting of charged colloids in nonpolar solvents.
Kanai, Toshimitsu; Boon, Niels; Lu, Peter J; Sloutskin, Eli; Schofield, Andrew B; Smallenburg, Frank; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Weitz, David A
2015-03-01
We explore the crystallization of charged colloidal particles in a nonpolar solvent mixture. We simultaneously charge the particles and add counterions to the solution with aerosol-OT (AOT) reverse micelles. At low AOT concentrations, the charged particles crystallize into body-centered-cubic (bcc) or face-centered-cubic (fcc) Wigner crystals; at high AOT concentrations, the increased screening drives a thus far unobserved reentrant melting transition. We observe an unexpected scaling of the data with particle size, and account for all behavior with a model that quantitatively predicts both the reentrant melting and the data collapse.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monthus, Cécile
2014-06-01
For the one-dimensional long-ranged Ising spin-glass with random couplings decaying with the distance $r$ as $J(r) \\sim r^{-\\sigma}$ and distributed with the L\\'evy symmetric stable distribution of index $1 <\\mu \\leq 2$ (including the usual Gaussian case $\\mu=2$), we consider the region $\\sigma>1/\\mu$ where the energy is extensive. We study two real space renormalization procedures at zero temperature, namely a simple box decimation that leads to explicit calculations, and a strong disorder decimation that can be studied numerically on large sizes. The droplet exponent governing the scaling of the renormalized couplings $J_L \\propto L^{\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma)}$ is found to be $\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma)=\\frac{2}{\\mu}-\\sigma$ whenever the long-ranged couplings are relevant $\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma)=\\frac{2}{\\mu}-\\sigma \\geq -1$. For the statistics of the ground state energy $E_L^{GS}$ over disordered samples, we obtain that the droplet exponent $\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma) $ governs the leading correction to extensivity of the averaged value $\\overline{E_L^{GS}} \\simeq L e_0 +L^{\\theta_{\\mu}(\\sigma)} e_1$. The characteristic scale of the fluctuations around this average is of order $L^{\\frac{1}{\\mu}}$, and the rescaled variable $u=(E_L^{GS}-\\overline{E_L^{GS}})/L^{\\frac{1}{\\mu}}$ is Gaussian distributed for $\\mu=2$, or displays the negative power-law tail in $1/(-u)^{1+\\mu}$ for $u \\to -\\infty$ in the L\\'evy case $1<\\mu<2$.
Low-temperature formation of high-quality gate oxide by ultraviolet irradiation on spin-on-glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usuda, R.; Uchida, K.; Nozaki, S.
2015-11-01
Although a UV cure was found to effectively convert a perhydropolysilazane (PHPS) spin-on-glass film into a dense SiOx film at low temperature, the electrical characteristics were never reported in order to recommend the use of PHPS as a gate-oxide material that can be formed at low temperature. We have formed a high-quality gate oxide by UV irradiation on the PHPS film, and obtained an interface midgap trap density of 3.4 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 by the UV wet oxidation and UV post-metallization annealing (PMA), at a temperature as low as 160 °C. In contrast to the UV irradiation using short-wavelength UV light, which is well known to enhance oxidation by the production of the excited states of oxygen, the UV irradiation was carried out using longer-wavelength UV light from a metal halide lamp. The UV irradiation during the wet oxidation of the PHPS film generates electron-hole pairs. The electrons ionize the H2O molecules and facilitate dissociation of the molecules into H and OH-. The OH- ions are highly reactive with Si and improve the stoichiometry of the oxide. The UV irradiation during the PMA excites the electrons from the accumulation layer, and the built-in electric field makes the electron injection into the oxide much easier. The electrons injected into the oxide recombine with the trapped holes, which have caused a large negative flat band voltage shift after the UV wet oxidation, and also ionize the H2O molecules. The ionization results in the electron stimulated dissociation of H2O molecules and the decreased interface trap density.